Science.gov

Sample records for iii d2-like dopamine

  1. D2-like dopamine receptors mediate the response to amphetamine in a mouse model of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xueliang; Hess, Ellen J.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the effects of psychostimulants in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well understood, but indirect evidence implicates D2 dopamine receptors. Here we dissect the components of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the hyperactive mouse mutant coloboma to identify pre- and postsynaptic elements essential for the effects of amphetamine in these mice. Amphetamine treatment reduced locomotor activity in coloboma mice, but induced a robust increase in dopamine overflow suggesting that abnormal regulation of dopamine efflux does not account for the behavioral effect. However, the D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists haloperidol and raclopride, but not the D1-like dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, blocked the amphetamine-induced reduction in locomotor activity in coloboma mice, providing direct evidence that D2-like dopamine receptors mediate the effect of amphetamine in these mice. With the precedent established that it is possible to directly antagonize this response, this strategy should prove useful for identifying novel therapeutics in ADHD. PMID:17291774

  2. Evidence for Noncanonical Neurotransmitter Activation: Norepinephrine as a Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Agonist.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Cai, Ning Sheng; Ellenberger, Michael P; Newman, Amy Hauck; Ferré, Sergi; Yano, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    The Gαi/o-coupled dopamine D2-like receptor family comprises three subtypes: the D2 receptor (D2R), with short and long isoform variants (D2SR and D2LR), D3 receptor (D3R), and D4 receptor (D4R), with several polymorphic variants. The common overlap of norepinephrine innervation and D2-like receptor expression patterns prompts the question of a possible noncanonical action by norepinephrine. In fact, previous studies have suggested that norepinephrine can functionally interact with D4R. To our knowledge, significant interactions between norepinephrine and D2R or D3R receptors have not been demonstrated. By using radioligand binding and bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays in transfected cells, the present study attempted a careful comparison between dopamine and norepinephrine in their possible activation of all D2-like receptors, including the two D2R isoforms and the most common D4R polymorphic variants. Functional BRET assays included activation of G proteins with all Gαi/o subunits, adenylyl cyclase inhibition, and β arrestin recruitment. Norepinephrine acted as a potent agonist for all D2-like receptor subtypes, with the general rank order of potency of D3R > D4R ≥ D2SR ≥ D2L. However, for both dopamine and norepinephrine, differences depended on the Gαi/o protein subunit involved. The most striking differences were observed with Gαi2, where the rank order of potencies for both dopamine and norepinephrine were D4R > D2SR = D2LR > D3R. Furthermore the results do not support the existence of differences in the ability of dopamine and norepinephrine to activate different human D4R variants. The potency of norepinephrine for adrenergic α2A receptor was only about 20-fold higher compared with D3R and D4R across the three functional assays.

  3. Evidence for Noncanonical Neurotransmitter Activation: Norepinephrine as a Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Cai, Ning Sheng; Ellenberger, Michael P.; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2016-01-01

    The Gαi/o-coupled dopamine D2-like receptor family comprises three subtypes: the D2 receptor (D2R), with short and long isoform variants (D2SR and D2LR), D3 receptor (D3R), and D4 receptor (D4R), with several polymorphic variants. The common overlap of norepinephrine innervation and D2-like receptor expression patterns prompts the question of a possible noncanonical action by norepinephrine. In fact, previous studies have suggested that norepinephrine can functionally interact with D4R. To our knowledge, significant interactions between norepinephrine and D2R or D3R receptors have not been demonstrated. By using radioligand binding and bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays in transfected cells, the present study attempted a careful comparison between dopamine and norepinephrine in their possible activation of all D2-like receptors, including the two D2R isoforms and the most common D4R polymorphic variants. Functional BRET assays included activation of G proteins with all Gαi/o subunits, adenylyl cyclase inhibition, and β arrestin recruitment. Norepinephrine acted as a potent agonist for all D2-like receptor subtypes, with the general rank order of potency of D3R > D4R ≥ D2SR ≥ D2L. However, for both dopamine and norepinephrine, differences depended on the Gαi/o protein subunit involved. The most striking differences were observed with Gαi2, where the rank order of potencies for both dopamine and norepinephrine were D4R > D2SR = D2LR >> D3R. Furthermore the results do not support the existence of differences in the ability of dopamine and norepinephrine to activate different human D4R variants. The potency of norepinephrine for adrenergic α2A receptor was only about 20-fold higher compared with D3R and D4R across the three functional assays. PMID:26843180

  4. Spatial reorganization of putaminal dopamine D2-like receptors in cranial and hand dystonia.

    PubMed

    Black, Kevin J; Snyder, Abraham Z; Mink, Jonathan W; Tolia, Veeral N; Revilla, Fredy J; Moerlein, Stephen M; Perlmutter, Joel S

    2014-01-01

    The putamen has a somatotopic organization of neurons identified by correspondence of firing rates with selected body part movements, as well as by complex, but organized, differential cortical projections onto putamen. In isolated focal dystonia, whole putaminal binding of dopamine D2-like receptor radioligands is quantitatively decreased, but it has not been known whether selected parts of the putamen are differentially affected depending upon the body part affected by dystonia. The radioligand [(18)F]spiperone binds predominantly to D2-like receptors in striatum. We hypothesized that the spatial location of [(18)F]spiperone binding within the putamen would differ in patients with dystonia limited to the hand versus the face, and we tested that hypothesis using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. To address statistical and methodological concerns, we chose a straightforward but robust image analysis method. An automated algorithm located the peak location of [(18)F]spiperone binding within the striatum, relative to a brain atlas, in each of 14 patients with cranial dystonia and 8 patients with hand dystonia. The mean (left and right) |x|, y, and z coordinates of peak striatal binding for each patient were compared between groups by t test. The location of peak [(18)F]spiperone binding within the putamen differed significantly between groups (cranial dystonia zdopamine D2-like receptors are distributed differently in the putamen depending on the body part manifesting dystonia.

  5. Pharmacological and signalling properties of a D2-like dopamine receptor (Dop3) in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, Heleen; Vleugels, Rut; Verdonck, Rik; Urlacher, Elodie; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Mercer, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and invertebrates. Despite their evolutionary distance, striking parallels exist between deuterostomian and protostomian dopaminergic systems. In both, signalling is achieved via a complement of functionally distinct dopamine receptors. In this study, we investigated the sequence, pharmacology and tissue distribution of a D2-like dopamine receptor from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (TricaDop3) and compared it with related G protein-coupled receptors in other invertebrate species. The TricaDop3 receptor-encoding cDNA shows considerable sequence similarity with members of the Dop3 receptor class. Real time qRT-PCR showed high expression in both the central brain and the optic lobes, consistent with the role of dopamine as neurotransmitter. Activation of TricaDop3 expressed in mammalian cells increased intracellular Ca(2+) signalling and decreased NKH-477 (a forskolin analogue)-stimulated cyclic AMP levels in a dose-dependent manner. We studied the pharmacological profile of the TricaDop3 receptor and demonstrated that the synthetic vertebrate dopamine receptor agonists, 2 - amino- 6,7 - dihydroxy - 1,2,3,4 - tetrahydronaphthalene hydrobromide (6,7-ADTN) and bromocriptine acted as agonists. Methysergide was the most potent of the antagonists tested and showed competitive inhibition in the presence of dopamine. This study offers important information on the Dop3 receptor from Tribolium castaneum that will facilitate functional analyses of dopamine receptors in insects and other invertebrates.

  6. Exposure to D2-like dopamine receptor agonists inhibits swimming in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Barrozo, Enrico R; Fowler, David A; Beckman, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    Daphnia are freshwater crustaceans that have been used for decades in ecotoxicology research. Despite the important role that Daphnia have played in environmental toxicology studies, very little is known about the neurobiology of Daphnia. Although many studies have investigated the swimming movements of these "water fleas", few studies have examined the underlying neurochemical basis for these movements. To characterize the locomotor effect of drugs in Daphnia, a two-dimensional video imaging tool was developed and animal tracking was performed with freely available software, CTRAX. Due to the central role that dopamine plays in the movement of animals, we sought to determine the role of dopamine receptor signaling in Daphnia movement by characterizing the effect of ten drugs that are agonists or antagonists of dopamine receptors. At 1, 2, and 6h of treatment with a 10μM drug, several dopamine receptor agonists with documented effects on the D2-like class of receptors decreased the movement. Further, we determined behavioral inhibition values (IC50) at 1h of treatment for (1R,3S)-1-(aminomethyl)-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromene-5,6-diol (A68930) to be 1.4μM and for bromocriptine to be 6.6μM. This study describes a new method to study Daphnia swimming and establishes this organism as a useful model for studies of dopaminergic signaling. Specifically, this study shows that a dopamine receptor signaling pathway, mediated by putative D2-like receptors, is involved in the control of Daphnia swimming behavior. Due to its ease of use and its rich motor program we propose that Daphnia should be considered for future studies of dopamine neuron toxicity and protection.

  7. Protein Kinase C Beta Regulates the D2-Like Dopamine Autoreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Luderman, Kathryn D.; Chen, Rong; Ferris, Mark J.; Jones, Sara R.; Gnegy, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was the regulation of the D2-like dopamine autoreceptor (D2 autoreceptor) by protein kinase Cβ, a member of the protein kinase C (PKC) family. Together with the dopamine transporter, the D2 autoreceptor regulates the level of extracellular dopamine and thus dopaminergic signaling. PKC regulates neuronal signaling via several mechanisms, including desensitizing autoreceptors to increase the release of several different neurotransmitters. Here, using both PKCβ−/− mice and specific PKCβ inhibitors, we demonstrated that a lack of PKCβ activity enhanced the D2 autoreceptor-stimulated decrease in dopamine release following both chemical and electrical stimulations. Inhibition of PKCβ increased surface localization of D2R in mouse striatal synaptosomes, which could underlie the greater sensitivity to quinpirole following inhibition of PKCβ. PKCβ−/− mice displayed greater sensitivity to the quinpirole-induced suppression of locomotor activity, demonstrating that the regulation of the D2 autoreceptor by PKCβ is physiologically significant. Overall, we have found that PKCβ downregulates the D2 autoreceptor, providing an additional layer of regulation for dopaminergic signaling. We propose that in the absence of PKCβ activity, surface D2 autoreceptor localization and thus D2 autoreceptor signaling is increased, leading to less dopamine in the extracellular space and attenuated dopaminergic signaling. PMID:25446677

  8. Striatal dopamine D2-like receptor correlation patterns with human obesity and opportunistic eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Simmons, W K; Herscovitch, P; Martin, A; Hall, K D

    2014-10-01

    The obesity epidemic is believed to be driven by a food environment that promotes consumption of inexpensive, convenient, high-calorie, palatable foods. Individual differences in obesity susceptibility or resistance to weight loss may arise because of alterations in the neurocircuitry supporting food reward and eating habits. In particular, dopamine signaling in the ventromedial striatum is thought to encode food reward and motivation, whereas dopamine in the dorsal and lateral striatum orchestrates the development of eating habits. We measured striatal dopamine D2-like receptor binding potential (D2BP) using positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fallypride in 43 human subjects with body mass indices (BMI) ranging from 18 to 45 kg m(-)(2). Opportunistic eating behavior and BMI were both positively associated with D2BP in the dorsal and lateral striatum, whereas BMI was negatively associated with D2BP in the ventromedial striatum. These results suggest that obese people have alterations in dopamine neurocircuitry that may increase their susceptibility to opportunistic overeating while at the same time making food intake less rewarding, less goal directed and more habitual. Whether or not the observed neurocircuitry alterations pre-existed or occurred as a result of obesity development, they may perpetuate obesity given the omnipresence of palatable foods and their associated cues.

  9. Dopamine D2-Like Receptors Modulate Unconditioned Fear: Role of the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro; Colombo, Ana Caroline; Muthuraju, Sangu; Almada, Rafael Carvalho; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2014-01-01

    Background A reduction of dopamine release or D2 receptor blockade in the terminal fields of the mesolimbic system clearly reduces conditioned fear. Injections of haloperidol, a preferential D2 receptor antagonist, into the inferior colliculus (IC) enhance the processing of unconditioned aversive information. However, a clear characterization of the interplay of D2 receptors in the mediation of unconditioned and conditioned fear is still lacking. Methods The present study investigated the effects of intra-IC injections of the D2 receptor-selective antagonist sulpiride on behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM), auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) to loud sounds recorded from the IC, fear-potentiated startle (FPS), and conditioned freezing. Results Intra-IC injections of sulpiride caused clear proaversive effects in the EPM and enhanced AEPs induced by loud auditory stimuli. Intra-IC sulpiride administration did not affect FPS or conditioned freezing. Conclusions Dopamine D2-like receptors of the inferior colliculus play a role in the modulation of unconditioned aversive information but not in the fear-potentiated startle response. PMID:25133693

  10. D2-like dopamine receptor-mediated modulation of activity-dependent plasticity at GABAergic synapses in the subthalamic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Baufreton, Jérôme; Bevan, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    Reciprocally connected glutamatergic subthalamic nucleus (STN) and GABAergic external globus pallidus (GP) neurons normally exhibit weakly correlated, irregular activity but following the depletion of dopamine in Parkinson's disease they express more highly correlated, rhythmic bursting activity. Patch clamp recording was used to test the hypothesis that dopaminergic modulation reduces the capability of GABAergic inputs to pattern ‘pathological’ activity in STN neurons. Electrically evoked GABAA receptor-mediated IPSCs exhibited activity-dependent plasticity in STN neurons, i.e. IPSCs evoked at frequencies between 1 and 50 Hz exhibited depression that increased with the frequency of activity. Dopamine, the D2-like dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole and external media containing a low [Ca2+] reduced both the magnitude of IPSCs evoked at 1–50 Hz and synaptic depression at 10–50 Hz. Dopamine/quinpirole also reduced the frequency but not the amplitude of miniature IPSCs recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin. D1-like and D4 agonists were ineffective and D2/3 but not D4 receptor antagonists reversed the effects of dopamine or quinpirole. Together these data suggest that presynaptic D2/3 dopamine receptors modulate the short-term dynamics of GABAergic transmission in the STN by lowering the initial probability of transmitter release. Simulated GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic conductances representative of control or modulated transmission were then generated in STN neurons using the dynamic clamp technique. Dopamine-modulated transmission was less effective at resetting autonomous activity or generating rebound burst firing than control transmission. The data therefore support the conclusion that dopamine acting at presynaptic D2-like receptors reduces the propensity for GABAergic transmission to generate correlated, bursting activity in STN neurons. PMID:18292127

  11. Chronic Carbamazepine Administration Attenuates Dopamine D2-like Receptor-Initiated Signaling via Arachidonic Acid in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Bell, Jane M.; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2016-01-01

    Observations that dopaminergic antagonists are beneficial in bipolar disorder and that dopaminergic agonists can produce mania suggest that bipolar disorder involves excessive dopaminergic transmission. Thus, mood stabilizers used to treat the disease might act in part by downregulating dopaminergic transmission. In agreement, we reported that dopamine D2-like receptor mediated signaling involving arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) was downregulated in rats chronically treated with lithium. To see whether chronic carbamazepine, another mood stabilizer, did this as well, we injected i.p. saline or the D2-like receptor agonist, quinpirole (1 mg/kg), into unanesthetized rats that had been pretreated for 30 days with i.p. carbamazepine (25 mg/kg/day) or vehicle, and used quantitative autoradiography to measure regional brain incorporation coefficients (k*) for AA, markers of signaling. We also measured brain prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an AA metabolite. In vehicle-treated rats, quinpirole compared with saline significantly increased k* for AA in 35 of 82 brain regions examined, as well as brain PGE2 concentration. Affected regions belong to dopaminergic circuits and have high D2-like receptor densities. Chronic carbamazepine pretreatment prevented the quinpirole-induced increments in k* and in PGE2. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that effective mood stabilizers generally downregulate brain AA signaling via D2-like receptors, and that this signaling is upregulated in bipolar disorder. PMID:18302021

  12. Dual role of dopamine D(2)-like receptors in the mediation of conditioned and unconditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Marcus Lira; de Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro; Muthuraju, Sangu; Colombo, Ana Caroline; Saito, Viviane Mitsuko; Talbot, Teddy

    2015-11-14

    A reduction of dopamine release or D2 receptor blockade in the terminal fields of the mesolimbic system, particularly the amygdala, clearly reduces conditioned fear. Similar D2 receptor antagonism in the neural substrates of fear in the midbrain tectum attenuates the processing of unconditioned aversive information. However, the implications of the interplay between opposing actions of dopamine in the rostral and caudal segments of the dopaminergic system are still unclear. Previous studies from this laboratory have reported the effects of dopaminergic drugs on behavior in rats in the elevated plus maze, auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) recorded from the midbrain tectum, fear-potentiated startle, and conditioned freezing. These findings led to an interesting framework on the functional roles of dopamine in both anxiety and fear states. Dopamine D2 receptor inhibition in the terminal fields of the mesolimbic dopamine system generally causes anxiolytic-like effects, whereas the activity of midbrain substrates of unconditioned fear are enhanced by D2 receptor antagonists, suggesting that D2 receptor-mediated mechanisms play opposing roles in fear/anxiety processes, depending on the brain region under study. Dopamine appears to mediate conditioned fear by acting at rostral levels of the brain and regulate unconditioned fear at the midbrain level, likely by reducing the sensorimotor gating of aversive events.

  13. The C. elegans D2-Like Dopamine Receptor DOP-3 Decreases Behavioral Sensitivity to the Olfactory Stimulus 1-Octanol

    PubMed Central

    Ezak, Meredith J.; Ferkey, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    We previously found that dopamine signaling modulates the sensitivity of wild-type C. elegans to the aversive odorant 1-octanol. C. elegans lacking the CAT-2 tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme, which is required for dopamine biosynthesis, are hypersensitive in their behavioral avoidance of dilute concentrations of octanol. Dopamine can also modulate the context-dependent response of C. elegans lacking RGS-3 function, a negative regulator of Gα signaling. rgs-3 mutant animals are defective in their avoidance of 100% octanol when they are assayed in the absence of food (E. coli bacterial lawn), but their response is restored when they are assayed in the presence of food or exogenous dopamine. However, it is not known which receptor might be mediating dopamine's effects on octanol avoidance. Herein we describe a role for the C. elegans D2-like receptor DOP-3 in the regulation of olfactory sensitivity. We show that DOP-3 is required for the ability of food and exogenous dopamine to rescue the octanol avoidance defect of rgs-3 mutant animals. In addition, otherwise wild-type animals lacking DOP-3 function are hypersensitive to dilute octanol, reminiscent of cat-2 mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that DOP-3 function in the ASH sensory neurons is sufficient to rescue the hypersensitivity of dop-3 mutant animals, while dop-3 RNAi knockdown in ASH results in octanol hypersensitivity. Taken together, our data suggest that dopaminergic signaling through DOP-3 normally acts to dampen ASH signaling and behavioral sensitivity to octanol. PMID:20209143

  14. Systemic Blockade of D2-Like Dopamine Receptors Facilitates Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Nissim, Helen A.; Barad, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear in animals is the explicit model of behavior therapy for human anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Based on previous data indicating that fear extinction in rats is blocked by quinpirole, an agonist of dopamine D2 receptors, we hypothesized…

  15. Determinants of conditioned reinforcing effectiveness: Dopamine D2-like receptor agonist-stimulated responding for cocaine-associated stimuli.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gregory T; France, Charles P

    2015-12-15

    Environmental stimuli associated with drug use can take on conditioned properties capable of promoting drug-seeking behaviors during abstinence. This study investigated the relative importance of the amount of reinforced responding, number of cocaine-stimulus pairings, total cocaine intake, and reinforcing effectiveness of the self-administered dose of cocaine to the conditioned reinforcing effectiveness of cocaine-associated stimuli (CS). Male rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.1 [small] or 1.0mg/kg/inf [large]) under a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement. A progressive ratio (PR) schedule was used to quantify the reinforcing effectiveness of each dose of cocaine, as well as the conditioned reinforcing effectiveness of the CS following treatment with saline or the dopamine D2-like receptor agonist pramipexole (0.1-3.2mg/kg). The large dose of cocaine maintained larger final ratios and greater levels of cocaine intake, whereas the small dose resulted in more cocaine-CS pairings. The total amount of responding was comparable between groups. During PR tests of conditioned reinforcement, pramipexole increased responding for CS presentations in both groups; however, the final ratio completed was significantly greater in large- as compared to small-dose group. In addition to highlighting a central role for dopamine D2-like receptors in modulating the effectiveness of cocaine-paired stimuli to reinforce behavior, these results suggest that conditioned reinforcing effectiveness is primarily determined by the reinforcing effectiveness of the self-administered dose of cocaine and/or total cocaine intake, and not the total amount of responding or number cocaine-stimulus pairings. These findings have implications for understanding how different patterns of drug-taking might impact vulnerability to relapse.

  16. Determinants of conditioned reinforcing effectiveness: dopamine D2-like receptor agonist-stimulated responding for cocaine-associated stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Gregory T.; France, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stimuli associated with drug use can take on conditioned properties capable of promoting drug-seeking behaviors during abstinence. This study investigated the relative importance of the amount of reinforced responding, number of cocaine-stimulus pairings, total cocaine intake, and reinforcing effectiveness of the self-administered dose of cocaine to the conditioned reinforcing effectiveness of cocaine-associated stimuli (CS). Male rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.1 [small] or 1.0 mg/kg/inf [large]) under a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement. A progressive ratio (PR) schedule was used to quantify the reinforcing effectiveness of each dose of cocaine, as well as the conditioned reinforcing effectiveness of the CS following treatment with saline or the dopamine D2-like receptor agonist pramipexole (0.1-3.2 mg/kg). The large dose of cocaine maintained larger final ratios and greater levels of cocaine intake, whereas the small dose resulted in more cocaine-CS pairings. The total amount of responding was comparable between groups. During PR tests of conditioned reinforcement, pramipexole increased responding for CS presentations in both groups; however, the final ratio completed was significantly greater in large- as compared to small-dose group. In addition to highlighting a central role for dopamine D2-like receptors in modulating the effectiveness of cocaine-paired stimuli to reinforce behavior, these results suggest that conditioned reinforcing effectiveness is primarily determined by the reinforcing effectiveness of the self-administered dose of cocaine and/or total cocaine intake, and not the total amount of responding or number cocaine-stimulus pairings. These findings have implications for understanding how different patterns of drug-taking might impact vulnerability to relapse. PMID:26593427

  17. Repeated Cocaine Exposure Decreases Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Modulation of Ca2+ Homeostasis in Rat Nucleus Accumbens Neurons

    PubMed Central

    PEREZ, MARIELA F.; FORD, KERSTIN A.; GOUSSAKOV, IVAN; STUTZMANN, GRACE E.; HU, XIU-TI

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a limbic structure in the forebrain that plays a critical role in cognitive function and addiction. Dopamine modulates activity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAc. Both dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptors (including D1R or D1,5R and D2R or D2,3,4R, respectively) are thought to play critical roles in cocaine addiction. Our previous studies demonstrated that repeated cocaine exposure (which alters dopamine transmission) decreases excitability of NAc MSNs in cocaine-sensitized, withdrawn rats. This decrease is characterized by a reduction in voltage-sensitive Na+ currents and high voltage-activated Ca2+ currents, along with increased voltage-gated K+ currents. These changes are associated with enhanced activity in the D1R/cAMP/PKA/protein phosphatase 1 pathway and diminished calcineurin function. Although D1R-mediated signaling is enhanced by repeated cocaine exposure, little is known whether and how the D2R is implicated in the cocaine-induced NAc dysfunction. Here, we performed a combined electrophysiological, biochemical, and neuroimaging study that reveals the cocaine-induced dysregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis with involvement of D2R. Our novel findings reveal that D2R stimulation reduced Ca2+ influx preferentially via the L-type Ca2+ channels and evoked intracellular Ca2+ release, likely via inhibiting the cAMP/PKA cascade, in the NAc MSNs of drug-free rats. However, repeated cocaine exposure abolished the D2R effects on modulating Ca2+ homeostasis with enhanced PKA activity and led to a decrease in whole-cell Ca2+ influx. These adaptations, which persisted for 21 days during cocaine abstinence, may contribute to the mechanism of cocaine withdrawal. PMID:20665696

  18. Berberine is a dopamine D1- and D2-like receptor antagonist and ameliorates experimentally induced colitis by suppressing innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Masaaki; Takagi, Rie; Kaneko, Atsushi; Matsushita, Sho

    2015-12-15

    Berberine is an herbal alkaloid with various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects. Here, we examined the effects of berberine on dopamine receptors and the ensuing anti-inflammatory responses. Berberine was found to be an antagonist at both dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors and ameliorates the development of experimentally induced colitis in mice. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated immune cells, berberine treatment modified cytokine levels, consistent with the effects of the dopamine receptor specific antagonists SCH23390 and L750667. Our findings indicate that dopamine receptor antagonists suppress innate and adaptive immune responses, providing a foundation for their use in combatting inflammatory diseases.

  19. Altered dopamine D2-like receptor binding in rats with behavioral sensitization to quinpirole: effects of pre-treatment with Ro 41-1049a

    PubMed Central

    Culver, Kirsten E.; Szechtman, Henry; Levant, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Repeated treatment with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole produces a sensitized behavioral response in rats manifested as an increase in locomotor activity. Pre-treatment with certain monoamine oxidase inhibitors, such as Ro 41-1049 [N-(2-aminomethyl)-5-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-thiazolecarboxamide HCl], changes the sensitized response from locomotion to stationary, self-directed mouthing. In this study, the effects of quinpirole sensitization, with and without pre-treatment with Ro 41-1049, were determined on dopamine D2-like receptors in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum. Long-Evans rats were pre-treated with Ro 41-1049 (1 mg/kg) 90 min prior to administration of quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, 8 injections, every 3–4 days). Dopamine D2-like receptor binding was determined 3 days after the last injection by ex vivo radioligand assays using [3H]spiperone and [3H]quinpirole. Densities of [3H]spiperone- and [3H]quinpirole-labeled sites were both increased 32% in the nucleus accumbens of rats with demonstrated locomotor sensitization to quinpirole. In contrast, the density of dopamine D2-like receptors in quinpirole-sensitized rats pre-treated with Ro 41-1049 was not different from saline controls. These findings support the involvement of alterations in dopamine D2-like receptors in the development of locomotor sensitization to quinpirole and suggest that modification of these alterations in dopamine D2-like receptors contributes to the change from sensitized locomotion to mouthing observed when rats are pre-treated with Ro 41-1049. PMID:18644362

  20. Dopamine on D2-like receptors is involved in reward evaluation in water-deprived rats licking for NaCl and water.

    PubMed

    Canu, Maria Elena; Carta, Davide; Murgia, Emanuele; Serra, Gino; D'Aquila, Paolo S

    2010-08-01

    The analysis of licking microstructure provides measures, size and number of licking bouts, which might reveal, respectively, reward evaluation and behavioural activation. Based on the ability of the dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist raclopride to reduce bout size and to induce an "extinction mimicry effect" on bout number, we suggested that the level of activation of reward-associated responses is updated, or "reboosted", on the basis of a dopamine D2-like receptor-mediated evaluation process occurring during the consummatory transaction with the reward. Here we investigate the effects of the dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist raclopride (0, 25, 125, and 250microg/kg) on the microstructure of licking for water and sodium chloride solutions (0.075M, 0.15M, and 0.3M) in 12h water-deprived rats. In each session, rats were exposed to brief contact tests (1min) for each solution. Bout size, but not bout number, was decreased at the highest NaCl concentration. Raclopride reduced lick number owing to reduced bout size, while bout number was either not affected or even increased depending on the dose. These results are in agreement with the previous observations on sucrose licking, and suggest the involvement of dopamine D2-like receptors in an evaluation process occurring during the consummatory transaction with the reward.

  1. Spatial Reversal Learning in Chronically Sensitized Rats and in Undrugged Sensitized Rats with Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Agonist Quinpirole

    PubMed Central

    Hatalova, Hana; Radostova, Dominika; Pistikova, Adela; Vales, Karel; Stuchlik, Ales

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine plays a role in generating flexible adaptive responses in changing environments. Chronic administration of D2-like agonist quinpirole (QNP) induces behavioral sensitization and stereotypical behaviors reminiscent of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Some of these symptoms persist even after QNP discontinuation. In QNP-sensitization, perseverative behavior has often been implicated. To test the effect of QNP-sensitization on reversal learning and its association with perseveration we selected an aversively motivated hippocampus-dependent task, active place avoidance on a Carousel. Performance was measured as the number of entrances into a to-be-avoided sector (errors). We tested separately QNP-sensitized rats in QNP-drugged and QNP-undrugged state in acquisition and reversal tasks on the Carousel. In acquisition learning there were no significant differences between groups and their respective controls. In reversal, QNP-sensitized drugged rats showed a robust but transient increase in number of errors compared to controls. QNP-sensitized rats in an undrugged state were not overtly different from the control animals but displayed an altered learning manifested by more errors at the beginning compensated by quicker learning in the second session compared to control animals. Importantly, performance was not associated with perseveration in neither QNP-sensitized drugged nor QNP-sensitized undrugged animals. The present results show that chronic QNP treatment induces robust reversal learning deficit only when the substance is continuously administered, and suggest that QNP animal model of OCD is also feasible model of cognitive alterations in this disorder. PMID:24782730

  2. Dopamine suppresses neuronal activity of Helisoma B5 neurons via a D2-like receptor, activating PLC and K channels.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L R; Artinian, L; Rehder, V

    2013-01-03

    Dopamine (DA) plays fundamental roles as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the central nervous system. How DA modulates the electrical excitability of individual neurons to elicit various behaviors is of great interest in many systems. The buccal ganglion of the freshwater pond snail Helisoma trivolvis contains the neuronal circuitry for feeding and DA is known to modulate the feeding motor program in Helisoma. The buccal neuron B5 participates in the control of gut contractile activity and is surrounded by dopaminergic processes, which are expected to release DA. In order to study whether DA modulates the electrical activity of individual B5 neurons, we performed experiments on physically isolated B5 neurons in culture and on B5 neurons within the buccal ganglion in situ. We report that DA application elicited a strong hyperpolarization in both conditions and turned the electrical activity from a spontaneously firing state to an electrically silent state. Using the cell culture system, we demonstrated that the strong hyperpolarization was inhibited by the D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride and the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, indicating that DA affected the membrane potential of B5 neurons through the activation of a D2-like receptor and PLC. Further studies revealed that the DA-induced hyperpolarization was inhibited by the K channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium, suggesting that K channels might serve as the ultimate target of DA signaling. Through its modulatory effect on the electrical activity of B5 neurons, the release of DA in vivo may contribute to a neuronal output that results in a variable feeding motor program.

  3. In the Blink of an Eye: Relating Positive-Feedback Sensitivity to Striatal Dopamine D2-Like Receptors through Blink Rate

    PubMed Central

    Groman, Stephanie M.; James, Alex S.; Seu, Emanuele; Tran, Steven; Clark, Taylor A.; Harpster, Sandra N.; Crawford, Maverick; Burtner, Joanna Lee; Feiler, Karen; Roth, Robert H.; Elsworth, John D.; London, Edythe D.

    2014-01-01

    For >30 years, positron emission tomography (PET) has proven to be a powerful approach for measuring aspects of dopaminergic transmission in the living human brain; this technique has revealed important relationships between dopamine D2-like receptors and dimensions of normal behavior, such as human impulsivity, and psychopathology, particularly behavioral addictions. Nevertheless, PET is an indirect estimate that lacks cellular and functional resolution and, in some cases, is not entirely pharmacologically specific. To identify the relationships between PET estimates of D2-like receptor availability and direct in vitro measures of receptor number, affinity, and function, we conducted neuroimaging and behavioral and molecular pharmacological assessments in a group of adult male vervet monkeys. Data gathered from these studies indicate that variation in D2-like receptor PET measurements is related to reversal-learning performance and sensitivity to positive feedback and is associated with in vitro estimates of the density of functional dopamine D2-like receptors. Furthermore, we report that a simple behavioral measure, eyeblink rate, reveals novel and crucial links between neuroimaging assessments and in vitro measures of dopamine D2 receptors. PMID:25339755

  4. Distribution of dopamine D(2)-like receptors in the rat amygdala and their role in the modulation of unconditioned fear and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Perez de la Mora, M; Gallegos-Cari, A; Crespo-Ramirez, M; Marcellino, D; Hansson, A C; Fuxe, K

    2012-01-10

    Amygdaloid dopamine D(2) receptors play an important role in the modulation of fear/anxiety. Their topographical distribution within the amygdala is however unclear, and their role in unconditioned fear/anxiety remains largely unknown. The aim of this paper was to study the intra-amygdaloid distribution of D(2) receptors and to ascertain their role in unconditioned anxiety. Chemical anatomical studies in the rat, using D(2) and D(3)in situ hybridization, quantitative receptor autoradiography with either [(3)H]raclopride or [(125)I]sulpiride, and D(2)-like immunocytochemistry showed that the highest density of dopamine D(2) receptors is present in the central amygdaloid nucleus, particularly within its latero-capsular division, in which a D(2) but not a D(3) mRNA signal was observed. However, although at considerably reduced densities dopamine D(2) receptors were also found in other locations within the amygdala, including the basolateral nucleus. Behaviorally, the infusion of raclopride (0.75-4 μg/side) in the area of the central amygdaloid nucleus resulted at low doses in the appearance of anxiogenic-like effects in the Shock-Probe Burying test, whereas no effects of raclopride treatment were found at any dose in the Elevated Plus-Maze and the Open-Field test. Our results indicate that amygdaloid dopamine D(2)-like receptors have a topographically differentiated distribution within the rat amygdala, the major location being in the central amygdaloid nucleus. D(2)-like receptors play a role in the modulation of anxiety responses involving a potential differential function of D(2)-like receptors in the central amygdaloid nucleus versus the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus.

  5. Effects of Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Antagonists on Light Responses of Ganglion Cells in Wild-Type and P23H Rat Retinas

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    In animal models of retinitis pigmentosa the dopaminergic system in the retina appears to be dysfunctional, which may contribute to the debilitated sight experienced by retinitis pigmentosa patients. Since dopamine D2-like receptors are known to modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons, I examined the effects of dopamine D2-like receptor antagonists on the light responses of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the P23H rat model of retinitis pigmentosa. Extracellular electrical recordings were made from RGCs in isolated transgenic P23H rat retinas and wild-type Sprague-Dawley rat retinas. Intensity-response curves to flashes of light were evaluated prior to and during bath application of a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist. The dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists sulpiride and eticlopride and the D4 receptor antagonist L-745,870 increased light sensitivity of P23H rat RGCs but decreased light sensitivity in Sprague-Dawley rat RGCs. In addition, L-745,870, but not sulpiride or eticlopride, reduced the maximum peak responses of Sprague-Dawley rat RGCs. I describe for the first time ON-center RGCs in P23H rats that exhibit an abnormally long-latency (>200 ms) response to the onset of a small spot of light. Both sulpiride and eticlopride, but not L-745,870, reduced this ON response and brought out a short-latency OFF response, suggesting that these cells are in actuality OFF-center cells. Overall, the results show that the altered dopaminergic system in degenerate retinas contributes to the deteriorated light responses of RGCs. PMID:26717015

  6. Inhibition of titanium-particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis after local administration of dopamine and suppression of osteoclastogenesis via D2-like receptor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huilin; Xu, Yaozeng; Zhu, Mo; Gu, Ye; Zhang, Wen; Shao, Hongguo; Wang, Yijun; Ping, Zichuan; Hu, Xuanyang; Wang, Liangliang; Geng, Dechun

    2016-02-01

    Chronic inflammation and extensive osteoclast formation play critical roles in wear-debris-induced peri-implant osteolysis. We investigated the potential impact of dopamine on titanium-particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis in vivo and in vitro. Twenty-eight C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to four groups: sham control (PBS treatment), titanium (titanium/PBS treatment), low- (titanium/2 μg kg(-1) day(-1) dopamine) and high-dopamine (titanium/10 μg kg(-1) day(-1) dopamine). After 2 weeks, mouse calvariae were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histomorphometry analysis. Bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were isolated to assess osteoclast differentiation. Dopamine significantly reduced titanium-particle-induced osteolysis compared with the titanium group as confirmed by micro-CT and histomorphometric data. Osteoclast numbers were 34.9% and 59.7% (both p < 0.01) lower in the low- and high-dopamine-treatment groups, respectively, than in the titanium group. Additionally, low RANKL, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 immunochemistry staining were noted in dopamine-treatment groups. Dopamine markedly inhibited osteoclast formation, osteoclastogenesis-related gene expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in BMMs in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the resorption area was decreased with 10(-9) M and 10(-8) M dopamine to 40.0% and 14.5% (both p < 0.01), respectively. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of dopamine was reversed by the D2-like-receptor antagonist haloperidol but not by the D1-like-receptor antagonist SCH23390. These results suggest that dopamine therapy could be developed into an effective and safe method for osteolysis-related disease caused by chronic inflammation and excessive osteoclast formation.

  7. A novel mechanism of cocaine to enhance dopamine d2-like receptor mediated neurochemical and behavioral effects. An in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Luca; Frankowska, Malgorzata; Marcellino, Daniel; Zaniewska, Magdalena; Beggiato, Sarah; Filip, Malgorzata; Tomasini, Maria Cristina; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tanganelli, Sergio; Fuxe, Kjell

    2012-07-01

    Recent in vitro results suggest that cocaine may exert direct and/or indirect allosteric enhancing actions at dopamine (DA) D(2) receptors (D(2)Rs). In the present paper we tested the hypothesis that cocaine in vivo can enhance the effects of the D(2)-likeR agonist quinpirole in rats by using microdialysis and pharmacological behavioral studies. Furthermore, in vitro D(2)-likeR binding characteristics and Gα(i/o)-protein coupling, in the absence and in the presence of cocaine, have been investigated in rat striatal membranes. Intra-nucleus accumbens perfusion of the D(2)-likeR agonist quinpirole (10 μM) reduced local dialysate glutamate levels, whereas cocaine (10 and 100 nM) was ineffective. At a low concentration (100 nM), cocaine significantly enhanced quinpirole-induced reduction of accumbal extracellular glutamate levels. The behavioral experiments showed that cocaine (0.625 mg/kg), but not the DA uptake blocker GBR 12783 (1.25 mg/kg), enhanced quinpirole (1 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion. Finally, cocaine (100 nM), but not GBR 12783 (200 nM), produced a small, but significant increase in the efficacy of DA to stimulate binding of GTPγS to striatal D(2)-likeRs, whereas the D(2)-likeR binding characteristics were unchanged in striatal membranes by cocaine in the nM range. The significant increase in the maximal response to DA-stimulated GTPγS binding to D(2)-likeRs by 100 nM cocaine remained in the presence of GBR 12783. The observed cocaine-induced enhancement of the Gα(i/o)-protein coupling of D(2)Rs may be in part because of allosteric direct and/or indirect enhancing effects of cocaine at these receptors. These novel actions of cocaine may have relevance for understanding the actions of cocaine upon accumbal DA, and/or glutamate transmission and thus its rewarding as well as relapsing effects.

  8. A Novel Mechanism of Cocaine to Enhance Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Mediated Neurochemical and Behavioral Effects. An In Vivo and In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Luca; Frankowska, Malgorzata; Marcellino, Daniel; Zaniewska, Magdalena; Beggiato, Sarah; Filip, Malgorzata; Tomasini, Maria Cristina; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tanganelli, Sergio; Fuxe, Kjell

    2012-01-01

    Recent in vitro results suggest that cocaine may exert direct and/or indirect allosteric enhancing actions at dopamine (DA) D2 receptors (D2Rs). In the present paper we tested the hypothesis that cocaine in vivo can enhance the effects of the D2-likeR agonist quinpirole in rats by using microdialysis and pharmacological behavioral studies. Furthermore, in vitro D2-likeR binding characteristics and Gαi/o-protein coupling, in the absence and in the presence of cocaine, have been investigated in rat striatal membranes. Intra-nucleus accumbens perfusion of the D2-likeR agonist quinpirole (10 μM) reduced local dialysate glutamate levels, whereas cocaine (10 and 100 nM) was ineffective. At a low concentration (100 nM), cocaine significantly enhanced quinpirole-induced reduction of accumbal extracellular glutamate levels. The behavioral experiments showed that cocaine (0.625 mg/kg), but not the DA uptake blocker GBR 12783 (1.25 mg/kg), enhanced quinpirole (1 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion. Finally, cocaine (100 nM), but not GBR 12783 (200 nM), produced a small, but significant increase in the efficacy of DA to stimulate binding of GTPγS to striatal D2-likeRs, whereas the D2-likeR binding characteristics were unchanged in striatal membranes by cocaine in the nM range. The significant increase in the maximal response to DA-stimulated GTPγS binding to D2-likeRs by 100 nM cocaine remained in the presence of GBR 12783. The observed cocaine-induced enhancement of the Gαi/o-protein coupling of D2Rs may be in part because of allosteric direct and/or indirect enhancing effects of cocaine at these receptors. These novel actions of cocaine may have relevance for understanding the actions of cocaine upon accumbal DA, and/or glutamate transmission and thus its rewarding as well as relapsing effects. PMID:22453136

  9. Dopamine D2-like receptors modulate freezing response, but not the activation of HPA axis, during the expression of conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Amanda R; Reimer, Adriano E; Reis, Fernando M C V; Brandão, Marcus L

    2017-02-01

    Considering the complexity of aversive information processing and defensive response expression, a combined action of stress modulators may be required for an optimal performance during threatening situations. Dopamine is now recognized as one of the most active modulators underlying states of fear and anxiety. On the other hand, activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, which leads to the release of corticosterone in rodents, has been considered a key part of the stress response. The current study is an extension of prior work investigating modulatory effects of dopamine and corticosterone on conditioned fear expression. We have showed that corticosterone, acting through mineralocorticoid receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), upregulates dopaminergic system in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), enabling the expression of conditioned freezing response. The novel question addressed here is whether VTA-BLA dopaminergic signaling is necessary for increases in corticosterone during conditioned fear expression. Using site-specific treatment with D2-like agonist quinpirole (VTA) and D2-like antagonist sulpiride (BLA), we evaluated freezing and plasma corticosterone in rats exposed to a light used as aversive conditioned stimulus (CS). Intra-VTA quinpirole and intra-BLA sulpiride significantly decreased freezing expression in the conditioned fear test, but this anxiolytic-like effect of the dopaminergic drugs was not associated with changes in plasma corticosterone concentrations. Altogether, data suggest that interferences with the ability of the CS to activate the dopaminergic VTA-BLA pathway reduce the expression of freezing, but activation of the HPA axis seems to occur upstream of the recruitment of dopaminergic mechanisms in conditioned fear states.

  10. The effect of forced swim stress on morphine sensitization: Involvement of D1/D2-like dopamine receptors within the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Charmchi, Elham; Zendehdel, Morteza; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-10-03

    Nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an essential role in morphine sensitization and suppression of pain. Repeated exposure to stress and morphine increases dopamine release in the NAc and may lead to morphine sensitization. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of forced swim stress (FSS), as a predominantly physical stressor and morphine on the development of morphine sensitization; focusing on the function of D1/D2-like dopamine receptors in the NAc in morphine sensitization. Eighty-five adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally implanted with cannulae in the NAc and various doses of SCH-23390 (0.125, 0.25, 1 and 4μg/0.5μl/NAc) as a D1 receptor antagonist and sulpiride (0.25, 1 and 4μg/0.5μl/NAc) as a D2 receptor antagonist were microinjected into the NAc, during a sensitization period of 3days, 5min before the induction of FSS. After 10min, animals received subcutaneous morphine injection (1mg/kg). The procedure was followed by 5days free of antagonist, morphine and stress; thereafter on the 9th day, the nociceptive response was evaluated by tail-flick test. The results revealed that the microinjection of sulpiride (at 1 and 4μg/0.5μl/NAc) or SCH-23390 (at 0.25, 1 and 4μg/0.5μl/NAc) prior to FSS and morphine disrupts the antinociceptive effects of morphine and morphine sensitization. Our findings suggest that FSS can potentiate the effect of morphine and causes morphine sensitization which induces antinociception.

  11. D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors in the CA1 region of the hippocampus are involved in the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Assar, Nasim; Mahmoudi, Dorna; Farhoudian, Ali; Farhadi, Mohammad Hasan; Fatahi, Zahra; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-10-01

    The hippocampus plays a vital role in processing contextual memories and reward related learning tasks, such as conditioned place preference (CPP). Among the neurotransmitters in the hippocampus, dopamine is deeply involved in reward-related processes. This study assessed the role of D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors within the CA1 region of the hippocampus in the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-CPP. To investigate the role of D1 and D2 receptors in morphine acquisition, the animals received different doses of D1- and/or D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists (SCH23390 and sulpiride, respectively) into the CA1, 5min before the administration of morphine (5mg/kg, subcutaneously) during a 3-days conditioning phase. To evaluate the involvement of these receptors in morphine reinstatement, the animals received different doses of SCH23390 or sulpiride (after extinction period) 5min before the administration of a low dose of morphine (1mg/kg) in order to reinstate the extinguished morphine-CPP. Conditioning scores were recorded by Ethovision software. The results of this study showed that the administration of SCH23390 or sulpiride, significantly decreased the acquisition of morphine-CPP. Besides, the injection of these antagonists before the administration of a priming dose of morphine, following the extinction period, decreased the reinstatement of morphine-CPP in sacrificed rats. However, the effect of sulpiride on the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-CPP was more significant than that of SCH23390. These findings suggested that D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors in the CA1 are involved in the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-CPP, and antagonism of these receptors can reduce the rewarding properties of morphine.

  12. Colocalization of Mating-Induced Fos and D2-Like Dopamine Receptors in the Medial Preoptic Area: Influence of Sexual Experience

    PubMed Central

    Nutsch, Victoria L.; Will, Ryan G.; Robison, Christopher L.; Martz, Julia R.; Tobiansky, Daniel J.; Dominguez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) stimulates sexual activity in males. This is evidenced by microdialysis and microinjection experiments revealing that dopamine receptor antagonists in the mPOA inhibit sexual activity, whereas agonists facilitate behavior. Microdialysis experiments similarly show a facilitative role for dopamine, as levels of dopamine in the mPOA increase with mating. While the majority of evidence suggests an important role for dopamine receptors in the mPOA in the regulation of male sexual behaviors, whether sexual activity or sexual experience influence dopamine receptor function in the mPOA has not been previously shown. Here we used immunohistochemical assays to determine whether varying levels of sexual activity or experience influence the number of cells containing Fos or D2 receptor immunoreactivity. Results show that sexual experience facilitated subsequent behavior, namely experience decreased latencies. Moreover, the number of cells with immunoreactivity for Fos or D2 correlated with levels of sexual experience and sexual activity. Sexual activity increased Fos immunoreactivity. Sexually experienced animals also had significantly more D2-positive cells. Sexually inexperienced animals copulating for the first time had a larger percentage of D2-positive cells containing Fos, when compared to sexually experienced animals. Finally, regardless of experience, animals that had sex prior to sacrifice had significantly more D2-positive cells that contained Fos, vs. animals that did not copulate. These findings are noteworthy because sexually experienced animals display increased sexual efficiency. The differences in activation of D2 and changes in receptor density may play a role in this efficiency and other behavioral changes across sexual experience. PMID:27147996

  13. Structure–Activity Relationships for a Novel Series of Dopamine D2-like Receptor Ligands Based on N-Substituted 3-Aryl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ol

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Noel M.; Taylor, Michelle; Kumar, Rakesh; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Luedtke, Robert R.; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2011-01-01

    Discovering dopamine D2-like receptor subtype-selective ligands has been a focus of significant investigation. The D2R-selective antagonist 3-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidinyl]methylindole (1, L741,626; Ki(D2R/D3R) = 11.2:163 nM) has previously provided a lead template for chemical modification. Herein, analogues have been synthesized where the piperidine was replaced by a tropane ring that reversed the selectivity seen in the parent compound, in human hD2LR- or hD3R-transfected HEK 293 cells (31, Ki(D2R/D3R) = 33.4: 15.5 nM). Further exploration of both N-substituted and aryl ring-substituted analogues resulted in the discovery of several high affinity D2R/D3R ligands with 3-benzofurylmethyl-substituents (e.g., 45, Ki(D2R/D3R) = 1.7:0.34 nM) that induced high affinity not achieved in similarly N-substituted piperidine analogues and significantly (470-fold) improved D3R binding affinity compared to the parent ligand 1. X-ray crystallographic data revealed a distinctive spatial arrangement of pharmacophoric elements in the piperidinol vs tropine analogues, providing clues for the diversity in SAR at the D2 and D3 receptor subtypes. PMID:18774793

  14. Quantitative ex vivo and in vitro receptor autoradiography using 11C-labeled ligands and an imaging plate: a study with a dopamine D2-like receptor ligand [11C]nemonapride.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, K; Ogi, N; Tanaka, A; Senda, M

    1999-04-01

    Ex vivo and in vitro autoradiography (ARG) with radioluminography is a useful technique to characterize newly developed 11C-labeled positron emission tomography (PET) tracers and to apply them to biological and pharmacological studies. In this report, we have described a method of evaluating the radioactivity distribution quantitatively in ex vivo and in vitro ARG using imaging plates and a dopamine D2-like receptor ligand [11C]nemonapride as a model compound. The photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) values of the rat brain section provided by the imaging plates showed an excellent linear relationship with the radioactivity in a wide range under constant slice-thickness, although the PSL values slightly decreased with increasing slice-thickness both in ex vivo and in vitro ARG. The injection dose of 11C-tracers for ex vivo ARG was also discussed. We found saturable binding sites of [11C]nemonapride in the cortex besides the striatum both ex vivo and in vitro.

  15. Ethologically based resolution of D2-like dopamine receptor agonist-versus antagonist-induced behavioral topography in dopamine- and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa "knockout" mutants congenic on the C57BL/6 genetic background.

    PubMed

    Nally, Rachel E; Kinsella, Anthony; Tighe, Orna; Croke, David T; Fienberg, Allen A; Greengard, Paul; Waddington, John L

    2004-09-01

    Given the critical role of dopamine- and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) in the regulation of dopaminergic function, DARPP-32-null mutant mice congenic on the inbred C57BL/6 strain for 10 generations were examined phenotypically for their ethogram of responsivity to the selective D2-like receptor agonist RU 24213 (N-n-propyl-N-phenylethyl-p-3-hydroxyphenylethylamine) and the selective D2-like receptor antagonist YM 09151-2 (cis-N-[1-benzyl-2-methyl-pyrrolidin-3-yl]-5-chloro-2-methoxy-4-methylaminobenzamide), using procedures that resolve all topographies of behavior in the natural repertoire. After vehicle challenge, levels of sniffing and rearing seated were reduced in DARPP-32 mutants; the injection procedure seems to constitute a "stressor" that reveals phenotypic effects of DARPP-32 deletion not apparent under natural conditions. Topographical effects of 0.3 to 10.0 mg/kg RU 24213, primarily induction of sniffing and ponderous locomotion with accompanying reductions in rearing, grooming, sifting and chewing, were not altered to any material extent in DARPP-32-null mice. However, topographical effects of 0.005 to 0.625 mg/kg YM 09151-2, namely, reduction in sniffing, locomotion, rearing, grooming, and chewing but not sifting, were essentially absent in DARPP-32 mutants. Thus, the D2-like receptor agonist-mediated ethogram was essentially conserved, whereas major elements of the corresponding D2-like receptor antagonist-mediated ethogram were essentially absent in DARPP-32-null mice. This suggests some relationship between 1) extent of tonic dopaminergic activation of DARPP-32 mechanisms and 2) compensatory mechanisms consequent to the developmental absence of DARPP-32, which may emerge to act differentially on individual elements of the DARPP-32 system. Critically, the present data indicate that phenotypic effects of a given gene deletion using an agonist acting on the system disrupted cannot be generalized to a

  16. Role of Dopamine Receptors Subtypes, D1-Like and D2-Like, within the Nucleus Accumbens Subregions, Core and Shell, on Memory Consolidation in the One-Trial Inhibitory Avoidance Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrated that dopamine within the nucleus accumbens mediates consolidation of both associative and nonassociative memories. However, the specific contribution of the nucleus accumbens subregions, core and shell, and of D1 and D2 receptors subtypes has not been yet clarified. The aim of this study was, therefore, to directly…

  17. Role of dopamine receptors subtypes, D1-like and D2-like, within the nucleus accumbens subregions, core and shell, on memory consolidation in the one-trial inhibitory avoidance task.

    PubMed

    Managò, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrated that dopamine within the nucleus accumbens mediates consolidation of both associative and nonassociative memories. However, the specific contribution of the nucleus accumbens subregions, core and shell, and of D1 and D2 receptors subtypes has not been yet clarified. The aim of this study was, therefore, to directly compare the effect of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor blockade within the core and the shell subregions of the nucleus accumbens on memory consolidation. Using the one-trial inhibitory avoidance task in CD1 mice, we demonstrated that SCH 23390 (vehicle, 12.5, 25, 50 ng/side) administration within the core, but not the shell, impaired step-through latency 24 h after the administration if injected immediately, but not 120 min post-training. Interestingly, sulpiride (vehicle, 25, 50 ng/side) injection in both the core and the shell of the accumbens affected step-through latency 24 h later; also, in this case the impairment was time dependent. These data provide the most complete and direct demonstration to date that early consolidation of aversive memory requires D2 receptor activation in both nucleus accumbens subregions, and D1 activation selectively in the nucleus accumbens core.

  18. Dorsal striatal D2-like receptor availability covaries with sensitivity to positive reinforcement during discrimination learning.

    PubMed

    Groman, Stephanie M; Lee, Buyean; London, Edythe D; Mandelkern, Mark A; James, Alex S; Feiler, Karen; Rivera, Ronald; Dahlbom, Magnus; Sossi, Vesna; Vandervoort, Eric; Jentsch, J David

    2011-05-18

    Deviations in reward sensitivity and behavioral flexibility, particularly in the ability to change or stop behaviors in response to changing environmental contingencies, are important phenotypic dimensions of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that variation in dopamine signaling through dopamine D(2)-like receptors may influence these phenotypes, as well as associated psychiatric conditions, but the specific neurocognitive mechanisms through which this influence is exerted are unknown. To address this question, we examined the relationship between behavioral sensitivity to reinforcement during discrimination learning and D(2)-like receptor availability in vervet monkeys. Monkeys were assessed for their ability to acquire, retain, and reverse three-choice, visual-discrimination problems, and once behavioral performance had stabilized, they received positron emission tomography (PET) scans. D(2)-like receptor availability in dorsal aspects of the striatum was not related to individual differences in the ability to acquire or retain visual discriminations but did relate to the number of trials required to reach criterion in the reversal phase of the task. D(2)-like receptor availability was also strongly correlated with behavioral sensitivity to positive, but not negative, feedback during learning. These results go beyond electrophysiological findings by demonstrating the involvement of a striatal dopaminergic marker in individual differences in feedback sensitivity and behavioral flexibility, providing insight into the neural mechanisms that are affected in neuropsychiatric disorders that feature these deficits.

  19. ISCCP-D2like-Day Terra Ed3A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-15

    ISCCP-D2like-Day Terra Ed3A Project Title:  CERES Discipline:  ... Earthdata Search Guide Documents:  Day/Nit Description/Abstract Detailed CERES ISCCP-D2like Product ... Data Products Catalog:  DPC_ISCCP-D2like-Day-Nit_R5V3  (PDF) Readme Files:  Readme Day-Nit ...

  20. A D2-like receptor family agonist produces analgesia in mechanonociception but not in thermonociception at the spinal cord level in rats.

    PubMed

    Almanza, Angélica; Simón-Arceo, Karina; Coffeen, Ulises; Fuentes-García, Ruth; Contreras, Bernardo; Pellicer, Francisco; Mercado, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    The administration of dopaminergic drugs produces analgesia in individuals experiencing different types of pain. Analgesia induced by these drugs at the spinal cord level is mediated by D2-like agonists, which specifically inhibit the detection of nociceptive stimuli by sensory afferents. The extent of the analgesia provided by spinal dopamine agonists remains controversial, and the cellular mechanism of this analgesic process is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of quinpirole, a D2-like agonist, based on two nociceptive tests and at various doses that were selected to specifically activate dopamine receptors. We found that intrathecal quinpirole administration produces analgesia of mechanical but not thermal nociception and that the analgesic effect of quinpirole is reversed by a mix of D2, D3, and D4 receptor-specific antagonists, suggesting that the activation of all D2-like receptors is involved in the analgesia produced by intrathecal quinpirole. The differential effect on thermal and mechanical nociception was also tested upon the activation of μ-opioid receptors. As reported previously, low doses of the μ-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO produced analgesia of only thermonociception. This evidence shows that a D2-like receptor agonist administered at the spinal cord level produces analgesia specific to mechanonociception but not thermonociception.

  1. The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: version III--the final common pathway.

    PubMed

    Howes, Oliver D; Kapur, Shitij

    2009-05-01

    The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia has been one of the most enduring ideas in psychiatry. Initially, the emphasis was on a role of hyperdopaminergia in the etiology of schizophrenia (version I), but it was subsequently reconceptualized to specify subcortical hyperdopaminergia with prefrontal hypodopaminergia (version II). However, these hypotheses focused too narrowly on dopamine itself, conflated psychosis and schizophrenia, and predated advances in the genetics, molecular biology, and imaging research in schizophrenia. Since version II, there have been over 6700 articles about dopamine and schizophrenia. We selectively review these data to provide an overview of the 5 critical streams of new evidence: neurochemical imaging studies, genetic evidence, findings on environmental risk factors, research into the extended phenotype, and animal studies. We synthesize this evidence into a new dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia-version III: the final common pathway. This hypothesis seeks to be comprehensive in providing a framework that links risk factors, including pregnancy and obstetric complications, stress and trauma, drug use, and genes, to increased presynaptic striatal dopaminergic function. It explains how a complex array of pathological, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and other findings, such as frontotemporal structural and functional abnormalities and cognitive impairments, may converge neurochemically to cause psychosis through aberrant salience and lead to a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The hypothesis has one major implication for treatment approaches. Current treatments are acting downstream of the critical neurotransmitter abnormality. Future drug development and research into etiopathogenesis should focus on identifying and manipulating the upstream factors that converge on the dopaminergic funnel point.

  2. Investigation on the co-luminescence effect of europium (III)-lanthanum(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system and its application.

    PubMed

    Si, Hailin; Zhao, Fang; Cai, Huan

    2013-01-01

    A novel luminescence, enhancement phenomenon in the europium(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system was observed when lanthanum(III) was added. Based on this, a sensitive co-luminescence method was established for the determination of dopamine. The luminescence signal for the europium (III)-lanthanum(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system was monitored at λ(ex) = 300 nm, λ(em) = 618 nm and pH 8.3. Under optimized conditions, the enhanced luminescence signal responded linearly to the concentration of dopamine in the range 1.0 × 10(-10)-5.0 × 10(-7) mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993 (n = 11). The detection limit (3σ) was 2.7 × 10(-11) mol/L and the relative standard deviation for 11 parallel measurements of 3.0 × 10(-8) mol/L dopamine was 1.9%. The presented method was successfully applied for the estimation of dopamine in samples of pharmaceutical preparations, human serum and urine. The possible luminescence enhancement mechanism of the system is discussed briefly.

  3. The role of pre-junctional D2 -like receptors mediating quinpirole-induced inhibition of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic out-flow in pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; González-Hernández, Abimael; Altamirano-Espinoza, Alain H; Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; Ruiz-Salinas, Inna; Villalón, Carlos M

    2014-02-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) released from perivascular sensory nerves plays a role in the regulation of vascular tone. Indeed, electrical stimulation of the perivascular sensory out-flow in pithed rats produces vasodepressor responses, which are mainly mediated by CGRP release. This study investigated the potential role of dopamine D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the inhibition of these vasodepressor responses. For this purpose, male Wistar pithed rats (pre-treated i.v. with 25 mg/kg gallamine and 2 mg/kg min. hexamethonium) received i.v. continuous infusions of methoxamine (20 μg/kg min.) followed by physiological saline (0.02 ml/min.), the D1 -like receptor agonist SKF-38393 (0.1-1 μg/kg min.) or the D2 -like receptor agonist quinpirole (0.03-10 μg/kg min.). Under these conditions, electrical stimulation (0.56-5.6 Hz; 50 V and 2 ms) of the thoracic spinal cord (T9 -T12 ) resulted in frequency-dependent vasodepressor responses which were (i) unchanged during the infusions of saline or SKF-38393 and (ii) inhibited during the infusions of quinpirole (except at 0.03 μg/kg min.). Moreover, the inhibition induced by 0.1 μg/kg min. quinpirole (which failed to inhibit the vasodepressor responses elicited by i.v. bolus injections of exogenous α-CGRP; 0.1-1 μg/kg) was (i) unaltered after i.v. treatment with 1 ml/kg of either saline or 5% ascorbic acid and (ii) abolished after 300 μg/kg (i.v.) of the D2 -like receptor antagonists haloperidol or raclopride. These doses of antagonists (enough to completely block D2 -like receptors) essentially failed to modify per se the electrically induced vasodepressor responses. In conclusion, our results suggest that quinpirole-induced inhibition of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic out-flow is mainly mediated by pre-junctional D2 -like receptors.

  4. [Buspirone increases D2-like dopaminergic receptor density in rat corpus striatum].

    PubMed

    Lima, Vera Targino Moreira; Macedo, Danielle Silveira; Nogueira, Carlos Renato Alves; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros; Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço de

    2002-03-01

    Buspirone (busp) a piperazinyl derivative with anxiolytic properties is a partial agonist on 5-HT1A with affinity for D2-like dopaminergic receptors (RD2). The objective of this study was to verify the effects of busp on RD2. Female Wistar rats 150-200 g were treated with busp (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) 1 or 2 times daily for 7 days. Controls (C) received saline. The density of RD2 (fmol/mg protein) was determined through binding assays in striatum (ST) using [3H]-spiroperidol as radioligand. No alteration in Bmax or Kd values were seen after busp administration once a day. However, a RD2 upregulation of 55 % increase was observed after busp 2 times a day with no change in Kd values. The results showed that busp interact not only with serotonergic, but also with dopaminergic system.

  5. Modafinil inhibits rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons through D2-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Korotkova, T M; Klyuch, B P; Ponomarenko, A A; Lin, J S; Haas, H L; Sergeeva, O A

    2007-02-01

    Modafinil is a well-tolerated medication for excessive sleepiness, attention-deficit disorder, cocaine dependence and as an adjunct to antidepressants with low propensity for abuse. We investigated the modafinil action on identified dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) of rat brain slices. Modafinil (20 microM) inhibited the firing of dopaminergic, but not GABAergic neurons. This inhibition was maintained in the presence of tetrodotoxin and was accompanied by hyperpolarization. Sulpiride (10 microM), a D2-receptor antagonist, but not prazosine (20 microM, an alpha1-adrenoreceptor blocker) abolished the modafinil action. Inhibition of dopamine reuptake with a low dose of nomifensine (1 microM) reduced the firing of DA neurons in a sulpiride-dependent manner and blunted the effect of modafinil. On acutely isolated neurons, modafinil evoked D2-receptor-mediated outward currents in tyrosine-hydroxylase positive cells, identified by single-cell RT-PCR, which reversed polarity near the K(+) equilibrium potential and were unchanged in the presence of nomifensine. Thus modafinil directly inhibits DA neurons through D2 receptors.

  6. Chronic Valproate Treatment Blocks D2-like Receptor-Mediated Brain Signaling via Arachidonic Acid in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Epolia; Basselin, Mireille; Taha, Ameer Y.; Cheon, Yewon; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective Hyperdopaminergic signaling and an upregulated brain arachidonic acid (AA) cascade may contribute to bipolar disorder (BD). Lithium and carbamazepine, FDA-approved for the treatment of BD, attenuate brain dopaminergic D2-like (D2, D3, and D4) receptor signaling involving AA when given chronically to awake rats. We hypothesized that valproate (VPA), with mood-stabilizing properties, would also reduce the D2-like-mediated signaling via AA. Methods An acute dose of quinpirole (1 mg/kg) or saline was administered to unanesthetized rats that had been treated for 30 days with a therapeutically relevant dose of VPA (200 mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Regional brain AA incorporation coefficients, k*, and incorporation rates, Jin, markers of AA signaling and metabolism, were measured by quantitative autoradiography after intravenous [1-14C]AA infusion. Whole brain concentrations of prostaglandin (PG)E2 and thromboxane (TX)B2 also were measured. Results Quinpirole compared to saline significantly increased k* in 40 of 83 brain regions, and increased brain concentrations of PGE2 in chronic vehicle-treated rats. VPA treatment by itself reduced concentrations of plasma unesterified AA and whole brain PGE2 and TXB2, and blocked the quinpirole-induced increments in k* and PGE2. Conclusion These results further support our hypothesis that similar to lithium and carbamazepine, VPA downregulates brain dopaminergic D2-like receptor-signaling involving AA. PMID:21839100

  7. Synthesis and characterization of dopamine substitue tripodal trinuclear [(salen/salophen/salpropen)M] (Mdbnd Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III) ions) capped s-triazine complexes: Investigation of their thermal and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, Şaban; Koç, Ziya Erdem

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we aimed to synthesize and characterize a novel tridirectional ligand including three catechol groups and its novel tridirectional-trinuclear triazine core complexes. For this purpose, we used melamine (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine) (MA) as starting material. 2,4,6-tris(4-carboxybenzimino)-1,3,5-triazine (II) was synthesized by the reaction of an equivalent melamine (I) and three equivalent 4-carboxybenzaldehyde. 4,4‧,4″-((1E,1‧E,1″E)-((1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(azanylylidene))tris(methanylylidene))tris(N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)benzamide) L (IV) was synthesized by the reaction of one equivalent (II) and three equivalent dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) (DA) by using two different methods. (II, III, IV) and nine novel trinuclear Cr(III), Mn(III) and Fe(III) complexes of (IV) were characterized by means of elemental analyses, 1H NMR, FT-IR spectrometry, LC-MS (ESI+) and thermal analyses. The metal ratios of the prepared complexes were performed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). We also synthesized novel tridirectional-trinuclear systems and investigated their effects on magnetic behaviors of [salen, salophen, salpropen Cr(III)/Mn(III)/Fe(III)] capped complexes. The complexes were determined to be low-spin distorted octahedral Mn(III) and Fe(III), and distorted octahedral Cr(III) all bridged by catechol group.

  8. Silver nanoparticles-enhanced rare earth co-luminescence effect of Tb(III)-Y(III)-dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Li, Huihui; Wu, Xia

    2015-06-01

    It was found that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) could enhance co-luminescence effect of rare earths ions Tb(3+) and Y(3+). Based on this, a sensitive fluorescence detection method for the determination of dopamine (DA) was proposed. Moreover, the detection limit for DA was very low (down to nM). This is because DA can remarkably enhance the luminescence intensity of the Tb(3+) ion by Y(3+) in the colloidal solution of AgNPs, forming a new co-luminescence system. Furthermore, based on the metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF), AgNPs can sensitize the co-luminescence effect of the complex of Tb(3+)-Y(3+)-DA. In a neutral buffer solution (pH 7.50), the luminescence intensity of the system was linearly related to the concentration of DA in the range of 2.0-100 nM, with a limit of detection as low as 0.57 nM. The proposed method was applied for the determination of DA in dopamine hydrochloride injections and human serum samples with good accuracy and satisfactory recovery.

