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Sample records for iii kraton block

  1. [Radioecological situation in the impact zone of the accidental underground nuclear explosion "Kraton-3" in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)].

    PubMed

    Sobakin, P I; Gerasimov, Ya R; Chevychelov, A P; Perk, A A; Goryachenkova, T A; Novikov, A P

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports on the results of a ground walking gamma- and gamma-spectrometric survey made in the impact zone of the accidental underground nuclear explosion "Kraton-3". Patterns of migration, 137Cs, 90Sr and Pu distribution in the soil-vegetable cover of the northern taiga on permafrost are considered. Radioeco- logical situation within the territory surveyed is noted as unfavorable.

  2. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This instructor guide together with a student guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The instructor guide is a resource for planning and managing individualized, competency-based instruction in six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units with some units having several…

  3. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This student guide together with an instructor guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The student guide contains self-contained instructional material that students can study at their own pace most of the time. Six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units, with some units…

  4. Lithium Polymer Electrolytes Based On PMMA / PEG And Penetrant Diffusion In Kraton Penta-Block Ionomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yan

    The study of diffusion in polymeric material is critical to many research fields and applications, such as polymer morphology, protective coatings (paints and varnishes), separation membranes, transport phenomena, polymer electrolytes, polymer melt, and controlled release of drugs from polymer carriers [1-9]. However, it is still a challenge to understand, predict and control the diffusion of molecules and ions of different sizes in polymers [2]. This work studied the medium to long range diffusion of species (i.e., ions and molecules) in solid polymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEG/PMMA) for Li-based batteries, and polymeric permselective membranes via pulsed-field gradient NMR and a.c. impedance. Over the past decades polymer electrolytes have attracted much attention because of their promising technological application as an ion-conducting medium in solid-state batteries, fuel cells, electrochromic displays, and chemical sensors [10, 11]. However, despite numerous studies related to ionic transport in these electrolytes the understanding of the migration mechanism is still far from being complete, and progress in the field remains largely empirical [10, 12-15]. Among various candidates for solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) material, the miscible polymer pair, poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEO/PMMA), is an attractive one, because there is a huge difference in mobility between PEO and PMMA in their blends, and PEO chains remain exceptionally mobile in the blend even at temperature below the glass transition temperature of the blend [ 16]. Thus the mechanical strength and dimensional stability is maintained by PMMA component, while the chain motions or rearrangements of the PEO component virtually contribute to the ion transport [17]. The current work prepared two types of SPE based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) /PMMA (40/60 by weight) for Li-based batteries: lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide) (LiN(SO2CF3)2, LiTFSI) doped SPE and single-ion SPE. PEG, which is the very low molecular weight version of PEO, was used instead of PLO due to PEG's advantages of being noncrystalline, higher mobility, and having relatively high ionic conductivity when doped with alkali metal salts [18]. The medium to long range diffusion of species (i.e., ions and molecules) were studied via pulsed-field gradient NMR and a.c. impedance, along with other properties. For the LiTFSI doped system, the samples are named with their F0 to Li ratios. The order of diffusivity of ions is 16:1> 24:1> 8:1, while the order of a.c. conductivity is 24:1 > 16:1> 8:1. The largest diffusion 7Li coefficient is 1.4 x 108 cm 2/s in 16:1 at 77°C , and the largest a.c. conductivity is 1.43x 10-5S/cm for 24:1 at 68°C. The discrepancy between the diffusivity order and conductivity order is attributed to the formation of neutral contact ion pairs by a substantial fraction of ions in 16:1 . As the salt concentration is increased as 24:1→16:1→8:1, there is the transition of mostly free ions (i.e., 24:1)→free ions+contact ion pairs (i.e.. 16:1)→free ions+contact ion pairs+higher aggregates (i.e., 8:1). For the single-ion system, ion pairing of lithium PMMA ionomer is a serious problem due to the relatively low acidity of its corresponding acid and the low dielectric constant of the solvent (i.e. PEG). The Li+ diffusivity is fair (on the order of 10-8 cm2/s at 65°C, 77°C, and 89°C), but the fraction of free Li+ is only 1-2%. This severely limits the resulting a.c. conductivity, which is 2.72x 10-7 S/cm for 40P600 at 81°C. The second project involves studying the transport properties of a sulfonated pentablock copolymer, poly(para-methylstyrene)--b-hydrogenated polybutadiene-b-polystyrene-bhydrogenated polybutadiene - b-poly(para-methylstyrene) with polystyrene sulfonated in the midblock(PMS-HPB-sS-HPB-PMS), as pemrselective membranes for protective clothing, with high permeability to water and low permeability to hazardous organic chemicals. In addition, this work also contributes to study of polymer electrolyte membrane for fuel cell systems, because water transport in polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) has a profound effect on the performance of a fuel cell, yet is surprisingly the least studied property of PEMs[19]. The self-diffusion coefficients of different penetrant molecules, i.e., water, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and ethanol in the said ionomer were accurately measured with PFG NMR as functions of temperature and concentration of solvents. Water exhibited self-diffusion coefficients two orders of magnitude higher than DMMP, while ethanol lies in between. Their effective volume to surface ratios of domains where diffusion took place were determined. The volume to surface ratios of water and DMMP are quite different, suggesting they may have different local geometry of the pores they reside in, while the V p/Seff ratios for water and ethanol are similar, thereby suggesting similar local environments of these solvents in the ionomer.

  5. Blocking Metal Accretion onto Population III Stars by Stellar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shuta J.; Chiaki, Gen; Tominaga, Nozomu; Susa, Hajime

    2017-08-01

    Low-mass population III (PopIII) stars of ≲ 0.8 {M}⊙ could survive up until the present. The nondetection of low-mass PopIII stars in our Galaxy has already put a stringent constraint on the initial mass function (IMF) of PopIII stars, suggesting that PopIII stars have a top-heavy IMF. On the other hand, some claim that the lack of such stars stems from metal enrichment of their surfaces by the accretion of heavy elements from the interstellar medium (ISM). We investigate the effects of the stellar wind on metal accretion onto low-mass PopIII stars because accretion of the local ISM onto the Sun is prevented by the solar wind, even for neutrals. The stellar wind and radiation of low-mass PopIII stars are modeled based on knowledge of nearby low-mass stellar systems, including our Sun. We find that low-mass PopIII stars traveling across the Galaxy form a stellar magnetosphere in most of their life. Once the magnetosphere is formed, most of the neutral interstellar particles are photoionized before reaching the stellar surface and are blown away by the wind. Especially, the accretion abundance of iron will be reduced by a factor of < {10}-12 compared with Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion. The metal accretion can enhance iron abundance [Fe/H] only up to ˜-14. This demonstrates that low-mass PopIII stars remain pristine and will be found as metal-free stars and that further searches for them are valuable in constraining the IMF of PopIII stars.

  6. High Efficiency GPS Block III L1 band Envelope Tracking Power Amplifier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

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  7. Reverse twin block for interceptive management of developing class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Meenu; Singh, Harpreet; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Poonam

    2017-01-01

    Early correction of developing class III malocclusions remains a complex challenge. Treatment approaches for these young patients have been directed at growth modification. Encouraging outcomes have been reported with the use of Class III functional appliances including reverse twin block (RTB) appliance. The present paper tries to provide an insight into RTB appliance used for successful interceptive management of developing class III malocclusion in two children. RTBs were fabricated with bite registered in the position of maximum possible retrusion of mandible with interincisal clearance of 2 mm and vertical clearance of 5 mm in the buccal segments. Anterior crossbite was corrected, and there was a marked improvement in facial appearance of the children. RTB can be a viable and effective functional appliance treatment modality for early management of developing class III malocclusion.

  8. Cardiac Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Is Blocked by Monomethylarsonous Acid (III)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tianfang; Barnett, Joey V.; Camenisch, Todd D.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic exposure during embryonic development can cause ischemic heart pathologies later in adulthood which may originate from impairment in proper blood vessel formation. The arsenic-associated detrimental effects are mediated by arsenite (iAsIII) and its most toxic metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid [MMA (III)]. The impact of MMA (III) on coronary artery development has not yet been studied. The key cellular process that regulates coronary vessel development is the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). During cardiac EMT, activated epicardial progenitor cells transform to mesenchymal cells to form the cellular components of coronary vessels. Smad2/3 mediated TGFβ2 signaling, the key regulator of cardiac EMT, is disrupted by arsenite exposure. In this study, we compared the cardiac toxicity of MMA (III) with arsenite. Epicardial progenitor cells are 15 times more sensitive to MMA (III) cytotoxicity when compared with arsenite. MMA (III) caused a significant blockage in epicardial cellular transformation and invasion at doses 10 times lower than arsenite. Key EMT genes including TGFβ ligands, TβRIII, Has2, CD44, Snail1, TBX18, and MMP2 were down regulated by MMA (III) exposure. MMA (III) disrupted Smad2/3 activation at a dose 20 times lower than arsenite. Both arsenite and MMA (III) significantly inhibited Erk1/2 and Erk5 phosphorylation. Nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and Erk5 was also blocked by arsenical exposure. However, p38 activation, as well as smooth muscle differentiation, was refractory to the inhibition by the arsenicals. Collectively, these findings revealed that MMA (III) is a selective disruptor of cardiac EMT and as such may predispose to arsenic-associated cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25145660

  9. Dilute Group III-V nitride intermediate band solar cells with contact blocking layers

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw [Kensington, CA; Yu, Kin Man [Lafayette, CA

    2012-07-31

    An intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) is provided including a p-n junction based on dilute III-V nitride materials and a pair of contact blocking layers positioned on opposite surfaces of the p-n junction for electrically isolating the intermediate band of the p-n junction by blocking the charge transport in the intermediate band without affecting the electron and hole collection efficiency of the p-n junction, thereby increasing open circuit voltage (V.sub.OC) of the IBSC and increasing the photocurrent by utilizing the intermediate band to absorb photons with energy below the band gap of the absorber layers of the IBSC. Hence, the overall power conversion efficiency of a IBSC will be much higher than an conventional single junction solar cell. The p-n junction absorber layers of the IBSC may further have compositionally graded nitrogen concentrations to provide an electric field for more efficient charge collection.

  10. Dilute group III-V nitride intermediate band solar cells with contact blocking layers

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man

    2015-02-24

    An intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) is provided including a p-n junction based on dilute III-V nitride materials and a pair of contact blocking layers positioned on opposite surfaces of the p-n junction for electrically isolating the intermediate band of the p-n junction by blocking the charge transport in the intermediate band without affecting the electron and hole collection efficiency of the p-n junction, thereby increasing open circuit voltage (V.sub.OC) of the IBSC and increasing the photocurrent by utilizing the intermediate band to absorb photons with energy below the band gap of the absorber layers of the IBSC. Hence, the overall power conversion efficiency of a IBSC will be much higher than an conventional single junction solar cell. The p-n junction absorber layers of the IBSC may further have compositionally graded nitrogen concentrations to provide an electric field for more efficient charge collection.

  11. [Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)4]-: a new building block for designing single-chain magnets.

    PubMed

    Toma, Luminita Marilena; Pasán, Jorge; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2012-11-28

    We herein present the synthesis and magneto-structural study of a new family of heterobimetallic chains of general formula {[Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)(4)](2)M(II)(H(2)O)(2)}(n)·pnH(2)O [dmbpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine; M = Mn (2), Cu (3), Ni (4) and Co (5) with p = 4 (2), 3 (3), 9 (4) and 3.5 (5)] which were prepared by using the mononuclear PPh(4)[Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)(4)]·3H(2)O (1) building block (PPh(4)(+) = tetraphenylphosphonium) as a ligand toward fully solvated M(II) ions. The structure of 1 consists of discrete [Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)(4)](-) anions, tetraphenylphosphonium cations and noncoordinated water molecules. Complexes 2-5 are isostructural compounds whose structure consists of neutral 4,2-wave like heterobimetallic chains of formula {[Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)(4)](2)M(II)(H(2)O)(2)}(n) where the [Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)(4)](-) entity adopts a bis-monodentate coordination mode toward trans-[M(II)(H(2)O)(2)] units through two of its four cyanide groups in cis positions. 1 exhibits the magnetic behaviour of magnetically isolated six-coordinate low-spin Fe(III) complexes with an important orbital contribution. 2 behaves as ferrimagnetic Fe(III)(2)Mn(II) chains, whereas 3-5 exhibit intrachain ferromagnetic couplings between the low-spin Fe(III) and either Cu(II) (3), Ni (4) or Co(II) (5) as well as frequency-dependence of the out-of-phase ac susceptibility signals below 3.0 (3), 5.5 (4) and 5.0 K (5). The relaxation time and the energy to reverse the magnetization of 3-5 are related to the anisotropy of the M(II) center and to the intra- and interchain magnetic interactions. Unprecedentedly in the world of cyanide-bearing complexes, 5 exhibits a double slow relaxation of the magnetization.

  12. Piericidin A1 Blocks Yersinia Ysc Type III Secretion System Needle Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jessica M.; Duncan, Miles C.; Johnson, Kevin S.; Diepold, Andreas; Lam, Hanh; Dupzyk, Allison J.; Martin, Lexi R.; Wong, Weng Ruh; Linington, Roger G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a bacterial virulence factor expressed by dozens of Gram-negative pathogens but largely absent from commensals. The T3SS is an attractive target for antimicrobial agents that may disarm pathogenic bacteria while leaving commensal populations intact. We previously identified piericidin A1 as an inhibitor of the Ysc T3SS in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Piericidins were first discovered as inhibitors of complex I of the electron transport chain in mitochondria and some bacteria. However, we found that piericidin A1 did not alter Yersinia membrane potential or inhibit flagellar motility powered by the proton motive force, indicating that the piericidin mode of action against Yersinia type III secretion is independent of complex I. Instead, piericidin A1 reduced the number of T3SS needle complexes visible by fluorescence microscopy at the bacterial surface, preventing T3SS translocator and effector protein secretion. Furthermore, piericidin A1 decreased the abundance of higher-order YscF needle subunit complexes, suggesting that piericidin A1 blocks YscF needle assembly. While expression of T3SS components in Yersinia are positively regulated by active type III secretion, the block in secretion by piericidin A1 was not accompanied by a decrease in T3SS gene expression, indicating that piericidin A1 may target a T3SS regulatory circuit. However, piericidin A1 still inhibited effector protein secretion in the absence of the T3SS regulator YopK, YopD, or YopN. Surprisingly, while piericidin A1 also inhibited the Y. enterocolitica Ysc T3SS, it did not inhibit the SPI-1 family Ysa T3SS in Y. enterocolitica or the Ysc family T3SS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Together, these data indicate that piericidin A1 specifically inhibits Yersinia Ysc T3SS needle assembly. IMPORTANCE The bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) is widely used by both human and animal pathogens to cause disease yet remains incompletely understood

  13. The insecticidal neurotoxin Aps III is an atypical knottin peptide that potently blocks insect voltage-gated sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Bende, Niraj S.; Kang, Eunji; Herzig, Volker; Bosmans, Frank; Nicholson, Graham M.; Mobli, Mehdi; King, Glenn F.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most potent insecticidal venom peptides described to date is Aps III from the venom of the trapdoor spider Apomastus schlingeri. Aps III is highly neurotoxic to lepidopteran crop pests, making it a promising candidate for bioinsecticide development. However, its disulfide-connectivity, three-dimensional structure, and mode of action have not been determined. Here we show that recombinant Aps III (rAps III) is an atypical knottin peptide; three of the disulfide bridges form a classical inhibitor cystine knot motif while the fourth disulfide acts as a molecular staple that restricts the flexibility of an unusually large β hairpin loop that often houses the pharmacophore in this class of toxins. We demonstrate that the irreversible paralysis induced in insects by rAps III results from a potent block of insect voltage-gated sodium channels. Channel block by rAps III is voltage-independent insofar as it occurs without significant alteration in the voltage-dependence of channel activation or steady-state inactivation. Thus, rAps III appears to be a pore blocker that plugs the outer vestibule of insect voltage-gated sodium channels. This mechanism of action contrasts strikingly with virtually all other sodium channel modulators isolated from spider venoms that act as gating modifiers by interacting with one or more of the four voltage-sensing domains of the channel. PMID:23473802

  14. The insecticidal neurotoxin Aps III is an atypical knottin peptide that potently blocks insect voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Bende, Niraj S; Kang, Eunji; Herzig, Volker; Bosmans, Frank; Nicholson, Graham M; Mobli, Mehdi; King, Glenn F

    2013-05-15

    One of the most potent insecticidal venom peptides described to date is Aps III from the venom of the trapdoor spider Apomastus schlingeri. Aps III is highly neurotoxic to lepidopteran crop pests, making it a promising candidate for bioinsecticide development. However, its disulfide-connectivity, three-dimensional structure, and mode of action have not been determined. Here we show that recombinant Aps III (rAps III) is an atypical knottin peptide; three of the disulfide bridges form a classical inhibitor cystine knot motif while the fourth disulfide acts as a molecular staple that restricts the flexibility of an unusually large β hairpin loop that often houses the pharmacophore in this class of toxins. We demonstrate that the irreversible paralysis induced in insects by rAps III results from a potent block of insect voltage-gated sodium channels. Channel block by rAps III is voltage-independent insofar as it occurs without significant alteration in the voltage-dependence of channel activation or steady-state inactivation. Thus, rAps III appears to be a pore blocker that plugs the outer vestibule of insect voltage-gated sodium channels. This mechanism of action contrasts strikingly with virtually all other sodium channel modulators isolated from spider venoms that act as gating modifiers by interacting with one or more of the four voltage-sensing domains of the channel.

  15. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Metals Processing Specialist, Blocks III and IV, Classroom Course 13-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These curriculum materials are the second section of a four-part, secondary-postsecondary-level course in metals processing. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Block III, Introduction to Metallic Arc Welding,…

  16. Oil geochemistry study; Blocks III and IV Bachaquedro Field, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, B.A.; Villarroel, H.G. de; Rondon, L.

    1996-08-01

    Blocks III and IV Bachaquero, Field, located on the east side of Lake Maracaibo, comprise an area of 40 square kilometers. In 1956 the discovery well penetrated oil saturated sands in a south dipping homoclinal structure. In 1958 production reached a maximum of 245,000 barrels per day of moderate gravity oil from three Miocene age Lagunillas Formation sands, designated as L, M, and N. The Bachaquero Field has experienced production problems including high gas-oil ratios from M and N sands to the north, high water cuts in all three sands to the south, and low production rates in the southeast. In addition, the vertical and lateral continuity of the oil pools are unknown. High resolution gas chromatography and analysis of biological markers was employed in order to resolve the continuity of the oil pools, determine genetic origin of the oils, and shed light on erratic production. Oil in the L sands are vertically discontinuous from oil in the M+N sands. The two oil pools appear laterally continuous within the study area, indicating absence of fault barriers. Well VLD 311, open to both L and M sands, produces a mix of oils, but with a strong contribution from the M sand. Bachaquero Field reservoirs were charged with oil from two different facies of the Upper Cretaceous La Luna or perhaps from La Luna and Colon source rocks as the stratigraphically younger L sands contain less mature oil with a stronger terrigenous imprint than oil the M and N sands.

  17. A truncated [Mn(III)₁₂] tetrahedron from oxime-based [Mn(III)₃O] building blocks.

    PubMed

    Frost, J M; Sanz, S; Rajeshkumar, T; Pitak, M B; Coles, S J; Rajaraman, G; Wernsdorfer, W; Schnack, J; Lusby, P J; Brechin, E K

    2014-07-28

    The use of the novel pro-ligand H4L combining the complimentary phenolic oxime and diethanolamine moieties in one organic framework, results in the formation of the first example of a [Mn(III)12] truncated tetrahedron and an extremely rare example of a Mn cage conforming to an Archimedean solid.

  18. [Short-term effects on reconstruction of Paprosky type III severe acetabulum bone defect with tantalum metal block].