  9. Dopaminergic D2-like agonists produce yawning in the myelin mutant taiep and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Eguibar, Jose R; Cortes, Ma del Carmen; Lara-Lozano, Manuel; Mendiola, Diana M

    2012-07-01

    Systemic administration of D2-like dopaminergic-receptor agonists increases yawning behavior. However, only a few studies have been done in animals with pathological conditions. The taiep rat is a myelin mutant with an initial hypomyelination followed by progressive demyelination, being the brainstem one of the most affected areas. In our experiments, we analyzed the effects of systemic administration of the D2-family agonists and antagonists on yawning behavior, and correlated them with the lipid myelin content in the brainstem and other areas in the central nervous system (CNS) in 8 month old male taiep and Sprague-Dawley rats. Subjects were maintained under standard conditions in Plexiglas cages with a 12:12 light-dark cycle, lights on at 0700 and free access to rodent pellets and tap water. Drugs were freshly prepared injected ip at 0800 and subjects were observed for 60 min. When antagonists were used it was administered 15 min before the agonist. Sprague-Dawley and taiep rats significantly increased their yawning frequency after systemic injection of (-)-quinpirole hydrochloride, R(+)-7-Hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (7-OH-DPAT) or trans-(±)-3,4,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano [4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol hydrochloride ((±)-PD 128,907). Among D2-like agonists used higher effects are obtained with (-)-quinpirole. The effects caused by (-)-quinpirole can be reduced by (-)-sulpiride; and yawning caused by 7-OH-DPAT was decreased by tiapride only in taiep rats. In Sprague-Dawley only (-)-sulpiride is able to decrease (-)-quinpirole-caused yawning. In conclusion, dopaminergic D2-like agonists are still able to cause yawning despite the severe myelin loss in taiep rats. Similarly, patients with various CNS illnesses that affect myelin, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, are able to yawn suggesting that trigger neurons are still able to command this innate behavior.

  10. Effect of Sarizotan, a 5-HT1a and D2-like receptor agonist, on respiration in three mouse models of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdala, Ana P; Lioy, Daniel T; Garg, Saurabh K; Knopp, Sharon J; Paton, Julian F R; Bissonnette, John M

    2014-06-01

    Disturbances in respiration are common and debilitating features of Rett syndrome (RTT). A previous study showed that the 5-HT1a receptor agonist (R)-(+)-8-hydroxy-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) significantly reduced the incidence of apnea and the irregular breathing pattern in a mouse model of the disorder. 8-OH-DPAT, however, is not available for clinical practice. Sarizotan, a full 5-HT1a agonist and a dopamine D2-like agonist/partial agonist, has been used in clinical trials for the treatment of l-dopa-induced dyskinesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sarizotan on respiration and locomotion in mouse models of RTT. Studies were performed in Bird and Jaenisch strains of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2--deficient heterozygous female and Jaenisch strain Mecp2 null male mice and in knock-in heterozygous female mice of a common nonsense mutation (R168X). Respiratory pattern was determined with body plethysmography, and locomotion was determined with open-field recording. Sarizotan or vehicle was administered 20 minutes before a 30-minute recording of respiratory pattern or motor behavior. In separate studies, a crossover design was used to administer the drug for 7 and for 14 days. Sarizotan reduced the incidence of apnea in all three RTT mouse models to approximately 15% of their pretreatment levels. The irregular breathing pattern was corrected to that of wild-type littermates. When administered for 7 or 14 days, apnea decreased to 25 to 33% of the incidence seen with vehicle. This study indicates that the clinically approved drug sarizotan is an effective treatment for respiratory disorders in mouse models of RTT.

  11. Roles of dopaminergic innervation of nucleus accumbens shell and dorsolateral caudate-putamen in cue-induced morphine seeking after prolonged abstinence and the underlying D1- and D2-like receptor mechanisms in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Li, Yonghui; Zhu, Ning; Brimijoin, Stephen; Sui, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Drug-associated cues can elicit relapse to drug seeking after abstinence. Studies with extinction–reinstatement models implicate dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAshell) and dorsolateral caudate-putamen (dlCPu) in cocaine seeking. However, less is known about their roles in cue-induced opiate seeking after prolonged abstinence. Using a morphine self-administration and abstinence–relapse model, we explored the roles of NAshell and dlCPu DA and the D1/D2-like receptor mechanisms underlying morphine rewarding and/or seeking. Acquisition of morphine self-administration was examined following 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (6-OHDA) lesions of the NAshell and dlCPu. For morphine seeking, rats underwent 3 weeks’ morphine self-administration followed by 3 weeks’ abstinence from morphine and the training environment. Prior to testing, 6-OHDA, D1 antagonist SCH23390, or D2 antagonist eticlopride was locally injected; then rats were exposed to morphine-associated contextual and discrete cues. Results show that acquisition of morphine self-administration was inhibited by NAshell (not dlCPu) lesions, while morphine seeking was attenuated by lesions of either region, by D1 (not D2) receptor blockade in NAshell, or by blockade of either D1 or D2 receptors in dlCPu. These data indicate a critical role of dopaminergic transmission in the NAshell (via D1-like receptors) and dlCPu (via D1- and D2-like receptors) in morphine seeking after prolonged abstinence. PMID:23151613

  12. Dopamine regulates body size in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takashi; Oami, Eitaro; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Ishiura, Shoichi; Suo, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of animal body sizes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, an amine neurotransmitter, dopamine, is required for the tactile perception of food and food-dependent behavioral changes, while its role in development is unknown. In this study, we show that dopamine negatively regulates body size through a D2-like dopamine receptor, DOP-3, in C. elegans. Dopamine alters body size without affecting food intake or developmental rate. We also found that dopamine promotes egg-laying, although the regulation of body size by dopamine was not solely caused by this effect. Furthermore, dopamine negatively regulates body size through the suppression of signaling by octopamine and Gq-coupled octopamine receptors, SER-3 and SER-6. Our results demonstrate that dopamine and octopamine regulate the body size of C. elegans and suggest a potential role for perception in addition to ingestion of food for growth.

  13. Dopamine abnormalities in the neocortex of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Luisa; Alonso-Vanegas, Mario; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Mújica, Mario; Cisneros-Franco, José Miguel; López-Gómez, Mario; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Frías-Soria, Christian Lizette; Segovia-Vila, José; Borsodi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate different variables of the dopaminergic system in the temporal cortex of surgically treated patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) associated with mesial sclerosis (MTLE, n=12) or with cerebral tumor or lesion (n=8). In addition, we sought to identify dopaminergic abnormalities in those patients with epilepsy that had comorbid anxiety and depression. Specifically, we investigated changes in dopamine and its metabolites, D1 and D2 receptors, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter. Results obtained from patients with epilepsy were compared with those found in experiments using autopsy material. The neocortex of patients with MTLE demonstrated high D1 expression (1680%, p<0.05) and binding (layers I-II, 31%, p<0.05; layers V-VI, 28%, p<0.05), and decreased D2 expression (77%, p<0.05). The neocortex of patients with TLE secondary to cerebral tumor or lesion showed high expression of D1 receptors (1100%, p<0.05), and D2-like induced activation of G proteins (layers I-II, 503%; layers III-IV, 557%; layers V-VI, 964%, p<0.05). Both epileptic groups presented elevated binding to the dopamine transporter and low tissue content of dopamine and its metabolites. Analysis revealed the following correlations: a) D1 receptor binding correlated negatively with seizure onset age and seizure frequency, and positively with duration of epilepsy; b) D2 receptor binding correlated positively with age of seizure onset and negatively with duration of epilepsy; c) dopamine transporter binding correlated positively with duration of epilepsy and frequency of seizures; d) D2-like induced activation of G proteins correlated positively with the age of patients. When compared with autopsies and patients with anxiety and depression, patients without neuropsychiatric disorders showed high D2-like induced activation of G proteins, an effect that correlated positively with age of patient and seizure onset age, and negatively with duration of

  14. Comparison of the Binding and Functional Properties of Two Structurally Different D2 Dopamine Receptor Subtype Selective Compounds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported on the synthesis of substituted phenyl-4-hydroxy-1-piperidyl indole analogues with nanomolar affinity at D2 dopamine receptors, ranging from 10- to 100-fold selective for D2 compared to the D3 dopamine receptor subtype. More recently, we evaluated a panel of aripiprazole analogues, identifying several analogues that also exhibit D2 vs D3 dopamine receptor binding selectivity. These studies further characterize the intrinsic efficacy of the compound with the greatest binding selectivity from each chemical class, 1-((5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)-4-(4-(methylthio)phenyl)piperidin-4-ol (SV 293) and 7-(4-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butoxy)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one (SV-III-130s), using an adenylyl cyclase inhibition assay, a G-protein-coupled inward-rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel activation assay, and a cell based phospho-MAPK (pERK1/2) assay. SV 293 was found to be a neutral antagonist at D2 dopamine receptors using all three assays. SV-III-130s is a partial agonist using an adenylyl cyclase inhibition assay but an antagonist in the GIRK and phospho ERK1/2 assays. To define the molecular basis for the binding selectivity, the affinity of these two compounds was evaluated using (a) wild type human D2 and D3 receptors and (b) a panel of chimeric D2/D3 dopamine receptors. Computer-assisted modeling techniques were used to dock these compounds to the human D2 and D3 dopamine receptor subtypes. It is hoped that these studies on D2 receptor selective ligands will be useful in the future design of (a) receptor selective ligands used to define the function of D2-like receptor subtypes, (b) novel pharmacotherapeutic agents, and/or (c) in vitro and in vivo imaging agents. PMID:23259040

  15. Self-Reported Sexual Behavioral Interests and Polymorphisms in the Dopamine Receptor D4 (DRD4) Exon III VNTR in Heterosexual Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Halley, Andrew C; Boretsky, Melanie; Puts, David A; Shriver, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) have previously been shown to associate with a variety of human behavioral phenotypes, including ADHD pathology, alcohol and tobacco craving, financial risk-taking in males, and broader personality traits such as novelty seeking. Recent research has linked the presence of a 7-repeat (7R) allele in a 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) along exon III of DRD4 to age at first sexual intercourse, sexual desire, arousal and function, and infidelity and promiscuity. We hypothesized that carriers of longer DRD4 alleles may report interest in a wider variety of sexual behaviors and experiences than noncarriers. Participants completed a 37-item questionnaire measuring sexual interests as well as Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory, and were genotyped for the 48-bp VNTR on exon III of DRD4. Based on our final genotyped sample of female (n = 139) and male (n = 115) participants, we found that 7R carriers reported interest in a wider variety of sexual behaviors (r = 0.16) within a young adult heterosexual sample of European descent. To our knowledge, this is the first reported association between DRD4 exon III VNTR genotype and interest in a variety of sexual behaviors. We discuss these findings within the context of DRD4 research and broader trends in human evolutionary history.

  16. Association between the dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitudes in female Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Ebstein, Richard P.; Monakhov, Mikhail V.; Lu, Yunfeng; Jiang, Yushi; Lai, Poh San; Chew, Soo Hong

    2015-01-01

    Twin and family studies suggest that political attitudes are partially determined by an individual's genotype. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) exon III repeat region that has been extensively studied in connection with human behaviour, is a plausible candidate to contribute to individual differences in political attitudes. A first United States study provisionally identified this gene with political attitude along a liberal–conservative axis albeit contingent upon number of friends. In a large sample of 1771 Han Chinese university students in Singapore, we observed a significant main effect of association between the DRD4 exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitude. Subjects with two copies of the 4-repeat allele (4R/4R) were significantly more conservative. Our results provided evidence for a role of the DRD4 gene variants in contributing to individual differences in political attitude particularly in females and more generally suggested that associations between individual genes, and neurochemical pathways, contributing to traits relevant to the social sciences can be provisionally identified. PMID:26246555

  17. Association between the dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitudes in female Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Ebstein, Richard P; Monakhov, Mikhail V; Lu, Yunfeng; Jiang, Yushi; Lai, Poh San; Chew, Soo Hong

    2015-08-22

    Twin and family studies suggest that political attitudes are partially determined by an individual's genotype. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) exon III repeat region that has been extensively studied in connection with human behaviour, is a plausible candidate to contribute to individual differences in political attitudes. A first United States study provisionally identified this gene with political attitude along a liberal-conservative axis albeit contingent upon number of friends. In a large sample of 1771 Han Chinese university students in Singapore, we observed a significant main effect of association between the DRD4 exon III variable number of tandem repeats and political attitude. Subjects with two copies of the 4-repeat allele (4R/4R) were significantly more conservative. Our results provided evidence for a role of the DRD4 gene variants in contributing to individual differences in political attitude particularly in females and more generally suggested that associations between individual genes, and neurochemical pathways, contributing to traits relevant to the social sciences can be provisionally identified.

  18. Dopamine Modulates Cell Cycle in the Lateral Ganglionic Eminence

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, Nobuyo; Goto, Tomohide; Waeber, Christian; Bhide, Pradeep G.

    2005-01-01

    Dopamine is a neuromodulator the functions of which in the regulation of complex behaviors such as mood, motivation, and attention are well known. Dopamine appears in the brain early in the embryonic period when none of those behaviors is robust, raising the possibility that dopamine may influence brain development. The effects of dopamine on specific developmental processes such as neurogenesis are not fully characterized. The neostriatum is a dopamine-rich region of the developing and mature brain. If dopamine influenced neurogenesis, the effects would likely be pronounced in the neostriatum. Therefore, we examined whether dopamine influenced neostriatal neurogenesis by influencing the cell cycle of progenitor cells in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE), the neuroepithelial precursor of the neostriatum. We show that dopamine arrives in the LGE via the nigrostriatal pathway early in the embryonic period and that neostriatal neurogenesis progresses in a dopamine-rich milieu. Dopamine D1-like receptor activation reduces entry of progenitor cells from the G1-to S-phase of the cell cycle, whereas D2-like receptor activation produces the opposite effects by promoting G1- to S-phase entry. D1-like effects are prominent in the ventricular zone, and D2-like effects are prominent in the subventricular zone. The overall effects of dopamine on the cell cycle are D1-like effects, most likely because of the preponderance of D1-like binding sites in the embryonic neostriatum. These data reveal a novel developmental role for dopamine and underscore the relevance of dopaminergic signaling in brain development. PMID:12684471

  19. Identification and characterization of a tandem repeat in exon III of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Line; Kinze, Carl Christian; Werge, Thomas; Rasmussen, Henrik Berg

    2006-01-01

    A large number of mammalian species harbor a tandem repeat in exon III of the gene encoding dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), a receptor associated with cognitive functions. In this study, a DRD4 gene exon III tandem repeat from the order Cetacea was identified and characterized. Included in our study were samples from 10 white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), 10 harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), eight sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), and five minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata). Using enzymatic amplification followed by sequencing of amplified fragments, a tandem repeat composed of 18-bp basic units was detected in all of these species. The tandem repeats in white-beaked dolphin and harbor porpoise were both monomorphic and consisted of 11 and 12 basic units, respectively. In contrast, the sperm whale harbored a polymorphic tandem repeat with size variants composed of three, four, and five basic units. Also the tandem repeat in minke whale was polymorphic; size variants composed of 6 or 11 basic units were found in this species. The consensus sequences of the basic units were identical in the closely related white-beaked dolphin and harbor porpoise, and these sequences differed by a maximum of two changes when compared to the remaining species. There was a high degree of similarity between the cetacean basic unit consensus sequences and those from members of the horse family and domestic cow, which also harbor a tandem repeat composed of 18-bp basic units in exon III of their DRD4 gene. Consequently, the 18-bp tandem repeat appears to have originated prior to the differentiation of hoofed mammals into odd-toed and even-toed ungulates. The composition of the tandem repeat in cetaceans differed markedly from that in primates, which is composed of 48-bp repeat basic units.

  20. Ultra-thin film composite mixed matrix membranes incorporating iron(iii)-dopamine nanoparticles for CO2 separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinguk; Fu, Qiang; Scofield, Joel M. P.; Kentish, Sandra E.; Qiao, Greg G.

    2016-04-01

    Iron dopamine nanoparticles (FeDA NPs) are incorporated into a nanoscale thick polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrix for the first time, to form ultra-thin film composite mixed matrix membranes (UTFC-MMMs) via a recently developed continuous assembly of polymers (CAP) nanotechnology. The FeDA NPs are prepared by in situ nano-complexation between Fe3+ and DA and have a particle size that can be varied from 3 to 74 nanometers by adjusting the molar ratio of DA to Fe3+ ion. The cross-linked selective layer with sub 100 nanometer thickness is prepared by atom transfer radical polymerisation of a mixture of PEG macrocross-linkers and FeDA NPs on top of a highly permeable poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) prelayer, which is spin-coated onto a porous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) substrate. The incorporation of the FeDA NPs within the PEG-based selective layer is confirmed by XPS analysis. The UTFC-MMMs (thickness: ~45 nm) formed present excellent gas separation performance with a CO2 permeance of ~1200 GPU (1 GPU = 10-6 cm3 (STP) cm-2 s-1 cmHg-1) and an enhanced CO2/N2 selectivity of over 35, which is the best performance for UTFC membranes in the reported literature.Iron dopamine nanoparticles (FeDA NPs) are incorporated into a nanoscale thick polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrix for the first time, to form ultra-thin film composite mixed matrix membranes (UTFC-MMMs) via a recently developed continuous assembly of polymers (CAP) nanotechnology. The FeDA NPs are prepared by in situ nano-complexation between Fe3+ and DA and have a particle size that can be varied from 3 to 74 nanometers by adjusting the molar ratio of DA to Fe3+ ion. The cross-linked selective layer with sub 100 nanometer thickness is prepared by atom transfer radical polymerisation of a mixture of PEG macrocross-linkers and FeDA NPs on top of a highly permeable poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) prelayer, which is spin-coated onto a porous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) substrate. The incorporation of the FeDA NPs within the PEG

  1. Novel neuroprotective mechanisms of pramipexole, an anti-Parkinson drug, against endogenous dopamine-mediated excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yasuhiko; Sawada, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Kume, Toshiaki; Katsuki, Hiroshi; Shimohama, Shun; Akaike, Akinori

    2007-02-28

    Parkinson disease is characterized by selective degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons, and endogenous dopamine may play a pivotal role in the degenerative processes. Using primary cultured mesencephalic neurons, we found that glutamate, an excitotoxin, caused selective dopaminergic neuronal death depending on endogenous dopamine content. Pramipexole, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist used clinically in the treatment of Parkinson disease, did not affect glutamate-induced calcium influx but blocked dopaminergic neuronal death induced by glutamate. Pramipexole reduced dopamine content but did not change the levels of total or phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. The neuroprotective effect of pramipexole was independent of dopamine receptor stimulation because it was not abrogated by domperidone, a dopamine D2-type receptor antagonist. Moreover, both active S(-)- and inactive R(+)-enantiomers of pramipexole as a dopamine D2-like receptor agonist equally suppressed dopaminergic neuronal death. These results suggest that pramipexole protects dopaminergic neurons from glutamate neurotoxicity by the reduction of intracellular dopamine content, independently of dopamine D2-like receptor activation.

  2. Transcriptional activation of the human brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene promoter III by dopamine signaling in NT2/N neurons.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hung; Chartier, Joanne; Sodja, Caroline; Desbois, Angele; Ribecco-Lutkiewicz, Maria; Walker, P Roy; Sikorska, Marianna

    2003-07-18

    We have identified a functional cAMP-response element (CRE) in the human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene promoter III and established that it participated in the modulation of BDNF expression in NT2/N neurons via downstream signaling from the D1 class of dopamine (DA) receptors. The up-regulation of BDNF expression, in turn, produced neuroprotective signals through receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) and promoted cell survival under the conditions of oxygen and glucose deprivation. To our knowledge this is the first evidence showing the presence of a functional CRE in the human BDNF gene and the role of DA signaling in establishing transcriptional competence of CRE in post-mitotic NT2/N neurons. This ability of DA to regulate the expression of the BDNF survival factor has a profound significance for the nigrostriatal pathway, because it indicates the existence of a feedback loop between the neutrophin, which promotes both the maturation and survival of dopaminergic neurons, and the neurotransmitter, which the mature neurons ultimately produce and release.

  3. Cross-hemispheric dopamine projections have functional significance

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Megan E.; Mikhailova, Maria A.; Bass, Caroline E.; Takmakov, Pavel; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Budygin, Evgeny A.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine signaling occurs on a subsecond timescale, and its dysregulation is implicated in pathologies ranging from drug addiction to Parkinson’s disease. Anatomic evidence suggests that some dopamine neurons have cross-hemispheric projections, but the significance of these projections is unknown. Here we report unprecedented interhemispheric communication in the midbrain dopamine system of awake and anesthetized rats. In the anesthetized rats, optogenetic and electrical stimulation of dopamine cells elicited physiologically relevant dopamine release in the contralateral striatum. Contralateral release differed between the dorsal and ventral striatum owing to differential regulation by D2-like receptors. In the freely moving animals, simultaneous bilateral measurements revealed that dopamine release synchronizes between hemispheres and intact, contralateral projections can release dopamine in the midbrain of 6-hydroxydopamine–lesioned rats. These experiments are the first, to our knowledge, to show cross-hemispheric synchronicity in dopamine signaling and support a functional role for contralateral projections. In addition, our data reveal that psychostimulants, such as amphetamine, promote the coupling of dopamine transients between hemispheres. PMID:27298371

  4. Dopamine Receptors and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Coronel, Israel; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is one of the major neurotransmitters and participates in a number of functions such as motor coordination, emotions, memory, reward mechanism, neuroendocrine regulation etc. DA exerts its effects through five DA receptors that are subdivided in 2 families: D1-like DA receptors (D1 and D5) and the D2-like (D2, D3 and D4). All DA receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in not only in physiological conditions but also pathological scenarios. Abnormalities in the DAergic system and its receptors in the basal ganglia structures are the basis Parkinson’s disease (PD), however DA also participates in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease (HD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Under pathological conditions reorganization of DAergic system has been observed and most of the times, those changes occur as a mechanism of compensation, but in some cases contributes to worsening the alterations. Here we review the changes that occur on DA transmission and DA receptors (DARs) at both levels expression and signals transduction pathways as a result of neurotoxicity, inflammation and in neurodegenerative processes. The better understanding of the role of DA receptors in neuropathological conditions is crucial for development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat alterations related to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26425390

  5. Inhibitory effects of dopamine on spinal synaptic transmission via dopamine D1-like receptors in neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, K; Otsuguro, K; Ishizuka, M; Ito, S

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Dopamine released from the endings of descending dopaminergic nerve fibres in the spinal cord may be involved in modulating functions such as locomotion and nociception. Here, we examined the effects of dopamine on spinal synaptic transmissions in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Spinal reflex potentials, monosynaptic reflex potential (MSR) and slow ventral root potential (sVRP), were measured in the isolated spinal cord of the neonatal rat. Dopamine release was measured by HPLC. KEY RESULTS Dopamine at lower concentrations (<1 µM) depressed sVRP, which is a C fibre-evoked polysynaptic response and believed to reflect nociceptive transmission. At higher concentrations (>1 µM), in addition to a potent sVRP depression, dopamine depolarized baseline potential and slightly depressed MSR. Depression of sVRP by dopamine was partially reversed by dopamine D1-like but not by D2-like receptor antagonists. SKF83959 and SKF81297, D1-like receptor agonists, and methamphetamine, an endogenous dopamine releaser, also caused the inhibition of sVRP. Methamphetamine also depressed MSR, which was inhibited by ketanserin, a 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist. Methamphetamine induced the release of dopamine and 5-HT from spinal cords, indicating that the release of endogenous dopamine and 5-HT depresses sVRP and MSR respectively. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggested that dopamine at lower concentrations preferentially inhibited sVRP, which is mediated via dopamine D1-like and other unidentified receptors. The dopamine-evoked depression is involved in modulating the spinal functions by the descending dopaminergic pathways. PMID:22168428

  6. Dopamine receptor genes: new tools for molecular psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Niznik, H B; Van Tol, H H

    1992-01-01

    For over a decade it has been generally assumed that all the pharmacological and biochemical actions of dopamine within the central nervous system and periphery were mediated by two distinct dopamine receptors. These receptors, termed D1 and D2, were defined as those coupled to the stimulation or inhibition of adenylate cyclase, respectively, and by their selectivity and avidity for various drugs and compounds. The concept that two dopamine receptors were sufficient to account for all the effects mediated by dopamine was an oversimplification. Recent molecular biological studies have identified five distinct genes which encode at least eight functional dopamine receptors. The members of the expanded dopamine receptor family, however, can still be codifed by way of the original D1 and D2 receptor dichotomy. These include two genes encoding dopamine D1-like receptors (D1 [D1A]/D5 [D1B]) and three genes encoding D2-like receptors (D2/D3/D4). We review here our recent work on the cloning and characterization of some of the members of the dopamine receptor gene family (D1, D2, D4, D5), their relationship to neuropsychiatric disorders and their potential role in antipsychotic drug action. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1450188

  7. Effect of Sarizotan, a 5-HT1a and D2-Like Receptor Agonist, on Respiration in Three Mouse Models of Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Ana P.; Lioy, Daniel T.; Garg, Saurabh K.; Knopp, Sharon J.; Paton, Julian F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances in respiration are common and debilitating features of Rett syndrome (RTT). A previous study showed that the 5-HT1a receptor agonist (R)-(+)-8-hydroxy-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) significantly reduced the incidence of apnea and the irregular breathing pattern in a mouse model of the disorder. 8-OH-DPAT, however, is not available for clinical practice. Sarizotan, a full 5-HT1a agonist and a dopamine D2–like agonist/partial agonist, has been used in clinical trials for the treatment of l-dopa–induced dyskinesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sarizotan on respiration and locomotion in mouse models of RTT. Studies were performed in Bird and Jaenisch strains of methyl-CpG–binding protein 2-–deficient heterozygous female and Jaenisch strain Mecp2 null male mice and in knock-in heterozygous female mice of a common nonsense mutation (R168X). Respiratory pattern was determined with body plethysmography, and locomotion was determined with open-field recording. Sarizotan or vehicle was administered 20 minutes before a 30-minute recording of respiratory pattern or motor behavior. In separate studies, a crossover design was used to administer the drug for 7 and for 14 days. Sarizotan reduced the incidence of apnea in all three RTT mouse models to approximately 15% of their pretreatment levels. The irregular breathing pattern was corrected to that of wild-type littermates. When administered for 7 or 14 days, apnea decreased to 25 to 33% of the incidence seen with vehicle. This study indicates that the clinically approved drug sarizotan is an effective treatment for respiratory disorders in mouse models of RTT. PMID:24351104

  8. Dopamine, T cells and multiple sclerosis (MS).

    PubMed

    Levite, Mia; Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco

    2017-03-10

    Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that induces critical effects in the nervous system and in many peripheral organs, via 5 dopamine receptors (DRs): D1R-D5R. Dopamine also induces many direct and very potent effects on many DR-expressing immune cells, primarily T cells and dendritic cells. In this review, we focus only on dopamine receptors, effects and production in T cells. Dopamine by itself (at an optimal concentration of~0.1 nM) induces multiple function of resting normal human T cells, among them: T cell adhesion, chemotactic migration, homing, cytokine secretion and others. Interestingly, dopamine activates resting effector T cells (Teffs), but suppresses regulatory T cells (Tregs), and both effects lead eventually to Teff activation. Dopamine-induced effects on T cells are dynamic, context-sensitive and determined by the: T cell activation state, T cell type, DR type, and dopamine concentration. Dopamine itself, and also few dopaminergic molecules/ drugs that are in clinical use for cardiac, neurological and other non-immune indications, have direct effects on human T cells (summarized in this review). These dopaminergic drugs include: dopamine = intropin, L-DOPA, bromocriptine, pramipexole, pergolide, haloperidol, pimozide, and amantadine. Other dopaminergic drugs were not yet tested for their direct effects on T cells. Extensive evidence in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) show dopaminergic dysregulations in T cells in these diseases: D1-like DRs are decreased in Teffs of MS patients, and dopamine does not affect these cells. In contrast, D1-like DRs are increased in Tregs of MS patients, possibly causing functional Treg impairment in MS. Treatment of MS patients with interferon β (IFN-β) increases D1-like DRs and decreases D2-like DRs in Teffs, decreases D1-like DRs in Tregs, and most important: restores responsiveness of patient's Teffs to dopamine. DR agonists and antagonists confer some benefits in

  9. Synapsins Differentially Control Dopamine and Serotonin Release

    PubMed Central

    Kile, Brian M.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Venton, B. Jill; Wetsel, William C.; Augustine, George J.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Synapsins are a family of synaptic vesicle proteins that are important for neurotransmitter release. Here we have used triple knockout (TKO) mice lacking all three synapsin genes to determine the roles of synapsins in the release of two monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. Serotonin release evoked by electrical stimulation was identical in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices prepared from TKO and wild-type mice. In contrast, release of dopamine in response to electrical stimulation was approximately doubled in striatum of TKO mice, both in vivo and in striatal slices, in comparison to wild-type controls. This was due to loss of synapsin III, because deletion of synapsin III alone was sufficient to increase dopamine release. Deletion of synapsins also increased the sensitivity of dopamine release to extracellular calcium ions. Although cocaine did not affect the release of serotonin from nigral tissue, this drug did enhance dopamine release. Cocaine-induced facilitation of dopamine release was a function of external calcium, an effect that was reduced in TKO mice. We conclude that synapsins play different roles in the control of release of dopamine and serotonin, with release of dopamine being negatively regulated by synapsins, specifically synapsin III, while serotonin release appears to be relatively independent of synapsins. These results provide further support for the concept that synapsin function in presynaptic terminals varies according to the neurotransmitter being released. PMID:20660258

  10. The atypical dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF 83959 induces striatal Fos expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Wirtshafter, David; Osborn, Catherine V

    2005-12-28

    The effects of dopamine D1 receptor agonists are often presumed to result from an activation of adenylyl cyclase, but dopamine D1 receptors may also be linked to other signal transduction cascades and the relative importance of these various pathways is currently unclear. SKF 83959 is an agonist at dopamine D1 receptors linked to phospholipase C, but has been reported to be an antagonist at receptors linked to adenylyl cyclase. The current report demonstrates that SKF 83959 induces pronounced, nonpatchy, expression of the immediate-early gene product Fos in the striatum of intact rats which can be converted to a patchy pattern by pretreatment with the dopamine D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole. In rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions SKF 83959 induces strong behavioral rotation and a greatly potentiated Fos response. All of the responses to SKF 83959, in both intact and dopamine-depleted animals, can be blocked by pretreatment with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390. In intact subjects, SKF 83959 induced Fos expression less potently than the standard dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF 82958, but the two drugs were approximately equipotent in deinnervated animals. These results demonstrate for the first time that possession of full efficacy at dopamine D1 receptors linked to adenylyl cyclase is not a necessary requirement for the induction of striatal Fos expression in intact animals and suggest that alternative signal transduction pathways may play a role in dopamine agonist induced Fos expression, especially in dopamine-depleted subjects.

  11. The role of dopamine signaling in epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bozzi, Yuri; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies implicate most neuromodulatory systems in epileptogenesis. The dopaminergic system has a seizure-modulating effect that crucially depends on the different subtypes of dopamine (DA) receptors involved and the brain regions in which they are activated. Specifically, DA plays a major role in the control of seizures arising in the limbic system. Studies performed in a wide variety of animal models contributed to illustrate the opposite actions of D1-like and D2-like receptor signaling in limbic epileptogenesis. Indeed, signaling from D1-like receptors is generally pro-epileptogenic, whereas D2-like receptor signaling exerts an anti-epileptogenic effect. However, this view might appear quite simplistic as the complex neuromodulatory action of DA in the control of epileptogenesis likely requires a physiological balance in the activation of circuits modulated by these two major DA receptor subtypes, which determines the response to seizure-promoting stimuli. Here we will review recent evidences on the identification of molecules activated by DA transduction pathways in the generation and spread of seizures in the limbic system. We will discuss the intracellular signaling pathways triggered by activation of different DA receptors in relation to their role in limbic epileptogenesis, which lead to the activation of neuronal death/survival cascades. A deep understanding of the signaling pathways involved in epileptogenesis is crucial for the identification of novel targets for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:24062645

  12. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Dopamine.

    PubMed

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Alvarez-Herrera, Samantha; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Cruz-Fuentes, Carlos; Flores-Gutierrez, Enrique Octavio; Garcés-Alvarez, María Eugenia; de la Cruz-Aguilera, Dora Luz; Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; Pavón, Lenin

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), has modulatory functions at the systemic level. The peripheral and central nervous systems have independent dopaminergic system (DAS) that share mechanisms and molecular machinery. In the past century, experimental evidence has accumulated on the proteins knowledge that is involved in the synthesis, reuptake, and transportation of DA in leukocytes and the differential expression of the D1-like (D1R and D5R) and D2-like receptors (D2R, D3R, and D4R). The expression of these components depends on the state of cellular activation and the concentration and time of exposure to DA. Receptors that are expressed in leukocytes are linked to signaling pathways that are mediated by changes in cAMP concentration, which in turn triggers changes in phenotype and cellular function. According to the leukocyte lineage, the effects of DA are associated with such processes as respiratory burst, cytokine and antibody secretion, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. In clinical conditions such as schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, Tourette syndrome, and multiple sclerosis (MS), there are evident alterations during immune responses in leukocytes, in which changes in DA receptor density have been observed. Several groups have proposed that these findings are useful in establishing clinical status and clinical markers.

  13. Immunomodulatory Effects Mediated by Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Herrera, Samantha; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Cruz-Fuentes, Carlos; Flores-Gutierrez, Enrique Octavio; Quintero-Fabián, Saray

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), has modulatory functions at the systemic level. The peripheral and central nervous systems have independent dopaminergic system (DAS) that share mechanisms and molecular machinery. In the past century, experimental evidence has accumulated on the proteins knowledge that is involved in the synthesis, reuptake, and transportation of DA in leukocytes and the differential expression of the D1-like (D1R and D5R) and D2-like receptors (D2R, D3R, and D4R). The expression of these components depends on the state of cellular activation and the concentration and time of exposure to DA. Receptors that are expressed in leukocytes are linked to signaling pathways that are mediated by changes in cAMP concentration, which in turn triggers changes in phenotype and cellular function. According to the leukocyte lineage, the effects of DA are associated with such processes as respiratory burst, cytokine and antibody secretion, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. In clinical conditions such as schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, Tourette syndrome, and multiple sclerosis (MS), there are evident alterations during immune responses in leukocytes, in which changes in DA receptor density have been observed. Several groups have proposed that these findings are useful in establishing clinical status and clinical markers. PMID:27795960

  14. Dopamine depletion impairs precursor cell proliferation in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Höglinger, Günter U; Rizk, Pamela; Muriel, Marie P; Duyckaerts, Charles; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Caille, Isabelle; Hirsch, Etienne C

    2004-07-01

    Cerebral dopamine depletion is the hallmark of Parkinson disease. Because dopamine modulates ontogenetic neurogenesis, depletion of dopamine might affect neural precursors in the subependymal zone and subgranular zone of the adult brain. Here we provide ultrastructural evidence showing that highly proliferative precursors in the adult subependymal zone express dopamine receptors and receive dopaminergic afferents. Experimental depletion of dopamine in rodents decreases precursor cell proliferation in both the subependymal zone and the subgranular zone. Proliferation is restored completely by a selective agonist of D2-like (D2L) receptors. Experiments with neural precursors from the adult subependymal zone grown as neurosphere cultures confirm that activation of D2L receptors directly increases the proliferation of these precursors. Consistently, the numbers of proliferating cells in the subependymal zone and neural precursor cells in the subgranular zone and olfactory bulb are reduced in postmortem brains of individuals with Parkinson disease. These observations suggest that the generation of neural precursor cells is impaired in Parkinson disease as a consequence of dopaminergic denervation.

  15. Dopamine suppresses persistent network activity via D1-like dopamine receptors in rat medial entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Mayne, Elizabeth W; Craig, Michael T; McBain, Chris J; Paulsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Cortical networks display persistent activity in the form of periods of sustained synchronous depolarizations (‘UP states’) punctuated by periods of relative hyperpolarization (‘DOWN states’), which together form the slow oscillation. UP states are known to be synaptically generated and are sustained by a dynamic balance of excitation and inhibition, with fast ionotropic glutamatergic excitatory and GABAergic inhibitory conductances increasing during the UP state. Previously, work from our group demonstrated that slow metabotropic GABA receptors also play an important role in terminating the UP state, but the effects of other neuromodulators on this network phenomenon have received little attention. Given that persistent activity is a neural correlate of working memory and that signalling through dopamine receptors has been shown to be critical for working memory tasks, we examined whether dopaminergic neurotransmission affected the slow oscillation. Here, using an in vitro model of the slow oscillation in rat medial entorhinal cortex, we showed that dopamine strongly and reversibly suppressed cortical UP states. We showed that this effect was mediated through D1-like and not D2-like dopamine receptors, and we found no evidence that tonic dopaminergic transmission affected UP states in our model. PMID:23336973

  16. Lineweaver-Burk analysis for the blocking effects of mammalian dopamine receptor antagonists on dopamine-induced currents in Achatina giant neurones.

    PubMed

    Emaduddin, M; Takeuchi, H

    1996-10-01

    1. We had demonstrated (Emaduddin et al., 1995) the blocking effects of the three mammalian dopamine receptor antagonists, (+/-)-SKF83566 (mammalian dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist), (+)-UH232 (D2 and D3-like receptor antagonist) and (+/-)-sulpiride (D2-like receptor antagonist) on the dose (pressure duration)-response curves of dopamine in the three giant neurone types, LVMN (left visceral multiple spike neurone), d-RPeAN (dorsal-right pedal anterior neurone) and v-LCDN (ventral-left cerebral distinct neurone), of Achatina fulica Férussac under voltage clamp. In the present study, we analyzed these data by Lineweaver-Burk plot. 2. Dopamine-induced inward currents (Iin) of the two neurone types, LVMN and d-RPeAN, were blocked by (+/-)-SKF83566 and (+)-UH232 in partly noncompetitive and partly uncompetitive manners. (+/-)-Sulpiride had no effect on these currents. 3. In contrast, dopamine-induced outward current (Iout) of v-LCDN was inhibited competitively by (+/-)-sulpiride and noncompetitively by (+)-UH232. (+/-)-SKF83566 had no effect on this current. 4. Therefore, we consider that the pharmacological features of the dopamine receptors of Achatina neurones are not identical in detail to those of the mammalian dopamine receptors.

  17. Mapping the Catechol Binding Site in Dopamine D1 Receptors: Synthesis and Evaluation of Two Parallel Series of Bicyclic Dopamine Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Lisa A.; Laban, Uros; Chemel, Benjamin R.; Juncosa, Jose I.; Lill, Markus A.; Watts, Val J.; Nichols, David E.

    2012-01-01

    A novel class of isochroman dopamine analogues, 1, originally reported by Abbott Laboratories, had greater than 100-fold selectivity for D1-like vs. D2-like receptors. We synthesized a parallel series of chroman compounds, 2, and showed that repositioning the oxygen in the heterocyclic ring reduced potency and conferred D2-like receptor selectivity to these compounds. In silico modeling supported the hypothesis that the altered pharmacology for 2 was due to potential intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the oxygen in the chroman ring and the meta-hydroxyl of the catechol moiety. This interaction realigns the catechol hydroxyl groups and disrupts key interactions between these ligands and critical serine residues in TM5 of the D1-like receptors. This hypothesis was tested by the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a parallel series of carbocyclic compounds, 3. Our results suggest that when the potential for intramolecular hydrogen bonding is removed, D1-like receptor potency and selectivity is restored. PMID:21538900

  18. Reduction of Cocaine Self-Administration and D3 Receptor-Mediated Behavior by Two Novel Dopamine D3 Receptor-Selective Partial Agonists, OS-3-106 and WW-III-55

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Timothy H. C.; Loriaux, Amy L.; Weber, Suzanne M.; Chandler, Kayla N.; Lenz, Jeffrey D.; Schaan, Romina F.; Mach, Robert H.; Luedtke, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine D3 receptor (D3R)-selective compounds may be useful medications for cocaine dependence. In this study, we identified two novel arylamide phenylpiperazines, OS-3-106 and WW-III-55, as partial agonists at the D3R in the adenylyl cyclase inhibition assay. OS-3-106 and WW-III-55 have 115- and 862-fold D3R:D2 receptor (D2R) binding selectivity, respectively. We investigated their effects (0, 3, 5.6, or 10 mg/kg) on operant responding by using a multiple variable-interval (VI) 60-second schedule that alternated components with sucrose reinforcement and components with intravenous cocaine reinforcement (0.375 mg/kg). Additionally, we evaluated the effect of OS-3-106 (10 mg/kg) on the dose-response function of cocaine self-administration and the effect of WW-III-55 (0–5.6 mg/kg) on a progressive ratio schedule with either cocaine or sucrose reinforcement. Both compounds were also examined for effects on locomotion and yawning induced by a D3R agonist. OS-3-106 decreased cocaine and sucrose reinforcement rates, increased latency to first response for cocaine but not sucrose, and downshifted the cocaine self-administration dose-response function. WW-III-55 did not affect cocaine self-administration on the multiple-variable interval schedule, but it reduced cocaine and sucrose intake on the progressive ratio schedule. Both compounds reduced locomotion at doses that reduced responding, and both compounds attenuated yawning induced by low doses of 7-OH-DPAT (a D3R-mediated behavior), but neither affected yawning on the descending limb of the 7-OH-DPAT dose-response function (a D2R-mediated behavior). Therefore, both compounds blocked a D3R-mediated behavior. However, OS-3-106 was more effective in reducing cocaine self-administration. These findings support D3Rs, and possibly D2Rs, as targets for medications aimed at reducing the motivation to seek cocaine. PMID:24018640

  19. Pharmacological characterization and autoradiographic localization of dopamine receptors in the rat adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Barili, P; Zaccheo, D; Amenta, F

    1996-08-29

    The pharmacological profile and the anatomical localization of dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptors were studied in sections of rat adrenal medulla, with radioligand binding and autoradiographic techniques, respectively. [3H]([R]-(+)-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5-phenyl-1 H-3benzazepin-al hemimaleate) (SCH 23390) was used as a ligand for dopamine D1-like receptors and [3H]spiperone was used as a ligand for dopamine D2-like receptors. Radioligand binding and light microscope autoradiography did not show specific [3H]SCH 23390 binding in sections of rat adrenal medulla. This suggests that rat adrenal medulla does not express dopamine D1-like receptors. [3H]Spiperone was specifically bound to sections of rat adrenal medulla. The binding was time-, temperature- and concentration-dependent, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.05 nM and a maximum density of binding sites (Bmax) of 100.2 +/- 3.8 fmol/mg tissue. The pharmacological profile of [3H]spiperone binding to rat adrenal medulla was similar to that displayed by neostriatum, which is known to express dopamine D2 receptors. Light microscope autoradiography showed the accumulation of specifically bound [3H]spiperone as silver grains within sections of adrenal medulla. Silver grains were found primarily over the cellular membrane of chromaffin cells. The above data indicate that chromaffin cells of the rat adrenal medulla express dopamine receptors belonging to the dopamine D2 receptor subtype. These receptors are probably involved in the modulation of catecholamine release from chromaffin cells, as documented by functional studies.

  20. Dopamine-dependent corticostriatal synaptic filtering regulates sensorimotor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Minerva Y.; Borgkvist, Anders; Choi, Se Joon; Mosharov, Eugene V.; Bamford, Nigel S.; Sulzer, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary Modulation of corticostriatal synaptic activity by dopamine is required for normal sensorimotor behaviors. After loss of nigrostriatal dopamine axons in Parkinson's disease, l-DOPA and dopamine D2-like receptor agonists are used as replacement therapy, although these drugs also trigger sensitized sensorimotor responses including dyskinesias and impulse control disorders. In mice, we lesioned dopamine projections to left dorsal striatum and assayed unilateral sensorimotor deficits with the corridor test as well as presynaptic corticostriatal activity with the synaptic vesicle probe, FM1-43. Sham-lesioned mice acquired food equivalently on both sides, while D2 receptor activation filtered the less active corticostriatal terminals, a response that required coincident co-activation of mGlu-R5 metabotropic glutamate and CB1 endocannabinoid receptors. Lesioned mice did not acquire food from their right, but overused that side following treatment with l-DOPA. Synaptic filtering on the lesioned side was abolished by either l-DOPA or a D2 receptor agonist, but when combined with a CB1 receptor antagonist, l-DOPA or D2 agonists normalized both synaptic filtering and behavior. Thus, high-pass filtering of corticostriatal synapses by the coordinated activation of D2, mGlu-R5, and CB1 receptors is required for normal sensorimotor response to environmental cues. PMID:25637802

  1. Pramipexole enhances disadvantageous decision-making: Lack of relation to changes in phasic dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Pes, Romina; Godar, Sean C; Fox, Andrew T; Burgeno, Lauren M; Strathman, Hunter J; Jarmolowicz, David P; Devoto, Paola; Levant, Beth; Phillips, Paul E; Fowler, Stephen C; Bortolato, Marco

    2017-03-01

    Pramipexole (PPX) is a high-affinity D2-like dopamine receptor agonist, used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless leg syndrome. Recent evidence indicates that PPX increases the risk of problem gambling and impulse-control disorders in vulnerable patients. Although the molecular bases of these complications remain unclear, several authors have theorized that PPX may increase risk propensity by activating presynaptic dopamine receptors in the mesolimbic system, resulting in the reduction of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). To test this possibility, we subjected rats to a probability-discounting task specifically designed to capture the response to disadvantageous options. PPX enhanced disadvantageous decision-making at a dose (0.3 mg/kg/day, SC) that reduced phasic dopamine release in the NAcc. To test whether these modifications in dopamine efflux were responsible for the observed neuroeconomic deficits, PPX was administered in combination with the monoamine-depleting agent reserpine (RES), at a low dose (1 mg/kg/day, SC) that did not affect baseline locomotor and operant responses. Contrary to our predictions, RES surprisingly exacerbated the effects of PPX on disadvantageous decision-making, even though it failed to augment PPX-induced decreases in phasic dopamine release. These results collectively suggest that PPX impairs the discounting of probabilistic losses and that the enhancement in risk-taking behaviors secondary to this drug may be dissociated from dynamic changes in mesolimbic dopamine release.

  2. Increased Dopamine Receptor Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Ameliorates Anxiety during Drug Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Anna K; Gewirtz, Jonathan C

    2012-01-01

    A number of lines of evidence suggest that negative emotional symptoms of withdrawal involve reduced activity in the mesolimbic dopamine system. This study examined the contribution of dopaminergic signaling in structures downstream of the ventral tegmental area to withdrawal from acute morphine exposure, measured as potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex. Systemic administration of the general dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine or a cocktail of the D1-like receptor agonist SKF82958 and the D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole attenuated potentiated startle during morphine withdrawal. This effect was replicated by apomorphine infusion into the nucleus accumbens shell. Finally, apomorphine injection was shown to relieve startle potentiation during nicotine withdrawal and conditioned place aversion to morphine withdrawal. These results suggest that transient activation of the ventral tegmental area mesolimbic dopamine system triggers the expression of anxiety and aversion during withdrawal from multiple classes of abused drugs. PMID:22692565

  3. Expression of dopamine receptors and transporter in neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, K; Ahnert-Hilger, G; Höpfner, M; Hoegerle, S; Faiss, S; Grabowski, P; Jockers-Scherübl, M; Riecken, E O; Zeitz, M; Scherübl, H

    2002-06-28

    C-11- or F-18-DOPA positron emission tomography (DOPA PET) is a new sensitive imaging technique for small neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumors which evaluates the decarboxylase activity. To further characterize the dopaminergic system in neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumor cells, we investigated the expression of both dopamine receptors and the transmembrane dopamine transporter (DAT) in the human neuroendocrine pancreatic cell line BON and in the neuroendocrine gut cell line STC-1. Both BON and STC-1 cells expressed mRNA of the dopamine receptors D2-D5 and DAT. mRNA of the dopamine receptor D1 was detected in BON cells only. Both in BON and STC-1 cells, expression of D2 and D5 receptors and DAT was also demonstrated immunocytochemically. For functional receptor characterization intracellular cAMP levels ([cAMP]i) were determined. Whereas in STC-1 cells dopamine and the D1-like (D1/D5) receptor agonist SKF 38393 increased [cAMP]i, [cAMP]i was decreased by dopamine or the D2-like (D2-D4) receptor agonist quinpirole in BON cells. Functional DAT activity was, however, not detected in either cell line. The presence of both dopamine receptors and of the DAT suggests an autocrine and/or paracrine function of dopamine in neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumor cells. Yet neither the transmembrane dopamine transporter nor dopamine receptors are likely to contribute to positive DOPA PET imaging of neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumors. However, these molecules may be of diagnostic importance when applying other dopaminergic system tracers.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Selective Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonists. 2. Azaindole, Benzofuran, and Benzothiophene Analogs of L-741,626

    PubMed Central

    Vangveravong, Suwanna; Taylor, Michelle; Xu, Jinbin; Cui, Jinquan; Calvin, Wesley; Babic, Sonja; Luedtke, Robert R.; Mach, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    A series of indole, 7-azaindole, benzofuran, and benzothiophene compounds have been prepared and evaluated for affinity at D2-like dopamine receptors. These compounds share structural elements with the classical D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists haloperidol, N-methylspiperone and benperidol. Two new compounds, 4-(4-iodophenyl)-1-((4-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)piperidin-4-ol (6) and 4-(4-iodophenyl)-1-((5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)piperidin-4-ol (7), were found to have high affinity to and selectivity for D2 versus D3 receptors. Changing the aromatic ring system from an indole to other heteroaromatic ring systems reduced the D2 binding affinity and the D2 versus D3 selectivity. PMID:20542439

  5. Dopamine signaling tunes spatial pattern selectivity in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bicheng; Dong, Yongming; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Yan; Rabinowitch, Ithai; Bai, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Animals with complex brains can discriminate the spatial arrangement of physical features in the environment. It is unknown whether such sensitivity to spatial patterns can be accomplished in simpler nervous systems that lack long-range sensory modalities such as vision and hearing. Here we show that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can discriminate spatial patterns in its surroundings, despite having a nervous system of only 302 neurons. This spatial pattern selectivity requires touch-dependent dopamine signaling, including the mechanosensory TRP-4 channel in dopaminergic neurons and the D2-like dopamine receptor DOP-3. We find that spatial pattern selectivity varies significantly among C. elegans wild isolates. Electrophysiological recordings show that natural variations in TRP-4 reduce the mechanosensitivity of dopaminergic neurons. Polymorphic substitutions in either TRP-4 or DOP-3 alter the selectivity of spatial patterns. Together, these results demonstrate an ancestral role for dopamine signaling in tuning spatial pattern preferences in a simple nervous system. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22896.001 PMID:28349862

  6. Cue-Evoked Dopamine Release Rapidly Modulates D2 Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens During Motivated Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Owesson-White, Catarina; Belle, Anna M.; Herr, Natalie R.; Peele, Jessica L.; Gowrishankar, Preethi; Carelli, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons that project from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) fire in response to unpredicted rewards or to cues that predict reward delivery. Although it is well established that reward-related events elicit dopamine release in the NAc, the role of rapid dopamine signaling in modulating NAc neurons that respond to these events remains unclear. Here, we examined dopamine's actions in the NAc in the rat brain during an intracranial self-stimulation task in which a cue predicted lever availability for electrical stimulation of the VTA. To distinguish actions of dopamine at select receptors on NAc neurons during the task, we used a multimodal sensor that probes three aspects of neuronal communication simultaneously: neurotransmitter release, cell firing, and identification of dopamine receptor type. Consistent with prior studies, we first show dopamine release events in the NAc both at cue presentation and after lever press (LP). Distinct populations of NAc neurons encode these behavioral events at these same locations selectively. Using our multimodal sensor, we found that dopamine-mediated responses after the cue involve exclusively a subset of D2-like receptors (D2Rs), whereas dopamine-mediated responses proximal to the LP are mediated by both D1-like receptors (D1R) and D2Rs. These results demonstrate for the first time that dopamine-mediated responses after cues that predict reward availability are specifically linked to its actions at a subset of neurons in the NAc containing D2Rs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Successful reward procurement typically involves the completion of a goal-directed behavior in response to appropriate environmental cues. Although numerous studies link the mesolimbic dopamine system with these processes, how dopamine's effects are mediated on the receptor level within a key neural substrate, the nucleus accumbens, remains elusive. Here, we used a unique multimodal sensor that reveals three aspects of

  7. Dopamine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production through the formation of dopamine quinone in murine microglia BV-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Yasuhiro; Sugino, Yuta; Tozawa, Azusa; Yamamuro, Akiko; Kasai, Atsushi; Ishimaru, Yuki; Maeda, Sadaaki

    2016-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been suggested to modulate functions of glial cells including microglial cells. To reveal the regulatory role of DA in microglial function, in the present study, we investigated the effect of DA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in murine microglial cell line BV-2. Pretreatment with DA for 24 h concentration-dependently attenuated LPS-induced NO production in BV-2 cells. The inhibitory effect of DA on LPS-induced NO production was not inhibited by SCH-23390 and sulpiride, D1-like and D2-like DA receptor antagonists, respectively. In addition, pretreatment with (-)-(6aR,12bR)-4,6,6a,7,8,12b-Hexahydro-7-methylindolo[4,3-a]phenanthridin (CY 208-243) and bromocriptine, D1-like and D2-like DA receptor agonists, respectively, did not affect the LPS-induced NO production. N-Acetylcysteine, which inhibits DA oxidation, completely inhibited the effect of DA. Tyrosinase, which catalyzes the oxidation of DA to DA quionone (DAQ), accelerated the inhibitory effect of DA on LPS-induced NO production. These results suggest that DA attenuates LPS-induced NO production through the formation of DAQ in BV-2 cells.

  8. Sensitized nucleus accumbens dopamine terminal responses to methylphenidate and dopamine transporter releasers after intermittent-access self-administration.

    PubMed

    Calipari, Erin S; Jones, Sara R

    2014-07-01

    Long-access methylphenidate (MPH) self-administration has been shown to produce enhanced amphetamine potency at the dopamine transporter and concomitant changes in reinforcing efficacy, suggesting that MPH abuse may change the dopamine system in a way that promotes future drug abuse. While long-access self-administration paradigms have translational validity for cocaine, it may not be as relevant a model of MPH abuse, as it has been suggested that people often take MPH intermittently. Although previous work outlined the neurochemical and behavioral consequences of long-access MPH self-administration, it was not clear whether intermittent access (6 h session; 5 min access/30 min) would result in similar changes. For cocaine, long-access self-administration resulted in tolerance to cocaine's effects on dopamine and behavior while intermittent-access resulted in sensitization. Here we assessed the neurochemical consequences of intermittent-access MPH self-administration on dopamine terminal function. We found increased maximal rates of uptake, increased stimulated release, and subsensitive D2-like autoreceptors. Consistent with previous work using extended-access MPH paradigms, the potencies of amphetamine and MPH, but not cocaine, were increased, demonstrating that unlike cocaine, MPH effects were not altered by the pattern of intake. Although the potency results suggest that MPH may share properties with releasers, dopamine release was increased following acute application of MPH, similar to cocaine, and in contrast to the release decreasing effects of amphetamine. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MPH exhibits properties of both blockers and releasers, and that the compensatory changes produced by MPH self-administration may increase the abuse liability of amphetamines, independent of the pattern of administration.

  9. Dopamine effects on identified rat vagal motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhongling; Travagli, R. Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Catecholaminergic neurons of the A2 area play a prominent role in brain stem vagal circuits. It is not clear, however, whether these neurons are noradrenergic or adrenergic, i.e., display tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) immunoreactivity (-IR) or dopaminergic (i.e., TH- but not DβH-IR). Our aims were to investigate whether a subpopulation of neurons in the A2 area was dopaminergic and, if so, to investigate the effects of dopamine (DA) on the membrane of gastric-projecting vagal motoneurons. We observed that although the majority of A2 neurons were both TH- and DβH-IR, a small percentage of nucleus tractus solitarius neurons were TH-IR only, suggesting that DA itself may play role in these circuits. Whole cell recordings from thin brain stem slices showed that 71% of identified gastric-projecting motoneurons responded to DA (1–300 µM) with either an excitation (28%) or an inhibition (43%) of the membrane; the remaining 29% of the neurons were unresponsive. The DA-induced depolarization was mimicked by SK 38393 and prevented by pretreatment with SCH 23390. Conversely, the DA-induced inhibition was mimicked by bromoergocryptine and prevented by pretreatment with L741626. When tested on the same neuron, the effects of DA and NE were not always similar. In fact, in neurons in which DA induced a membrane depolarization, 77% were inhibited by NE, whereas 75% of neurons unresponsive to DA were inhibited by NE. Our data suggest that DA modulates the membrane properties of gastric-projecting motoneurons via D1- and D2-like receptors, and DA may play different roles than norepinephrine in brain stem vagal circuits. PMID:17170022

  10. Dopamine D2 receptors mediate the increase in reinstatement of the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine induced by acute social defeat.

    PubMed

    Reguilón, Marina Daiana; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Ferrer-Pérez, Carmen; Roger-Sánchez, Concepción; Aguilar, María Asunción; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2017-03-15

    Social stress modifies the activity of brain areas involved in the rewarding effects of psychostimulants, inducing neuroadaptations in the dopaminergic mesolimbic system and modifying the sensitivity of dopamine receptors. In the present study we evaluated the effect of the dopamine D1- and D2-like receptor antagonists (SCH23390 and raclopride, respectively) on the short-time effects of acute social defeat (ASD). Male OF1 mice were socially defeated before each conditioning session of the conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by 1mg/kg or 25mg/kg of cocaine plus the corresponding dopamine antagonist. A final experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of the dopamine antagonists on the CPP induced by 3mg/kg of cocaine with or without a stress experience. Mice exposed to ASD showed an increase in reinstatement of the conditioned reinforcing effects of cocaine that was blocked by all of the dopamine receptor antagonists. Blockade of dopamine D2-like receptors with raclopride specifically prevented the effects of stress without affecting the rewarding properties of cocaine. However, SCH23390 inhibited cocaine-induced preference in the control groups and even induced aversion in defeated mice conditioned with the lower dose of cocaine. Moreover, the lowest dose of SCH23390 blocked the rewarding effects of 3mg/kg of cocaine-induced CPP. Our results confirm that the dopamine D2 receptor is involved in the short-term effects of ASD on the rewarding effects of cocaine. The dopamine D1 receptor is clearly involved in the rewarding effects of cocaine, but its role in the effects of ASD remains to be demonstrated.

  11. Dopamine-sensitive signaling mediators modulate psychostimulant-induced ultrasonic vocalization behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stacey N; Undieh, Ashiwel S

    2016-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine system plays a major role in psychostimulant-induced ultrasonic vocalization (USV) behavior in rodents. Within this system, psychostimulants elevate synaptic concentrations of dopamine thereby leading to exaggerated activation of postsynaptic dopamine receptors within the D1-like and D2-like subfamilies. Dopamine receptor stimulation activate several transmembrane signaling systems and cognate intracellular mediators; downstream activation of transcription factors then conveys the information from receptor activation to appropriate modulation of cellular and physiologic functions. We previously showed that cocaine-induced USV behavior was associated with enhanced expression of the neurotrophin BDNF. Like cocaine, amphetamine also increases synaptic dopamine levels, albeit primarily through facilitating dopamine release. Therefore, in the present study we investigated whether amphetamine and cocaine similarly activate dopamine-linked signaling cascades to regulate intracellular mediators leading to induction of USV behavior. The results show that amphetamine increased the emission of 50 kHz USVs and this effect was blocked by SCH23390, a D1 receptor antagonist. Similar to cocaine, amphetamine increased BDNF protein expression in discrete brain regions, while pretreatment with K252a, a trkB neurotrophin receptor inhibitor, significantly reduced amphetamine-induced USV behavior. Inhibition of cyclic-AMP/PKA signaling with H89 or inhibition of PLC signaling with U73122 significantly blocked both the acute and subchronic amphetamine-induced USV behavior. In contrast, pharmacologic inhibition of either pathway enhanced cocaine-induced USV behavior. Although cocaine and amphetamine similarly modulate neurotrophin expression and USV, the molecular mechanisms by which these psychostimulants differentially activate dopamine receptor subtypes or other monoaminergic systems may be responsible for the distinct aspects of behavioral responses.

  12. Evidence that antipsychotic drugs are inverse agonists at D2 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hall, D A; Strange, P G

    1997-06-01

    1. The effects of a number of D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists have been determined on forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the human D2short dopamine receptor (CHO-D2S cells). 2. Dopamine inhibited the effect of forskolin (as expected for a D2 receptor). However, all of the antagonists tested, apart from UH232 and (-)-butaclamol, were able to increase cyclic AMP accumulation above the forskolin control level. (+)-Butaclamol elicited a similar stimulation of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in a CHO cell line expressing human D2long dopamine receptors whereas it exhibited no stimulating effect on forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in untransfected CHO-K1 cells. 3. There was a strong correlation between the EC50 values of these compounds for potentiation of cyclic AMP accumulation and their Ki values from radioligand binding experiments in CHO-D2S cells. 4. The effects of both (+)-butaclamol and dopamine in CHO-D2S cells were inhibited by pre-treatment with pertussis toxin indicating a role for Gi/Go proteins. 5. UH232 did not significantly affect forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation but this substance was able to inhibit the effects of both dopamine and (+)-butaclamol in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus the effects of (+)-butaclamol on forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation are mediated directly via the D2 receptor rather than by reversal of the effects of an endogenous agonist. 6. These data suggest that the D2 dopamine receptor antagonists tested here, many of which are used clinically as antipsychotic drugs, are in fact inverse agonists at human D2 dopamine receptors.

  13. Atypical effect of dopamine in modulating the functional inhibition of NMDA receptors of cultured retina cells.

    PubMed

    Do Nascimento, J L; Kubrusly, R C; Reis, R A; De Mello, M C; De Mello, F G

    1998-02-05

    Cultured retina cells released accumulated [3H]GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) when stimulated by L-glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and kainate. In the absence of Mg2+, dopamine at 200 microM (IC50 60 microM), inhibited in more than 50% the release of [3H]GABA induced by L-glutamate and NMDA, but not by kainate. This effect was not blocked by the D1-like dopamine receptor antagonist, R-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl- -phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro- H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SCH 23390), neither by haloperidol nor spiroperidol (dopamine D2-like receptor antagonists). The dopamine D1-like receptor agonist R(+)-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(1H)-3-benzazepine-7,diol hydrochloride (SKF 38393) at 50 microM, but not its enantiomer, also inhibited the release of [3H]GABA induced by NMDA, but not by kainate; an effect that was not prevented by the antagonists mentioned above. (+/-)-6-Chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepin e hydrobromide (SKF 812497) had no effect. Neither 8BrcAMP (5 mM) nor forskolin (10 microM) inhibited the release of [3H]GABA. Our results suggest that dopamine and (+)-SKF 38393 inhibit the glutamate and NMDA-evoked [3H]GABA release through mechanisms that seem not to involve known dopaminergic receptor systems.

  14. Role of the basolateral amygdala dopamine receptors in arachidonylcyclopropylamide-induced fear learning deficits.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Hajian, Maryam; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence suggesting that the mesoamygdala dopaminergic (DAergic) system plays a crucial role in the formation and expression of fear conditioning, with both D1 and D2 receptors being involved. In addition, cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) signaling modulates DAergic pathways. The present study sought to determine the involvement of basolateral amygdala (BLA) dopamine receptors in arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA)-induced fear learning deficits. Context- and tone-dependent fear conditioning in adult male NMRI mice was evaluated. Pre-training intraperitoneal administration of ACPA (0.1 mg/kg) decreased the percentage of freezing in context- or tone-dependent fear conditioning, suggesting an acquisition impairment. Pre-training intra-BLA microinjection of a subthreshold dose of SKF38393 (D1-like receptor agonist), SCH23390 (D1-like receptor antagonist), quinpirole (D2-like receptor agonist), or sulpiride (D2-like receptor antagonist) did not alter the context-dependent fear learning deficit induced by ACPA, while SKF38393 or quinpirole restored ACPA effect on tone-dependent fear learning. Moreover, SKF38393 (1 μg/mouse), SCH23390 (0.04 and 0.08 μg/mouse), or quinpirole (0.1 μg/mouse) all impaired context-dependent fear learning. It is concluded that D1 or D2 dopamine (DA) receptor activation restores tone- but not context-dependent fear learning deficit induced by CB1 activation using ACPA.

  15. Combined Scopolamine and Ethanol Treatment Results in a Locomotor Stimulant Response Suggestive of Synergism That is Not Blocked by Dopamine Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Scibelli, Angela C.; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are well positioned to mediate ethanol’s stimulant effects. To investigate this possibility, we examined the effects of scopolamine, a receptor subtype nonselective mAChR antagonist, on ethanol-induced stimulation in genotypes highly sensitive to this effect of ethanol. We also investigated whether the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, SCH-23390 or the dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, haloperidol, could block the extreme stimulant response found following co-administration of scopolamine and ethanol. Methods Scopolamine (0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, or 0.5 mg/kg) was given 10 minutes prior to saline or ethanol (0.75 to 2 g/kg) to female FAST (Experiment I) or DBA/2J (Experiment II) mice that were then tested for locomotion for 30 minutes. In Experiments III and IV, respectively, SCH-23390 (0, 0.015, or 0.03 mg/kg) was given 10 minutes prior, and haloperidol (0, 0.08, or 0.16 mg/kg) was given 2 minutes prior, to scopolamine (0 or 0.5 mg/kg), followed 10 minutes later by saline or ethanol (1.5 g/kg) and female DBA/2J mice were tested for locomotion for 30 minutes. Results FAST and DBA/2J mice displayed a robust enhancement of the locomotor effects of ethanol following pretreatment with scopolamine that was suggestive of synergism. SCH-23390 had no effect on the response to the scopolamine + ethanol drug combination, nor did it attenuate ethanol- or scopolamine-induced locomotor activity. Haloperidol, while attenuating the effects of ethanol, was not able to block the effects of scopolamine or the robust response to the scopolamine-ethanol drug combination. Conclusions These results suggest that while muscarinic receptor antagonism robustly enhances acute locomotor stimulation to ethanol, dopamine receptors are not involved in the super-additive interaction of scopolamine and ethanol treatment. They also suggest that in addition to cautions regarding the use of alcohol when scopolamine is clinically

  16. Effect of the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 on the microstructure of ingestive behaviour in water-deprived rats licking for water and NaCl solutions.

    PubMed

    Galistu, Adriana; D'Aquila, Paolo S

    2012-01-18

    The analysis of licking microstructure provides measures, size and number of licking bouts, which might reveal, respectively, reward evaluation and behavioural activation. Based on the different effects of the dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptor antagonists SCH 23390 and raclopride on licking for sucrose, in particular the failure of the former to reduce bout size and the ability of the latter to induce a within-session decrement of bout number resembling either reward devaluation or neuroleptics on instrumental responding, we suggested that activation of reward-associated responses depends on dopamine D1-like receptor stimulation, and its level is updated on the basis of a dopamine D2-like receptor-mediated reward evaluation. Consistent results were obtained in a study examining the effect of dopamine D2-like receptor antagonism in rats licking for NaCl solutions and water. In this study, we examined the effects of the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (0, 10, 20 and 40 μg/kg) on the microstructure of licking for water and sodium chloride solutions (0.075 M, 0.15 M, 0.3 M) in 12 h water deprived rats. Rats were exposed to each solution for 60 s either after the first lick or after 3 min that the animals were placed in the chambers. Bout size, but not bout number, was decreased at the highest NaCl concentration. SCH 23390 produced a decrease of bout number and of lick number mainly due to the decreased number of subjects engaging in licking behaviour, and failed to reduce bout size for Na Cl and water at a dose which increased the latency to the 1st lick but did not affect the intra-bout lick rate. In agreement with previous observations, these results suggest that dopamine D1-like receptors play an important role in the activation of reward-oriented responses.

  17. Dopamine and T cells: dopamine receptors and potent effects on T cells, dopamine production in T cells, and abnormalities in the dopaminergic system in T cells in autoimmune, neurological and psychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Levite, M

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine, a principal neurotransmitter, deserves upgrading to 'NeuroImmunotransmitter' thanks to its multiple, direct and powerful effects on most/all immune cells. Dopamine by itself is a potent activator of resting effector T cells (Teffs), via two independent ways: direct Teffs activation, and indirect Teffs activation by suppression of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The review covers the following findings: (i) T cells express functional dopamine receptors (DRs) D1R-D5R, but their level and function are dynamic and context-sensitive, (ii) DR membranal protein levels do not necessarily correlate with DR mRNA levels, (iii) different T cell types/subtypes have different DR levels and composition and different responses to dopamine, (iv) autoimmune and pro-inflammatory T cells and T cell leukaemia/lymphoma also express functional DRs, (v) dopamine (~10(-8) M) activates resting/naive Teffs (CD8(+) >CD4(+) ), (vi) dopamine affects Th1/Th2/Th17 differentiation, (vii) dopamine inhibits already activated Teffs (i.e. T cells that have been already activated by either antigen, mitogen, anti-CD3 antibodies cytokines or other molecules), (viii) dopamine inhibits activated Tregs in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Thus, dopamine 'suppresses the suppressors' and releases the inhibition they exert on Teffs, (ix) dopamine affects intracellular signalling molecules and cascades in T cells (e.g. ERK, Lck, Fyn, NF-κB, KLF2), (x) T cells produce dopamine (Tregs>Teffs), can release dopamine, mainly after activation (by antigen, mitogen, anti-CD3 antibodies, PKC activators or other), uptake extracellular dopamine, and most probably need dopamine, (xi) dopamine is important for antigen-specific interactions between T cells and dendritic cells, (xii) in few autoimmune diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis/SLE/rheumatoid arthritis), and neurological/psychiatric diseases (e.g. Parkinson disease, Alzheimer's disease, Schizophrenia and Tourette), patient's T cells seem to have abnormal DRs

  18. Current drug treatments targeting dopamine D3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Gian Marco; Bucolo, Claudio; Platania, Chiara Bianca Maria; Salomone, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo

    2016-09-01

    Dopamine receptors (DR) have been extensively studied, but only in recent years they became object of investigation to elucidate the specific role of different subtypes (D1R, D2R, D3R, D4R, D5R) in neural transmission and circuitry. D1-like receptors (D1R and D5R) and D2-like receptors (D2R, D2R and D4R) differ in signal transduction, binding profile, localization in the central nervous system and physiological effects. D3R is involved in a number of pathological conditions, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, addiction, anxiety, depression and glaucoma. Development of selective D3R ligands has been so far challenging, due to the high sequence identity and homology shared by D2R and D3R. As a consequence, despite a rational design of selective DR ligands has been carried out, none of currently available medicines selectively target a given D2-like receptor subtype. The availability of the D3R ligand [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO for positron emission tomography studies in animal models as well as in humans, allows researchers to estimate the expression of D3R in vivo; displacement of [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO binding by concurrent drug treatments is used to estimate the in vivo occupancy of D3R. Here we provide an overview of studies indicating D3R as a target for pharmacological therapy, and a review of market approved drugs endowed with significant affinity at D3R that are used to treat disorders where D3R plays a relevant role.

  19. A receptor-based model for dopamine-induced fMRI signal.

    PubMed

    Mandeville, Joseph B; Sander, Christin Y M; Jenkins, Bruce G; Hooker, Jacob M; Catana, Ciprian; Vanduffel, Wim; Alpert, Nathaniel M; Rosen, Bruce R; Normandin, Marc D

    2013-07-15

    This report describes a multi-receptor physiological model of the fMRI temporal response and signal magnitude evoked by drugs that elevate synaptic dopamine in basal ganglia. The model is formulated as a summation of dopamine's effects at D1-like and D2-like receptor families, which produce functional excitation and inhibition, respectively, as measured by molecular indicators like adenylate cyclase or neuroimaging techniques like fMRI. Functional effects within the model are described in terms of relative changes in receptor occupancies scaled by receptor densities and neuro-vascular coupling constants. Using literature parameters, the model reconciles many discrepant observations and interpretations of pre-clinical data. Additionally, we present data showing that amphetamine stimulation produces fMRI inhibition at low doses and a biphasic response at higher doses in the basal ganglia of non-human primates (NHP), in agreement with model predictions based upon the respective levels of evoked dopamine. Because information about dopamine release is required to inform the fMRI model, we simultaneously acquired PET (11)C-raclopride data in several studies to evaluate the relationship between raclopride displacement and assumptions about dopamine release. At high levels of dopamine release, results suggest that refinements of the model will be required to consistently describe the PET and fMRI data. Overall, the remarkable success of the model in describing a wide range of preclinical fMRI data indicate that this approach will be useful for guiding the design and analysis of basic science and clinical investigations and for interpreting the functional consequences of dopaminergic stimulation in normal subjects and in populations with dopaminergic neuroadaptations.

  20. Disruption of hippocampal-prefrontal cortex activity by dopamine D2R-dependent LTD of NMDAR transmission.

    PubMed

    Banks, Paul James; Burroughs, Amelia Caroline; Barker, Gareth Robert Isaac; Brown, Jon Thomas; Warburton, Elizabeth Clea; Bashir, Zafar Iqbal

    2015-09-01

    Functional connectivity between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) is essential for associative recognition memory and working memory. Disruption of hippocampal-PFC synchrony occurs in schizophrenia, which is characterized by hypofunction of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission. We demonstrate that activity of dopamine D2-like receptors (D2Rs) leads selectively to long-term depression (LTD) of hippocampal-PFC NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission. We show that dopamine-dependent LTD of NMDAR-mediated transmission profoundly disrupts normal synaptic transmission between hippocampus and PFC. These results show how dopaminergic activation induces long-term hypofunction of NMDARs, which can contribute to disordered functional connectivity, a characteristic that is a hallmark of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.

  1. The effects of rearing environment and chronic methylphenidate administration on behavior and dopamine receptors in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Gill, Kathryn E; Beveridge, Thomas J R; Smith, Hilary R; Porrino, Linda J

    2013-08-21

    Rearing young rodents in socially isolated or environmentally enriched conditions has been shown to affect numerous components of the dopamine system as well as behavior. Methylphenidate (MPH), a commonly used dopaminergic agent, may affect animals differently based on rearing environment. Here we examined the interaction between environment and chronic MPH treatment at clinically relevant doses, administered via osmotic minipump. Young Sprague Dawley rats (PND 21) were assigned to environmentally enriched, pair-housed, or socially isolated rearing conditions, and treated with either 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg/day MPH for 3 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, animals were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. The densities of D1-like and D2-like receptors were measured in the striatum using in vitro receptor autoradiography. Locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were increased in isolated animals compared to pair-housed and enriched animals. The density of D1-like receptors was greater in isolated animals, but there were no differences between groups in D2-like receptor density. Finally, there were no effects of MPH administration on any reported measure. This study provides evidence for an effect of early rearing environment on the dopamine system and behavior, and also suggests that MPH administration may not have long-term consequences.

  2. The effects of rearing environment and chronic methylphenidate administration on behavior and dopamine receptors in adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Kathryn E.; Beveridge, Thomas J.R.; Smith, Hilary R.; Porrino, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Rearing young rodents in socially isolated or environmentally enriched conditions has been shown to affect numerous components of the dopamine system as well as behavior. Methylphenidate (MPH), a commonly used dopaminergic agent, may affect animals differently based on rearing environment. Here we examined the interaction between environment and chronic MPH treatment at clinically relevant doses, administered via osmotic minipump. Young Sprague Dawley rats (PND 21) were assigned to environmentally enriched, pair-housed, or socially isolated rearing conditions, and treated with either 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg/day MPH for three weeks. At the end of the treatment period, animals were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. The densities of D1-like and D2-like receptors were measured in the striatum using in vitro receptor autoradiography. Locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were increased in isolated animals compared to pair-housed and enriched animals. The density of D1-like receptors was greater in isolated animals, but there were no differences between groups in D2-like receptor density. Finally, there were no effects of MPH administration on any reported measure. This study provides evidence for an effect of early rearing environment on the dopamine system and behavior, and also suggests that MPH administration may not have long-term consequences. PMID:23806775

  3. Dopamine and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Södersten, P; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Zandian, M

    2016-01-01

    We have suggested that reduced food intake increases the risk for anorexia nervosa by engaging mesolimbic dopamine neurons, thereby initially rewarding dieting. Recent fMRI studies have confirmed that dopamine neurons are activated in anorexia nervosa, but it is not clear whether this response is due to the disorder or to its resulting nutritional deficit. When the body senses the shortage of nutrients, it rapidly shifts behavior toward foraging for food as a normal physiological response and the mesolimbic dopamine neurons may be involved in that process. On the other hand, the altered dopamine status of anorexics has been suggested to result from a brain abnormality that underlies their complex emotional disorder. We suggest that the outcomes of the treatments that emerge from that perspective remain poor because they target the mental symptoms that are actually the consequences of the food deprivation that accompanies anorexia. On the other hand, a method that normalizes the disordered eating behavior of anorexics results in much better physiological, behavioral, and emotional outcomes.

  4. Dopamine D₂-Like Receptors and Behavioral Economics of Food Reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Soto, Paul L; Hiranita, Takato; Xu, Ming; Hursh, Steven R; Grandy, David K; Katz, Jonathan L

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggest dopamine (DA) D2-like receptor involvement in the reinforcing effects of food. To determine contributions of the three D2-like receptor subtypes, knockout (KO) mice completely lacking DA D2, D3, or D4 receptors (D2R, D3R, or D4R KO mice) and their wild-type (WT) littermates were exposed to a series of fixed-ratio (FR) food-reinforcement schedules in two contexts: an open economy with additional food provided outside the experimental setting and a closed economy with all food earned within the experimental setting. A behavioral economic model was used to quantify reinforcer effectiveness with food pellets obtained as a function of price (FR schedule value) plotted to assess elasticity of demand. Under both economies, as price increased, food pellets obtained decreased more rapidly (ie, food demand was more elastic) in DA D2R KO mice compared with WT littermates. Extinction of responding was studied in two contexts: by eliminating food deliveries and by delivering food independently of responding. A hyperbolic model quantified rates of extinction. Extinction in DA D2R KO mice occurred less rapidly compared with WT mice in both contexts. Elasticity of food demand was higher in DA D4R KO than WT mice in the open, but not closed, economy. Extinction of responding in DA D4R KO mice was not different from that in WT littermates in either context. No differences in elasticity of food demand or extinction rate were obtained in D3R KO mice and WT littermates. These results indicate that the D2R is the primary DA D2-like receptor subtype mediating the reinforcing effectiveness of food.

  5. Conversion of the modulatory actions of dopamine on spinal reflexes from depression to facilitation in D3 receptor knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Stefan; Hochman, Shawn

    2004-12-15

    Descending monoaminergic systems modulate spinal cord function, yet spinal dopaminergic actions are poorly understood. Using the in vitro lumbar cord, we studied the effects of dopamine and D2-like receptor ligands on spinal reflexes in wild-type (WT) and D3-receptor knock-out mice (D3KO). Low dopamine levels (1 microM) decreased the monosynaptic "stretch" reflex (MSR) amplitude in WT animals and increased it in D3KO animals. Higher dopamine concentrations (10-100 microM) decreased MSR amplitudes in both groups, but always more strongly in WT. Like low dopamine, the D3 receptor agonists pergolide and PD 128907 reduced MSR amplitude in WT but not D3KO mice. Conversely, D3 receptor antagonists (GR 103691 and nafadotride) increased the MSR in WT but not in D3KO mice. In comparison, D2-preferring agonists bromocriptine and quinpirole depressed the MSR in both groups. Low dopamine (1-5 microM) also depressed longer-latency (presumably polysynaptic) reflexes in WT but facilitated responses in D3KO mice. Additionally, in some experiments (e.g., during 10 microM dopamine or pergolide in WT), polysynaptic reflexes were facilitated in parallel to MSR depression, demonstrating differential modulatory control of these reflex circuits. Thus, low dopamine activates D3 receptors to limit reflex excitability. Moreover, in D3 ligand-insensitive mice, excitatory actions are unmasked, functionally converting the modulatory action of dopamine from depression to facilitation. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a CNS disorder involving abnormal limb sensations. Because RLS symptoms peak at night when dopamine levels are lowest, are relieved by D3 agonists, and likely involve increased reflex excitability, the D3KO mouse putatively explains how impaired D3 activity could contribute to this sleep disorder.

  6. Different receptors mediate the electrophysiological and growth cone responses of an identified neuron to applied dopamine.

    PubMed

    Dobson, K S; Dmetrichuk, J M; Spencer, G E

    2006-09-15

    Neurotransmitters are among the many cues that may guide developing axons toward appropriate targets in the developing nervous system. We have previously shown in the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis that dopamine, released from an identified pre-synaptic cell, differentially affects growth cone behavior of its target and non-target cells in vitro. Here, we describe a group of non-target cells that also produce an inhibitory electrophysiological response to applied dopamine. We first determined, using pharmacological blockers, which receptors mediate this physiological response. We demonstrated that the dopaminergic electrophysiological responses of non-target cells were sensitive to a D2 receptor antagonist, as are known target cell responses. However, the non-target cell receptors were linked to different G-proteins and intracellular signaling pathways than the target cell receptors. Despite the presence of a D2-like receptor at the soma, the growth cone collapse of these non-target cells was mediated by D1-like receptors. This study shows that different dopamine receptor sub-types mediated the inhibitory physiological and growth cone responses of an identified cell type. We therefore not only provide further evidence that D2- and D1-like receptors can be present on the same neuron in invertebrates, but also show that these receptors are likely involved in very different cellular functions.

  7. Functional Genetic Variation in Dopamine Signaling Moderates Prefrontal Cortical Activity During Risky Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Milky; Nurmi, Erika L; Laughlin, Christopher P; Morales, Angelica M; Gail, Emma H; Hellemann, Gerhard S; London, Edythe D

    2016-01-01

    Brain imaging has revealed links between prefrontal activity during risky decision-making and striatal dopamine receptors. Specifically, striatal dopamine D2-like receptor availability is correlated with risk-taking behavior and sensitivity of prefrontal activation to risk in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). The extent to which these associations, involving a single neurochemical measure, reflect more general effects of dopaminergic functioning on risky decision making, however, is unknown. Here, 65 healthy participants provided genotypes and performed the BART during functional magnetic resonance imaging. For each participant, dopamine function was assessed using a gene composite score combining known functional variation across five genes involved in dopaminergic signaling: DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, DAT1, and COMT. The gene composite score was negatively related to dorsolateral prefrontal cortical function during risky decision making, and nonlinearly related to earnings on the task. Iterative permutations of all possible allelic variations (7777 allelic combinations) was tested on brain function in an independently defined region of the prefrontal cortex and confirmed empirical validity of the composite score, which yielded stronger association than 95% of all other possible combinations. The gene composite score also accounted for a greater proportion of variability in neural and behavioral measures than the independent effects of each gene variant, indicating that the combined effects of functional dopamine pathway genes can provide a robust assessment, presumably reflecting the cumulative and potentially interactive effects on brain function. Our findings support the view that the links between dopaminergic signaling, prefrontal function, and decision making vary as a function of dopamine signaling capacity. PMID:26119471

  8. A receptor-based model for dopamine-induced fMRI signal

    PubMed Central

    Mandeville, Joseph. B.; Sander, Christin Y. M.; Jenkins, Bruce G.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Catana, Ciprian; Vanduffel, Wim; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Normandin, Marc D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a multi-receptor physiological model of the fMRI temporal response and signal magnitude evoked by drugs that elevate synaptic dopamine in basal ganglia. The model is formulated as a summation of dopamine’s effects at D1-like and D2-like receptor families, which produce functional excitation and inhibition, respectively, as measured by molecular indicators like adenylate cyclase or neuroimaging techniques like fMRI. Functional effects within the model are described in terms of relative changes in receptor occupancies scaled by receptor densities and neuro-vascular coupling constants. Using literature parameters, the model reconciles many discrepant observations and interpretations of pre-clinical data. Additionally, we present data showing that amphetamine stimulation produces fMRI inhibition at low doses and a biphasic response at higher doses in the basal ganglia of non-human primates (NHP), in agreement with model predictions based upon the respective levels of evoked dopamine. Because information about dopamine release is required to inform the fMRI model, we simultaneously acquired PET 11C-raclopride data in several studies to evaluate the relationship between raclopride displacement and assumptions about dopamine release. At high levels of dopamine release, results suggest that refinements of the model will be required to consistently describe the PET and fMRI data. Overall, the remarkable success of the model in describing a wide range of preclinical fMRI data indicate that this approach will be useful for guiding the design and analysis of basic science and clinical investigations and for interpreting the functional consequences of dopaminergic stimulation in normal subjects and in populations with dopaminergic neuroadaptations. PMID:23466936

  9. Nonhuman primate models of addiction and PET imaging: dopamine system dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Gould, Robert W; Porrino, Linda J; Nader, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nonhuman primate models of cocaine addiction and the use of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to study the role of individual differences in vulnerability and how environmental and pharmacological variables can impact cocaine abuse. The chapter will describe studies related to the dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter system, and focus primarily on the D2-like DA receptor, the DA transporter and the use of fluorodeoxyglucose to better understand the neuropharmacology of cocaine abuse. The use of nonhuman primates allows for within-subject, longitudinal studies that have provided insight into the human condition and serve as an ideal model of translational research. The combination of nonhuman primate behavior, pharmacology and state-of-the-art brain imaging using PET will provide the foundation for future studies aimed at developing behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction in humans.

  10. Nonhuman Primate Models of Addiction and PET Imaging: Dopamine System Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Robert W.; Porrino, Linda J.; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nonhuman primate models of cocaine addiction and the use of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to study the role of individual differences in vulnerability and how environmental and pharmacological variables can impact cocaine abuse. The chapter will describe studies related to the dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter system, and focus primarily on the D2-like DA receptor, the DA transporter and the use of fluorodeoxyglucose to better understand the neuropharmacology of cocaine abuse. The use of nonhuman primates allows for within-subject, longitudinal studies that have provided insight into the human condition and serve as an ideal model of translational research. The combination of nonhuman primate behavior, pharmacology and state-of-the-art brain imaging using PET will provide the foundation for future studies aimed at developing behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction in humans. PMID:22020537

  11. Growth of dopamine crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Vidya; Patki, Mugdha

    2016-05-01

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  12. Updating dopamine reward signals

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has advanced our knowledge of phasic dopamine reward prediction error signals. The error signal is bidirectional, reflects well the higher order prediction error described by temporal difference learning models, is compatible with model-free and model-based reinforcement learning, reports the subjective rather than physical reward value during temporal discounting and reflects subjective stimulus perception rather than physical stimulus aspects. Dopamine activations are primarily driven by reward, and to some extent risk, whereas punishment and salience have only limited activating effects when appropriate controls are respected. The signal is homogeneous in terms of time course but heterogeneous in many other aspects. It is essential for synaptic plasticity and a range of behavioural learning situations. PMID:23267662

  13. Differential involvement of cyclase- versus non-cyclase-coupled D1-like dopamine receptors in orofacial movement topography in mice: studies with SKF 83822.

    PubMed

    Makihara, Yasuyuki; Okuda, Yaeko; Kawada, Chieko; Matsumoto, Mitsuhiko; Waddington, John L; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Tomiyama, Katsunori

    2007-03-19

    Though orofacial movements are fundamental motor patterns that are known to be regulated critically by D1-like dopamine receptors, these processes remain poorly understood. This uncertainty is heightened by evidence for putative D1-like receptors that are linked not only to adenylyl cyclase (AC) but also to phospholipase C (PLC). Using a new method, we have characterised four topographies of orofacial movement in the mouse using the novel D1-like agonist SKF 83822, which stimulates AC but not PLC. These were compared with responses to SKF 83959, which stimulates PLC but not AC. Also, effects were characterised using the D1-like antagonist SCH 23390 and the D2-like antagonist YM 09151-2. SKF 83822 induced vertical jaw movements with incisor chattering but inhibited horizontal jaw movements; there was little effect on tongue protrusions. Vertical jaw movements induced by SKF 83822 were inhibited by SCH 23390 but uninfluenced by YM 09151-2, while YM 09151-2 released horizontal jaw movements; thus, D1-like agonist-induced, AC-mediated vertical jaw movements constitute a 'pure' D1-like-dependent process that does not involve D1-like:D2-like interactions, while horizontal jaw movements involve oppositional interactions. Orofacial movements in mice appear to consist of at least four phenomenologically dissociable topographies that are mechanistically distinct. They are regulated differentially by AC- and/or PLC-dependent processes and these processes involve distinct D1-like:D2-like interactions.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome is a rare movement disorder. ...

  15. Fluorinated benzamide neuroleptics--III. Development of (S)-N-[(1-allyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2, 3-dimethoxybenzamide as an improved dopamine D-2 receptor tracer.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, J; Yang, Z Y; Das, M K; Brown, T

    1995-04-01

    We have prepared five new analogs (n-propyl, iso-propyl, allyl, n-butyl, and iso-butyl) of the dopamine D-2 receptor antagonist, FPMB which result from modifications of the ethyl group at the pyrrolidine nitrogen in FPMB. As expected, all new derivatives showed higher apparent lipophilicity (log kw), with iso-butyl being the most lipophilic (log kw = 2.52), followed by the allyl derivative (log kw = 2.43). The allyl group showed the largest increase in affinity (from 0.26 nM for the ethyl substituent to 0.03 nM for the allyl substituent, almost 10-fold), followed by the n-propyl substituent which showed approximately five-fold better affinity than did the ethyl substituent. Radiosynthesis of (S)-N-[(1-allyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2, 3-dimethoxybenzamide ([18F]fallypride) was carried out by nucleophilic substitution reaction of (S)-N-[(1-allyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]-5-(3-tosyloxypropyl)-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide with no carrier added 18F-. [18F]Fallypride was obtained in approximately 20-40% yields (EOS/EOB, decay corrected) in specific activities of 900-1700 Ci/mmol after reverse phase HPLC purification in 60 min from EOB. High striatal uptake (upto 2.5% injected dose/g) of [18F]fallypride in rats was observed with striatal/cerebellar ratios of 17, 42, 63 and 122 at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min post-injection, respectively. PET experiments with [18F]fallypride in a cebus monkey showed a brain uptake of 0.10% injected dose/cc. In rhesus monkeys [18F]fallypride showed rapid specific uptake in the striata (0.04-0.06% injected dose/cc) with striata/cerebellum ratios of approx. 3.0 at 14 min, 5.0 at 35 min and 8 at 70 min post-injection. Specifically bound [18F]fallypride was displaced with haloperidol (1 mg/kg) with a half-life of 18 min in the rhesus monkey.

  16. Multiple functions of Na/K-ATPase in dopamine-induced salivation of the Blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghun; Urban, Joshua; Boyle, Daniel L.; Park, Yoonseong

    2016-01-01

    Control of salivary secretion in ticks involves autocrine dopamine activating two dopamine receptors: D1 and Invertebrate-specific D1-like dopamine receptors. In this study, we investigated Na/K-ATPase as an important component of the secretory process. Immunoreactivity for Na/K-ATPase revealed basal infolding of lamellate cells in type-I, abluminal interstitial (epithelial) cells in type-II, and labyrinth-like infolding structures opening towards the lumen in type-III acini. Ouabain (10 μmol l−1), a specific inhibitor of Na/K-ATPase, abolished dopamine-induced salivary secretion by suppressing fluid transport in type III acini. At 1 μmol l−1, ouabain, the secreted saliva was hyperosmotic. This suggests that ouabain also inhibits an ion resorptive function of Na/K-ATPase in the type I acini. Dopamine/ouabain were not involved in activation of protein secretion, while dopamine-induced saliva contained constitutively basal level of protein. We hypothesize that the dopamine-dependent primary saliva formation, mediated by Na/K-ATPase in type III and type II acini, is followed by a dopamine-independent resorptive function of Na/K-ATPase in type I acini located in the proximal end of the salivary duct. PMID:26861075

  17. Multiple functions of Na/K-ATPase in dopamine-induced salivation of the Blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghun; Urban, Joshua; Boyle, Daniel L; Park, Yoonseong

    2016-02-10

    Control of salivary secretion in ticks involves autocrine dopamine activating two dopamine receptors: D1 and Invertebrate-specific D1-like dopamine receptors. In this study, we investigated Na/K-ATPase as an important component of the secretory process. Immunoreactivity for Na/K-ATPase revealed basal infolding of lamellate cells in type-I, abluminal interstitial (epithelial) cells in type-II, and labyrinth-like infolding structures opening towards the lumen in type-III acini. Ouabain (10 μmol l(-1)), a specific inhibitor of Na/K-ATPase, abolished dopamine-induced salivary secretion by suppressing fluid transport in type III acini. At 1 μmol l(-1), ouabain, the secreted saliva was hyperosmotic. This suggests that ouabain also inhibits an ion resorptive function of Na/K-ATPase in the type I acini. Dopamine/ouabain were not involved in activation of protein secretion, while dopamine-induced saliva contained constitutively basal level of protein. We hypothesize that the dopamine-dependent primary saliva formation, mediated by Na/K-ATPase in type III and type II acini, is followed by a dopamine-independent resorptive function of Na/K-ATPase in type I acini located in the proximal end of the salivary duct.

  18. Identification of a 2-phenyl-substituted octahydrobenzo[f]quinoline as a dopamine D3 receptor-selective full agonist ligand

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Alia H.; McCorvy, John D.; Conley, Jason M.; Williams, Whitney K.; Bekkam, Markondaiah; Watts, Val J.

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the identification of a novel class of octahydrobenzo[f]quinolines as dopamine D3-selective full agonists. We developed a facile method that utilizes Suzuki coupling for easy incorporations of various substituted pendant rings into the scaffold. A small focused library of octahydrobenzo[f]quinolines 5 was synthesized, and these compounds demonstrated at least 14-fold D2-like selectivity over D1 in native porcine striatal tissue. Furthermore, n-propyl analog 5f was found to be a high affinity (ki = 1.1 nM) D3 dopamine full agonist with 145-fold selectivity over the D2 receptor and about 840-fold selectivity over the D1 receptor. 1. PMID:23018094

  19. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome: an overview of its epidemiology, mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Sean S; Evans, Andrew H; Lees, Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a relatively recently described iatrogenic disturbance that may complicate long-term symptomatic therapy of Parkinson's disease. Patients with DDS develop an addictive pattern of dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) use, administering doses in excess of those required to control their motor symptoms. The prevalence of DDS in patients attending specialist Parkinson's disease centres is 3-4%. Amongst the behavioural disturbances associated with DDS are punding, which is a complex stereotyped behaviour, and impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive shopping and compulsive eating. We review the risk factors and potential mechanisms for the development of DDS, including personality traits, potential genetic influences and Parkinson's disease-related cognitive deficits. Impulsive personality traits are prominent in patients developing DDS, and have been previously associated with the development of substance dependence. Candidate genes affecting the dopamine 'D(2)-like' receptor family have been associated with impulsive personality traits in addition to drug and nondrug addictions. Impaired decision making is implicated in addictive behaviours, and decision-making abilities can be influenced by dopaminergic medications. In Parkinson's disease, disruption of the reciprocal loops between the striatum and structures in the prefrontal cortex following dopamine depletion may predispose to DDS. The role of DRT in DDS is discussed, with particular reference to models of addiction, suggesting that compulsive drug use is due to progressive neuroadaptations in dopamine projections to the accumbens-related circuitry. Evidence for neuroadaptations and sensitization occurring in DDS include enhanced levodopa-induced ventral striatal dopamine release. Levodopa is still considered the most potent trigger for DDS in Parkinson's disease, but subcutaneous apomorphine and oral dopamine agonists may

  20. Pharmacology of Signaling Induced by Dopamine D1-Like Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Undieh, Ashiwel S.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine D1-like receptors consisting of D1 and D5 subtypes are intimately implicated in dopaminergic regulation of fundamental neurophysiologic processes such as mood, motivation, cognitive function, and motor activity. Upon stimulation, D1-like receptors initiate signal transduction cascades that are mediated through adenylyl cyclase or phosphoinositide metabolism, with subsequent enhancement of multiple downstream kinase cascades. The latter actions propagate and further amplify the receptor signals, thus predisposing D1-like receptors to multifaceted interactions with various other mediators and receptor systems. The adenylyl cyclase response to dopamine or selective D1-like receptor agonists is reliably associated with the D1 subtype, while emerging evidence indicates that the phosphoinositide responses in native brain tissues may be preferentially mediated through stimulation of the D5 receptor. Besides classic coupling of each receptor subtype to specific G proteins, additional biophysical models are advanced in attempts to account for differential subcellular distribution, heteromolecular oligomerization, and activity-dependent selectivity of the receptors. It is expected that significant advances in understanding of dopamine neurobiology will emerge from current and anticipated studies directed at uncovering the molecular mechanisms of D5 coupling to phosphoinositide signaling, the structural features that might enhance pharmacological selectivity for D5 versus D1 subtypes, the mechanism by which dopamine may modulate phosphoinositide synthesis, the contributions of the various responsive signal mediators to D1 or D5 interactions with D2-like receptors, and the spectrum of dopaminergic functions that may be attributed to each receptor subtype and signaling pathway. PMID:20547182

  1. Complexity of dopamine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) coincides with a dramatic loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. A key player in the loss of dopaminergic neurons is oxidative stress. Dopamine (DA) metabolism itself is strongly linked to oxidative stress as its degradation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DA oxidation can lead to endogenous neurotoxins whereas some DA derivatives show antioxidative effects. Therefore, DA metabolism is of special importance for neuronal redox-homeostasis and viability. In this review we highlight different aspects of dopamine metabolism in the context of PD and neurodegeneration. Since most reviews focus only on single aspects of the DA system, we will give a broader overview by looking at DA biosynthesis, sequestration, degradation and oxidation chemistry at the metabolic level, as well as at the transcriptional, translational and posttranslational regulation of all enzymes involved. This is followed by a short overview of cellular models currently used in PD research. Finally, we will address the topic from a medical point of view which directly aims to encounter PD. PMID:23683503

  2. (−)-Stepholidine is a potent pan-dopamine receptor antagonist of both G protein- and β-arrestin-mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Julie A.; Free, R. Benjamin; Miller, Nicole R.; Chun, Lani S.; Doyle, Trevor B.; Moritz, Amy E.; Conroy, Jennie L.; Watts, Val J.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale (−)-Stepholidine is a tetrahydroberberine alkaloid that is known to interact with dopamine receptors and has also been proposed as a novel antipsychotic agent. Its suggested novelty lies in the fact that it has been proposed to have D1-like receptor agonist and D2-like receptor antagonist properties. Thus, it might be effective in treating both positive and negative (cognition) symptoms of schizophrenia. However, its activity on specific dopamine receptor subtypes has not been clarified, especially with respect to its ability to activate D1-like receptors. Objectives We wished to examine the affinity and functional activity of (−)-stepholidine at each of the human dopamine receptor subtypes expressed in a defined cellular environment. Methods D1–D5 dopamine receptors were stably expressed in cell lines and their interactions with (−)-stepholidine were examined using radioligand binding and various functional signaling assays. Radioligand binding assays were also performed using bovine striatal membranes. Results (−)-Stepholidine exhibited high (nM) affinity for D1 and D5 receptors, somewhat lower (two- to four-fold) affinity for D2 and D3 receptors, and low micromolar affinity for D4 receptors. Functionally, (−)-stepholidine was ineffective in activating G protein-mediated signaling of D1-like and D2 receptors and was also ineffective in stimulating β-arrestin recruitment to any dopamine receptor subtype. It did, however, antagonize all of these responses. It also antagonized D1–D2 heteromer-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Radioligand binding assays of D1-like receptors in brain membranes also indicated that (−)-stepholidine binds to the D1 receptor with antagonist-like properties. Conclusions (−)-Stepholidine is a pan-dopamine receptor antagonist and its in vivo effects are largely mediated through dopamine receptor blockade with potential cross-talk to other receptors or signaling proteins. PMID:25231919

  3. Knocking out the dopamine reuptake transporter (DAT) does not change the baseline brain arachidonic acid signal in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Epolia; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Ma, Kaizong; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Basselin, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Background Dopamine transporter (DAT) homozygous knockout (DAT−/−) mice have a 10-fold higher extracellular DA concentration in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens than do wildtype (DAT+/+) mice, but show reduced presynaptic DA synthesis and fewer postsynaptic D2 receptors. One aspect of neurotransmission involves DA binding to postsynaptic D2-like receptors coupled to cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), releasing second messenger arachidonic acid (AA) from synaptic membrane phospholipid. We hypothesized that tonic overactivation of D2-like receptors in DAT−/− mice due to elevated DA would not increase brain AA signaling, because of compensatory downregulation of postsynaptic signaling mechanisms. Methods [1-14C]AA was infused intravenously for 3 min in unanesthetized DAT+/+, heterozygous (DAT+/−) and DAT−/− mice. AA incorporation coefficients k* and rates Jin, markers of AA metabolism and signaling, were imaged in 83 brain regions using quantitative autoradiography brain cPLA2-IV activity also was measured. Results Neither k* nor Jin for AA in any brain region, or in brain cPLA2-IV activity, differed significantly between DAT−/−, DAT+/− and DAT+/+ mice. Conclusions These results differ from reported increases in k* and Jin for AA, and brain cPLA2 expression, in serotonin reuptake transporter (5-HTT) knockout mice, and suggest that postsynaptic dopaminergic neurotransmission mechanisms involving AA are downregulated despite elevated DA in DAT−/− mice. PMID:22376027

  4. The replacement of the 2-methoxy substituent of N-((6,6-diphenyl-1,4-dioxan-2-yl)methyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)ethan-1-amine improves the selectivity for 5-HT1A receptor over α1-adrenoceptor and D2-like receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Del Bello, Fabio; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Giannella, Mario; Giorgioni, Gianfabio; Piergentili, Alessandro; Petrelli, Riccardo; Cifani, Carlo; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Keck, Thomas M; Mazzolari, Angelica; Vistoli, Giulio; Cilia, Antonio; Poggesi, Elena; Matucci, Rosanna; Quaglia, Wilma

    2017-01-05

    N-((6,6-diphenyl-1,4-dioxan-2-yl)methyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)ethan-1-amine (3) is a potent 5-HT1A receptor and α1d-adrenoceptor (α1d-AR) ligand. Analogues 5-10 were rationally designed and prepared to evaluate whether electronic and/or lipophilic properties of substituents in the ortho position of its phenoxy moiety exert any favorable effects on the affinity/activity at 5-HT1A receptor and improve selectivity over α1-ARs. To rationalize the experimental observations and derive information about receptor-ligand interactions of the reported ligands, docking studies, using 5-HT1A and α1d-AR models generated by homology techniques, and a retrospective computational study were performed. The results highlighted that proper substituents in position 2 of the phenoxy moiety of 3 selectively address the ligands toward 5-HT1A receptor with respect to α1-ARs and D2-like receptor subtypes. Methoxymethylenoxy derivative 9 showed the best 5-HT1A selectivity profile and the highest potency at 5-HT1A receptor, behaving as a partial agonist. Finally, 9, tested in light/dark exploration test in mice, significantly reduced anxiety-linked behaviors. Therefore, it may be considered a lead for the design of partial agonists potentially useful in the treatment of disorders in which 5-HT1A receptor is involved.

  5. Amphetamine decreases behavioral inhibition by stimulation of dopamine D2, but not D3, receptors.

    PubMed

    van Gaalen, Marcel M; Unger, Liliane; Jongen-Rêlo, Ana-Lucia; Schoemaker, Hans; Gross, Gerhard

    2009-09-01

    Behavioral disinhibition is a manifestation of impulsive behavior that is prominent in the psychopathology of various psychiatric disorders such as addiction, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, mania, and personality disorders. Impulsivity may be studied by measuring anticipatory responses made before the presentation of a food-predictive, brief light stimulus in a two-choice serial reaction time task. In such serial reaction time tasks, amphetamine has been shown to produce dose-dependent increases in premature responding in a manner dependent on dopamine D(2)-like receptor stimulation. So far, it is unknown whether it is the D(2) or D(3) receptor that is involved in this form of impulsivity. In this study, rats were trained in a two-choice serial reaction time task until baseline performance was stable. Next, effects of the dopamine D(2) preferring antagonist L-741,626 and selective D(3) antagonist SB-277011 were assessed alone and in the presence of amphetamine. Neither L-741,626 nor SB-277011 affected behavioral inhibition, although the latter significantly increased reaction time at 10 mg/kg. Amphetamine dose-dependently increased impulsivity. The effect of amphetamine was attenuated by L-741,626 (3 mg/kg), whereas SB-277011 (3 mg/kg) had no effect. Therefore, amphetamine-induced behavioral disinhibition depends on D(2), but not D(3), receptor stimulation.

  6. Dopamine reward prediction error coding.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-03-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards-an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware.

  7. Dopamine reward prediction error coding

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards—an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware. PMID:27069377

  8. Dopamine, Affordance and Active Inference

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Shiner, Tamara; FitzGerald, Thomas; Galea, Joseph M.; Adams, Rick; Brown, Harriet; Dolan, Raymond J.; Moran, Rosalyn; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Bestmann, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal) cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions) about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order) in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal) model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors) to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level. PMID:22241972

  9. Analogues of doxanthrine reveal differences between the dopamine D 1 receptor binding properties of chromanoisoquinolines and hexahydrobenzo[a]phenanthridines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cueva, J.P.; Chemel, B.R.; Juncosa, J.I.; Lill, M.A.; Watts, V.J.; Nichols, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to develop selective agonists for dopamine D 1-like receptors led to the discovery of dihydrexidine and doxanthrine, two bioisosteric ??-phenyldopamine-type full agonist ligands that display selectivity and potency at D 1-like receptors. We report herein an improved methodology for the synthesis of substituted chromanoisoquinolines (doxanthrine derivatives) and the evaluation of several new compounds for their ability to bind to D 1- and D 2-like receptors. Identical pendant phenyl ring substitutions on the dihydrexidine and doxanthrine templates surprisingly led to different effects on D 1-like receptor binding, suggesting important differences between the interactions of these ligands with the D 1 receptor. We propose, based on the biological results and molecular modeling studies, that slight conformational differences between the tetralin and chroman-based compounds lead to a shift in the location of the pendant ring substituents within the receptor. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analogues of doxanthrine reveal differences between the dopamine D1 receptor binding properties of chromanoisoquinolines and hexahydrobenzo[a]phenanthridines

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Juan Pablo; Chemel, Benjamin R.; Juncosa, Jose I.; Lill, Markus A.; Watts, Val J.; Nichols, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to develop selective agonists for dopamine D1-like receptors led to the discovery of dihydrexidine and doxanthrine, two bioisosteric β-phenyldopamine-type full agonist ligands that display selectivity and potency at D1-like receptors. We report herein an improved methodology for the synthesis of substituted chromanoisoquinolines (doxanthrine derivatives) and the evaluation of several new compounds for their ability to bind to D1- and D2-like receptors. Identical pendant phenyl ring substitutions on the dihydrexidine and doxanthrine templates surprisingly led to different effects on D1-like receptor binding, suggesting important differences between the interactions of these ligands with the D1 receptor. We propose, based on the biological results and molecular modeling studies, that slight conformational differences between the tetralin and chroman-based compounds lead to a shift in the location of the pendant ring substituents within the receptor. PMID:22204903

  11. Determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical formulation using enhanced luminescence from europium complex.

    PubMed

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu

    2012-07-01

    Biologically important compound dopamine plays an important role in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Insufficient dopamine level due to the loss of dopamine producing cells may lead to disease called Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Hence, a simple and fast detection of dopamine is necessary to study in the fields of neurophysiology and clinical medicine. An enhanced fluorimetric determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid is achieved using photoluminescence of europium complex, Eu(III)-dipicolinic acid. In order to obtain better responses, several operational parameters have been investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the method showed good stability and reproducibility. The application of this method for the determination of dopamine neurotransmitters was satisfactory. Linear response was found down to 3.0 × 10(-7)M with limit of detection 1.0 × 10(-8)M. The relative standard deviation was found to be 3.33% from 20 independent measurements for 1.0 × 10(-5)M of dopamine.

  12. Determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical formulation using enhanced luminescence from europium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; ALOthman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu.

    Biologically important compound dopamine plays an important role in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Insufficient dopamine level due to the loss of dopamine producing cells may lead to disease called Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Hence, a simple and fast detection of dopamine is necessary to study in the fields of neurophysiology and clinical medicine. An enhanced fluorimetric determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid is achieved using photoluminescence of europium complex, Eu(III)-dipicolinic acid. In order to obtain better responses, several operational parameters have been investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the method showed good stability and reproducibility. The application of this method for the determination of dopamine neurotransmitters was satisfactory. Linear response was found down to 3.0 × 10-7 M with limit of detection 1.0 × 10-8 M. The relative standard deviation was found to be 3.33% from 20 independent measurements for 1.0 × 10-5 M of dopamine.

  13. Dopamine is produced in the rat spinal cord and regulates micturition reflex after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shaoping; Carson, David M; Wu, Di; Klaw, Michelle C; Houlé, John D; Tom, Veronica J

    2016-11-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurons in the mammalian central nervous system are thought to be restricted to the brain. DA-mediated regulation of urinary activity is considered to occur through an interaction between midbrain DA neurons and the pontine micturition center. Here we show that DA is produced in the rat spinal cord and modulates the bladder reflex. We observed numerous tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)(+) neurons in the autonomic nuclei and superficial dorsal horn in L6-S3 spinal segments. These neurons are dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH)(-) and some contain detectable dopamine decarboxylase (DDC), suggesting their capacity to produce DA. Interestingly, following a complete thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) to interrupt supraspinal projections, more TH(+) neurons emerged in the lumbosacral spinal cord, coincident with a sustained, low level of DA expression there and a partially recovered micturition reflex. Non-selective blockade of spinal DA receptors reduced bladder activity whereas activation of spinal D2-like receptors increased bladder activity and facilitated voiding. Additionally, depletion of lumbosacral TH(+) neurons with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) decreased bladder non-voiding contractions and voiding efficiency. Furthermore, injecting the transsynaptic neuronal tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) into the bladder detrusor labeled TH(+) cells in the lumbosacral cord, confirming their involvement in spinal micturition reflex circuits. These results illustrate that DA is synthesized in the rat spinal cord; plasticity of lumbosacral TH(+) neurons following SCI may contribute to DA expression and modulate the spinal bladder reflex. Thus, spinally-derived DA and receptors could be a novel therapeutic target to improve micturition recovery after SCI.

  14. Dopamine, reward learning, and active inference

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Temporal difference learning models propose phasic dopamine signaling encodes reward prediction errors that drive learning. This is supported by studies where optogenetic stimulation of dopamine neurons can stand in lieu of actual reward. Nevertheless, a large body of data also shows that dopamine is not necessary for learning, and that dopamine depletion primarily affects task performance. We offer a resolution to this paradox based on an hypothesis that dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about alternative actions, and thus controls the outcome-sensitivity of behavior. We extend an active inference scheme for solving Markov decision processes to include learning, and show that simulated dopamine dynamics strongly resemble those actually observed during instrumental conditioning. Furthermore, simulated dopamine depletion impairs performance but spares learning, while simulated excitation of dopamine neurons drives reward learning, through aberrant inference about outcome states. Our formal approach provides a novel and parsimonious reconciliation of apparently divergent experimental findings. PMID:26581305

  15. Dopamine controls neurogenesis in the adult salamander midbrain in homeostasis and during regeneration of dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Berg, Daniel A; Kirkham, Matthew; Wang, Heng; Frisén, Jonas; Simon, András

    2011-04-08

    Appropriate termination of regenerative processes is critical for producing the correct number of cells in tissues. Here we provide evidence for an end-product inhibition of dopamine neuron regeneration that is mediated by dopamine. Ablation of midbrain dopamine neurons leads to complete regeneration in salamanders. Regeneration involves extensive neurogenesis and requires activation of quiescent ependymoglia cells, which express dopamine receptors. Pharmacological compensation for dopamine loss by L-dopa inhibits ependymoglia proliferation and regeneration in a dopamine receptor-signaling-dependent manner, specifically after ablation of dopamine neurons. Systemic administration of the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol alone causes ependymoglia proliferation and the appearance of excessive number of neurons. Our data show that stem cell quiescence is under dopamine control and provide a model for termination once normal homeostasis is restored. The findings establish a role for dopamine in the reversible suppression of neurogenesis in the midbrain and have implications for regenerative strategies in Parkinson's disease.

  16. Chaotic behavior in dopamine neurodynamics.

    PubMed Central

    King, R; Barchas, J D; Huberman, B A

    1984-01-01

    We report the results of the dynamics of a model of the central dopaminergic neuronal system. In particular, for certain values of a parameter k, which monitors the efficacy of dopamine at the postsynaptic receptor, chaotic solutions of the dynamical equations appear--a prediction that correlates with the observed increased variability in behavior among schizophrenics, the rapid fluctuations in motor activity among Parkinsonian patients treated chronically with L-dopa, and the lability of mood in some patients with an affective disorder. Moreover our hypothesis offers specific results concerning the appearance or disappearance of erratic solutions as a function of k and the external input to the dopamine neuronal system. PMID:6583705

  17. Chaotic behavior in dopamine neurodynamics.

    PubMed

    King, R; Barchas, J D; Huberman, B A

    1984-02-01

    We report the results of the dynamics of a model of the central dopaminergic neuronal system. In particular, for certain values of a parameter k, which monitors the efficacy of dopamine at the postsynaptic receptor, chaotic solutions of the dynamical equations appear--a prediction that correlates with the observed increased variability in behavior among schizophrenics, the rapid fluctuations in motor activity among Parkinsonian patients treated chronically with L-dopa, and the lability of mood in some patients with an affective disorder. Moreover our hypothesis offers specific results concerning the appearance or disappearance of erratic solutions as a function of k and the external input to the dopamine neuronal system.

  18. Lack of Association between Polymorphisms of the Dopamine Receptor D4 and Dopamine Transporter Genes and Personality Traits in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Joo; Kim, Young Shin; Lee, Hong Shick

    2006-01-01

    Human personality traits have a considerable genetic component. Cloninger et al. were the first to postulate that certain personality traits, such as novelty seeking, are related to the dopamine neurotransmitter system. In this study, we investigated the associations between dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon III and dopamine transporter (DAT1) polymorphisms and personality traits. The DRD4 and DAT1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped in 214 healthy Korean subjects, whose personality traits were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). There were no significant differences between scores of TCI temperament dimensions (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence) and DRD4 gene polymorphism. The DAT1 gene polymorphisms also showed no significant association with any of the temperament subscales of the TCI. These data suggest that DRD4 and DAT1 gene polymorphism may not associated with personality traits in a Korean population. PMID:17191306

  19. Adolescent Maturation of Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Function and Interactions in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Jennifer B.; Leslie, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by heightened vulnerability to illicit drug use and the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders. These clinical phenomena likely share common neurobiological substrates, as mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems actively mature during this period. Whereas prior studies have examined age-dependent changes in dopamine receptor binding, there have been fewer functional analyses. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether the functional consequences of D1 and D2-like activation are age-dependent. Adolescent and adult rats were given direct D1 and D2 agonists, alone and in combination. Locomotor and stereotypic behaviors were measured, and brains were collected for analysis of mRNA expression for the immediate early genes (IEGs), cfos and arc. Adolescents showed enhanced D2-like receptor control of locomotor and repetitive behaviors, which transitioned to dominant D1-like mechanisms in adulthood. When low doses of agonists were co-administered, adults showed supra-additive behavioral responses to D1/D2 combinations, whereas adolescents did not, which may suggest age differences in D1/D2 synergy. D1/D2-stimulated IEG expression was particularly prominent in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Given the BNST’s function as an integrator of corticostriatal, hippocampal, and stress-related circuitry, and the importance of neural network dynamics in producing behavior, an exploratory functional network analysis of regional IEG expression was performed. This data-driven analysis demonstrated similar developmental trajectories as those described in humans and suggested that dopaminergic drugs alter forebrain coordinated gene expression age dependently. D1/D2 recruitment of stress nuclei into functional networks was associated with low behavioral output in adolescents. Network analysis presents a novel tool to assess pharmacological action, and highlights critical developmental changes in functional

  20. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-05

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs.

  1. Impedimetric DNA-biosensor for the study of dopamine induces DNA damage and investigation of inhibitory and repair effects of some antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Kazemnadi, Narges; Amini, Maryam; Rezaei, B

    2015-08-01

    A simple and inexpensive methodology was used to develop a new method in order to inspect the DNA damage due to dopamine and some ionic metals. In addition, the inhibitory and repair effects of some antioxidant such as glutathione and ascorbic acid were studied and compared with each other using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). In this work a pencil graphite electrode (PGE) was modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and chitosan (CHIT), then it was decorated with a ds-DNA (ds-DNA/CHIT-MWCNTs/PGE). Due to interaction of ds-DNA and the damaging agents (dopamine+metallic ions), electrochemical and spectroscopy properties of ds-DNA at the surface of the modified electrode was changed, and these changes are followed with EIS and DPV methods. Our study showed that dopamine, Cu(II) and Fe(III) alone could not destroy DNA, but dopamine + Cu(II) and dopamine + Fe(III) can damage DNA. In addition, the ability of dopamine-Cu(II) was greater than dopamine-Fe(III). Moreover, some antioxidant such as glutathione and ascorbic acid can overcome and/or minimize the influence of these damaging interactions.

  2. Comparison of the discriminative-stimulus effects of SKF 38393 with those of other dopamine receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Desai, R I; Terry, P; Katz, J L

    2003-05-01

    The dopamine D(1)-like receptor agonists have traditionally been defined molecularly by their efficacy in stimulating adenylyl cyclase. However, evidence correlating the effectiveness of these drugs in behavioral assays and their effectiveness biochemically has not been forthcoming. The present study compared the discriminative-stimulus effects of the D(1)-like partial agonist SKF 38393 with several other D(1)-like agonists, an indirect agonist, cocaine, and a D(2)-like agonist, quinpirole. Rats were trained under a fixed-ratio 30-response schedule to discriminate SKF 38393 (5.6 mg/kg) from vehicle. Under this schedule, 30 consecutive responses on one of two keys were reinforced with food presentation after a pre-session injection of 5.6 mg/kg SKF 38393, and 30 consecutive responses on the alternative key were reinforced after saline injection. When daily performances were stable, substitution patterns for several compounds were assessed during test sessions in which 30 consecutive responses on either key were reinforced. Quinpirole and cocaine each produced saline-appropriate responding. In contrast, the D(1)-like agonists, SKF 75670 and SKF 77434, fully substituted for SKF 38393. Curiously, SKF 82958, which is considered a full agonist based on adenylyl cyclase assays, was less effective in substituting for SKF 38393 (maximum drug-appropriate responding 66%) than was the partial agonist SKF 75670. The present results suggest that second messenger effects other than stimulation of adenylyl cyclase may play an important role in the behavioral effects of dopamine D(1)-like agonists.

  3. Antiferroptotic activity of non-oxidative dopamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ding; Peng, Yingpeng; Xie, Yangchun; Zhou, Borong; Sun, Xiaofang; Kang, Rui; Tang, Daolin

    2016-11-25

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that has many functions in the nervous and immune systems. Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic form of regulated cell death that is involved in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of dopamine in ferroptosis remains unidentified. Here, we show that the non-oxidative form of dopamine is a strong inhibitor of ferroptotic cell death. Dopamine dose-dependently blocked ferroptosis in cancer (PANC1 and HEY) and non-cancer (MEF and HEK293) cells following treatment with erastin, a small molecule ferroptosis inducer. Notably, dopamine reduced erastin-induced ferrous iron accumulation, glutathione depletion, and malondialdehyde production. Mechanically, dopamine increased the protein stability of glutathione peroxidase 4, a phospholipid hydroperoxidase that protects cells against membrane lipid peroxidation. Moreover, dopamine suppressed dopamine receptor D4 protein degradation and promoted dopamine receptor D5 gene expression. Thus, our findings uncover a novel function of dopamine in cell death and provide new insight into the regulation of iron metabolism and lipid peroxidation by neurotransmitters.

  4. Age-related behavioural phenotype and cellular characterisation of mice with progressive ablation of D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Babovic, Daniela; Jiang, Luning; Gantois, Ilse; Lawrence, Andrew J; Ferreri, Vincenzo; Schütz, Günter; Waddington, John L; Drago, John

    2010-01-05

    In this study we characterize the behavioural and cellular phenotype of mutant (MUT) mice with progressive loss of D1 dopamine receptor (Drd1a)-expressing cells. Adult [14-19 weeks] MUT mice showed intact working memory in the spontaneous alternation test but evidenced anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus maze and the light-dark test. The ethogram of mature adult MUT [average age 22 weeks] was compared with that of young adult MUT mice [average age 12 weeks]. While MUT mice evidenced hyperactivity over initial exploration at both time points, the topography of hyperactivity shifted. Moreover, initial hyperactivity was sustained over habituation at 12 weeks, but not at 22 weeks. Thus, by 22 weeks MUT mice evidenced shifts in, and mitigation of, these early phenotypic effects. However, orofacial behaviours of chewing and sifting were reduced similarly at 12 and 22 weeks. These data support the hypothesis that aspects of the mutant phenotype change with time. Quantitative autoradiography at 20 weeks revealed loss of D1-like dopamine receptor binding in the entire basal ganglia, with upregulated D2-like binding. There appear to be topographically specific interactions between normal maturational processes and compensatory mechanisms evoked subsequent to targeted ablation of D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells. Understanding the mechanistic bases of mitigation vs persistence of individual phenotypes in relation to neural adaptation consequent to cell loss may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for basal ganglia disorders.

  5. BIOPLUME III

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BIOPLUME III is a two-dimensional finite difference model for simulating the natural attenuation of organic contaminants in groundwater due to the processes of advection, dispersion, sorption, and biodegradation.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Dopamine beta (β)-hydroxylase deficiency is a condition that ...

  7. Dopamine modulates risk-taking as a function of baseline sensation-seeking trait.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Agnes; Manohar, Sanjay; Rogers, Robert D; Husain, Masud

    2013-08-07

    Trait sensation-seeking, defined as a need for varied, complex, and intense sensations, represents a relatively underexplored hedonic drive in human behavioral neuroscience research. It is related to increased risk for a range of behaviors including substance use, gambling, and risky sexual practice. Individual differences in self-reported sensation-seeking have been linked to brain dopamine function, particularly at D2-like receptors, but so far no causal evidence exists for a role of dopamine in sensation-seeking behavior in humans. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective D2/D3 agonist cabergoline on performance of a probabilistic risky choice task in healthy humans using a sensitive within-subject, placebo-controlled design. Cabergoline significantly influenced the way participants combined different explicit signals regarding probability and loss when choosing between response options associated with uncertain outcomes. Importantly, these effects were strongly dependent on baseline sensation-seeking score. Overall, cabergoline increased sensitivity of choice to information about probability of winning; while decreasing discrimination according to magnitude of potential losses associated with different options. The largest effects of the drug were observed in participants with lower sensation-seeking scores. These findings provide evidence that risk-taking behavior in humans can be directly manipulated by a dopaminergic drug, but that the effectiveness of such a manipulation depends on baseline differences in sensation-seeking trait. This emphasizes the importance of considering individual differences when investigating manipulation of risky decision-making, and may have relevance for the development of pharmacotherapies for disorders involving excessive risk-taking in humans, such as pathological gambling.

  8. Dopamine Modulates Risk-Taking as a Function of Baseline Sensation-Seeking Trait

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Sanjay; Rogers, Robert D.; Husain, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Trait sensation-seeking, defined as a need for varied, complex, and intense sensations, represents a relatively underexplored hedonic drive in human behavioral neuroscience research. It is related to increased risk for a range of behaviors including substance use, gambling, and risky sexual practice. Individual differences in self-reported sensation-seeking have been linked to brain dopamine function, particularly at D2-like receptors, but so far no causal evidence exists for a role of dopamine in sensation-seeking behavior in humans. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective D2/D3 agonist cabergoline on performance of a probabilistic risky choice task in healthy humans using a sensitive within-subject, placebo-controlled design. Cabergoline significantly influenced the way participants combined different explicit signals regarding probability and loss when choosing between response options associated with uncertain outcomes. Importantly, these effects were strongly dependent on baseline sensation-seeking score. Overall, cabergoline increased sensitivity of choice to information about probability of winning; while decreasing discrimination according to magnitude of potential losses associated with different options. The largest effects of the drug were observed in participants with lower sensation-seeking scores. These findings provide evidence that risk-taking behavior in humans can be directly manipulated by a dopaminergic drug, but that the effectiveness of such a manipulation depends on baseline differences in sensation-seeking trait. This emphasizes the importance of considering individual differences when investigating manipulation of risky decision-making, and may have relevance for the development of pharmacotherapies for disorders involving excessive risk-taking in humans, such as pathological gambling. PMID:23926253

  9. Methylphenidate elevates resting dopamine which lowers the impulse-triggered release of dopamine: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Philip; Madras, Bertha

    2002-03-10

    How do 'stimulants' reduce hyperactivity in children and adults? How can drugs which raise extracellular dopamine result in psychomotor slowing of hyperactive children when dopamine is known to enhance motor activity, such as in Parkinson's disease? In summary, the hypothesis for the anti-hyperactivity effects of the stimulants is as follows: during normal nerve activity, extracellular dopamine levels transiently rise 60-fold. At low therapeutic doses (0.2-0.5 mg/kg) to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, stimulant drugs such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine reduce locomotion in both humans and animals. The drugs raise resting extracellular levels of dopamine several-fold, but reduce the extent to which dopamine is released with nerve impulses, compared to the impulse-associated release in the absence of the drug. This relatively reduced amplitude of impulse-associated dopamine would result in less activation of post-synaptic dopamine receptors which drive psychomotor activity. At higher doses, stimulants produce generalized stimulation of the nervous system, as a result of the very high concentrations of extracellular dopamine at rest, and the markedly increased release of dopamine with nerve impulses. These high levels of resting and pulsatile dopamine cause widespread stimulation of post-synaptic dopamine receptors, overcoming any concomitant presynaptic inhibition of dopamine release.

  10. Dopamine receptors – IUPHAR Review 13

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-01-01

    The variety of physiological functions controlled by dopamine in the brain and periphery is mediated by the D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 dopamine GPCRs. Drugs acting on dopamine receptors are significant tools for the management of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and Parkinson's disease. Recent investigations of dopamine receptor signalling have shown that dopamine receptors, apart from their canonical action on cAMP-mediated signalling, can regulate a myriad of cellular responses to fine-tune the expression of dopamine-associated behaviours and functions. Such signalling mechanisms may involve alternate G protein coupling or non-G protein mechanisms involving ion channels, receptor tyrosine kinases or proteins such as β-arrestins that are classically involved in GPCR desensitization. Another level of complexity is the growing appreciation of the physiological roles played by dopamine receptor heteromers. Applications of new in vivo techniques have significantly furthered the understanding of the physiological functions played by dopamine receptors. Here we provide an update of the current knowledge regarding the complex biology, signalling, physiology and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. PMID:25671228

  11. Grafted dopamine neurons: Morphology, neurochemistry, and electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Ingrid; Bickford, Paula; Gerhardt, Greg A

    2010-02-09

    Grafting of dopamine-rich tissue to counteract the symptoms in Parkinson's disease became a promising tool for future treatment. This article discusses how to improve the functional outcome with respect to graft outgrowth and functions of dopamine release and electrophysiological responses to graft implantation in the host brain striatal target. It has been documented that a subpopulation of the dopamine neurons innervates the host brain in a target-specific manner, while some of the grafted dopamine neurons never project to the host striatum. Neurochemical studies have demonstrated that the graft-induced outgrowth synthesize, store, metabolize and release dopamine and possibly other neurotransmitters such as 5-HT. Furthermore, the released dopamine affects the dopamine-depleted brain in areas that are larger than the graft-derived nerve fibers reach. While stem cells will most likely be the future source of cells to be used in grafting, it is important to find the guiding cues for how to reinnervate the dopamine-depleted striatum in a proper way with respect to the dopamine subpopulations of A9 and A10 to efficiently treat the motor abnormalities seen in Parkinson's disease.

  12. Mesolimbic Dopamine Signals the Value of Work

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Arif A.; Pettibone, Jeffrey R.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Hetrick, Vaughn L.; Schmidt, Robert; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Aragona, Brandon J.; Berke, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine cell firing can encode errors in reward prediction, providing a learning signal to guide future behavior. Yet dopamine is also a key modulator of motivation, invigorating current behavior. Existing theories propose that fast (“phasic”) dopamine fluctuations support learning, while much slower (“tonic”) dopamine changes are involved in motivation. We examined dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens across multiple time scales, using complementary microdialysis and voltammetric methods during adaptive decision-making. We first show that minute-by-minute dopamine levels covary with reward rate and motivational vigor. We then show that second-by-second dopamine release encodes an estimate of temporally-discounted future reward (a value function). We demonstrate that changing dopamine immediately alters willingness to work, and reinforces preceding action choices by encoding temporal-difference reward prediction errors. Our results indicate that dopamine conveys a single, rapidly-evolving decision variable, the available reward for investment of effort, that is employed for both learning and motivational functions. PMID:26595651

  13. Dopamine D1 receptors, regulation of gene expression in the brain, and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; McCoy, Michael T; Beauvais, Genevieve; Cai, Ning Sheng

    2010-11-01

    Dopamine (DA), the most abundant catecholamine in the basal ganglia, participates in the regulation of motor functions and of cognitive processes such as learning and memory. Abnormalities in dopaminergic systems are thought to be the bases for some neuropsychiatric disorders including addiction, Parkinson's disease, and Schizophrenia. DA exerts its arrays of functions via stimulation of D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4) DA receptors which are located in various regions of the brain. The DA D1 and D2 receptors are very abundant in the basal ganglia where they exert their functions within separate neuronal cell types. The present paper focuses on a review of the effects of stimulation of DA D1 receptors on diverse signal transduction pathways and gene expression patterns in the brain. We also discuss the possible involvement of the DA D1 receptors in DA-mediated toxic effects observed both in vitro and in vivo. Future studies using more selective agonist and antagonist agents and the use of genetically modified animals should help to further clarify the role of these receptors in the normal physiology and in pathological events that involve DA.

  14. Postcontest blockade of dopamine receptors inhibits development of the winner effect in the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus).

    PubMed

    Becker, Elizabeth A; Marler, Catherine A

    2015-04-01

    The winner effect is an accumulation of previous wins that increase future winning. A primary unanswered question about the winner effect is how do individuals integrate information about previous wins? Dopamine (DA) has been implicated because phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (pTH), the rate-limiting enzyme for DA biosynthesis, is elevated following multiple winning experiences. Moreover, DA receptor blockers and agonists influence aggression when administered prior to male-male contests. In the current study, we administered D1- and D2-like DA receptor antagonists immediately after a contest and examined the development of the winner effect in the territorial California mouse, Peromyscus californicus. During a 3-contest training phase, resident males experienced winning contests, followed immediately by a peripheral injection of either a DA receptor antagonist or vehicle or a handling experience (without injection). The DA receptor antagonists used in this study did not influence locomotion. To assess the cumulative effects of previous winning, males were subjected to a final test contest with a more competitive intruder. The winner effect was significantly decreased by both D1- and D2-like receptor antagonists administered during training. During the test contest, attack behavior was significantly reduced by previous administration of both types of DA receptor antagonists compared with controls. D1-like receptor blockade also diminished chasing behavior, whereas D2-antagonist treated animals continued to pursue opponents. During training against a less competitive intruder, there was no difference in aggressive behaviors between experimental and controls males. Our data indicate that DA activity between contests is concomitant with the competitive advantage gained from multiple winning experiences.

  15. Dopamine agonist-induced penile erection and yawning: a comparative study in outbred Roman high- and low-avoidance rats.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Corda, Maria Giuseppa; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Piludu, Maria Antonietta; Löber, Stefan; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Argiolas, Antonio; Giorgi, Osvaldo

    2013-08-01

    The effects on penile erection and yawning of subcutaneous (SC) injections of the mixed dopamine D1/D2-like agonist apomorphine (0.02-0.2 mg/kg) were studied in outbred Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) male rats, two lines selectively bred for their respectively rapid versus poor acquisition of the active avoidance response in the shuttle-box, and compared with the effects observed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Apomorphine dose-response curves were bell-shaped in all rat lines/strains. Notably, more penile erections and yawns were recorded mainly in the ascending part of these curves (e.g., apomorphine 0.02-0.08 mg/kg) in both RLA and RHA rats compared to SD rats, with RLA rats showing the higher response (especially for yawning) with respect to RHA rats. Similar results were found with PD-168,077 (0.02-0.2 mg/kg SC), a D4 receptor agonist, which induced penile erection but not yawning. In all rat lines/strains, apomorphine responses were markedly reduced by the D2 antagonist L-741,626, but not by the D3 antagonist, SB277011A, whereas the D4 antagonists L-745,870 and FAUC213 elicited a partial, yet statistically significant, inhibitory effect. In contrast, the pro-erectile effect of PD-168,077 was completely abolished by L-745,870 and FAUC213, as expected. The present study confirms and extends previously reported differences in dopamine transmission between RLA and RHA rats and between the SD strain and the Roman lines. Moreover, it confirms previous studies supporting the view that dopamine receptors of the D2 subtype play a predominant role in the pro-yawning and pro-erectile effect of apomorphine, and that the selective stimulation of D4 receptors induces penile erection.

  16. Dopamine release from transplanted neural stem cells in Parkinsonian rat striatum in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xinjiang; Xu, Huadong; Teng, Sasa; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Deng, Zijun; Zhou, Li; Zuo, Panli; Liu, Bing; Liu, Bin; Wu, Qihui; Wang, Li; Hu, Meiqin; Dou, Haiqiang; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Feipeng; Li, Qing; Guo, Shu; Gu, Jingli; Lei, Qian; Lü, Jing; Mu, Yu; Jin, Mu; Wang, Shirong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Kun; Wang, Changhe; Li, Wenlin; Zhang, Kang; Zhou, Zhuan

    2014-11-04

    Embryonic stem cell-based therapies exhibit great potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) because they can significantly rescue PD-like behaviors. However, whether the transplanted cells themselves release dopamine in vivo remains elusive. We and others have recently induced human embryonic stem cells into primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) that are self-renewable for massive/transplantable production and can efficiently differentiate into dopamine-like neurons (pNSC-DAn) in culture. Here, we showed that after the striatal transplantation of pNSC-DAn, (i) pNSC-DAn retained tyrosine hydroxylase expression and reduced PD-like asymmetric rotation; (ii) depolarization-evoked dopamine release and reuptake were significantly rescued in the striatum both in vitro (brain slices) and in vivo, as determined jointly by microdialysis-based HPLC and electrochemical carbon fiber electrodes; and (iii) the rescued dopamine was released directly from the grafted pNSC-DAn (and not from injured original cells). Thus, pNSC-DAn grafts release and reuptake dopamine in the striatum in vivo and alleviate PD symptoms in rats, providing proof-of-concept for human clinical translation.