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhong-yao; Li, Peng; Cha, Xiao-feng

    2015-12-01

    To investigate methods and short-term effects on tantalum metal block for reconstruction of Paprosky type III severe acetabulum bone defect. Twelve patients (12 hips) with Paprosky type III severe acetabulum bone defect,treated with tantalum metal block in revision of total hip arthroplasty, were retrospectively analyzed from March 2009 to December 2012. Among the patients, there were 5 males and 7 females aged from 45 to 78 years old with an average of 64 years old; the courses of disease ranged from 3 to 32 months with an average of 16 months. According to classification of Paprosky, all patients were Paprosky type III acetabulum bone defect. All patients were used tantalum metal block in revision of total hip arthroplasty, and large diameter biological acetabulum cups were used in combination. Operative time,blood loss and postoperative complications were recorded and compared, Harris score were used to evaluate clinical effects. Eleven patients ( 11 hips) were followed up from 9 to 36 months with an average of 25 months, 1 case was lost to follow-up for dying in car accident. The incisions were healed at stage I . Operative time ranged from 2 to 6 h with an average of 3 h; blood loss was 300 to 1 600 ml with an average of 900 ml. No deep venous thrombosis, periprosthetic femoral fracture and infection, sciatic nerve injury occurred after operation. Harris score were improved from (46.25 ± 8.99) before operation to (83.75 ± 6.76) after operation. There was significant difference in Harris score before and after operation (t = 3.14, P = 0.00 < 0.05), and 7 cases got excellent results, 2 good and 2 moderate. CONCLUCSION: Tantalum metal block is suitable for revision of Paprosky III acetabulum bone defect, could repair different kinds of acetabulum cup defect, could fill up inclusive defect of inner wall combined with particulate bone graft, induce bone growth pressured between metal block and metal cup, provide a new further choose for the treatment of Paprosky

  19. Radiostrontium hot spot in the Russian Arctic: ground surface contamination by (90)Sr at the "Kraton-3" underground nuclear explosion site.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, Valery; Mishine, Arkady; Basalaeva, Larisa; Brown, Justin

    2007-01-01

    Strontium-90 activity concentrations in surface soils and areal deposition densities have been studied at a site contaminated by an accidental release to atmosphere from the underground nuclear explosion "Kraton-3" conducted near the Polar Circle (65.9 degrees N, 112.3 degrees E) within the territory of the former USSR in 1978. In 2001-2002, the ground surface contamination at 14 plots studied ranged from 20 to 15 000 kBq m(-2), which significantly exceeds the value of 0.44 kBq m(-2) deduced for three background plots. The zone with substantial radiostrontium contamination extends, at least, 2.5 km in a north-easterly direction from the borehole. The average (137)Cs/(90)Sr ratio in the ground contamination originated from the "Kraton-3" fallout was estimated to be 0.55, which is significantly different from the ratio of 2.05 evaluated for background plots contaminated mostly from global fallout. Although vertical migration of (90)Sr in all undisturbed soil profiles studied is more rapid than that for (137)Cs, the depth of percolation of both radionuclides into the ground is mostly limited to the top 10-20 cm, which may be explained, primarily, by permafrost conditions. The horizontal migration rate of radiostrontium in the aqueous phase exceeds the radiocaesium migration rate by many times. This phenomenon seems to be a reason for the significant enrichment of the soil surface layers by radiostrontium at some sites, with variations occurring in accordance with small-scale irregularities of landscape.

  20. Cyanide-bridged Mn(III)-Fe(III) bimetallic complexes based on the pentacyano(1-methylimidazole)ferrate(III) building block: structure and magnetic characterizations.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei-Wei; Ni, Zhong-Hai; Cui, Ai-Li; Liang, Xin; Kou, Hui-Zhong

    2007-01-08

    Seven cyanide-bridged bimetallic complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of [Fe(1-CH3im)(CN)5]2- with Mn(III) Schiff base complexes. Their crystal structure and magnetic properties have been characterized. Five complexes, [Mn2(5-Brsalen)2Fe(CN)5(1-CH3im)] x H2O (1), [Mn2(5-Clsalen)2(H2O)2Fe(CN)5(1-CH3im)] x H2O (2), [Mn2(5-Clsaltn)2(H2O)2Fe(CN)5(1-CH3im)] (3), [Mn2(5-Clsaltmen)2(H2O)2Fe(CN)5(1-CH3im)] x H2O (4), and [Mn2(5-Brsaltmen)2(H2O)2Fe(CN)5(1-CH3im)] x CH3OH (5), are neutral and trinuclear with two [Mn(SB)]+ (SB2- = Schiff base ligands) and one [Fe(1-CH3im)(CN)5]2-. Complex {[Et4N][Mn(acacen)Fe(CN)5(1-CH3im)]}n x 6nH2O (6) is one-dimensional with alternate [Mn(acacen)]+ and [Fe(CN)5(1-CH3im)]2- units. The two-dimensional complex {[Mn4(saltmen)4Fe(CN)5(1-CH3im)]}n[ClO4]2n x 9nH2O (7) consists of Mn4Fe units which are further connected by the phenoxo oxygen atoms. Magnetic studies show the presence of ferromagnetic Mn(III)-Fe(III) coupling in the trinuclear compounds with the magnetic coupling constant (J) ranging from 4.5 to 6.0 cm-1, based on the Hamiltonian H = -2JSFe(SMn(1) + SMn(2)). Antiferromagnetic interaction has been observed in complex 6, whereas ferromagnetic coupling occurs in complex 7. Complexes 6 and 7 exhibit long-range magnetic ordering with a TN value of 4.0 K for 6 and Tc of 4.8 K for 7. Complex 6 shows metamagnetic behavior at 2 K, and complex 7 possesses a hysteresis loop with a coercive field of 500 Oe, typical of a soft ferromagnet.

  1. Role of electron blocking layer in III-nitride laser diodes and light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yen-Kuang; Chang, Jih-Yuan; Chen, Mei-Ling

    2010-02-01

    A high energy bandgap electron blocking layer (EBL) just behind the active region is conventionally used in the nitride-based laser diodes (LDs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to improve the confinement capability of electrons within the quantum wells. Nevertheless, the EBL may also act as a potential barrier for the holes and cause non-uniform distribution of holes among quantum wells. A most recent study by Han et al. (Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231123, 2009) reported that, because of the blocking effect for holes, the InGaN LED device without an EBL has slighter efficiency droop and higher light output at high level of current injection when compared with the LED device with an EBL. This result seems to contradict with the original intention of using the EBL. Furthermore, findings from our previous studies (IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 329, 2008; J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103115, 2008; Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201118, 2007) indicated that the utilization of EBL is essential for the InGaN laser diodes. Thus, in this work, the optical properties of the InGaN LDs and LEDs are explored numerically with the LASTIP simulation program and APSYS simulation program, respectively. The analyses focus particularly on the light output power, energy band diagrams, recombination rates, distribution of electrons and holes in the active region, and electron overflow. This study will then conclude with a discussion of the effect of EBL on the optical properties of the InGaN LDs and LEDs.

  2. 137Cs and 90Sr in live and dead reindeer lichens (genera Cladonia) from the "Kraton-3" underground nuclear explosion site.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Mishine, A; Kaduka, M; Basalaeva, L; Brown, J; Andersson, K G

    2007-01-01

    The contents of 137Cs and 90Sr have been determined in 29 samples of live and dead reindeer lichens (genera Cladonia) collected at the "Kraton-3" underground nuclear explosion site (65.9 degrees N 112.3 degrees E, event year--1978) in Yakutia, Russia in 2002. The area contamination was within the range of 0.36-700 and 0.13-770 kBq m(-2) for 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. The dead organisms were on average much more contaminated than the live ones. Vertical fractionation of the live lichen carpet demonstrated maximal activity concentrations of both radionuclides in the lower older section of the plants, while for the dead lichens the maximal activity concentrations of 137Cs were detected in the upper part. The vertical distribution of 90Sr was more or less homogeneous in the cushions of dead lichens. Elevated levels of 137Cs and 90Sr activity concentrations were also detected in the re-establishing young lichens growing over the residua of some dead lichens.

  3. Transforming common III-V/II-VI insulating building blocks into topological heterostructure via the intrinsic electric polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunger, Alex; Zhang, Xiuwen; Abdalla, Leonardo; Liu, Qihang

    Currently known topological insulators (TIs) are limited to narrow gap compounds incorporating heavy elements, thus severely limiting the material pool available for such applications. We show how a heterovalent superlattice made of common semiconductor building blocks can transform its non-TI components into a topological heterostructure. The heterovalent nature of such interfaces sets up, in the absence of interfacial atomic exchange, a natural internal electric field that along with the quantum confinement leads to band inversion, transforming these semiconductors into a topological phase while also forming a giant Rashba spin splitting. We demonstrate this paradigm of designing TIs from ordinary semiconductors via first-principle calculations on III-V/II-VI superlattice InSb/CdTe. We illustrate the relationship between the interfacial stability and the topological transition, finding a ``window of opportunity'' where both conditions can be optimized. This work illustrates the general principles of co-evaluation of TI functionality with thermodynamic stability as a route of identifying realistic combination of common insulators that could produce topological heterostructures. This work was supported by Basic Energy Science, MSE division (Grant DE-FG02-13ER46959).

  4. Metal-organic porous frameworks designed from zinc(II), terbium(III), europium(III), and organic carboxylate building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reineke, Theresa Marie

    The body of this thesis focuses on constructing novel, metal-organic open framework (MOF) materials by the copolymerization in solution of Zn(II), Tb(III) Eu(III) metal ions with the organic building blocks: acetylenedicarboxylic acid (ADC), 4,4'-bipyridine (BPY), 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (NDC), 4,4'-azodibenzoic acid (ADC), 1,3,5,7-adamantanetetracarboxylic acid (ATC), and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC). Several new open structures with the formulas Th(BDC)(NO 3)·[HCON(CH3)2]2 (MOF6 ), Th2(BDC)Y(H2O)4 (MOF-7), Tb 2(ADC)3·(CH3OH)2[(CH3) 2SO]2 (MOF-8), Tb2(ADB)3·[(CH 3)2SO]20 (MOF-9), Zn(ADC)2·[BN(CH 2CH3)3]2 (MOF-10), Zn 2(ATC)·(H2O)2(CH3Ch2OH) 2 (MOF-12), and Zn(NDC)·(H2O)[HCON(CH3) 2](C6H5Cl)0.5 (INSOFAR) have been characterized through single crystal x-ray diffraction. Other non porous crystal structures have also been characterized: Zn(ADC)(H2O)[HCON(CH3) 2], Eu(NO3)4 (BPY)(HBPY), and Tb(HEDP)2(C 5H5N), and the preparation of these structures have been compared to the synthesis of the porous structures. In addition, the properties, porosity, and inclusion chemistry of the MOFs have been explored by gas and liquid sorption, thermal gravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray powder diffraction techniques. Several challenges in the area of MOF materials have been addressed in this work. By using solvo-thermal and room temperature vapor diffusion techniques, effective methods of synthesis and crystallization have been developed for these systems. By using the large amount of data available on Zn(II) chemistry, as well as the work of previous researchers in our group, many novel Zn(II) - carboxylate open frameworks can now be designed for certain structural attributes. This is accomplished through using known atom clusters or secondary building units (SBUs) of the metal ion employed in constructing the framework. Furthermore, by implementing this

  5. A dominant-negative needle mutant blocks type III secretion of early but not late substrates in Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alison J; Díaz, Dennise A De Jesús; Mecsas, Joan

    2010-04-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effectors into host cells. A key component of the T3SS is the needle, which is a hollow tube on the bacterial surface through which effectors are secreted, composed of the YscF protein. To study needle assembly, we performed a screen for dominant-negative yscF alleles that prevented effector secretion in the presence of wild-type (WT) YscF. One allele, yscF-L54V, prevents WT YscF secretion and needle assembly, although purified YscF-L54V polymerizes in vitro. YscF-L54V binds to its chaperones YscE and YscG, and the YscF-L54V-EG complex targets to the T3SS ATPase, YscN. We propose that YscF-L54V stalls at a binding site in the needle assembly pathway following its release from the chaperones, which blocks the secretion of WT YscF and other early substrates required for building a needle. Interestingly, YscF-L54V does not affect the activity of pre-assembled actively secreting machines, indicating that a factor and/or binding site required for YscF secretion is absent from T3SS machines already engaged in effector secretion. Thus, substrate switching may involve the removal of an early substrate-specific binding site as a mechanism to exclude early substrates from Yop-secreting machines.

  6. A dominant-negative needle mutant blocks type III secretion of early but not late substrates in Yersinia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Alison J.; De Jesús Díaz, Dennise A.; Mecsas, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Summary Yersinia pseudotuberculosis uses a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) to deliver effectors into host cells. A key component of the T3SS is the needle, which is a hollow tube on the bacterial surface through which effectors are secreted, composed of the YscF protein. To study needle assembly, we performed a screen for dominant-negative yscF alleles that prevented effector secretion in the presence of wild-type (WT) YscF. One allele, yscF-L54V, prevents WT YscF secretion and needle assembly, although purified YscF-L54V polymerizes in vitro. YscF-L54V binds to its chaperones YscE and YscG, and the YscF-L54V-EG complex targets to the T3SS ATPase, YscN. We propose that YscF-L54V stalls at a binding site in the needle assembly pathway following its release from the chaperones, which blocks the secretion of WT YscF and other early substrates required for building a needle. Interestingly, YscF-L54V does not affect the activity of pre-assembled actively secreting machines, indicating that a factor and/or binding site required for YscF secretion is absent from T3SS machines already engaged in effector secretion. Thus, substrate switching may involve the removal of an early substrate-specific binding site as a mechanism to exclude early substrates from Yop-secreting machines. PMID:20199604

  7. Transcription of eucaryotic tRNA1met and 5SRNA genes by RNA polymerase III is blocked by base mismatches in the intragenic control regions.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, M A; Folk, W R

    1987-01-01

    We have constructed duplex DNAs containing single G-T or A-C mismatches in the X. laevis tRNA1met gene. Mismatches within regions of this gene which are bound by transcription factor TFIIIC prevent transcription by RNA polymerase III. Homoduplexes with G-C----A-T mutations at some of the same sites, however, are transcribed efficiently in oocytes. Mismatches outside of the tRNA1met gene have no effect upon transcription. A survey of several point mutants in the Syrian hamster 5SRNA gene indicates that mismatches outside the internal control region somewhat reduce transcription, but a mismatch within the internal control region blocks transcription. Thus, the presence of mismatched bases in the region of DNA which interacts with RNA polymerase III transcription factors blocks transcription, perhaps by interfering with DNA renaturation following transit of the RNA polymerase. Images PMID:3645544

  8. A trs20 mutation that mimics an SEDT-causing mutation blocks selective and non-selective autophagy: a model for TRAPP III organization.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Stephanie; Shahrzad, Nassim; Saint-Dic, Djenann; Dutczak, Hartley; Sacher, Michael

    2013-10-01

    TRAPP is a multisubunit complex that functions in membrane traffic. Mutations in the mammalian TRAPP protein C2 are linked to the skeletal disorder spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda (SEDT) that is thought to arise from an inability to secrete procollagen from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that C2 binds to the SNARE protein Syntaxin 5 and this interaction is weakened by an SEDT-causing missense mutation (D47Y). Interestingly, the equivalent mutation (D46Y) in the yeast C2 homolog Trs20p does not block anterograde traffic but did affect endocytosis. The trs20D46Y mutation interfered with the interaction between Trs20p and Trs85p (TRAPP III-specific subunit), Trs120p and Trs130p (TRAPP II-specific subunits). Size exclusion chromatography suggested that this yeast mutation destabilized the TRAPP III complex that is involved in autophagy. We further show that this mutation blocks both the selective cytosol-to-vacuole (cvt) pathway as well as non-selective autophagy. We demonstrate that the apparent molecular size of the TRAPP III complex is dependent upon membranes, and that the presence of TRAPP III is dependent upon Atg9p. Finally, we demonstrate that lipidated Bet3p is enriched in TRAPP III and that lipidation increases the efficiency of autophagy. Our study suggests that Trs20p acts as an adaptor for Trs85p and Trs120p and reveals complexities in TRAPP III assembly and function. The implications of C2D47Y in SEDT are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Fire Protection Specialist, Blocks I, II, & III, 17-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the first three blocks of a five-block course for use in training fire protection specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are the following topics: fire protection objectives and responsibilities (fire protection and occupational safety, extinguishing agents, principles and theory of combustion, natural…

  10. Environmental Support Specialist, Blocks III & IV, 17-5. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the second section of a four-part course to train environmental support specialists. Covered in the individual course blocks are operative principles of water treatment plants (principles of water treatment plants, the clarification process, water systems filters, chemical disinfection, taste and odor control,…

  11. The Backward Span of the Corsi Block-Tapping Task and Its Association with the WAIS-III Digit Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessels, Roy P. C.; van den Berg, Esther; Ruis, Carla; Brands, Augustina M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The Corsi Block-Tapping Task measures visuospatial short-term and working memory, but a standardized backward condition is lacking. The authors present a standardized backward procedure that was examined in 246 healthy older adults (ages 50 to 92), comparing the results with the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third…

  12. Halogen-bonding in a new family of tris(haloanilato)metallate(III) magnetic molecular building blocks.

    PubMed

    Atzori, Matteo; Artizzu, Flavia; Sessini, Elisa; Marchiò, Luciano; Loche, Danilo; Serpe, Angela; Deplano, Paola; Concas, Giorgio; Pop, Flavia; Avarvari, Narcis; Mercuri, Maria Laura

    2014-05-21

    Here we report on new tris(haloanilato)metallate(III) complexes with general formula [A]3[M(X2An)3] (A = (n-Bu)4N(+), (Ph)4P(+); M = Cr(III), Fe(III); X2An = 3,6-dihalo derivatives of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoquinone (H4C6O4), chloranilate (Cl2An(2-)), bromanilate (Br2An(2-)) and iodanilate (I2An(2-))), obtained by a general synthetic strategy, and their full characterization. The crystal structures of these Fe(III) and Cr(III) haloanilate complexes consist of anions formed by homoleptic complexes formulated as [M(X2An)3](3-) and (Et)3NH(+), (n-Bu)4N(+), or (Ph4)P(+) cations. All complexes exhibit octahedral coordination geometry with metal ions surrounded by six oxygen atoms from three chelate ligands. These complexes are chiral according to the metal coordination of three bidentate ligands, and both Λ and Δ enantiomers are present in their crystal lattice. The packing of [(n-Bu)4N]3[Cr(I2An)3] (5a) shows that the complexes form supramolecular dimers that are held together by two symmetry related I···O interactions (3.092(8) Å), considerably shorter than the sum of iodine and oxygen van der Waals radii (3.50 Å). The I···O interaction can be regarded as a halogen bond (XB), where the iodine behaves as the XB donor and the oxygen atom as the XB acceptor. This is in agreement with the properties of the electrostatic potential for [Cr(I2An)3](3-) that predicts a negative charge accumulation on the peripheral oxygen atoms and a positive charge accumulation on the iodine. The magnetic behaviour of all complexes, except 5a, may be explained by considering a set of paramagnetic non-interacting Fe(III) or Cr(III) ions, taking into account the zero-field splitting effect. The presence of strong XB interactions in 5a are able, instead, to promote antiferromagnetic interactions among paramagnetic centers at low temperature, as shown by the fit with the Curie-Weiss law, in agreement with the formation of halogen-bonded supramolecular dimers.

  13. Application of sequence stratigraphy in an integrated reservoir characterization of the Miocene Lower Lagunillas member in the further development of blocks III/IV, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Gamero De Villarroel, H.; Coll, C.M.; Jimenez, Z.; Lozada, T.; Leon, K.; Brandt, R.; Padron, R.; Rondon, L.; Maraven, S.A.; Gomez, E.; Munoz, M.A.; Ripple, R.A.; Luneau, B.A.

    1996-08-01

    An integrated sequence stratigraphic framework has been developed for the Lower Lagunillas and Laguna members of the Miocene Lagunillas Formation at Blocks III/IV, Lake Maracaibo. These reservoirs were discovered in the 1950s and have produced over 1132 MMBO. The Lower Lagunillas and Laguna had traditionally been interpreted as delta plain and coastal bar deposits, with each member consisting of 3 reservoir subdivisions developed as single drainage units. Subsequent engineering studies showed that this geologic model did not adequately address the heterogeneity of the reservoirs. Sedimentological interpretation of 8 cored wells led to the development of a new model which was further enhanced by integrating 210 well logs, 3D seismic data, petrophysical analysis, and production and pressure data. In this model the basal Lower Lagunillas is interpreted as a fluvially dominated upper delta plain. The upper part of the Lower Lagunillas and Laguna represents deposition in a tidally dominated lower delta plain and delta front environment. Fluctuations between tides and river floods were responsible for generating thick, very heterogeneous reservoirs. The new reservoir model provides the basis for additional development by the identification of (1) recompletion intervals, (2) low resistivity pay zones as potential targets for horizontal wells, and (3) infill drilling targets. Use of this predictive reservoir model will ensure the optimal exploitation and recovery of the remaining oil at Blocks III/IV.