  17. Optimizing Transgene Configuration and Protein Fusions to Maximize Dopamine Production for the Gene Therapy of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Hannah J; Ralph, G Scott; Fong-Wong, Liang; Strickland, Iain; McCloskey, Laura; Barnes, Lucy; Blount, Ian; Wells, Owen; Truran, Christelle J M; Kingsman, Alan J; Palfi, Stéphane; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A

    2016-09-01

    Pharmacological dopamine replacement therapies provide the most well-established treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, these long-term treatments can lead to motor complications and off-target effects. ProSavin(®), a lentiviral vector (LV)-based gene therapy approach aimed at restoring local and continuous dopamine production, through delivery of three enzymes in the dopamine biosynthesis pathway, was demonstrated to be safe and well-tolerated in a phase I/II clinical study of patients with advanced PD. Although improvements in motor behaviour were observed, the data indicated that higher levels of dopamine replacement might be required to maximize benefit. We attempted to increase production of dopamine, and its precursor L-Dopa in LV-transduced cells, by optimizing the gene order in the ProSavin expression cassette, and by creating fusions of two or three of the transgenes, using linker sequences. In vitro analysis showed that several gene arrangements provided significantly increased dopamine and/or L-Dopa production compared with ProSavin, and that LV titers and transgene expression were not affected by introducing gene fusions. One vector, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-TCiA, was selected for further characterization and showed significant improvements in dopamine and L-Dopa production compared with ProSavin, in human neuronal cells. Further characterization of EIAV-TCiA demonstrated expression of all three dopamine enzymes in vivo and faithful delivery and integration of the expected gene expression cassette within the genome of target cells, as assessed by Northern and Southern blotting. In conclusion, we have developed a novel LV vector with an increased capacity for L-Dopa and dopamine production compared with the current ProSavin vector. Clinical evaluation of this vector will be performed to assess the benefits in patients with PD.

  18. The role of dopamine D2, but not D3 or D4, receptor subtypes, in quinpirole-induced inhibition of the cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow in pithed rats

    PubMed Central

    Altamirano-Espinoza, A H; González-Hernández, A; Manrique-Maldonado, G; Marichal-Cancino, B A; Ruiz-Salinas, I; Villalón, C M

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Quinpirole (a dopamine D2-like receptor agonist) inhibits the cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow in pithed rats by sympathoinhibitory D2-like receptors. The present study was designed to identify pharmacologically the specific D2-like receptor subtypes (i.e. D2, D3 and D4) involved in this sympathoinhibition by quinpirole. Experimental Approach One hundred fourteen male Wistar rats were pithed, artificially ventilated with room air and prepared for either preganglionic spinal (C7-T1) stimulation of the cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow (n = 102) or i.v. bolus injections of exogenous noradrenaline (n = 12). This approach resulted in frequency-dependent and dose-dependent tachycardic responses, respectively, as previously reported by our group. Key Results I.v. continuous infusions of quinpirole (0.1–10 μg kg−1 min−1), but not of saline (0.02 mL min−1), dose-dependently inhibited the sympathetically induced tachycardic responses. Moreover, the cardiac sympathoinhibition induced by 3 μg kg−1 min−1 quinpirole (which failed to affect the tachycardic responses to i.v. noradrenaline) was: (i) unchanged after i.v. injections of the antagonists SB-277011-A (D3; 100–300 μg kg−1) or L-745,870 (D4; 30–100 μg kg−1); and (ii) markedly blocked and abolished by, respectively, 100 and 300 μg kg−1 of the D2 preferring receptor subtype antagonist L-741,626. These doses of antagonists, which did not affect per se the sympathetically induced tachycardic responses, were high enough to completely block their respective receptors. Conclusions and Implications The cardiac sympathoinhibition induced by 3 μg kg−1 min−1 quinpirole involves the dopamine D2 receptor subtype, with no evidence for the involvement of the D3 or D4 subtypes. This provides new evidence for understanding the modulation of the cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow. PMID:24032529

  19. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) As of FY 2015 President’s Budget...00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Responsible Office References Program Name Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) DoD Component Air Force

  20. Dopamine induces IL-6-dependent IL-17 production via D1-like receptor on CD4 naive T cells and D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390 inhibits cartilage destruction in a human rheumatoid arthritis/SCID mouse chimera model.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Kazuhisa; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Hanami, Kentaro; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Shinya; Katsuki, Ichiro; Matsushita, Sho; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2011-03-15

    A major neurotransmitter dopamine transmits signals via five different seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors termed D1-D5. Several studies have shown that dopamine not only mediates interactions into the nervous system, but can contribute to the modulation of immunity via receptors expressed on immune cells. We have previously shown an autocrine/paracrine release of dopamine by dendritic cells (DCs) during Ag presentation to naive CD4(+) T cells and found efficacious results of a D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390 in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of multiple sclerosis and in the NOD mouse model of type I diabetes, with inhibition of Th17 response. This study aimed to assess the role of dopaminergic signaling in Th17-mediated immune responses and in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In human naive CD4(+) T cells, dopamine increased IL-6-dependent IL-17 production via D1-like receptors, in response to anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 mAb. Furthermore, dopamine was localized with DCs in the synovial tissue of RA patients and significantly increased in RA synovial fluid. In the RA synovial/SCID mouse chimera model, although a selective D2-like receptor antagonist haloperidol significantly induced accumulation of IL-6(+) and IL-17(+) T cells with exacerbated cartilage destruction, SCH-23390 strongly suppressed these responses. Taken together, these findings indicate that dopamine released by DCs induces IL-6-Th17 axis and causes aggravation of synovial inflammation of RA, which is the first time, to our knowledge, that actual evidence has shown the pathological relevance of dopaminergic signaling with RA.

  1. Metabolism of dopamine by the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chemuturi, Nagendra V; Donovan, Maureen D

    2006-11-01

    The nasal route of administration offers several advantages over oral and intravenous administration, including the ability to avoid hepatic first pass metabolism. Dopamine deficiency has been associated with several neurological disorders; it has been shown to have good systemic bioavailability and significant uptake into the CNS following intranasal administration. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the limiting role of mucosal metabolism of dopamine during nasal absorption. In vitro transport and initial rate studies were carried out using nasal mucosal explants to study dopamine permeability and metabolism. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) was the only metabolite detected. Monoamine oxidase (MAO), the enzyme responsible for DOPAC formation, was localized to the submucosal region of the nasal explants. The amount of DOPAC formed during the transport studies was less than 0.5% of the initial amount of dopamine placed into the system. Iproniazid, an MAO inhibitor, blocked DOPAC formation but had no effect on dopamine transport. The limited extent of dopamine metabolism compared to its mucosal transport demonstrates that nasal dopamine transport is not significantly reduced by mucosal metabolism and suggests that the nasal route may be promising for the efficient delivery of dopamine to the CNS.

  2. Going for broke: dopamine influences risky choice.

    PubMed

    Moschak, Travis M; Carelli, Regina M

    2014-10-01

    Dopamine neurons track reward by increasing or decreasing their firing rate when a reward is present or absent. In this issue of Neuron, Stopper et al. (2014) demonstrate that artificially eliminating these dopamine bursts or dips can alter risky decision-making.

  3. Metabolic hormones, dopamine circuits, and feeding

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; Guarnieri, Douglas J.; DiLeone, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence has emerged demonstrating that metabolic hormones such as ghrelin and leptin can act on ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain dopamine neurons to influence feeding. The VTA is the origin of mesolimbic dopamine neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) to influence behavior. While blockade of dopamine via systemic antagonists or targeted gene delete can impair food intake, local NAc dopamine manipulations have little effect on food intake. Notably, non-dopaminergic manipulations in the VTA and NAc produce more consistent effects on feeding and food choice. More recent genetic evidence supports a role for the substantia nigra-striatal dopamine pathways in food intake, while the VTA-NAc circuit is more likely involved in higher-order aspects of food acquisition, such as motivation and cue associations. This rich and complex literature should be considered in models of how peripheral hormones influence feeding behavior via action on the midbrain circuits. PMID:19836414

  4. Dopamine transporter mutant animals: a translational perspective

    PubMed Central

    Efimova, Evgenia V.; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Budygin, Evgeny A.; Sotnikova, Tatiana D.

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays an important homeostatic role in the control of both the extracellular and intraneuronal concentrations of dopamine, thereby providing effective control over activity of dopaminergic transmission. Since brain dopamine is known to be involved in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, investigations using mice with genetically altered DAT function and thus intensity of dopamine-mediated signaling have provided numerous insights into the pathology of these disorders and highlight novel pathological mechanisms that could be targeted to provide new therapeutic approaches for these disorders. In this brief overview we discuss recent investigations involving animals with genetically altered DAT function, particularly focusing on translational studies providing new insights into pathology and pharmacology of dopamine-related disorders. Perspective applications of these and newly developed models of DAT dysfunction are also discussed. PMID:27276191

  5. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  6. Comparative Ultrastructural Analysis of D1 and D5 Dopamine Receptor Distribution in the Substantia Nigra and Globus Pallidus of Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Kliem, Michele A.; Pare, Jean-Francois; Khan, Zafar U.; Wichmann, Thomas; Smith, Yoland

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine acts through the D1-like (D1, D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, D4) receptor families. Various studies have shown a preponderance of presynaptic dopamine D1 receptors on axons and terminals in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra reticulata (SNr), but little is known about D5 receptors distribution in these brain regions. In order to further characterize the potential targets whereby dopamine could mediate its effects in basal ganglia output nuclei, we undertook a comparative electron microscopic analysis of D1 and D5 receptors immunoreactivity in the GPi and SNr of rhesus monkeys. At the light microscopic level, D1 receptor labeling was confined to small punctate elements, while D5 receptor immunoreactivity was predominantly expressed in cellular and dendritic processes throughout the SNr and GPi. At the electron microscopic level, 90% of D1 receptor labeling was found in unmyelinated axons or putative GABAergic terminals in both basal ganglia output nuclei. In contrast, D5 receptor labeling showed a different pattern of distribution. Although the majority (65−75%) of D5 receptor immunoreactivity was also found in unmyelinated axons and terminals in GPi and SNr, significant D5 receptor immunolabeling was also located in dendritic and glial processes. Immunogold studies showed that about 50% of D1 receptor immunoreactivity in axons was bound to the plasma membrane providing functional sites for D1 receptor-mediated effects on transmitter release in GPi and SNr. These findings provide evidence for the existence of extrastriatal pre- and post-synaptic targets through which dopamine and drugs acting at D1-like receptors may regulate basal ganglia outflow and possibly exert some of their anti-parkinsonian effects. PMID:19750130

  7. D1-like dopamine receptors downregulate Na+-K+-ATPase activity and increase cAMP production in the posterior gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus

    PubMed Central

    Arnaldo, Francis B.; Villar, Van Anthony M.; Konkalmatt, Prasad R.; Owens, Shaun A.; Asico, Laureano D.; Jones, John E.; Yang, Jian; Lovett, Donald L.; Armando, Ines; Concepcion, Gisela P.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine-mediated regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of some crustaceans has been reported to be involved in osmoregulation. The dopamine receptors of invertebrates are classified into three groups based on their structure and pharmacology: D1- and D2-like receptors and a distinct invertebrate receptor subtype (INDR). We tested the hypothesis that a D1-like receptor is expressed in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and regulates Na+-K+-ATPase activity. RT-PCR, using degenerate primers, showed the presence of D1βR mRNA in the posterior gill. The blue crab posterior gills showed positive immunostaining for a dopamine D5 receptor (D5R or D1βR) antibody in the basolateral membrane and cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy showed colocalization of Na+-K+-ATPase and D1βR in the basolateral membrane. To determine the effect of D1-like receptor stimulation on Na+-K+-ATPase activity, intact crabs acclimated to low salinity for 6 days were given an intracardiac infusion of the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam, with or without the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. Fenoldopam increased cAMP production twofold and decreased Na+-K+-ATPase activity by 50% in the posterior gills. This effect was blocked by coinfusion with SCH23390, which had no effect on Na+-K+-ATPase activity by itself. Fenoldopam minimally decreased D1βR protein expression (10%) but did not affect Na+-K+-ATPase α-subunit protein expression. This study shows the presence of functional D1βR in the posterior gills of euryhaline crabs chronically exposed to low salinity and highlights the evolutionarily conserved function of the dopamine receptors on sodium homeostasis. PMID:25080496

  8. D1-like dopamine receptors downregulate Na+-K+-ATPase activity and increase cAMP production in the posterior gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Arnaldo, Francis B; Villar, Van Anthony M; Konkalmatt, Prasad R; Owens, Shaun A; Asico, Laureano D; Jones, John E; Yang, Jian; Lovett, Donald L; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2014-09-15

    Dopamine-mediated regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of some crustaceans has been reported to be involved in osmoregulation. The dopamine receptors of invertebrates are classified into three groups based on their structure and pharmacology: D1- and D2-like receptors and a distinct invertebrate receptor subtype (INDR). We tested the hypothesis that a D1-like receptor is expressed in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus and regulates Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. RT-PCR, using degenerate primers, showed the presence of D1βR mRNA in the posterior gill. The blue crab posterior gills showed positive immunostaining for a dopamine D5 receptor (D5R or D1βR) antibody in the basolateral membrane and cytoplasm. Confocal microscopy showed colocalization of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and D1βR in the basolateral membrane. To determine the effect of D1-like receptor stimulation on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, intact crabs acclimated to low salinity for 6 days were given an intracardiac infusion of the D1-like receptor agonist fenoldopam, with or without the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. Fenoldopam increased cAMP production twofold and decreased Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by 50% in the posterior gills. This effect was blocked by coinfusion with SCH23390, which had no effect on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by itself. Fenoldopam minimally decreased D1βR protein expression (10%) but did not affect Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α-subunit protein expression. This study shows the presence of functional D1βR in the posterior gills of euryhaline crabs chronically exposed to low salinity and highlights the evolutionarily conserved function of the dopamine receptors on sodium homeostasis.

  9. Dopamine agonist therapy in hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Webster, J

    1999-12-01

    Introduction of the dopamine agonist bromocriptine heralded a major advance in the management of hyperprolactinemic disorders. Although its side effects of nausea, dizziness and headache and its short elimination half-life are limiting factors, its efficacy established it as a reference compound against the activity of which several dopamine agonists, like pergolide, lysuride, metergoline, terguride and dihydroergocristine, fell by the wayside. More recently, two new agents, cabergoline and quinagolide, have been introduced and appear to offer considerable advantages over bromocriptine. Cabergoline, an ergoline D2 agonist, has a long plasma half-life that enables once- or twice-weekly administration. Quinagolide, in contrast, is a nonergot D2 agonist with an elimination half-life intermediate between those of bromocriptine and cabergoline, allowing the drug to be administered once daily. Comparative studies indicate that cabergoline is clearly superior to bromocriptine in efficacy (prolactin suppression, restoration of gonadal function) and in tolerability. In similar studies, quinagolide appeared to have similar efficacy and superior tolerability to that of bromocriptine. Results of a small crossover study indicate that cabergoline is better tolerated, with a trend toward activity superior to that of quinagolide. In hyperprolactinemic men and in women not seeking to become pregnant, cabergoline may be regarded as the treatment of choice.

  10. Involvement of dopamine receptors within the dorsal hippocampus in suppression of the formalin-induced orofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Shamsizadeh, Ali; Pahlevani, Pouyan; Haghparast, Amir; Moslehi, Maryam; Zarepour, Leila; Haghparast, Abbas

    2013-12-01

    It is widely established that the dopaminergic system has profound effects on pain modulation in different regions of the brain including the hippocampus, the salient area for brain functions. The orofacial region is one of the most densely innervated (by the trigeminal nerves) areas of the body susceptible to acute and chronic pains. In this study, we tried to examine the effects of dopamine receptors located in the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) region upon the modulation of orofacial pain induced by the formalin test. To induce orofacial pain in male Wistar rats, 50μl of 1% formalin was subcutaneously injected into the upper lip. In control and experimental groups, two guide cannulae were stereotaxically implanted in the CA1, and SKF-38393 (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2μg/0.5μl saline) as a D1-like receptor agonist, SCH-23390 (1μg/0.5μl saline) as a D1-like receptor antagonist, Quinpirole (0.5, 1, 2 and 4μg/0.5μl saline) as a D2-like receptor agonist and Sulpiride(3μg/0.5μl DMSO) as a D2-like receptor antagonist or vehicles were microinjected. For induction of orofacial pain, 50μl of 1% formalin was subcutaneously injected into the left side of the upper lip. Results indicated that SKF-38393 at the dose of 1 and 2μg significantly reduced pain during the first and second phases of observed pain while SCH-23390 reversed such analgesic effect. Moreover, there is a significant difference between groups in which animals received 2 and 4μg quinpirole or vehicle in the first phase (early phase) of pain. The three high doses of this compound (1, 2 and 4μg) appeared to have an analgesic effect during the second (late) phase. Furthermore, Sulpiride could potentially reverse the observed analgesic effects already induced by an agonist. Current findings suggest that the dorsal hippocampal dopamine receptors exert an analgesic effect during the orofacial pain test.

  11. Dopamine-Secreting Paraganglioma in the Retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yusuke; Kimura, Noriko; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Sekiguchi, Yoshihiro; Tomoishi, Junzo; Kasahara, Ichiro; Hara, Yoshihito; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2017-03-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, which exclusively produce dopamine, are very rare. Herein, we report for the first time a Japanese case of an exclusively dopamine-producing paraganglioma accompanied by detailed immunohistochemical analyses. A 70-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital for functional examination of her left retroperitoneal mass. Her adrenal functions were normal, except for excessive dopamine secretion. After the tumorectomy, her dopamine level normalized. The histopathological diagnosis of the tumor was paraganglioma; this was confirmed by positive immunostaining of chromogranin A (CgA), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), and succinate dehydrogenase gene subunit B (SDHB). However, the immunostaining of CgA in the tumor cells showed peculiar dot-like staining located corresponding to Golgi complex in the perinuclear area, rather than the diffuse cytoplasmic staining usually observed in epinephrine- or norepinephrine-producing functional pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. The immunohistochemical results suggested that the tumor cells had sparse neuroendocrine granules in the cytoplasm, resulting in inhibition of catecholamine synthesis from dopamine to norepinephrine in neurosecretory granules. This may be the mechanism responsible for exclusive dopamine secretion in the present case.

  12. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

  13. Dopamine transporter: expression in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Uhl, G R; O'Hara, B; Shimada, S; Zaczek, R; DiGiorgianni, J; Nishimori, T

    1991-01-01

    Xenopus oocytes can express biologically relevant transport activity after injection of mRNAs encoding several carrier molecules. mRNA from PC12 cells, as well as transcripts from a rat ventral midbrain library, can be expressed in these oocytes and allow them to display pharmacologically specific dopamine uptake. mRNA-injected oocytes incubated with tritiated dopamine contain tritiated dopamine and metabolites; lower amounts of radiolabeled dopamine and more radiolabeled metabolites are found in oocytes co-incubated with cocaine or in water-injected oocytes. Tritiated dopamine uptake into mRNA-injected oocytes is time, sodium, and temperature dependent. It is blocked by cocaine and mazindol, but not by haloperidol. It is not found after injection of mRNA from other brain regions. A size-selected rat midbrain library constructed in the plasma vector pCDM8 yields mRNA transcripts whose injection into oocytes causes cocaine-blockable [3H]dopamine uptake. These findings provide an assay for purification of the dopamine transporter cDNA by sib selection techniques.

  14. Stereoselectivity of presynaptic autoreceptors modulating dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Arbilla, S; Langer, S Z

    1981-12-17

    The effects of the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol were studied on the spontaneous and field stimulation-evoked release of total radioactivity from slices of rabbit caudate nucleus prelabelled with [3H]dopamine. (S)-Sulpiride in concentrations ranging from 0.01--1 microM enhanced the electrically evoked release of [3H]dopamine while (R)-sulpiride was 10 times less potent than (S)-sulpiride. Exposure to (S)-butaclamol (0.01--1 microM) but not to (R)-butaclamol (0.1--10 microM) enhanced the field-stimulated release of [3H]dopamine. The facilitatory effects of (S)- and (R)-sulpiride and (S)-butaclamol on the stimulated release of the labelled neurotransmitter were observed under conditions in which these drugs did not modify the spontaneous outflow of radioactivity. Only the active enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol antagonized the inhibition by apomorphine (1 microM) of the stimulated release of [3H]dopamine. Our results indicate that the presynaptic inhibitory dopamine autoreceptors modulating the stimulation-evoked release of [3H]dopamine in the caudate nucleus are, like the classical postsynaptic dopamine receptors, chemically stereoselective.

  15. Dopamine receptor-interacting proteins: the Ca(2+) connection in dopamine signaling.

    PubMed

    Bergson, Clare; Levenson, Robert; Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S; Lidow, Michael S

    2003-09-01

    Abnormal activity of the dopamine system has been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological illnesses; however, lack of knowledge about the precise sites of dopamine dysfunction has compromised our ability to improve the efficacy and safety of dopamine-related drugs used in treatment modalities. Recent work suggests that dopamine transmission is regulated via the concerted efforts of a cohort of cytoskeletal, adaptor and signaling proteins called dopamine receptor-interacting proteins (DRIPs). The discovery that two DRIPs, calcyon and neuronal Ca(2+) sensor 1 (NCS-1), are upregulated in schizophrenia highlights the possibility that altered protein interactions and defects in Ca(2+) homeostasis might contribute to abnormalities in the brain dopamine system in neuropsychiatric diseases.

  16. Signaling in dopamine D2 receptor-oxytocin receptor heterocomplexes and its relevance for the anxiolytic effects of dopamine and oxytocin interactions in the amygdala of the rat.

    PubMed

    de la Mora, Miguel Pérez; Pérez-Carrera, Diana; Crespo-Ramírez, Minerva; Tarakanov, Alexander; Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O

    2016-11-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)-oxytocin receptor (OTR) interactions exist within heterocomplexes with facilitatory effects on D2R recognition and Gi/o coupling. In this work the hypothesis is tested using cotransfected HEK293 cells whether allosteric reciprocal D2R-OTR interactions can enhance signaling of D2R-OTR heterocomplexes along the CREB, MAPK and PLC pathways and whether the anxiolytic effects of OT may involve facilitatory D2R-OTR interactions within the central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA). Oxytocin enhanced the D2-like agonist quinpirole induced inhibition of the AC-PKA-pCREB signaling cascade and increased its signaling over the RAS-MAPK-pELK pathway. Quinpirole enhanced the oxytocin induced increases in the activity of the PLCbeta-IP3-calcineurin and RAS-MAPK-pELK cascades. Bilateral infusion of oxytocin (0.9-150ng/side) into the CeA of the rat elicited anxiolytic effects in the Shock-Probe Burying test, an unconditioned model of fear/anxiety. This action was not observed when oxytocin (25ng/side) was simultaneously co-infused with raclopride (neither 250 nor 500ng/side), a D2/D3 antagonist, into the CeA. Based on the current findings, the blockade of the anxiolytic effects of oxytocin by the simultaneous intra-CeA administration of raclopride can be explained by a lack of facilitatory protomer interactions in D2R-OTR heterocomplexes. Dysfunction and/or disruption of such interactions in the central amygdala may lead to anxiety development. Restoration of such interactions may represent a new strategy for development of novel anxiolytic drugs.

  17. Identification of a null mutation in the human dopamine D4 receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Noethen, M.M.; Cichon, S.; Hebebrand, J.

    1994-09-01

    Dopamine receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. Five different dopamine receptor genes have thus far been identified. These receptors are classified into two main subfamilies: D1, which includes the D1 and D5 receptors, and D2, which includes the D2, D3, and D4 receptors. The dopamine D4 receptor is of great interest for research into neuropsychiatric disorders and psychopharmacology in light of the fact that it binds the antipsychotic medication clozapine with higher affinity than does any other dopamine receptor. In addition, among the dopamine receptors, the D4 receptor shows a uniquely high degree of genetic variation in the human population. We identified a new 13 bp deletion in exon 1 of the D4 gene. This frameshift creates a terminator codon at amino acid position 98. mRNA isolated from brain tissue of two heterozygous persons showed both alleles to be expressed. The deletion occurs with a frequency of 2% in the German population. One person was identified to be homozygous for the deletion. Interestingly, he has a normal intelligence and did not exhibit a major psychiatric disorder as defined by DSM III-R. The 13 bp deletion is the first mutation resulting in premature translation termination reported for a dopamine receptor gene so far. This mutation is a good candidate to test for potential effects on disease and/or individual response to pharmacotherapy. Association studies in patients with various psychiatric illnesses and differences in response to clozapine are underway.

  18. Human dopamine receptor and its uses

    DOEpatents

    Civelli, Olivier; Van Tol, Hubert Henri-Marie

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward the isolation, characterization and pharmacological use of the human D4 dopamine receptor. The nucleotide sequence of the gene corresponding to this receptor and alleleic variant thereof are provided by the invention. The invention also includes recombinant eukaryotic expression constructs capable of expressing the human D4 dopamine receptor in cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells. The invention provides cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells which synthesize the human D4 dopamine receptor, and methods for characterizing novel psychotropic compounds using such cultures.

  19. Behavioural effects of selective tachykinin agonists in midbrain dopamine regions.

    PubMed

    Stoessl, A J; Szczutkowski, E; Glenn, B; Watson, I

    1991-11-29

    The effects of selective NK-1, NK-2 and NK-3 tachykinin agonists in midbrain dopamine cell containing regions were investigated in the rat. The NK-3 agonist senktide induced locomotion, rearing and sniffing following infusion into the substantia nigra pars compacta, and to a lesser extent in the ventral tegmental area. These behavioural responses were not seen following infusion of the selective NK-1 agonist [Sar9,Met (O2)11]SP or the NK-2 agonist [N1e10]NKA4-10. In contrast, grooming was induced only by the NK-1 agonist administered into the substantia nigra. Yawning, chewing mouth movements and wet dog shakes were all seen following infusion of senktide into the ventral tegmental area. These findings suggest that (i) dopamine-mediated behavioural responses seen following tachykinin administration into the midbrain are dependent upon stimulation of NK-3 tachykinin receptors, (ii) tachykinin-induced grooming is mediated by stimulation of NK-1 receptors and (iii) some of the previously described 5-HT mediated behaviours seen following administration of NK-3 tachykinin agonists are probably generated by stimulation of 5-HT cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area.

  20. Phasic dopamine release in appetitive behaviors and drug abuse

    PubMed Central

    Wanat, Matthew J.; Willuhn, Ingo; Clark, Jeremy J.; Phillips, Paul E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Short phasic bursts of neuronal activity in dopamine neurons produce rapid and transient increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations throughout the mesocorticolimbic system, which are associated with the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. It is well established that acute exposure to many addictive drugs produce increases in tonic dopamine levels that occur on the order of minutes. However, recent studies suggest that abused drugs similarly enhance phasic dopamine release events that occur on a subsecond time scale. Furthermore, drug experience modulates the synaptic and intrinsic properties of dopamine neurons, which could affect dopamine burst firing and phasic dopamine release. This review will provide a general introduction to the mesolimbic dopamine system, as well as the primary methods used to detect dopamine neurons and dopamine release. We present the role of phasic dopamine release in appetitive behaviors in the context of contemporary theories regarding the function of dopamine. Next we discuss the known drug-induced changes to dopamine neurons and phasic release in both in vitro and in vivo preparations. Finally, we offer a simple model that chronic drug experience attenuates tonic/basal dopamine levels but promotes phasic dopamine release, which may result in aberrant goal-directed behaviors contributing to the development of addiction. PMID:19630749

  1. Delusions, superstitious conditioning and chaotic dopamine neurodynamics.

    PubMed

    Shaner, A

    1999-02-01

    Excessive mesolimbic dopaminergic neurotransmission is closely related to the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. A mathematical model of dopamine neuron firing rates, developed by King and others, suggests a mechanism by which excessive dopaminergic transmission could produce psychotic symptoms, especially delusions. In this model, firing rates varied chaotically when the efficacy of dopaminergic transmission was enhanced. Such non-contingent changes in firing rates in mesolimbic reward pathways could produce delusions by distorting thinking in the same way that non-contingent reinforcement produces superstitious conditioning. Though difficult to test in humans, the hypothesis is testable as an explanation for a common animal model of psychosis--amphetamine stereotypy in rats. The hypothesis predicts that: (1) amphetamine will cause chaotic firing rates in mesolimbic dopamine neurons; (2) non-contingent brain stimulation reward will produce stereotypy; (3) non-contingent microdialysis of dopamine into reward areas will produce stereotypy; and (4) dopamine antagonists will block all three effects.

  2. Detection of Dopamine Dynamics in the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, R. Mark; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explores neurochemical events in the extra cellular space of the brain by use of in vivo voltammetric microelectrodes. Reports dopamine concentrations and pathways, and discusses techniques used for analysis. Recognizes current problems and future directions for research. (ML)

  3. Dopamine-oxytocin interactions in penile erection.

    PubMed

    Baskerville, T A; Allard, J; Wayman, C; Douglas, A J

    2009-12-03

    Dopamine and oxytocin have established roles in the central regulation of penile erection in rats; however, the neural circuitries involved in a specific erectile context and the interaction between dopamine and oxytocin mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The medial preoptic area (MPOA), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus may serve as candidate sites because they contain oxytocin cells, receive dopaminergic inputs and have been implicated in mediating masculine sexual behavior. Double immunofluorescence revealed that substantial numbers of oxytocin cells in the MPOA, SON and PVN possess dopamine D(2), D(3) and D(4) receptors. In anaesthetized rats, using intracavernous pressure as a physiological indicator of erection, blockade of lumbosacral oxytocin receptors (UK, 427843) reduced erectile responses to a nonselective dopamine agonist (apomorphine), suggesting that dopamine recruits a paraventriculospinal oxytocin pathway. In conscious males in the absence of a female, penile erection elicited by a D(2)/D(3) (Quinelorane) but not D(4) (PD168077) agonist was associated with activation of medial parvocellular PVN oxytocin cells. In another experiment where males were given full access to a receptive female, a D(4) (L-745870) but not D(2) or D(3) antagonist (L-741626; nafadotride) inhibited penile erection (intromission), and this was correlated with SON magnocellular oxytocin neuron activation. Together, the data suggest dopamine's effects on hypothalamic oxytocin cells during penile erection are context-specific. Dopamine may act via different parvocellular and magnocellular oxytocin subpopulations to elicit erectile responses, depending upon whether intromission is performed. This study demonstrates the potential existence of interaction between central dopamine and oxytocin pathways during penile erection, with the SON and PVN serving as integrative sites.

  4. A model of dopamine modulated glutamatergic synapse.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Vito; Ventriglia, Francesco; Santillo, Silvia

    2015-10-01

    The dopamine neurotransmitter regulates important neural pathways and its action in the brain is very complex. When dopaminergic neurons make synapses on spiny neurons of the striatum nucleus, they tune the responsiveness of glutamatergic synapses by means of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. We studied the effect of dopamine D1 receptors on glutamatergic synapse of GABAergic spiny neurons in striatum nucleus where they are located on the neck of the same spine. The action of dopamine consists essentially in promoting the phosphorylation of AMPA and NMDA receptors thus increasing the Excitatory Post Synaptic Current peak amplitude. The consequence is a cooperative effect of glutamatergic and dopaminergic synapses for the regulation of the GABAergic neuronal code. The mechanisms by which the phosphorylation induces the increase of the EPSC amplitude still remain unclear although the lack of this regulation can be involved in several pathologies as, for example, the Parkinson's disease. We tested, by computational experiments based on our model of glutamatergic synapse, three parameters of the synaptic function that could be involved in dopamine action: (a) time binding of glutamate to receptors; (b) open probability of the receptors; and (c) single receptor conductance. For different reasons, any of the three parameters could be responsible of the increased EPSC-dopamine-dependent. Our computational results were compared and discussed with experimental results found in literature. Although for our model both the open probability and the single receptor conductance can reproduce the phosphorylation effect of dopamine, we argue that the dopamine effect consists essentially in an increase of the single receptor conductance due to a 3D rearrangement of the phosphorylated receptors.

  5. Long-term studies of dopamine agonists.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Jean P

    2002-02-26

    Dopamine agonists have long been used as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). In more recent years these drugs have also been proved safe and effective as initial therapy in lieu of levodopa in the treatment of PD. Long-term levodopa therapy is associated with motor complications, including fluctuating response patterns and dyskinesia. By initially introducing a dopamine agonist as symptomatic drug therapy, it may be possible to postpone the use of levodopa and delay or prevent the development of motor complications. Recently, four clinical trials have explored this hypothesis by comparing the long-term response and side effects of levodopa with dopamine agonist therapy. The drugs studied have included ropinirole, pramipexole, cabergoline, and pergolide. In each of these projects, the occurrence of motor complications, such as wearing off and dyskinesia, was significantly less in the subjects assigned to initiation of therapy with a dopamine agonist. The addition of levodopa could be postponed by many months or even several years. Therefore, these long-term studies of dopamine agonists support the initiation of a dopamine agonist instead of levodopa in an effort to postpone levodopa-related motor complications. This therapeutic approach may be particularly appropriate in PD patients with a long treatment horizon on the basis of age and general good health. The extension phase of the long-term study comparing pramipexole with levodopa is ongoing, and follow-up information may help to establish the value of this treatment strategy.

  6. Pharmacological characterization of renal vascular dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Imbs, J L

    1980-01-01

    We present an in vitro method for studying the renal effects of dopamine in the isolated rat kidney. The organ is perfused in an open circuit and can be maintained satisfactorily for up to 180 min. The responses to dopamine were studied in the presence of phenoxybenzamine (10(-5) M) and sotalol (10(-5) M) while stable renal vasoconstriction was maintained by perfusion with prostaglandine F2 alpha. Dopamine induced dose-dependent renal vasodilation with an ED50 of 2.53 X 10(-6) moles/liter, which was not modified by reserpine pretreatment. (+) Butaclamol but not (-) butaclamol shifted the dopamine dose-response curve to the right in a parallel fashion, indicating competitive antagonism. Haloperidol and sulpiride at concentrations without intrinsic effect on vascular resistance also acted as competitive inhibitors for dopamine. Calculation of empirical pA2 values yielded the following relative potencies for these antagonists: (+) butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than sulpiride. The renal vascular dopamine receptors are tentatively classified as being of the D1 type.

  7. Association of attention-deficit disorder and the dopamine transporter gene

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E.H. Jr.; Stein, M.A.; Krasowski, M.D.; Cox, N.J.; Olkon, D.M.; Kieffer, J.E.; Leventhal, B.L.

    1995-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be familial and heritable, in previous studies. As with most psychiatric disorders, examination of pedigrees has not revealed a consistent Mendelian mode of transmission. The response of ADHD patients to medications that inhibit the dopamine transporter, including methylphenidate, amphetamine, pemoline, and bupropion, led us to consider the dopamine transporter as a primary candidate gene for ADHD. To avoid effects of population stratification and to avoid the problem of classification of relatives with other psychiatric disorders as affected or unaffected, we used the haplotype-based haplotype relative risk (HHRR) method to test for association between a VNTR polymorphism at the dopamine transporter locus (DAT1) and DSM-III-R-diagnosed ADHD (N = 49) and undifferentiated attention-deficit disorder (UADD) (N = 8) in trios composed of father, mother, and affected offspring. HHRR analysis revealed significant association between ADHS/UADD and the 480-bp DAT1 allele (X{sup 2} 7.51, 1 df, P = .006). When cases of UADD were dropped from the analysis, similar results were found (X{sup 2} 7.29, 1 df, P = .007). If these findings are replicated, molecular analysis of the dopamine transporter gene may identify mutations that increase susceptibility to ADHD/UADD. Biochemical analysis of such mutations may lead to development of more effective therapeutic interventions. 36 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Dopamine decreases NMDA currents in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of cocaine self-administering rats.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Michal; deBacker, Julian; Mason, Xenos; Jones, Andrea A; Dumont, Eric C

    2014-06-03

    Dopamine (DA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) contribute in the neural processes underlying drug-driven behaviors. DA is a potent modulator of NMDAR, but few studies have investigated the functional interaction between DA and NMDAR in the context of substance abuse. We combined the rat model of cocaine self-administration with brain slice electrophysiology to study DA modulation of NMDA currents in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST), a dense DA terminal field involved in maintenance of cocaine self-administration amongst other drug related behaviors. Long-Evans rats self-administered intravenous cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/injection) on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement for 15 days and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were done on the 16th day. DA reduced NMDA currents in brain-slices from cocaine self-administering rats, but not in those of drug-naïve and sucrose self-administering, or when cocaine exposure was passive (yoked), revealing a mechanism unique to voluntary cocaine intake. DA reduced NMDA currents by activating G-protein-coupled D1- and D2-like receptors that converged on phospholipase C and protein phosphatases. Accordingly, our study reveals a mechanism that may contribute to dysfunctional synaptic plasticity associated with drug-driven behaviors during acute withdrawal.

  9. Polymorphisms of Dopamine Receptor Genes and Risk of L-Dopa–Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Comi, Cristoforo; Ferrari, Marco; Marino, Franca; Magistrelli, Luca; Cantello, Roberto; Riboldazzi, Giulio; Bianchi, Maria Laura Ester; Bono, Giorgio; Cosentino, Marco

    2017-01-01

    L-dopa–induced dyskinesia (LID) is a frequent motor complication of Parkinson’s disease (PD), associated with a negative prognosis. Previous studies showed an association between dopamine receptor (DR) gene (DR) variants and LID, the results of which have not been confirmed. The present study is aimed to determine whether genetic differences of DR are associated with LID in a small but well-characterized cohort of PD patients. To this end we enrolled 100 PD subjects, 50 with and 50 without LID, matched for age, gender, disease duration and dopaminergic medication in a case-control study. We conducted polymerase chain reaction for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in both D1-like (DRD1A48G; DRD1C62T and DRD5T798C) and D2-like DR (DRD2G2137A, DRD2C957T, DRD3G25A, DRD3G712C, DRD4C616G and DRD4nR VNTR 48bp) analyzed genomic DNA. Our results showed that PD patients carrying allele A at DRD3G3127A had an increased risk of LID (OR 4.9; 95% CI 1.7–13.9; p = 0.004). The present findings may provide valuable information for personalizing pharmacological therapy in PD patients. PMID:28125015

  10. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  11. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  12. Dopamine, Behavioral Economics, and Effort

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M.; Nunes, Eric J.; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  13. D1-like dopamine receptor density in nuclei involved in social behavior correlates with song in a context-dependent fashion in male European starlings

    PubMed Central

    Heimovics, Sarah A; Cornil, Charlotte A; Ball, Gregory F; Riters, Lauren V

    2009-01-01

    Research in songbirds shows that singing behavior is regulated by both brain areas involved in vocal behavior as well as those involved in social behavior. Interestingly, the precise role of these regions in song can vary as a function of the social, environmental and breeding context. To date, little is known about the neurotransmitters underlying such context-dependent regulation of song. Dopamine (DA) modulates highly motivated, goal-directed behaviors (including sexually motivated song) and emerging data implicate DA in the context-dependent regulation of singing behavior. This study was performed to begin to examine whether differences in DA receptors may underlie, in part, context-dependent differences in song production. We used autoradiographic procedures to label D1-like and D2-like DA receptors to examine the relationship between DA receptor density and singing behavior in multiple contexts in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Within a breeding context (when testosterone (T) was high), D1-like receptor density in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and midbrain central gray (GCt) negatively correlated with song used to attract a female. Additionally in this context, D1-like receptor density in POM, GCt, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), and lateral septum (LS) negatively correlated with song likely used to defend a nestbox. In contrast, in a non-breeding context (when T was low), D1-like receptor density in POM and LS positively correlated with song used to maintain social flocks. No relationships were identified between song in any context and D2-like receptor densities. Differences in the brain regions and directional relationships between D1-like receptor binding and song suggest that dopaminergic systems play a region and context-specific role in song. These data also suggest that individual variation in singing behavior may, in part, be explained by individual differences in D1-like receptor density in brain regions

  14. Abstinence from Chronic Cocaine Self-Administration Alters Striatal Dopamine Systems in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, Thomas JR; Smith, Hilary R; Nader, Michael A; Porrino, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    Although dysregulation within the dopamine (DA) system is a hallmark feature of chronic cocaine exposure, the question of whether these alterations persist into abstinence remains largely unanswered. Nonhuman primates represent an ideal model in which to assess the effects of abstinence on the DA system following chronic cocaine exposure. In this study, male rhesus monkeys self-administered cocaine (0.3 mg/kg per injection, 30 reinforcers per session) under a fixed-interval 3-min schedule for 100 days followed by either 30 or 90 days abstinence. This duration of cocaine self-administration has been previously shown to decrease DA D2-like receptor densities and increase levels of D1-like receptors and DA transporters (DAT). Responding by control monkeys was maintained by food presentation under an identical protocol and the same abstinence periods. [3H]SCH 23390 binding to DA D1 receptors following 30 days of abstinence was significantly higher in all portions of the striatum, compared to control animals, whereas [3H]raclopride binding to DA D2 receptors was not different between groups. [3H]WIN 35 428 binding to DAT was also significantly higher throughout virtually all portions of the dorsal and ventral striatum following 30 days of abstinence. Following 90 days of abstinence, however, levels of DA D1 receptors and DAT were not different from control values. Although these results indicate that there is eventual recovery of the separate elements of the DA system, they also highlight the dynamic nature of these components during the initial phases of abstinence from chronic cocaine self-administration. PMID:18769473

  15. Genetic disruption of dopamine production results in pituitary adenomas and severe prolactinemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dopamine release from tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons into the median eminence activates dopamine-D2 receptors in the pituitary gland where it inhibits lactotroph function. We have previously described genetic dopamine-deficient mouse models which lack the ability to synthesize dopamine. Because...

  16. Predominant role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype for mediating the quinpirole-induced inhibition of the vasopressor sympathetic outflow in pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Salinas, Inna; González-Hernández, Abimael; Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; Altamirano-Espinoza, Alain H; Villalón, Carlos M

    2013-05-01

    We have recently reported that quinpirole (a D2-like receptor agonist) inhibits the vasopressor sympathetic outflow in pithed rats via sympatho-inhibitory D2-like receptors. Since D2-like receptors consist of D2, D3 and D4 receptor subtypes, this study investigated whether these subtypes are involved in the above quinpirole-induced sympatho-inhibition by using antagonists of these receptor subtypes. One hundred fifty-six male Wistar rats were pithed and prepared for preganglionic spinal (T7-T9) stimulation of the vasopressor sympathetic outflow. This approach resulted in frequency-dependent vasopressor responses which were analysed before and during i.v. continuous infusions of either saline (0.02 ml/min) or quinpirole (1 μg/kg.min) in animals receiving i.v. bolus injections of vehicle [saline or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)] or the antagonists L-741,626 (D2), nafadotride or SB-277011-A (both D3) as well as L-745,870 (D4). Quinpirole inhibited the sympathetically-induced vasopressor responses. This sympatho-inhibition was (a) unaltered after 1 ml/kg saline, DMSO or 100 and 300 μg/kg L-741,626; (b) markedly blocked and abolished by, respectively, 30 and 100 μg/kg nafadotride or 100 and 300 μg/kg SB-277011-A and (c) slightly blocked after 30 and 100 μg/kg L-745,870, but 300 μg/kg L-745,870 produced no blockade whatsoever. Except for 300 μg/kg L-741,626 or 300 μg/kg L-745,870, the doses of the above compounds failed to modify per se the sympathetic vasopressor responses. The inhibition of the vasopressor sympathetic outflow induced by 1 μg/kg.min quinpirole in pithed rats is predominantly mediated by dopamine D3 and, to a lesser extent, by D4 receptor subtypes, with no evidence for the involvement of the D2 subtype.

  17. Diversity and Bias through Receptor–Receptor Interactions in GPCR Heteroreceptor Complexes. Focus on Examples from Dopamine D2 Receptor Heteromerization

    PubMed Central

    Fuxe, Kjell; Tarakanov, Alexander; Romero Fernandez, Wilber; Ferraro, Luca; Tanganelli, Sergio; Filip, Malgorzata; Agnati, Luigi F.; Garriga, Pere; Diaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric receptor–receptor interactions in GPCR heteromers appeared to introduce an intermolecular allosteric mechanism contributing to the diversity and bias in the protomers. Examples of dopamine D2R heteromerization are given to show how such allosteric mechanisms significantly change the receptor protomer repertoire leading to diversity and biased recognition and signaling. In 1980s and 1990s, it was shown that neurotensin (NT) through selective antagonistic NTR–D2 like receptor interactions increased the diversity of DA signaling by reducing D2R-mediated dopamine signaling over D1R-mediated dopamine signaling. Furthermore, D2R protomer appeared to bias the specificity of the NTR orthosteric binding site toward neuromedin N vs. NT in the heteroreceptor complex. Complex CCK2R–D1R–D2R interactions in possible heteroreceptor complexes were also demonstrated further increasing receptor diversity. In D2R–5-HT2AR heteroreceptor complexes, the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI were recently found to exert a biased agonist action on the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer leading to the development of an active conformational state different from the one produced by 5-HT. Furthermore, as recently demonstrated allosteric A2A–D2R receptor–receptor interaction brought about not only a reduced affinity of the D2R agonist binding site but also a biased modulation of the D2R protomer signaling in A2A–D2R heteroreceptor complexes. A conformational state of the D2R was induced, which moved away from Gi/o signaling and instead favored β-arrestin2-mediated signaling. These examples on allosteric receptor–receptor interactions obtained over several decades serve to illustrate the significant increase in diversity and biased recognition and signaling that develop through such mechanisms. PMID:24860548

  18. Diversity and Bias through Receptor-Receptor Interactions in GPCR Heteroreceptor Complexes. Focus on Examples from Dopamine D2 Receptor Heteromerization.

    PubMed

    Fuxe, Kjell; Tarakanov, Alexander; Romero Fernandez, Wilber; Ferraro, Luca; Tanganelli, Sergio; Filip, Malgorzata; Agnati, Luigi F; Garriga, Pere; Diaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in GPCR heteromers appeared to introduce an intermolecular allosteric mechanism contributing to the diversity and bias in the protomers. Examples of dopamine D2R heteromerization are given to show how such allosteric mechanisms significantly change the receptor protomer repertoire leading to diversity and biased recognition and signaling. In 1980s and 1990s, it was shown that neurotensin (NT) through selective antagonistic NTR-D2 like receptor interactions increased the diversity of DA signaling by reducing D2R-mediated dopamine signaling over D1R-mediated dopamine signaling. Furthermore, D2R protomer appeared to bias the specificity of the NTR orthosteric binding site toward neuromedin N vs. NT in the heteroreceptor complex. Complex CCK2R-D1R-D2R interactions in possible heteroreceptor complexes were also demonstrated further increasing receptor diversity. In D2R-5-HT2AR heteroreceptor complexes, the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI were recently found to exert a biased agonist action on the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer leading to the development of an active conformational state different from the one produced by 5-HT. Furthermore, as recently demonstrated allosteric A2A-D2R receptor-receptor interaction brought about not only a reduced affinity of the D2R agonist binding site but also a biased modulation of the D2R protomer signaling in A2A-D2R heteroreceptor complexes. A conformational state of the D2R was induced, which moved away from Gi/o signaling and instead favored β-arrestin2-mediated signaling. These examples on allosteric receptor-receptor interactions obtained over several decades serve to illustrate the significant increase in diversity and biased recognition and signaling that develop through such mechanisms.

  19. Ring Substituents on Substituted Benzamide Ligands Indirectly Mediate Interactions with Position 7.39 of Transmembrane Helix 7 of the D4 Dopamine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ericksen, Spencer S.; Cummings, David F.; Teer, Michael E.; Amdani, Shahnawaz

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to delineate how specific molecular interactions of dopamine receptor ligand classes vary between D2-like dopamine receptor subtypes, a conserved threonine in transmembrane (TM) helix 7 (Thr7.39), implicated as a key ligand interaction site with biogenic amine G protein-coupled receptors, was substituted with alanine in D2 and D4 receptors. Interrogation of different ligand chemotypes for sensitivity to this substitution revealed enhanced affinity in the D4, but not the D2 receptor, specifically for substituted benzamides (SBAs) having polar 4- (para) and/or 5- (meta) benzamide ring substituents. D4-T7.39A was fully functional, and the mutation did not alter the sodium-mediated positive and negative allostery observed with SBAs and agonists, respectively. With the exception of the non-SBA ligand (+)-butaclamol, which, in contrast to certain SBAs, had decreased affinity for the D4-T7.39A mutant, the interactions of numerous other ligands were unaffected by this mutation. SBAs were docked into D4 models in the same mode as observed for eticlopride in the D3 crystal structure. In this mode, interactions with TM5 and TM6 residues constrain the SBA ring position that produces distal steric crowding between pyrrolidinyl/diethylamine moieties and D4-Thr7.39. Ligand-residue interaction energy profiles suggest this crowding is mitigated by substitution with a smaller alanine. The profiles indicate sites that contribute to the SBA binding interaction and site-specific energy changes imparted by the D4-T7.39A mutation. Substantial interaction energy changes are observed at only a few positions, some of which are not conserved among the dopamine receptor subtypes and thus seem to account for this D4 subtype-specific structure-activity relationship. PMID:22588261

  20. Role of dopamine in distal retina.

    PubMed

    Popova, E

    2014-05-01

    Dopamine is the most abundant catecholamine in the vertebrate retina. Despite the description of retinal dopaminergic cells three decades ago, many aspects of their function in the retina remain unclear. There is no consensus among the authors about the stimulus conditions for dopamine release (darkness, steady or flickering light) as well as about its action upon the various types of retinal cells. Many contradictory results exist concerning the dopamine effect on the gross electrical activity of the retina [reflected in electroretinogram (ERG)] and the receptors involved in its action. This review summarized current knowledge about the types of the dopaminergic neurons and receptors in the retina as well as the effects of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists on the light responses of photoreceptors, horizontal and bipolar cells in both nonmammalian and mammalian retina. Special focus of interest concerns their effects upon the diffuse ERG as a useful tool for assessment of the overall function of the distal retina. An attempt is made to reveal some differences between the dopamine actions upon the activity of the ON versus OFF channel in the distal retina. The author has included her own results demonstrating such differences.

  1. Behavioral expression of opiate withdrawal is altered after prefrontocortical dopamine depletion in rats: monoaminergic correlates.

    PubMed

    Espejo, E F; Serrano, M I; Caillé, S; Stinus, L

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the effects of prefrontocortical dopamine depletion on opiate withdrawal and prefrontocortical neurochemical changes elicited by morphine dependence and withdrawal. The dopaminergic content was also measured in the nucleus accumbens during withdrawal, in order to detect reactive changes induced by prefrontocortical lesion. Withdrawal was induced by naloxone in morphine-dependent rats. Monoamine levels were analyzed post-mortem by high performance liquid cromatography. The results showed that chronic morphine dependence did not modify basal levels of monoamines in sham rats, revealing neuroadaptation of prefrontocortical dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin systems to chronic morphine. The neuroadaptive phenomenon remained after prefrontocortical lesion (> 79% dopamine depletion). On the other hand, a strong increase of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin contents in the medial prefrontal cortex of sham rats was detected during opiate withdrawal. However, in lesioned rats, the increase of prefrontocortical dopamine and serotonin content, but not that of noradrenaline, was much lower. In the nucleus accumbens, prefrontocortical lesion reactively enhanced the dopaminergic tone and, although opiate withdrawal reduced dopaminergic activity in both sham and lesioned rats, this reduction was less intense in the latter group. At a behavioral level, some symptoms of physical opiate withdrawal were exacerbated in lesioned rats (writhing, mastication, teeth-chattering, global score) and exploration was reduced. The findings hence indicate that: (i) prefrontocortical monoaminergic changes play a role in the behavioral expression of opiate withdrawal; (ii) the severity of some withdrawal signs are related to the dopaminergic and serotonergic tone of the medial prefrontal cortex rather than to the noradrenergic one, and (iii) an inverse relationship between mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems exists.

  2. DRD4 dopamine receptor genotype and CSF monoamine metabolites in Finnish alcoholics and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M.D.; Dean, M.; Goldman, D.

    1995-06-19

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is thus far unique among neurotransmitter receptors in having a highly polymorphic gene structure that has been reported to produce altered receptor functioning. These allelic variations are caused by a 48-bp segment in exon III of the coding region which may be repeated from 2-10 times. Varying the numbers of repeated segments changes the length, structure, and, possibly, the functional efficiency of the receptor, which makes this gene an intriguing candidate for variations in dopamine-related behaviors, such as alcoholism and drug abuse. Thus far, these DRD4 alleles have been investigated for association with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson`s disease, and chronic alcoholism, and all have been largely negative for a direct association. We evaluated the DRD4 genotype in 226 Finish adult males, 113 of whom were alcoholics, many of the early onset type with features of impulsivity and antisocial traits. Genotype frequencies were compared to 113 Finnish controls who were free of alcohol abuse, substance abuse, and major mental illness. In 70 alcoholics and 20 controls, we measured CSF homovanillic acid (HVA), the major metabolite of dopamine, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No association was found between a particular DRD4 dopamine receptor allele and alcoholism. CSF concentrations of the monoamine metabolites showed no significant difference among the DRD4 genotypes. This study of the DRD4 dopamine receptor in alcoholics is the first to be conducted in a clinically and ethnically homogeneous population and to relate the DRD4 genotype to CSF monoamine concentrations. The results indicate that there is no association of the DRD4 receptor with alcoholism. 52 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome: phenotypic spectrum from infancy to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Joanne; Zhen, Juan; Meyer, Esther; Erreger, Kevin; Li, Yan; Kakar, Naseebullah; Ahmad, Jamil; Thiele, Holger; Kubisch, Christian; Rider, Nicholas L.; Holmes Morton, D.; Strauss, Kevin A.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; D’Agnano, Daniela; Anikster, Yair; Carducci, Claudia; Hyland, Keith; Rotstein, Michael; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Borck, Guntram; Reith, Maarten E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome due to SLC6A3 mutations is the first inherited dopamine ‘transportopathy’ to be described, with a classical presentation of early infantile-onset progressive parkinsonism dystonia. In this study we have identified a new cohort of patients with dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome, including, most significantly, atypical presentation later in childhood with a milder disease course. We report the detailed clinical features, molecular genetic findings and in vitro functional investigations undertaken for adult and paediatric cases. Patients presenting with parkinsonism dystonia or a neurotransmitter profile characteristic of dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome were recruited for study. SLC6A3 mutational analysis was undertaken in all patients. The functional consequences of missense variants on the dopamine transporter were evaluated by determining the effect of mutant dopamine transporter on dopamine uptake, protein expression and amphetamine-mediated dopamine efflux using an in vitro cellular heterologous expression system. We identified eight new patients from five unrelated families with dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome. The median age at diagnosis was 13 years (range 1.5–34 years). Most significantly, the case series included three adolescent males with atypical dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome of juvenile onset (outside infancy) and progressive parkinsonism dystonia. The other five patients in the cohort presented with classical infantile-onset parkinsonism dystonia, with one surviving into adulthood (currently aged 34 years) and labelled as having ‘juvenile parkinsonism’. All eight patients harboured homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in SLC6A3, of which the majority are previously unreported variants. In vitro studies of mutant dopamine transporter demonstrated multifaceted loss of dopamine transporter function. Impaired dopamine uptake was universally present, and more

  4. Dopamine Uptake in the Somatic Cell Hybrid NX31

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    AFRRI SR75-21 AUGUST 1975 AFRRI SCIENTIFIC REPORT CM CO DOPAMINE UPTAKE IN THE SOMATIC CELL HYBRID NX31 P. R. Myers W. G. Shaln, Jr...Sciences - National Research Council. AFRRI SR75-21 August 1975 DOPAMINE UPTAKE IN THE SOMATIC CELL HYBRID NX31 P. R. MYERS W. G. SHAIN...Introduction 1 II. Experimental Methods 2 Materials 2 Cell lines 2 Dopamine uptake experiments 3 Metabolism of accumulated dopamine 5

  5. Neuronal Source of Plasma Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David S.; Holmes, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Determinants of plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine concentrations are well known; those of the third endogenous catecholamine, dopamine (DA), remain poorly understood. We tested in humans whether DA enters the plasma after corelease with NE during exocytosis from sympathetic noradrenergic nerves. METHODS We reviewed plasma catecholamine data from patients referred for autonomic testing and control subjects under the following experimental conditions: during supine rest and in response to orthostasis; intravenous yohimbine (YOH), isoproterenol (ISO), or glucagon (GLU), which augment exocytotic release of NE from sympathetic nerves; intravenous tri-methaphan (TRI) or pentolinium (PEN), which decrease exocytotic NE release; or intravenous tyramine (TYR), which releases NE by nonexocytotic means. We included groups of patients with pure autonomic failure (PAF), bilateral thoracic sympathectomies (SNS-x), or multiple system atrophy (MSA), since PAF and SNS-x are associated with noradrenergic denervation and MSA is not. RESULTS Orthostasis, YOH, ISO, and TYR increased and TRI/PEN decreased plasma DA concentrations. Individual values for changes in plasma DA concentrations correlated positively with changes in NE in response to orthostasis (r =0.72, P <0.0001), YOH (r = 0.75, P < 0.0001), ISO (r = 0.71, P < 0.0001), GLU (r = 0.47, P = 0.01), and TYR (r = 0.67, P < 0.0001). PAF and SNS-x patients had low plasma DA concentrations. We estimated that DA constitutes 2%– 4% of the catecholamine released by exocytosis from sympathetic nerves and that 50%–90% of plasma DA has a sympathoneural source. CONCLUSIONS Plasma DA is derived substantially from sympathetic noradrenergic nerves. PMID:18801936

  6. Imaging of Brain Dopamine Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is typically associated with abnormal eating behaviors. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the involvement of dopamine (DA)-modulated circuits in pathologic eating behavior(s). Food cues increase striatal extracellular DA, providing evidence for the involvement of DA in the nonhedonic motivational properties of food. Food cues also increase metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex indicating the association of this region with the motivation for food consumption. Similar to drug-addicted subjects, striatal DA D2 receptor availability is reduced in obese subjects, which may predispose obese subjects to seek food as a means to temporarily compensate for understimulated reward circuits. Decreased DA D2 receptors in the obese subjects are also associated with decreased metabolism in prefrontal regions involved in inhibitory control, which may underlie their inability to control food intake. Gastric stimulation in obese subjects activates cortical and limbic regions involved with self-control, motivation, and memory. These brain regions are also activated during drug craving in drug-addicted subjects. Obese subjects have increased metabolism in the somatosensory cortex, which suggests an enhanced sensitivity to the sensory properties of food. The reduction in DA D2 receptors in obese subjects coupled with the enhanced sensitivity to food palatability could make food their most salient reinforcer putting them at risk for compulsive eating and obesity. The results from these studies suggest that multiple but similar brain circuits are disrupted in obesity and drug addiction and suggest that strategies aimed at improving DA function might be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:21603099

  7. Recovery of dopamine transporters with methamphetamine detoxification is not linked to changes in dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Smith, Lisa; Fowler, Joanna S; Telang, Frank; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-11-01

    Methamphetamine's widepread abuse and concerns that it might increase Parkinson's disease led us to assess if the reported loss of dopamine transporters (DAT) in methamphetamine abusers (MA) reflected damage to dopamine neurons. Using PET with [(11)C]cocaine to measure DAT, and with [(11)C]raclopride to measure dopamine release (assessed as changes in specific binding of [(11)C]raclopride between placebo and methylphenidate), which was used as a marker of dopamine neuronal function, we show that MA (n=16), tested during early detoxification, had lower DAT (20-30%) but overall normal DA release in striatum (except for a small decrease in left putamen), when compared to controls (n=15). In controls, DAT were positively correlated with DA release (higher DAT associated with larger DA increases), consistent with DAT serving as markers of DA terminals. In contrast, MA showed a trend for a negative correlation (p=0.07) (higher DAT associated with lower DA increases), consistent with reduced DA re-uptake following DAT downregulation. MA who remained abstinent nine-months later (n=9) showed significant increases in DAT (20%) but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases did not change. In contrast, in controls, DAT did not change when retested 9 months later but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases in ventral striatum were reduced (p=0.05). Baseline D2/D3 receptors in caudate were lower in MA than in controls and did not change with detoxification, nor did they change in the controls upon retest. The loss of DAT in the MA, which was not associated with a concomitant reduction in dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT loss reflected DA terminal degneration; as well as the recovery of DAT after protracted detoxification, which was not associated with increased dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT increases reflected terminal regeneration, indicate that the loss of DAT in these MA does not reflect degeneration of dopamine terminals.

  8. Detection of cell surface dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jiping; Bergson, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine receptors are a class of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors. Plasma membrane expression is a key determinant of receptor signaling, and one that is regulated both by extra and intracellular cues. Abnormal dopamine receptor signaling is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as drug abuse. Here, we describe in detail the application of two complementary applications of protein biotinylation and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting and quantifying levels of dopamine receptors expressed on the cell surface. In the biotinylation method, cell surface receptors are labeled with Sulfo-NHS-biotin. The charge on the sulfonyl facilitates water solubility of the reactive biotin compound and prevents its diffusion across the plasma membrane. In the ELISA method, surface labeling is achieved with antibodies specific to extracellular epitopes on the receptors, and by fixing the cells without detergent such that the plasma membrane remains intact.

  9. Detection of Cell Surface Dopamine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jiping; Bergson, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine receptors are a class of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors. Plasma membrane expression is a key determinant of receptor signaling, and one that is regulated both by extra and intracellular cues. Abnormal dopamine receptor signaling is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as drug abuse. Here, we describe in detail the application of two complementary applications of protein biotinylation and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) for detecting and quantifying levels of dopamine receptors expressed on the cell surface. In the biotinylation method, cell surface receptors are labeled with Sulfo-NHS-biotin. The charge on the sulfonyl facilitates water solubility of the reactive biotin compound and prevents its diffusion across the plasma membrane. In the ELISA method, cells surface labeling is achieved with antibodies specific to extracellular epitopes on the receptors, and by fixing the cells without detergent such that the plasma membrane remains intact. PMID:23296774

  10. How Addictive Drugs Disrupt Presynaptic Dopamine Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, David

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental principle that unites addictive drugs appears to be that each enhances synaptic dopamine by means that dissociate it from normal behavioral control, so that they act to reinforce their own acquisition. This occurs via the modulation of synaptic mechanisms involved in learning, including enhanced excitation or disinhibition of dopamine neuron activity, blockade of dopamine reuptake, and altering the state of the presynaptic terminal to enhance evoked over basal transmission. Amphetamines offer an exception to such modulation in that they combine multiple effects to produce non-exocytic stimulation-independent release of neurotransmitter via reverse transport independent from normal presynaptic function. Questions on the molecular actions of addictive drugs, prominently including the actions of alcohol and solvents, remain unresolved, but their ability to co-opt normal presynaptic functions helps to explain why treatment for addiction has been challenging. PMID:21338876

  11. Vascular dopamine receptors: Demonstration and characterization by in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Brodde, O E

    1982-07-26

    Substantial evidence has accumulated that in certain vascular beds dopamine produces its relaxant effect through stimulation of specific dopamine receptors. The goal of this review is to describe several in vitro models (perfused mesenteric vessels of the dog; renal, mesenteric, splenic, coronary and cerebral arterial strips of rabbits, dogs and cats; perfused kidney of the rat) recently developed to demonstrate such specific relaxations induced by dopamine and dopaminomimetics. On these models studies on structure-activity relationship for activation of the dopamine receptor resulted in the following order of potency for agonists: SK&F 38393 (partial agonist) greater than epinine greater than A-6, 7-DTN greater than or equal to dopamine greater than N, N-di-n-propyl-dopamine (partial agonist) greater than apomorphine (partial agonist). The dopamine receptor antagonists (+)-butaclamol, cis-alpha-flupenthixol, metoclopramide, droperidol and bulbocapnine were found to competitively antagonize dopamine induced relaxation. In addition, in two isolated organ systems (rabbit mesenteric artery, rat perfused kidney) stereospecificity of the vascular dopamine receptor was demonstrated with the isomers of butaclamol. With the development of several in vitro models demonstrating a specific antagonism against dopamine induced relaxation an important requirement for definition of a specific dopamine receptor if fulfilled according to classical pharmacological criteria. Thus, there can be do doubt on the existence of post-synaptic dopamine receptors mediating vasodilation in certain vascular tissues.

  12. Dopamine and the Biology of Creativity: Lessons from Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lhommée, Eugénie; Batir, Alina; Quesada, Jean-Louis; Ardouin, Claire; Fraix, Valérie; Seigneuret, Eric; Chabardès, Stéphan; Benabid, Alim-Louis; Pollak, Pierre; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by reduced flexibility, conceptualization, and visuo-spatial abilities. Although these are essential to creativity, case studies show emergence of creativity during PD. Knowledge about the role of dopamine in creativity so far only stems from a few case reports. We aim at demonstrating that creativity can be induced by dopaminergic treatments in PD, and tends to disappear after withdrawal of dopamine agonists. Methods: Eleven consecutive creative PD patients were selected from candidates for subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) surgery, and compared to 22 non-creative control PD patients. Motor disability (UPDRS III), cognition (Frontal score, Mattis scale), and behavior (Ardouin scale) were assessed before surgery and 1 year after. Results: Before surgery, whereas cognitive and motor assessments were similar between groups, dopamine agonist (but not levodopa) dosages were higher in creative patients (p = 0.01). The Ardouin scale revealed also a specific psycho-behavioral profile of creative patients which had higher scores for mania (p < 0.001), hobbyism (p = 0.001), nocturnal hyperactivity (p = 0.041), appetitive functioning (p = 0.003), and ON euphoria (p = 0.007) and lower scores for apathy and OFF dysphoria (p = 0.04 for each). Post-operative motor, cognitive, and behavioral scores as dopaminergic treatment dosages were equivalent between groups. Motor improvement allowed for a 68.6% decrease in dopaminergic treatment. Only 1 of the 11 patients remained creative after surgery. Reduction of dopamine agonist was significantly correlated to the decrease in creativity in the whole population of study (Spearman correlation coefficient ρ = 0.47 with confidence index of 95% = 0.16; 0.70, p = 0.0053). Conclusion: Creativity in PD is linked to dopamine agonist therapy, and tends to disappear after STN DBS in parallel to reduction of dopamine agonists

  13. Dopamine receptors in a songbird brain

    PubMed Central

    Kubikova, Lubica; Wada, Kazuhiro; Jarvis, Erich D

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine is a key neuromodulatory transmitter in the brain. It acts through dopamine receptors to affect changes in neural activity, gene expression, and behavior. In songbirds, dopamine is released into the striatal song nucleus Area X, and the levels depend on social contexts of undirected and directed singing. This differential release is associated with differential expression of activity-dependent genes, such as egr1 (avian zenk), which in mammalian brain are modulated by dopamine receptors. Here we cloned from zebra finch brain cDNAs of all avian dopamine receptors: the D1 (D1A, D1B, D1D) and D2 (D2, D3, D4) families. Comparative sequence analyses of predicted proteins revealed expected phylogenetic relationships, in which the D1 family exists as single exon and the D2 family exists as spliced exon genes. In both zebra finch and chicken, the D1A, D1B, and D2 receptors were highly expressed in the striatum, the D1D and D3 throughout the pallium and within the mesopallium, respectively, and the D4 mainly in the cerebellum. Furthermore, within the zebra finch, all receptors, except for D4, showed differential expression in song nuclei relative to the surrounding regions and developmentally regulated expression that decreased for most receptors during the sensory acquisition and sensorimotor phases of song learning. Within Area X, half of the cells expressed both D1A and D2 receptors, and a higher proportion of the D1A-only-containing neurons expressed egr1 during undirected but not during directed singing. Our findings are consistent with hypotheses that dopamine receptors may be involved in song development and social context-dependent behaviors. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:741–769, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20058221

  14. DRD4 dopamine receptor allelic diversity in various primate species

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M.; Higley, D.; O`Brien, S.