  14. The backward span of the Corsi Block-Tapping Task and its association with the WAIS-III Digit Span.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Roy P C; van den Berg, Esther; Ruis, Carla; Brands, Augustina M A

    2008-12-01

    The Corsi Block-Tapping Task measures visuospatial short-term and working memory, but a standardized backward condition is lacking. The authors present a standardized backward procedure that was examined in 246 healthy older adults (ages 50 to 92), comparing the results with the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition. Principal component analysis resulted in a two-factor model, dissociating a verbal and a spatial working-memory factor. Also the Corsi backward is not more difficult than the Corsi forward, in contrast to the Digit Span backward that is more difficult than the Digit Span forward. This may suggest that the Corsi Block-Tapping Task backward task relies on processing within working-memory's slave systems, whereas the Digit Span backward also relies on the central executive component of working memory. Finally, regression-based normative data and cutoff scores for older adults are presented for use in clinical practice.

  15. Two novel cyanide-bridged bimetallic magnetic chains derived from manganese(III) Schiff bases and hexacyanochromate(III) building blocks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Qing-Lun; Qi, Jing; Ma, Yue; Yan, Shi-Ping; Yang, Guang-Ming; Cheng, Peng; Liao, Dai-Zheng

    2011-05-02

    Two novel complexes, [{Mn(salen)}(2){Mn(salen)(CH(3)OH)}{Cr(CN)(6)}](n)·2nCH(3)CN·nCH(3)OH (1) and [Mn(5-Clsalmen)(CH(3)OH)(H(2)O)](2n)[{Mn(5-Clsalmen)(μ-CN)}Cr(CN)(5)](n)·5.5nH(2)O (2) (salen(2-) = N,N'-ethylene-bis(salicylideneiminato) dianion; 5-Clsalmen(2-) = N,N'-(1-methylethylene)-bis(5-chlorosalicylideneiminato) dianion), were synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The structural analyses show that complex 1 consists of one-dimensional (1D) alternating chains formed by the [{Cr(CN)(6)}{Mn(salen)}(4){Mn(salen)(CH(3)OH)}(2)](3+) heptanuclear cations and [Cr(CN)(6)](3-) anions. While in complex 2, the hexacyanochromate(III) anion acts as a bis-monodentate ligand through two trans-cyano groups to bridge two [Mn(5-Clsalmen)](+) cations to form a straight chain. The magnetic analysis indicates that complex 1 shows three-dimensional (3D) antiferromagnetic ordering with the Néel temperature of 5.0 K, and it is a metamagnet displaying antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition at a critical field of about 2.6 kOe at 2 K. Complex 2 behaves as a molecular magnet with Tc = 3.0 K. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. Design of a Phase III cluster randomized trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a malaria transmission blocking vaccine.

    PubMed

    Delrieu, Isabelle; Leboulleux, Didier; Ivinson, Karen; Gessner, Bradford D

    2015-03-24

    Vaccines interrupting Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission targeting sexual, sporogonic, or mosquito-stage antigens (SSM-VIMT) are currently under development to reduce malaria transmission. An international group of malaria experts was established to evaluate the feasibility and optimal design of a Phase III cluster randomized trial (CRT) that could support regulatory review and approval of an SSM-VIMT. The consensus design is a CRT with a sentinel population randomly selected from defined inner and buffer zones in each cluster, a cluster size sufficient to assess true vaccine efficacy in the inner zone, and inclusion of ongoing assessment of vaccine impact stratified by distance of residence from the cluster edge. Trials should be conducted first in areas of moderate transmission, where SSM-VIMT impact should be greatest. Sample size estimates suggest that such a trial is feasible, and within the range of previously supported trials of malaria interventions, although substantial issues to implementation exist.

  17. SAGE III

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-13

    SAGE III Data and Information The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas ... on the spacecraft. SAGE III produced L1 and L2 scientific data from 5/07/2002 until 12/31/2005. The flight of the second instrument is as ... Additional Info:  Data Format: HDF-EOS or Big Endian/IEEE Binary SCAR-B Block:  ...

  18. Titanocene(III)-catalyzed 6-exo versus 7-endo cyclizations of epoxypolyprenes: efficient control and synthesis of versatile terpenic building blocks.

    PubMed

    Justicia, José; Jiménez, Tania; Miguel, Delia; Contreras-Montoya, Rafael; Chahboun, Rachid; Alvarez-Manzaneda, Enrique; Collado-Sanz, Daniel; Cárdenas, Diego J; Cuerva, Juan M

    2013-10-18

    In this article, a complete study on the selectivity of titanocene(III) cyclization of epoxypolyprenes is presented. The requirements for the formation of six- or seven-membered rings during these cyclizations are determined, taking into account the different substitution pattern in the epoxypolyprene precursor. Thus, a complete selectivity to 6-exo or 7-endo cyclization process has been achieved, yielding mono-, bi-, and even tricyclic compounds, constituting a new and efficient access to this type of derivative. Additionally, this procedure opens the possibility to prepare excellent building blocks for the synthesis of polycyclic compounds with a trisubstituted oxygenated function, which is present in several natural terpenes. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Improved thermal stability of AlGaAs--GaAs quantum well heterostructures using a ``blocking`` Zn diffusion to reduce column-III vacancies

    SciTech Connect

    Krames, M.R.; Minervini, A.D.; Chen, E.I.; Holonyak, N. Jr.; Baker, J.E. |

    1995-09-25

    Data are presented on the reduction of layer intermixing (disordering) in AlGaAs--GaAs quantum well heterostructures (QWH) during high-temperature anneals by an initial low-temperature ``blocking`` Zn diffusion. Room-temperature photoluminescence measurements of the increase in the lowest electron-to-heavy-hole transition energy in the QW are used to characterize the extent of layer intermixing. Doped (C and Si) samples annealed (850 {degree}C, 12 h) after a low-temperature blocking Zn diffusion (480 {degree}C) exhibit reductions in energy shift from {similar_to}177 meV to as little as {similar_to}18 meV. Similar effects are also observed, but to a lesser extent, for undoped samples. The improved thermal stability is attributed to a Zn-diffusion induced reduction in the number of column-III vacancies in the active layers and is confirmed by secondary-ion mass spectroscopy measurements. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  20. Symmetry-Supported Magnetic Blocking at 20 K in Pentagonal Bipyramidal Dy(III) Single-Ion Magnets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Cong; Liu, Jun-Liang; Ungur, Liviu; Liu, Jiang; Li, Quan-Wen; Wang, Long-Fei; Ni, Zhao-Ping; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2016-03-02

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) that can be trapped in one of the bistable magnetic states separated by an energy barrier are among the most promising candidates for high-density information storage, quantum processing, and spintronics. To date, a considerable series of achievements have been made. However, the presence of fast quantum tunnelling of magnetization (QTM) in most SMMs, especially in single-ion magnets (SIMs), provides a rapid relaxation route and often sets up a limit for the relaxation time. Here, we pursue the pentagonal bipyramidal symmetry to suppress the QTM and present pentagonal bipyramidal Dy(III) SIMs [Dy(Cy3PO)2(H2O)5]Cl3·(Cy3PO)·H2O·EtOH (1) and [Dy(Cy3PO)2(H2O)5]Br3·2(Cy3PO)·2H2O·2EtOH (2), (Cy3PO = tricyclohexyl phosphine oxide). Magnetic characterizations reveal their fascinating SMM properties with high energy barriers as 472(7) K for 1 and 543(2) K for 2, along with a record magnetic hysteresis temperature up to 20 K for 2. These results, combined with the ab initio calculations, offer an illuminating insight into the vast possibility and potential of what the symmetry rules can achieve in molecular magnetism.

  1. Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopAF1 suppresses plant immunity by targeting methionine recycling to block ethylene induction

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Erica J.; Mukhtar, M. Shahid; Finkel, Omri M.; Wan, Li; Kieber, Joseph J.; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2016-01-01

    HopAF1 is a type III effector protein of unknown function encoded in the genomes of several strains of Pseudomonas syringae and other plant pathogens. Structural modeling predicted that HopAF1 is closely related to deamidase proteins. Deamidation is the irreversible substitution of an amide group with a carboxylate group. Several bacterial virulence factors are deamidases that manipulate the activity of specific host protein substrates. We identified Arabidopsis methylthioadenosine nucleosidase proteins MTN1 and MTN2 as putative targets of HopAF1 deamidation. MTNs are enzymes in the Yang cycle, which is essential for the high levels of ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. We hypothesized that HopAF1 inhibits the host defense response by manipulating MTN activity and consequently ethylene levels. We determined that bacterially delivered HopAF1 inhibits ethylene biosynthesis induced by pathogen-associated molecular patterns and that Arabidopsis mtn1 mtn2 mutant plants phenocopy the effect of HopAF1. Furthermore, we identified two conserved asparagines in MTN1 and MTN2 from Arabidopsis that confer loss of function phenotypes when deamidated via site-specific mutation. These residues are potential targets of HopAF1 deamidation. HopAF1-mediated manipulation of Yang cycle MTN proteins is likely an evolutionarily conserved mechanism whereby HopAF1 orthologs from multiple plant pathogens contribute to disease in a large variety of plant hosts. PMID:27274076

  2. Block of IKs by the diuretic agent indapamide modulates cardiac electrophysiological effects of the class III antiarrhythmic drug dl-sotalol.

    PubMed

    Fiset, C; Drolet, B; Hamelin, B A; Turgeon, J

    1997-10-01

    Indapamide is a diuretic agent with direct electrophysiological effects on ionic currents involved in cardiac repolarization. In particular, indapamide blocks the slow component of delayed rectifier potassium current. In contrast, most class III antiarrhythmic agents, such as dl-sotalol, block the rapid component of delayed rectifier potassium current. Computer simulations have suggested potentiation of drug effects on cardiac repolarization by the combined block of the rapid component of delayed rectifier potassium current and the slow component of delayed rectifier potassium current. Therefore, the objective of our study was to evaluate the modulation of cardiac electrophysiological effects of dl-sotalol by indapamide. Two indices of cardiac repolarization, monophasic action potential duration at 90% repolarization and effective refractory period, at two basic cycle lengths (800 and 400 msec) were determined in 24 anesthetized open-chest dogs. In two treatment groups (n = 6/group), data were obtained at base line and every 2 min during steadily increasing concentrations of dl-sotalol (0-40 microg/ml) either alone or in the presence of indapamide (500 ng/ml). Data were also obtained in dogs receiving either a low-dose (500 ng/ml) or a high-dose (up to 7.5 microg/ml) infusion regimen of indapamide alone. Administration of dl-sotalol was associated with concentration-dependent increases in monophasic action potential duration at 90% repolarization and effective refractory period, whereas repolarization was only slightly altered by the administration of indapamide alone. However, concentration-response curves of dl-sotalol were shifted to the left in dogs treated with the combination of dl-sotalol and indapamide, and the EC50 values of dl-sotalol estimated for the prolongation of monophasic action potential duration at 90% repolarization and effective refractory period were decreased 3-fold during the coadministration of both drugs (P < .05 vs. dl-sotalol alone

  3. Antibodies Directed against Shiga-Toxin Producing Escherichia coli Serotype O103 Type III Secreted Proteins Block Adherence of Heterologous STEC Serotypes to HEp-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Desin, Taseen S.; Townsend, Hugh G.; Potter, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O103 is a zoonotic pathogen that is capable of causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans. The main animal reservoir for STEC is ruminants and hence reducing the levels of this pathogen in cattle could ultimately lower the risk of STEC infection in humans. During the process of infection, STECO103 uses a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) to secrete effector proteins (T3SPs) that result in the formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions. Vaccination of cattle with STEC serotype O157 T3SPs has previously been shown to be effective in reducing shedding of STECO157 in a serotype-specific manner. In this study, we tested the ability of rabbit polyclonal sera against individual STECO103 T3SPs to block adherence of the organism to HEp-2 cells. Our results demonstrate that pooled sera against EspA, EspB, EspF, NleA and Tir significantly lowered the adherence of STECO103 relative to pre-immune sera. Likewise, pooled anti-STECO103 sera were also able to block adherence by STECO157. Vaccination of mice with STECO103 recombinant proteins induced strong IgG antibody responses against EspA, EspB, NleA and Tir but not against EspF. However, the vaccine did not affect fecal shedding of STECO103 compared to the PBS vaccinated group over the duration of the experiment. Cross reactivity studies using sera against STECO103 recombinant proteins revealed a high degree of cross reactivity with STECO26 and STECO111 proteins implying that sera against STECO103 proteins could potentially provide neutralization of attachment to epithelial cells by heterologous STEC serotypes. PMID:26451946

  4. A phase III study of anti-B4-blocked ricin as adjuvant therapy post-autologous bone marrow transplant: CALGB 9254

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Richard R.; Grossbard, Michael L.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Pecora, Andrew L.; Cassileth, Peter A.; Jung, Sin-Ho; Peterson, Bruce A.; Nadler, Lee M.; Freedman, Arnold; Bayer, Ruthee-Lu; Bartlett, Nancy L.; Hurd, David D.; Cheson, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-B4-blocked ricin (anti-B4-bR) is a potent immunotoxin directed against the CD 19 antigen. Previous phase I and II studies suggested a possible role for anti-B4-bR as consolidation after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9254 is a phase III study which randomized 157 patients with B-cell lymphoma in complete remission following autologous transplant to treatment with anti-B4-bR or observation. With a median follow-up time for patients of 5.8 years, the median event-free survival for protocol treatment and observation are 2.1 and 2.9 years, respectively (p = 0.275). The median overall survival for treatment and observation are 6.1 years and not reached, respectively (p = 0.063). Therefore, no differences were found in event-free survival and overall survival between protocol treatment and observation, although there was a trend toward improved survival with observation. These data fail to support a role for anti-B4-bR as consolidative therapy after bone marrow transplant in patients with B-cell lymphoma. PMID:21275630

  5. Effect of vertical heterogeneities in a petrophysical evaluation of low resistivity pay zones, B sands, upper Eocene, Block III, Lake Maracaibo

    SciTech Connect

    Coll, C.; Cortiula, B.; Gonzalez, G.; Meza, E.; Rondon, L.

    1996-08-01

    Thin-bed reservoirs can exist as intercalations of thin porous beds and shales. For a proper petrophysical evaluation and geological characterization of this type of reservoir it is necessary to implement an integrated analysis, which includes knowledge of the depositional environment to avoid missing oil zones by applying standard petrophysical evaluations. The normal resistivity logs used on this area do not have enough vertical resolution for detecting thin low resistivity pay zones. Consequently, the common water saturation models indicate high water saturation when they are evaluated. The Middle Eocene Upper B sands are part of the Misoa Formation in Block III of Lake Maracaibo. They have been exploited since 1965 when the first production test was made. The cumulative oil production to date stands at 11.49 MMSTB. In order to supplement the existing geological information in this area, a continuous core was taken which showed the high degree of shales and thin sands intercalations in the pay zone. A careful core-log calibration was made and a new set of petrophysical parameters were established for this reservoir based on the core measurements. This allowed the establishment of a new petrophysical evaluation procedure that helps the calculation of permeability, hydrocarbon volume in place and productivity of this reservoir.

  6. Organosilane Polymers. III. Block Copolymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    5446 (1969) 9) R. West, J. Polym. Sci., C, 29, 65 (1970) 10) V.F. Traven and R. West, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 95, 6824 (1973) 11) W.G. Boberski and-A.L...COMPOSITION Alkyl H/Aryl H (2 ) Copolymer Method,1 , Calculated Found 111-3 A 0.72 0.73 B 0.72 0.73 111-5 A 0.80 0.85 B 0.80 0.80 111-8 A 1.0 1.4 B 1.0...1.1 (1) A: Chloro-oligomer added to lithio-oligomer. B : Lithio-oligomer added to chloro-oligomer. (2) By HI-NMR TABLE 2 INFRA-RED ABSORPTIONS

  7. [M(III)(bpym)(CN)(4)](-): a suitable building block to design ferrimagnetic cyano-bridged heterobimetallic chains (M = Fe, Cr; bpym = 2,2'-bypyrimidine).

    PubMed

    Visinescu, Diana; Toma, Luminita Marilena; Lloret, Francesc; Fabelo, Oscar; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Julve, Miguel

    2008-08-21

    Two cyano-bridged M(III)Mn(III) [M = Fe () and Cr ()] ferrimagnetic chains are reported; exhibits metamagnetism with two critical fields of 1250 G and 2.0 T which correspond to the overcoming by the applied dc field of the inter- and intrachain magnetic interactions, respectively.

  8. Mono- and binuclear tris(3-tert-butyl-2-sulfanylidene-1H-imidazol-1-yl)hydroborate bismuth(III) dichloride complexes: a soft scorpionate ligand can coordinate to p-block elements.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Kiyoshi; Kuboniwa, Ayaka; Kiss, Mercedesz; Szilagyi, Robert K

    2016-11-01

    Tris(pyrazolyl)hydroborate ligands have been utilized in the fields of inorganic and coordination chemistry due to the ease of introduction of steric and electronic substitutions at the pyrazole rings. The development and use of the tris(pyrazolyl)hydroborate ligand, called a `scorpionate', were pioneered by the late Professor Swiatoslaw Trofimenko. He developed a second generation for his ligand system by the introduction of 3-tert-butyl and 3-phenyl substituents and this new ligand system accounted for many remarkable developments in inorganic and coordination chemistry in stabilizing monomeric species while maintaining an open coordination site. Bismuth is remarkably harmless among the toxic heavy metal p-block elements and is now becoming popular as a replacement for highly toxic metal elements, such as lead. Two bismuth(III) complexes of the anionic sulfur-containing tripod tris(3-tert-butyl-2-sulfanylidene-1H-imidazol-1-yl)hydroborate ligand were prepared. By recrystallization from MeOH/CH2Cl2, orange crystals of dichlorido(methanol-κO)[tris(3-tert-butyl-2-sulfanylidene-1H-imidazol-1-yl-κS)hydroborato]bismuth(III), [Bi(C21H34BN6S3)Cl2(CH4O)], (I), were obtained, manifesting a mononuclear structure. By using a noncoordinating solvent, red crystals of the binuclear structure with bridging Cl atoms were obtained, namely di-μ-chlorido-bis{chlorido[tris(3-tert-butyl-2-sulfanylidene-1H-imidazol-1-yl-κS)hydroborato]bismuth(III)}, [Bi2(C21H34BN6S3)2Cl4], (II). These complexes show {Bi(III)S3Cl2O} and {Bi(III)S3Cl3} coordination geometries with average Bi(III)-S bond lengths of 2.73 and 2.78 Å in (I) and (II), respectively. The overall Bi(III) coordination geometry is distorted octahedral due to stereochemically active lone pairs. The three Bi(III)-S bond lengths are almost equal in (I) but show considerable differences in (II), with one long and two shorter distances that also correlate with changes in the UV-Vis and (1)H NMR spectra. For direct measurements

  9. Neutral complexes as oxidants for the reduced form of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) [2Fe--2S] ferredoxin. Evidence for partial blocking by redox-inactive Cr(III) complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Adzamli, I K; Kim, H O; Sykes, A G

    1982-01-01

    The 1 : 1 reactions of three neutral Co(III) oxidants, Co(acac)3, Co(NH3)3(NO2)3 and Co(acac)2(NH3)(NO2), with reduced parsley (Petroselinum crispum) [2Fe--2S] ferredoxin (which carries a substantial negative charge), have been studied at 25 degrees C, pH 8.0 (Tris/HCl), I0.10 (NaCl). Whereas it has previously been demonstrated that with Co(NH3)6+ as oxidant the reaction if completely blocked by redox-inactive Cr(NH3)63+, the neutral oxidants are only partially blocked by this same complex. The effects of three Cr(III) complexes, Cr(NH3)63+%, Cr(en)33+ and (en)2Cr . mu(OH,O2CCH3) . CR(en)24+ have been investigated. Kinetic data for the response of 3+, neutral, as well as 1--oxidants to the presence of 3+ (and 4+) Cr(III) complexes can now be rationalized in terms of a single functional site on the protein for electron transfer. Electrostatics have a significant influence on association at this site. PMID:7115307

  10. Accurate reservoir evaluation from borehole imaging techniques and thin bed log analysis: Case studies in shaly sands and complex lithologies in Lower Eocene Sands, Block III, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Coll, C.; Rondon, L.