    1994-09-01

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is uniquely characterized by a 48 bp repeating segment within the coding region, located in exon III. Different DRD4 alleles are produced by the presence of additional 48 bp repeats, each of which adds 16 amino acids to the length of the 3rd intracytoplasmic loop of the receptor. The DRD4 receptor is therefore an intriguing candidate gene for behaviors which are influenced by dopamine function. In several human populations, DRD4 alleles with 2-8 and 10 repeats have previously been identified, and the 4 and 7 repeat alleles are the most abundant. We have determined DRD4 genotypes in the following nonhuman primate species: chimpanzee N=2, pygmy chimpanzee N=2, gorilla N=4, siamang N=2, Gelada baboon N=1, gibbon N=1, orangutan (Bornean and Sumatran) N=62, spider monkey N=4, owl monkey N=1, Colobus monkey N=1, Patas monkey N=1, ruffed lemur N=1, rhesus macaque N=8, and vervet monkey N=28. The degree of DRD4 polymorphism and which DRD4 alleles were present both showed considerable variation across primate species. In contrast to the human, rhesus macaque monkeys were monomorphic. The 4 and 7 repeat allels, highly abundant in the human, may not be present in certain other primates. For example, the four spider monkeys we studied showed the 7, 8 and 9 repeat length alleles and the only gibbon we analyzed was homozygous for the 9 repeat allele (thus far not observed in the human). Genotyping of other primate species and sequencing of the individual DRD4 repeat alleles in different species may help us determine the ancestral DRD4 repeat length and identify connections between DRD4 genotype and phenotype.

  15. Selective hyposmia in Parkinson disease: association with hippocampal dopamine activity.

    PubMed

    Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Gedela, Satyanarayana; Herath, Priyantha; Constantine, Gregory M; Moore, Robert Y

    2008-12-05

    Olfactory dysfunction is common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and has been attributed to early pathological deposition of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in primary olfactory centers. However, olfactory deficits do not always worsen over time despite progression of disease raising the possibility of additional pathobiological mechanisms contributing to olfactory functions in PD, such as changes in olfactory neurotransmitter functions. Neurotransmitter changes, such as altered dopaminergic status, may also better explain the selective nature of odor identification deficits in PD. Proper odor identification depends on higher order structures, such as the hippocampus, for olfactory cognitive or memory processing. Using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), we previously identified three odors (banana, licorice, dill pickle, labeled as UPSIT-3) that PD subjects most frequently failed to recognize compared to age- and gender-matched controls. We also identified six odors that were equally successfully identified by controls and PD subjects (NPD-Olf6). A ratio of UPSIT-3 divided by NPD-Olf6 scores provides another descriptor of selective hyposmia in PD ("olfactory ratio"). In this study we investigated the pathophysiology of hyposmia in PD using dopamine transporter (DAT) PET. Twenty-nine PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stages I-III; 7f/22m; age 60.2+/-10.8) underwent olfactory testing using the UPSIT and [(11)C]beta-CFT DAT PET. DAT binding potentials (BP) were assessed in the hippocampus, amygdala, ventral and dorsal striatum. We found that correlation coefficients between total UPSIT scores and regional brain DAT BP were highest for the hippocampus (Rs=0.54, P=0.002) and lower for the amygdala (Rs=0.44, P=0.02), ventral (Rs=0.48, P=0.008) and dorsal striatum (Rs=0.39, P=0.03). Correlations were most significant for the selective hyposmia measures and hippocampal DAT: UPSIT-3 (Rs=0.65, P=0.0001) and the olfactory ratio (Rs=0.74, P<0

  16. PET evaluation of the dopamine system of the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Gatley, S. |

    1996-07-01

    Dopamine plays a pivotal role in the regulation and control of movement, motivation and cognition. It also is closely linked to reward, reinforcement and addiction. Abnormalities in brain dopamine are associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson`s disease, schizophrenia and substance abuse. This close association between dopamine and neurological and psychiatric diseases and with substance abuse make it an important topic in research in the neurosciences and an important molecular target in drug development. PET enables the direct measurement of components of the dopamine system in the living human brain. It relies on radiotracers which label dopamine receptors, dopamine transporters, precursors of dopamine or compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade dopamine. Additionally, by using tracers that provide information on regional brain metabolism or blood flow as well as neurochemically specific pharmacological interventions, PET can be used to assess the functional consequences of change in brain dopamine activity. PET dopamine measurements have been used to investigate the normal human brain and its involvement in psychiatric and neurological diseases. It has also been used in psychopharmacological research to investigate dopamine drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson`s disease and of schizophrenia as well as to investigate the effects of drugs of abuse on the dopamine system. Since various functional and neurochemical parameters can be studied in the same subject, PET enables investigation of the functional integrity of the dopamine system in the human brain and investigation of the interactions of dopamine with other neurotransmitters. This paper summarizes the different tracers and experimental strategies developed to evaluate the various elements of the dopamine system in the human brain with PET and their applications to clinical research. 254 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Quadruplex Integrated DNA (QuID) Nanosensors for Monitoring Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Jennifer M.; Skipwith, Christopher G.; Clark, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine is widely innervated throughout the brain and critical for many cognitive and motor functions. Imbalances or loss in dopamine transmission underlie various psychiatric disorders and degenerative diseases. Research involving cellular studies and disease states would benefit from a tool for measuring dopamine transmission. Here we show a Quadruplex Integrated DNA (QuID) nanosensor platform for selective and dynamic detection of dopamine. This nanosensor exploits DNA technology and enzyme recognition systems to optically image dopamine levels. The DNA quadruplex architecture is designed to be compatible in physically constrained environments (110 nm) with high flexibility, homogeneity, and a lower detection limit of 110 µM. PMID:26287196

  18. MicroRNAs in Schizophrenia: Implications for Synaptic Plasticity and Dopamine-Glutamate Interaction at the Postsynaptic Density. New Avenues for Antipsychotic Treatment Under a Theranostic Perspective.

    PubMed

    de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Iasevoli, Felice; Tomasetti, Carmine; Buonaguro, Elisabetta F

    2015-12-01

    Despite dopamine-glutamate aberrant interaction that has long been considered a relevant landmark of psychosis pathophysiology, several aspects of these two neurotransmitters reciprocal interaction remain to be defined. The emerging role of postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins at glutamate synapse as a molecular "lego" making a functional hub where different signals converge may add a new piece of information to understand how dopamine-glutamate interaction may work with regard to schizophrenia pathophysiology and treatment. More recently, compelling evidence suggests a relevant role for microRNA (miRNA) as a new class of dopamine and glutamate modulators with regulatory functions in the reciprocal interaction of these two neurotransmitters. Here, we aimed at addressing the following issues: (i) Do miRNAs have a role in schizophrenia pathophysiology in the context of dopamine-glutamate aberrant interaction? (ii) If miRNAs are relevant for dopamine-glutamate interaction, at what level this modulation takes place? (iii) Finally, will this knowledge open the door to innovative diagnostic and therapeutic tools? The biogenesis of miRNAs and their role in synaptic plasticity with relevance to schizophrenia will be considered in the context of dopamine-glutamate interaction, with special focus on miRNA interaction with PSD elements. From this framework, implications both for biomarkers identification and potential innovative interventions will be considered.

  19. Invariance of the density of dopamine uptake sites and dopamine metabolism in the rat brain after a chronic treatment with the dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR 12783.

    PubMed

    Boulay, D; Leroux-Nicollet, I; Duterte-Boucher, D; Naudon, L; Costentin, J

    1994-01-01

    A chronic treatment (10 mg/kg, twice daily during 9 days) with the dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR 12783 was performed in rats at a dose increasing their locomotor activity. Forty-eight hours after the last administration, animals were sacrificed and 3H mazindol binding was performed on brain slices. Autoradiographic analysis revealed no change in this binding relatively to control animals in regions with high dopamine contents: striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, substantia nigra and ventral tegmentum area. The treatment did not either modify the levels of dopamine (DA) and metabolites (HVA, DOPAC) both in the striatum and the nucleus accumbens. Thus, early after the end of the treatment, the chronic blockade of the dopamine uptake complex regulates neither the dopamine uptake complex nor the dopamine metabolism.

  20. Dopamine-melanin nanofilms for biomimetic structural coloration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong-Fei; Hong, Jong-Dal

    2015-02-09

    This article describes the formation of dopamine-melanin thin films (50-200 nm thick) at an air/dopamine solution interface under static conditions. Beneath these films, spherical melanin granules formed in bulk liquid phase. The thickness of dopamine-melanin films at the interface relied mainly on the concentration of dopamine solution and the reaction time. A plausible mechanism underlining dopamine-melanin thin film formation was proposed based on the hydrophobicity of dopamine-melanin aggregates and the mass transport of the aggregates to the air/solution interface as a result of convective flow. The thickness of the interfacial films increased linearly with the dopamine concentration and the reaction time. The dopamine-melanin thin film and granules (formed in bulk liquid phase) with a double-layered structure were transferred onto a solid substrate to mimic the (keratin layer)/(melanin granules) structure present in bird plumage, thereby preparing full dopamine-melanin thin-film reflectors. The reflected color of the thin-film reflectors depended on the film thickness, which could be adjusted according to the dopamine concentration. The reflectance of the resulted reflectors exhibited a maximal reflectance value of 8-11%, comparable to that of bird plumage (∼11%). This study provides a useful, simple, and low-cost approach to the fabrication of biomimetic thin-film reflectors using full dopamine-melanin materials.

  1. Regulation of Dopamine Uptake by Vasoactive Peptides in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Gironacci, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the key role of renal dopamine in tubular sodium handling, we hypothesized that c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and Ang-(1-7) may regulate renal dopamine availability in tubular cells, contributing to Na+, K+-ATPase inhibition. Present results show that CNP did not affect either 3H-dopamine uptake in renal tissue or Na+, K+-ATPase activity; meanwhile, Ang-(1-7) was able to increase 3H-dopamine uptake and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in renal cortex. Ang-(1-7) and dopamine together decreased further Na+, K+-ATPase activity showing an additive effect on the sodium pump. In addition, hydrocortisone reversed Ang-(1-7)-dopamine overinhibition on the enzyme, suggesting that this inhibition is closely related to Ang-(1-7) stimulation on renal dopamine uptake. Both anantin and cANP (4-23-amide) did not modify CNP effects on 3H-dopamine uptake by tubular cells. The Mas receptor antagonist, A-779, blocked the increase elicited by Ang-(1-7) on 3H-dopamine uptake. The stimulatory uptake induced by Ang-(1-7) was even more pronounced in the presence of losartan, suggesting an inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7) on AT1 receptors on 3H-dopamine uptake. By increasing dopamine bioavailability in tubular cells, Ang-(1-7) enhances Na+, K+-ATPase activity inhibition, contributing to its natriuretic and diuretic effects. PMID:27635280

  2. Regulation of Dopamine Uptake by Vasoactive Peptides in the Kidney.

    PubMed

    Rukavina Mikusic, N L; Kouyoumdzian, N M; Rouvier, E; Gironacci, M M; Toblli, J E; Fernández, B E; Choi, M R

    2016-01-01

    Considering the key role of renal dopamine in tubular sodium handling, we hypothesized that c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and Ang-(1-7) may regulate renal dopamine availability in tubular cells, contributing to Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibition. Present results show that CNP did not affect either (3)H-dopamine uptake in renal tissue or Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity; meanwhile, Ang-(1-7) was able to increase (3)H-dopamine uptake and decreased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in renal cortex. Ang-(1-7) and dopamine together decreased further Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity showing an additive effect on the sodium pump. In addition, hydrocortisone reversed Ang-(1-7)-dopamine overinhibition on the enzyme, suggesting that this inhibition is closely related to Ang-(1-7) stimulation on renal dopamine uptake. Both anantin and cANP (4-23-amide) did not modify CNP effects on (3)H-dopamine uptake by tubular cells. The Mas receptor antagonist, A-779, blocked the increase elicited by Ang-(1-7) on (3)H-dopamine uptake. The stimulatory uptake induced by Ang-(1-7) was even more pronounced in the presence of losartan, suggesting an inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7) on AT1 receptors on (3)H-dopamine uptake. By increasing dopamine bioavailability in tubular cells, Ang-(1-7) enhances Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity inhibition, contributing to its natriuretic and diuretic effects.

  3. Extracellular dopamine and alterations on dopamine transporter are related to reserpine toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Reckziegel, Patrícia; Chen, Pan; Caito, Sam; Gubert, Priscila; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Fachinetto, Roselei; Aschner, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Reserpine is used as an animal model of parkinsonism. We hypothesized that the involuntary movements induced by reserpine in rodents are induced by dopaminergic toxicity caused by extracellular dopamine accumulation. The present study tested the effects of reserpine on the dopaminergic system in Caenorhabditis elegans. Reserpine was toxic to worms (decreased the survival, food intake, development and changed egg laying and defecation cycles). In addition, reserpine increased the worms' locomotor rate on food and decreased dopamine levels. Morphological evaluations of dopaminergic CEP neurons confirmed neurodegeneration characterized by decreased fluorescence intensity and the number of worms with intact CEP neurons, and increased number of shrunken somas per worm. These effects were unrelated to reserpine's effect on decreased expression of the dopamine transporter, dat-1. Interestingly, the locomotor rate on food and the neurodegenerative parameters fully recovered to basal conditions upon reserpine withdrawal. Furthermore, reserpine decreased survival in vesicular monoamine transporter and dat-1 loss-of-function mutant worms. In addition, worms pre-exposed to dopamine followed by exposure to reserpine had decreased survival. Reserpine activated gst-4, which controls a phase II detoxification enzymes downstream of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived-2)-like 2. Our findings establish that the dopamine transporter, dat-1, plays an important role in reserpine toxicity, likely by increasing extracellular dopamine concentrations.

  4. Impulse control disorders and dopamine dysregulation syndrome associated with dopamine agonist therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fenu, Sandro; Wardas, Jadwiga; Morelli, Micaela

    2009-09-01

    Over the last decade, evidence has emerged linking disorders in the impulsive-compulsive spectrum in Parkinson's disease to dopamine receptor agonist treatment. These disorders include hypersexuality, gambling and, to a minor extent, compulsive shopping and eating, as well as dopamine dysregulation syndrome, characterized by an addictive pattern toward dopamine replacement therapy and stereotyped behaviors, such as punding. These syndromes, which have only recently been recognized and are still underdiagnosed, have deleterious social consequences that warrant interventions at the clinical level and promotion of research at the preclinical level. In this review, we first provide a summary of features of Parkinson's disease and current pharmacological therapies associated with the development of dopamine dysregulation syndrome and impulsive-compulsive disorders. We also examine the dopamine receptors and brain areas important in reward and compulsive behaviors. We then critically examine the neuroadaptations in dopaminergic circuitries and the literature concerning gambling, hypersexuality, and other addictive behaviors in parkinsonian patients. Finally, we focus on suggestions pointing to a role for dopamine D(3) receptors and sensitization phenomena as the main factors which may be the origin of these disorders.

  5. Molecular model of the neural dopamine transporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravna, Aina Westrheim; Sylte, Ingebrigt; Dahl, Svein G.

    2003-05-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates the action of dopamine by reuptake of the neurotransmitter into presynaptic neurons, and is the main molecular target of amphetamines and cocaine. DAT and the Na+/H+ antiporter (NhaA) are secondary transporter proteins that carry small molecules across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient, using ion gradients as energy source. A 3-dimensional projection map of the E. coli NhaA has confirmed a topology of 12 membrane spanning domains, and was previously used to construct a 3-dimensional NhaA model with 12 trans-membrane α-helices (TMHs). The NhaA model, and site directed mutagenesis data on DAT, were used to construct a detailed 3-dimensional DAT model using interactive molecular graphics and empiric force field calculations. The model proposes a dopamine transport mechanism involving TMHs 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 11. Asp79, Tyr252 and Tyr274 were the primary cocaine binding residues. Binding of cocaine or its analogue, (-)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (CFT), seemed to lock the transporter in an inactive state, and thus inhibit dopamine transport. The present model may be used to design further experimental studies of the molecular structure and mechanisms of DAT and other secondary transporter proteins.

  6. Dopamine receptor in anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, I; Murakami, H; Iwayama, Y; Yoshida, Y; Miki, S

    1981-04-01

    Effects of dopamine, N-methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-derivatives of dopamine, and alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor stimulants on catch contraction of anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis were tested. The test drugs except the beta-adrenoceptor stimulants relaxed catch contraction. Dopamine was most active and substitution of amino group in dopamine with ethyl and propyl decreased activity considerably. The concentration-curves of dopamine, its derivatives and norepinephrine shifted in parallel with application of haloperidol but were not influenced by the alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. These results suggest that relaxation of catch contraction by catecholamines is mediated through a dopamine receptor. This muscle is considered to be suitable for a study of the dopamine receptor.

  7. Pharmacological characterization of the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in cockroach brain: evidence for a distinct dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, G.L.; Gole, J.W.D.; Notman, H.J.; Downer, R.G.H.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine increases cyclic AMP production in crude membrane preparations of cockroach brain with plateaus in cyclic AMP production occurring between 1-10 ..mu..M and 10 mM. Maximal production of cyclic AMP is 2.25 fold greater than that of control values. Octopamine also increases cyclic AMP production with a Ka of 1.4 ..mu..M and maximal production 3.5 fold greater than that of control. 5-Hydroxytryptamine does not increase cyclic AMP production. The effects of octopamine and dopamine are fully additive. The vertebrate dopamine agonists ADTN and epinine stimulate the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase (AC) with Ka values of 4.5 and 0.6 ..mu..M respectively and with maximal effectiveness 1.7 fold greater than that of control. The selective D/sub 2/-dopamine agonist LY-171555 stimulates cyclic AMP production to a similar extent with a Ka of 50 ..mu..M. Other dopamine agonists have no stimulatory effects. With the exception of mianserin, /sup 3/H-piflutixol is displaced from brain membranes by dopamine antagonists with an order of potency similar to that observed for the inhibition of dopamine-sensitive AC. The results indicate that the octopamine- and dopamine-sensitive AC in cockroach brain can be distinguished pharmacologically and the dopamine receptors coupled to AC have pharmacological characteristics distinct from vertebrate D/sup 1/- and D/sup 2/-dopamine receptors. 33 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  9. MAPLE deposition of Mn(III) metalloporphyrin thin films: Structural, topographical and electrochemical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Popescu, C.; Popescu, A. C.; Grigorescu, S.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Ciucu, A. A.; Iordache, S.; Andronie, A.; Stamatin, I.; Fagadar-Cosma, E.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2011-04-01

    We report the deposition by MAPLE of metallized nanostructured (5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl)porphinato manganese(III) chloride thin films onto gold screen-printed electrodes, or <1 1 1> Si substrates. The deposited nanostructures were characterized by atomic force microscopy and exhibited globular structures with average diameters decreasing with laser fluence. Raman spectroscopy showed that no major decomposition appeared. We have investigated the Mn(III)-metalloporphyrin thin films by cyclic voltammetry in order to evaluate the potential bio/chemosensing activity on dopamine neurotransmitter analyte. We have found that the manganese(III)-porphyrin is appropriate as a single mediator for dopamine sensing in the specific case of gold screen-printed electrodes.

  10. Recovery of dopamine transporters with methamphetamine detoxification is not linked to changes in dopamine release

    DOE PAGES

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Smith, Lisa; ...

    2015-07-21

    Metamphetamine’s widepread abuse and concerns that it may increase Parkinson’s disease led us to assess if the reported loss of dopamine transporters (DAT) in methamphetamine abusers (MA) reflected damage to dopamine neurons. Using PET with [11C]cocaine to measure DAT, and with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine release (assessed as changes in specific binding of [11C]raclopride between placebo and methylphenidate), which was used as marker of dopamine neuronal function, we show that MA (n=16), tested during early detoxification, had lower DAT (20-30%) but overall normal DA release in striatum (except for a small decrease in left putamen), when compared to controls (n=15).more » In controls, DAT were positively correlated with DA release (higher DAT associated with larger DA increases), consistent with DAT serving as markers of DA terminals. In contrast, MA showed a trend for a negative correlation (p=0.07) (higher DAT associated with lower DA increases), consistent with reduced DA re-uptake following DAT downregulation. MA who remained abstinent nine-months later (n=9) showed significant increases in DAT (20%) but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases did not change. In contrast, in controls, DAT did not change when retested 9 months later but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases in ventral striatum were reduced (p=0.05). Baseline D2/D3 receptors in caudate were lower in MA than in controls and did not change with detoxification, nor did they change in the controls upon retest. The loss of DAT in the MA, which was not associated with a concomitant reduction in dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT loss reflected DA terminal degneration; as well as the recovery of DAT after protracted detoxification, which was not associated with increased dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT increases reflected terminal regeneration, indicate that the loss of DAT in these MA does not reflect degeneration of dopamine terminals.« less

  11. Recovery of dopamine transporters with methamphetamine detoxification is not linked to changes in dopamine release

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Smith, Lisa; Fowler, Joanna S.; Telang, Frank; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-07-21

    Metamphetamine’s widepread abuse and concerns that it may increase Parkinson’s disease led us to assess if the reported loss of dopamine transporters (DAT) in methamphetamine abusers (MA) reflected damage to dopamine neurons. Using PET with [11C]cocaine to measure DAT, and with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine release (assessed as changes in specific binding of [11C]raclopride between placebo and methylphenidate), which was used as marker of dopamine neuronal function, we show that MA (n=16), tested during early detoxification, had lower DAT (20-30%) but overall normal DA release in striatum (except for a small decrease in left putamen), when compared to controls (n=15). In controls, DAT were positively correlated with DA release (higher DAT associated with larger DA increases), consistent with DAT serving as markers of DA terminals. In contrast, MA showed a trend for a negative correlation (p=0.07) (higher DAT associated with lower DA increases), consistent with reduced DA re-uptake following DAT downregulation. MA who remained abstinent nine-months later (n=9) showed significant increases in DAT (20%) but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases did not change. In contrast, in controls, DAT did not change when retested 9 months later but methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases in ventral striatum were reduced (p=0.05). Baseline D2/D3 receptors in caudate were lower in MA than in controls and did not change with detoxification, nor did they change in the controls upon retest. The loss of DAT in the MA, which was not associated with a concomitant reduction in dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT loss reflected DA terminal degneration; as well as the recovery of DAT after protracted detoxification, which was not associated with increased dopamine release as would have been expected if DAT increases reflected terminal regeneration, indicate that the loss of DAT in these MA does not reflect degeneration of

  12. Substituted benzamides as ligands for visualization of dopamine receptor binding in the human brain by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Farde, L.; Ehrin, E.; Eriksson, L.; Greitz, T.; Hall, H.; Hedstroem, C.G.; Litton, J.E.; Sedvall, G.

    1985-06-01

    Two substituted benzamides, FLB 524 and raclopride, were labeled with C and examined for their possible use as ligands for positron emission tomography (PET) scan studies on dopamine-2 (D-2) receptors in the brains of monkeys and healthy human subjects. Both ligands allowed the in vivo visualization of D-2 receptor binding in the corpus striatum caudate nucleus/putamen complex in PET-scan images. ( C)Raclopride showed a high ratio of specific striatal to nonspecific cerebellar binding, and the kinetics of binding of this ligand made it optimal for PET studies. The in vivo binding of ( C)raclopride in the striatum of cynomolgus monkeys was markedly reduced by displacement with haloperidol. In healthy human subjects, ( C)raclopride binding in the caudate nucleus/putamen was 4- to 5-fold greater than nonspecific binding in the cerebellum. In comparison with previously available ligands for PET-scan studies on central dopamine receptors in man, ( C)raclopride appears to be advantageous with regard to (i) specificity of binding to D-2 receptors, (ii) the high ratio between binding in dopamine-rich (caudate, putamen) and dopamine-poor (cerebellum) human brain regions, and (iii) rapid association and reversibility of specific binding.

  13. A Physical Interaction between the Dopamine Transporter and DJ-1 Facilitates Increased Dopamine Reuptake.

    PubMed

    Luk, Beryl; Mohammed, Mohinuddin; Liu, Fang; Lee, Frank J S

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) impacts extracellular dopamine levels after release from dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, a variety of protein partners have been identified that can interact with and modulate DAT function. In this study we show that DJ-1 can potentially modulate DAT function. Co-expression of DAT and DJ-1 in HEK-293T cells leads to an increase in [3H] dopamine uptake that does not appear to be mediated by increased total DAT expression but rather through an increase in DAT cell surface localization. In addition, through a series of GST affinity purifications and co-immunoprecipitations, we provide evidence that the DAT can be found in a complex with DJ-1, which involve distinct regions within both DAT and DJ-1. Using in vitro binding experiments we also show that this complex can be formed in part by a direct interaction between DAT and DJ-1. Co-expression of a mini-gene that can disrupt the DAT/DJ-1 complex appears to block the increase in [3H] dopamine uptake by DJ-1. Mutations in DJ-1 have been linked to familial forms of Parkinson's disease, yet the normal physiological function of DJ-1 remains unclear. Our study suggests that DJ-1 may also play a role in regulating dopamine levels by modifying DAT activity.

  14. A Physical Interaction between the Dopamine Transporter and DJ-1 Facilitates Increased Dopamine Reuptake

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Beryl; Mohammed, Mohinuddin; Liu, Fang; Lee, Frank J. S.

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) impacts extracellular dopamine levels after release from dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, a variety of protein partners have been identified that can interact with and modulate DAT function. In this study we show that DJ-1 can potentially modulate DAT function. Co-expression of DAT and DJ-1 in HEK-293T cells leads to an increase in [3H] dopamine uptake that does not appear to be mediated by increased total DAT expression but rather through an increase in DAT cell surface localization. In addition, through a series of GST affinity purifications and co-immunoprecipitations, we provide evidence that the DAT can be found in a complex with DJ-1, which involve distinct regions within both DAT and DJ-1. Using in vitro binding experiments we also show that this complex can be formed in part by a direct interaction between DAT and DJ-1. Co-expression of a mini-gene that can disrupt the DAT/DJ-1 complex appears to block the increase in [3H] dopamine uptake by DJ-1. Mutations in DJ-1 have been linked to familial forms of Parkinson’s disease, yet the normal physiological function of DJ-1 remains unclear. Our study suggests that DJ-1 may also play a role in regulating dopamine levels by modifying DAT activity. PMID:26305376

  15. Validation of an ELISA for urinary dopamine: applications in monitoring treatment of dopamine-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Nichkova, Mikaela; Wynveen, Paul M; Marc, David T; Huisman, Han; Kellermann, Gottfried H

    2013-06-01

    Dopamine is a catecholamine that serves as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system. Non-invasive, reliable, and high-throughput techniques for its quantification are needed to assess dysfunctions of the dopaminergic system and monitor therapies. We developed and validated a competitive ELISA for direct determination of dopamine in urine samples. The method provides high specificity, good accuracy, and precision (average inter-assay variation < 12%). The analysis is not affected by general urinary components and structurally related drugs and metabolites. The correlation between ELISA and LC-MS/MS analyses was very good (r = 0.986, n = 28). The reference range was 64-261 μg/g Cr (n = 64). Week-to-week biological variations of second morning urinary dopamine under free-living conditions were 23.9% for within- and 35.5% for between-subject variation (n = 10). The assay is applied in monitoring Parkinson's disease patients under different treatments. Urinary dopamine levels significantly increase in a dose-dependent manner for Parkinson's disease patients under l-DOPA treatment. The present ELISA provides a cost-effective alternative to chromatographic methods to monitor patients receiving dopamine restoring treatment to ensure appropriate dosing and clinical efficacy. The method can be used in pathological research for the assessment of possible peripheral biological markers for disorders related to the dopaminergic system.

  16. Phosphorylation mechanisms in dopamine transporter regulation.

    PubMed

    Foster, James D; Vaughan, Roxanne A

    2016-11-09

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane phosphoprotein that actively translocates extracellular dopamine (DA) into presynaptic neurons. The transporter is the primary mechanism for control of DA levels and subsequent neurotransmission, and is the target for abused and therapeutic drugs that exert their effects by suppressing reuptake. The transport capacity of DAT is acutely regulated by signaling systems and drug exposure, providing neurons the ability to fine-tune DA clearance in response to specific conditions. Kinase pathways play major roles in these mechanisms, and this review summarizes the current status of DAT phosphorylation characteristics and the evidence linking transporter phosphorylation to control of reuptake and other functions. Greater understanding of these processes may aid in elucidation of their possible contributions to DA disease states and suggest specific phosphorylation sites as targets for therapeutic manipulation of reuptake.

  17. Ropinirole, a non-ergoline dopamine agonist.

    PubMed

    Jost, Wolfgang H; Angersbach, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    Dopamine agonists have become indispensable in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. In every-day practice, however, the decision to select the best compound for an individual patient is rendered difficult because of the large number of substances available on the market. This review article provides a closer look at the experimental and clinical studies with ropinirole published so far. Ropinirole is a non-ergoline dopamine agonist which has been proven to be effective in both, monotherapy and combination therapy of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In addition to ameliorating bradykinesia, rigor, and tremor, ropinirole facilitates the daily life and improves depressive moods of patients with Parkinson's disease. The long-term complications of levodopa are avoided, and problems commonly associated with levodopa treatment are reduced. Ropinirole appears to have a neuroprotective effect. In addition to Parkinson's disease, ropinirole has also been used successfully in the treatment of restless legs syndrome.

  18. Dopamine selectively sensitizes dopaminergic neurons to rotenone-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Ferogh A; Grammatopoulos, Tom N; Poczobutt, Andy M; Jones, Susan M; Snell, Laurence D; Das, Mita; Zawada, W Michael

    2008-05-01

    Among various types of neurons affected in Parkinson's disease, dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra undergo the most pronounced degeneration. Products of DA oxidation and consequent cellular damage have been hypothesized to contribute to neuronal death. To examine whether elevated intracellular DA will selectively predispose the dopaminergic subpopulation of nigral neurons to damage by an oxidative insult, we first cultured rat primary mesencephalic cells in the presence of rotenone to elevate reactive oxygen species. Although MAP2(+) neurons were more sensitive to rotenone-induced toxicity than type 1 astrocytes, rotenone affected equally both DA (TH(+)) neurons and MAP2(+) neurons. In contrast, when intracellular DA concentration was elevated, DA neurons became selectively sensitized to rotenone. Raising intracellular DA levels in primary DA neurons resulted in dopaminergic neuron death in the presence of subtoxic concentrations of rotenone. Furthermore, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetic, manganese (III) meso-tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin, blocked activation of caspase-3, and consequent cell death. Our results demonstrate that an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I and increased cytosolic DA may cooperatively lead to conditions of elevated oxidative stress and thereby promote selective demise of dopaminergic neurons.

  19. Alcohol-induced alterations in dopamine modulation of prefrontal activity.

    PubMed

    Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Chandler, L Judson

    2015-12-01

    Long-term alcohol use leads to persistent cognitive deficits that may be associated with maladaptive changes in the neurocircuitry that mediates executive functions. Impairments caused by these changes can persist well into abstinence and have a negative impact on quality of life and job performance, and can increase the probability of relapse. Many of the changes that affect cognitive function appear to involve dysregulation of the mesocortical dopamine system. This includes changes in dopamine release and alterations in dopamine receptor expression and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes the cellular effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on dopamine release and dopamine receptor function in the PFC with the goal of providing greater understanding of the effects of alcohol-use disorders on the dopamine system and how this relates to deficits in the executive function of the PFC.

  20. Alcohol-induced alterations in dopamine modulation of prefrontal activity

    PubMed Central

    Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Chandler, L. Judson

    2015-01-01

    Long-term alcohol use leads to persistent cognitive deficits that may be associated with maladaptive changes in the neurocircuitry that mediates executive functions. Impairments caused by these changes can persist well into abstinence and have a negative impact on quality of life and job performance, and can increase the probability of relapse. Many of the changes that affect cognitive function appear to involve dysregulation of the mesocortical dopamine system. This includes changes in dopamine release and alterations in dopamine receptor expression and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes the cellular effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure on dopamine release and dopamine receptor function in the PFC with the goal of providing greater understanding of the effects of alcohol-use disorders on the dopamine system and how this relates to deficits in the executive function of the PFC. PMID:26558348

  1. Dopamine neurons share common response function for reward prediction error

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Neir; Tian, Ju; Bukwich, Michael; Uchida, Naoshige

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are thought to signal reward prediction error, or the difference between actual and predicted reward. How dopamine neurons jointly encode this information, however, remains unclear. One possibility is that different neurons specialize in different aspects of prediction error; another is that each neuron calculates prediction error in the same way. We recorded from optogenetically-identified dopamine neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area (VTA) while mice performed classical conditioning tasks. Our tasks allowed us to determine the full prediction error functions of dopamine neurons and compare them to each other. We found striking homogeneity among individual dopamine neurons: their responses to both unexpected and expected rewards followed the same function, just scaled up or down. As a result, we could describe both individual and population responses using just two parameters. Such uniformity ensures robust information coding, allowing each dopamine neuron to contribute fully to the prediction error signal. PMID:26854803

  2. Dopamine Modulates Reward-Related Vigor

    PubMed Central

    Beierholm, Ulrik; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Economides, Marcos; Chowdhury, Rumana; Düzel, Emrah; Dolan, Ray; Dayan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Subjects routinely control the vigor with which they emit motoric responses. However, the bulk of formal treatments of decision-making ignores this dimension of choice. A recent theoretical study suggested that action vigor should be influenced by experienced average reward rate and that this rate is encoded by tonic dopamine in the brain. We previously examined how average reward rate modulates vigor as exemplified by response times and found a measure of agreement with the first suggestion. In the current study, we examined the second suggestion, namely the potential influence of dopamine signaling on vigor. Ninety healthy subjects participated in a double-blind experiment in which they received one of the following: placebo, L-DOPA (which increases dopamine levels in the brain), or citalopram (which has a selective, if complex, effect on serotonin levels). Subjects performed multiple trials of a rewarded odd-ball discrimination task in which we varied the potential reward over time in order to exercise the putative link between vigor and average reward rate. Replicating our previous findings, we found that a significant fraction of the variance in subjects' responses could be explained by our experimentally manipulated changes in average reward rate. Crucially, this relationship was significantly stronger under L-Dopa than under Placebo, suggesting that the impact of average reward levels on action vigor is indeed subject to a dopaminergic influence. PMID:23419875

  3. Linking unfounded beliefs to genetic dopamine availability

    PubMed Central

    Schmack, Katharina; Rössler, Hannes; Sekutowicz, Maria; Brandl, Eva J.; Müller, Daniel J.; Petrovic, Predrag; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Unfounded convictions involving beliefs in the paranormal, grandiosity ideas or suspicious thoughts are endorsed at varying degrees among the general population. Here, we investigated the neurobiopsychological basis of the observed inter-individual variability in the propensity toward unfounded beliefs. One hundred two healthy individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818, and rs4680, also known as val158met) that define common functional haplotypes with substantial impact on synaptic dopamine degradation, completed a questionnaire measuring unfounded beliefs, and took part in a behavioral experiment assessing perceptual inference. We found that greater dopamine availability was associated with a stronger propensity toward unfounded beliefs, and that this effect was statistically mediated by an enhanced influence of expectations on perceptual inference. Our results indicate that genetic differences in dopaminergic neurotransmission account for inter-individual differences in perceptual inference linked to the formation and maintenance of unfounded beliefs. Thus, dopamine might be critically involved in the processes underlying one's interpretation of the relationship between the self and the world. PMID:26483654

  4. Linking unfounded beliefs to genetic dopamine availability.

    PubMed

    Schmack, Katharina; Rössler, Hannes; Sekutowicz, Maria; Brandl, Eva J; Müller, Daniel J; Petrovic, Predrag; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Unfounded convictions involving beliefs in the paranormal, grandiosity ideas or suspicious thoughts are endorsed at varying degrees among the general population. Here, we investigated the neurobiopsychological basis of the observed inter-individual variability in the propensity toward unfounded beliefs. One hundred two healthy individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818, and rs4680, also known as val (158) met) that define common functional haplotypes with substantial impact on synaptic dopamine degradation, completed a questionnaire measuring unfounded beliefs, and took part in a behavioral experiment assessing perceptual inference. We found that greater dopamine availability was associated with a stronger propensity toward unfounded beliefs, and that this effect was statistically mediated by an enhanced influence of expectations on perceptual inference. Our results indicate that genetic differences in dopaminergic neurotransmission account for inter-individual differences in perceptual inference linked to the formation and maintenance of unfounded beliefs. Thus, dopamine might be critically involved in the processes underlying one's interpretation of the relationship between the self and the world.

  5. DOPAMINE AND FOOD ADDICTION: LEXICON BADLY NEEDED

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Mercè

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years, the concept of food addiction has become a common feature in the scientific literature, as well as the popular press. Nevertheless, the use of the term “addiction” to describe pathological aspects of food intake in humans remains controversial, and even among those who affirm the validity of the concept, there is considerable disagreement about its utility for explaining the increasing prevalence of obesity throughout much of the world. An examination of the literature on food addiction indicates that mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine systems often are cited as mechanisms that contribute to the establishment of food addiction. However, in reviewing this literature, it is important to have a detailed consideration of the complex nature of dopaminergic involvement in motivational processes. For example, although it is often stated that mesolimbic dopamine mediates “reward”, there is no standard or consistent technical meaning of this term. Moreover, there is a persistent tendency to link dopamine transmission with pleasure or hedonia, as opposed to other aspects of motivation or learning. The present paper provides a critical discussion of some aspects of the food addiction literature, viewed through the lens of recent findings and current theoretical views of dopaminergic involvement in food motivation. Furthermore, compulsive food intake and binge eating will be considered from an evolutionary perspective, in terms of the motivational subsystems that are involved in adaptive patterns of food consumption and seeking behaviors, and a consideration of how these could be altered in pathological conditions. PMID:23177385

  6. Safety out of control: dopamine and defence.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Kevin; Dayan, Peter

    2016-05-23

    We enjoy a sophisticated understanding of how animals learn to predict appetitive outcomes and direct their behaviour accordingly. This encompasses well-defined learning algorithms and details of how these might be implemented in the brain. Dopamine has played an important part in this unfolding story, appearing to embody a learning signal for predicting rewards and stamping in useful actions, while also being a modulator of behavioural vigour. By contrast, although choosing correct actions and executing them vigorously in the face of adversity is at least as important, our understanding of learning and behaviour in aversive settings is less well developed. We examine aversive processing through the medium of the role of dopamine and targets such as D2 receptors in the striatum. We consider critical factors such as the degree of control that an animal believes it exerts over key aspects of its environment, the distinction between 'better' and 'good' actual or predicted future states, and the potential requirement for a particular form of opponent to dopamine to ensure proper calibration of state values.

  7. Metabolic sensing in brain dopamine systems.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Ivan E; Ren, Xueying; Ferreira, Jozélia G

    2010-01-01

    The gustatory system allows the brain to monitor the presence of chemicals in the oral cavity and initiate appropriate responses of acceptance or rejection. Among such chemicals are the nutrients that must be rapidly recognized and ingested for immediate oxidation or storage. In the periphery, the gustatory system consists of a highly efficient sensing mechanism, where distinct cell types express receptors that bind specifically to chemicals associated with one particular taste quality. These specialized receptors connect to the brain via dedicated pathways, the stimulation of which triggers stereotypic behavioral responses as well as neurotransmitter release in brain reward dopamine systems. However, evidence also exists in favor of the concept that the critical regulators of long-term nutrient choice are physiological processes taking place after ingestion and independently of gustation. We will appraise the hypothesis that organisms can develop preferences for nutrients independently of oral taste stimulation. Of particular interest are recent findings indicating that disrupting nutrient utilization interferes with activity in brain dopamine pathways. These findings establish the metabolic fate of nutrients as previously unanticipated reward signals that regulate the reinforcing value of foods. In particular, it suggests a role for brain dopamine reward systems as metabolic sensors, allowing for signals generated by the metabolic utilization of nutrients to regulate neurotransmitter release and food reinforcement.

  8. Suppression of Dopamine Neurons Mediates Reward

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Abe, Ayako; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Massive activation of dopamine neurons is critical for natural reward and drug abuse. In contrast, the significance of their spontaneous activity remains elusive. In Drosophila melanogaster, depolarization of the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster dopamine neurons en masse signals reward to the mushroom body (MB) and drives appetitive memory. Focusing on the functional heterogeneity of PAM cluster neurons, we identified that a single class of PAM neurons, PAM-γ3, mediates sugar reward by suppressing their own activity. PAM-γ3 is selectively required for appetitive olfactory learning, while activation of these neurons in turn induces aversive memory. Ongoing activity of PAM-γ3 gets suppressed upon sugar ingestion. Strikingly, transient inactivation of basal PAM-γ3 activity can substitute for reward and induces appetitive memory. Furthermore, we identified the satiety-signaling neuropeptide Allatostatin A (AstA) as a key mediator that conveys inhibitory input onto PAM-γ3. Our results suggest the significance of basal dopamine release in reward signaling and reveal a circuit mechanism for negative regulation. PMID:27997541

  9. Interactions of taurine and dopamine in the striatum.

    PubMed

    Kontro, P

    1987-01-01

    Both spontaneous and K+-stimulated taurine release from rat striatal slices were affected by dopamine and apomorphine, suggesting that dopaminergic systems are able to modulate taurine release. K+-stimulated dopamine release was potentiated by taurine, which effect may not involve dopamine autoreceptors. Taurine was able to inhibit spiperone binding to striatal membranes in a uncompetitive manner and thus interfere with the function of dopaminergic receptors.

  10. The dopamine transporter: role in neurotoxicity and human disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bannon, Michael J. . E-mail: mbannon@med.wayne.edu

    2005-05-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane transport protein expressed exclusively within a small subset of CNS neurons. It plays a crucial role in controlling dopamine-mediated neurotransmission and a number of associated behaviors. This review focuses on recent data elucidating the role of the dopamine transporter in neurotoxicity and a number of CNS disorders, including Parkinson disease, drug abuse, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

  11. Successful treatment of dopamine dysregulation syndrome with dopamine D2 partial agonist antipsychotic drug.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Jin; Takahata, Keisuke; Kawashima, Noriko; Kato, Motoichiro

    2012-07-07

    Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) consists of a series of complications such as compulsive use of dopaminergic medications, aggressive or hypomanic behaviors during excessive use, and withdrawal states characterized by dysphoria and anxiety, caused by long-term dopaminergic treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although several ways to manage DDS have been suggested, there has been no established treatment that can manage DDS without deterioration of motor symptoms. In this article, we present a case of PD in whom the administration of the dopamine D2 partial agonistic antipsychotic drug aripiprazole improved DDS symptoms such as craving and compulsive behavior without worsening of motor symptoms. Considering the profile of this drug as a partial agonist at D2 receptors, it is possible that it exerts its therapeutic effect on DDS by modulating the dysfunctional dopamine system.

  12. Atypical Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors that Provide Clues About Cocaine's Mechanism at the Dopamine Transporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck Newman, Amy; Katz, Jonathan L.

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) has been a primary target for cocaine abuse/addiction medication discovery. However predicted addiction liability and limited clinical evaluation has provided a formidable challenge for development of these agents for human use. The unique and atypical pharmacological profile of the benztropine (BZT) class of dopamine uptake inhibitors, in preclinical models of cocaine effects and abuse, has encouraged further development of these agents. Moreover, in vivo studies have challenged the original DAT hypothesis and demonstrated that DAT occupancy and subsequent increases in dopamine produced by BZT analogues are significantly delayed and long lasting, as compared to cocaine. These important and distinctive elements are critical to the lack of abuse liability among BZT analogues, and improve their potential for development as treatments for cocaine abuse and possibly other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. The acute anti-craving effect of acamprosate in alcohol-preferring rats is associated with modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Michael S; Adams, Cameron; Kraehenbuehl, Tracey; Vengeliene, Valentina; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2005-09-01

    Acamprosate (Campral) is a drug used clinically for the treatment of alcoholism. In order to examine further the time-course and mechanism of action of acamprosate, the effect of acute and repeated acamprosate administration was examined on (i) operant ethanol self-administration and (ii) voluntary home cage ethanol consumption by alcohol-preferring Fawn-Hooded, iP and Alko Alcohol (AA) rats. Acutely, acamprosate was shown to cause a significant decrease in operant ethanol self-administration by Fawn-Hooded and alcohol-preferring iP rats in part by decreasing the motivational relevance of a specific ethanol cue; however, repeated injection of acamprosate led to tolerance to this effect. Voluntary alcohol consumption in the home cage in Fawn-Hooded and AA rats was also reduced by an acute acamprosate injection; however, again tolerance developed to repeated injections. In a separate experiment, the effect of acamprosate on markers of the dopaminergic system was examined. Interestingly, acute acamprosate was also shown to cause increased dopamine transporter density and decreased dopamine D2-like receptor density within the nucleus accumbens but not in the caudate-putamen, suggesting a link between the decreased motivational salience of the ethanol cue and altered dopaminergic signalling within the nucleus accumbens. With repeated injections of acamprosate, markers of the dopaminergic system returned to steady state levels with a similar temporal profile to the development of tolerance in the behavioural studies. Along with previous studies, our findings indicate that acamprosate modulates the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and may thereby decrease ethanol reinforcement processes; however, these effects undergo tolerance in alcohol-preferring rats and may in part explain the fact why some subjects are non-responders to chronic acamprosate treatment.

  14. Single Dose of a Dopamine Agonist Impairs Reinforcement Learning in Humans: Behavioral Evidence from a Laboratory-based Measure of Reward Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Evins, A. Eden; Schetter, Erika Cowman; Frank, Michael J.; Pajtas, Petra E.; Santesso, Diane L.; Culhane, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Rationale The dopaminergic system, particularly D2-like dopamine receptors, has been strongly implicated in reward processing. Animal studies have emphasized the role of phasic dopamine (DA) signaling in reward-related learning, but these processes remain largely unexplored in humans. Objectives To evaluate the effect of a single, low dose of a D2/D3 agonist—pramipexole—on reinforcement learning in healthy adults. Based on prior evidence indicating that low doses of DA agonists decrease phasic DA release through autoreceptor stimulation, we hypothesized that 0.5 mg of pramipexole would impair reward learning due to presynaptic mechanisms. Methods Using a double-blind design, a single 0.5 mg dose of pramipexole or placebo was administered to 32 healthy volunteers, who performed a probabilistic reward task involving a differential reinforcement schedule as well as various control tasks. Results As hypothesized, response bias toward the more frequently rewarded stimulus was impaired in the pramipexole group, even after adjusting for transient adverse effects. In addition, the pramipexole group showed reaction time and motor speed slowing and increased negative affect; however, when adverse physical side effects were considered, group differences in motor speed and negative affect disappeared. Conclusions These findings show that a single low dose of pramipexole impaired the acquisition of reward-related behavior in healthy participants, and they are consistent with prior evidence suggesting that phasic DA signaling is required to reinforce actions leading to reward. The potential implications of the present findings to psychiatric conditions, including depression and impulse control disorders related to addiction, are discussed. PMID:17909750

  15. Dopamine release in rat striatum - Physiological coupling to tyrosine supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    During, Matthew J.; Acworth, Ian N.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    Intracerebral microdialysis was used to monitor dopamine release in rat striatal extracellular fluid following the intraperitoneal administration of dopamine's precursor amino acid, L-tyrosine. Dopamine concentrations in dialysates increased transiently after tyrosine (50-100 mg/kg) administration. Pretreatment with haloperidol or the partial lesioning of nigrostriatal neurons enhanced the effect of tyrosine on dopamine release, and haloperidol also prolonged this effect. These data suggest that nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons are responsive to changes in precursor availability under basal conditions, but that receptor-mediated feedback mechanisms limit the magnitude and duration of this effect.

  16. Reinforcement signalling in Drosophila; dopamine does it all after all.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Scott

    2013-06-01

    Reinforcement systems are believed to drive synaptic plasticity within neural circuits that store memories. Recent evidence from the fruit fly suggests that anatomically distinct dopaminergic neurons ultimately provide the key instructive signals for both appetitive and aversive learning. This dual role for dopamine overturns the previous model that octopamine signalled reward and dopamine punishment. More importantly, this anatomically segregated double role for dopamine in reward and aversion mirrors that emerging in mammals. Therefore, an antagonistic organization of distinct reinforcing dopaminegic neurons is a conserved feature of brains. It now seems crucial to understand how the dopaminergic neurons are controlled and what the released dopamine does to the underlying circuits to convey opposite valence.

  17. Cloning of the cocaine-sensitive bovine dopamine transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Usdin, T.B.; Chen, C.; Brownstein, M.J.; Hoffman, B.J. ); Mezey, E. )

    1991-12-15

    A cDNA encoding the dopamine transporter from bovine brain substantia nigra was identified on the basis of its structural homology to other, recently cloned, neurotransmitter transporters. The sequence of the 693-amino acid protein is quite similar to those of the rat {gamma}-aminobutyric acid, human norepinephrine, and rat serotonin transporters. Dopamine transporter mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the substantia nigra but not in the locus coeruleus, raphe, caudate, or other brain areas. ({sup 3}H)Dopamine accumulation in tissue culture cells transfected with the cDNA was inhibited by amphetamine, cocaine, and specific inhibitors of dopamine transports, including GBR12909.

  18. Homeostatic mechanisms in dopamine synthesis and release: a mathematical model

    PubMed Central

    Best, Janet A; Nijhout, H Frederik; Reed, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    Background Dopamine is a catecholamine that is used as a neurotransmitter both in the periphery and in the central nervous system. Dysfunction in various dopaminergic systems is known to be associated with various disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Tourette's syndrome. Furthermore, microdialysis studies have shown that addictive drugs increase extracellular dopamine and brain imaging has shown a correlation between euphoria and psycho-stimulant-induced increases in extracellular dopamine [1]. These consequences of dopamine dysfunction indicate the importance of maintaining dopamine functionality through homeostatic mechanisms that have been attributed to the delicate balance between synthesis, storage, release, metabolism, and reuptake. Methods We construct a mathematical model of dopamine synthesis, release, and reuptake and use it to study homeostasis in single dopaminergic neuron terminals. We investigate the substrate inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by tyrosine, the consequences of the rapid uptake of extracellular dopamine by the dopamine transporters, and the effects of the autoreceoptors on dopaminergic function. The main focus is to understand the regulation and control of synthesis and release and to explicate and interpret experimental findings. Results We show that the substrate inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by tyrosine stabilizes cytosolic and vesicular dopamine against changes in tyrosine availability due to meals. We find that the autoreceptors dampen the fluctuations in extracellular dopamine caused by changes in tyrosine hydroxylase expression and changes in the rate of firing. We show that short bursts of action potentials create significant dopamine signals against the background of tonic firing. We explain the observed time courses of extracellular dopamine responses to stimulation in wild type mice and mice that have genetically altered dopamine transporter densities and the observed half-lives of extracellular

  19. The action of dopamine and vascular dopamine (DA1) receptor agonists on human isolated subcutaneous and omental small arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, A. D.; Sever, P. S.

    1989-01-01

    1. Human small arteries were obtained from surgical specimens and studied in vitro by use of a myograph technique. Following induction of tone with a potassium depolarizing solution, dopamine in the presence of beta-adrenoceptor and catecholamine uptake blockade relaxed isolated omental and subcutaneous arteries. Preincubation of tissues with phentolamine increased the maximum relaxation in response to dopamine. 2. The selective vascular dopamine receptor agonists, fenoldopam and SKF 38393 also relaxed isolated subcutaneous and omental arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. The order of potency for agonists was dopamine greater than fenoldopam greater than SKF 38393. 3. Dopamine-induced relaxation was competitively antagonized by SCH 23390, (R)- and (S)-sulpiride, and fenoldopam induced relaxation by SCH 23390 and (+)- but not (-)-butaclamol. 4. These results indicate the presence of vascular dopamine receptors (DA1 subtype) on human isolated resistance arteries from omental and subcutaneous sites. PMID:2474354

  20. Cyclic ADP-ribose as an endogenous inhibitor of the mTOR pathway downstream of dopamine receptors in the mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Haruhiro; Kamimura, Shin-Ya; Inoue, Takeshi; Hori, Osamu; Islam, Mohammad Saharul; Lopatina, Olga; Tsuji, Chiharu

    2016-12-26

    The role of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) as a second messenger and modulator of the mTOR pathway downstream of dopamine (DA) receptors and/or CD38 was re-examined in the mouse. ADP-ribosyl activity was low in the membranes of neonates, but DA stimulated it via both D1- and D2-like receptors. ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity increased significantly during development in association with increased expression of CD38. The cADPR binding proteins, FKBP12 and FKBP12.6, were expressed in the adult mouse striatum. The ratio of phosphorylated to non-phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K) in whole mouse striatum homogenates decreased after incubation of adult mouse striatum with extracellular cADPR for 5 min. This effect of cADPR was much weaker in MPTP-treated Parkinson's disease model mice. The inhibitory effects of cADPR and rapamycin were identical. These data suggest that cADPR is an endogenous inhibitor of the mTOR signaling pathway downstream of DA receptors in the mouse striatum and that cADPR plays a certain role in the brain in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Dopamine and dopamine receptor D1 associated with decreased social interaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Shi, Jieyun; Lin, Rongfei; Wen, Tieqiao

    2017-02-13

    Deficits in social interaction are hallmarks of neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, its underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here, we show that the loss of dendritic cell factor 1 (Dcf1) in the nervous system of mice induces social interaction deficiency, autism-like behaviour, and influences social interaction via the dopamine system. Dopamine receptor D1 agonist rescues this social cognition phenotype, and improves short-term plasticity. Together, this study presents a new genetic mechanism that affects social interaction and may provide a new way to improve positive social interaction and treat autism spectrum disorders.

  2. Monitoring Dopamine Quinone-Induced Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity Using Dopamine Functionalized Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Liu, Hui-Ting; Long, Yi-Tao

    2015-07-08

    Dopamine (DA) quinone-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is known to occur due to the interaction between DA quinone and cysteine (Cys) residue, and it may play an important a role in pathological processes associated with neurodegeneration. In this study, we monitored the interaction process of DA to form DA quinone and the subsequent Cys residue using dopamine functionalized quantum dots (QDs). The fluorescence (FL) of the QD bioconjugates changes as a function of the structure transformation during the interaction process, providing a potential FL tool for monitoring dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

  3. Presence and Function of Dopamine Transporter (DAT) in Stallion Sperm: Dopamine Modulates Sperm Motility and Acrosomal Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Alejandra A.; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan Enric; Ramírez-Reveco, Alfredo; Concha, Ilona I.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+), as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM) treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909) and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility. PMID:25402186

  4. Dopamine synapse is a neuroligin-2-mediated contact between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures.

    PubMed

    Uchigashima, Motokazu; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-04-12

    Midbrain dopamine neurons project densely to the striatum and form so-called dopamine synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs), principal neurons in the striatum. Because dopamine receptors are widely expressed away from dopamine synapses, it remains unclear how dopamine synapses are involved in dopaminergic transmission. Here we demonstrate that dopamine synapses are contacts formed between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures. The presynaptic structure expressed tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2, and plasmalemmal dopamine transporter, which are essential for dopamine synthesis, vesicular filling, and recycling, but was below the detection threshold for molecules involving GABA synthesis and vesicular filling or for GABA itself. In contrast, the postsynaptic structure of dopamine synapses expressed GABAergic molecules, including postsynaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin-2, postsynaptic scaffolding molecule gephyrin, and GABAA receptor α1, without any specific clustering of dopamine receptors. Of these, neuroligin-2 promoted presynaptic differentiation in axons of midbrain dopamine neurons and striatal GABAergic neurons in culture. After neuroligin-2 knockdown in the striatum, a significant decrease of dopamine synapses coupled with a reciprocal increase of GABAergic synapses was observed on MSN dendrites. This finding suggests that neuroligin-2 controls striatal synapse formation by giving competitive advantage to heterologous dopamine synapses over conventional GABAergic synapses. Considering that MSN dendrites are preferential targets of dopamine synapses and express high levels of dopamine receptors, dopamine synapse formation may serve to increase the specificity and potency of dopaminergic modulation of striatal outputs by anchoring dopamine release sites to dopamine-sensing targets.

  5. Facilitatory effect of dopamine on neuromuscular transmission mediated via dopamine D1-like receptors and prospective interaction with nicotine.

    PubMed

    AlQot, H E; Elnozahi, N A; Mohy El-Din, M M; Bistawroos, A E; Abou Zeit-Har, M S

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study is to probe the effects of dopamine and potential interactions with nicotine at the motor end plate. To accomplish this, we measured the amplitude of nerve-evoked muscle twitches of the isolated rat phrenic hemi-diaphragm preparation. Dopamine potentiated indirect muscle twitches in normal and gallamine-presensitized preparations amounting to a maximum of 31.14±0.71% and 69.23±1.96%, respectively. The dopamine-induced facilitation was well maintained in presence of 10 µM propranolol but greatly reduced in presence of 6 µM SCH 23390 or 3 µM dantrolene. In addition, SKF 81297 attained a plateau at 16 µM as opposed to 64 µM dopamine, with a percentage potentiation of 69.47±1.76. The facilitatory effect of dopamine was potentiated in nicotine treated rats. This study revealed for the first time that the facilitatory effect exerted by dopamine on neuromuscular transmission is mediated via the dopamine D1-like receptors. In addition, it highlighted the possible dependency of dopamine effects on intracellular calcium and signified potential interaction among dopamine and nicotine. Clinically, the findings generated by this study reveal potential targets for approaching motor deficit syndromes.

  6. Exposure to the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture DE-71 damages the nigrostriatal dopamine system: role of dopamine handling in neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bradner, Joshua M; Suragh, Tiffany A; Wilson, W Wyatt; Lazo, Carlos R; Stout, Kristen A; Kim, Hye Mi; Wang, Min Z; Walker, Douglas I; Pennell, Kurt D; Richardson, Jason R; Miller, Gary W; Caudle, W Michael

    2013-03-01

    In the last several decades polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have replaced the previously banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in multiple flame retardant utilities. As epidemiological and laboratory studies have suggested PCBs as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), the similarities between PBDEs and PCBs suggest that PBDEs have the potential to be neurotoxic to the dopamine system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of the PBDE mixture, DE-71, on the nigrostriatal dopamine system and address the role of altered dopamine handling in mediating this neurotoxicity. Using an in vitro model system we found DE-71 effectively caused cell death in a dopaminergic cell line as well as reducing the number of TH+ neurons isolated from VMAT2 WT and LO animals. Assessment of DE-71 neurotoxicity in vivo demonstrated significant deposition of PBDE congeners in the brains of mice, leading to reductions in striatal dopamine and dopamine handling, as well as reductions in the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and VMAT2. Additionally, DE-71 elicited a significant locomotor deficit in the VMAT2 WT and LO mice. However, no change was seen in TH expression in dopamine terminal or in the number of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). To date, these are the first data to demonstrate that exposure to PBDEs disrupts the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Given their similarities to PCBs, additional laboratory and epidemiological research should be considered to assess PBDEs as a potential risk factor for PD and other neurological disorders.

  7. Distribution of D1- and D2-dopamine receptors, and dopamine and its metabolites in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Hall, H; Sedvall, G; Magnusson, O; Kopp, J; Halldin, C; Farde, L

    1994-12-01

    Densities and distribution of D1-dopamine and D2-dopamine receptors were investigated in vitro using [3H]SCH 23390 and [3H]raclopride in receptor binding assays and autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere slices to serve as anatomical correlates to PET studies using [11C]SCH 23390 and [11C]raclopride. In addition, the levels of dopamine and its metabolites were determined by HPLC in various brain regions. Both dopamine receptor subtypes, as well as dopamine, HVA and DOPAC, were primarily found in the basal ganglia. Very high densities of D1-dopamine receptors were found particularly in the medial caudate nucleus, whereas D2-dopamine receptors were evenly distributed throughout the caudate. The densities of D1- and D2-dopamine receptors were similar in the caudate nucleus and the putamen, whereas there were 4 to 7 times higher densities of the D1- than of the D2-dopamine receptors in several limbic and neocortical regions. The receptor distribution in the autoradiographic study was consistent with that demonstrated in the living human brain using [11C]SCH 23390 and [11C]raclopride.

  8. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    from the SV Bus, specifically the Scalable Power Regulation Unit and is being amplified by the solar arrays which act as highly efficient antennas. To...Military Operations in Urban Terrain; Defense-Wide Mission Support; Air Mobility; and Space Launch Orbital Support. For military users, the GPS III...Service: The GPS III program will provide O&S for on- orbit support through the Launch and On- Orbit Support contract. For Space Vehicle (SV)01 and

  9. Serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors are the same size in membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Brann, M.R.

    1985-12-31

    Target size analysis was used to compare the sizes of serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors in rat brain membranes. The sizes of these receptors were standardized by comparison with the muscarinic receptor, a receptor of known size. The number of serotonin-S2 receptors labeled with (3H)ketanserin or (3H)spiperone in frontal cortex decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and receptor affinity was not affected. The number of dopamine-D2 receptors labeled with (3H)spiperone in striatum also decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and D2 and S2 receptors were equally sensitive to radiation. In both striatum and frontal cortex, the number of muscarinic receptors labeled with (3H)QNB decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and were much less sensitive to radiation than S2 and D2 receptors. These data indicate that in rat brain membranes, S2 and D2 receptors are of similar size, and both molecules are much larger than the muscarinic receptor.

  10. Interaction of structural analogs of dopamine, chlorpromazine and sulpiride with striatal dopamine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of these studies were to determine if the nitrogen atom of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists drugs is required for interaction with the D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors and whether the positively charged or uncharged molecular species interacts with these receptors. To address these issues, permanently charged analogs of dopamine, chlorpromazine and sulpiride were synthesized in which a dimethylsulfonium, dimethylselenonium or quaternary ammonium group replaced the amine group. Permanently uncharged analogs which contained a methylsulfide, methylselenide and sulfoxide group instead of an amine group were also synthesized. The interactions of these compounds with striatal dopamine receptors were studied. We found that the permanently charged dopamine analogs bound to the D-2 receptor of striatal membranes like conventional dopaminergic agonists and displayed agonist activity at the D-2 receptor regulating potassium-evoked (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine release. In contrast, the permanently uncharged analogs bound only to the high affinity state of the D-2 receptor and had neither agonist or antagonist activity.

  11. Positron-labeled dopamine agonists for probing the high affinity states of dopamine subtype 2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dah-Ren; Narendran, Raj; Laruelle, Marc

    2005-01-01

    It is well documented that guanidine nucleotide-coupled dopamine subtype 2 receptors (D2) are configured in high and low affinity states for the dopamine agonist in vitro. However, it is still unclear whether these functional states exist in vivo. We hypothesized that positron-labeled D2 agonist and Positron Emission Tomography can be used to probe these functional states noninvasively. Recently, we demonstrated in nonhuman primates that N-[11C]propyl-norapomorphine (NPA), a full D2 agonist, is a suitable tracer for imaging the high affinity states of D2 receptors in vivo. We also developed kinetic modeling method to derive receptor parameters, such as binding potential (BP) and specific uptake ratios (V3''). When coupled with a dopamine releasing drug, amphetamine, NPA was found to be more sensitive than antagonist tracers, such as [11C]raclopride (RAC), to endogenous dopamine concentration changes (by about 42%). This finding suggests that NPA is a superior tracer for reporting endogenous DA concentration. In addition, the difference of the BP or V3'' of NPA and RAC under control and amphetamine challenge conditions could be used to estimate the functional states of D2 receptors in vivo. On the basis of our findings and the assumptions that NPA binds only to the high affinity states and RAC binds equally to both affinity states, we proposed that about 70% of the D2 receptors are configured in the high affinity states in vivo.

  12. Dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines in a novel acute mouse model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Barak, Larry S; Wetsel, William C; Caron, Marc G; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2005-08-01

    Brain dopamine is critically involved in movement control, and its deficiency is the primary cause of motor symptoms in Parkinson disease. Here we report development of an animal model of acute severe dopamine deficiency by using mice lacking the dopamine transporter. In the absence of transporter-mediated recycling mechanisms, dopamine levels become entirely dependent on de novo synthesis. Acute pharmacological inhibition of dopamine synthesis in these mice induces transient elimination of striatal dopamine accompanied by the development of a striking behavioral phenotype manifested as severe akinesia, rigidity, tremor, and ptosis. This phenotype can be reversed by administration of the dopamine precursor, L-DOPA, or by nonselective dopamine agonists. Surprisingly, several amphetamine derivatives were also effective in reversing these behavioral abnormalities in a dopamine-independent manner. Identification of dopamine transporter- and dopamine-independent locomotor actions of amphetamines suggests a novel paradigm in the search for prospective anti-Parkinsonian drugs.

  13. Dopamine Receptor Antagonists Enhance Proliferation and Neurogenesis of Midbrain Lmx1a-expressing Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Eva; Belnoue, Laure; Theofilopoulos, Spyridon; Salto, Carmen; Bye, Chris; Parish, Clare; Deng, Qiaolin; Kadkhodaei, Banafsheh; Ericson, Johan; Arenas, Ernest; Perlmann, Thomas; Simon, András

    2016-06-01

    Degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain causes symptoms of the movement disorder, Parkinson disease. Dopamine neurons are generated from proliferating progenitor cells localized in the embryonic ventral midbrain. However, it remains unclear for how long cells with dopamine progenitor character are retained and if there is any potential for reactivation of such cells after cessation of normal dopamine neurogenesis. We show here that cells expressing Lmx1a and other progenitor markers remain in the midbrain aqueductal zone beyond the major dopamine neurogenic period. These cells express dopamine receptors, are located in regions heavily innervated by midbrain dopamine fibres and their proliferation can be stimulated by antagonizing dopamine receptors, ultimately leading to increased neurogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, treatment with dopamine receptor antagonists enhances neurogenesis in vitro, both from embryonic midbrain progenitors as well as from embryonic stem cells. Altogether our results indicate a potential for reactivation of resident midbrain cells with dopamine progenitor potential beyond the normal period of dopamine neurogenesis.

  14. Imaging dopamine receptors in the human brain by position tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, R.F.; Wong, D.F.; Langstrom, B.; Duelfer, T.; Frost, J.J.; Ravert, H.T.; Links, J.M.; Rosenbloom, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptors may be involved in a number of neuropsychiatric disease states. The ligand 3-N-(/sup 11/C)methylspiperone, which preferentially binds to dopamine receptors in vivo, was used to image the receptors by positron emission tomography scanning in baboons and in humans. This technique holds promise for noninvasive clinical studies of dopamine receptors in humans.

  15. Mesolimbic dopamine and its neuromodulators in obesity and binge eating.

    PubMed

    Naef, Lindsay; Pitman, Kimberley A; Borgland, Stephanie L

    2015-12-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic prevalence, and much research has focused on homeostatic and nonhomeostatic mechanisms underlying overconsumption of food. Mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), is a key substrate for nonhomeostatic feeding. The goal of the present review is to compare changes in mesolimbic dopamine function in human obesity with diet-induced obesity in rodents. Additionally, we will review the literature to determine if dopamine signaling is altered with binge eating disorder in humans or binge eating modeled in rodents. Finally, we assess modulation of dopamine neurons by neuropeptides and peripheral peptidergic signals that occur with obesity or binge eating. We find that while decreased dopamine concentration is observed with obesity, there is inconsistency outside the human literature on the relationship between striatal D2 receptor expression and obesity. Finally, few studies have explored how orexigenic or anorexigenic peptides modulate dopamine neuronal activity or striatal dopamine in obese models. However, ghrelin modulation of dopamine neurons may be an important factor for driving binge feeding in rodents.