    1996-08-01

    Computer-aided signal processing in combination with different types of quantitative log evaluation techniques is very useful for predicting reservoir quality in complex lithologies and will help to increase the confidence level to complete and produce a reservoir. The Lower Eocene Sands in Block III are one of the largest reservoirs in Block III and it has produced light oil since 1960. Analysis of Borehole Images shows the reservoir heterogeneity by the presence of massive sands with very few shale laminations and thinnly bedded sands with a lot of laminations. The effect of these shales is a low resistivity that has been interpreted in most of the cases as water bearing sands. A reduction of the porosity due to diagenetic processes has produced a high-resistivity behaviour. The presence of bed boundaries and shales is detected by the microconductivity curves of the Borehole Imaging Tools allowing the estimation of the percentage of shale on these sands. Interactive computer-aided analysis and various image processing techniques are used to aid in log interpretation for estimating formation properties. Integration between these results, core information and production data was used for evaluating producibility of the reservoirs and to predict reservoir quality. A new estimation of the net pay thickness using this new technique is presented with the consequent improvement on the expectation of additional recovery. This methodology was successfully applied in a case by case study showing consistency in the area.

  11. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Assessment for NAVSTAR Global Positioning System, Block IIR, and Medium Launch Vehicle III, Cape Canaveral Air Station, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-01

    Limit Value Environmental Assessment NAVSTAR GPS IIR/Medium Launch Vehicle III Page xi Acronyms and Abbreviations, continued TNT Trinitrotoluene tpy ... catalytic thrusters that provide react ion and rol l control for the core vehicle and the Centaur II. The Atlas II uses a Centaur II upper stage...down by ultraviolet radiation, producing highly react ive chlor ine and bromine radicals which participate in the catalytic destruction of O3

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and stereochemistry of S-bridged Co(III)MCo(III)(M = Pd(II), Pt(II)) trinuclear complexes containing two non-bridging thiolato groups: building blocks for the construction of chiral heterometallic aggregates.

    PubMed

    Chikamoto, Yu; Hirotsu, Masakazu; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Yoshimura, Takashi; Konno, Takumi

    2004-11-07

    The reaction of fac(S)-[Co(aet)(3)](aet = aminoethanethiolate) with [PdCl(4)](2-) in a 2:1 ratio in water gave an S-bridged Co(III)Pd(II)Co(III) trinuclear complex composed of two mer(S)-[Co(aet)(3)] units, [Pd[Co(aet)(3)](2)](2+)([1](2+)). In [1](2+), each of the two mer(S)-[Co(aet)(3)] units is bound to a square-planar Pd(II) ion through two of three thiolato groups, leaving two non-bridging thiolato groups at the terminal. Of two geometrical forms, syn and anti, possible for [Pd[Co(aet)(3)](2)](2+), which arise from the difference in arrangement of two terminal non-bridging thiolato groups, [1](2+) afforded only the syn form. A similar reaction of fac(S)-[Co(aet)(3)] with [PtCl(4)](2-) or trans-[PtCl(2)(NH(3))(2)] produced an analogous Co(III)Pt(II)Co(III) trinuclear complex, [Pt[Co(aet)(3)](2)](2+)([2](2+)), but both the syn and anti forms were formed for [2](2+). Complexes [1](2+) and syn- and anti-[2](2+), which exclusively exist as a racemic(DeltaDelta/LambdaLambda) form, were successfully optically resolved with use of [Sb(2)(R,R-tartrato)(2)](2-) as the resolving agent. The reaction of syn-[2](2+) with [AuCl[S(CH(2)CH(2)OH)(2)

  13. Mutation of the dengue virus type 2 envelope protein heparan sulfate binding sites or the domain III lateral ridge blocks replication in Vero cells prior to membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Roehrig, John T.; Butrapet, Siritorn; Liss, Nathan M.; Bennett, Susan L.; Luy, Betty E.; Childers, Thomas; Boroughs, Karen L.; Stovall, Janae L.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Blair, Carol D.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.

    2013-07-05

    Using an infectious cDNA clone we engineered seven mutations in the putative heparan sulfate- and receptor-binding motifs of the envelope protein of dengue virus serotype 2, strain 16681. Four mutant viruses, KK122/123EE, E202K, G304K, and KKK305/307/310EEE, were recovered following transfection of C6/36 cells. A fifth mutant, KK291/295EE, was recovered from C6/36 cells with a compensatory E295V mutation. All mutants grew in and mediated fusion of virus-infected C6/36 cells, but three of the mutants, KK122/123EE, E202K, G304K, did not grow in Vero cells without further modification. Two Vero cell lethal mutants, KK291/295EV and KKK307/307/310EEE, failed to replicate in DC-SIGN-transformed Raji cells and did not react with monoclonal antibodies known to block DENV attachment to Vero cells. Additionally, both mutants were unable to initiate negative-strand vRNA synthesis in Vero cells by 72 h post-infection, suggesting that the replication block occurred prior to virus-mediated membrane fusion. - Highlights: • Heparan sulfate- and receptor-binding motifs of DENV2 envelope protein were mutated. • Four mutant viruses were isolated—all could fuse C6/36 cells. • Two of these mutants were lethal in Vero cells without further modification. • Lethal mutations were KK291/295EV and KKK305/307/310EEE. • Cell attachment was implicated as the replication block for both mutants.

  14. Mutation of the dengue virus type 2 envelope protein heparan sulfate binding sites or the domain III lateral ridge blocks replication in Vero cells prior to membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Roehrig, John T; Butrapet, Siritorn; Liss, Nathan M; Bennett, Susan L; Luy, Betty E; Childers, Thomas; Boroughs, Karen L; Stovall, Janae L; Calvert, Amanda E; Blair, Carol D; Huang, Claire Y-H

    2013-07-05

    Using an infectious cDNA clone we engineered seven mutations in the putative heparan sulfate- and receptor-binding motifs of the envelope protein of dengue virus serotype 2, strain 16681. Four mutant viruses, KK122/123EE, E202K, G304K, and KKK305/307/310EEE, were recovered following transfection of C6/36 cells. A fifth mutant, KK291/295EE, was recovered from C6/36 cells with a compensatory E295V mutation. All mutants grew in and mediated fusion of virus-infected C6/36 cells, but three of the mutants, KK122/123EE, E202K, G304K, did not grow in Vero cells without further modification. Two Vero cell lethal mutants, KK291/295EV and KKK307/307/310EEE, failed to replicate in DC-SIGN-transformed Raji cells and did not react with monoclonal antibodies known to block DENV attachment to Vero cells. Additionally, both mutants were unable to initiate negative-strand vRNA synthesis in Vero cells by 72h post-infection, suggesting that the replication block occurred prior to virus-mediated membrane fusion.

  15. Single-molecule magnet behavior in an octanuclear dysprosium(iii) aggregate inherited from helical triangular Dy3 SMM-building blocks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Lang; Wu, Jianfeng; Guo, Mei; Tang, Jinkui

    2016-06-28

    An unprecedented octanuclear dysprosium(iii) cluster with the formula [Dy8L6(μ3-OH)4(μ2-CH3O)2(CH3OH)6(H2O)2]·6H2O·10CH3OH·2CH3CN () based on a nonlinearly tritopic aroylhydrazone ligand H3L has been isolated, realizing the successful linking of pairwise interesting triangular Dy3 SMMs. It is noteworthy that two enantiomers (Λ and Δ configurations) individually behaving as a coordination-induced chirality presented in the Dy3 helicate are connected in the meso Dy8 cluster. Remarkably, alternating-current magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed that the Dy8 cluster shows typical SMM behavior inherited from its Dy3 helical precursor. It is one of the rare polynuclear Lnn SMMs (n > 7) under zero dc field.

  16. Relativistic Prolapse-Free Gaussian Basis Sets of Quadruple-ζ Quality: (aug-)RPF-4Z. III. The f-Block Elements.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, Tiago Quevedo; Visscher, Lucas; da Silva, Albérico Borges Ferreira; Haiduke, Roberto Luiz Andrade

    2017-03-14

    The f-block elements are addressed in this third part of a series of prolapse-free basis sets of quadruple-ζ quality (RPF-4Z). Relativistic adapted Gaussian basis sets (RAGBSs) are used as primitive sets of functions while correlating/polarization (C/P) functions are chosen by analyzing energy lowerings upon basis set increments in Dirac-Coulomb multireference configuration interaction calculations with single and double excitations of the valence spinors. These function exponents are obtained by applying the RAGBS parameters in a polynomial expression. Moreover, through the choice of C/P characteristic exponents from functions of lower angular momentum spaces, a reduction in the computational demand is attained in relativistic calculations based on the kinetic balance condition. The present study thus complements the RPF-4Z sets for the whole periodic table (Z ≤ 118). The sets are available as Supporting Information and can also be found at http://basis-sets.iqsc.usp.br .

  17. Variable Stars in Local Group Galaxies. III. And VII, NGC 147, and NGC 185: Insight into the Building Blocks of the M31 Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monelli, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Bernard, E. J.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Bono, G.; Gallart, C.; Dall'Ora, M.; Stetson, P. B.

    2017-06-01

    We present the discovery of 1568 RR Lyrae stars in three of the most luminous M31 satellites: And VII (573), NGC 147 (177), and NGC 185 (818). We use their properties to study the formation history of Local Group spiral haloes, and in particular, to infer about the nature of their possible building blocks by comparison with available data for RR Lyrae stars in the halo and in a sample of satellites of M31 and the Milky Way. We find that the brightest satellites and the halos of both galaxies host a number of High Amplitude Short Period (HASP) RR Lyrae variable stars, which are missing in the faintest satellites. HASP variable stars have been shown by Fiorentino et al. to be tracers of a population of stars as metal-rich as [Fe/H] ≃ -1.5 and older than ≃ 10 {Gyr}. This suggests that the metal-rich M31 and MW halo component, which manifests through the HASP phenomenon, comes from massive dwarf galaxy building blocks, as the low-mass dwarfs did not chemically enrich fast enough to produce them. All detected variable stars are new discoveries; in particular, this work presents the first detections of RR Lyrae stars in And VII. Moreover, a number of candidate Anomalous Cepheids, and binary and long-period variable stars have been detected. We provide pulsation properties (period, amplitude, mean magnitude), light curves, and time series photometry for all of the variable stars in the three galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #10430 and #11724.

  18. Preparation of leptin antagonists by site-directed mutagenesis of human, ovine, rat, and mouse leptin's site III: implications on blocking undesired leptin action in vivo.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gili; Niv-Spector, Leonora; Gonen-Berger, Dana; Callebaut, Isabelle; Djiane, Jean; Gertler, Arieh

    2006-12-01

    Six muteins of human, ovine, rat, and mouse leptins mutated to Ala in amino acids 39-41 or 39-42 were prepared by site-directed mutagenesis of the putative site III, which does not affect binding but is necessary for receptor activation, then expressed, solubilized in 4.5 M urea, at pH 11.3 in presence of cysteine, refolded and purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose or combination of anion-exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration. The overall yields were 400-800 mg from 5 L of fermentation. All proteins were >98% pure as evidenced by SDS-PAGE and contained at least 95% monomers as documented by gel-filtration chromatography under nondenaturing conditions. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that all six muteins have identical secondary structure characteristic of nonmutated leptins, namely 52-63% of alpha helix content. All muteins formed a 1:1 complex with chicken leptin binding domain, (chLBD) and bound chLBD or membrane-embedded leptin receptor with affinity identical to WT leptins. Muteins were devoid of any biological activity in several bioassays but were potent competitive antagonists. Some muteins were pegylated using 40 kDa PEG. Although pegylation decreased the in vitro activity, increasing circulation half-life can recompensate this deficit, so pegylated antagonists are expected to be more potent in vivo.

  19. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  20. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  1. Building Trades. Block III. Floor Framing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This document contains three units of a course on floor framing to be used as part of a building trades program. Each unit consists, first, of an informational lesson, with complete lesson plan for the teacher's use. Included in each lesson plan are the lesson aim; lists of teaching aids, materials, references, and prerequisites for students;…

  2. Building Trades. Block III. Floor Framing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This document contains three units of a course on floor framing to be used as part of a building trades program. Each unit consists, first, of an informational lesson, with complete lesson plan for the teacher's use. Included in each lesson plan are the lesson aim; lists of teaching aids, materials, references, and prerequisites for students;…

  3. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  4. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  5. Characterizing the inverses of block tridiagonal, block Toeplitz matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffi, Nicholas M.; Hill, Judith C.; Reuter, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the inversion of block tridiagonal, block Toeplitz matrices and comment on the behaviour of these inverses as one moves away from the diagonal. Using matrix Möbius transformations, we first present an O(1) representation (with respect to the number of block rows and block columns) for the inverse matrix and subsequently use this representation to characterize the inverse matrix. There are four symmetry-distinct cases where the blocks of the inverse matrix (i) decay to zero on both sides of the diagonal, (ii) oscillate on both sides, (iii) decay on one side and oscillate on the other and (iv) decay on one side and grow on the other. This characterization exposes the necessary conditions for the inverse matrix to be numerically banded and may also aid in the design of preconditioners and fast algorithms. Finally, we present numerical examples of these matrix types.

  6. Neuromuscular block.

    PubMed

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them specially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are specially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of special interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors.

  7. Block People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rayma

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an activity in which students in an after-school art class drew one another on pieces of 2-by-4 scrap lumber in order to create a class portrait in three dimensions. Stresses that the portraits on the wood blocks were done in-the-round, or each side was covered. (CMK)

  8. Block Busters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noblitt, Bill

    1994-01-01

    A number of college publications editors and designers share their secrets for coping with writer's block and other forms of creative anxiety. Suggested techniques include a change of scenery, guarding one's time, sharing ideas with others, thorough research, and organization. (MSE)

  9. BIOPLUME III

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BIOPLUME III is a two-dimensional finite difference model for simulating the natural attenuation of organic contaminants in groundwater due to the processes of advection, dispersion, sorption, and biodegradation.

  10. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) As of FY 2015 President’s Budget...00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Responsible Office References Program Name Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) DoD Component Air Force

  11. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  12. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  13. Sodium butyrate blocks interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-induced biosynthesis of MHC class III gene products (complement C4 and factor B) in human fetal intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, K; Andoh, A; Inoue, T; Amakata, Y; Hodohara, K; Fujiyama, Y; Bamba, T

    1999-01-01

    Human intestinal epithelial cells have been established as local sites for complement biosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of IFN-γ and sodium butyrate on biosynthesis of MHC class III gene products (complement C4 and factor B) in the human fetal intestinal epithelial cell line INT-407. IFN-γ induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in C4 and factor B secretion. However, sodium butyrate dose-dependently inhibited IFN-γ-induced C4 and factor B secretion. These effects were also observed at the mRNA level. Immunoblotting indicated that IFN-γ induced a rapid activation of Stat1α, and fluorescence immunohistochemistry detected a translocation of Stat1α into the nucleus within 1 h. However, the translocation of Stat1α was not affected by the addition of sodium butyrate. Nuclear run-on assay indicated that IFN-γ induced a weak increase in the transcription rate of factor B gene, and sodium butyrate did not affect this response. IFN-γ and sodium butyrate induced a counter-regulatory effect on C4 and factor B secretion: IFN-γ acted as a potent inducer, but sodium butyrate potently abrogated these responses. These are mainly regulated through the post-transcriptional mechanism. PMID:10540154

  14. [Epidemiological studies on salmonella in a particular area ("Walcheren Project"). III. The incidence of salmonella in man, insects, gulls as well as foods scrapings from butcher's blocks, effluents of sewage treatment plants and drains from butcher's shops (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Edel, W; Van Schothorst, M; Van Leusden, F M; Kampelmacher, E H

    1977-03-15

    In continuation of previous studies, various materials (meat and meat products, insects, gull droppings, scrapings from butcher's blocks, effluents of sewage treatment plants, drains from butcher's shops and faeces of patients) were examined again at the same time for the presence of Salmonella in a relatively small are (Walcheren) over a period of three months. As was also the case in previous studies, S. typhi murium (27.5 per cent), S. panama (22.2 per cent) and S. brandenburg (9.2 per cent) were the three serotypes most frequently isolated. The three most frequently isolated phage types of S. typhi murium were II 505 (62.1 per cent), II 502 (5.3 per cent) and I 650 (4.2 per cent). The serotypes and phage types were present in nearly all the materials studied which again emphasizes the fact that there are contamination cycles of Salmonella. These studies showed that the route of contamination divides in the butcher's shop. Salmonella ogranisms carried with the meat frome the slaughter-house find their way into the drains on the one hand, and, by meat and meat products, to consumers on the other. Moreover, the high degree of contamination of effluents is not in accordance with the small number of cases of salmonellosis.

  15. Block copolymer investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yufa, Nataliya A.

    The research presented in this thesis deals with various aspects of block copolymers on the nanoscale: their behavior at a range of temperatures, their use as scaffolds, or for creation of chemically striped surfaces, as well as the behavior of metals on block copolymers under the influence of UV light, and the healing behavior of copolymers. Invented around the time of World War II, copolymers have been used for decades due to their macroscopic properties, such as their ability to be molded without vulcanization, and the fact that, unlike rubber, they can be recycled. In recent years, block copolymers (BCPs) have been used for lithography, as scaffolds for nano-objects, to create a magnetic hard drive, as well as in photonic and other applications. In this work we used primarily atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), described in Chapter II, to conduct our studies. In Chapter III we demonstrate a new and general method for positioning nanoparticles within nanoscale grooves. This technique is suitable for nanodots, nanocrystals, as well as DNA. We use AFM and TEM to demonstrate selective decoration. In Chapters IV and V we use AFM and TEM to study the structure of polymer surfaces coated with metals and self-assembled monolayers. We describe how the surfaces were created, exhibit their structure on the nanoscale, and prove that their macroscopic wetting properties have been altered compared to the original polymer structures. Finally, Chapters VI and VII report out in-situ AFM studies of BCP at high temperatures, made possible only recently with the invention of air-tight high-temperature AFM imaging cells. We locate the transition between disordered films and cylinders during initial ordering. Fluctuations of existing domains leading to domain coarsening are also described, and are shown to be consistent with reptation and curvature minimization. Chapter VII deals with the healing of PS-b-PMMA following AFM-tip lithography or

  16. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  17. [Fe(bipy)(CN)(4)](-) as a versatile building block for the design of heterometallic systems: synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of PPh(4)[Fe(III)(bipy)(CN)(4)] x H(2)O, [[Fe(III)(bipy)(CN)(4)](2)M(II)(H(2)O)(4)] x 4H(2)O, and [[Fe(III)(bipy)(CN)(4)](2)Zn(II)] x 2H(2)O [bipy = 2,2'-Bipyridine; M = Mn and Zn].

    PubMed

    Lescouëzec, Rodrigue; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Vaissermann, Jacqueline; Verdaguer, Michel

    2002-02-25

    The new cyano complexes of formulas PPh(4)[Fe(III)(bipy)(CN)(4)] x H(2)O (1), [[Fe(III)(bipy)(CN)(4)](2)M(II)(H(2)O)(4)] x 4H(2)O with M = Mn (2) and Zn (3), and [[Fe(III)(bipy)(CN)(4)](2)Zn(II)] x 2H(2)O (4) [bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine and PPh(4) = tetraphenylphosphonium cation] have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The structure of complex 1 is made up of mononuclear [Fe(bipy)(CN)(4)](-) anions, tetraphenyphosphonium cations, and water molecules of crystallization. The iron(III) is hexacoordinated with two nitrogen atoms of a chelating bipy and four carbon atoms of four terminal cyanide groups, building a distorted octahedron around the metal atom. The structure of complexes 2 and 3 consists of neutral centrosymmetric [[Fe(III)(bipy)(CN)(4)](2)M(II)(H(2)O)(4)] heterotrinuclear units and crystallization water molecules. The [Fe(bipy)(CN)(4)](-) entity of 1 is present in 2 and 3 acting as a monodentate ligand toward M(H(2)O)(4) units [M = Mn(II) (2) and Zn(II) (3)] through one cyanide group, the other three cyanides remaining terminal. Four water molecules and two cyanide nitrogen atoms from two [Fe(bipy)(CN)(4)](-) units in trans positions build a distorted octahedron surrounding Mn(II) (2) and Zn(II) (3). The structure of the [Fe(phen)(CN)(4)](-) complex ligand in 2 and 3 is close to that of the one in 1. The intramolecular Fe-M distances are 5.126(1) and 5.018(1) A in 2 and 3, respectively. 4 exhibits a neutral one-dimensional polymeric structure containing two types of [Fe(bipy)(CN)(4)](-) units acting as bismonodentate (Fe(1)) and trismonodentate (Fe(2)) ligands versus the divalent zinc cations through two cis-cyanide (Fe(1)) and three fac-cyanide (Fe(2)) groups. The environment of the iron atoms in 4 is distorted octahedral as in 1-3, whereas the zinc atom is pentacoordinated with five cyanide nitrogen atoms, describing a very distorted square pyramid. The iron-zinc separations across the single bridging cyanides are 5.013(1) and 5.142(1) A at Fe

  18. [Fe(bpb)(CN)2]- as a versatile building block for the design of novel low-dimensional heterobimetallic systems: synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of cyano-bridged Fe(III)-Ni(II) complexes [(bpb)(2-) = 1,2-bis(pyridine-2-carboxamido)benzenate].

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhong-Hai; Kou, Hui-Zhong; Zhao, Yi-Hua; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Ru-Ji; Cui, Ai-Li; Sato, Osamu

    2005-03-21

    A dicyano-containing [Fe(bpb)(CN)2]- building block has been employed for the synthesis of cyano-bridged heterometallic Ni(II)-Fe(III) complexes. The presence of steric bpb(2-) ligand around the iron ion results in the formation of low-dimensional species: five are neutral NiFe2 trimers and three are one-dimensional (1D). The structure of the 1D complexes consists of alternating [NiL]2+ and [Fe(bpb)(CN)2]- generating a cyano-bridged cationic polymeric chain and the perchlorate as the counteranion. In all complexes, the coordination geometry of the nickel ions is approximately octahedral with the cyano nitrogen atoms at the trans positions. Magnetic studies of seven complexes show the presence of ferromagnetic interaction between the metal ions through the cyano bridges. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility investigations of the trimeric complexes yield the following J(NiFe) values (based on the spin exchange Hamiltonian H = -2J(NiFe) S(Ni) (S(Fe(1)) + S(Fe(2))): J(NiFe) = 6.40(5), 7.8(1), 8.9(2), and 6.03(4) cm(-1), respectively. The study of the magneto-structural correlation reveals that the cyanide-bridging bond angle is related to the strength of magnetic exchange coupling: the larger the Ni-N[triple bond]C bond angle, the stronger the Ni- - -Fe magnetic interaction. One 1D complex exhibits long-range antiferromagnetic ordering with T(N) = 3.5 K. Below T(N) (1.82 K), a metamagnetic behavior was observed with the critical field of approximately 6 kOe. The present research shows that the [Fe(bpb)(CN)2]- building block is a good candidate for the construction of low-dimensional magnetic materials.

  19. Improved Blocking at 25km Resolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiemann, R.; Demory, M. E.; Mizielinski, M.; Roberts, M.; Shaffrey, L.; Strachan, J.; Vidale, P. L.; Matsueda, M.

    2014-12-01

    It has been suggested that relatively coarse resolution of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) limits their ability to represent mid-latitude blocking. Assessing the role of model resolution for blocking is computationally expensive, as multi-decadal simulations at the desired resolution are necessary for a robust estimation of blocking statistics. Here, we use an ensemble of three atmosphere-only global models for which simulations that fulfil this requirement are available at resolutions of roughly 25km horizontal grid spacing in the mid-latitudes. This corresponds to about a fourfold increase in resolution over the highest-resolution CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5) models. The three models are (i) the ECMWF model (IFS) as used in the project Athena, (ii) the MRI-AGCM 3.2, and (iii) our own HadGEM3-GA3 simulations obtained in the UPSCALE project (UK on PrACE - weather-resolving Simulations of Climate for globAL Environmental risk). We use a two-dimensional blocking index to assess the representation of blocking in these simulations and in three reanalyses (ERA-Interim, ERA-40, MERRA). We evaluate the spatial distribution of climatological blocking frequency, the interannual variability of blocking occurrence as well as the persistence of blocking events. Furthermore, the degree to which blocking biases are associated with mean-state biases is quantified in the different models. We find that the representation of blocking remains very sensitive to atmospheric resolution as the grid spacing is reduced to about 25km. The simulated blocking frequency increases with resolution, mostly so as to reduce the model bias, yet there is considerable variation between the results obtained for different models, seasons, and for the Atlantic and Pacific regions.

  20. Learning with Large Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Sally

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how large hollow blocks can meet many preschool children's learning needs through creative dramatic play, and also gives some guidelines on how these blocks can be constructed by parents and teachers. (BB)

  1. Block That Pain!

    MedlinePlus

    ... 314. This combination produces a unique effect, blocking pain-sensing neurons without impairing signals from other cells. In contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical procedures block activity in ...

  2. Living with Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Block First-degree heart block may ... whether you need ongoing care for your condition. Living With a Pacemaker People who have third-degree ...

  3. Arrange Time into Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepeda, Sally J.

    1999-01-01

    Block scheduling can help high school principals become staff-development leaders. It gives teachers more time to help individual students and contributes to improved achievement, attendance, and graduation rates. This paper describes the results of research on block scheduling in urban high schools and concludes that block scheduling can support…

  4. Blocked Tear Duct

    MedlinePlus

    Blocked tear duct Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff When you have a blocked tear duct, your tears can't drain normally, leaving you ... in the tear drainage system. A blocked tear duct is common in newborns. The condition usually gets ...

  5. Total Spinal Block after Thoracic Paravertebral Block

    PubMed Central

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Palabıyık, Onur

    2014-01-01

    Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) can be performed with or without general anaesthesia for various surgical procedures. TPVB is a popular anaesthetic technique due to its low side effect profile and high analgesic potency. We used 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine for a single injection of unilateral TPVB at the T7 level with neurostimulator in a 63 year old patient with co-morbid disease who underwent cholecystectomy. Following the application patient lost consciousness, and was intubated. Haemodynamic instability was normalised with rapid volume replacement and vasopressors. Anaesthetic drugs were stopped at the end of the surgery and muscle relaxant was antagonised. Return of mucle strenght was shown with neuromuscular block monitoring. Approximately three hours after TPVB, spontaneous breathing started and consciousness returned. A total spinal block is a rare and life-threatening complication. A total spinal block is a complication of spinal anaesthesia, and it can also occur after peripheral blocks. Clinical presentation is characterised by hypotension, bradicardia, apnea, and cardiac arrest. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In this case report, we want to present total spinal block after TPVB. PMID:27366387

  6. Masonry Specialist III & IV, 3-20. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These military-developed curriculum materials consist of a course description, plan of instruction, study guides, and workbooks for use in training masonry specialists. Covered in the course blocks are laying concrete blocks, stone, and bricks as well as plaster, stucco, and tile. Course block III, on laying concrete blocks, stone, and bricks,…

  7. The Space Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Ciba-Geigy Corporation's "Space Block," technically known as TDT-177-51 Ren Shape epoxy model block, is a two-foot by two-foot by five- inch plastic block from which master models of the Space Shuttle protective tiles are cut by NC machines. Space Block is made of epoxy resin with low viscosity and slow curing time, enabling the large block to cure uniformly without cracking. Rockwell International uses master models of Shuttle tiles to check accuracy of NC machines accurately by comparing model dimensions with specifications. New epoxy resins are attracting broad interest as a replacement for traditional materials used in modeling auto, aerospace or other parts.

  8. Congenital complete heart block.

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, B.; Sheikh, Z.; Cibils, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Congenital complete heart block in utero has become diagnosed more frequently with the clinical use of fetal echocardiography. The fetus with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic or may develop congestive heart failure. Congenital complete heart block is more frequently seen in infants of mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus, both clinically manifested and subclinical systemic lupus erythematosus with positive antibodies (SS-A and SS-B antibodies). At birth, the neonate with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic and may not require a pacemaker to increase the heart rate. The indications for a pacemaker in neonates with complete heart block have been discussed. Both in-utero and neonatal management of congenital complete heart block are discussed to manage congestive heart failure in a fetus. Four patients with congenital complete heart block are presented covering a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management both in the fetal and neonatal period. Images Figure 1 PMID:8961692

  9. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    PubMed

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  10. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes. PMID:21318011

  11. Can We Perform Distal Nerve Block Instead of Brachial Plexus Nerve Block Under Ultrasound Guidance for Hand Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Ince, Ilker; Aksoy, Mehmet; Celik, Mine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Distal nerve blocks are used in the event of unsuccessful blocks as rescue techniques. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the sufficiency for anesthesia of distal nerve block without the need for deep sedation or general anesthesia. The secondary purpose was to compare block performance times, block onset times, and patient and surgeon satisfaction. Materials and Methods: Patients who underwent hand surgery associated with the innervation area of the radial and median nerves were included in the study. Thirty-four patients who were 18–65 years old and American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I–III and who were scheduled for elective hand surgery under conscious nerve block anesthesia were randomly included in an infraclavicular block group (Group I, n=17) or a radial plus median block group (Group RM, n=17). The block performance time, block onset time, satisfaction of the patient and surgeon, and number of fentanyl administrations were recorded. Results: The numbers of patients who needed fentanyl administration and conversion to general anesthesia were the same in Group I and Group RM and there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The demographics, surgery times, tourniquet times, block perfomance times, and patient and surgeon satisfaction of the groups were similar and there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in block onset times between the groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: Conscious hand surgery can be performed under distal nerve block anesthesia safely and successfully. PMID:28149139

  12. Concrete Block Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Calif. 42 1 •1 90 NEW LEGEND 80 A VIBORG, DENMARK, BLOCKS A VIBORG, DENMARK, ASPHALTIC CONCRETE AFTER 00 MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA, BLOCKS VIBRATION MEAN ...the load-distributing characteristics of the Mlock pavements. *. 45 -, , - t 171 LEGENDT 0 CONCRETE BASE, MEAN OF 8 TESTS,9 KNAPTON (1978) I RANGE OF...45 to 60 min. 90. Table 11 summarizes the results of these tests. The mean penetration of water through the block pavements with a slope of I per

  13. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  14. Does haloperidol block methylphenidate? Motivation or attention?

    PubMed

    Levy, F; Hobbes, G

    1996-07-01

    The effect of methylphenidate preceded by a moderate dose of haloperidol on reaction times over the duration of a continuous performance test (CPT), was investigated in ten male children, with a DSM-III diagnosis of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity disorder (ADDH). Using a within-subject double-blind design, the effects of methylphenidate preceded by haloperidol on reaction time during the first and second blocks of CPT test were compared. Methylphenidate maintained a significantly improved reaction time in the second block of the CPT test. When methylphenidate, preceded by placebo, was preceded by haloperidol this effect was not observed, suggesting opposing effects on attentional systems by methylphenidate versus haloperidol. The study is the first to examine the "blocking" effect of haloperidol over the course of a CPT. The results suggest that dopamine systems are involved in the maintenance of the CPT response, and support an "incentive motivation" theory of sustained attention.

  15. Bundle Branch Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... your heart to pump blood efficiently through your circulatory system. There's no specific treatment for bundle branch block itself. However, any underlying health condition that caused bundle branch block, such as heart disease, will need to be treated. In most people, ...

  16. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOEpatents

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  17. Beautiful Blocks of Bedrock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-01

    This image captured by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft targets a 3-kilometer diameter crater that occurs within the ejecta blanket of the much older Bakhuysen Crater, a 150-kilometer diameter impact crater in Noachis Terra. Impact craters are interesting because they provide a mechanism to uplift and expose underlying bedrock, allowing for the study of the subsurface and the geologic past. An enhanced color image shows the wall of the crater, which exposes layering as well as blocks of rock. There is a distinctive large block in the upper left of the crater wall, generally referred to as a "mega-block." It is an angular, light-toned, highly fragmented block, about 100 meters across. Several smaller light-toned blocks are also in the crater wall, possibly of the same rock type as the "mega-block." Ejecta blocks are thrown outward during the initial excavation of a crater, or are deposited as part of the ground-hugging flows of which the majority of the ejecta blanket is comprised. Through images like these, we are able to study the deeper subsurface of Mars that is not otherwise exposed. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20728

  18. Resolving writer's block.

    PubMed Central

    Huston, P.

    1998-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Writer's block, or a distinctly uncomfortable inability to write, can interfere with professional productivity. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To identify writer's block and to outline suggestions for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Once the diagnosis has been established, a stepwise approach to care is recommended. Mild blockage can be resolved by evaluating and revising expectations, conducting a task analysis, and giving oneself positive feedback. Moderate blockage can be addressed by creative exercises, such as brainstorming and role-playing. Recalcitrant blockage can be resolved with therapy. Writer's block can be prevented by taking opportunities to write at the beginning of projects, working with a supportive group of people, and cultivating an ongoing interest in writing. CONCLUSIONS: Writer's block is a highly treatable condition. A systematic approach can help to alleviate anxiety, build confidence, and give people the information they need to work productively. PMID:9481467

  19. What Causes Heart Block?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... acquired heart block. Coronary heart disease , also called coronary artery disease. Myocarditis (MI-o-kar-DI-tis), or inflammation ...

  20. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOEpatents

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  1. Mid-Career Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Considers typical reactions of midcareer employees to blocked opportunity; reasons for correcting these attitudes; ways of motivating these employees; methods of rekindling midcareer employees' interest in their jobs; encouraging competition; job switching; self-development programs; and supervisory attitudes. (CT)

  2. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... is less serious than Mobitz type II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. ... block. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

  3. Using the Stern Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    Extracts from "Experimenting with Numbers" by Margaret Stern demonstrate the use of Stern Blocks to develop the conceptual base on which learning disabled students can build further mathematical skills. (DB)

  4. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  5. Blocked tear duct

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby may have an eye infection called conjunctivitis . ... increase the chance of other infections, such as conjunctivitis. ... be prevented. Proper treatment of nasal infections and conjunctivitis may reduce the risk of having a blocked ...

  6. Mid-Career Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Considers typical reactions of midcareer employees to blocked opportunity; reasons for correcting these attitudes; ways of motivating these employees; methods of rekindling midcareer employees' interest in their jobs; encouraging competition; job switching; self-development programs; and supervisory attitudes. (CT)

  7. Recipient block TMA technique.

    PubMed

    Mirlacher, Martina; Simon, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    New high-throughput screening technologies have led to the identification of hundreds of genes with a potential role in cancer or other diseases. One way to prioritize the leads obtained in such studies is to analyze a large number of tissues for candidate gene expression. The TMA methodology is now an established and frequently used tool for high-throughput tissue analysis. The recipient block technology is the "classical" method of TMA making. In this method, minute cylindrical tissue punches typically measuring 0.6 mm in diameter are removed from donor tissue blocks and are transferred into empty "recipient" paraffin blocks. Up to 1,000 different tissues can be analyzed in one TMA block. The equipment is affordable and easy to use in places where basic skills in histology are available.

  8. Block Plan Construction from a Deltahedron Based Adjacency Graph.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    shown below: - Assiston ’rofessor of Industria En neeDate Industrial Engineering * y* ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Dr. John W. Giffin for his...was written in BASICA on an IBM Personal Computer. Due to the amount of memoru available in BASICA , the problem size is somewhat limited however; 11...Figure 4.13. Example III Block Plan with 3 facilities not included To provide a complete block plan, the BREAK feature of BASICA is used. Before

  9. View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.

  12. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    modernization of the constellation . GPS III complies with 10 United States Code (USC) § 2281, ensuring the continued sustainment and operation of GPS for... constellations , further increasing the accuracy and availability of user PNT solutions. GPS III December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 16:15:29 UNCLASSIFIED

  13. Turbulence Interface Simulation by Lagrangian Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, V. H.

    2015-12-01

    Most computational fluid-dynamics codes are developed using the Eulerian description. To find the numerical solution, fluxes are estimated on the surface of the finite volume using a truncation series. Spurious numerical oscillations and artificial numerical diffusion are consequences, particularly in regions across flow discontinuities. Diffusion often is introduced synthetically in many schemes to gain computational stability. Occasional switching to a diffusive upwind scheme, for example, is one classic strategy to manage the numerical oscillations [see e.g., Ghannadi & Chu 2015]. Lagrangian-block simulation offers an alternative that could minimize the spurious oscillations and false diffusive error. The blocks move in the direction of the flow. The squares of the block widths expand in proportion to the diffusivities. The block simulation procedure consists of (i) Lagrangian advection and diffusion, (ii) division into portions, and (iii) reassembly of the portions into new blocks. The blocks are renewed in each time increment to prevent excessive distortion. Details of the Lagrangian-block simulations method have been given in a series of papers by Tan & Chu (2012), Chu & Altai (2012, 2015}. In this paper, the exchanges across turbulence interfaces are considered for two problems. The first series of the simulations are conducted to find the mass and momentum exchanges across a shallow flow of two different depth. In the simulations, the advection and diffusion of three separated systems of blocks that contain the mass, momentum and potential vorticity are carried out using the Lagrangian-block simulation method. The simulation results are compared with data obtained from a previous laboratory investigation and related to the shear instability problem in rotating shear flow previously considered by Chu (2014). The second problem involves the turbulence generation across the interface of an internal waves. The simulation shows the development of gravitational

  14. Impression block with orientator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilin, V. I.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2015-02-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object.

  15. New functionalized block copolymers for bonding copper to epoxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.; Saunders, R.; Emerson, J.; Hurst, M.

    1995-11-01

    The authors are exploring the use of functionalized block copolymers for bonding copper to epoxy in printed wiring boards. The program involves four key elements: (i) synthesis of suitable functionalized block copolymers; (ii) characterization of the conformation of the copolymers at the relevant interfaces by neutron reflectivity; (iii) spectroscopic measurements of chemical bonding, and (iv) measurement of the mechanical properties of the interfaces. The copolymers are synthesized by living, ring-opening metathesis polymerization. This relatively new technique allows great flexibility for synthesis of functionalized block copolymers in that the initiators are relatively insensitive to a wide range of functional groups. Significant adhesion enhancement has been observed in lap shear tests.

  16. 31 CFR 547.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 547.302 Section 547.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 547.201...

  17. A novel power block for CSP systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mittelman, Gur; Epstein, Michael

    2010-10-15

    Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) and in particular parabolic trough, is a proven large-scale solar power technology. However, CSP cost is not yet competitive with conventional alternatives unless subsidized. Current CSP plants typically include a condensing steam cycle power block which was preferably designed for a continuous operation and higher operating conditions and therefore, limits the overall plant cost effectiveness and deployment. The drawbacks of this power block are as follows: (i) no power generation during low insolation periods (ii) expensive, large condenser (typically water cooled) due to the poor extracted steam properties (high specific volume, sub-atmospheric pressure) and (iii) high installation and operation costs. In the current study, a different power block scheme is proposed to eliminate these obstacles. This power block includes a top Rankine cycle with a back pressure steam turbine and a bottoming Kalina cycle comprising another back pressure turbine and using ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid. The bottoming (moderate temperature) cycle allows power production during low insolation periods. Because of the superior ammonia-water vapor properties, the condensing system requirements are much less demanding and the operation costs are lowered. Accordingly, air cooled condensers can be used with lower economical penalty. Another advantage is that back pressure steam turbines have a less complex design than condensing steam turbines which make their costs lower. All of these improvements could make the combined cycle unit more cost effective. This unit can be applicable in both parabolic trough and central receiver (solar tower) plants. The potential advantage of the new power block is illustrated by a detailed techno-economical analysis of two 50 MW parabolic trough power plants, comparing between the standard and the novel power block. The results indicate that the proposed plant suggests a 4-11% electricity cost saving

  18. A Place for Block Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of block play--including its contributions to perceptual, fine motor, and cognitive development--and components of a good preschool block play area. Recommends unit blocks complemented by stacking blocks, toys, beads, cubes, and Brio wooden toys. Makes recommendations for space, size, locations and connections to other…

  19. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  20. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  1. Hawaii Census 2000 Blocks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include total population counts, racial/ethnic, and poverty/income information. Racial/ethnic classifications are represented in units of blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Poverty and income data are represented in units of blockgroups and tracts. Percentages of each racial/ethnic group have been calculated from the population counts. Total Minority counts and percentages were compiled from each racial/ethnic non-white category. Categories compiled to create the Total Minority count includes the following: African American, Asian, American Indian, Pacific Islander, White Hispanic, Other and all mixed race categories. The percentage poverty attribute represents the percent of the population living at or below poverty level. The per capita income attribute represents the sum of all income within the geographic entity, divided by the total population of that entity. Special fields designed to be used for EJ analysis have been derived from the PL data and include the following: Percentage difference of block, blockgroup and total minority from the state and county averages, percentile rank for each percent total minority within state and county entitie

  2. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  3. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  4. Flattening basic blocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Utke, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2006-01-01

    The application of cross country elimination strategies requires access to the computational graph or at least subgraphs for certain scopes, e.g. a basic block. Under the presence of aliased variables the construction of these (sub)graphs encounters ambiguities. We propose an algorithm to construct ambiguity free subgraphs.