  16. PKCβ Inhibitors Attenuate Amphetamine-Stimulated Dopamine Efflux.

    PubMed

    Zestos, Alexander G; Mikelman, Sarah R; Kennedy, Robert T; Gnegy, Margaret E

    2016-06-15

    Amphetamine abuse afflicts over 13 million people, and there is currently no universally accepted treatment for amphetamine addiction. Amphetamine serves as a substrate for the dopamine transporter and reverses the transporter to cause an increase in extracellular dopamine. Activation of the beta subunit of protein kinase C (PKCβ) enhances extracellular dopamine in the presence of amphetamine by facilitating the reverse transport of dopamine and internalizing the D2 autoreceptor. We previously demonstrated that PKCβ inhibitors block amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux in synaptosomes from rat striatum in vitro. In this study, we utilized in vivo microdialysis in live, behaving rats to assess the effect of the PKCβ inhibitors, enzastaurin and ruboxistaurin, on amphetamine-stimulated locomotion and increases in monoamines and their metabolites. A 30 min perfusion of the nucleus accumbens core with 1 μM enzastaurin or 1 μM ruboxistaurin reduced efflux of dopamine and its metabolite 3-methoxytyramine induced by amphetamine by approximately 50%. The inhibitors also significantly reduced amphetamine-stimulated extracellular levels of norepinephrine. The stimulation of locomotor behavior by amphetamine, measured simultaneously with the analytes, was comparably reduced by the PKCβ inhibitors. Using a stable isotope label retrodialysis procedure, we determined that ruboxistaurin had no effect on basal levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate, or GABA. In addition, normal uptake function through the dopamine transporter was unaltered by the PKCβ inhibitors, as measured in rat synaptosomes. Our results support the utility of using PKCβ inhibitors to reduce the effects of amphetamine.

  17. The dopamine transporter and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Madras, Bertha K; Miller, Gregory M; Fischman, Alan J

    2005-06-01

    The high incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and escalating use of ADHD medications present a compelling case for clarifying the pathophysiology of, and developing laboratory or radiologic tests for, ADHD. Currently, the majority of specific genes implicated in ADHD encode components of catecholamine signaling systems. Of these, the dopamine transporter (DAT) is a principal target of the most widely used antihyperactivity medications (amphetamine and methylphenidate); the DAT gene is associated with ADHD, and some studies have detected abnormal levels of the DAT in brain striatum of ADHD subjects. Medications for ADHD interfere with dopamine transport by brain-region- and drug-specific mechanisms, indirectly activating dopamine- and possibly norepinephrine-receptor subtypes that are implicated in enhancing attention and experiential salience. The most commonly used DAT-selective ADHD medications raise extracellular dopamine levels in DAT-rich brain regions. In brain regions expressing both the DAT and the norepinephrine transporter (NET), the relative contributions of dopamine and norepinephrine to ADHD pathophysiology and therapeutic response are obfuscated by the capacity of the NET to clear dopamine as well as norepinephrine. Thus, ADHD medications targeting DAT or NET might disperse dopamine widely and consign dopamine storage and release to regulation by noradrenergic, as well as dopaminergic neurons.

  18. Hub and switches: endocannabinoid signalling in midbrain dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Melis, Miriam; Pistis, Marco

    2012-12-05

    The last decade has provided a wealth of experimental data on the role played by lipids belonging to the endocannabinoid family in several facets of physiopathology of dopamine neurons. We currently suggest that these molecules, being intimately connected with diverse metabolic and signalling pathways, might differently affect various functions of dopamine neurons through activation not only of surface receptors, but also of nuclear receptors. It is now emerging how dopamine neurons can regulate their constituent biomolecules to compensate for changes in either internal functions or external conditions. Consequently, dopamine neurons use these lipid molecules as metabolic and homeostatic signal detectors, which can dynamically impact cell function and fitness. Because dysfunctions of the dopamine system underlie diverse neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and drug addiction, the importance of better understanding the correlation between an unbalanced endocannabinoid signal and the dopamine system is even greater. Particularly, because dopamine neurons are critical in controlling incentive-motivated behaviours, the involvement of endocannabinoid molecules in fine-tuning dopamine cell activity opened new avenues in both understanding and treating drug addiction. Here, we review recent advances that have shed new light on the understanding of differential roles of endocannabinoids and their cognate molecules in the regulation of the reward circuit, and discuss their anti-addicting properties, particularly with a focus on their potential engagement in the prevention of relapse.

  19. Dopamine receptor oligomerization visualized in living cells.

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, Brian F; Ji, Xiaodong; Alijaniaram, Mohammad; Rajaram, Ryan D; Kong, Michael M C; Rashid, Asim; Nguyen, Tuan; George, Susan R

    2005-11-04

    G protein-coupled receptors occur as dimers within arrays of oligomers. We visualized ensembles of dopamine receptor oligomers in living cells and evaluated the contributions of receptor conformation to the dynamics of oligomer association and dissociation, using a strategy of trafficking a receptor to another cellular compartment. We incorporated a nuclear localization sequence into the D1 dopamine receptor, which translocated from the cell surface to the nucleus. Receptor inverse agonists blocked this translocation, retaining the modified receptor, D1-nuclear localization signal (NLS), at the cell surface. D1 co-translocated with D1-NLS to the nucleus, indicating formation of homooligomers. (+)-Butaclamol retained both receptors at the cell surface, and removal of the drug allowed translocation of both receptors to the nucleus. Agonist-nonbinding D1(S198A/S199A)-NLS, containing two substituted serine residues in transmembrane 5 also oligomerized with D1, and both were retained on the cell surface by (+)-butaclamol. Drug removal disrupted these oligomerized receptors so that D1 remained at the cell surface while D1(S198A/S199A)-NLS trafficked to the nucleus. Thus, receptor conformational differences permitted oligomer disruption and showed that ligand-binding pocket occupancy by the inverse agonist induced a conformational change. We demonstrated robust heterooligomerization between the D2 dopamine receptor and the D1 receptor. The heterooligomers could not be disrupted by inverse agonists targeting either one of the receptor constituents. However, D2 did not heterooligomerize with the structurally modified D1(S198A/S199A), indicating an impaired interface for their interaction. Thus, we describe a novel method showing that a homogeneous receptor conformation maintains the structural integrity of oligomers, whereas conformational heterogeneity disrupts it.

  20. Increased expression of the dopamine transporter leads to loss of dopamine neurons, oxidative stress and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits.

    PubMed

    Masoud, S T; Vecchio, L M; Bergeron, Y; Hossain, M M; Nguyen, L T; Bermejo, M K; Kile, B; Sotnikova, T D; Siesser, W B; Gainetdinov, R R; Wightman, R M; Caron, M G; Richardson, J R; Miller, G W; Ramsey, A J; Cyr, M; Salahpour, A

    2015-02-01

    The dopamine transporter is a key protein responsible for regulating dopamine homeostasis. Its function is to transport dopamine from the extracellular space into the presynaptic neuron. Studies have suggested that accumulation of dopamine in the cytosol can trigger oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Previously, ectopic expression of the dopamine transporter was shown to cause damage in non-dopaminergic neurons due to their inability to handle cytosolic dopamine. However, it is unknown whether increasing dopamine transporter activity will be detrimental to dopamine neurons that are inherently capable of storing and degrading dopamine. To address this issue, we characterized transgenic mice that over-express the dopamine transporter selectively in dopamine neurons. We report that dopamine transporter over-expressing (DAT-tg) mice display spontaneous loss of midbrain dopamine neurons that is accompanied by increases in oxidative stress markers, 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine and 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPAC. In addition, metabolite-to-dopamine ratios are increased and VMAT2 protein expression is decreased in the striatum of these animals. Furthermore, DAT-tg mice also show fine motor deficits on challenging beam traversal that are reversed with l-DOPA treatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that even in neurons that routinely handle dopamine, increased uptake of this neurotransmitter through the dopamine transporter results in oxidative damage, neuronal loss and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits. In addition, DAT over-expressing animals are highly sensitive to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The effects of increased dopamine uptake in these transgenic mice could shed light on the unique vulnerability of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease.

  1. Increased expression of the dopamine transporter leads to loss of dopamine neurons, oxidative stress and L-DOPA reversible motor deficits

    PubMed Central

    Masoud, ST; Vecchio, LM; Bergeron, Y; Hossain, MM; Nguyen, LT; Bermejo, MK; Kile, B; Sotnikova, TD; Siesser, WB; Gainetdinov, RR; Wightman, RM; Caron, MG; Richardson, JR; Miller, GW; Ramsey, AJ; Cyr, M; Salahpour, A

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine transporter is a key protein responsible for regulating dopamine homeostasis. Its function is to transport dopamine from the extracellular space into the presynaptic neuron. Studies have suggested that accumulation of dopamine in the cytosol can trigger oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Previously, ectopic expression of the dopamine transporter was shown to cause damage in non-dopaminergic neurons due to their inability to handle cytosolic dopamine. However, it is unknown whether increasing dopamine transporter activity will be detrimental to dopamine neurons that are inherently capable of storing and degrading dopamine. To address this issue, we characterized transgenic mice that over-express the dopamine transporter selectively in dopamine neurons. We report that dopamine transporter over-expressing (DAT-tg) mice display spontaneous loss of midbrain dopamine neurons that is accompanied by increases in oxidative stress markers, 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine and 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPAC. In addition, metabolite-to-dopamine ratios are increased and VMAT2 protein expression is decreased in the striatum of these animals. Furthermore, DAT-tg mice also show fine motor deficits on challenging beam traversal that are reversed with L-DOPA treatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that even in neurons that routinely handle dopamine, increased uptake of this neurotransmitter through the dopamine transporter results in oxidative damage, neuronal loss and LDOPA reversible motor deficits. In addition, DAT over-expressing animals are highly sensitive to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The effects of increased dopamine uptake in these transgenic mice could shed light on the unique vulnerability of dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25447236

  2. Dopamine transporter availability in motor subtypes of de novo drug-naïve Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marcello; Pappatà, Sabina; Picillo, Marina; Erro, Roberto; Coda, Anna Rita Daniela; Longo, Katia; Vitale, Carmine; Amboni, Marianna; Brunetti, Arturo; Capo, Giuseppe; Salvatore, Marco; Barone, Paolo; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Tremor dominant (TD) and akinetic-rigid type (ART) are two motor subtypes of Parkinson's disease associated with different disease progression and neurochemical/neuropathological features. The role of presynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic damage is still controversial, poorly explored, and only assessed in medicated patients. In this study, we investigated with FP-CIT SPECT the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in drug-naïve PD patients with ART and TD phenotypes. Fifty-one de novo, drug-naïve patients with PD underwent FP-CIT SPECT studies. Patients were evaluated with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part III and Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y) and divided into ART (24/51) and TD (27/51) according to UPDRS part III. ART and TD patients were not different with regard to age, gender, and disease duration. However, compared to TD, ART patients presented higher UPDRS part III (p = 0.01) and H&Y (p = 0.02) and lower DAT availability in affected and unaffected putamen (p = 0.008 and p = 0.007, respectively), whereas no differences were found in caudate. Moreover, in the whole group of patients, rigidity and bradykinesia, but not tremor scores of UPDRS part III were significantly related to FP-CIT binding in the putamen. These results suggest that in newly diagnosed drug-naïve PD patients DAT availability might be different between ART and TD in relation to different disease severity.

  3. Conformational changes in dopamine transporter intracellular regions upon cocaine binding and dopamine translocation.

    PubMed

    Dehnes, Yvette; Shan, Jufang; Beuming, Thijs; Shi, Lei; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A

    2014-07-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT), a member of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter family, mediates the reuptake of dopamine at the synaptic cleft. DAT is the primary target for psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. We previously demonstrated that cocaine binding and dopamine transport alter the accessibility of Cys342 in the third intracellular loop (IL3). To study the conformational changes associated with the functional mechanism of the transporter, we made cysteine substitution mutants, one at a time, from Phe332 to Ser351 in IL3 of the background DAT construct, X7C, in which 7 endogenous cysteines were mutated. The accessibility of the 20 engineered cysteines to polar charged sulfhydryl reagents was studied in the absence and presence of cocaine or dopamine. Of the 11 positions that reacted with methanethiosulfonate ethyl ammonium, as evidenced by inhibition of ligand binding, 5 were protected against this inhibition by cocaine and dopamine (S333C, S334C, N336C, M342C and T349C), indicating that reagent accessibility is affected by conformational changes associated with inhibitor and substrate binding. In some of the cysteine mutants, transport activity is disrupted, but can be rescued by the presence of zinc, most likely because the distribution between inward- and outward-facing conformations is restored by zinc binding. The experimental data were interpreted in the context of molecular models of DAT in both the inward- and outward-facing conformations. Differences in the solvent accessible surface area for individual IL3 residues calculated for these states correlate well with the experimental accessibility data, and suggest that protection by ligand binding results from the stabilization of the outward-facing configuration. Changes in the residue interaction networks observed from the molecular dynamics simulations also revealed the critical roles of several positions during the conformational transitions. We conclude that the IL3 region of DAT

  4. Dopamine D4 receptor stimulation prevents nigrostriatal dopamine pathway activation by morphine: relevance for drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Alicia; Gago, Belén; Suárez-Boomgaard, Diana; Yoshitake, Takashi; Roales-Buján, Ruth; Valderrama-Carvajal, Alejandra; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Medina-Luque, José; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Craenenbroeck, Kathleen Van; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Kehr, Jan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis; de la Calle, Adelaida; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-05-22

    Morphine is one of the most effective drugs used for pain management, but it is also highly addictive. Morphine elicits acute and long-term adaptive changes at cellular and molecular level in the brain, which play a critical role in the development of tolerance, dependence and addiction. Previous studies indicated that the dopamine D4 receptor (D4 R) activation counteracts morphine-induced adaptive changes of the μ opioid receptor (MOR) signaling in the striosomes of the caudate putamen (CPu), as well as the induction of several Fos family transcription factors. Thus, it has been suggested that D4 R could play an important role avoiding some of the addictive effects of morphine. Here, using different drugs administration paradigms, it is determined that the D4 R agonist PD168,077 prevents morphine-induced activation of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway and morphological changes of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine neurons, leading to a restoration of dopamine levels and metabolism in the CPu. Results from receptor autoradiography indicate that D4 R activation modulates MOR function in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the striosomes of the CPu, suggesting that these regions are critically involved in the modulation of SNc dopamine neuronal function through a functional D4 R/MOR interaction. In addition, D4 R activation counteracts the rewarding effects of morphine, as well as the development of hyperlocomotion and physical dependence without any effect on its analgesic properties. These results provide a novel role of D4 R agonist as a pharmacological strategy to prevent the adverse effects of morphine in the treatment of pain.

  5. Personality, addiction, dopamine: insights from Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Alain; Robbins, Trevor W

    2009-02-26

    In rare instances, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may become addicted to their own medication or develop behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling. This is surprising because PD patients typically have a very low incidence of drug abuse and display a personality type that is the polar opposite of the addictive personality. These rare addictive syndromes, which appear to result from excessive dopaminergic medication use, illustrate the link between dopamine, personality, and addiction. We describe the clinical phenomena and attempt to relate them to current models of learning and addiction. We conclude that persistently elevated dopaminergic stimulation promotes the development and maintenance of addictive behaviors.

  6. [Multiple Dopamine Signals and Their Contributions to Reinforcement Learning].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masayuki

    2016-10-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons are activated by reward and sensory cue that predicts reward. Their responses resemble reward prediction error that indicates the discrepancy between obtained and expected reward values, which has been thought to play an important role as a teaching signal in reinforcement learning. Indeed, pharmacological blockade of dopamine transmission interferes with reinforcement learning. Recent studies reported, however, that not all dopamine neurons transmit the reward-related signal. They found that a subset of dopamine neurons transmits signals related to non-rewarding, salient experiences such as aversive stimulations and cognitively demanding events. How these signals contribute to animal behavior is not yet well understood. This article reviews recent findings on dopamine signals related to rewarding and non-rewarding experiences, and discusses their contributions to reinforcement learning.

  7. Role of brain dopamine in food reward and reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Roy A

    2006-01-01

    The ability of food to establish and maintain response habits and conditioned preferences depends largely on the function of brain dopamine systems. While dopaminergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens appears sufficient for some forms of reward, the role of dopamine in food reward does not appear to be restricted to this region. Dopamine plays an important role in both the ability to energize feeding and to reinforce food-seeking behaviour; the role in energizing feeding is secondary to the prerequisite role in reinforcement. Dopaminergic activation is triggered by the auditory and visual as well as the tactile, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli of foods. While dopamine plays a central role in the feeding and food-seeking of normal animals, some food rewarded learning can be seen in genetically engineered dopamine-deficient mice. PMID:16874930

  8. Arithmetic and local circuitry underlying dopamine prediction errors

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Neir; Bukwich, Michael; Rao, Vinod; Hemmelder, Vivian; Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are thought to facilitate learning by comparing actual and expected reward1,2. Despite two decades of investigation, little is known about how this comparison is made. To determine how dopamine neurons calculate prediction error, we combined optogenetic manipulations with extracellular recordings in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) while mice engaged in classical conditioning. By manipulating the temporal expectation of reward, we demonstrate that dopamine neurons perform subtraction, a computation that is ideal for reinforcement learning but rarely observed in the brain. Furthermore, selectively exciting and inhibiting neighbouring GABA neurons in the VTA reveals that these neurons are a source of subtraction: they inhibit dopamine neurons when reward is expected, causally contributing to prediction error calculations. Finally, bilaterally stimulating VTA GABA neurons dramatically reduces anticipatory licking to conditioned odours, consistent with an important role for these neurons in reinforcement learning. Together, our results uncover the arithmetic and local circuitry underlying dopamine prediction errors. PMID:26322583

  9. ILLICIT DOPAMINE TRANSIENTS: RECONCILING ACTIONS OF ABUSED DRUGS

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abused drugs. We argue here that reclassification also identifies generating burst firing by dopamine neurons as a keystone action. Unlike natural rewards, which are processed by sensory systems, drugs act directly on the brain. Consequently, to mimic natural reward and exploit reward circuits, dopamine transients must be elicited de novo. Of available drug targets, only burst firing achieves this essential outcome. PMID:24656971

  10. Characterization of pre- and postsynaptic dopamine receptors in Lymnaea.

    PubMed

    Audesirk, T E

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of dopamine and several synthetic agonists and antagonists were studied using two identified neurons of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. 2. In both the buccal-2 (B-2) neurons and the pedal giant (RPeD1) neuron dopamine elicited a hyperpolarizing response at least partly due to potassium efflux. RPeD1 is itself dopaminergic, implicating autoreceptors in its response to dopamine. 3. The following agents were tested: agonists--LY171555, pergolide, SKF38393, (-)-3-PPP, R(-)NPA and dopamine; antagonists--SCH23390, sulpiride, and metaclopramide. Dibutyryl cAMP was applied to determine whether the response is cAMP-mediated. 4. Results indicate that the pharmacological profiles of dopamine receptors on these neurons are inconsistent with those of either D-1, D-2 or autoreceptors in mammals.

  11. Striatal Dopamine Links Gastrointestinal Rerouting to Altered Sweet Appetite.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenfei; Tellez, Luis A; Niu, Jingjing; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Tatiana L; Zhang, Xiaobing; Su, Jiansheng; Tong, Jenny; Schwartz, Gary J; van den Pol, Anthony; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2016-01-12

    Reductions in calorie intake contribute significantly to the positive outcome of bariatric surgeries. However, the physiological mechanisms linking the rerouting of the gastrointestinal tract to reductions in sugar cravings remain uncertain. We show that a duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) intervention inhibits maladaptive sweet appetite by acting on dopamine-responsive striatal circuitries. DJB disrupted the ability of recurrent sugar exposure to promote sweet appetite in sated animals, thereby revealing a link between recurrent duodenal sugar influx and maladaptive sweet intake. Unlike ingestion of a low-calorie sweetener, ingestion of sugar was associated with significant dopamine effluxes in the dorsal striatum, with glucose infusions into the duodenum inducing greater striatal dopamine release than equivalent jejunal infusions. Consistently, optogenetic activation of dopamine-excitable cells of the dorsal striatum was sufficient to restore maladaptive sweet appetite in sated DJB mice. Our findings point to a causal link between striatal dopamine signaling and the outcomes of bariatric interventions.

  12. Striatal Dopamine Links Gastrointestinal Rerouting to Altered Sweet Appetite

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wenfei; Tellez, Luis A; Niu, Jingjing; Medina, Sara; Ferreira, Tatiana L; Zhang, Xiaobing; Su, Jiansheng; Tong, Jenny; Schwartz, Gary J; van den Pol, Anthony; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2015-01-01

    Reductions in calorie intake contribute significantly to the positive outcome of bariatric surgeries. However, the physiological mechanisms linking the rerouting of the gastrointestinal tract to reductions in sugar cravings remain uncertain. We show that a duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) intervention inhibits maladaptive sweet appetite by acting on dopamine-responsive striatal circuitries. DJB disrupted the ability of recurrent sugar exposure to promote sweet appetite in sated animals, thereby revealing a link between recurrent duodenal sugar influx and maladaptive sweet intake. Unlike ingestion of a low-calorie sweetener, ingestion of sugar was associated with significant dopamine effluxes in dorsal striatum, with glucose infusions into the duodenum inducing greater striatal dopamine release than equivalent jejunal infusions. Consistently, optogenetic activation of dopamine-excitable cells of dorsal striatum was sufficient to restore maladaptive sweet appetite in sated DJB mice. Our findings point to a causal link between striatal dopamine signaling and the outcomes of bariatric interventions. PMID:26698915

  13. A descending dopamine pathway conserved from basal vertebrates to mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Cone, Jackson J.; Alpert, Michael H.; Goetz, Laurent; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Parent, Martin; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson’s disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled. Stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked dopamine release in brainstem locomotor networks and concurrent reticulospinal activity. In rats, some dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum also innervated the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known locomotor center, and stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked pedunculopontine dopamine release in vivo. Finally, we found dopaminergic fibers in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. The conservation of a descending dopaminergic pathway across vertebrates warrants re-evaluating dopamine’s role in locomotion. PMID:27071118

  14. Dopamine encoding of Pavlovian incentive stimuli diminishes with extended training.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jeremy J; Collins, Anne L; Sanford, Christina Akers; Phillips, Paul E M

    2013-02-20

    Dopamine is highly implicated both as a teaching signal in reinforcement learning and in motivating actions to obtain rewards. However, theoretical disconnects remain between the temporal encoding properties of dopamine neurons and the behavioral consequences of its release. Here, we demonstrate in rats that dopamine evoked by Pavlovian cues increases during acquisition, but dissociates from stable conditioned appetitive behavior as this signal returns to preconditioning levels with extended training. Experimental manipulation of the statistical parameters of the behavioral paradigm revealed that this attenuation of cue-evoked dopamine release during the postasymptotic period was attributable to acquired knowledge of the temporal structure of the task. In parallel, conditioned behavior became less dopamine dependent after extended training. Thus, the current work demonstrates that as the presentation of reward-predictive stimuli becomes anticipated through the acquisition of task information, there is a shift in the neurobiological substrates that mediate the motivational properties of these incentive stimuli.

  15. Endogenous dopamine increases extracellular concentrations of glutamate and GABA in striatum of the freely moving rat: involvement of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Expósito, I; Del Arco, A; Segovia, G; Mora, F

    1999-07-01

    Interactions between endogenous dopamine, glutamate, GABA, and taurine were investigated in striatum of the freely moving rat by using microdialysis. Intrastriatal infusions of the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor nomifensine (NMF) were used to increase the endogenous extracellular dopamine. NMF produced a dose-related increase in extracellular dopamine and also increased extracellular concentrations of glutamate, GABA, and taurine. Extracellular increases of dopamine were significantly correlated with extracellular increases of glutamate and GABA, but not taurine. To investigate whether the increased extracellular dopamine produced by NMF was responsible for the concomitant increase of glutamate and GABA, D1, and D2 receptor antagonists were used. Dopamine receptor antagonists D1 (SCH23390) and D2 (sulpiride) significantly attenuated the increases of glutamate and GABA produced by NMF. These data suggest that endogenous dopamine, through both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, plays a role in releasing glutamate and GABA in striatum of the freely moving rat.

  16. UV-triggered dopamine polymerization: control of polymerization, surface coating, and photopatterning.

    PubMed

    Du, Xin; Li, Linxian; Li, Junsheng; Yang, Chengwu; Frenkel, Nataliya; Welle, Alexander; Heissler, Stefan; Nefedov, Alexei; Grunze, Michael; Levkin, Pavel A

    2014-12-17

    UV irradiation is demonstrated to initiate dopamine polymerization and deposition on different surfaces under both acidic and basic pH. The observed acceleration of the dopamine polymerization is explained by the UV-induced formation of reactive oxygen species that trigger dopamine polymerization. The UV-induced dopamine polymerization leads to a better control over polydopamine deposition and formation of functional polydopamine micropatterns.

  17. Exchange diffusion of dopamine induced in planar lipid bilayer membranes by the ionophore X537A

    PubMed Central

    Holz, RW

    1977-01-01

    The ionophore X537A causes a large increase in the [(14)C]dopamine (a catecholamine) permeability of planar bilayer membranes. Dopamine transport increases linearly with the ionophore concentration. At relatively high concentrations in the presence of dopamine, the ionophore omdices a conductance which is nearly ideally selective for the dopamine cation. However, the total dopamine flux as determined in tracer experiments is not affected by an electric field and is over 10(5) times larger than predicted from the estimated dopamine conductance. Increasing the dopamine concentration on the side containing radioactive dopamine (the cis side) saturates the dopamine transport. This saturation is relieved by trans addition of nonradioactive dopamine, tyramine, H(+), or K(+). With unequal concentrations of dopamine cis and trans (49 and 12.5 mM), the unidirectional dopamine fluxes are equal. Increasing H(+) cis and trans decreases dopamine transport. It is concluded that at physiological pH, the X537A-induced transport of dopamine occurs via an electrically silent exchange diffusion of dopamine cation with another cation (e.g., dopamine(+), H(+), or K(+)). X537A induces a Ca(++)-independent release of catecholamines from sympathetic nerves by interfering with intracellular storage within storage vesicles (R.W. Holz. 1975. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 375:138-152). It is suggested that X537A causes an exchange of intravesicular catecholamine with a cytoplasmic cation (perhaps K(+) or H(+)) across the storage vesicle membrane. PMID:16982

  18. Stimulus-Dependent Dopamine Release in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikstrom, Sverker; Soderlund, Goran

    2007-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to an attenuated and dysfunctional dopamine system. Normally, a high extracellular dopamine level yields a tonic dopaminergic input that down-regulates stimuli-evoked phasic dopamine responses through autoreceptors. Abnormally low tonic extracellular dopamine in ADHD up-regulates the…

  19. Kinetic Diversity of Striatal Dopamine: Evidence from a Novel Protocol for Voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Walters, Seth H; Robbins, Elaine M; Michael, Adrian C

    2016-05-18

    In vivo voltammetry reveals substantial diversity of dopamine kinetics in the rat striatum. To substantiate this kinetic diversity, we evaluate the temporal distortion of dopamine measurements arising from the diffusion-limited adsorption of dopamine to voltammetric microelectrodes. We validate two mathematical procedures for correcting adsorptive distortion, both of which substantiate that dopamine's apparent kinetic diversity is not an adsorption artifact.

  20. Two Binding Geometries for Risperidone in Dopamine D3 Receptors: Insights on the Fast-Off Mechanism through Docking, Quantum Biochemistry, and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Geancarlo; Della Flora Nunes, Gustavo; Bezerra, Eveline M; da Costa, Roner F; Martins, Alice; Caetano, Ewerton W S; Freire, Valder N; Gottfried, Carmem

    2016-10-19

    Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of schizophrenia and of symptoms of irritability associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Its main action mechanism is the blockade of D2-like receptors acting over positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia with small risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) at doses corresponding to low/moderate D2 occupancy. Such a decrease in the side effect incidence can be associated with its fast unbinding from D2 receptors in the nigrostriatal region allowing the recovery of dopamine signaling pathways. We performed docking essays using risperidone and the D3 receptor crystallographic data and results suggested two possible distinct orientations for risperidone at the binding pocket. Orientation 1 is more close to the opening of the binding site and has the 6-fluoro-1,2 benzoxazole fragment toward the bottom of the D3 receptor cleft, while orientation 2 is deeper inside the binding pocket with the same fragment toward to the receptor surface. In order to unveil the implications of these two binding orientations, classical molecular dynamics and quantum biochemistry computations within the density functional theory formalism and the molecular fractionation with conjugate caps framework were performed. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics suggests that orientation 2 (considering the contribution of Glu90) is slightly more energetically stable than orientation 1 with the main contribution coming from residue Asp110. The residue Glu90, positioned at the opening of the binding site, is closer to orientation 1 than 2, suggesting that it may have a key role in stability through attractive interaction with risperidone. Therefore, although orientations 1 and 2 are both likely to occur, we suggest that the occurrence of the first may contribute to the reduction of side effects in patients taking risperidone due to the reduction of dopamine receptor occupancy in the nigrostriatal region through a mechanism of

  1. Dopamine depresses cholinergic oscillatory network activity in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Torsten; Veh, Rüdiger W; Heinemann, Uwe

    2003-11-01

    The dopaminergic neuronal system is implicated in cognitive processes in a variety of brain regions including the mesolimbic system. We have investigated whether dopamine also affects synchronized network activity in the hippocampus, which has been ascribed to play a pivotal role in memory formation. Gamma frequency (20-80 Hz) oscillations were induced by the cholinergic agonist carbachol. Oscillatory activity was examined in area CA3 of Wistar rat hippocampal slices, employing field potential and intracellular recordings. Application of carbachol initiated synchronized population activity in the gamma band at 40 Hz. Induced gamma activity persisted over hours and required GABAA receptors. Dopamine reversibly decreased the integrated gamma band power of the carbachol rhythm by 62%, while its frequency was not changed. By contrast, individual pyramidal cells recorded during carbachol-induced field gamma activity exhibited theta frequency (5-15 Hz) membrane potential oscillations that were not altered by dopamine. The dopamine effect on the field gamma activity was mimicked by the D1 receptor agonist SKF-383393 and partially antagonized by the D1 antagonist SCH-23390. Conversely, the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole failed to depress the oscillations, and the D2 antagonist sulpiride did not prevent the suppressive dopamine effect. The data indicate that dopamine strongly depresses cholinergic gamma oscillations in area CA3 of rat hippocampus by activation of D1-like dopamine receptors and that this effect is most likely mediated via impairment of interneurons involved in generation and maintenance of the carbachol-induced network rhythm.

  2. Aging-related dysregulation of dopamine and angiotensin receptor interaction.

    PubMed

    Villar-Cheda, Begoña; Dominguez-Meijide, Antonio; Valenzuela, Rita; Granado, Noelia; Moratalla, Rosario; Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L

    2014-07-01

    It is not known whether the aging-related decrease in dopaminergic function leads to the aging-related higher vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons and risk for Parkinson's disease. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in the inflammatory response, neuronal oxidative stress, and dopaminergic vulnerability via type 1 (AT1) receptors. In the present study, we observed a counterregulatory interaction between dopamine and angiotensin receptors. We observed overexpression of AT1 receptors in the striatum and substantia nigra of young adult dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-deficient mice and young dopamine-depleted rats, together with compensatory overexpression of AT2 receptors or compensatory downregulation of angiotensinogen and/or angiotensin. In aged rats, we observed downregulation of dopamine and dopamine receptors and overexpression of AT1 receptors in aged rats, without compensatory changes observed in young animals. L-Dopa therapy inhibited RAS overactivity in young dopamine-depleted rats, but was ineffective in aged rats. The results suggest that dopamine may play an important role in modulating oxidative stress and inflammation in the substantia nigra and striatum via the RAS, which is impaired by aging.

  3. Dopamine function and the efficiency of human movement.

    PubMed

    Gepshtein, Sergei; Li, Xiaoyan; Snider, Joseph; Plank, Markus; Lee, Dongpyo; Poizner, Howard

    2014-03-01

    To sustain successful behavior in dynamic environments, active organisms must be able to learn from the consequences of their actions and predict action outcomes. One of the most important discoveries in systems neuroscience over the last 15 years has been about the key role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in mediating such active behavior. Dopamine cell firing was found to encode differences between the expected and obtained outcomes of actions. Although activity of dopamine cells does not specify movements themselves, a recent study in humans has suggested that tonic levels of dopamine in the dorsal striatum may in part enable normal movement by encoding sensitivity to the energy cost of a movement, providing an implicit "motor motivational" signal for movement. We investigated the motivational hypothesis of dopamine by studying motor performance of patients with Parkinson disease who have marked dopamine depletion in the dorsal striatum and compared their performance with that of elderly healthy adults. All participants performed rapid sequential movements to visual targets associated with different risk and different energy costs, countered or assisted by gravity. In conditions of low energy cost, patients performed surprisingly well, similar to prescriptions of an ideal planner and healthy participants. As energy costs increased, however, performance of patients with Parkinson disease dropped markedly below the prescriptions for action by an ideal planner and below performance of healthy elderly participants. The results indicate that the ability for efficient planning depends on the energy cost of action and that the effect of energy cost on action is mediated by dopamine.

  4. The primate thalamus is a key target for brain dopamine.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, Miguel Angel; García-Cabezas, Miguel Angel; Rico, Beatriz; Cavada, Carmen

    2005-06-29

    The thalamus relays information to the cerebral cortex from subcortical centers or other cortices; in addition, it projects to the striatum and amygdala. The thalamic relay function is subject to modulation, so the flow of information to the target regions may change depending on behavioral demands. Modulation of thalamic relay by dopamine is not currently acknowledged, perhaps because dopamine innervation is reportedly scant in the rodent thalamus. We show that dopaminergic axons profusely target the human and macaque monkey thalamus using immunolabeling with three markers of the dopaminergic phenotype (tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine, and the dopamine transporter). The dopamine innervation is especially prominent in specific association, limbic, and motor thalamic nuclei, where the densities of dopaminergic axons are as high as or higher than in the cortical area with the densest dopamine innervation. We also identified the dopaminergic neurons projecting to the macaque thalamus using retrograde tract-tracing combined with immunohistochemistry. The origin of thalamic dopamine is multiple, and thus more complex, than in any other dopaminergic system defined to date: dopaminergic neurons of the hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray matter, ventral mesencephalon, and the lateral parabrachial nucleus project bilaterally to the monkey thalamus. We propose a novel dopaminergic system that targets the primate thalamus and is independent from the previously defined nigrostriatal, mesocortical, and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems. Investigating this "thalamic dopaminergic system" should further our understanding of higher brain functions and conditions such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug addiction.

  5. Dopamine uptake dynamics are preserved under isoflurane anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Brodnik, Zachary D; España, Rodrigo A

    2015-10-08

    Fast scan cyclic voltammetry is commonly used for measuring the kinetics of dopamine release and uptake. For experiments using an anesthetized preparation, urethane is preferentially used because it does not alter dopamine uptake kinetics compared to freely moving animals. Unfortunately, urethane is highly toxic, can induce premature death during experiments, and cannot be used for recovery surgeries. Isoflurane is an alternative anesthetic that is less toxic than urethane, produces a stable level of anesthesia over extended periods, and is often used for recovery surgeries. Despite these benefits, the effects of isoflurane on dopamine release and uptake have not been directly characterized. In the present studies, we assessed the utility of isoflurane for voltammetry experiments by testing dopamine signaling parameters under baseline conditions, after treatment with the dopamine uptake inhibitor cocaine, and after exposure to increasing concentrations of isoflurane. Our results indicate that surgical levels of isoflurane do not significantly alter terminal mechanisms of dopamine release and uptake over prolonged periods of time. Consequently, we propose that isoflurane is an acceptable anesthetic for voltammetry experiments, which in turn permits the design of studies in which dopamine signaling is examined under anesthesia prior to recovery and subsequent experimentation in the same animals.

  6. Dopamine modulates metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Taro; Tomita, Jun; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Homeothermal animals, such as mammals, maintain their body temperature by heat generation and heat dissipation, while poikilothermal animals, such as insects, accomplish it by relocating to an environment of their favored temperature. Catecholamines are known to regulate thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mammals, but their roles in other animals are poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used as a model system for the genetic studies of temperature preference behavior. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity of some temperature sensitive behaviors are regulated by dopamine in Drosophila. Temperature-sensitive molecules like dTrpA1 and shi(ts) induce temperature-dependent behavioral changes, and the temperature at which the changes are induced were lowered in the dopamine transporter-defective mutant, fumin. The mutant also displays a preference for lower temperatures. This thermophobic phenotype was rescued by the genetic recovery of the dopamine transporter in dopamine neurons. Flies fed with a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor (3-iodo-L-tyrosine), which diminishes dopamine signaling, exhibited preference for a higher temperature. Furthermore, we found that the metabolic rate is up-regulated in the fumin mutant. Taken together, dopamine has functions in the temperature sensitivity of behavioral changes and metabolic rate regulation in Drosophila, as well as its previously reported functions in arousal/sleep regulation.

  7. Prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission is decreased in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L.; Douaihy, Antoine B.; Frankle, W. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Objective Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such working memory, attention, inhibitory control and risk/reward decisions--all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies in alcoholics that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, we hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in alcoholism. To test this hypothesis, we used amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography (PET) to measure cortical dopamine transmission in a group of 21 recently abstinent alcoholics and matched healthy controls. Methods [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (BPND) was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg−1 of d-amphetamine. Results Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (Δ BPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in alcoholics compared to healthy controls. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in alcoholics included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Conclusions The results of this study for the first time unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism. PMID:24874293

  8. Dopamine alleviates salt-induced stress in Malus hupehensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Sun, Xiangkai; Chang, Cong; Jia, Dongfeng; Wei, Zhiwei; Li, Cuiying; Ma, Fengwang

    2015-04-01

    Dopamine mediates many physiological processes in plants. We investigated its role in regulating growth, ion homeostasis and the response to salinity in Malus hupehensis Rehd. Both hydroponics and field-pot experiments were conducted under saline conditions. Salt-stressed plants had reduced growth and a marked decline in their net photosynthetic rates, values for Fv /Fm and chlorophyll contents. However, pretreatment with 100 or 200 μM dopamine significantly alleviated this inhibition and enabled plants to maintain their photosynthetic capacity. In addition to changing stomatal behavior, supplementation with dopamine positively influenced the uptake of K, N, P, S, Cu and Mn ions but had an inhibitory effect on Na and Cl uptake, the balance of which is responsible for managing the response to salinity by Malus plants. Dopamine pretreatment also controlled the burst of hydrogen peroxide, possibly through direct scavenging and by enhancing the activities of antioxidative enzymes and the capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. We also investigated whether dopamine might regulate salt overly sensitive pathway genes under salinity. Here, MdHKT1, MdNHX1 and MdSOS1 were greatly upregulated in roots and leaves, which possibly contributed to the maintenance of ion homeostasis and, thus, improved salinity resistance in plants exposed earlier to exogenous dopamine. These results support our conclusion that dopamine alleviates salt-induced stress not only at the level of antioxidant defense but also by regulating other mechanisms of ion homeostasis.

  9. Dopamine-resistant hypotension and severe retinopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Melissa; Miyagi, Shogo; Wickremasinghe, Andrea C.; Lucas, Sarah Scarpace; de Alba Campomanes, Alejandra G.; Good, William V.; Clyman, Ronald I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the cause or severity of hypotension and the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity (sROP) (≥ stage 3 or stage 2 with plus disease in Zone I or II).. Study design Infants (<28 weeks’ gestation, n=242) were observed for hypotension and treated with a standardized hypotension-treatment protocol. Hypotension was classified as resulting from one of the following causes: (a) culture-positive infection and/or necrotizing enterocolitis, (b) PDA ligation, or (c) “idiopathic” (no cause identified other than prematurity), and as being either dopamine-responsive or dopamine-resistant. Cortisol levels were measured for infants with dopamine-resistant hypotension. Eye examinations were performed until the ROP resolved or the vasculature matured. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the cause/severity of hypotension and sROP. Results Overall, 66% of infants developed hypotension (41% were dopamine-responsive and 25% were dopamine-resistant). sROP developed in 19% of infants. “Idiopathic” dopamine-resistant hypotension was the only cause significantly related to sROP. 66% of infants with dopamine-resistant hypotension had low serum cortisol (≤10 μg/dL). Low cortisol, in the presence of dopamine-resistant hypotension, was significantly associated with sROP and accounted for the relationship between “idiopathic” hypotension and sROP. When low cortisol was included in statistical models, other known risk factors, such as immature gestation, were no longer significantly related to sROP. Conclusion Low cortisol, in the presence of dopamine-resistant hypotension, has the greatest magnitude of association with sROP. PMID:23465406

  10. Regulation of bat echolocation pulse acoustics by striatal dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Tressler, Jedediah; Schwartz, Christine; Wellman, Paul; Hughes, Samuel; Smotherman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The ability to control the bandwidth, amplitude and duration of echolocation pulses is a crucial aspect of echolocation performance but few details are known about the neural mechanisms underlying the control of these voice parameters in any mammal. The basal ganglia (BG) are a suite of forebrain nuclei centrally involved in sensory-motor control and are characterized by their dependence on dopamine. We hypothesized that pharmacological manipulation of brain dopamine levels could reveal how BG circuits might influence the acoustic structure of bat echolocation pulses. A single intraperitoneal injection of a low dose (5 mg kg–1) of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPTP), which selectively targets dopamine-producing cells of the substantia nigra, produced a rapid degradation in pulse acoustic structure and eliminated the bat's ability to make compensatory changes in pulse amplitude in response to background noise, i.e. the Lombard response. However, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurements of striatal dopamine concentrations revealed that the main effect of MPTP was a fourfold increase rather than the predicted decrease in striatal dopamine levels. After first using autoradiographic methods to confirm the presence and location of D1- and D2-type dopamine receptors in the bat striatum, systemic injections of receptor subtype-specific agonists showed that MPTP's effects on pulse acoustics were mimicked by a D2-type dopamine receptor agonist (Quinpirole) but not by a D1-type dopamine receptor agonist (SKF82958). The results suggest that BG circuits have the capacity to influence echolocation pulse acoustics, particularly via D2-type dopamine receptor-mediated pathways, and may therefore represent an important mechanism for vocal control in bats. PMID:21900471

  11. Regulation of bat echolocation pulse acoustics by striatal dopamine.

    PubMed

    Tressler, Jedediah; Schwartz, Christine; Wellman, Paul; Hughes, Samuel; Smotherman, Michael

    2011-10-01

    The ability to control the bandwidth, amplitude and duration of echolocation pulses is a crucial aspect of echolocation performance but few details are known about the neural mechanisms underlying the control of these voice parameters in any mammal. The basal ganglia (BG) are a suite of forebrain nuclei centrally involved in sensory-motor control and are characterized by their dependence on dopamine. We hypothesized that pharmacological manipulation of brain dopamine levels could reveal how BG circuits might influence the acoustic structure of bat echolocation pulses. A single intraperitoneal injection of a low dose (5 mg kg(-1)) of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPTP), which selectively targets dopamine-producing cells of the substantia nigra, produced a rapid degradation in pulse acoustic structure and eliminated the bat's ability to make compensatory changes in pulse amplitude in response to background noise, i.e. the Lombard response. However, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurements of striatal dopamine concentrations revealed that the main effect of MPTP was a fourfold increase rather than the predicted decrease in striatal dopamine levels. After first using autoradiographic methods to confirm the presence and location of D(1)- and D(2)-type dopamine receptors in the bat striatum, systemic injections of receptor subtype-specific agonists showed that MPTP's effects on pulse acoustics were mimicked by a D(2)-type dopamine receptor agonist (Quinpirole) but not by a D(1)-type dopamine receptor agonist (SKF82958). The results suggest that BG circuits have the capacity to influence echolocation pulse acoustics, particularly via D(2)-type dopamine receptor-mediated pathways, and may therefore represent an important mechanism for vocal control in bats.

  12. Methamphetamine Regulation of Firing Activity of Dopamine Neurons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min; Sambo, Danielle; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2016-10-05

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a substrate for the dopamine transporter that increases extracellular dopamine levels by competing with dopamine uptake and increasing reverse transport of dopamine via the transporter. METH has also been shown to alter the excitability of dopamine neurons. The mechanism of METH regulation of the intrinsic firing behaviors of dopamine neurons is less understood. Here we identified an unexpected and unique property of METH on the regulation of firing activity of mouse dopamine neurons. METH produced a transient augmentation of spontaneous spike activity of midbrain dopamine neurons that was followed by a progressive reduction of spontaneous spike activity. Inspection of action potential morphology revealed that METH increased the half-width and produced larger coefficients of variation of the interspike interval, suggesting that METH exposure affected the activity of voltage-dependent potassium channels in these neurons. Since METH has been shown to affect Ca(2+) homeostasis, the unexpected findings that METH broadened the action potential and decreased the amplitude of afterhyperpolarization led us to ask whether METH alters the activity of Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels. First, we identified BK channels in dopamine neurons by their voltage dependence and their response to a BK channel blocker or opener. While METH suppressed the amplitude of BK channel-mediated unitary currents, the BK channel opener NS1619 attenuated the effects of METH on action potential broadening, afterhyperpolarization repression, and spontaneous spike activity reduction. Live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, electrophysiology, and biochemical analysis suggest METH exposure decreased the activity of BK channels by decreasing BK-α subunit levels at the plasma membrane.

  13. SUPERSTARS III: K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  14. Dopamine does double duty in motivating cognitive effort

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Andrew; Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control is subjectively costly, suggesting that engagement is modulated in relationship to incentive state. Dopamine appears to play key roles. In particular, dopamine may mediate cognitive effort by two broad classes of functions: 1) modulating the functional parameters of working memory circuits subserving effortful cognition, and 2) mediating value-learning and decision-making about effortful cognitive action. Here we tie together these two lines of research, proposing how dopamine serves “double duty”, translating incentive information into cognitive motivation. PMID:26889810

  15. Monitoring dopamine release from single living vesicles with nanoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Zhan; Huang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Wei; Wang, Zong-Li; Cheng, Jie-Ke; Xu, Tao; Zhang, Rong-Ying; Chen, Yu; Liu, Jie

    2005-06-29

    Carbon fiber nanoelectrodes (tip diameter = ca. 100 nm) have been first used to monitor real-time dopamine release from single living vesicles of single rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The experiments show that active and inactive release sites exist on the surface of cells, and the spatial distributions have been differentiated even in the same active release zone. It is first demonstrated that multiple vesicles can sequentially release dopamine at the same site of the cell surface, which possibly plays the main role in the dopamine release from PC12 cells.

  16. Metformin Prevents Nigrostriatal Dopamine Degeneration Independent of AMPK Activation in Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Jacqueline A.; Lemus, Moyra B.; Santos, Vanessa V.; Deo, Minh; Davies, Jeffrey S.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Elsworth, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is a widely prescribed drug used to treat type-2 diabetes, although recent studies show it has wide ranging effects to treat other diseases. Animal and retrospective human studies indicate that Metformin treatment is neuroprotective in Parkinson’s Disease (PD), although the neuroprotective mechanism is unknown, numerous studies suggest the beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis may be through AMPK activation. In this study we tested whether or not AMPK activation in dopamine neurons was required for the neuroprotective effects of Metformin in PD. We generated transgenic mice in which AMPK activity in dopamine neurons was ablated by removing AMPK beta 1 and beta 2 subunits from dopamine transporter expressing neurons. These AMPK WT and KO mice were then chronically exposed to Metformin in the drinking water then exposed to MPTP, the mouse model of PD. Chronic Metformin treatment significantly attenuated the MPTP-induced loss of Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) neuronal number and volume and TH protein concentration in the nigrostriatal pathway. Additionally, Metformin treatment prevented the MPTP-induced elevation of the DOPAC:DA ratio regardless of genotype. Metformin also prevented MPTP induced gliosis in the Substantia Nigra. These neuroprotective actions were independent of genotype and occurred in both AMPK WT and AMPK KO mice. Overall, our studies suggest that Metformin’s neuroprotective effects are not due to AMPK activation in dopaminergic neurons and that more research is required to determine how metformin acts to restrict the development of PD. PMID:27467571

  17. Pramipexole, a nonergot dopamine agonist, is effective against rest tremor in intermediate to advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Künig, G; Pogarell, O; Möller, J C; Delf, M; Oertel, W H

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of the nonergot dopamine receptor agonist pramipexole in 16 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and marked rest tremor during an "on" period. The patients were drawn from a larger placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial, which was not originally designed to investigate the effect of pramipexole on tremor. Eleven patients received pramipexole. The first effects were seen with a pramipexole dose of 0.75 mg/d with a reduction of the tremor item A of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III, "on" state) by 25% and of rigidity and akinesia by 22%. Under the highest dose, 4.5 mg/d, the tremor score was improved by 61% over baseline (p < 0.0056, Wilcoxon signed rank) and the sum of rigidity and akinesia items by 66% (p < 0.0038, Wilcoxon signed rank). Five patients received placebo and did not improve. Based on this sample of patients, the nonergot dopamine receptor agonist pramipexole appears to have a potent anti-rest tremor action while being effective against akinesia and rigidity.

  18. Role of Histidine 547 of Human Dopamine Transporter in Molecular Interaction with HIV-1 Tat and Dopamine Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yaxia; Quizon, Pamela M.; Sun, Wei-Lun; Yao, Jianzhuang; Zhu, Jun; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat plays an important role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) by disrupting neurotransmission including dopamine uptake by human dopamine transporter (hDAT). Previous studies have demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat directly binds to hDAT and some amino-acid mutations that attenuate the hDAT-Tat binding also significantly decreased dopamine uptake activity of hDAT. This combined computational-experimental study demonstrates that histidine-547 (H547) of hDAT plays a crucial role in the hDAT-Tat binding and dopamine uptake by hDAT, and that the H547A mutation can not only considerably attenuate Tat-induced inhibition of dopamine uptake, but also significantly increase the Vmax of hDAT for dopamine uptake. The finding of such an unusual hDAT mutant capable of both increasing the Vmax of hDAT for dopamine uptake and disrupting the hDAT-Tat binding may provide an exciting knowledge basis for development of novel concepts for therapeutic treatment of the HAND. PMID:27250920

  19. Reboxetine enhances the olanzapine-induced antipsychotic-like effect, cortical dopamine outflow and NMDA receptor-mediated transmission.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Monica M; Jardemark, Kent; Malmerfelt, Anna; Björkholm, Carl; Svensson, Torgny H

    2010-08-01

    Preclinical data have shown that addition of the selective norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor reboxetine increases the antipsychotic-like effect of the D(2/3) antagonist raclopride and, in parallel, enhances cortical dopamine output. Subsequent clinical results suggested that adding reboxetine to stable treatments with various antipsychotic drugs (APDs) may improve positive, negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated in rats the effects of adding reboxetine to the second-generation APD olanzapine on: (i) antipsychotic efficacy, using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test, (ii) extrapyramidal side effect (EPS) liability, using a catalepsy test, (iii) dopamine efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving animals and (iv) cortical N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated transmission, using intracellular electrophysiological recording in vitro. Reboxetine (6 mg/kg) enhanced the suppression of CAR induced by a suboptimal dose (1.25 mg/kg), but not an optimal (2.5 mg/kg) dose of olanzapine without any concomitant catalepsy. Addition of reboxetine to the low dose of olanzapine also markedly increased cortical dopamine outflow and facilitated prefrontal NMDA receptor-mediated transmission. Our data suggest that adjunctive treatment with a NET inhibitor may enhance the therapeutic effect of low-dose olanzapine in schizophrenia without increasing EPS liability and add an antidepressant action, thus in principle allowing for a dose reduction of olanzapine with a concomitant reduction of dose-related side effects, such as EPS and weight gain.

  20. Exposure to the Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Mixture DE-71 Damages the Nigrostriatal Dopamine System: Role of Dopamine Handling in Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bradner, Joshua M.; Suragh, Tiffany A.; Wilson, W. Wyatt; Lazo, Carlos R.; Stout, Kristen A.; Kim, Hye Mi; Wang, Min Z.; Walker, Douglas I.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Richardson, Jason R.; Miller, Gary W.; Caudle, W. Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the last several decades polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have replaced the previously banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in multiple flame retardant utilities. As epidemiological and laboratory studies have suggested PCBs as a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD), the similarities between PBDEs and PCBs suggest that PBDEs have the potential to be neurotoxic to the dopamine system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of the PBDE mixture, DE-71, on the nigrostriatal dopamine system and address the role of altered dopamine handling in mediating this neurotoxicity. Using an in vitro model system we found DE-71 effectively caused cell death in a dopaminergic cell line as well as reducing the number of TH+ neurons isolated from VMAT2 WT and LO animals. Assessment of DE-71 neurotoxicity in vivo demonstrated significant deposition of PBDE congeners in the brains of mice, leading to reductions in striatal dopamine and dopamine handling, as well as reductions in the striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and VMAT2. Additionally, DE-71 elicited a significant locomotor deficit in the VMAT2 WT and LO mice. However, no change was seen in TH expression in dopamine terminal or in the number of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). To date, these are the first data to demonstrate that exposure to PBDEs disrupts the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Given their similarities to PCBs, additional laboratory and epidemiological research should be considered to assess PBDEs as a potential risk factor for PD and other neurological disorders. PMID:23287494

  1. Whole organic electronic synapses for dopamine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordani, Martina; Di Lauro, Michele; Berto, Marcello; Bortolotti, Carlo A.; Vuillaume, Dominique; Gomes, Henrique L.; Zoli, Michele; Biscarini, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    A whole organic artificial synapse has been fabricated by patterning PEDOT:PSS electrodes on PDMS that are biased in frequency to yield a STP response. The timescale of the STP response is shown to be sensitive to the concentration of dopamine, DA, a neurotransmitter relevant for monitoring the development of Parkinson's disease and potential locoregional therapies. The sensitivity of the sensor towards DA has been validated comparing signal variation in the presence of DA and its principal interfering agent, ascorbic acid, AA. The whole organic synapse is biocompatible, soft and flexible, and is attractive for implantable devices aimed to real-time monitoring of DA concentration in bodily fluids. This may open applications in chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease.

  2. Glutamate and dopamine components in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Seeman, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of schizophrenia for the last half century has been with dopamine (DA) D2 receptor blockers, implicating a hyperdopamine basis for psychosis. However, a 2007 report found that the glutamate agonist LY404039 was effective in schizophrenia, suggesting a hypoglutamate state for the illness. Although phencyclidine psychosis also supports a hypoglutamate cause, assessing the basic and clinical findings shows that phencyclidine has DA D2 agonist actions as well. Accurate Dreiding models of phencyclidine and the LY glutamate agonists precisely fit the known tetrahedral model of the D2 receptor that accommodates all DA agonists. A further view is that metabotropic glutamate agonists also exert D2 agonism, and their antipsychotic doses (about 100 mg/d) are predicted by their dissociation constants (about 20 nM) for D2. Hence, the clinical antipsychotic action of a glutamate agonist may depend on its ability to interfere with DA neurotransmission by its DA partial agonism. PMID:19270765

  3. The immunoregulatory role of dopamine: an update

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Chandrani; Basu, Biswarup; Chakroborty, Debanjan; Dasgupta, Partha Sarthi; Basu, Sujit

    2009-01-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is an important molecule bridging the nervous and immune systems. DA through autocrine/paracrine manner modulates the functions of immune effector cells by acting through its receptors present in these cells. DA also has unique and opposite effects on T cell functions. Although DA activates naïve or resting T cells, but it inhibits activated T cells. In addition, changes in the expression of DA receptors and their signaling pathways especially in T cells are associated with altered immune functions in disorders like schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. These results suggest an immunoregulatory role of DA. Therefore targeting DA receptors and their signaling pathways in these cells by using DA receptor agonists and antagonists may be useful for the treatment of diseases where DA induced altered immunity play a pathogenic role. PMID:19896530

  4. Association study between the dopamine D4 receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Petronis, A.; Macciardi, F.; Athanassiades, A.; Paterson, A.D.

    1995-10-09

    The dopamine D4 receptor is of major interest in schizophrenia research due to its high affinity for the atypical neuroleptic clozapine and a high degree of variability in the receptor gene (DRD4). Although several genetic linkage analyses performed on schizophrenia multiplex families from different regions of the world have either excluded or failed to prove that DRD4 is a major genetic factor for the development of schizophrenia, analyses for moderate predisposing effects are still of significant interest. We performed a study examining differences in allele frequencies of 4 different DRD4 polymorphisms in schizophrenia patients and age, sex, and ethnic origin matched controls. None of these 4 polymorphisms showed evidence for genetic association with schizophrenia, although a trend towards excess of the allele with 7 repeats in the (48){sub n} bp exon III polymorphism was observed. Complexities in the DRD4 genetic investigation and further analytic approaches are discussed. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Dopamine receptor polymorphism modulates the relation between antenatal maternal anxiety and fetal movement.

    PubMed

    Kaitz, Marsha; Mankuta, David; Rokem, Ann Marie; Faraone, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    We determined whether the combination of fetal genotype (dopamine D4 receptor; DRD4) and mothers' anxiety during pregnancy is associated with fetal behavior. Two hundred and six pregnant women underwent an ultrasound exam. Fetal movement measures (Movement Frequency, Total Activity, Movement Duration, and Longest Quiet Time) were derived from off-line coding. A moderating role of the DRD4-III polymorphism was found: Results indicate that higher levels of antenatal maternal anxiety symptoms were associated with more frequent fetal movements among fetuses carrying a 7R allele, but not among fetuses carrying shorter alleles. Total Activity did not show full moderation by DRD4, though the measure was correlated with maternal anxiety among fetuses in the Anxious Group with a 7R allele; not among fetuses without both factors. The findings provide the first evidence of a GXE interaction in association with fetal behavior. Results also demonstrate that some individuals are inherently more susceptible to uterine environmental influences than are others.

  6. Striatal Dopamine and the Interface between Motivation and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Aarts, Esther; van Holstein, Mieke; Cools, Roshan

    2011-01-01

    Brain dopamine has long been known to be implicated in the domains of appetitive motivation and cognition. Recent work indicates that dopamine also plays a role in the interaction between appetitive motivation and cognition. Here we review this work. Animal work has revealed an arrangement of spiraling connections between the midbrain and the striatum that subserves a mechanism by which dopamine can direct information flow from ventromedial to more dorsal regions in the striatum. In line with current knowledge about dopamine's effects on cognition, we hypothesize that these striato-nigro-striatal connections provide the basis for functionally specific effects of appetitive motivation on cognition. One implication of this hypothesis is that appetitive motivation can induce cognitive improvement or impairment depending on task demands. PMID:21808629

  7. Dopamine Neurons Change the Type of Excitability in Response to Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Gutkin, Boris S.; Lapish, Christopher C.; Kuznetsov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of neuronal excitability determine the neuron’s response to stimuli, its synchronization and resonance properties and, ultimately, the computations it performs in the brain. We investigated the dynamical mechanisms underlying the excitability type of dopamine (DA) neurons, using a conductance-based biophysical model, and its regulation by intrinsic and synaptic currents. Calibrating the model to reproduce low frequency tonic firing results in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) excitation balanced by γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition and leads to type I excitable behavior characterized by a continuous decrease in firing frequency in response to hyperpolarizing currents. Furthermore, we analyzed how excitability type of the DA neuron model is influenced by changes in the intrinsic current composition. A subthreshold sodium current is necessary for a continuous frequency decrease during application of a negative current, and the low-frequency “balanced” state during simultaneous activation of NMDA and GABA receptors. Blocking this current switches the neuron to type II characterized by the abrupt onset of repetitive firing. Enhancing the anomalous rectifier Ih current also switches the excitability to type II. Key characteristics of synaptic conductances that may be observed in vivo also change the type of excitability: a depolarized γ-Aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) reversal potential or co-activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) leads to an abrupt frequency drop to zero, which is typical for type II excitability. Coactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) together with AMPARs and GABARs shifts the type I/II boundary toward more hyperpolarized GABAR reversal potentials. To better understand how altering each of the aforementioned currents leads to changes in excitability profile of DA neuron, we provide a thorough dynamical analysis. Collectively, these results imply that type I

  8. Could dopamine agonists aid in drug development for anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Frank, Guido K W

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways.

  9. Differentiating Siblings: The Case of Dopamine and Norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Nako; Andrews, Anne M

    2017-02-15

    Monitoring dopamine and norepinephrine (or other structurally similar neurotransmitters) in the same brain region necessitates selective sensing. In this Viewpoint, we highlight electrochemical and optical strategies for advancing simultaneous real-time measurements of dopamine and norepinephrine transmission. The potential for DNA aptamers as recognition elements in the context of field-effect transistor sensing for selective and simultaneous neurotransmitter monitoring in vivo is also discussed.

  10. Is schizophrenia a dopamine supersensitivity psychotic reaction?☆

    PubMed Central

    Seeman, Mary V.; Seeman, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Adolf Meyer (1866–1950) did not see schizophrenia as a discrete disorder with a specific etiology but, rather, as a reaction to a wide variety of biopsychosocial factors. He may have been right. Today, we have evidence that gene mutations, brain injury, drug use (cocaine, amphetamine, marijuana, phencyclidine, and steroids), prenatal infection and malnutrition, social isolation and marginalization, can all result in the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. This clinical picture is generally associated with supersensitivity to dopamine, and activates dopamine neurotransmission that is usually alleviated or blocked by drugs that block dopamine D2 receptors. While the dopamine neural pathway may be a final common route to many of the clinical symptoms, the components of this pathway, such as dopamine release and number of D2 receptors, are approximately normal in schizophrenia patients who are in remission. Postmortem findings, however, reveal more dimers of D1D2 and D2D2 receptors in both human schizophrenia brains and in animal models of schizophrenia. Another finding in animal models is an elevation of high-affinity state D2High receptors, but no radioactive ligand is yet available to selectively label D2High receptors in humans. It is suggested that synaptic dopamine supersensitivity in schizophrenia is an attempt at compensation for the original damage by heightening dopamine neurotransmission pathways (preparing the organism for fight or fiight). The dopamine overactivity is experienced subjectively as overstimulation, which accounts for some of the clinical symptoms, with attempts at dampening down the stimulation leading to still other symptoms. Reaction and counter-reaction may explain the symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:24128684

  11. The Role of Dopamine in Reinforcement: Changes in Reinforcement Sensitivity Induced by D[subscript 1]-Type, D[subscript 2]-Type, and Nonselective Dopamine Receptor Agonists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratcher, Natalie A.; Farmer-Dougan, Valeri; Dougan, James D.; Heidenreich, Byron A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Dose-dependent changes in sensitivity to reinforcement were found when rats were treated with low, moderate, and high doses of the partial dopamine D[subscript 1]-type receptor agonist SKF38393 and with the nonselective dopamine agonist apomorphine, but did not change when rats were treated with similar doses of the selective dopamine D[subscript…

  12. Dopamine in the medial amygdala network mediates human bonding

    PubMed Central

    Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Rudy, Tali; Salcedo, Stephanie; Feldman, Ruth; Hooker, Jacob M.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Catana, Ciprian; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-01-01

    Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding. We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers’ dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which form an intrinsic network (referred to as the “medial amygdala network”) that supports social functioning. We also measured the mothers’ behavioral synchrony with their infants and plasma oxytocin. The results of this study suggest that synchronous maternal behavior is associated with increased dopamine responses to the mother’s infant and stronger intrinsic connectivity within the medial amygdala network. Moreover, stronger network connectivity is associated with increased dopamine responses within the network and decreased plasma oxytocin. Together, these data indicate that dopamine is involved in human bonding. Compared with other mammals, humans have an unusually complex social life. The complexity of human bonding cannot be fully captured in nonhuman animal models, particularly in pathological bonding, such as that in autistic spectrum disorder or postpartum depression. Thus, investigations of the neurochemistry of social bonding in humans, for which this study provides initial evidence, are warranted. PMID:28193868

  13. Is dopamine a physiological natriuretic hormone in the dog?

    PubMed

    Cuche, J L; Selz, F; Ruget, G; Jondeau, G; Guedon, J

    1983-11-01

    Both plasma and urinary dopamine and noradrenaline were measured as free and sulphate conjugates, by a radioenzymatic method, before and during extracellular volume expansion (ECVE) with hypo-, iso- or hyper-tonic fluid (usually sodium chloride solution) in dogs. During ECVE there was a decrease in plasma catecholamine concentration. For all cases except noradrenaline, this is probably due to a dilution phenomenon since when results were expressed as pg/mg of protein, ECVE had no effect. This change in noradrenaline accounted for the increase in the dopamine/noradrenaline ratio. As expected, there was an increase in the urinary excretion of dopamine during ECVE with both iso- and hyper-tonic fluid. This increase was not observed in the group of dogs given hypotonic fluid, although the increase of fractional excretion of sodium was of a similar order of magnitude. The increase in the urinary excretion of dopamine was apparently not affected by an increase in plasma sodium concentration and/or osmolality. The demonstrated dissociation between sodium and dopamine in urine does not support a physiological role for dopamine in renal handling of sodium during ECVE, and raises the question of its specificity.

  14. Stronger Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Farré, Daniel; Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Estefanía; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Canet-Pons, Júlia; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G; Rico, Alberto J; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Navarro, Gemma; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antonio; Labandeira-García, José L; Casadó, Vicent; Lanciego, José L; Franco, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Radioligand binding assays to rat striatal dopamine D1 receptors showed that brain lateralization of the dopaminergic system were not due to changes in expression but in agonist affinity. D1 receptor-mediated striatal imbalance resulted from a significantly higher agonist affinity in the left striatum. D1 receptors heteromerize with dopamine D3 receptors, which are considered therapeutic targets for dyskinesia in parkinsonian patients. Expression of both D3 and D1-D3 receptor heteromers were increased in samples from 6-hydroxy-dopamine-hemilesioned rats rendered dyskinetic by treatment with 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA). Similar findings were obtained using striatal samples from primates. Radioligand binding studies in the presence of a D3 agonist led in dyskinetic, but not in lesioned or L-DOPA-treated rats, to a higher dopamine sensitivity. Upon D3-receptor activation, the affinity of agonists for binding to the right striatal D1 receptor increased. Excess dopamine coming from L-DOPA medication likely activates D3 receptors thus making right and left striatal D1 receptors equally responsive to dopamine. These results show that dyskinesia occurs concurrently with a right/left striatal balance in D1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  15. Somatostatin and dopamine receptor regulation of pituitary somatotroph adenomas.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shlomo, Anat; Liu, Ning-Ai; Melmed, Shlomo

    2017-02-01

    Somatostatin and dopamine receptors are expressed in normal and tumoral somatotroph cells. Upon receptor stimulation, somatostatin and the somatostatin receptor ligands octreotide, lanreotide, and pasireotide, and to a lesser extent, dopamine and the dopamine analogs bromocriptine and cabergoline, suppress growth hormone (GH) secretion from a GH-secreting pituitary somatotroph adenoma. Somatostatin and dopamine receptors are Gαi-protein coupled that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity and cAMP production and reduce intracellular calcium concentration and calcium flux oscillations. Although their main action on somatotroph cells is acute inhibition of GH secretion, they also may inhibit GH production and possibly somatotroph proliferation. These receptors have been reported to create complexes that exhibit functions distinct from that of receptor monomers. Somatostatin suppression of GH is mediated mainly by somatostatin receptor subtype 2 and to a lesser extent by SST5. Human somatostatin receptor subtype 5 has also been shown to harbor mutations associated with GH levels, somatotroph tumor behavior, and somatostatin receptor ligand (SRL) responsiveness. Reviewing current knowledge of somatostatin and dopamine receptor expression and signaling in normal and tumoral somatotroph cells offers insights into mechanisms underlying SRL and dopamine agonist effectiveness in patients with acromegaly.