  5. NCCN Evidence Blocks.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert W; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-05-01

    NCCN has developed a series of Evidence Blocks: graphics that provide ratings for each recommended treatment regimen in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality and consistency of the supporting data, and affordability. The NCCN Evidence Blocks are currently available in 10 tumor types within the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). At a glance, patients and providers can understand how a given treatment was assessed by the NCCN Guidelines Panel and get a sense of how a given treatment may match individual needs and preferences. Robert W. Carlson, MD, CEO of NCCN, described the reasoning behind this new feature and how the tool is used, and Eric Jonasch, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Vice Chair of the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel, described its applicability in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  6. Thermal blocking of preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, Rose; Tranberg, Anders E-mail: anders.tranberg@uis.no

    2015-04-01

    The parametric resonance responsible for preheating after inflation will end when self-interactions of the resonating field and interactions of this field with secondary degrees of freedom become important. In many cases, the effect may be quantified in terms of an effective mass and the resulting shifting out of the spectrum of the strongest resonance band. In certain curvaton models, such thermal blocking can even occur before preheating has begun, delaying or even preventing the decay of the curvaton. We investigate numerically to what extent this thermal blocking is realised in a specific scenario, and whether the effective mass is well approximated by the perturbative leading order thermal mass. We find that the qualitative behaviour is well reproduced in this approximation, and that the end of preheating can be confidently estimated.

  7. Population III Stars Around the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Yutaka; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2016-03-01

    We explore the possibility of observing Population III (Pop III) stars, born of primordial gas. Pop III stars with masses below 0.8 M⊙ should survive to date though are not yet observed, but the existence of stars with low metallicity as [{{Fe}}/{{H}}]\\lt -5 in the Milky Way halo suggests the surface pollution of Pop III stars with accreted metals from the interstellar gas after birth. In this paper, we investigate the runaway of Pop III stars from their host mini-halos, considering the ejection of secondary members from binary systems when their massive primaries explode as supernovae. These stars save them from surface pollution. By computing the star formation and chemical evolution along with the hierarchical structure formation based on the extended Press-Schechter merger trees, we demonstrate that several hundreds to tens of thousands of low-mass Pop III stars escape from the building blocks of the Milky Way. The second and later generations of extremely metal-poor stars also escaped from the mini-halos. We discuss the spatial distributions of these escaped stars by evaluating the distances between the mini-halos in the branches of merger trees under the spherical collapse model of dark matter halos. It is demonstrated that the escaped stars distribute beyond the stellar halo with a density profile close to the dark matter halo, while Pop III stars are slightly more centrally concentrated. 6%-30% of the escaped stars leave the Milky Way and go out into the intergalactic space. Based on the results, we discuss the feasibility of observing the Pop III stars with the pristine surface abundance.

  8. Feature-accelerated block matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Bo; Orchard, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    We study the relationship between local features and block matching in this paper. We show that the use of many features can greatly improve the block matching results by introducing several fast block matching algorithms. The first algorithm is pixel decimation-based. We show that pixels with larger gradient magnitude have larger motion compensation error. Therefore for pixel decimation-based fast block matching, it benefits to subsample the block by selecting pixels with the largest gradient magnitude. Such a gradient-assisted adaptive pixel selection strategy greatly outperforms two other subsampling procedures proposed in previous literature. Fast block matching can achieve the optimal performance obtained using full search. We present a family of such fast block matching algorithm using various local features, such as block mean and variance. Our algorithm reduces more than 80 percent computation, while achieving the same performance as the full search. This present a brand new approach toward fast block matching algorithm design.

  9. Recovery from blocking between outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2005-10-01

    Contemporary associative learning research largely focuses on cue competition phenomena that occur when 2 cues are paired with a common outcome. Little research has been conducted to investigate similar phenomena occurring when a single cue is trained with 2 outcomes. Three conditioned lick suppression experiments with rats assessed whether treatments known to alleviate blocking between cues would also attenuate blocking between outcomes. In Experiment 1, conditioned responding recovered from blocking between outcomes when a long retention interval was interposed between training and testing. Experiment 2 obtained recovery from blocking between outcomes when the blocking outcome was extinguished after the blocking treatment. In Experiment 3, a recovery from blocking between outcomes occurred when a reminder stimulus was presented in a novel context prior to testing. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that blocking of outcomes, like blocking of cues, appears to be caused by a deficit in the expression of an acquired association.

  10. Liquid blocking check valve

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, John T.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

  11. Intraocular radiation blocking

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, P.T.; Ho, T.K.; Fastenberg, D.M.; Hyman, R.A.; Stroh, E.M.; Packer, S.; Perry, H.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application.

  12. 77 FR 6657 - Blocking Property of the Government of Iran and Iranian Financial Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... February 8, 2012 Part III The President Executive Order 13599--Blocking Property of the Government of Iran... President ] Executive Order 13599 of February 5, 2012 Blocking Property of the Government of Iran and... 15, 1995, particularly in light of the deceptive practices of the Central Bank of Iran and...

  13. View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are used to support ship when it is repositioned to paint inaccessible areas masked by original support blocks. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Carpentry Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. MISR Center Block Time Tool

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

      MISR Center Block Time Tool The misr_time tool calculates the block center times for ... in Exelis Visual Information Solutions IDL programming language. It can be run either with a licensed version of the IDL package or by ...

  15. How Is Heart Block Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... second-degree heart block, you may need a pacemaker . A pacemaker is a small device that's placed under the ... third-degree heart block, you will need a pacemaker. In an emergency, a temporary pacemaker might be ...

  16. SUPERSTARS III: K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  17. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  18. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermionfermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. In addition, conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  19. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermionfermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. In addition, conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  20. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  1. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  2. How Artists Overcome Creative Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    Six practicing artists were interviewed about how they overcome creative blocks. Their responses indicated that feelings of self-doubt, fear, and depression accompany blocks but that relaxing and working on new directions and playing ideas off a supportive person helped to overcome such blocks. (DB)

  3. Solving DAEs using block method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abasi, Naghmeh; Suleiman, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zarina Bibi

    2013-04-01

    This paper is on solving semi-explicit index-one Differential Algebraic Equations (DAEs). The block method suggested computes the solutions of the DAE at 2-point simultaneously. The numerical results obtained are compared with non-block backward differentiation method (BDF). The comparison of the numerical results confirms that the block method developed is more efficient and accurate.

  4. On Post-Hoc Blocking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonett, Douglas G.

    1982-01-01

    Post-hoc blocking and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) both employ a concomitant variable to increase statistical power relative to the completely randomized design. It is argued that the advantages attributed to the block design are not always valid and that there are circumstances when the ANCOVA would be preferred to post-hoc blocking.…

  5. Property Blocks: Games and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Alan, Ed.; Dailey, Jean, Ed.

    This pamphlet describes the property blocks produced by MINNEMAST, and discusses their use in the development of thinking processes. Classification systems, including block diagrams and tree diagrams, are discussed. Sixteen classroom activities and eleven games which use the blocks are described. Suggestions to the teacher for further reading are…

  6. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; ...

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]ℓ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock spacemore » exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  7. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T] also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.

  8. Solar power building block

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, W.T.

    1982-04-20

    A building unit for exterior walls and the like comprising a molded block of glass having a recess in the side face which is to face the exterior, the recess having a side wall and an open outer end on which a fresnel lens is disposed, the inner end of the recess having a solar cell disposed therein so that sunlight passing through the fresnel lens impinges on the solar cell for the generation of electric power together with a battery disposed within a cavity molded in the block connected by a circuit to the solar cell for storing the generated electric power for subsequent use as needed in a residence or the like. A further embodiment has attached to the interior wall a black painted duct containing vertical radiant fins. This unit contains a ''window'' through which the concentrated radiation is directed by the lens arrangement of the side walls and front lens to create a highly energetic radiant impingement upon the black duct heating it. Air flowing vertically in the duct is used for heating of interior air or removal of superheated interior air by using the force of the rising air for an '' air cooling'' effect.

  9. Iron(III) chloride-tandem catalysis for a one-pot regioselective protection of glycopyranosides.

    PubMed

    Bourdreux, Yann; Lemétais, Aurélie; Urban, Dominique; Beau, Jean-Marie

    2011-02-21

    Tandem catalysis by using iron(III) chloride hexahydrate leads to carbohydrate building blocks displaying an orthogonal protecting group pattern as illustrated by the regioselective protection of trehalose and maltose disaccharides.

  10. Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimi, Hirofumi; Koike, Minoru; Takeuchi, Seiichi; Douhara, Noriyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK (robot block system) and the rational formula of robots were proposed. ROBO-BLOCK is composed of servo motors, the parts for servomotor rotor, the brackets for servomotor fixation, the board parts and the controllers. A robot can be assembled easily by ROBO-BLOCK. Meanwhile, it is convenient when the structure of the robot can be described easily as a character. The whole structure of the robot is expressed as rational formula of the robot to show molecule structure in chemistry. ROBO-BLOCK can be useful for not only the research but also the education. Creative student experiment was done in the college of industrial technology.

  11. Nerve blocks for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Salim M; Shah, Atit

    2014-10-01

    Nerve blocks are often performed as therapeutic or palliative interventions for pain relief. However, they are often performed for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. When considering nerve blocks for chronic pain, clinicians must always consider the indications, risks, benefits, and proper technique. Nerve blocks encompass a wide variety of interventional procedures. The most common nerve blocks for chronic pain and that may be applicable to the neurosurgical patient population are reviewed in this article. This article is an introduction and brief synopsis of the different available blocks that can be offered to a patient.

  12. Block loss for ATM video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Sze K.; Leon-Garcia, Alberto

    1993-10-01

    In BISDN, the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) requires all information to be represented as a sequence of standard data units called cells. Cell los is inherent in ATM networks due to the cell header corruption and buffer overflow in the network. Several studies have shown that cell losses are bursty for an ATM network. In this work, we encoded real video sequences with a variable bit-rate (VBR) version of the H.261 video encoder in order for us to determine the relationship between blocks in a video frame and the number of ATM cells generated. We then considered the impact of bursty cell losses on image block loss probability. Block loss distributions are given at different codec and channel parameters. We also obtained block loss results using a cell loss correction scheme. Three sequences were analyzed to obtain the cumulative block loss probability distribution. Similar maximum and minimum block loss probability values were obtained for each sequence. The block loss probability distribution varies according to the amount and type of motion present in each sequence. We show that the block loss is confined to one group of blocks (GOB). The maximum block loss probability can be two orders of magnitude larger than the channel cell loss probability. By using the cell loss correction scheme, block loss was reduced to a level equivalent to reducing cell loss probability by five orders of magnitude.

  13. Atomic Basic Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  14. Radiation Blocking Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Biomedical Optical Company of America's Eagle 475 lens absorbs 100 percent of all photowavelengths considered hazardous to eye tissue, including ultraviolet and blue light, which are considered contributors to cataract and age-related macular degeneration. The lens absorbs hazardous wavelengths, but allows a higher percentage of visually useful areas of the spectrum to pass through. Polarization blocks out irritating glint and glare and heightens visual acuity. The Eagle 475 sunglasses are the latest in a series of spinoffs that originated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where two scientists developed a protective, welding curtain that filtered out harmful irradiance. The result was a commercial curtain that absorbs filters and scatters light, providing protection for personnel in welding areas. Further research focused on protective industrial glasses and later on consumer products.

  15. Rotating ice blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorbolo, Stephane; Adami, Nicolas; Grasp Team

    2014-11-01

    The motion of ice discs released at the surface of a thermalized bath was investigated. As observed in some rare events in the Nature, the discs start spinning spontaneously. The motor of this motion is the cooling of the water close to the ice disc. As the density of water is maximum at 4°C, a downwards flow is generated from the surface of the ice block to the bottom. This flow generates the rotation of the disc. The speed of rotation depends on the mass of the ice disc and on the temperature of the bath. A model has been constructed to study the influence of the temperature of the bath. Finally, ice discs were put on a metallic plate. Again, a spontaneous rotation was observed. FNRS is thanked for financial support.

  16. Baroplastic Block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewlett, Sheldon A.

    2005-03-01

    Block copolymers with rubbery and glassy components have been observed to have pressure induced miscibility. These microphase-separated materials, termed baroplastics, were able to flow and be processed at temperatures below the Tg of the glassy component by simple compression molding and extrusion. Diblock and triblock copolymers of polystyrene and poly(butyl acrylate) or poly(2-ethyl hexyl acrylate) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and processed at room temperature into well defined transparent objects. SAXS and SANS measurements demonstrated partial mixing between components as a result of pressure during processing. DSC results also show the presence of distinct domains even after several processing cycles. Their mechanical properties after processing were tested and compared with commercial thermoplastic elastomers.

  17. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autzen, Martin; Kouvaris, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Some severe constraints on asymmetric dark matter are based on the scenario that certain types of weakly interacting massive particles can form mini-black holes inside neutron stars that can lead to their destruction. A crucial element for the realization of this scenario is that the black hole grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star.

  18. Antithrombin III blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AT III) is a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of ... may mean you have an increased risk of blood clotting. This can occur when there is not enough ...

  19. Large Block Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  20. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

  1. Paracervical Block Anesthesia in Labour

    PubMed Central

    Van Praagh, Ian G. L.; Povey, W. G.

    1966-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of paracervical block anesthesia were studied in 153 patients in the first stage of labour. Transient decrease in uterine activity was noted in 77 patients. There was no acceleration in cervical dilatation following the block. The duration of action of the block in 80 primiparas was 31 to 120 minutes in 69, and over 120 minutes in five. In the 73 multiparas, 53 of the blocks lasted 31 to 90 minutes, eight from 90 to 120 minutes, and two over 120 minutes. The results were good in 66 primiparas and 54 multiparas. The blocks failed in four primiparas and six multiparas. Twenty-six infants had low Apgar scores, but in none could this be related to the paracervical block. There were no significant fetal or maternal complications. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5903165

  2. Plumbing Specialist II & III, 3-22. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These military-developed curriculum materials consist of a course description, course chart, plan of instruction, lesson plans, study guides, and workbooks for use in training plumbing specialists II and III. Covered in the course blocks are building waste systems and exterior and interior supply systems. Course block II, on building waste…

  3. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, E. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Computer program computes system reliability for very general class of reliability block diagrams. Four factors are considered in calculating probability of system success: active block redundancy, standby block redundancy, partial redundancy, and presence of equivalent blocks in the diagram.

  4. 31 CFR 593.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 593.301 Section 593.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR...

  5. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  6. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  10. Block 3. Central view of Block 3 observed from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 3. Central view of Block 3 observed from the west to the east. This photograph reveals the alignment of trees within the central path of the park. In addition, this photograph exposes broken bricks aligning tree beds - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  11. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 586.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 586.301 Section 586.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF...

  17. 31 CFR 587.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 587.301 Section 587.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF...

  18. 31 CFR 549.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 549.301 Section 549.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  19. 31 CFR 543.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 543.302 Section 543.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 558.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 558.301 Section 558.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  1. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 594.301 Section 594.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 594.301 Section 594.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  3. 31 CFR 552.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 552.301 Section 552.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  4. 31 CFR 552.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 552.301 Section 552.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  5. 31 CFR 545.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 545.301 Section 545.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN)...

  6. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562.301 Section 562.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  7. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562.301 Section 562.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  8. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562.301 Section 562.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  9. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562.301 Section 562.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  10. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  11. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  12. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  13. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  14. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551.301 Section 551.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551.301 Section 551.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551.301 Section 551.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  17. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551.301 Section 551.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551.301 Section 551.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  19. Type III burst pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zongjun; Fu, Qijun; Lu, Quankang

    2000-05-01

    We present a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0-2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory (BAO). Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. We call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is a nice interpretation of type III burst pair since the plasma beta β~=0.01 is much less than 1 and the beams have velocity of about 1.07×10^8 cm s^-1 after leaving the reconnection region if we assume that the ambient magnetic field strength is about 100 G.

  20. Type III burst pair.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongjun, Ning; Fu, Qijun; Quankang, Lu

    2000-05-01

    Presents a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0 - 2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory. Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. The authors call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is an interpretation of type III burst pair.

  1. A Shifted Block Lanczos Algorithm 1: The Block Recurrence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, Roger G.; Lewis, John G.; Simon, Horst D.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we describe a block Lanczos algorithm that is used as the key building block of a software package for the extraction of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of large sparse symmetric generalized eigenproblems. The software package comprises: a version of the block Lanczos algorithm specialized for spectrally transformed eigenproblems; an adaptive strategy for choosing shifts, and efficient codes for factoring large sparse symmetric indefinite matrices. This paper describes the algorithmic details of our block Lanczos recurrence. This uses a novel combination of block generalizations of several features that have only been investigated independently in the past. In particular new forms of partial reorthogonalization, selective reorthogonalization and local reorthogonalization are used, as is a new algorithm for obtaining the M-orthogonal factorization of a matrix. The heuristic shifting strategy, the integration with sparse linear equation solvers and numerical experience with the code are described in a companion paper.

  2. A Shifted Block Lanczos Algorithm 1: The Block Recurrence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, Roger G.; Lewis, John G.; Simon, Horst D.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we describe a block Lanczos algorithm that is used as the key building block of a software package for the extraction of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of large sparse symmetric generalized eigenproblems. The software package comprises: a version of the block Lanczos algorithm specialized for spectrally transformed eigenproblems; an adaptive strategy for choosing shifts, and efficient codes for factoring large sparse symmetric indefinite matrices. This paper describes the algorithmic details of our block Lanczos recurrence. This uses a novel combination of block generalizations of several features that have only been investigated independently in the past. In particular new forms of partial reorthogonalization, selective reorthogonalization and local reorthogonalization are used, as is a new algorithm for obtaining the M-orthogonal factorization of a matrix. The heuristic shifting strategy, the integration with sparse linear equation solvers and numerical experience with the code are described in a companion paper.

  3. Retinoblastoma protein disrupts interactions required for RNA polymerase III transcription.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, J E; Brown, T R; Allison, S J; Scott, P H; White, R J

    2000-12-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has been shown to suppress RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcription in vivo (R. J. White, D. Trouche, K. Martin, S. P. Jackson, and T. Kouzarides, Nature 382:88-90, 1996). This regulation involves interaction with TFIIIB, a multisubunit factor that is required for the expression of all Pol III templates (C. G. C. Larminie, C. A. Cairns, R. Mital, K. Martin, T. Kouzarides, S. P. Jackson, and R. J. White, EMBO J. 16:2061-2071, 1997; W.-M. Chu, Z. Wang, R. G. Roeder, and C. W. Schmid, J. Biol. Chem. 272:14755-14761, 1997). However, it has not been established why RB binding to TFIIIB results in transcriptional repression. For several Pol II-transcribed genes, RB has been shown to inhibit expression by recruiting histone deacetylases, which are thought to decrease promoter accessibility. We present evidence that histone deacetylases exert a negative effect on Pol III activity in vivo. However, RB remains able to regulate Pol III transcription in the presence of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Instead, RB represses by disrupting interactions between TFIIIB and other components of the basal Pol III transcription apparatus. Recruitment of TFIIIB to most class III genes requires its binding to TFIIIC2, but this can be blocked by RB. In addition, RB disrupts the interaction between TFIIIB and Pol III that is essential for transcription. The ability of RB to inhibit these key interactions can explain its action as a potent repressor of class III gene expression.

  4. HERMES III source characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Radasky, W.A. ); Halbleib, J. ); Nunan, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Distant Light Program sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (RAEE) is directed toward understanding the response of electronic systems to Source Region EMP (SREMP) and will result in the development of proven system hardening and validation techniques for SREMP. This program relies very strongly on testing in above ground test (AGT) simulators such as the HERMES III gamma ray simulator at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This paper describes theoretical and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the gamma ray flux produced by HERMES III in terms of its time dependence, spatial variation and spectrum. As part of this characterization, the calibration of various measuring devices must be considered. This paper describes the progress made in characterizing the HERMES III radiation output through December of 1990.

  5. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  6. Masquerading bundle branch block: a variety of right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block.

    PubMed

    Elizari, Marcelo V; Baranchuk, Adrian; Chiale, Pablo A

    2013-01-01

    The so-called 'masquerading' type of right bundle branch block is caused by the simultaneous presence of a high-degree left anterior fascicular block often accompanied with severe left ventricular enlargement and/or fibrotic block in the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. These conditions tend to reorient the terminal electrical forces of the QRS complex towards the left and upwards, in such a way that the characteristic slurred S wave in lead I becomes smaller or even disappears. In many cases of standard masquerading right bundle branch block, a small Q wave in lead I is present due to the initial forces of the left anterior fascicular block, which are oriented rightwards and inferiorly. However, in some cases, the Q wave in lead I also vanishes, and the mimicking of a left bundle branch block becomes perfect in standard leads. This is commonly associated with an inferior myocardial infarction or severe inferior fibrosis in cardiomyopathies. The typical QRS changes of right bundle branch block may eventually be concealed even in the right precordial leads; under such circumstances, the ECG diagnosis may be mistaken and the right bundle branch block totally missed. The masquerading right bundle branch block carries a poor prognosis, since it always implies the presence of a severe underlying heart disease.