  16. Fibromyalgia patients show an abnormal dopamine response to pain.

    PubMed

    Wood, Patrick B; Schweinhardt, Petra; Jaeger, Erik; Dagher, Alain; Hakyemez, Helene; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Bushnell, M Catherine; Chizh, Boris A

    2007-06-01

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances. Accumulating evidence indicates that fibromyalgia may involve a dysfunction of modulatory systems in the brain. While brain dopamine is best known for its role in pleasure, motivation and motor control, recent evidence suggests that it is also involved in pain modulation. Because dopamine is implicated in both pain modulation and affective processing, we hypothesized that fibromyalgia may involve a disturbance of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Fibromyalgia patients and matched healthy control subjects were subjected to deep muscle pain produced by injection of hypertonic saline into the anterior tibialis muscle. In order to determine the endogenous release of dopamine in response to painful stimulation, we used positron emission tomography to examine binding of [(11)C]-raclopride (D2/D3 ligand) in the brain during injection of painful hypertonic saline and nonpainful normal saline. Fibromyalgia patients experienced the hypertonic saline as more painful than healthy control subjects. Control subjects released dopamine in the basal ganglia during the painful stimulation, whereas fibromyalgia patients did not. In control subjects, the amount of dopamine release correlated with the amount of perceived pain but in fibromyalgia patients no such correlation was observed. These findings provide the first direct evidence that fibromyalgia patients have an abnormal dopamine response to pain. The disrupted dopaminergic reactivity in fibromyalgia patients could be a critical factor underlying the widespread pain and discomfort in fibromyalgia and suggests that the therapeutic effects of dopaminergic treatments for this intractable disorder should be explored.

  17. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces dopamine release in the human striatum.

    PubMed

    Bossong, Matthijs G; van Berckel, Bart N M; Boellaard, Ronald; Zuurman, Lineke; Schuit, Robert C; Windhorst, Albert D; van Gerven, Joop M A; Ramsey, Nick F; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Kahn, René S

    2009-02-01

    The influence of cannabis on mental health receives growing scientific and political attention. An increasing demand for treatment of cannabis dependence has refueled the discussion about the addictive potential of cannabis. A key feature of all addictive drugs is the ability to increase synaptic dopamine levels in the striatum, a mechanism involved in their rewarding and motivating effects. However, it is currently unknown if cannabis can stimulate striatal dopamine neurotransmission in humans. Here we show that Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component in cannabis, induces dopamine release in the human striatum. Using the dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor tracer [(11)C]raclopride and positron emission tomography in seven healthy subjects, we demonstrate that THC inhalation reduces [(11)C]raclopride binding in the ventral striatum and the precommissural dorsal putamen but not in other striatal subregions. This is consistent with an increase in dopamine levels in these regions. These results suggest that THC shares a potentially addictive property with other drugs of abuse. Further, it implies that the endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulating striatal dopamine release. This allows new directions in research on the effects of THC in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.

  18. Levodopa therapy: consequences of the nonphysiologic replacement of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Chase, T N

    1998-05-01

    Normal motor function is dependent on the highly regulated synthesis and release of the transmitter dopamine by neurons projecting from the substantia nigra to the corpus striatum. Parkinson's disease involves the progressive degeneration of these neurons. Its core symptoms are a direct consequence of a striatal insufficiency of intrasynaptic dopamine. Levodopa, the standard of care for the treatment of PD, acts after its conversion to dopamine by restoring striatal dopaminergic transmission. However, there are significant differences between the normally functioning dopamine system and the restoration of function provided by standard levodopa treatment. Increasing clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that the intermittent stimulation of dopamine receptors resulting from current therapeutic regimens contributes to the response complications that ultimately affect most parkinsonian patients. It now appears that chronic nonphysiologic stimulation of dopaminergic receptors on striatal GABAergic neurons activates characteristic signaling pathways, leading to a potentiation of the synaptic efficacy of adjacent glutamatergic receptors of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype. As a result, function of these GABAergic efferent neurons changes in ways that favor the appearance of motor complications. Conceivably, use of dopaminomimetic replacement strategies that provide more continuous dopamine receptor stimulation will act to prevent or alleviate these disabling complications. A number of promising approaches to achieving this goal are now under development.

  19. The neurotransmitter dopamine modulates vascular permeability in the endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Resham; Sinha, Sutapa; Yang, Su-Ping; Patra, Chittaranjan; Dutta, Shamit; Wang, Enfeng; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2008-01-01

    Background Vascular permeability factor/Vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF), a multifunctional cytokine, is a potent inducer of vascular permeability, an important early step in angiogenesis. It is known that the neurotransmitter dopamine can inhibit VPF/VEGF mediated angiogenesis, in particular microvascular permeability, but the effectors of this action remain unclear. Results Here, we define the signaling pathway modulated by dopamine that inhibits VPF/VEGF induced vascular permeability in endothelial cells. Signals from VPF/VEGF lead to changes in the phosphorylation of tight junction protein zonula occludens (ZO-1) and adherens junction proteins like VE-cadherin and associated catenins, thus weakening endothelial cell-cell adhesion and increasing vascular permeability. We found VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) to be part of a multi-protein complex involving ZO-1, VE-cadherin and β-catenin. VPF/VEGF induced phosphorylations of VE-cadherin, β-catenin and ZO-1 were inhibited by dopamine treatment. Association of occludin with ZO-1 and ZO-1 with VE-cadherin were significantly inhibited by dopamine in VEGF treated cells. Furthermore, we identified Src as an important target for dopamine-mediated inhibition of VPF/VEGF induced permeability. Conclusion Taken together, our results provide molecular insights of dopamine function in the vascular endothelium and suggest a central role of Src in regulating key molecules that control vascular permeability. PMID:18662404

  20. Selective modulation of excitatory and inhibitory microcircuits by dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wen-Jun; Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S.

    2003-03-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in the working memory functions of the prefrontal cortex, functions that are impacted in age-related memory decline, drug abuse, and a wide variety of disorders, including schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. We have previously reported that dopamine depresses excitatory transmission between pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Here, using paired recordings, we have investigated dopaminergic modulation of excitatory transmission from pyramidal neurons to fast-spiking (FS) interneurons. In contrast to its effect on recurrent excitation, dopamine was without effect on excitatory transmission to FS interneurons. However, dopamine has directly enhanced the excitability of the FS interneurons to the extent that even a single excitatory postsynaptic potential could initiate spiking with great temporal precision in some of them. These results indicate that dopamine's effects on excitatory transmission are target-specific and that the axon terminals of pyramidal neurons can be selectively regulated at the level of individual synapses. Thus, dopamine's net inhibitory effect on cortical function is remarkably constrained by the nature of the microcircuit elements on which it acts.

  1. Differential effects of dopamine-directed treatments on cognition.

    PubMed

    Ashby, F Gregory; Valentin, Vivian V; von Meer, Stella S

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine, a prominent neuromodulator, is implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. It has wide-ranging effects on both cortical and subcortical brain regions and on many types of cognitive tasks that rely on a variety of different learning and memory systems. As neuroscience and behavioral evidence for the existence of multiple memory systems and their corresponding neural networks accumulated, so did the notion that dopamine's role is markedly different depending on which memory system is engaged. As a result, dopamine-directed treatments will have different effects on different types of cognitive behaviors. To predict what these effects will be, it is critical to understand: which memory system is mediating the behavior; the neural basis of the mediating memory system; the nature of the dopamine projections into that system; and the time course of dopamine after its release into the relevant brain regions. Consideration of these questions leads to different predictions for how changes in brain dopamine levels will affect automatic behaviors and behaviors mediated by declarative, procedural, and perceptual representation memory systems.

  2. Transient activation of midbrain dopamine neurons by reward risk.

    PubMed

    Fiorillo, C D

    2011-12-01

    Dopamine neurons of the ventral midbrain are activated transiently following stimuli that predict future reward. This response has been shown to signal the expected value of future reward, and there is strong evidence that it drives positive reinforcement of stimuli and actions associated with reward in accord with reinforcement learning models. Behavior is also influenced by reward uncertainty, or risk, but it is not known whether the transient response of dopamine neurons is sensitive to reward risk. To investigate this, monkeys were trained to associate distinct visual stimuli with certain or uncertain volumes of juice of nearly the same expected value. In a choice task, monkeys preferred the stimulus predicting an uncertain (risky) reward outcome. In a Pavlovian task, in which the neuronal responses to each stimulus could be measured in isolation, it was found that dopamine neurons were more strongly activated by the stimulus associated with reward risk. Given extensive evidence that dopamine drives reinforcement, these results strongly suggest that dopamine neurons can reinforce risk-seeking behavior (gambling), at least under certain conditions. Risk-seeking behavior has the virtue of promoting exploration and learning, and these results support the hypothesis that dopamine neurons represent the value of exploration.

  3. Photoaffinity ligand for dopamine D2 receptors: azidoclebopride

    SciTech Connect

    Niznik, H.B.; Guan, J.H.; Neumeyer, J.L.; Seeman, P.

    1985-02-01

    In order to label D2 dopamine receptors selectively and covalently by means of a photosensitive compound, azidoclebopride was synthesized directly from clebopride. The dissociation constant (KD) of clebopride for the D2 dopamine receptor (canine brain striatum) was 1.5 nM, while that for azidoclebopride was 21 nM. The affinities of both clebopride and azidoclebopride were markedly reduced in the absence of sodium chloride. In the presence of ultraviolet light, azidoclebopride inactivated D2 dopamine receptors irreversibly, as indicated by the inability of the receptors to bind (/sup 3/H)spiperone. Maximal photoinactivation of about 60% of the D2 dopamine receptors occurred at 1 microM azidoclebopride; 30% of the receptors were inactivated at 80 nM azidoclebopride (pseudo-IC50). Dopamine agonists selectively protected the D2 receptors from being inactivated by azidoclebopride, the order of potency being (-)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than apomorphine greater than (+/-)-6,7-dihydroxy-2-aminotetralin greater than (+)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than serotonin. Similarly, dopaminergic antagonists prevented the photoinactivation of D2 receptors by azidoclebopride with the following order of potency: spiperone greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than clebopride greater than (-)-sulpiride greater than (-)-butaclamol.

  4. Antithrombin III blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AT III) is a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of ... may mean you have an increased risk of blood clotting. This can occur when there is not enough ...

  5. Dopamine Inhibition Differentially Controls Excitability of Substantia Nigra Dopamine Neuron Subpopulations through T-Type Calcium Channels.

    PubMed

    Evans, Rebekah C; Zhu, Manhua; Khaliq, Zayd M

    2017-03-29

    While there is growing appreciation for diversity among ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, much less is known regarding functional heterogeneity among the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons. Here, we show that calbindin-positive dorsal tier and calbindin-negative ventral tier SNc dopaminergic neurons in mice comprise functionally distinct subpopulations distinguished by their dendritic calcium signaling, rebound excitation, and physiological responses to dopamine D2-receptor (D2) autoinhibition. While dopamine is known to inhibit action potential backpropagation, our experiments revealed an unexpected enhancement of excitatory responses and dendritic calcium signals in the presence of D2-receptor inhibition. Specifically, dopamine inhibition and direct hyperpolarization enabled the generation of low-threshold depolarizations that occurred in an all-or-none or graded manner, due to recruitment of T-type calcium channels. Interestingly, these effects occurred selectively in calbindin-negative dopaminergic neurons within the SNc. Thus, calbindin-positive and calbindin-negative SNc neurons differ substantially in their calcium channel composition and efficacy of excitatory inputs in the presence of dopamine inhibition.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons can be divided into two populations: the calbindin-negative ventral tier, which is vulnerable to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease, and the calbindin-positive dorsal tier, which is relatively resilient. Although tonic firing is similar in these subpopulations, we find that their responses to dopamine-mediated inhibition are strikingly different. During inhibition, calbindin-negative neurons exhibit increased sensitivity to excitatory inputs, which can then trigger large dendritic calcium transients due to strong expression of T-type calcium channels. Therefore, SNc neurons differ substantially in their calcium channel composition, which may contribute to their differential

  6. A heterocyclic compound CE-103 inhibits dopamine reuptake and modulates dopamine transporter and dopamine D1-D3 containing receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Sase, Ajinkya; Aher, Yogesh D; Saroja, Sivaprakasam R; Ganesan, Minu Karthika; Sase, Sunetra; Holy, Marion; Höger, Harald; Bakulev, Vasiliy; Ecker, Gerhard F; Langer, Thierry; Sitte, Harald H; Leban, Johann; Lubec, Gert

    2016-03-01

    A series of compounds have been reported to enhance memory via the DA system and herein a heterocyclic compound was tested for working memory (WM) enhancement. 2-((benzhydrylsulfinyl)methyl)thiazole (CE-103) was synthesized in a six-step synthesis. Binding of CE-103 to the dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters and dopamine reuptake inhibition was tested as well as blood brain permeation and a screen for GPCR targets. 60 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups: CE-103 treated 1-10 mg/kg body weight, trained (TDI) and yoked (YDI) and vehicle treated, trained (TVI) and yoked (YVI) rats. Daily single intraperitoneal injections for a period of 10 days were administered and rats were tested in a radial arm maze (RAM). Hippocampi were taken 6 h following the last day of training and complexes containing the unphosphorylated or phosphorylated dopamine transporter (DAT) and complexes containing the D1-3 dopamine receptor subunits were determined. CE-103 was binding to the DAT but insignificantly to SERT or NET and dopamine reuptake was blocked specifically (IC50 = 14.73 μM). From day eight the compound was decreasing WM errors in the RAM significantly at both doses tested as compared to the vehicle controls. In the trained CE-103-treated group levels of the complex containing the phosphorylated dopamine transporter (pDAT) as well as D1R were decreased while levels of complexes containing D2R and D3R were significantly increased. CE-103 was shown to enhance spatial WM and DA reuptake inhibition with subsequent modulation of D1-3 receptors is proposed as a possible mechanism of action.

  7. Dopamine Signaling in the Dorsal Striatum Is Essential for Motivated Behaviors: Lessons from Dopamine-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Palmiter, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Genetically engineered mice that lack tyrosine hydroxylase in all dopaminergic neurons become hypoactive and aphagic and they starve by 4 weeks of age. However, they can be rescued by daily treatment with L-dopa, which restores activity and feeding for about 10 hours. Thus, these mice can be examined in both dopamine-depleted and dopamine replete states. A series of behavioral experiments lead to the primary conclusion that in the dopamine-depleted state these mice are not motivated to engage in goal-directed behaviors. Nevertheless, they still have a preference for sucrose, they can learn the location of food rewards, and they can form a conditioned-place preference for drugs. Dopamine signaling can be restored to the striatum by several different viral gene therapy procedures. Restoring dopamine signaling selectively to the dorsal striatum is sufficient to allow feeding, locomotion, and reward-based learning. The rescued mice appear to have normal motivation to engage in all goal-directed behaviors that have been tested. The results suggest that dopamine facilitates the output from dorsal striatum, which provides a permissive signal allowing feeding and other goal-directed behaviors. PMID:18591467

  8. β-phenylethylamine Requires the Dopamine Transporter to Increase Extracellular Dopamine in C. elegans Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Murad; Wickramasekara, Rochelle N.; Carvelli, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    β-phenylethylamine (βPEA) is an endogenous amine that has been shown to increase the synaptic levels of dopamine (DA). A number of in vitro and behavioral studies suggest the dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a role in the effects generated by βPEA, however the mechanism through which βPEA affects DAT has not yet been elucidated. Here, we used Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans DAT (DAT-1) expressing LLC-pk1 cells and neuronal cultures to investigate whether the βPEA-induced increase of extracellular DA required DAT-1. Our data show that βPEA increases extracellular dopamine both in DAT-1 transfected cells and cultures of differentiated neurons. RTI-55, a cocaine homologue and DAT inhibitor, completely blocked the βPEA-induced effect in transfected cells. However in neuronal cultures, RTI-55 only partly inhibited the increase of extracellular DA generated by βPEA. These results suggest that βPEA requires DAT-1 and other, not yet identified proteins, to increase extracellular DA when tested in a native system. Furthermore, our results suggest that βPEA-induced increase of extracellular DA does not require functional monoamine vesicles as genetic ablation of the C. elegans homologue vesicular monoamine transporter, cat-1, did not compromise the ability of βPEA to increase extracellular DA. Finally, our electrophysiology data show that βPEA caused fast-rising and self-inactivating amperometric currents in a subset of wild-type DA neurons but not in neurons isolated from dat-1 knockout animals. Taken together, these data demonstrate that in both DA neurons and heterogeneous cultures of differentiated C. elegans neurons, βPEA releases cytoplasmic DA through DAT-1 to ultimately increase the extracellular concentration of DA. PMID:24161617

  9. Possible involvement of type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors up-regulated by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in mouse nucleus accumbens neurons in the development of methamphetamine-induced place preference.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, K; Mizuno, K; Ohkuma, S

    2012-12-27

    Little is known about regulatory mechanisms of type 1 inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP(3)R-1) expression in conditioned place preference by methamphetamine (METH), though significant enhancement of IP(3)R-1 expression in the mouse frontal cortex and limbic forebrain by intermittent administration of cocaine is reported. The present study investigated the role and regulation of IP(3)R-1 in mice with METH-induced place preference. Injection of IP(3)R antagonists with different chemical structures, 2-aminophenoxyethane-borate and xestospongin C, into the mouse nucleus accumbens (NAcc) dose-dependently inhibited METH-induced place preference. The levels of IP(3)R-1 protein in the NAcc of METH-conditioned mice significantly increased, which was completely abolished by microinjection of SCH23390 and raclopride, selective dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptor (D1 and D2DR) antagonists respectively, into the mouse NAcc. Immunohistochemical assessment revealed co-localization of immunoreactivity for IP(3)R-1 and those for D1 and D2DRs in the NAcc. These findings suggest that IP(3)R-1 could be involved in the development of METH-induced place preference and that D1 and D2DRs in the NAcc of mice showing METH-induced place preference play possible regulatory roles in IP(3)R-1 expression.

  10. Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Dopamine Release by Nicotine and Dopamine D1 Receptor Ligands: An In Vitro Fast Cyclic Voltammetry Study in Rat Striatum.

    PubMed

    Goutier, W; Lowry, J P; McCreary, A C; O'Connor, J J

    2016-05-01

    Nicotine is a highly addictive drug and exerts this effect partially through the modulation of dopamine release and increasing extracellular dopamine in regions such as the brain reward systems. Nicotine acts in these regions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The effect of nicotine on the frequency dependent modulation of dopamine release is well established and the purpose of this study was to investigate whether dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) ligands have an influence on this. Using fast cyclic voltammetry and rat corticostriatal slices, we show that D1R ligands are able to modulate the effect of nicotine on dopamine release. Nicotine (500 nM) induced a decrease in dopamine efflux at low frequency (single pulse or five pulses at 10 Hz) and an increase at high frequency (100 Hz) electrical field stimulation. The D1R agonist SKF-38393, whilst having no effect on dopamine release on its own or on the effect of nicotine upon multiple pulse evoked dopamine release, did significantly prevent and reverse the effect of nicotine on single pulse dopamine release. Interestingly similar results were obtained with the D1R antagonist SCH-23390. In this study we have demonstrated that the modulation of dopamine release by nicotine can be altered by D1R ligands, but only when evoked by single pulse stimulation, and are likely working via cholinergic interneuron driven dopamine release.

  11. Anterior cingulate dopamine turnover and behavior change in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Catherine L; Bell, Brian; Palotti, Matthew; Oh, Jen; Christian, Bradley T; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Sojkova, Jitka; Buyan-Dent, Laura; Nickles, Robert J; Harding, Sandra J; Stone, Charles K; Johnson, Sterling C; Holden, James E

    2015-12-01

    Subtle cognitive and behavioral changes are common in early Parkinson's disease. The cause of these symptoms is probably multifactorial but may in part be related to extra-striatal dopamine levels. 6-[(18) F]-Fluoro-L-dopa (FDOPA) positron emission tomography has been widely used to quantify dopamine metabolism in the brain; the most frequently measured kinetic parameter is the tissue uptake rate constant, Ki. However, estimates of dopamine turnover, which also account for the small rate of FDOPA loss from areas of specific trapping, may be more sensitive than Ki for early disease-related changes in dopamine biosynthesis. The purpose of the present study was to compare effective distribution volume ratio (eDVR), a metric for dopamine turnover, to cognitive and behavioral measures in Parkinson's patients. We chose to focus the investigation on anterior cingulate cortex, which shows highest FDOPA uptake within frontal regions and has known roles in executive function. Fifteen non-demented early-stage PD patients were pretreated with carbidopa and tolcapone, a central catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor, and then underwent extended imaging with FDOPA PET. Anterior cingulate eDVR was compared with composite scores for language, memory, and executive function measured by neuropsychological testing, and behavior change measured using two informant-based questionnaires, the Cambridge Behavioral Inventory and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version. Lower mean eDVR (thus higher dopamine turnover) in anterior cingulate cortex was related to lower (more impaired) behavior scores. We conclude that subtle changes in anterior cingulate dopamine metabolism may contribute to dysexecutive behaviors in Parkinson's disease.

  12. Relationship of striatal dopamine synthesis capacity to age and cognition.

    PubMed

    Braskie, Meredith N; Wilcox, Claire E; Landau, Susan M; O'Neil, James P; Baker, Suzanne L; Madison, Cindee M; Kluth, Jennifer T; Jagust, William J

    2008-12-24

    Past research has demonstrated that performance on frontal lobe-dependent tasks is associated with dopamine system integrity and that various dopamine system deficits occur with aging. The positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer 6-[(18)F]fluoro-l-m-tyrosine (FMT) is a substrate of the dopamine-synthesizing enzyme, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Studies using 6-[(18)F]fluorodopa (FDOPA) (another AADC substrate) to measure how striatal PET signal and age relate have had inconsistent outcomes. The varying results occur in part from tracer processing that renders FDOPA signal subject to aspects of postrelease metabolism, which may themselves change with aging. In contrast, FMT remains a purer measure of AADC function. We used partial volume-corrected FMT PET scans to measure age-related striatal dopamine synthesis capacity in 21 older (mean, 66.9) and 16 younger (mean, 22.8) healthy adults. We also investigated how striatal FMT signal related to a cognitive measure of frontal lobe function. Older adults showed significantly greater striatal FMT signal than younger adults. Within the older group, FMT signal in dorsal caudate (DCA) and dorsal putamen was greater with age, suggesting compensation for deficits elsewhere in the dopamine system. In younger adults, FMT signal in DCA was lower with age, likely related to ongoing developmental processes. Younger adults who performed worse on tests of frontal lobe function showed greater FMT signal in right DCA, independent of age effects. Our data suggest that higher striatal FMT signal represents nonoptimal dopamine processing. They further support a relationship between striatal dopamine processing and frontal lobe cognitive function.

  13. Oxytocin, Motivation and the Role of Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Love, Tiffany M.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin has drawn the attention of scientists for more than a century. The understanding of the function of oxytocin has expanded dramatically over the years from a simple peptide adept at inducing uterine contractions and milk ejection to a complex neuromodulator with a capacity to shape human social behavior. Decades of research have outlined oxytocin’s ability to enhance intricate social activities ranging from pair bonding, sexual activity, affiliative preferences, and parental behaviors. The precise neural mechanisms underlying oxytocin’s influence on such behaviors have just begun to be understood. Research suggests that oxytocin interacts closely with the neural pathways responsible for processing motivationally relevant stimuli. In particular, oxytocin appears to impact dopaminergic activity within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which is crucial not only for reward and motivated behavior but also for the expression of affiliative behaviors. Though most of the work performed in this area has been done using animal models, several neuroimaging studies suggest similar relationships may be observed in humans. In order to introduce this topic further, this paper will review the recent evidence that oxytocin may exert some of its social-behavioral effects through its impact on motivational networks. PMID:23850525

  14. Modulation for emergent networks: serotonin and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Weng, Juyang; Paslaski, Stephen; Daly, James; VanDam, Courtland; Brown, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    In autonomous learning, value-sensitive experiences can improve the efficiency of learning. A learning network needs be motivated so that the limited computational resources and the limited lifetime are devoted to events that are of high value for the agent to compete in its environment. The neuromodulatory system of the brain is mainly responsible for developing such a motivation system. Although reinforcement learning has been extensively studied, many existing models are symbolic whose internal nodes or modules have preset meanings. Neural networks have been used to automatically generate internal emergent representations. However, modeling an emergent motivational system for neural networks is still a great challenge. By emergent, we mean that the internal representations emerge autonomously through interactions with the external environments. This work proposes a generic emergent modulatory system for emergent networks, which includes two subsystems - the serotonin system and the dopamine system. The former signals a large class of stimuli that are intrinsically aversive (e.g., stress or pain). The latter signals a large class of stimuli that are intrinsically appetitive (e.g., pleasure or sweet). We experimented with this motivational system for two settings. The first is a visual recognition setting to investigate how such a system can learn through interactions with a teacher, who does not directly give answers, but only punishments and rewards. The second is a setting for wandering in the presence of a friend and a foe.

  15. Biophysically realistic minimal model of dopamine neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprisan, Sorinel

    2008-03-01

    We proposed and studied a new biophysically relevant computational model of dopaminergic neurons. Midbrain dopamine neurons are involved in motivation and the control of movement, and have been implicated in various pathologies such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug abuse. The model we developed is a single-compartment Hodgkin-Huxley (HH)-type parallel conductance membrane model. The model captures the essential mechanisms underlying the slow oscillatory potentials and plateau potential oscillations. The main currents involved are: 1) a voltage-dependent fast calcium current, 2) a small conductance potassium current that is modulated by the cytosolic concentration of calcium, and 3) a slow voltage-activated potassium current. We developed multidimensional bifurcation diagrams and extracted the effective domains of sustained oscillations. The model includes a calcium balance due to the fundamental importance of calcium influx as proved by simultaneous electrophysiological and calcium imaging procedure. Although there are significant evidences to suggest a partially electrogenic calcium pump, all previous models considered only elecrtogenic pumps. We investigated the effect of the electrogenic calcium pump on the bifurcation diagram of the model and compared our findings against the experimental results.

  16. Prefrontal dopamine in associative learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Puig, M V; Antzoulatos, E G; Miller, E K

    2014-12-12

    Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulates associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems.

  17. Type III burst pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zongjun; Fu, Qijun; Lu, Quankang

    2000-05-01

    We present a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0-2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory (BAO). Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. We call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is a nice interpretation of type III burst pair since the plasma beta β~=0.01 is much less than 1 and the beams have velocity of about 1.07×10^8 cm s^-1 after leaving the reconnection region if we assume that the ambient magnetic field strength is about 100 G.

  18. Type III burst pair.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongjun, Ning; Fu, Qijun; Quankang, Lu

    2000-05-01

    Presents a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0 - 2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory. Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. The authors call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is an interpretation of type III burst pair.

  19. Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism and sex interact to predict children’s affective knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Israel, Sharon; Uzefovsky, Florina; Ebstein, Richard P.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Affective knowledge, the ability to understand others’ emotional states, is considered to be a fundamental part in efficient social interaction. Affective knowledge can be seen as related to cognitive empathy, and in the framework of theory of mind (ToM) as affective ToM. Previous studies found that cognitive empathy and ToM are heritable, yet little is known regarding the specific genes involved in individual variability in affective knowledge. Investigating the genetic basis of affective knowledge is important for understanding brain mechanisms underlying socio-cognitive abilities. The 7-repeat (7R) allele within the third exon of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4-III) has been a focus of interest, due to accumulated knowledge regarding its relevance to individual differences in social behavior. A recent study suggests that an interaction between the DRD4-III polymorphism and sex is associated with cognitive empathy among adults. We aimed to examine the same association in two childhood age groups. Children (N = 280, age 3.5 years, N = 283, age 5 years) participated as part of the Longitudinal Israel Study of Twins. Affective knowledge was assessed through children’s responses to an illustrated story describing different emotional situations, told in a laboratory setting. The findings suggest a significant interaction between sex and the DRD4-III polymorphism, replicated in both age groups. Boy carriers of the 7R allele had higher affective knowledge scores than girls, whereas in the absence of the 7R there was no significant sex effect on affective knowledge. The results support the importance of DRD4-III polymorphism and sex differences to social development. Possible explanations for differences from adult findings are discussed, as are pathways for future studies. PMID:26157401

  20. Forgetting in Reinforcement Learning Links Sustained Dopamine Signals to Motivation.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ayaka; Morita, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that dopamine (DA) represents reward-prediction-error (RPE) defined in reinforcement learning and therefore DA responds to unpredicted but not predicted reward. However, recent studies have found DA response sustained towards predictable reward in tasks involving self-paced behavior, and suggested that this response represents a motivational signal. We have previously shown that RPE can sustain if there is decay/forgetting of learned-values, which can be implemented as decay of synaptic strengths storing learned-values. This account, however, did not explain the suggested link between tonic/sustained DA and motivation. In the present work, we explored the motivational effects of the value-decay in self-paced approach behavior, modeled as a series of 'Go' or 'No-Go' selections towards a goal. Through simulations, we found that the value-decay can enhance motivation, specifically, facilitate fast goal-reaching, albeit counterintuitively. Mathematical analyses revealed that underlying potential mechanisms are twofold: (1) decay-induced sustained RPE creates a gradient of 'Go' values towards a goal, and (2) value-contrasts between 'Go' and 'No-Go' are generated because while chosen values are continually updated, unchosen values simply decay. Our model provides potential explanations for the key experimental findings that suggest DA's roles in motivation: (i) slowdown of behavior by post-training blockade of DA signaling, (ii) observations that DA blockade severely impairs effortful actions to obtain rewards while largely sparing seeking of easily obtainable rewards, and (iii) relationships between the reward amount, the level of motivation reflected in the speed of behavior, and the average level of DA. These results indicate that reinforcement learning with value-decay, or forgetting, provides a parsimonious mechanistic account for the DA's roles in value-learning and motivation. Our results also suggest that when biological systems for value

  1. Forgetting in Reinforcement Learning Links Sustained Dopamine Signals to Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that dopamine (DA) represents reward-prediction-error (RPE) defined in reinforcement learning and therefore DA responds to unpredicted but not predicted reward. However, recent studies have found DA response sustained towards predictable reward in tasks involving self-paced behavior, and suggested that this response represents a motivational signal. We have previously shown that RPE can sustain if there is decay/forgetting of learned-values, which can be implemented as decay of synaptic strengths storing learned-values. This account, however, did not explain the suggested link between tonic/sustained DA and motivation. In the present work, we explored the motivational effects of the value-decay in self-paced approach behavior, modeled as a series of ‘Go’ or ‘No-Go’ selections towards a goal. Through simulations, we found that the value-decay can enhance motivation, specifically, facilitate fast goal-reaching, albeit counterintuitively. Mathematical analyses revealed that underlying potential mechanisms are twofold: (1) decay-induced sustained RPE creates a gradient of ‘Go’ values towards a goal, and (2) value-contrasts between ‘Go’ and ‘No-Go’ are generated because while chosen values are continually updated, unchosen values simply decay. Our model provides potential explanations for the key experimental findings that suggest DA's roles in motivation: (i) slowdown of behavior by post-training blockade of DA signaling, (ii) observations that DA blockade severely impairs effortful actions to obtain rewards while largely sparing seeking of easily obtainable rewards, and (iii) relationships between the reward amount, the level of motivation reflected in the speed of behavior, and the average level of DA. These results indicate that reinforcement learning with value-decay, or forgetting, provides a parsimonious mechanistic account for the DA's roles in value-learning and motivation. Our results also suggest that when biological

  2. Hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI enhance dopamine D2R protomer recognition and signaling of D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Narvaez, Manuel; Oflijan, Julia; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-01-03

    Dopamine D2LR-serotonin 5-HT2AR heteromers were demonstrated in HEK293 cells after cotransfection of the two receptors and shown to have bidirectional receptor-receptor interactions. In the current study the existence of D2L-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes was demonstrated also in discrete regions of the ventral and dorsal striatum with in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA). The hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI but not the standard 5-HT2AR agonist TCB2 and 5-HT significantly increased the density of D2like antagonist (3)H-raclopride binding sites and significantly reduced the pKiH values of the high affinity D2R agonist binding sites in (3)H-raclopride/DA competition experiments. Similar results were obtained in HEK293 cells and in ventral striatum. The effects of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists on D2R density and affinity were blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. In a forskolin-induced CRE-luciferase reporter gene assay using cotransfected but not D2R singly transfected HEK293 cells DOI and LSD but not TCB2 significantly enhanced the D2LR agonist quinpirole induced inhibition of CRE-luciferase activity. Haloperidol blocked the effects of both quinpirole alone and the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD while ketanserin only blocked the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD. The mechanism for the allosteric enhancement of the D2R protomer recognition and signalling observed is likely mediated by a biased agonist action of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists at the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer. This mechanism may contribute to the psychotic actions of LSD and DOI and the D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complex may thus be a target for the psychotic actions of hallunicogenic 5-HT2A agonists.

  3. Loss of dopamine D1 receptors and diminished D1/5 receptor-mediated ERK phosphorylation in the periaqueductal gray after spinal cord lesion

    PubMed Central

    Voulalas, Pamela J.; Ji, Yadong; Jiang, Li; Asgar, Jamila; Ro, Jin Y.; Masri, Radi

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain resulting from spinal cord injury is often accompanied by maladaptive plasticity of the central nervous system, including the opioid receptor-rich periaqueductal gray (PAG). Evidence suggests that sensory signaling via the PAG is robustly modulated by dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors, but the effect of damage to the spinal cord on D1 and D2 receptor protein expression and function in the PAG has not been examined. Here we show that 21 days after a T10 or C6 spinothalamic tract lesion, both mice and rats display a remarkable decline in the expression of D1 receptors in the PAG, revealed by western blot analysis. These changes were associated with a significant reduction in hindpaw withdrawal thresholds in lesioned animals compared to sham-operated controls. We investigated the consequences of diminished D1 receptor levels by quantifying D1-like receptor-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1,2 and CREB, events that have been observed in numerous brain structures. In naïve animals, western blot analysis revealed that ERK1,2, but not CREB phosphorylation was significantly increased in the PAG by the D1-like agonist SKF 81297. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that SKF 81297 increased ERK1,2 phosphorylation in the PAG of sham animals. However, in lesioned animals, basal pERK1,2 levels were elevated and did not significantly increase after exposure to SKF 81297. Our findings provide support for the hypothesis that molecular adaptions resulting in a decrease in D1 receptor expression and signaling in the PAG are a consequence of SCL. PMID:27932310

  4. Dopamine synapse is a neuroligin-2–mediated contact between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures

    PubMed Central

    Uchigashima, Motokazu; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine neurons project densely to the striatum and form so-called dopamine synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs), principal neurons in the striatum. Because dopamine receptors are widely expressed away from dopamine synapses, it remains unclear how dopamine synapses are involved in dopaminergic transmission. Here we demonstrate that dopamine synapses are contacts formed between dopaminergic presynaptic and GABAergic postsynaptic structures. The presynaptic structure expressed tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2, and plasmalemmal dopamine transporter, which are essential for dopamine synthesis, vesicular filling, and recycling, but was below the detection threshold for molecules involving GABA synthesis and vesicular filling or for GABA itself. In contrast, the postsynaptic structure of dopamine synapses expressed GABAergic molecules, including postsynaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin-2, postsynaptic scaffolding molecule gephyrin, and GABAA receptor α1, without any specific clustering of dopamine receptors. Of these, neuroligin-2 promoted presynaptic differentiation in axons of midbrain dopamine neurons and striatal GABAergic neurons in culture. After neuroligin-2 knockdown in the striatum, a significant decrease of dopamine synapses coupled with a reciprocal increase of GABAergic synapses was observed on MSN dendrites. This finding suggests that neuroligin-2 controls striatal synapse formation by giving competitive advantage to heterologous dopamine synapses over conventional GABAergic synapses. Considering that MSN dendrites are preferential targets of dopamine synapses and express high levels of dopamine receptors, dopamine synapse formation may serve to increase the specificity and potency of dopaminergic modulation of striatal outputs by anchoring dopamine release sites to dopamine-sensing targets. PMID:27035941

  5. Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Immunoreactivities in the Arcuate-Median Eminence Complex and their Link to the Tubero-Infundibular Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Fernandez, W.; Borroto-Escuela, D.O.; Vargas-Barroso, V.; Narváez, M.; Di Palma, M.; Agnati, L.F.; Sahd, J. Larriva

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunohistochemistry and Golgi techniques were used to study the structure of the adult rat arcuate-median eminence complex, and determine the distribution of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities therein, particularly in relation to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Punctate dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities, likely located on nerve terminals, were enriched in the lateral palisade zone built up of nerve terminals, while the densities were low to modest in the medial palisade zone. A codistribution of dopamine D1 receptor or dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactive puncta with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve terminals was demonstrated in the external layer. Dopamine D1 receptor but not dopamine D2 receptor immnunoreactivites nerve cell bodies were found in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus and in the lateral part of the internal layer of the median eminence forming a continuous cell mass presumably representing neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. The major arcuate dopamine/ tyrosine hydroxylase nerve cell group was found in the dorsomedial part. A large number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in this region demonstrated punctate dopamine D1 receptor immunoreactivity but only a few presented dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactivity which were mainly found in a substantial number of tyrosine hydroxylase cell bodies of the ventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, also belonging to the tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons. Structural evidence for projections of the arcuate nerve cells into the median eminence was also obtained. Distal axons formed horizontal axons in the internal layer issuing a variable number of collaterals classified into single or multiple strands located in the external layer increasing our understanding of the dopamine nerve terminal networks in this region. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may therefore directly and differentially

  6. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunoreactivity in human cerebrospinal fluid: properties, relationship to central noradrenergic neuronal activity and variation in Parkinson's disease and congenital dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, D T; Cervenka, J H; Stone, R A; Levine, G L; Parmer, R J; Franco-Bourland, R E; Madrazo, I; Langlais, P J; Robertson, D; Biaggioni, I

    1994-02-01

    1. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase is stored and released with catecholamines by exocytosis from secretory vesicles in noradrenergic neurons and chromaffin cells. Although dopamine beta-hydroxylase enzymic activity is measurable in cerebrospinal fluid, such activity is unstable, and its relationship to central noradrenergic neuronal activity in humans is not clearly established. To explore the significance of cerebrospinal fluid dopamine beta-hydroxylase, we applied a homologous human dopamine beta-hydroxylase radioimmunoassay to cerebrospinal fluid, in order to characterize the properties and stability of cerebrospinal fluid dopamine beta-hydroxylase, as well as its relationship to central noradrenergic neuronal activity and its variation in disease states such as hypertension, renal failure, Parkinsonism and congenital dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency. 2. Authentic, physically stable dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunoreactivity was present in normal human cerebrospinal fluid at a concentration of 31.3 +/- 1.4 ng/ml (range: 18.5-52.5 ng/ml), but at a 283 +/- 27-fold lower concentration than that found in plasma. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma dopamine beta-hydroxylase concentrations were correlated (r = 0.67, P = 0.001). Some degree of local central nervous system control of cerebrospinal fluid dopamine beta-hydroxylase was suggested by incomplete correlation with plasma dopamine beta-hydroxylase (with an especially marked dissociation in renal disease) as well as the lack of a ventricular/lumbar cerebrospinal dopamine beta-hydroxylase concentration gradient. 3. Cerebrospinal fluid dopamine beta-hydroxylase was not changed by the central alpha 2-agonist clonidine at a dose that diminished cerebrospinal fluid noradrenaline, nor did cerebrospinal fluid dopamine beta-hydroxylase correspond between subjects to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of noradrenaline or methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol; thus, cerebrospinal fluid dopamine beta-hydroxylase concentration was not closely

  7. Simultaneous measurement of extracellular dopamine and dopamine transporter occupancy by cocaine analogs in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Heather L; Nye, Jonathon A; Voll, Ronald; Mun, Jiyoung; Stehouwer, Jeffrey; Goodman, Mark M; Votaw, John R; Carroll, F I; Howell, Leonard L

    2012-06-01

    Several classes of drugs bind to the dopamine transporter (DAT) with high affinity, but some are weaker positive reinforcers than cocaine, suggesting that affinity for and occupancy of the DAT is not the only determinant of a drug's reinforcing effectiveness. Other factors such as the rate of onset have been positively and strongly correlated with the reinforcing effects of DAT inhibitors in nonhuman primates. In the current studies, we examined the effects of acute systemic administration of cocaine and three cocaine analogs (RTI-150, RTI-177, and RTI-366) on binding to DAT in squirrel monkey brain using positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging. During the PET scan, we also measured drug effects on dopamine (DA) levels in the caudate using in vivo microdialysis. In general, our results suggest a lack of concordance between drug occupancy at DAT and changes in DA levels. These studies also indicate that acute cocaine administration decreases the availability of plasma membrane DAT for binding, even after cocaine is no longer blocking DA uptake as evidence by a return to basal DA levels.

  8. SKF-83566, a D1-dopamine receptor antagonist, inhibits the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Stouffer, Melissa A; Ali, Solav; Reith, Maarten E A; Patel, Jyoti C; Sarti, Federica; Carr, Kenneth D; Rice, Margaret E

    2011-09-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important transmitter in both motor and limbic pathways. We sought to investigate the role of D(1)-receptor activation in axonal DA release regulation in dorsal striatum using a D(1)-receptor antagonist, SKF-83566. Evoked DA release was monitored in rat striatal slices using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. SKF-83566 caused a concentration-dependent increase in peak single-pulse evoked extracellular DA concentration, with a maximum increase of ∼ 65% in 5 μM SKF-83566. This was accompanied by a concentration-dependent increase in extracellular DA concentration clearance time. Both effects were occluded by nomifensine (1 μM), a dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor, suggesting that SKF-83566 acted via the DAT. We tested this by examining [(3)H]DA uptake into LLc-PK cells expressing rat DAT, and confirmed that SKF-83566 is a competitive DAT inhibitor with an IC(50) of 5.7 μM. Binding studies with [(3)H]CFT, a cocaine analog, showed even more potent action of SKF-83566 at the DAT cocaine binding site (IC(50) = 0.51 μM). Thus, data obtained using SKF-83566 as a D(1) DA-receptor antagonist may be confounded by concurrent DAT inhibition. More positively, however, SKF-83566 might be a candidate to attenuate cocaine effects in vivo because of the greater potency of this drug at the cocaine versus DA binding site of the DAT.

  9. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  10. Prolonged treatment with pramipexole promotes physical interaction of striatal dopamine D3 autoreceptors with dopamine transporters to reduce dopamine uptake.

    PubMed

    Castro-Hernández, Javier; Afonso-Oramas, Domingo; Cruz-Muros, Ignacio; Salas-Hernández, Josmar; Barroso-Chinea, Pedro; Moratalla, Rosario; Millan, Mark J; González-Hernández, Tomás

    2015-02-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), a membrane glycoprotein expressed in dopaminergic neurons, clears DA from extracellular space and is regulated by diverse presynaptic proteins like protein kinases, α-synuclein, D2 and D3 autoreceptors. DAT dysfunction is implicated in Parkinson's disease and depression, which are therapeutically treated by dopaminergic D2/D3 receptor (D2/D3R) agonists. It is, then, important to improve our understanding of interactions between D3R and DAT. We show that prolonged administration of pramipexole (0.1mg/kg/day, 6 to 21 days), a preferential D3R agonist, leads to a decrease in DA uptake in mouse striatum that reflects a reduction in DAT affinity for DA in the absence of any change in DAT density or subcellular distribution. The effect of pramipexole was absent in mice with genetically-deleted D3R (D3R(-/-)), yet unaffected in mice genetically deprived of D2R (D2R(-/-)). Pramipexole treatment induced a physical interaction between D3R and DAT, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation and in situ proximity ligation assay. Furthermore, it promoted the formation of DAT dimers and DAT association with both D2R and α-synuclein, effects that were abolished in D3R(-/-) mice, yet unaffected in D2R(-/-) mice, indicating dependence upon D3R. Collectively, these data suggest that prolonged treatment with dopaminergic D3 agonists provokes a reduction in DA reuptake by dopaminergic neurons related to a hitherto-unsuspected modification of the DAT interactome. These observations provide novel insights into the long-term antiparkinson, antidepressant and additional clinical actions of pramipexole and other D3R agonists.

  11. Trophic factors differentiate dopamine neurons vulnerable to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Stefanie; Fu, Yuhong; Double, Kay L; Cottam, Veronica; Thompson, Lachlan H; Kirik, Deniz; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles; Cooper, Helen M; Halliday, Glenda M

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies suggest a variety of factors characterize substantia nigra neurons vulnerable to Parkinson's disease, including the transcription factors pituitary homeobox 3 (Pitx3) and orthodenticle homeobox 2 (Otx2) and the trophic factor receptor deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), but there is limited information on their expression and localization in adult humans. Pitx3, Otx2, and DCC were immunohistochemically localized in the upper brainstem of adult humans and mice and protein expression assessed using relative intensity measures and online microarray data. Pitx3 was present and highly expressed in most dopamine neurons. Surprisingly, in our elderly subjects no Otx2 immunoreactivity was detected in dopamine neurons, although Otx2 gene expression was found in younger cases. Enhanced DCC gene expression occurred in the substantia nigra, and higher amounts of DCC protein characterized vulnerable ventral nigral dopamine neurons. Our data show that, at the age when Parkinson's disease typically occurs, there are no significant differences in the expression of transcription factors in brainstem dopamine neurons, but those most vulnerable to Parkinson's disease rely more on the trophic factor receptor DCC than other brainstem dopamine neurons.

  12. Synthesis and in vitro studies on a potential dopamine prodrug.

    PubMed

    Giannola, L I; De Caro, V; Giandalia, G; Siragusa, M G; Lamartina, L

    2008-10-01

    Dopamine delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) undergoes the permeability limitations of blood-brain barrier (BBB) which is a selective interface that excludes most water-soluble molecules from entering the brain. Neutral amino acids permeate the BBB by specific transport systems. Condensation of dopamine with neutral amino acids could afford potential prodrugs able to interact with the BBB endogenous transporters and easily enter the brain. The synthesis and characterization of the dopamine derivative 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (7) is described. The chemical and enzymatic stability of 7 was evaluated. The molecular weight (300 Da) and Log Papp (0.76) indicated that the physico-chemical characteristics of compound 7 are adequate to cross biological membranes. Compound 7 was enzymatically cleaved to free dopamine in rat brain homogenate (t1/2 = 460 min). In human plasma, the t1/2 of 7 was estimated comparable to that reported for L-DOPA. In view of a possible oral administration of 7, studies of its chemical behavior under conditions simulating those of the gastrointestinal tract showed that no dopamine production occurred; furthermore, 7 is able to permeate through a simulated intestinal mucosal membrane. The collected data suggest that compound 7 could beconsidered a very valuable candidate for subsequent in vivo evaluation.

  13. Does human presynaptic striatal dopamine function predict social conformity?

    PubMed

    Stokes, Paul R A; Benecke, Aaf; Puraite, Julita; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Shotbolt, Paul; Reeves, Suzanne J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Howes, Oliver; Egerton, Alice

    2014-03-01

    Socially desirable responding (SDR) is a personality trait which reflects either a tendency to present oneself in an overly positive manner to others, consistent with social conformity (impression management (IM)), or the tendency to view one's own behaviour in an overly positive light (self-deceptive enhancement (SDE)). Neurochemical imaging studies report an inverse relationship between SDR and dorsal striatal dopamine D₂/₃ receptor availability. This may reflect an association between SDR and D₂/₃ receptor expression, synaptic dopamine levels or a combination of the two. In this study, we used a [¹⁸F]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET) image database to investigate whether SDR is associated with presynaptic dopamine function. Striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA uptake, (k(i)(cer), min⁻¹), was determined in two independent healthy participant cohorts (n=27 and 19), by Patlak analysis using a cerebellar reference region. SDR was assessed using the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) Lie scale, and IM and SDE were measured using the Paulhus Deception Scales. No significant associations were detected between Lie, SDE or IM scores and striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA k(i)(cer). These results indicate that presynaptic striatal dopamine function is not associated with social conformity and suggests that social conformity may be associated with striatal D₂/₃ receptor expression rather than with synaptic dopamine levels.

  14. Dopamine Autoreceptor Regulation of a Hypothalamic Dopaminergic Network

    PubMed Central

    Stagkourakis, Stefanos; Kim, Hoseok; Lyons, David J.; Broberger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Summary How autoreceptors contribute to maintaining a stable output of rhythmically active neuronal circuits is poorly understood. Here, we examine this issue in a dopamine population, spontaneously oscillating hypothalamic rat (TIDA) neurons, that underlie neuroendocrine control of reproduction and neuroleptic side effects. Activation of dopamine receptors of the type 2 family (D2Rs) at the cell-body level slowed TIDA oscillations through two mechanisms. First, they prolonged the depolarizing phase through a combination of presynaptic increases in inhibition and postsynaptic hyperpolarization. Second, they extended the discharge phase through presynaptic attenuation of calcium currents and decreased synaptic inhibition. Dopamine reuptake blockade similarly reconfigured the oscillation, indicating that ambient somatodendritic transmitter concentration determines electrical behavior. In the absence of D2R feedback, however, discharge was abolished by depolarization block. These results indicate the existence of an ultra-short feedback loop whereby neuroendocrine dopamine neurons tune network behavior to echoes of their own activity, reflected in ambient somatodendritic dopamine, and also suggest a mechanism for antipsychotic side effects. PMID:27149844

  15. Dopamine receptor agonists for protection and repair in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Bonini, Sara A; Cenini, Giovanna; Maccarinelli, Giuseppina; Grilli, Mariagrazia; Uberti, Daniela; Memo, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine agonists have been usually used as adjunctive therapy for the cure of Parkinson's disease. It is generally believed that treatment with these drugs is symptomatic rather than curative and it does not stop or delay the progression of neuronal degeneration. However, several dopamine agonists of the D2-receptor family have recently been shown to possess neuroprotective properties in different in vitro and in vivo experimental Parkinson's disease models. Here we summarize some recent molecular evidences underlining the wide pharmacological spectrum of dopamine agonists currently used for treating Parkinson's disease patients. In particular, the mechanism of action of different dopamine agonists does not always appear to be restricted to the stimulation of selective dopamine receptor subtypes since at least some of these drugs are endowed with antioxidant, antiapoptotic or neurotrophic properties. These neuroprotective activities are molecule-specific and may contribute to the clinical efficacy of these drugs for the treatment of chronic and progressive neurodegenerative diseases in which oxidative injury and/or protein misfolding and aggregation exert a primary role.

  16. Olfactory modulation by dopamine in the context of aversive learning

    PubMed Central

    Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Martin, Joshua P.; Gage, Stephanie L.; Nighorn, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The need to detect and process sensory cues varies in different behavioral contexts. Plasticity in sensory coding can be achieved by the context-specific release of neuromodulators in restricted brain areas. The context of aversion triggers the release of dopamine in the insect brain, yet the effects of dopamine on sensory coding are unknown. In this study, we characterize the morphology of dopaminergic neurons that innervate each of the antennal lobes (ALs; the first synaptic neuropils of the olfactory system) of the moth Manduca sexta and demonstrate with electrophysiology that dopamine enhances odor-evoked responses of the majority of AL neurons while reducing the responses of a small minority. Because dopamine release in higher brain areas mediates aversive learning we developed a naturalistic, ecologically inspired aversive learning paradigm in which an innately appetitive host plant floral odor is paired with a mimic of the aversive nectar of herbivorized host plants. This pairing resulted in a decrease in feeding behavior that was blocked when dopamine receptor antagonists were injected directly into the ALs. These results suggest that a transient dopaminergic enhancement of sensory output from the AL contributes to the formation of aversive memories. We propose a model of olfactory modulation in which specific contexts trigger the release of different neuromodulators in the AL to increase olfactory output to downstream areas of processing. PMID:22552185

  17. Differential effects of dopamine-directed treatments on cognition

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, F Gregory; Valentin, Vivian V; von Meer, Stella S

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine, a prominent neuromodulator, is implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. It has wide-ranging effects on both cortical and subcortical brain regions and on many types of cognitive tasks that rely on a variety of different learning and memory systems. As neuroscience and behavioral evidence for the existence of multiple memory systems and their corresponding neural networks accumulated, so did the notion that dopamine’s role is markedly different depending on which memory system is engaged. As a result, dopamine-directed treatments will have different effects on different types of cognitive behaviors. To predict what these effects will be, it is critical to understand: which memory system is mediating the behavior; the neural basis of the mediating memory system; the nature of the dopamine projections into that system; and the time course of dopamine after its release into the relevant brain regions. Consideration of these questions leads to different predictions for how changes in brain dopamine levels will affect automatic behaviors and behaviors mediated by declarative, procedural, and perceptual representation memory systems. PMID:26251602

  18. Conformation and interactions of dopamine hydrochloride in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Callear, Samantha K.; Imberti, Silvia; Johnston, Andrew; McLain, Sylvia E.

    2015-01-07

    The aqueous solution of dopamine hydrochloride has been investigated using neutron and X-ray total scattering data together with Monte-Carlo based modelling using Empirical Potential Structure Refinement. The conformation of the protonated dopamine molecule is presented and the results compared to the conformations found in crystal structures, dopamine-complexed protein crystal structures and predicted from theoretical calculations and pharmacophoric models. It is found that protonated dopamine adopts a range of conformations in solution, highlighting the low rotational energy barrier between different conformations, with the preferred conformation being trans-perpendicular. The interactions between each of the species present (protonated dopamine molecules, water molecules, and chloride anions) have been determined and are discussed with reference to interactions observed in similar systems both in the liquid and crystalline state, and predicted from theoretical calculations. The expected strong hydrogen bonds between the strong hydrogen bond donors and acceptors are observed, together with evidence of weaker CH hydrogen bonds and π interactions also playing a significant role in determining the arrangement of adjacent molecules.

  19. Dopamine neurons learn relative chosen value from probabilistic rewards

    PubMed Central

    Lak, Armin; Stauffer, William R; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Economic theories posit reward probability as one of the factors defining reward value. Individuals learn the value of cues that predict probabilistic rewards from experienced reward frequencies. Building on the notion that responses of dopamine neurons increase with reward probability and expected value, we asked how dopamine neurons in monkeys acquire this value signal that may represent an economic decision variable. We found in a Pavlovian learning task that reward probability-dependent value signals arose from experienced reward frequencies. We then assessed neuronal response acquisition during choices among probabilistic rewards. Here, dopamine responses became sensitive to the value of both chosen and unchosen options. Both experiments showed also the novelty responses of dopamine neurones that decreased as learning advanced. These results show that dopamine neurons acquire predictive value signals from the frequency of experienced rewards. This flexible and fast signal reflects a specific decision variable and could update neuronal decision mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18044.001 PMID:27787196

  20. Dopamine modulates the plasticity of mechanosensory responses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Suparna; Wintle, Richard F; Kindt, Katie S; Nuttley, William M; Arvan, Rokhand; Fitzmaurice, Paul; Bigras, Eve; Merz, David C; Hébert, Terence E; van der Kooy, Derek; Schafer, William R; Culotti, Joseph G; Van Tol, Hubert H M

    2004-01-01

    Dopamine-modulated behaviors, including information processing and reward, are subject to behavioral plasticity. Disruption of these behaviors is thought to support drug addictions and psychoses. The plasticity of dopamine-mediated behaviors, for example, habituation and sensitization, are not well understood at the molecular level. We show that in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a D1-like dopamine receptor gene (dop-1) modulates the plasticity of mechanosensory behaviors in which dopamine had not been implicated previously. A mutant of dop-1 displayed faster habituation to nonlocalized mechanical stimulation. This phenotype was rescued by the introduction of a wild-type copy of the gene. The dop-1 gene is expressed in mechanosensory neurons, particularly the ALM and PLM neurons. Selective expression of the dop-1 gene in mechanosensory neurons using the mec-7 promoter rescues the mechanosensory deficit in dop-1 mutant animals. The tyrosine hydroxylase-deficient C. elegans mutant (cat-2) also displays these specific behavioral deficits. These observations provide genetic evidence that dopamine signaling modulates behavioral plasticity in C. elegans. PMID:14739932

  1. Hypochlorite converts cysteinyl-dopamine into a cytotoxic product: A possible factor in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Nihar J; Asmaro, Karam; Hermiz, David J; Njus, Meredith M; Saleh, Ashraf H; Beningo, Karen A; Njus, David

    2016-12-01

    The dopamine oxidation product cysteinyl-dopamine has attracted attention as a contributor to the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. Treatment of cysteinyl-dopamine with hypochlorite yields an even more cytotoxic product. This product has potent redox-cycling activity and initiates production of superoxide in PC12 cells. Taurine, which scavenges hypochlorite, protects PC12 cells from cysteinyl-dopamine but not from the hypochlorite product, suggesting that the product, not cysteinyl-dopamine itself, is toxic. Furthermore, rotenone, which enhances expression of the hypochlorite-producing enzyme myeloperoxidase, increases the cytotoxicity of cysteinyl-dopamine but not of the hypochlorite product. This suggests that dopamine oxidation to cysteinyl-dopamine followed by hypochlorite-dependent conversion to a cytotoxic redox-cycling product leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress and may contribute to the death of dopaminergic neurons.

  2. Genetic Variation in Dopamine Pathways Differentially Associated with Smoking Progression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laucht, Manfred; Becker, Katja; Frank, Josef; Schmidt, Martin H.; Esser, Gunter; Treutlein, Jens; Skowronek, Markus H.; Schumann, Gunter

    2008-01-01

    A study examines whether genetic variation in dopamine pathways differentially associate with smoking progression in adolescence. Results indicate the influence of specific dopamine genes in different stages of smoking progression in adolescents.

  3. Gonadotropic effects of dopamine in isolated workers of the primitively eusocial wasp, Polistes chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Ken; Yamasaki, Kazuhisa; Tsuchida, Koji; Nagao, Takashi

    2009-05-01

    In social insects, biogenic amines are thought to play regulatory roles in the transition between reproductive states in females. To determine the effect of dopamine on the reproductive development of workers in primitively eusocial societies, isolated workers of the paper wasp Polistes chinensis were supplied with oral dopamine. Ovarian development was accelerated in dopamine-fed workers as compared to control workers of the same age fed only sucrose solution. Oral dopamine increased brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite ( N-acetyldopamine). Brain levels of tyramine or octopamine were also increased by dopamine application in one of two colonies; levels of the tyramine metabolite N-acetyltyramine were unchanged. These results indicate that dopamine plays a gonadotropic role in isolated workers in the primitively eusocial wasp, similar to the gonadotropic role previously reported for juvenile hormone. This is the first study to report effects of dopamine on ovarian development in workers of the paper wasp.

  4. Dopamine denervation of the prefrontal cortex increases expression of the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1

    PubMed Central

    Vollbrecht, Peter J.; Simmler, Linda D.; Blakely, Randy D.; Deutch, Ariel Y.

    2014-01-01

    Both dopamine and glutamate are critically involved in cognitive processes such as working memory. Astrocytes, which express dopamine receptors, are essential elements in the termination of glutamatergic signaling: the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1 is responsible for >90% of cortical glutamate uptake. The effect of dopamine depletion on glutamate transporters in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is unknown. In an effort to determine if astrocytes are a locus of cortical dopamine-glutamate interactions, we examined the effects of chronic dopamine denervation on PFC protein and mRNA levels of glutamate transporters. PFC dopamine denervation elicited a marked increase in GLT-1 protein levels, but had no effect on levels of other glutamate transporters; high affinity glutamate transport was positively correlated with the extent of dopamine depletion. GLT-1 gene expression was not altered. Our data suggests that dopamine depletion may lead to post-translational modifications that result in increased expression and activity of GLT-1 in PFC astrocytes. PMID:24611756

  5. Reduced insulin-receptor mediated modulation of striatal dopamine release by basal insulin as a possible contributing factor to hyperdopaminergia in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Hahn, Margaret; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic neuropsychiatric disorder which affects 1% of the world population. Using the brain imaging technique positron emission tomography (PET) it has been demonstrated that persons with schizophrenia have greater dopamine transmission in the striatum compared to healthy controls. However, little progress has been made as to elucidating other biological mechanisms which may account for this hyperdopaminergic state in this disease. Studies in animals have demonstrated that insulin receptors are expressed on midbrain dopamine neurons, and that insulin from the periphery acts on these receptors to modify dopamine transmission in the striatum. This is pertinent given that several lines of evidence suggest that insulin receptor functioning may be abnormal in the brains of persons with schizophrenia. Post-mortem studies have shown that persons with schizophrenia have less than half the number of cortical insulin receptors compared to healthy persons. Moreover, these post-mortem findings are unlikely due to the effects of antipsychotic treatment; studies in cell lines and animals suggest antipsychotics enhance insulin receptor functioning. Further, hyperinsulinemia – even prior to antipsychotic use – seems to be related to less psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Collectively, these data suggest that midbrain insulin receptor functioning may be abnormal in persons with schizophrenia, resulting in reduced insulin-mediated regulation of dopamine transmission in the striatum. Such a deficit may account for the hyperdopaminergic state observed in these patients and would help guide the development of novel treatment strategies. We hypothesize that, (i) insulin receptor expression and/or function is reduced in midbrain dopamine neurons in persons with schizophrenia, (ii) basal insulin should reduce dopaminergic transmission in the striatum via these receptors, and (iii) this modulation of dopaminergic transmission by basal

  6. Decreased binding of the D3 dopamine receptor-preferring ligand [11C]-(+)-PHNO in drug-naive Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Isabelle; Guttman, Mark; Rusjan, Pablo; Adams, John R; Houle, Sylvain; Tong, Junchao; Hornykiewicz, Oleh; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Wilson, Alan A; Kapur, Shitij; Kish, Stephen J

    2009-05-01

    The D(3) dopamine (DA) receptor is a member of the D(2)-like DA receptor family. While the D(2) receptor is abundant especially in motor-regions of the striatum, the D(3) receptor shows a relative abundance in limbic regions and globus pallidus. This receptor is of current interest in neurology because of its potential involvement in psychiatric and motor complications in Parkinson's disease and the possibility that dopamine D(3)-preferring agonist therapy might delay progression of the disorder. Preclinical data indicate that striatal levels of the D(3) (but not the D(2)) DA receptor are decreased following lesion of nigrostriatal DA neurons; at present, there are no in vivo data on this receptor subtype in Parkinson's disease. The objective of this positron emission tomography study was to compare [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO (D(3) versus D(2) preferring) and [(11)C]raclopride (D(3) = D(2)) binding in brain of non-depressed, non-demented, dopaminergic drug-naïve patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease (n = 10), relative to matched-controls (n = 9). Parkinson's disease was associated with a trend for bilaterally decreased [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO (but not [(11)C]raclopride) binding in the D(3)-rich ventral striatum (-11%, P = 0.07) and significantly decreased binding in globus pallidus (-42%, P = 0.02). In contrast, in the primarily D(2)-populated putamen, both [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO (25%, P = 0.02) and [(11)C]raclopride (25%, P < 0.01) binding were similarly increased, especially on the side contra-lateral to the symptoms. In the midbrain, presumably containing D(3) receptors localized to the substantia nigra, [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO binding was normal. Decreased [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO to [(11)C]raclopride ratio correlated with motor deficits and lowered-mood (P < 0.02). Our imaging data suggest that brain DA neuron loss in the human causes region-specific differential changes in DA D(2) and D(3) receptors with D(3) receptor 'downregulation' possibly related to some motor and mood problems in

  7. Putting desire on a budget: dopamine and energy expenditure, reconciling reward and resources.

    PubMed

    Beeler, Jeff A; Frazier, Cristianne R M; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates integration of dopamine function with metabolic signals, highlighting a potential role for dopamine in energy balance, frequently construed as modulating reward in response to homeostatic state. Though its precise role remains controversial, the reward perspective of dopamine has dominated investigation of motivational disorders, including obesity. In the hypothesis outlined here, we suggest instead that the primary role of dopamine in behavior is to modulate activity to adapt behavioral energy expenditure to the prevailing environmental energy conditions, with the role of dopamine in reward and motivated behaviors derived from its primary role in energy balance. Dopamine has long been known to modulate activity, exemplified by psychostimulants that act via dopamine. More recently, there has been nascent investigation into the role of dopamine in modulating voluntary activity, with some investigators suggesting that dopamine may serve as a final common pathway that couples energy sensing to regulated voluntary energy expenditure. We suggest that interposed between input from both the internal and external world, dopamine modulates behavioral energy expenditure along two axes: a conserve-expend axis that regulates generalized activity and an explore-exploit axes that regulates the degree to which reward value biases the distribution of activity. In this view, increased dopamine does not promote consumption of tasty food. Instead increased dopamine promotes energy expenditure and exploration while decreased dopamine favors energy conservation and exploitation. This hypothesis provides a mechanistic interpretation to an apparent paradox: the well-established role of dopamine in food seeking and the findings that low dopaminergic functions are associated with obesity. Our hypothesis provides an alternative perspective on the role of dopamine in obesity and reinterprets the "reward deficiency hypothesis" as a perceived energy deficit. We

  8. The neurobiology of glucocerebrosidase-associated parkinsonism: a positron emission tomography study of dopamine synthesis and regional cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Masdeu, Joseph C; Kohn, Philip D; Ianni, Angela; Lopez, Grisel; Groden, Catherine; Chapman, Molly C; Cropp, Brett; Eisenberg, Daniel P; Maniwang, Emerson D; Davis, Joie; Wiggs, Edythe; Sidransky, Ellen; Berman, Karen F

    2012-08-01

    Mutations in GBA, the gene encoding glucocerebrosidase, the enzyme deficient in Gaucher disease, are common risk factors for Parkinson disease, as patients with Parkinson disease are over five times more likely to carry GBA mutations than healthy controls. Patients with GBA mutations generally have an earlier onset of Parkinson disease and more cognitive impairment than those without GBA mutations. We investigated whether GBA mutations alter the neurobiology of Parkinson disease, studying brain dopamine synthesis and resting regional cerebral blood flow in 107 subjects (38 women, 69 men). We measured dopamine synthesis with (18)F-fluorodopa positron emission tomography, and resting regional cerebral blood flow with H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography in the wakeful, resting state in four study groups: (i) patients with Parkinson disease and Gaucher disease (n = 7, average age = 56.6 ± 9.2 years); (ii) patients with Parkinson disease without GBA mutations (n = 11, 62.1 ± 7.1 years); (iii) patients with Gaucher disease without parkinsonism, but with a family history of Parkinson disease (n = 14, 52.6 ± 12.4 years); and (iv) healthy GBA-mutation carriers with a family history of Parkinson disease (n = 7, 50.1 ± 18 years). We compared each study group with a matched control group. Data were analysed with region of interest and voxel-based methods. Disease duration and Parkinson disease functional and staging scores were similar in the two groups with parkinsonism, as was striatal dopamine synthesis: both had greatest loss in the caudal striatum (putamen Ki loss: 44 and 42%, respectively), with less reduction in the caudate (20 and 18% loss). However, the group with both Parkinson and Gaucher diseases showed decreased resting regional cerebral blood flow in the lateral parieto-occipital association cortex and precuneus bilaterally. Furthermore, two subjects with Gaucher disease without parkinsonian manifestations showed diminished striatal dopamine. In conclusion

  9. The Evolution of Dopamine Systems in Chordates

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kei; Vernier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS) is found throughout chordates, and its emergence predates the divergence of chordates. Many of the molecular components of DA systems, such as biosynthetic enzymes, transporters, and receptors, are shared with those of other monoamine systems, suggesting the common origin of these systems. In the mammalian CNS, the DA neurotransmitter systems are diversified and serve for visual and olfactory perception, sensory–motor programming, motivation, memory, emotion, and endocrine regulations. Some of the functions are conserved among different vertebrate groups, while others are not, and this is reflected in the anatomical aspects of DA systems in the forebrain and midbrain. Recent findings concerning a second tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH2) revealed new populations of DA-synthesizing cells, as evidenced in the periventricular hypothalamic zones of teleost fish. It is likely that the ancestor of vertebrates possessed TH2 DA-synthesizing cells, and the TH2 gene has been lost secondarily in placental mammals. All the vertebrates possess DA cells in the olfactory bulb, retina, and in the diencephalon. Midbrain DA cells are abundant in amniotes while absent in some groups, e.g., teleosts. Studies of protochordate DA cells suggest that the diencephalic DA cells were present before the divergence of the chordate lineage. In contrast, the midbrain cell populations have probably emerged in the vertebrate lineage following the development of the midbrain–hindbrain boundary. The functional flexibility of the DA systems, and the evolvability provided by duplication of the corresponding genes permitted a large diversification of these systems. These features were instrumental in the adaptation of brain functions to the very variable way of life of vertebrates. PMID:21483723

  10. Norepinephrine and Dopamine as Learning Signals

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Carolyn W.

    2004-01-01

    The present review focuses on the hypothesis that norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) act as learning signals. Both NE and DA are broadly distributed in areas concerned with the representation of the world and with the conjunction of sensory inputs and motor outputs. Both are released at times of novelty and uncertainty, providing plausible signal events for updating representations and associations. These catecholamines activate intracellular machinery postulated to serve as a memory-formation cascade. Yet, despite the plausibility of an NE and DA role in vertebrate learning and memory, most evidence that they provide a learning signal is circumstantial. The major weakness of the data available is the lack of a specific description of how the neural circuit modulated by NE or DA participates in the learning being analyzed. Identifying a conditioned stimuli (CS) representation would facilitate the identification of a learning signal role for NE or DA. Describing how the CS representation comes to relate to learned behavior, either through sensory-sensory associations, in which the CS acquires the motivational significance of reward or punishment, thus driving appropriate behavior, or through direct sensory-motor associations is necessary to identify how NE and DA participate in memory creation. As described here, evidence consistent with a direct learning signal role for NE and DA is seen in the changing of sensory circuits in odor preference learning (NE), defensive conditioning (NE), and auditory cortex remodeling in adult rats (DA). Evidence that NE and DA contribute to normal learning through unspecified mechanisms is extensive, but the details of that support role are lacking. PMID:15656268

  11. Dopamine release in the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Margaret E.; Patel, Jyoti C.; Cragg, Stephanie J.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in the basal ganglia, yet DA transmission does not conform to several aspects of the classic synaptic doctrine. Axonal DA release occurs through vesicular exocytosis and is action-potential and Ca2+ dependent. However, in addition to axonal release, DA neurons in midbrain exhibit somatodendritic release, by an incompletely understood, but apparently exocytotic mechanism. Even in striatum, axonal release sites are controversial, with evidence for DA varicosities that lack postsynaptic specialization, and largely extrasynaptic DA receptors and transporters. Moreover, DA release is often assumed to reflect a global response to a population of activities in midbrain DA neurons, whether tonic or phasic, with precise timing and specificity of action governed by other basal ganglia circuits. This view has been reinforced by anatomical evidence showing dense axonal DA arbors throughout striatum, and a lattice network formed by DA axons and glutamatergic input from cortex and thalamus. Nonetheless, localized DA transients are seen in vivo using voltammetric methods with high spatial and temporal resolution. Mechanistic studies using similar methods in vitro have revealed local regulation of DA release by other transmitters and modulators, as well as by proteins known to be disrupted in Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders. Notably, the actions of most other striatal transmitters on DA release also do not conform to the synaptic doctrine, with the absence of direct synaptic contacts for glutamate, GABA and aceylcholie (ACh) on striatal DA axons. Overall, the findings reviewed here indicate that DA signaling in the basal ganglia is sculpted by cooperation between the timing and pattern of DA input and those of local regulatory factors. PMID:21939738

  12. Dopamine modulates Ih in a motor axon

    PubMed Central

    Ballo, Aleksander W.; Keene, Jennifer C.; Troy, Patricia J.; Goeritz, Marie L.; Nadim, Farzan; Bucher, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    We studied the axons of the pyloric dilator (PD) neurons in the stomatogastric nervous system of the lobster. The several centimeters long portions of these axons in the motor nerves depolarize in response to low concentrations of dopamine (DA) and exhibit peripheral spike initiation in the absence of centrally generated activity. This effect is inhibited by blockers of hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih). We show here that peripheral spike initiation was also elicited by D1-type receptor agonists and drugs that increase cAMP. This suggests that DA acts through a D1-type receptor mechanism to modulate hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. We used two- electrode voltage clamp of the axon to directly study the effect of DA on Ih. Surprisingly, DA decreased the maximal conductance. However, due to a shift of the activation curve to more depolarized potentials, and a change in the slope, conductance was increased at biologically relevant membrane potentials. These changes were solely due to modulation of Ih, as DA had no discernible effect when Ih was blocked. In addition, they were not induced by repeated activation and could be mimicked by application of drugs that increase cAMP concentration. DA modulation of Ih persisted in the presence of a protein kinase A inhibitor and is therefore potentially mediated by a phosphorylation-independent direct effect of cAMP on the ion channel. A computer model of the axon showed that the changes in maximal conductance and voltage-dependence were not qualitatively affected by space clamp problems. PMID:20573890

  13. Summary of Session III

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-06-19

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002.

  14. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  15. Striatal dopamine, reward, and decision making in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Elevated striatal dopamine function is one of the best-established findings in schizophrenia. In this review, we discuss causes and consequences of this striata! dopamine alteration. We first summarize earlier findings regarding striatal reward processing and anticipation using functional neuroimaging. Secondly, we present a series of recent studies that are exemplary for a particular research approach: a combination of theory-driven reinforcement learning and decision-making tasks in combination with computational modeling and functional neuroimaging. We discuss why this approach represents a promising tool to understand underlying mechanisms of symptom dimensions by dissecting the contribution of multiple behavioral control systems working in parallel. We also discuss how it can advance our understanding of the neurobiological implementation of such functions. Thirdly, we review evidence regarding the topography of dopamine dysfunction within the striatum. Finally, we present conclusions and outline important aspects to be considered in future studies. PMID:27069382

  16. Developmental origins of brain disorders: roles for dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Money, Kelli M.; Stanwood, Gregg D.

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, such as dopamine, participate in a wide range of behavioral and cognitive functions in the adult brain, including movement, cognition, and reward. Dopamine-mediated signaling plays a fundamental neurodevelopmental role in forebrain differentiation and circuit formation. These developmental effects, such as modulation of neuronal migration and dendritic growth, occur before synaptogenesis and demonstrate novel roles for dopaminergic signaling beyond neuromodulation at the synapse. Pharmacologic and genetic disruptions demonstrate that these effects are brain region- and receptor subtype-specific. For example, the striatum and frontal cortex exhibit abnormal neuronal structure and function following prenatal disruption of dopamine receptor signaling. Alterations in these processes are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, and emerging studies of neurodevelopmental disruptions may shed light on the pathophysiology of abnormal neuronal circuitry in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24391541

  17. Deep brain light stimulation effects on glutamate and dopamine concentration.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jinn-Rung; Lin, Shih-Shian; Liu, Janelle; Chen, Shih-How; Chio, Chung-Chin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Liu, Jia-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Compared to deep brain electrical stimulation, which has been applied to treating pathological brain diseases, little work has been done on the effect of deep brain light stimulation. A fiber-coupled laser stimulator at 840 nm wavelength and 130 Hz pulse repetition rate is developed in this work for deep brain light stimulation in a rat model. Concentration changes in glutamate and dopamine in the striatum are observed using a microdialysis probe when the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is stimulated at various optical power levels. Experimental results show that light stimulation causes the concentration of glutamate to decrease while that of dopamine is increased. This suggests that deep brain light stimulation of the STN is a promising therapeutic strategy for dopamine-related diseases such as Parkinson's disease. The stimulator developed for this work is useful for deep brain light stimulation in biomedical research.

  18. Dopamine D1 signaling organizes network dynamics underlying working memory

    PubMed Central

    Roffman, Joshua L.; Tanner, Alexandra S.; Eryilmaz, Hamdi; Rodriguez-Thompson, Anais; Silverstein, Noah J.; Ho, New Fei; Nitenson, Adam Z.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Greve, Douglas N.; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Buckner, Randy L.; Manoach, Dara S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Local prefrontal dopamine signaling supports working memory by tuning pyramidal neurons to task-relevant stimuli. Enabled by simultaneous positron emission tomography–magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI), we determined whether neuromodulatory effects of dopamine scale to the level of cortical networks and coordinate their interplay during working memory. Among network territories, mean cortical D1 receptor densities differed substantially but were strongly interrelated, suggesting cross-network regulation. Indeed, mean cortical D1 density predicted working memory–emergent decoupling of the frontoparietal and default networks, which respectively manage task-related and internal stimuli. In contrast, striatal D1 predicted opposing effects within these two networks but no between-network effects. These findings specifically link cortical dopamine signaling to network crosstalk that redirects cognitive resources to working memory, echoing neuromodulatory effects of D1 signaling on the level of cortical microcircuits. PMID:27386561

  19. Striatal dopamine, reward, and decision making in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Elevated striatal dopamine function is one of the best-established findings in schizophrenia. In this review, we discuss causes and consequences of this striata! dopamine alteration. We first summarize earlier findings regarding striatal reward processing and anticipation using functional neuroimaging. Secondly, we present a series of recent studies that are exemplary for a particular research approach: a combination of theory-driven reinforcement learning and decision-making tasks in combination with computational modeling and functional neuroimaging. We discuss why this approach represents a promising tool to understand underlying mechanisms of symptom dimensions by dissecting the contribution of multiple behavioral control systems working in parallel. We also discuss how it can advance our understanding of the neurobiological implementation of such functions. Thirdly, we review evidence regarding the topography of dopamine dysfunction within the striatum. Finally, we present conclusions and outline important aspects to be considered in future studies.

  20. Plasma functionalized surface of commodity polymers for dopamine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabregat, Georgina; Osorio, Joaquin; Castedo, Alejandra; Armelin, Elaine; Buendía, Jorge J.; Llorca, Jordi; Alemán, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    We have fabricated potentially generalizable sensors based on polymeric-modified electrodes for the electrochemical detection of dopamine. Sensitive and selective sensors have been successfully obtained by applying a cold-plasma treatment during 1-2 min not only to conducting polymers but also to electrochemically inert polymers, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polycaprolactone and polystyrene. The effects of the plasma in the electrode surface activation, which is an essential requirement for the dopamine detection when inert polymers are used, have been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results indicate that exposure of polymer-modified electrodes to cold-plasma produces the formation of a large variety of reactive species adsorbed on the electrode surface, which catalyse the dopamine oxidation. With this technology, which is based on the application of a very simple physical functionalization, we have defined a paradox-based paradigm for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors by using inert and cheap plastics.

  1. Compulsive eating and weight gain related to dopamine agonist use.

    PubMed

    Nirenberg, Melissa J; Waters, Cheryl

    2006-04-01

    Dopamine agonists have been implicated in causing compulsive behaviors in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These have included gambling, hypersexuality, hobbyism, and other repetitive, purposeless behaviors ("punding"). In this report, we describe 7 patients in whom compulsive eating developed in the context of pramipexole use. All of the affected patients had significant, undesired weight gain; 4 had other comorbid compulsive behaviors. In the 5 patients who lowered the dose of pramipexole or discontinued dopamine agonist treatment, the behavior remitted and no further weight gain occurred. Physicians should be aware that compulsive eating resulting in significant weight gain may occur in PD as a side-effect of dopamine agonist medications such as pramipexole. Given the known risks of the associated weight gain and obesity, further investigation is warranted.

  2. A Novel Restricted Diffusion Model of Evoked Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry provides high-fidelity recordings of electrically evoked dopamine release in the rat striatum. The evoked responses are suitable targets for numerical modeling because the frequency and duration of the stimulus are exactly known. Responses recorded in the dorsal and ventral striatum of the rat do not bear out the predictions of a numerical model that assumes the presence of a diffusion gap interposed between the recording electrode and nearby dopamine terminals. Recent findings, however, suggest that dopamine may be subject to restricted diffusion processes in brain extracellular space. A numerical model cast to account for restricted diffusion produces excellent agreement between simulated and observed responses recorded under a broad range of anatomical, stimulus, and pharmacological conditions. The numerical model requires four, and in some cases only three, adjustable parameters and produces meaningful kinetic parameter values. PMID:24983330

  3. Dorsal Striatal Dopamine, Food Preference and Health Perception in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Deanna L.; Aarts, Esther; Dang, Linh C.; Greer, Stephanie M.; Jagust, William J.; D′Esposito, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To date, few studies have explored the neurochemical mechanisms supporting individual differences in food preference in humans. Here we investigate how dorsal striatal dopamine, as measured by the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [18F]fluorometatyrosine (FMT), correlates with food-related decision-making, as well as body mass index (BMI) in 16 healthy-weight to moderately obese individuals. We find that lower PET FMT dopamine synthesis binding potential correlates with higher BMI, greater preference for perceived “healthy” foods, but also greater healthiness ratings for food items. These findings further substantiate the role of dorsal striatal dopamine in food-related behaviors and shed light on the complexity of individual differences in food preference. PMID:24806534

  4. Raman Spectroscopic Signature Markers of Dopamine-Human Dopamine Transporter Interaction in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Silwal, Achut Prasad; Yadav, Rajeev; Sprague, Jon E; Lu, H Peter

    2017-04-04

    Dopamine (DA) controls many psychological and behavioral activities in the central nervous system (CNS) through interactions with the human dopamine transporter (hDAT) and dopamine receptors. The roles of DA in the function of the CNS are affected by the targeted binding of drugs to hDAT; thus, hDAT plays a critical role in neurophysiology and neuropathophysiology. An effective experimental method is necessary to study the DA-hDAT interaction and effects of variety of drugs like psychostimulants and anti-depressants that are dependent on this interaction. In searching for obtaining and identifying the Raman spectral signatures, we have used surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to record SERS spectrum from DA, Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells (HEK293), hDAT-HEK293, DA-HEK293, and DA-hDAT-HEK293. We have demonstrated a specific 2D-distribution SERS spectral analytical approach to analyze DA-hDAT interaction. Our study shows that the Raman modes at 807, 839, 1076, 1090, 1538, and 1665 cm-1 are related to DA-hDAT interaction, where Raman shift at 807 and 1076 cm-1 are the signature marker for bound state of DA to probe DA-hDAT interaction. On the basis of density function theory (DFT) calculation, Raman shift of bound state of DA at 807 cm-1 is related to combination of bending modes α(C3-O10-H21), α(C2-O11-H22), α(C7-C8-H18), α(C6-C4-H13), α(C7-C8-H19), α(C7-C8-N9), and Raman shift at 1076 cm-1 is related to combination of bending modes α(H19-N9-C8), γ(N9-H19), γ(C8-H19), γ(N9-H20), γ(C8-H18), and α(C7-C8-H18). These findings demonstrate that protein-ligand interactions can be confirmed by probing change in Raman shift of ligand molecules, which could be crucial to understanding molecular interactions between neurotransmitters and their receptors or transporters.

  5. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Donald A.; Hamilton, W. Ryan; Johnson, Jerry E.; Xiao, Weimin; Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha; Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.

    2011-11-15

    -Right-Pointing-Pointer Gestational lead exposure dose-dependently decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive dopaminergic amacrine cells Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gestational lead exposure selectively decreased dopaminergic, but not GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic, amacrine cells Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gestational lead exposure dose-dependently decreased retinal dopamine content, its metabolites and dopamine utilization Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A decrease in dopamine can alter ERG amplitudes, circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity.

  6. Research Review: Dopamine Transfer Deficit: A Neurobiological Theory of Altered Reinforcement Mechanisms in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Gail; Wickens, Jeff R.

    2008-01-01

    This review considers the hypothesis that changes in dopamine signalling might account for altered sensitivity to positive reinforcement in children with ADHD. The existing evidence regarding dopamine cell activity in relation to positive reinforcement is reviewed. We focus on the anticipatory firing of dopamine cells brought about by a transfer…

  7. The Aversive Agent Lithium Chloride Suppresses Phasic Dopamine Release Through Central GLP-1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Samantha M; Chartoff, Elena H; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2016-01-01

    Unconditioned rewarding stimuli evoke phasic increases in dopamine concentration in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) while discrete aversive stimuli elicit pauses in dopamine neuron firing and reductions in NAc dopamine concentration. The unconditioned effects of more prolonged aversive states on dopamine release dynamics are not well understood and are investigated here using the malaise-inducing agent lithium chloride (LiCl). We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure phasic increases in NAc dopamine resulting from electrical stimulation of dopamine cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Systemic LiCl injection reduced electrically evoked dopamine release in the NAc of both anesthetized and awake rats. As some behavioral effects of LiCl appear to be mediated through glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation, we hypothesized that the suppression of phasic dopamine by LiCl is GLP-1R dependent. Indeed, peripheral pretreatment with the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-9 (Ex-9) potently attenuated the LiCl-induced suppression of dopamine. Pretreatment with Ex-9 did not, however, affect the suppression of phasic dopamine release by the kappa-opioid receptor agonist, salvinorin A, supporting a selective effect of GLP-1R stimulation in LiCl-induced dopamine suppression. By delivering Ex-9 to either the lateral or fourth ventricle, we highlight a population of central GLP-1 receptors rostral to the hindbrain that are involved in the LiCl-mediated suppression of NAc dopamine release. PMID:26211731

  8. Separation of intermediates of iron-catalyzed dopamine oxidation reactions using reversed-phase ion-pairing chromatography coupled in tandem with UV-visible and ESI-MS detections.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Yagnik, Gargey; Jiang, Dianlu; Shi, Shuyun; Chang, Peter; Zhou, Feimeng

    2012-12-12

    Reversed-phase ion-pairing chromatography (RP-IPC) is coupled on-line with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) through an interface comprising a four-way switch valve and an anion exchange column. Regeneration of the anion exchange column can be accomplished on-line by switching the four-way switch valve to interconnect the column to a regeneration solution. Positioning the anion exchange column between the RP-IPC and ESI-MS instruments allows the ion-pairing reagent (IPR) sodium octane sulfonate to be removed. The IPC-ESI-MS method enabled us to separate and detect four intermediates of the Fe(III)-catalyzed dopamine oxidation. In particular, 6-hydroxydopamine, which is short-lived and highly neurotoxic, was detected and quantified. Together with the separation of other intermediates, gaining insight into the mechanism and kinetics of the Fe(III)-catalyzed dopamine oxidation becomes possible.

  9. Encoding of aversion by dopamine and the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, James E; Ebner, Stephanie R; Loriaux, Amy L; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires rapid discrimination between beneficial and harmful stimuli. Such discrimination leads to the generation of either an approach or rejection response, as appropriate, and enables organisms to maximize reward and minimize punishment. Classically, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dopamine projection to it are considered an integral part of the brain's reward circuit, i.e., they direct approach and consumption behaviors and underlie positive reinforcement. This reward-centered framing ignores important evidence about the role of this system in encoding aversive events. One reason for bias toward reward is the difficulty in designing experiments in which animals repeatedly experience punishments; another is the challenge in dissociating the response to an aversive stimulus itself from the reward/relief experienced when an aversive stimulus is terminated. Here, we review studies that employ techniques with sufficient time resolution to measure responses in ventral tegmental area and NAc to aversive stimuli as they are delivered. We also present novel findings showing that the same stimulus - intra-oral infusion of sucrose - has differing effects on NAc shell dopamine release depending on the prior experience. Here, for some rats, sucrose was rendered aversive by explicitly pairing it with malaise in a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Thereafter, sucrose infusions led to a suppression of dopamine with a similar magnitude and time course to intra-oral infusions of a bitter quinine solution. The results are discussed in the context of regional differences in dopamine signaling and the implications of a pause in phasic dopamine release within the NAc shell. Together with our data, the emerging literature suggests an important role for differential phasic dopamine signaling in aversion vs. reward.

  10. Pyrethroid pesticide-induced alterations in dopamine transporter function

    SciTech Connect

    Elwan, Mohamed A.; Richardson, Jason R.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Caudle, W. Michael; Miller, Gary W. . E-mail: gary.miller@emory.edu

    2006-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between pesticide exposure and the incidence of PD. Studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that certain pesticides increase levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT), an integral component of dopaminergic neurotransmission and a gateway for dopaminergic neurotoxins. Here, we report that repeated exposure (3 injections over 2 weeks) of mice to two commonly used pyrethroid pesticides, deltamethrin (3 mg/kg) and permethrin (0.8 mg/kg), increases DAT-mediated dopamine uptake by 31 and 28%, respectively. Using cells stably expressing DAT, we determined that exposure (10 min) to deltamethrin and permethrin (1 nM-100 {mu}M) had no effect on DAT-mediated dopamine uptake. Extending exposures to both pesticides for 30 min (10 {mu}M) or 24 h (1, 5, and 10 {mu}M) resulted in significant decrease in dopamine uptake. This reduction was not the result of competitive inhibition, loss of DAT protein, or cytotoxicity. However, there was an increase in DNA fragmentation, an index of apoptosis, in cells exhibiting reduced uptake at 30 min and 24 h. These data suggest that up-regulation of DAT by in vivo pyrethroid exposure is an indirect effect and that longer-term exposure of cells results in apoptosis. Since DAT can greatly affect the vulnerability of dopamine neurons to neurotoxicants, up-regulation of DAT by deltamethrin and permethrin may increase the susceptibility of dopamine neurons to toxic insult, which may provide insight into the association between pesticide exposure and PD.

  11. Aberrant mesolimbic dopamine-opiate interaction in obesity.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Lauri; Tuulari, Jetro; Karlsson, Henry; Hirvonen, Jussi; Helin, Semi; Salminen, Paulina; Parkkola, Riitta; Hietala, Jarmo; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-11-15

    Dopamine and opioid neurotransmitter systems share many functions such as regulation of reward and pleasure. μ-Opioid receptors (MOR) modulate the mesolimbic dopamine system in ventral tegmental area and striatum, key areas implicated in reward. We hypothesized that dopamine and opioid receptor availabilities correlate in vivo and that this correlation is altered in obesity, a disease with altered reward processing. Twenty lean females (mean BMI 22) and 25 non-binge eating morbidly obese females (mean BMI 41) underwent two positron emission tomography scans with [(11)C]carfentanil and [(11)C]raclopride to measure the MOR and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability, respectively. In lean subjects, the MOR and DRD2 availabilities were positively associated in the ventral striatum (r=0.62, p=0.003) and dorsal caudate nucleus (r=0.62, p=0.004). Moreover, DRD2 availability in the ventral striatum was associated with MOR availability in other regions of the reward circuitry, particularly in the ventral tegmental area. In morbidly obese subjects, this receptor interaction was significantly weaker in ventral striatum but unaltered in the caudate nucleus. Finally, the association between DRD2 availability in the ventral striatum and MOR availability in the ventral tegmental area was abolished in the morbidly obese. The study demonstrates a link between DRD2 and MOR availabilities in living human brain. This interaction is selectively disrupted in mesolimbic dopamine system in morbid obesity. We propose that interaction between the dopamine and opioid systems is a prerequisite for normal reward processing and that disrupted cross-talk may underlie altered reward processing in obesity.

  12. Dopamine controls Parkinson's tremor by inhibiting the cerebellar thalamus.

    PubMed

    Dirkx, Michiel F; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Aarts, Esther; Timmer, Monique H M; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Toni, Ivan; Helmich, Rick C

    2017-01-09

    Parkinson's resting tremor is related to altered cerebral activity in the basal ganglia and the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit. Although Parkinson's disease is characterized by dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic basis of resting tremor remains unclear: dopaminergic medication reduces tremor in some patients, but many patients have a dopamine-resistant tremor. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging, we test how a dopaminergic intervention influences the cerebral circuit involved in Parkinson's tremor. From a sample of 40 patients with Parkinson's disease, we selected 15 patients with a clearly tremor-dominant phenotype. We compared tremor-related activity and effective connectivity (using combined electromyography-functional magnetic resonance imaging) on two occasions: ON and OFF dopaminergic medication. Building on a recently developed cerebral model of Parkinson's tremor, we tested the effect of dopamine on cerebral activity associated with the onset of tremor episodes (in the basal ganglia) and with tremor amplitude (in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit). Dopaminergic medication reduced clinical resting tremor scores (mean 28%, range -12 to 68%). Furthermore, dopaminergic medication reduced tremor onset-related activity in the globus pallidus and tremor amplitude-related activity in the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus. Network analyses using dynamic causal modelling showed that dopamine directly increased self-inhibition of the ventral intermediate nucleus, rather than indirectly influencing the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit through the basal ganglia. Crucially, the magnitude of thalamic self-inhibition predicted the clinical dopamine response of tremor. Dopamine reduces resting tremor by potentiating inhibitory mechanisms in a cerebellar nucleus of the thalamus (ventral intermediate nucleus). This suggests that altered dopaminergic projections to the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit have a role

  13. Dcc haploinsufficiency regulates dopamine receptor expression across postnatal lifespan.

    PubMed

    Pokinko, Matthew; Grant, Alanna; Shahabi, Florence; Dumont, Yvan; Manitt, Colleen; Flores, Cecilia

    2017-03-27

    Adolescence is a period during which the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) undergoes significant remodeling. The netrin-1 receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), controls the extent and organization of mPFC dopamine connectivity during adolescence and in turn directs mPFC functional and structural maturation. Dcc haploinsufficiency leads to increased mPFC dopamine input, which causes improved cognitive processing and resilience to behavioral effects of stimulant drugs of abuse. Here we examine the effects of Dcc haploinsufficiency on the dynamic expression of dopamine receptors in forebrain targets of C57BL6 mice. We conducted quantitative receptor autoradiography experiments with [(3)H]SCH-23390 or [(3)H]raclopride to characterize D1 and D2 receptor expression in mPFC and striatal regions in male Dcc haploinsufficient and wild-type mice. We generated autoradiograms at early adolescence (PND21±1), mid-adolescence (PND35±2), and adulthood (PND75±15). C57BL6 mice exhibit overexpression and pruning of D1, but not D2, receptors in striatal regions, and a lack of dopamine receptor pruning in the mPFC. We observed age- and region-specific differences in D1 and D2 receptor density between Dcc haploinsufficient and wild-type mice. Notably, neither group shows the typical pattern of mPFC dopamine receptor pruning in adolescence, but adult haploinsufficient mice show increased D2 receptor density in the mPFC. These results show that DCC receptors contribute to the dynamic refinement of D1 and D2 receptor expression in striatal regions across adolescence. The age-dependent expression of dopamine receptor in C57BL6 mice shows marked differences from previous characterizations in rats.

  14. PET neuroimaging of extrastriatal dopamine receptors and prefrontal cortex functions.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2013-12-01

    The role of prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors in prefrontal cortex (PFC) functions, including working memory, is widely investigated. However, human (healthy volunteers and schizophrenia patients) positron emission tomography (PET) studies about the relationship between prefrontal D1 receptors and PFC functions are somewhat inconsistent. We argued that several factors including an inverted U-shaped relationship between prefrontal D1 receptors and PFC functions might be responsible for these inconsistencies. In contrast to D1 receptors, relatively less attention has been paid to the role of D2 receptors in PFC functions. Several animal and human pharmacological studies have reported that the systemic administration of D2 receptor agonist/antagonist modulates PFC functions, although those studies do not tell us which region(s) is responsible for the effect. Furthermore, while prefrontal D1 receptors are primarily involved in working memory, other PFC functions such as set-shifting seem to be differentially modulated by dopamine. PET studies of extrastriatal D2 receptors including ours suggested that orchestration of prefrontal dopamine transmission and hippocampal dopamine transmission might be necessary for a broad range of normal PFC functions. In order to understand the complex effects of dopamine signaling on PFC functions, measuring a single index related to basic dopamine tone is not sufficient. For a better understanding of the meanings of PET indices related to neurotransmitters, comprehensive information (presynaptic, postsynaptic, and beyond receptor signaling) will be required. Still, an interdisciplinary approach combining molecular imaging techniques with cognitive neuroscience and clinical psychiatry will provide new perspectives for understanding the neurobiology of neuropsychiatric disorders and their innovative drug developments.

  15. Development of specificity and stereoselectivity of rat brain dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Miller, J C; Friedhoff, A J

    1986-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to the neuroleptic haloperidol has been reported to produce an enduring decrement in the number of dopamine D2 receptors in rat striatum and a persistent diminution of a dopamine dependent behavior, stereotypy. The ontogeny of rat brain dopamine binding sites has been studied in terms of the kinetic properties and phenotypic specificity in rat fetal brain through early postnatal development. Sites showing some properties of the D2 binding site can be found prior to gestational day (GD) 18, can be labeled with [3H]dopamine or [3H]spiroperidol and can be displaced with dopaminergic agonists and antagonists. Saturation kinetics for specific [3H]spiroperidol has previously been found to occur on or about GD 18. It is of interest that the critical period for the prenatal effect of haloperidol to reduce striatal D2 binding sites, GD's 15-18, coincides with the period during which dopamine binding sites lack true specificity, but can be labeled with dopaminergic ligands. In these experiments the development of stereoselectivity of brain dopamine binding sites has been examined. When rat mothers were given either the neuroleptic (+)-butaclamol or its therapeutically inactive isomer (-)-butaclamol during the critical period GD's 15-18, the number of [3H]spiroperidol binding sites in striata of offspring was significantly reduced by both stereoisomers. This is in marked contrast to the postnatal treatment effect by a neuroleptic in which upregulation of striatal D2 binding sites occurs only by treatment with the therapeutically active isomer (+)-butaclamol. In vitro studies of the direct effect of the stereoisomers of butaclamol indicate that the recognition sites detected during fetal brain development with [3H]spiroperidol do not distinguish between the isomers of butaclamol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Diet-induced obesity: dopamine transporter function, impulsivity and motivation

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaswami, V; Thompson, AC; Cassis, LA; Bardo, MT; Dwoskin, LP

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) was used to determine dopamine transporter (DAT) function, impulsivity and motivation as neurobehavioral outcomes and predictors of obesity. DESIGN To evaluate neurobehavioral alterations following the development of DIO induced by an 8-week high-fat diet (HF) exposure, striatal D2-receptor density, DAT function and expression, extracellular dopamine concentrations, impulsivity, and motivation for high- and low-fat reinforcers were determined. To determine predictors of DIO, neurobehavioral antecedents including impulsivity, motivation for high-fat reinforcers, DAT function and extracellular dopamine were evaluated before the 8-week HF exposure. METHODS Striatal D2-receptor density was determined by in vitro kinetic analysis of [3H]raclopride binding. DAT function was determined using in vitro kinetic analysis of [3H]dopamine uptake, methamphetamine-evoked [3H]dopamine overflow and no-net flux in vivo microdialysis. DAT cell-surface expression was determined using biotinylation and western blotting. Impulsivity and food-motivated behavior were determined using a delay discounting task and progressive ratio schedule, respectively. RESULTS Relative to obesity-resistant (OR) rats, obesity-prone (OP) rats exhibited 18% greater body weight following an 8-week HF-diet exposure, 42% lower striatal D2-receptor density, 30% lower total DAT expression, 40% lower in vitro and in vivo DAT function, 45% greater extracellular dopamine and twofold greater methamphetamine-evoked [3H]dopamine overflow. OP rats exhibited higher motivation for food, and surprisingly, were less impulsive relative to OR rats. Impulsivity, in vivo DAT function and extracellular dopamine concentration did not predict DIO. Importantly, motivation for high-fat reinforcers predicted the development of DIO. CONCLUSION Human studies are limited by their ability to determine if impulsivity, motivation and DAT function are causes or consequences of DIO. The

  17. A choreography of nicotinic receptors directs the dopamine neuron routine.

    PubMed

    Ungless, Mark A; Cragg, Stephanie J

    2006-06-15

    Modulation of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is thought to play an important role in both health and addiction. However, a clear understanding of how these receptors regulate in vivo firing activity has been elusive. In this issue of Neuron, Mameli-Engvall and colleagues report an impressive and thought-provoking series of in vivo experiments combining single-unit recordings from dopamine neurons with nAChR subunit deletions and region-specific lentiviral subunit re-expression.

  18. Patterned Poly(dopamine) Films for Enhanced Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Cortez-Jugo, Christina; Choi, Gwan H; Björnmalm, Mattias; Dai, Yunlu; Yoo, Pil J; Caruso, Frank

    2017-01-18

    Engineered materials that promote cell adhesion and cell growth are important in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this work, we produced poly(dopamine) (PDA) films with engineered patterns for improved cell adhesion. The patterned films were synthesized via the polymerization of dopamine at the air-water interface of a floating bed of spherical particles. Subsequent dissolution of the particles yielded free-standing PDA films with tunable geometrical patterns. Our results show that these patterned PDA films significantly enhance the adhesion of both cancer cells and stem cells, thus showing promise as substrates for cell attachment for various biomedical applications.

  19. Effects of chronic cocaine abuse on postsynaptic dopamine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.; Schlyer, D.; Shiue, C.Y.; Alpert, R.; Dewey, S.L.; Logan, J.; Bendriem, B.; Christman, D. )

    1990-06-01

    To assess the effects of chronic cocaine intoxication on dopamine receptors in human subjects, the authors evaluated ({sup 18}F)N-methylspiroperidol binding using positron emission tomography in 10 cocaine abusers and 10 normal control subjects. Cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 week or less showed significantly lower values for uptake of ({sup 18}F)N-methylspiroperidol in striatum than the normal subjects, whereas the cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 month showed values comparable to those obtained from normal subjects. The authors conclude that postsynaptic dopamine receptor availability decreases with chronic cocaine abuse but may recover after a drug-free interval.

  20. Mechanisms underlying dopamine-mediated reward bias in compulsive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Pessiglione, Mathias; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Fernandez, Hubert H; Dolan, Raymond J; Hallett, Mark

    2010-01-14

    Pathological behaviors such as problem gambling or shopping are characterized by compulsive choice despite alternative options and negative costs. Reinforcement learning algorithms allow a computation of prediction error, a comparison of actual and expected outcomes, which updates our predictions and influences our subsequent choices. Using a reinforcement learning model, we show data consistent with the idea that dopamine agonists in susceptible individuals with Parkinson's disease increase the rate of learning from gain outcomes. Dopamine agonists also increase striatal prediction error activity, thus signifying a "better than expected" outcome. Thus, our findings are consistent with a model whereby a distorted estimation of the gain cue underpins a choice bias toward gains.

  1. Strontium vanadate nanoribbons: Synthesis, characterization and detection of dopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qing; Shao, Mingwang; Chen, Tao; Xu, Hongyan

    2010-09-15

    Large-scale, high-purity and uniform strontium vanadate (Sr{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}) nanoribbons were easily synthesized via a hydrothermal process without any surfactants. The as-prepared products were up to hundreds of micrometers in length, 200-600 nm in width, and 20 nm in thickness. These nanomaterials were employed to modify glassy carbon electrode, which displayed excellent electrochemical sensitivity in detecting dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid. A linear relationship between the concentrations of dopamine and its oxidation peak currents was obtained. The modified electrode exhibited high reproducibility and stability, which might be found potential application in the biosensors.

  2. Carbon nanotube nanoweb-bioelectrode for highly selective dopamine sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Weimin; Sherrell, Peter; Razal, Joselito M; Huang, Xu-Feng; Minett, Andrew I; Chen, Jun

    2012-01-01

    A highly sensitive and selective dopamine sensor was fabricated with the unique 3D carbon nanotube nanoweb (CNT-N) electrode. The as-synthesised CNT-N was modified by oxygen plasma to graft functional groups in order to increase selective electroactive sites at the CNT sidewalls. This electrode was characterized physically and electrochemically using HRSEM, Raman, FT-IR, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Our investigations indicated that the O(2)-plasma treated CNT-N electrode could serve as a highly sensitive biosensor for the selective sensing of dopamine (DA, 1 μM to 20 μM) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA, 1000 μM).

  3. Pacific Barrier Radar III (PACBAR III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. D.; Sigler, J. D.

    1983-11-01

    The Pacific Barrier (PACBAR III) C-band radar is being installed at the Western Space and Missile Center to furnish Revolution 0 detection of foreign launches. Previously installed on a tracking ship, the upgraded system will also identify and target space objects, maintain a catalog, and cover maneuvers and decay of space objects. Nominal operation will comprise a search of a predesignated 15 deg azimuth with the capability of detecting a 6 sq m target in a 400 km orbit, track spacecraft in orbits up to 800 km altitude, have a range resolution of about 80 yd, provide realtime payload and rocket body discrimination, and transmit two-way digital message traffic between the Center and NORAD in Cheyenne Mt. Interlaced vertical and horizontal pulses will augment the search and acquisition capabilities, and the antenna will have a 140 deg plunge range. The transmitter will function at 5.4-5.65 GHz, 320 p/sec, with a peak power of 0.8 MW, and the system will have a nonambiguous range of 32,768 nmi.

  4. Understanding dopamine and reinforcement learning: the dopamine reward prediction error hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Glimcher, Paul W

    2011-09-13

    A number of recent advances have been achieved in the study of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Understanding these advances and how they relate to one another requires a deep understanding of the computational models that serve as an explanatory framework and guide ongoing experimental inquiry. This intertwining of theory and experiment now suggests very clearly that the phasic activity of the midbrain dopamine neurons provides a global mechanism for synaptic modification. These synaptic modifications, in turn, provide the mechanistic underpinning for a specific class of reinforcement learning mechanisms that now seem to underlie much of human and animal behavior. This review describes both the critical empirical findings that are at the root of this conclusion and the fantastic theoretical advances from which this conclusion is drawn.

  5. Measurement in vivo of dopamine receptor density I: Effect of endogenous dopamine on spiroperidol binding

    SciTech Connect

    De Jesus, O.T.; Van Moffaert, G.J.C.; Friedman, A.M.; Dinerstein, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Non-invasive localization of brain dopamine (DA) receptors has been achieved by us and others using gamma emitting derivatives of the DA antagonist spiroperidol (SP). To accurately characterize this localization, the authors have previously described an equilibrium binding model involving SP and DA for a single DA receptor. It is the purpose of this study to establish experimentally the significance of endogenous DA on the ability of SP to bind a group of DA receptors. Several mice were administered different doses of SP. To one group of mice L-dopa was given with peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor, RO-4-4602, in order to elevate brain DA levels while a separate group served as control. /sup 3/H-SP binding and DA levels were measured in each brain sample. The results reflect a significant competition between DA and SP for caudate DA binding sites.

  6. Nanodiamonds on tetrahedral amorphous carbon significantly enhance dopamine detection and cell viability.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Emilia; Wester, Niklas; Holt, Katherine B; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koskinen, Jari; Myllymäki, Vesa; Laurila, Tomi

    2017-02-15

    We hypothesize that by using integrated carbon nanostructures on tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), it is possible to take the performance and characteristics of these bioelectrodes to a completely new level. The integrated carbon electrodes were realized by combining nanodiamonds (NDs) with ta-C thin films coated on Ti-coated Si-substrates. NDs were functionalized with mixture of carboxyl and amine groups NDandante or amine NDamine, carboxyl NDvox or hydroxyl groups NDH and drop-casted or spray-coated onto substrate. By utilizing these novel structures we show that (i) the detection limit for dopamine can be improved by two orders of magnitude [from 10µM to 50nM] in comparison to ta-C thin film electrodes and (ii) the coating method significantly affects electrochemical properties of NDs and (iii) the ND coatings selectively promote cell viability. NDandante and NDH showed most promising electrochemical properties. The viability of human mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells was increased on all ND surfaces, whereas the viability of mouse neural stem cells and rat neuroblastic cells was improved on NDandante and NDH and reduced on NDamine and NDvox. The viability of C6 cells remained unchanged, indicating that these surfaces will not cause excess gliosis. In summary, we demonstrated here that by using functionalized NDs on ta-C thin films we can significantly improve sensitivity towards dopamine as well as selectively promote cell viability. Thus, these novel carbon nanostructures provide an interesting concept for development of various in vivo targeted sensor solutions.

  7. Dopamine-glutamate interaction and antipsychotics mechanism of action: implication for new pharmacological strategies in psychosis.

    PubMed

    de Bartolomeis, A; Fiore, G; Iasevoli, F

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness characterized by behavioral and cognitive symptoms. Several lines of evidence focus on a direct involvement of the glutamatergic system in the pathophysiology of psychosis. The hypofunction of the ionotropic glutamate N-methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDA-R) has been proposed as a model of schizophrenia in humans. Cortical and subcortical glutamate release seems to be modulated by dopaminergic and, to a lesser extent, serotoninergic circuitries, and tuned by intracellular pathways. Although dopamine D(2) receptor blockade is a crucial mechanism of antipsychotics pharmacodynamic profile, a putative glutamatergic impact of these compounds is suggested by animal pharmacological isomorphisms of psychosis as well as by clinical studies. According to this view, the balance between D(2) antagonism and NMDA-R modulation may be pivotal for the improvement of both positive and negative symptoms. Recently, many pharmacological strategies involving glutamate receptors have been suggested, and novel compounds and pharmacological strategies acting on glutamate transmission are currently under evaluation: i) augmentation strategies improving NMDA-R transmission (glycine, D-serine, D-cycloserine, glycine transporter inhibitors); ii) ampakines, positive modulators of AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptor complex; iii) agonists of glutamate metabotropic receptors; iv) drugs involved in subcellular adaptation both at pre- and post-synaptic sites. Furthermore, molecular markers, suggesting modulation of glutamate circuitries after antipsychotics administration, are an attractive tool to shed more light on glutamate involvement in antipsychotics mechanism of action. In this review we provide a critical update of recent preclinical and clinical data on dopamine-glutamate interaction and its role in new pharmacological strategies for psychosis treatment.

  8. Acute fasting increases somatodendritic dopamine release in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Roseberry, Aaron G

    2015-08-01

    Fasting and food restriction alter the activity of the mesolimbic dopamine system to affect multiple reward-related behaviors. Food restriction decreases baseline dopamine levels in efferent target sites and enhances dopamine release in response to rewards such as food and drugs. In addition to releasing dopamine from axon terminals, dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) also release dopamine from their soma and dendrites, and this somatodendritic dopamine release acts as an autoinhibitory signal to inhibit neighboring VTA dopamine neurons. It is unknown whether acute fasting also affects dopamine release, including the local inhibitory somatodendritic dopamine release in the VTA. In these studies, I have tested whether fasting affects the inhibitory somatodendritic dopamine release within the VTA by examining whether an acute 24-h fast affects the inhibitory postsynaptic current mediated by evoked somatodendritic dopamine release (D2R IPSC). Fasting increased the contribution of the first action potential to the overall D2R IPSC and increased the ratio of repeated D2R IPSCs evoked at short intervals. Fasting also reduced the effect of forskolin on the D2R IPSC and led to a significantly bigger decrease in the D2R IPSC in low extracellular calcium. Finally, fasting resulted in an increase in the D2R IPSCs when a more physiologically relevant train of D2R IPSCs was used. Taken together, these results indicate that fasting caused a change in the properties of somatodendritic dopamine release, possibly by increasing dopamine release, and that this increased release can be sustained under conditions where dopamine neurons are highly active.

  9. Effect of the inhibition of dopamine uptake on the dopamine- and dimethyldopamine-induced-inhibition of the potassium-evoked release of [3H]acetylcholine from striatal slices.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, T; Wallace, R A; Miller, D D; Uretsky, N J

    1989-01-01

    1. Dimethyldopamine was eight times more potent than dopamine in activating the D2 receptor that inhibits the potassium-evoked release of [3H]acetylcholine from striatal slices. 2. Cocaine and mazindol produced an eight-fold shift in the concentration-response curve for dopamine, but not for dimethyldopamine. 3. The IC50 of dimethyldopamine for the inhibition of [3H]dopamine uptake was thirty times greater than that for dopamine. 4. Dopamine may be less potent than dimethyldopamine at the D2 receptor because dopamine has a higher affinity for the dopamine uptake system, resulting in its rapid removal from the vicinity of the receptor.

  10. Endotoxemia and the effects of dopamine on renal functions of neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Chin, Anthony; O'Conner, Linh Nguyen; Radhakrishnan, Jayant; Fornell, Linda; John, Eunice

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we observed the effects of moderate and high doses of dopamine on the renal functions of neonatal piglets during endotoxic shock. We found that fluid therapy alone was better at maintaining cardiac index and preventing elevation of systemic vascular resistance, than dopamine at 10 and at 20 microg/kg/min. Furthermore, urine output and glomerular filtration rate were reduced by dopamine. Following endotoxin administration dopamine decreased SVR and maintained a CI better than fluid alone. However, in spite of a better CI, greater deterioration in renal functions occurred in the dopamine groups as compared to the fluid group.

  11. The Mark III VLBI System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Levine, J. I.; Nesman, E. F.; Webber, J. C.; Hinteregger, H. F.

    1988-01-01

    Geodetic measurements have errors in centimeter range. Collection of three reports describes both equipment and results of some measurements taken with Mark III very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) system. Has demonstrated high accuracy over short baselines, where phase-delay measurements used. Advanced hardware, called Mark III A, developed to improve system performance and efficiency. Original Mark III hardware and III A subsystem upgrades developed as part of NASA Crustal Dynamics Project at Haystack Observatory.

  12. Association of polymorphisms of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2), and dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes with schizoid/avoidant behaviors (SAB).

    PubMed

    Blum, K; Braverman, E R; Wu, S; Cull, J G; Chen, T J; Gill, J; Wood, R; Eisenberg, A; Sherman, M; Davis, K R; Matthews, D; Fischer, L; Schnautz, N; Walsh, W; Pontius, A A; Zedar, M; Kaats, G; Comings, D E

    1997-05-01

    The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D2 receptor, has been implicated in reward mechanisms in the brain. Dysfunction of the D2 dopamine receptors leads to aberrant substance-seeking behaviors (ethanol, drugs, tobacco, and food) and other related behaviors (pathological gambling, Tourette's disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). This is the first study supporting a strong association between the dopamine D2 receptor Taq A1 allele with schizoid/avoidant behavior (SAB). Additionally, an albeit weaker association between the 480-bp VNTR 10/10 allele of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene with SAB was similarly found.

  13. Nicotinic and opioid receptor regulation of striatal dopamine D2-receptor mediated transmission

    PubMed Central

    Mamaligas, Aphroditi A.; Cai, Yuan; Ford, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to dopamine neuron firing, cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) regulate dopamine release in the striatum via presynaptic nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) on dopamine axon terminals. Synchronous activity of ChIs is necessary to evoke dopamine release through this pathway. The frequency-dependence of disynaptic nicotinic modulation has led to the hypothesis that nAChRs act as a high-pass filter in the dopaminergic microcircuit. Here, we used optogenetics to selectively stimulate either ChIs or dopamine terminals directly in the striatum. To measure the functional consequence of dopamine release, D2-receptor synaptic activity was assessed via virally overexpressed potassium channels (GIRK2) in medium spiny neurons (MSNs). We found that nicotinic-mediated dopamine release was blunted at higher frequencies because nAChRs exhibit prolonged desensitization after a single pulse of synchronous ChI activity. However, when dopamine neurons alone were stimulated, nAChRs had no effect at any frequency. We further assessed how opioid receptors modulate these two mechanisms of release. Bath application of the κ opioid receptor agonist U69593 decreased D2-receptor activation through both pathways, whereas the μ opioid receptor agonist DAMGO decreased D2-receptor activity only as a result of cholinergic-mediated dopamine release. Thus the release of dopamine can be independently modulated when driven by either dopamine neurons or cholinergic interneurons. PMID:27886263

  14. Dopamine Receptor Antagonists Enhance Proliferation and Neurogenesis of Midbrain Lmx1a-expressing Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Hedlund, Eva; Belnoue, Laure; Theofilopoulos, Spyridon; Salto, Carmen; Bye, Chris; Parish, Clare; Deng, Qiaolin; Kadkhodaei, Banafsheh; Ericson, Johan; Arenas, Ernest; Perlmann, Thomas; Simon, András

    2016-01-01

    Degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain causes symptoms of the movement disorder, Parkinson disease. Dopamine neurons are generated from proliferating progenitor cells localized in the embryonic ventral midbrain. However, it remains unclear for how long cells with dopamine progenitor character are retained and if there is any potential for reactivation of such cells after cessation of normal dopamine neurogenesis. We show here that cells expressing Lmx1a and other progenitor markers remain in the midbrain aqueductal zone beyond the major dopamine neurogenic period. These cells express dopamine receptors, are located in regions heavily innervated by midbrain dopamine fibres and their proliferation can be stimulated by antagonizing dopamine receptors, ultimately leading to increased neurogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, treatment with dopamine receptor antagonists enhances neurogenesis in vitro, both from embryonic midbrain progenitors as well as from embryonic stem cells. Altogether our results indicate a potential for reactivation of resident midbrain cells with dopamine progenitor potential beyond the normal period of dopamine neurogenesis. PMID:27246266

  15. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Geliebter, Allan; Volkow, Nora D; Telang, Frank W; Logan, Jean; Jayne, Millard C; Galanti, Kochavi; Selig, Peter A; Han, Hao; Zhu, Wei; Wong, Christopher T; Fowler, Joanna S

    2011-08-01

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [(11)C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  16. Computational modeling of extracellular dopamine kinetics suggests low probability of neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Katherine E; Wallace, Lane J

    2015-11-01

    Dopamine in the striatum signals the saliency of current environmental input and is involved in learned formation of appropriate responses. The regular baseline-firing rate of dopaminergic neurons suggests that baseline dopamine is essential for proper brain function. The first goal of the study was to estimate the likelihood of full exocytotic dopamine release associated with each firing event under baseline conditions. A computer model of extracellular space associated with a single varicosity was developed using the program MCell to estimate kinetics of extracellular dopamine. Because the literature provides multiple kinetic values for dopamine uptake depending on the system tested, simulations were run using different kinetic parameters. With all sets of kinetic parameters evaluated, at most, 25% of a single vesicle per varicosity would need to be released per firing event to maintain a 5-10 nM extracellular dopamine concentration, the level reported by multiple microdialysis experiments. The second goal was to estimate the fraction of total amount of stored dopamine released during a highly stimulated condition. This was done using the same model system to simulate published measurements of extracellular dopamine following electrical stimulation of striatal slices in vitro. The results suggest the amount of dopamine release induced by a single electrical stimulation may be as large as the contents of two vesicles per varicosity. We conclude that dopamine release probability at any particular varicosity is low. This suggests that factors capable of increasing release probability could have a powerful effect on sculpting dopamine signals.

  17. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, g.j.; Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-13

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [{sup 11}C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  18. Missense dopamine transporter mutations associate with adult parkinsonism and ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Freja H.; Skjørringe, Tina; Yasmeen, Saiqa; Arends, Natascha V.; Sahai, Michelle A.; Erreger, Kevin; Andreassen, Thorvald F.; Holy, Marion; Hamilton, Peter J.; Neergheen, Viruna; Karlsborg, Merete; Newman, Amy H.; Pope, Simon; Heales, Simon J.R.; Friberg, Lars; Law, Ian; Pinborg, Lars H.; Sitte, Harald H.; Loland, Claus; Shi, Lei; Weinstein, Harel; Galli, Aurelio; Hjermind, Lena E.; Møller, Lisbeth B.; Gether, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Parkinsonism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are widespread brain disorders that involve disturbances of dopaminergic signaling. The sodium-coupled dopamine transporter (DAT) controls dopamine homeostasis, but its contribution to disease remains poorly understood. Here, we analyzed a cohort of patients with atypical movement disorder and identified 2 DAT coding variants, DAT-Ile312Phe and a presumed de novo mutant DAT-Asp421Asn, in an adult male with early-onset parkinsonism and ADHD. According to DAT single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) scans and a fluoro-deoxy-glucose-PET/MRI (FDG-PET/MRI) scan, the patient suffered from progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In heterologous cells, both DAT variants exhibited markedly reduced dopamine uptake capacity but preserved membrane targeting, consistent with impaired catalytic activity. Computational simulations and uptake experiments suggested that the disrupted function of the DAT-Asp421Asn mutant is the result of compromised sodium binding, in agreement with Asp421 coordinating sodium at the second sodium site. For DAT-Asp421Asn, substrate efflux experiments revealed a constitutive, anomalous efflux of dopamine, and electrophysiological analyses identified a large cation leak that might further perturb dopaminergic neurotransmission. Our results link specific DAT missense mutations to neurodegenerative early-onset parkinsonism. Moreover, the neuropsychiatric comorbidity provides additional support for the idea that DAT missense mutations are an ADHD risk factor and suggests that complex DAT genotype and phenotype correlations contribute to different dopaminergic pathologies. PMID:24911152

  19. Preparation and characterization of dopamine-decorated hydrophilic carbon black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lijun; Lu, Yonglai; Wang, Yiqing; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Wencai

    2012-05-01

    Inspired by the bio-adhesive proteins secreted by mussels for attachment to almost all wet substrates, a facile method involving oxidative polymerization of dopamine was proposed to prepare highly hydrophilic carbon black (CB) particles. A self-assembled polydopamine (PDA) ad-layer was formed via the oxidative polymerization of dopamine on the surface of CB simply by dipping the CB into an alkaline dopamine solution and mildly stirring at room temperature. The process is simple, controllable, and environment-friendly. The surface composition and structure of the CB were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface morphology of the CB was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the PDA ad-layer was successfully deposited on the CB surfaces. The PDA-functionalized CB (CB-PDA) gave a stable colloidal dispersion in water. Contact angle measurement results indicated that the hydrophilicity of CB was significantly improved after dopamine modification. TGA results confirmed that the modified CB maintained good heat resistance. The method provided a facile route to prepare hydrophilic CB having terminal hydroxyl groups.

  20. Dopamine gates action potential backpropagation in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Gentet, Luc J; Williams, Stephen R

    2007-02-21

    Dopamine is released from both axonal and somatodendritic sites of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in an action potential-dependent manner. In contrast to the majority of central neurons, the axon of dopaminergic neurons typically originates from a dendritic site, suggesting a specialized computational function. Here, we examine the initiation and spread of action potentials in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata and reveal that the displacement of the axon to a dendritic site allows highly compartmentalized electrical signaling. In response to a train of synaptic input, action potentials initiated at axon-bearing dendritic sites formed a variable trigger for invasion to the soma and contralateral dendritic tree, with action potentials often confined to the axon-bearing dendrite. The application of dopamine increased this form of electrical compartmentalization, an effect mediated by a tonic membrane potential hyperpolarization leading to an increased availability of a class of voltage-dependent potassium channel. These data suggest that the release of dopamine from axonal and somatodendritic sites are dissociable, and that dopamine levels within the midbrain are dynamically controlled by the somatodendritic spread of action potentials.

  1. The costs and benefits of brain dopamine for cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Cools, Roshan

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive control helps us attain our goals by resisting distraction and temptations. Dopaminergic drugs are well known to enhance cognitive control. However, there is great variability in the effects of dopaminergic drugs across different contexts, with beneficial effects on some tasks but detrimental effects on other tasks. The mechanisms underlying this variability across cognitive task demands remain unclear. I aim to elucidate this across-task variability in dopaminergic drug efficacy by going beyond classic models that emphasize the importance of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex for cognitive control and working memory. To this end, I build on recent advances in cognitive neuroscience that highlight a role for dopamine in cost-benefit decision making. Specifically, I reconceptualize cognitive control as involving not just prefrontal dopamine but also modulation of cost-benefit decision making by striatal dopamine. This approach will help us understand why we sometimes fail to (choose to) exert cognitive control while also identifying mechanistic factors that predict dopaminergic drug effects on cognitive control. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:317-329. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1401 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  2. The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii increases dopamine metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces behavioral alterations in its hosts including phenotypes increasing the likelihood of its transmission in rodents and reports of psychobehavioral alterations in humans. We have found that elevated levels of dopamine are associated with the encysted stage...

  3. Dopamine agonists in prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; Vrčić, Hrvoje; Stanić, Patrik; Ježek, Davor; Orešković, Slavko; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Pekez, Marijeta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to analyze the efficacy of different dopamine agonists in the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Cabergoline, quinagolide and bromocriptine are the most common dopamine agonists used. There are wide clinical variations among the trials in the starting time (from the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to the day following oocyte retrieval); the duration of the treatment (4-21 days), the dose of cabergoline (0.5 mg or 0.25 mg orally) and in the regimens used. At present, the best known effective regimen is 0.5 mg of cabergoline for 8 days or rectal bromocriptine at a daily dose of 2.5 mg for 16 days. Dopamine agonists have shown significant evidences of their efficacy in the prevention of moderate and early-onset OHSS (9.41%), compared with a placebo (21.45%), which cannot be confirmed for the treatment of late OHSS. It would be advisable to start with the treatment on the day of hCG injection or preferably a few hours earlier. The use of dopamine agonists should be indicated in patients at high risk of OHSS, as well as in patients with a history of previous OHSS even without evident signs of the syndrome.

  4. Antipsychotic Induced Dopamine Supersensitivity Psychosis: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Yin, John; Barr, Alasdair M; Ramos-Miguel, Alfredo; Procyshyn, Ric M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic prescription of antipsychotics seems to lose its therapeutic benefits in the prevention of recurring psychotic symptoms. In many instances, the occurrence of relapse from initial remission is followed by an increase in dose of the prescribed antipsychotic. The current understanding of why this occurs is still in its infancy, but a controversial idea that has regained attention recently is the notion of iatrogenic dopamine supersensitivity. Studies on cell cultures and animal models have shown that long-term antipsychotic use is linked to both an upregulation of dopamine D2-receptors in the striatum and the emergence of enhanced receptor affinity to endogenous dopamine. These findings have been hypothesized to contribute to the phenomenon known as dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP), which has been clinically typified as the foundation of rebound psychosis, drug tolerance, and tardive dyskinesia. The focus of this review is the update of evidence behind the classification of antipsychotic induced DSP and an investigation of its relationship to treatment resistance. Since antipsychotics are the foundation of illness management, a greater understanding of DSP and its prevention may greatly affect patient outcomes.

  5. Reward Contexts Extend Dopamine Signals to Unrewarded Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Schultz, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Summary Basic tenets of sensory processing emphasize the importance of accurate identification and discrimination of environmental objects [1]. Although this principle holds also for reward, the crucial acquisition of reward for survival would be aided by the capacity to detect objects whose rewarding properties may not be immediately apparent. Animal learning theory conceptualizes how unrewarded stimuli induce behavioral reactions in rewarded contexts due to pseudoconditioning and higher-order context conditioning [2–6]. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanisms may involve context-sensitive reward neurons. We studied short-latency activations of dopamine neurons to unrewarded, physically salient stimuli while systematically changing reward context. Dopamine neurons showed substantial activations to unrewarded stimuli and their conditioned stimuli in highly rewarded contexts. The activations decreased and often disappeared entirely with stepwise separation from rewarded contexts. The influence of reward context suggests that dopamine neurons respond to real and potential reward. The influence of reward context is compatible with the reward nature of phasic dopamine responses. The responses may facilitate rapid, default initiation of behavioral reactions in environments usually containing reward. Agents would encounter more and miss less reward, resulting in survival advantage and enhanced evolutionary fitness. PMID:24332545

  6. Alterations of dopamine and serotonin transmission in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Remington, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The present chapter outlines current thinking regarding serotonin and dopamine in schizophrenia. Each has individually been linked to theories regarding the illness' pathophysiology although the focus here is on their interactive role, a model that has driven drug development in the field for the last 10-15 years. With clozapine as a prototype, a new class of 'atypical' antipsychotics entered the clinical market, hinged predominantly on the notion that these agents were superior to conventional antipsychotics through their ratio of serotonin 5-HT(2)/dopamine D(2) binding. This model has since been challenged both clinically and theoretically, but interest in serotonin-dopamine interactions remains high in the face of a broader conceptualization of schizophrenia's symptom domains, in combination with a shift in the perceived role of dopamine vis-à-vis these different clinical features. At present, there is particular interest in the 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2C), 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptors as the search for improved pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia continues.

  7. Dopamine Increases a Value-Independent Gambling Propensity

    PubMed Central

    Rigoli, Francesco; Rutledge, Robb B; Chew, Benjamin; Ousdal, Olga T; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Although the impact of dopamine on reward learning is well documented, its influence on other aspects of behavior remains the subject of much ongoing work. Dopaminergic drugs are known to increase risk-taking behavior, but the underlying mechanisms for this effect are not clear. We probed dopamine's role by examining the effect of its precursor L-DOPA on the choices of healthy human participants in an experimental paradigm that allowed particular components of risk to be distinguished. We show that choice behavior depended on a baseline (ie, value-independent) gambling propensity, a gambling preference scaling with the amount/variance, and a value normalization factor. Boosting dopamine levels specifically increased just the value-independent baseline gambling propensity, leaving the other components unaffected. Our results indicate that the influence of dopamine on choice behavior involves a specific modulation of the attractiveness of risky options—a finding with implications for understanding a range of reward-related psychopathologies including addiction. PMID:27149935

  8. Photoaffinity labelling of high affinity dopamine binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, G.M.; McCarry, B.E.; Mishra, R.K.

    1986-03-01

    A photoactive analogue of the dopamine agonist 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (ADTN) has been synthesized and used to photoaffinity label dopamine binding proteins prepared from bovine caudate nucleus. N-(3-)N'-4-azidobenzamidol)-aminopropyl)-aminopropyl)-ADTN (AzB-AP-ADTN) was incubated with caudate membranes and irradiated with UV light. Membranes were then repeatedly washed by centrifugation to remove excess photolabel. A binding assay, using (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 (a D/sub 1/ specific antagonist), was then performed to evaluate the loss of receptor density in the photolyzed preparation. AzB-AP-ADTN irreversibly blocked (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 binding in a dose-dependent manner. Scatchard analysis revealed a decrease in the B/sub max/, with no significant change in the K/sub d/, of (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 binding. Compounds which compete for D/sub 1/ receptor binding (such as dopamine, SKF 38393 or apomorphine), proteted the SCH 23390 binding site from inactivation. This data would suggest that the novel photoaffinity ligand, AzB-AP-ADTN, can covalently label the D/sub 1/ (adenylate cyclase linked) dopamine receptor.

  9. The potential role of dopamine D₃ receptor neurotransmission in cognition.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Gerretsen, Philip; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Caravaggio, Fernando; Chow, Tiffany; Le Foll, Bernard; Mulsant, Benoit; Pollock, Bruce; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2013-08-01

    Currently available treatments have limited pro-cognitive effects for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The primary objective of this work is to review the literature on the role of dopamine D₃ receptors in cognition, and propose dopamine D₃ receptor antagonists as possible cognitive enhancers for neuropsychiatric disorders. A literature search was performed to identify animal and human studies on D₃ receptors and cognition using PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE. The search terms included "dopamine D₃ receptor" and "cognition". The literature search identified 164 articles. The results revealed: (1) D₃ receptors are associated with cognitive functioning in both healthy individuals and those with neuropsychiatric disorders; (2) D₃ receptor blockade appears to enhance while D₃ receptor agonism seems to impair cognitive function, including memory, attention, learning, processing speed, social recognition and executive function independent of age; and (3) D₃ receptor antagonists may exert their pro-cognitive effect by enhancing the release of acetylcholine in the prefrontal cortex, disinhibiting the activity of dopamine neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens or prefrontal cortex, or activating CREB signaling in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that D₃ receptor blockade may enhance cognitive performance in healthy individuals and treat cognitive dysfunction in individuals with a neuropsychiatric disorder. Clinical trials are needed to confirm these effects.

  10. Effect of desipramine on dopamine receptor binding in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Suhara, Tetsuya Jikei Univ., Tokyo ); Inoue, Osamu; Kobayasi, Kaoru )

    1990-01-01

    Effect of desipramine on the in vivo binding of {sup 3}H-SCH23390 and {sup 3}H-N-methylspiperone ({sup 3}H-NMSP) in mouse striatum was studied. The ratio of radioactivity in the striatum to that in the cerebellum at 15 min after i.v. injection of {sup 3}H-SCH23390 or 45 min after injection of {sup 3}H-NMSP were used as indices of dopamine D1 or D2 receptor binding in vivo, respectively. In vivo binding of D1 and D2 receptors was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by acute treatment with desipramine (DMI). A saturation experiment suggested that the DMI-induced reduction in the binding was mainly due to the decrease in the affinity of both receptors. No direct interactions between the dopamine receptors and DMI were observed in vitro by the addition of 1 mM of DMI into striatal homogenate. Other antidepressants such as imipramine, clomipramine, maprotiline and mianserin also decreased the binding of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. The results indicated an important role of dopamine receptors in the pharmacological effect of antidepressants.

  11. Dopamine Transporter Genotype Predicts Attentional Asymmetry in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Daniel P.; O'Connell, Redmond G.; Nathan, Pradeep J.; Bellgrove, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent studies suggest that DNA variation in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) influences spatial attention asymmetry in clinical populations such as ADHD, but confirmation in non-clinical samples is required. Since non-spatial factors such as attentional load have been shown to influence spatial biases in clinical conditions, here…

  12. Dopamine and reward: the anhedonia hypothesis 30 years on.

    PubMed

    Wise, Roy A

    2008-10-01

    The anhedonia hypothesis--that brain dopamine plays a critical role in the subjective pleasure associated with positive rewards--was intended to draw the attention of psychiatrists to the growing evidence that dopamine plays a critical role in the objective reinforcement and incentive motivation associated with food and water, brain stimulation reward, and psychomotor stimulant and opiate reward. The hypothesis called to attention the apparent paradox that neuroleptics, drugs used to treat a condition involving anhedonia (schizophrenia), attenuated in laboratory animals the positive reinforcement that we normally associate with pleasure. The hypothesis held only brief interest for psychiatrists, who pointed out that the animal studies reflected acute actions of neuroleptics whereas the treatment of schizophrenia appears to result from neuroadaptations to chronic neuroleptic administration, and that it is the positive symptoms of schizophrenia that neuroleptics alleviate, rather than the negative symptoms that include anhedonia. Perhaps for these reasons, the hypothesis has had minimal impact in the psychiatric literature. Despite its limited heuristic value for the understanding of schizophrenia, however, the anhedonia hypothesis has had major impact on biological theories of reinforcement, motivation, and addiction. Brain dopamine plays a very important role in reinforcement of response habits, conditioned preferences, and synaptic plasticity in cellular models of learning and memory. The notion that dopamine plays a dominant role in reinforcement is fundamental to the psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction, to most neuroadaptation theories of addiction, and to current theories of conditioned reinforcement and reward prediction. Properly understood, it is also fundamental to recent theories of incentive motivation.

  13. Reboxetine Enhances the Olanzapine-Induced Antipsychotic-Like Effect, Cortical Dopamine Outflow and NMDA Receptor-Mediated Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Monica M; Jardemark, Kent; Malmerfelt, Anna; Björkholm, Carl; Svensson, Torgny H

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical data have shown that addition of the selective norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor reboxetine increases the antipsychotic-like effect of the D2/3 antagonist raclopride and, in parallel, enhances cortical dopamine output. Subsequent clinical results suggested that adding reboxetine to stabl