  7. Region 9 Census Block 2010

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Geography:The TIGER Line Files are feature classes and related database files (.) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (MAF/TIGER) Database (MTDB). The MTDB represents a seamless national file with no overlaps or gaps between parts, however, each TIGER Line File is designed to stand alone as an independent data set, or they can be combined to cover the entire nation. Census Blocks are statistical areas bounded on all sides by visible features, such as streets, roads, streams, and railroad tracks, and/or by non visible boundaries such as city, town, township, and county limits, and short line-of-sight extensions of streets and roads. Census blocks are relatively small in area; for example, a block in a city bounded by streets. However, census blocks in remote areas are often large and irregular and may even be many square miles in area. A common misunderstanding is that data users think census blocks are used geographically to build all other census geographic areas, rather all other census geographic areas are updated and then used as the primary constraints, along with roads and water features, to delineate the tabulation blocks. As a result, all 2010 Census blocks nest within every other 2010 Census geographic area, so that Census Bureau statistical data can be tabulated at the block level and aggregated up t

  8. Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastedo, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

  9. Writing Blocks and Tacit Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A review of the literature on writing block looks at two kinds: inability to write in a timely, fluent fashion, and reluctance by academicians to assist others in writing. Obstacles to fluent writing are outlined, four historical trends in treating blocks are discussed, and implications are examined. (MSE)

  10. The Effectiveness of Block Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamean, Sharon Lightle; Horvath, Robert Jeffery

    This report describes a program for the exploration of block scheduling. The targeted population consists of high school students in a growing, middle-class community, located in a suburban setting of a large mid-western city. The historical background of block scheduling is documented through data gathered using attendance reports, student…

  11. Foreign Language on the Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    The guide is designed to address concerns of North Carolina second/foreign language teachers and school administrators as they plan and implement block class scheduling. The first section outlines the rationale and special considerations for block scheduling, and offers some typical schedule options. North Carolina's instructional time…

  12. Building Minds by Block Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montopoli, Linda

    Noting that the process of playing with blocks supports the groundwork for learning in every area of a child's growth, this paper discusses specific uses of building blocks in the early childhood curriculum to develop a child's physical, social, emotional, artistic, language, scientific and mathematics growth. The paper outlines the contributions…

  13. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

  14. Summary of Session III

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-06-19

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002.

  15. CITY III Director's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game which allows the participants to make decisions affecting various aspects of the economic, governmental, and social sectors of a simulated urban area. The game director selects one of five possible starting city configurations, may set a number of conditions in the city before the start of play, and…

  16. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  17. Block Curricula: A Guide to Teaching with Unit Blocks and Hollow Blocks in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Phyllis; Tiedemann, Nancy

    This curriculum guide for preschool teachers was designed for use with wooden unit and hollow blocks to foster a variety of math, science, language, and social skills. Following an introduction to the curriculum and a discussion of cooperative learning and stages of block building, the guide is divided into three parts. Part 1 of the guide,…

  18. Snell's Law with Large Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, John J.

    2007-03-01

    The introductory physics lab curriculum usually has one experiment devoted to the study of the refraction of light. The most obvious way to study the refraction of light is to lay a transparent block down on the lab bench and aim a laser beam horizontally at the block so that it refracts twice—inward upon entering the block and outward upon exiting. The vendors that provide us with lab equipment (Sargent-Welch, PASCO, Fisher Scientific, and Frey Scientific to name a few) sell acrylic blocks for this very purpose, but these are either too small or they are too expensive. If students are going to measure angles of incidence and refraction, the blocks should be larger than the typical student protractor, which has a radius of 3 in (≈ 7½ cm). These blocks are just not large enough. They are generally not thick enough either so that the beam from a typical laser passes over them and not through them. The vendors mentioned above do sell blackboard optics kits that contain, among other parts, three blocks that are large enough—on the order of 10 to 20 cm. Unfortunately, these kits cost more than 1000.

  19. 31 CFR 560.322 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... name of the Government of Iran, any Iranian financial institution, or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 560.211, or in which the Government of Iran, an...

  20. 31 CFR 560.322 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... name of the Government of Iran, any Iranian financial institution, or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 560.211, or in which the Government of Iran, an...

  1. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 570.201, or in which the Government of Libya or such person has an interest, and with respect to which...

  2. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 570.201, or in which the Government of Libya or such person has an interest, and with respect to which...

  3. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 570.201, or in which the Government of Libya or such person has an interest, and with respect to which...

  4. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 570.201, or in which the Government of Libya or such person has an interest, and with respect to which...

  5. 1-2-3 Blocks: Beginning Block Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Evelyn

    This book discusses ways that blocks can be used with young children to help them develop different intellectual, motor, and social skills. The book is divided into four sections organized by block type: (1) unit blocks; (2) hollow blocks; (3) table blocks; and (4) homemade blocks. Each section describes the block type, gives reasons for using the…

  6. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  7. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-03-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  8. Pacific Barrier Radar III (PACBAR III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. D.; Sigler, J. D.

    1983-11-01

    The Pacific Barrier (PACBAR III) C-band radar is being installed at the Western Space and Missile Center to furnish Revolution 0 detection of foreign launches. Previously installed on a tracking ship, the upgraded system will also identify and target space objects, maintain a catalog, and cover maneuvers and decay of space objects. Nominal operation will comprise a search of a predesignated 15 deg azimuth with the capability of detecting a 6 sq m target in a 400 km orbit, track spacecraft in orbits up to 800 km altitude, have a range resolution of about 80 yd, provide realtime payload and rocket body discrimination, and transmit two-way digital message traffic between the Center and NORAD in Cheyenne Mt. Interlaced vertical and horizontal pulses will augment the search and acquisition capabilities, and the antenna will have a 140 deg plunge range. The transmitter will function at 5.4-5.65 GHz, 320 p/sec, with a peak power of 0.8 MW, and the system will have a nonambiguous range of 32,768 nmi.

  9. Hyper III on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Hyper III was a full-scale lifting-body remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) built at what was then the NASA Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California. The Flight Research Center (FRC--as Dryden was named from 1959 until 1976) already had experience with testing small-scale aircraft using model-airplane techniques, but the first true remotely piloted research vehicle was the Hyper III, which flew only once in December 1969. At that time, the Center was engaged in flight research with a variety of reentry shapes called lifting bodies, and there was a desire both to expand the flight research experience with maneuverable reentry vehicles, including a high-performance, variable-geometry craft, and to investigate a remotely piloted flight research technique that made maximum use of a research pilot's skill and experience by placing him 'in the loop' as if he were in the cockpit. (There have been, as yet, no female research pilots assigned to Dryden.) The Hyper III as originally conceived was a stiletto-shaped lifting body that had resulted from a study at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. It was one of a number of hypersonic, cross-range reentry vehicles studied at Langley. (Hypersonic means Mach 5--five times the speed of sound--or faster; cross-range means able to fly a considerable distance to the left or right of the initial reentry path.) The FRC added a small, deployable, skewed wing to compensate for the shape's extremely low glide ratio. Shop personnel built the 32-foot-long Hyper III and covered its tubular frame with dacron, aluminum, and fiberglass, for about $6,500. Hyper III employed the same '8-ball' attitude indicator developed for control-room use when flying the X-15, two model-airplane receivers to command the vehicle's hydraulic controls, and a telemetry system (surplus from the X-15 program) to transmit 12 channels of data to the ground not only for display and control but for data

  10. Hyper III on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Hyper III was a full-scale lifting-body remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) built at what was then the NASA Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California. The Flight Research Center (FRC--as Dryden was named from 1959 until 1976) already had experience with testing small-scale aircraft using model-airplane techniques, but the first true remotely piloted research vehicle was the Hyper III, which flew only once in December 1969. At that time, the Center was engaged in flight research with a variety of reentry shapes called lifting bodies, and there was a desire both to expand the flight research experience with maneuverable reentry vehicles, including a high-performance, variable-geometry craft, and to investigate a remotely piloted flight research technique that made maximum use of a research pilot's skill and experience by placing him 'in the loop' as if he were in the cockpit. (There have been, as yet, no female research pilots assigned to Dryden.) The Hyper III as originally conceived was a stiletto-shaped lifting body that had resulted from a study at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. It was one of a number of hypersonic, cross-range reentry vehicles studied at Langley. (Hypersonic means Mach 5--five times the speed of sound--or faster; cross-range means able to fly a considerable distance to the left or right of the initial reentry path.) The FRC added a small, deployable, skewed wing to compensate for the shape's extremely low glide ratio. Shop personnel built the 32-foot-long Hyper III and covered its tubular frame with dacron, aluminum, and fiberglass, for about $6,500. Hyper III employed the same '8-ball' attitude indicator developed for control-room use when flying the X-15, two model-airplane receivers to command the vehicle's hydraulic controls, and a telemetry system (surplus from the X-15 program) to transmit 12 channels of data to the ground not only for display and control but for data

  11. Atrioventricular block during fetal life

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lindsey E.; Simpson, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital complete atrioventricular (AV) block occurs in approximately 1 in 20,000 live births and is known to result in significant mortality and morbidity both during fetal life and postnatally. Complete AV block can occur as a result of an immune or a non-immune mediated process. Immune mediated AV block is a multifactorial disease, but is associated with the trans-placental passage of maternal autoantibodies (anti-Ro/SSA and/or anti-La/SSB). These autoantibodies attach to and subsequently damage the cardiomyocytes and conduction tissue in susceptible fetuses. In this report, we examine the evidence in reference to means of assessment, pathophysiology, and potential prenatal therapy of atrioventricular block. PMID:26136631

  12. The Building Blocks of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Betty O.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses teaching techniques for teaching about rocks, minerals, and the differences between them. Presents a model-building activity that uses plastic building blocks to build crystal and rock models. (YDS)

  13. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... to the eardrum) and the back of the nose and upper throat. ... down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are ...

  14. Carbon-carbon cylinder block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials, such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

  15. The Building Blocks of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Betty O.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses teaching techniques for teaching about rocks, minerals, and the differences between them. Presents a model-building activity that uses plastic building blocks to build crystal and rock models. (YDS)

  16. III-nitride nanowires : growth, properties, and applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Arslan, Ilke; Upadhya, Prashanth C.; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Talin, Albert Alec; Prasankumar, Rohit P.; Lin, Yong; Huang, Jian Yu

    2010-06-01

    Nanowires based on the III nitride materials system have attracted attention as potential nanoscale building blocks in optoelectronics, sensing, and electronics. However, before such applications can be realized, several challenges exist in the areas of controlled and ordered nanowire synthesis, fabrication of advanced nanowire heterostructures, and understanding and controlling the nanowire electrical and optical properties. Here, recent work is presented involving the aligned growth of GaN and III-nitride core-shell nanowires, along with extensive results providing insights into the nanowire properties obtained using advanced electrical, optical and structural characterization techniques.

  17. [Superior gluteal nerve: a new block on the block?

    PubMed

    Sá, Miguel; Graça, Rita; Reis, Hugo; Cardoso, José Miguel; Sampaio, José; Pinheiro, Célia; Machado, Duarte

    2017-05-24

    The superior gluteal nerve is responsible for innervating the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and tensor fascia latae muscles, all of which can be injured during surgical procedures. We describe an ultrasound-guided approach to block the superior gluteal nerve which allowed us to provide efficient analgesia and anesthesia for two orthopedic procedures, in a patient who had significant risk factors for neuraxial techniques and deep peripheral nerve blocks. An 84-year-old female whose regular use of clopidogrel contraindicated neuraxial techniques or deep peripheral nerve blocks presented for urgent bipolar hemiarthroplasty in our hospital. Taking into consideration the surgical approach chosen by the orthopedic team, we set to use a combination of general anesthesia and superficial peripheral nerve blocks (femoral, lateral cutaneous of thigh and superior gluteal nerve) for the procedure. A month and a half post-discharge the patient was re-admitted for debriding and correction of suture dehiscence; we performed the same blocks and light sedation. She remained comfortable in both cases, and reported no pain in the post-operative period. Deep understanding of anatomy and innervation empowers anesthesiologists to solve potentially complex cases with safer, albeit creative, approaches. The relevance of this block in this case arises from its innervation of the gluteus medius muscle and posterolateral portion of the hip joint. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an ultrasound-guided superior gluteal nerve block with an analgesic and anesthetic goal, which was successfully achieved. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of pseudo Class III malocclusion--synergistic approach with fixed and functional appliance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gyan P

    2013-01-01

    Class III malocclusion has been divided into two subtypes: skeletal and pseudo-Class III. A pseudo Class III malocclusion should be treated as early as possible to reduce the functional shift of the mandible and increase maxillary arch length. A case of pseudo-Class III malocclusion was presented here. A 11-year-old boy came with an anterior cross bite, the treatment was done with Fixed appliance (Roth prescription) and Reverse Twin block therapy. This case demonstrated that an anterior cross bite was corrected after 10 months of treatment.

  19. The Mark III VLBI System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Levine, J. I.; Nesman, E. F.; Webber, J. C.; Hinteregger, H. F.

    1988-01-01

    Geodetic measurements have errors in centimeter range. Collection of three reports describes both equipment and results of some measurements taken with Mark III very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) system. Has demonstrated high accuracy over short baselines, where phase-delay measurements used. Advanced hardware, called Mark III A, developed to improve system performance and efficiency. Original Mark III hardware and III A subsystem upgrades developed as part of NASA Crustal Dynamics Project at Haystack Observatory.

  20. Peripheral Heart Blocks Associated with Myocardial Infarcts: Clinical Diagnosis Based on Experimental Findings

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, Gustavo A; de Micheli, Alfredo; Iturralde, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Septal necrosis + peripheral left blocks. Because of an extensive septal necrosis, the manifestation of the initial ventricular activation forces decreases in the precordial leads. With left bifascicular block (LASB + LPSB), the first ventricular activation forces become more evident and the electrical signs of septal necrosis can be concealed. In the presence of a trifascicular block, manifestation of the first ventricular electromotive forces diminishes again and the electrical signs of septal necrosis become evident once more. Small Q waves are present in leads V1 to V4. Extensive anterior necrosis + peripheral blocks. This necrosis is manifested by QS complexes from V2 to V6. An associated left bifascicular block reduces the electrical manifestation of dead tissue: QS complexes persist only in V3 and V4. In turn, a coexisting trifascicular block causes the presence of QS complexes from V2 to V5. Posteroinferior necrosis + peripheral blocks. Electromotive forces of the ventricular activation shift upward, due to a posteroinferior necrosis and QS or QR complexes are recorded in leads aVF, II and III. An associated left bifascicular block displaces the main electromotive forces downward, posteriorly and to the left, due to a delay of the posteroinferior activation fronts. The ventricular complexes become positive and wider in all leads, reflecting the potential variations of the inferior portions of the left ventricle: aVF, II, III, sometimes V5 and V6. Consequently, the electrical signs of necrosis are reduced or abolished. Due to a trifascicular block, wide and slurred QS complexes are recorded in aVF, II, III and sometimes in V5 and V6. PMID:19936288

  1. Impassable YscP substrates and their impact on the Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion pathway.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Kelly E; Sorg, Joseph A; Berube, Bryan J; Schneewind, Olaf

    2008-09-01

    Yersinia type III machines secrete protein substrates across the bacterial envelope and, following assembly of their secretion needles, transport effector Yops into host cells. According to their destination during type III secretion, early, middle, and late secretion substrates can be distinguished; however, the signals and mechanisms whereby these proteins are recognized and transported by the secretion machine are not understood. Here, we examine several hybrids between secretion substrates and the impassable reporter protein glutathione S-transferase (GST). YscP-GST and YopR-GST blocked type III secretion; however, YscF-, YopD-, YopN-, and LcrV-GST did not. Unlike YopR-GST, which can block type III machines only during their assembly, expression of YscP-GST led to an immediate and complete block of all secretion. The secretion signal of YscP was mapped to its first 10 codons or amino acids; however, YscP(Delta 2-15)-GST, lacking this secretion signal, imposed a partial blockade. YscP-GST copurified with the type III ATPase complex (YscN, YscL, and YscQ) and with YscO, suggesting that the association of specific machine components with the impassable substrate may cause the block in type III secretion.

  2. Morphologies of block copolymers composed of charged and neutral blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev; Goswami, Monojoy; Mays, Jimmy; Sumpter, Bobby G; Wang, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews current experimental observations and theoretical calculations devoted towards understanding micro-phase separation in charged block copolymer systems. We discuss bulk morphologies in melt and in solution, as well as some of the new emerging research directions. Overall, a comprehensive picture is beginning to emerge on the fundamental role of electrostatics in the microphase separation of charged block copolymers. This understanding provides exciting new insight that may be used to direct targeted structures that endow the materials with desired properties that can have tremendous potential in technological applications.

  3. Various semiclassical limits of torus conformal blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalaev, Konstantin; Geiko, Roman; Rappoport, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    We study four types of one-point torus blocks arising in the large central charge regime. There are the global block, the light block, the heavy-light block, and the linearized classical block, according to different regimes of conformal dimensions. It is shown that the blocks are not independent being connected to each other by various links. We find that the global, light, and heavy-light blocks correspond to three different contractions of the Virasoro algebra. Also, we formulate the c-recursive representation of the one-point torus blocks which is relevant in the semiclassical approximation.

  4. Block Matching for Object Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Gyaourova, A; Kamath, C; Cheung, S

    2003-10-13

    Models which describe road traffic patterns can be helpful in detection and/or prevention of uncommon and dangerous situations. Such models can be built by the use of motion detection algorithms applied to video data. Block matching is a standard technique for encoding motion in video compression algorithms. We explored the capabilities of the block matching algorithm when applied for object tracking. The goal of our experiments is two-fold: (1) to explore the abilities of the block matching algorithm on low resolution and low frame rate video and (2) to improve the motion detection performance by the use of different search techniques during the process of block matching. Our experiments showed that the block matching algorithm yields good object tracking results and can be used with high success on low resolution and low frame rate video data. We observed that different searching methods have small effect on the final results. In addition, we proposed a technique based on frame history, which successfully overcame false motion caused by small camera movements.

  5. [N(CH3)4]2[Mn(H2O)]3[Mo(CN)7](2).2H2O: a new high Tc cyano-bridged ferrimagnet based on the [MoIII(CN)7]4- building block and induced by counterion exchange.

    PubMed

    Larionova, Joulia; Clérac, Rodolphe; Donnadieu, Bruno; Guérin, Christian

    2002-06-17

    The title compound was synthesized by slow diffusion of aqueous solutions containing K4[Mo(CN)7].2H2O, [Mn(H2O)6](NO3)2, and [N(CH3)4]Cl. The compound crystallized in monoclinic space group C2/c, a = 25.8546(14), b = 12.3906(7), c = 13.5382(7) A, beta = 116.4170 (10) degrees, Z = 4, R = 0.0353, wR2 = 0.0456. The MoIII site is surrounded by six -C-N-Mn linkages and one terminal cyano group in a distorted capped-prism fashion. There are two pentahedral MnII sites in the structure, both with four -N-C-Mo linkages and one water molecule. The anisotropic three-dimensional structure consists of connected corrugated gridlike sheet layers parallel to the bc plane. Tetramethylammonium counterions ([N(CH3)4]+) located between these layers seem to induce their distortion. The three-dimensional organization may also be viewed as interconnected octagonal channels propagated along the c axis. The void space of these channels is occupied by coordinated and crystalized water molecules. Temperature and field dependence of the magnetization in both the dc and ac modes have been measured on polycrystalline sample. These investigations have revealed that the compound ordered ferrimagnetically at Tc = 86 K, with a small hysteresis effect. These findings have been compared to those reported previously for three- and two-dimensional materials of the same family.

  6. Early cavity growth during forward burn. [Hoe Creek III problems

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, M.J.; Thorsness, C.B.; Hill, R.W.

    1980-07-03

    During the early portion of the forward burn phase of the Hoe Creek III field experiment, the cavity progagated rapidly down the deviated borehole and to the top of the coal seam. As a first step to understanding this phenomena we have conducted small scale coal block experiments. Drying as well as combustion tests were performed. This paper describes the test hardware and the experimental results.

  7. Type III Hyperlipoproteinaemia

    PubMed Central

    Borrie, Peter

    1969-01-01

    Eighteen patients with type III hyperlipoproteinaemia, diagnosed on the basis of skin lesions, serum lipids, and lipoprotein electrophoresis, have been fully investigated over a period of 15 years. The incidence of coronary artery disease was only slightly increased, and was not increased at all among first-degree relatives. Peripheral occlusive arterial disease was probably more common. An increased incidence of carbohydrate intolerance was found in neither the patients nor their relatives. The effects of treatment on the skin were uniformly good. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5783124

  8. Automatic blocking of nested loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Robert; Dongarra, Jack J.

    1990-01-01

    Blocked algorithms have much better properties of data locality and therefore can be much more efficient than ordinary algorithms when a memory hierarchy is involved. On the other hand, they are very difficult to write and to tune for particular machines. The reorganization is considered of nested loops through the use of known program transformations in order to create blocked algorithms automatically. The program transformations used are strip mining, loop interchange, and a variant of loop skewing in which invertible linear transformations (with integer coordinates) of the loop indices are allowed. Some problems are solved concerning the optimal application of these transformations. It is shown, in a very general setting, how to choose a nearly optimal set of transformed indices. It is then shown, in one particular but rather frequently occurring situation, how to choose an optimal set of block sizes.

  9. Toy Blocks and Rotational Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varieschi, Gabriele U.; Jully, Isabel R.

    2005-09-01

    Have you ever observed a child playing with toy blocks? A favorite game is to build towers and then make them topple like falling trees. To the eye of a trained physicist this should immediately look like an example of the physics of "falling chimneys," when tall structures bend and break in mid-air while falling to the ground. The game played with toy blocks can actually reproduce well what is usually seen in photographs of falling towers, such as the one that appeared on the cover of the September 1976 issue of The Physics Teacher. In this paper we describe how we performed and analyzed these simple but interesting experiments with toy blocks.

  10. Carbon-carbon cylinder block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials, such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

  11. Contrasting reduced overshadowing and blocking.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2007-07-01

    Preexposure of a cue without an outcome (X-) prior to compound pairings with the outcome (XZ-->O) can reduce overshadowing of a target cue (Z). Moreover, pairing a cue with an outcome (X-->O) before compound training can enhance its ability to compete with another cue (i.e., blocking). Four experiments were conducted in a conditioned bar-press suppression preparation with rats to determine whether spacing of the X- or X-->O trials would differentially affect reduced overshadowing and blocking. Experiment 1a showed that reduced overshadowing was larger with massed trials than with spaced trials. Experiment 1b found that blocking was larger with spaced trials than with massed trials. Experiments 2a and 2b indicated that these effects of trial spacing were both mediated by the associative status of the context at test. The results are interpreted in the framework of contemporary learning theories.

  12. To block or not to block - what is the impact?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper design of biological experiments involves significant advance thought, attention, and planning of the following items: • A block design should be employed in any circumstance in which the researcher expects some level of spatial or temporal variation among observations. • The most informed ch...

  13. Block by Block: The Challenges of Urban Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    guns led to the obsolescence of the protective city wall and to the capa - bility to defend within individual city buildings and blocks of buildings. The...Chubut 23. Santa Cruz TERRITORIO NACIONAL 24. Tierra del Fuego CAPITAL FEDERAL 15. Buenos Aires (city) lagoa dosPatos Antofagasta SANTIAGO Puerto Montt

  14. Block LancZos PACKage

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Osni

    2005-05-01

    BLZPACK (for Block LancZos PACKage) is a standard Fortran 77 implementation of the block Lanczos algorithm intended for the solution of the standard eigenvalue problem Ax=ux or the generalized eigenvalue problem Ax=uBx, where A and B are real, sparse symmetric matrices, u and eigenvalue and x and eigenvector. The development of this eigensolver was motivated by the need to solve large, sparse, generalized problems from free vibration analyses in structural engineering. Several upgrades were performed afterwards aiming at the solution of eigenvalues problems from a wider range of applications.

  15. Population III Hypernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J.; Wiggins, Brandon K.; Even, Wesley; Johnson, Jarrett L.; Fryer, Chris L.

    2014-12-01

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M ⊙ hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ~ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  16. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J.; Wiggins, Brandon K.; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ☉} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ∼ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  17. A Theorem on Trend-Free Block Designs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    AD-A09b 575 FLORIDA STATE UNIV TALLAHASSEE DEPT OF STATIST ICS F/A 12/I A THEOREM ON TREND-FREE BLOCK DESIGNS. (U) FEB 81 C YEH R A BRADLEY N0001-80... C -0093 UNCLASSIFIED FSU-STATISTICS-M569 NL.’ II/////I/ *fl4 Low DTIC ELECTE MAR 2 0 1961 E The Florida State University Department of Statistics...1 ) n = hb9 ±, were bisthe b-dimensional colun vector with unit elements and B 9 C is the Kronecker product of B and C . Bradley and Yell (1980

  18. Blocks and Bridges: Learning Artistic Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Explores research about creative thinking and outlines various processes that students go through when they attempt an art assignment. Describes the blocks to creative thinking that non-art majors have experienced, such as cultural blocks, conceptual and perceptual blocks, and social blocks. Discusses the instructional conditions important for…

  19. Planning Block Play Experiences for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Betty Ruth

    Playing with blocks can facilitate the creative, social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development of young children. This article presents information and activities concerning block play and its role in young children's experience. Topics covered include: (1) types of blocks; (2) selection of blocks and accessories; (3) planning of the…

  20. Teaching Numeracy, Language, and Literacy with Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburger, Abigail; Vaughan, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    By enhancing the block play in classrooms, teachers can help children acquire the emerging skills they need--with numbers, vocabulary, and reading--for kindergarten readiness. Newburger and Vaughan provide a theoretical foundation describing why and how to use blocks, and give guidance on selecting blocks and block safety. With chapters on the…

  1. Calibrator Blocks For Computerized Tomography (CT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, H. Peter

    1990-01-01

    Sets of calibrator blocks developed for use with industrial computerized tomography (CT) systems. Set of blocks (or number of stacked sets of blocks) placed on object table of CT system and scanned in usual way. Blocks include holes of known size, shape, and location. Appearance of holes in output image of CT system used to verify operation of system.

  2. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  3. Hawaii Census 2000 Block Groups

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include total population counts, racial/ethnic, and poverty/income information. Racial/ethnic classifications are represented in units of blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Poverty and income data are represented in units of blockgroups and tracts. Percentages of each racial/ethnic group have been calculated from the population counts. Total Minority counts and percentages were compiled from each racial/ethnic non-white category. Categories compiled to create the Total Minority count includes the following: African American, Asian, American Indian, Pacific Islander, White Hispanic, Other and all mixed race categories. The percentage poverty attribute represents the percent of the population living at or below poverty level. The per capita income attribute represents the sum of all income within the geographic entity, divided by the total population of that entity. Special fields designed to be used for EJ analysis have been derived from the PL data and include the following: Percentage difference of block, blockgroup and total minority from the state and county averages, percentile rank for each percent total minority within state and county entitie

  4. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  5. Preschoolers' Thinking during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolo, Diana L.; Test, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Children build foundations for mathematical thinking in early play and exploration. During the preschool years, children enjoy exploring mathematical concepts--such as patterns, shape, spatial relationships, and measurement--leading them to spontaneously engage in mathematical thinking during play. Block play is one common example that engages…

  6. A conformal block Farey tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Alexander; Maxfield, Henry; Ng, Gim Seng

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the constraints of crossing symmetry on CFT correlation functions. Four point conformal blocks are naturally viewed as functions on the upper-half plane, on which crossing symmetry acts by PSL(2, Z ) modular transformations. This allows us to construct a unique, crossing symmetric function out of a given conformal block by averaging over PSL(2, Z ). In some two dimensional CFTs the correlation functions are precisely equal to the modular average of the contributions of a finite number of light states. For example, in the two dimensional Ising and tri-critical Ising model CFTs, the correlation functions of identical operators are equal to the PSL(2, Z ) average of the Virasoro vacuum block; this determines the 3 point function coefficients uniquely in terms of the central charge. The sum over PSL(2, Z ) in CFT2 has a natural AdS3 interpretation as a sum over semi-classical saddle points, which describe particles propagating along rational tangles in the bulk. We demonstrate this explicitly for the correlation function of certain heavy operators, where we compute holographically the semi-classical conformal block with a heavy internal operator.

  7. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Blocks Neutrophil Degranulation.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Nayyer; Fahlgren, Anna; Fällman, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Neutrophils are essential components of immunity and are rapidly recruited to infected or injured tissue. Upon their activation, neutrophils release granules to the cell's exterior, through a process called degranulation. These granules contain proteins with antimicrobial properties that help combat infection. The enteropathogenic bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis successfully persists as an extracellular bacterium during infection by virtue of its translocation of virulence effectors (Yersinia outer proteins [Yops]) that act in the cytosol of host immune cells to subvert phagocytosis and proinflammatory responses. Here, we investigated the effect of Y. pseudotuberculosis on neutrophil degranulation upon cell contact. We found that virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis was able to prevent secondary granule release. The blocking effect was general, as the release of primary and tertiary granules was also reduced. Degranulation of secondary granules was also blocked in primed neutrophils, suggesting that this mechanism could be an important element of immune evasion. Further, wild-type bacteria conferred a transient block on neutrophils that prevented their degranulation upon contact with plasmid-cured, avirulent Y. pseudotuberculosis and Escherichia coli Detailed analyses showed that the block was strictly dependent on the cooperative actions of the two antiphagocytic effectors, YopE and YopH, suggesting that the neutrophil target structures constituting signaling molecules needed to initiate both phagocytosis and general degranulation. Thus, via these virulence effectors, Yersinia can impair several mechanisms of the neutrophil's antimicrobial arsenal, which underscores the power of its virulence effector machinery. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Enduring and Diagnosing Reader's Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melanson, Lisa Stapleton

    1990-01-01

    Describes a condition called "reader's block" whereby the mind fails to comprehend the meaning of the text because of digressing thoughts. Suggests that "freereading," like freewriting, can help to clarify thoughts. Argues that it is not necessary to read things correctly the first time through. (PRA)

  9. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  10. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block

    PubMed Central

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappji; Pai, Rohini B.; Rao, Raghavendra P.

    2013-01-01

    Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner's syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner's syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus. PMID:23956726

  11. Reversible atrioventricular blocks in thyroid storm.

    PubMed

    Atri, Sudhir Kumar; Chugh, S N; Goya, Sandeep; Chugh, Kiran

    2011-03-01

    Atrioventricular blocks or sinoatrial blocks are rarely described in patients with thyrotoxicosis or thyroid storm. The mechanism of these blocks remains obscure. Thyroid storm, being an emergency situation requires early diagnosis and management because if left untreated, it may prove fatal. Usually patients with AV blocks require pacing (temporary or permanent). Here we describe a case who developed AV blocks, did not undergo pacing, but recovered only on antithyroid treatment.

  12. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappji; Pai, Rohini B; Rao, Raghavendra P

    2013-04-01

    Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner's syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner's syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  13. Retinoblastoma Protein Disrupts Interactions Required for RNA Polymerase III Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Josephine E.; Brown, Timothy R. P.; Allison, Simon J.; Scott, Pamela H.; White, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has been shown to suppress RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcription in vivo (R. J. White, D. Trouche, K. Martin, S. P. Jackson, and T. Kouzarides, Nature 382:88–90, 1996). This regulation involves interaction with TFIIIB, a multisubunit factor that is required for the expression of all Pol III templates (C. G. C. Larminie, C. A. Cairns, R. Mital, K. Martin, T. Kouzarides, S. P. Jackson, and R. J. White, EMBO J. 16:2061–2071, 1997; W.-M. Chu, Z. Wang, R. G. Roeder, and C. W. Schmid, J. Biol. Chem. 272:14755–14761, 1997). However, it has not been established why RB binding to TFIIIB results in transcriptional repression. For several Pol II-transcribed genes, RB has been shown to inhibit expression by recruiting histone deacetylases, which are thought to decrease promoter accessibility. We present evidence that histone deacetylases exert a negative effect on Pol III activity in vivo. However, RB remains able to regulate Pol III transcription in the presence of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Instead, RB represses by disrupting interactions between TFIIIB and other components of the basal Pol III transcription apparatus. Recruitment of TFIIIB to most class III genes requires its binding to TFIIIC2, but this can be blocked by RB. In addition, RB disrupts the interaction between TFIIIB and Pol III that is essential for transcription. The ability of RB to inhibit these key interactions can explain its action as a potent repressor of class III gene expression. PMID:11094071

  14. Block Copolymerization of Lactide and an Epoxide Facilitated by a Redox Switchable Iron-Based Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Biernesser, Ashley B; Delle Chiaie, Kayla R; Curley, Julia B; Byers, Jeffery A

    2016-04-18

    A cationic iron(III) complex was active for the polymerization of various epoxides, whereas the analogous neutral iron(II) complex was inactive. Cyclohexene oxide polymerization could be "switched off" upon in situ reduction of the iron(III) catalyst and "switched on" upon in situ oxidation, which is orthogonal to what was observed previously for lactide polymerization. Conducting copolymerization reactions in the presence of both monomers resulted in block copolymers whose identity can be controlled by the oxidation state of the catalyst: selective lactide polymerization was observed in the iron(II) oxidation state and selective epoxide polymerization was observed in the iron(III) oxidation state. Evidence for the formation of block copolymers was obtained from solubility differences, GPC, and DOSY-NMR studies.

  15. Exploring the Influence of Diamagnetic Ions on the Mechanism of Magnetization Relaxation in {Co(III)2Ln(III)2} (Ln = Dy, Tb, Ho) "Butterfly" Complexes.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Kuduva R; Langley, Stuart K; Murray, Keith S; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2017-03-06

    The synthesis and magnetic and theoretical studies of three isostructural heterometallic [Co(III)2Ln(III)2(μ3-OH)2(o-tol)4(mdea)2(NO3)2] (Ln = Dy (1), Tb (2), Ho (3)) "butterfly" complexes are reported (o-tol = o-toluate, (mdea)(2-) = doubly deprotonated N-methyldiethanolamine). The Co(III) ions are diamagnetic in these complexes. Analysis of the dc magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the two Ln(III) ions for all three complexes. ac magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for complex 1, in the absence of an external magnetic field, with an anisotropy barrier Ueff of 81.2 cm(-1), while complexes 2 and 3 exhibit field induced SMM behavior, with a Ueff value of 34.2 cm(-1) for 2. The barrier height for 3 could not be quantified. To understand the experimental observations, we performed DFT and ab initio CASSCF+RASSI-SO calculations to probe the single-ion properties and the nature and magnitude of the Ln(III)-Ln(III) magnetic coupling and to develop an understanding of the role the diamagnetic Co(III) ion plays in the magnetization relaxation. The calculations were able to rationalize the experimental relaxation data for all complexes and strongly suggest that the Co(III) ion is integral to the observation of SMM behavior in these systems. Thus, we explored further the effect that the diamagnetic Co(III) ions have on the magnetization blocking of 1. We did this by modeling a dinuclear {Dy(III)2} complex (1a), with the removal of the diamagnetic ions, and three complexes of the types {K(I)2Dy(III)2} (1b), {Zn(II)2Dy(III)2} (1c), and {Ti(IV)2Dy(III)2} (1d), each containing a different diamagnetic ion. We found that the presence of the diamagnetic ions results in larger negative charges on the bridging hydroxides (1b > 1c > 1 > 1d), in comparison to 1a (no diamagnetic ion), which reduces quantum tunneling of magnetization effects, allowing for more desirable SMM characteristics

  16. Gauge Blocks - A Zombie Technology.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Gauge blocks have been the primary method for disseminating length traceability for over 100 years. Their longevity was based on two things: the relatively low cost of delivering very high accuracy to users, and the technical limitation that the range of high precision gauging systems was very small. While the first reason is still true, the second factor is being displaced by changes in measurement technology since the 1980s. New long range sensors do not require master gauges that are nearly the same length as the part being inspected, and thus one of the primary attributes of gauge blocks, wringing stacks to match the part, is no longer needed. Relaxing the requirement that gauges wring presents an opportunity to develop new types of end standards that would increase the accuracy and usefulness of gauging systems.

  17. On multilevel block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, Tadao; Takata, Toyoo; Fujiwara, Toru; Lin, Shu

    1991-01-01

    The multilevel (ML) technique for combining block coding and modulation is investigated. A general formulation is presented for ML modulation codes in terms of component codes with appropriate distance measures. A specific method for constructing ML block modulation codes (MLBMCs) with interdependency among component codes is proposed. Given an MLBMC C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed method gives an MLBC C-prime that has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C, and a smaller number of nearest-neighbor codewords than that of C. Finally, a technique is presented for analyzing the error performance of MLBMCs for an additive white Gaussian noise channel based on soft-decision maximum-likelihood decoding.

  18. On multilevel block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, Tadao; Takata, Toyoo; Fujiwara, Toru; Lin, Shu

    1991-01-01

    The multilevel (ML) technique for combining block coding and modulation is investigated. A general formulation is presented for ML modulation codes in terms of component codes with appropriate distance measures. A specific method for constructing ML block modulation codes (MLBMCs) with interdependency among component codes is proposed. Given an MLBMC C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed method gives an MLBC C-prime that has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C, and a smaller number of nearest-neighbor codewords than that of C. Finally, a technique is presented for analyzing the error performance of MLBMCs for an additive white Gaussian noise channel based on soft-decision maximum-likelihood decoding.

  19. Uav Photogrammetry: Block Triangulation Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gini, R.; Pagliari, D.; Passoni, D.; Pinto, L.; Sona, G.; Dosso, P.

    2013-08-01

    UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord"), useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey), allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes) were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma), Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  20. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  1. Liquid-blocking check valve

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, J.T.

    1982-09-27

    A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

  2. Relieving pain with nerve blocks.

    PubMed

    Carron, H

    1978-04-01

    Pain syndromes in elderly patients are seldom psychogenic or due merely to "old age." Careful differential diagnosis is important, as judicious use of nerve blocks as adjunctive therapy often can relieve pain and restore activity. In the acute phase of shoulder pain, intrabursal injection of local anesthetic and steroid inhibits the inflammatory process. In the later stages, suprascapular nerve block relieves pain and interrupts afferent pain pathways. The occipital pain and headache of cervical arthritis also often respond to injection of 2 to 3 ml of long-acting anesthetic into the greater and lesser occipital nerves at the sites where they pierce the trapezius. Minor causalgia, shoulder-arm syndrome, or chronic traumatic edema may follow either forearm fracture or inflammation around the shoulder joint. Five stellate ganglion blocks with 1% lidocaine on alternate days, followed by 3 to 4 months of active and passive exercise, is the most effective treatment. This regimen usually produces a fully functional extremity. In degenerative disk disease, osteoarthritis, and metastatic disease, the cause of back pain is essentially the same--edema and inflammation of nerve roots at the intervertebral foramina. Injection of local anesthetic and steroid into the epidural space usually reduces swelling and inflammation. Patients are evaluated in 2 weeks and reblocked if improvement has plateaued. Pain relief most often is prompt and persists for an indefinite period.

  3. Scanning probe block copolymer lithography

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jinan; Huo, Fengwei; Zheng, Zijian; Giam, Louise R.; Shim, Wooyoung; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of individual nanoparticles into desired spatial arrangements over large areas is a prerequisite for exploiting their unique electrical, optical, and chemical properties. However, positioning single sub-10-nm nanoparticles in a specific location individually on a substrate remains challenging. Herein we have developed a unique approach, termed scanning probe block copolymer lithography, which enables one to control the growth and position of individual nanoparticles in situ. This technique relies on either dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) or polymer pen lithography (PPL) to transfer phase-separating block copolymer inks in the form of 100 or more nanometer features on an underlying substrate. Reduction of the metal ions via plasma results in the high-yield formation of single crystal nanoparticles per block copolymer feature. Because the size of each feature controls the number of metal atoms within it, the DPN or PPL step can be used to control precisely the size of each nanocrystal down to 4.8 ± 0.2 nm. PMID:21059942

  4. Interfaces between Block Copolymer Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaeup; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2011-03-01

    Block copolymers naturally form nanometer scale structures which repeat their geometry on a larger scale. Such a small scale periodic pattern can be used for various applications such as storage media, nano-circuits and optical filters. However, perfect alignment of block copolymer domains in the macroscopic scale is still a distant dream. The nanostructure formation usually occurs with spontaneously broken symmetry; hence it is easily infected by topological defects which sneak in due to entropic fluctuation and incomplete annealing. Careful annealing can gradually reduce the number of defects, but once kinetically trapped, it is extremely difficult to remove all the defects. One of the main reasons is that the defect finds a locally metastable morphology whose potential depth is large enough to prohibit further morphology evolution. In this work, the domain boundaries between differently oriented lamellar structures in thin film are studied. For the first time, it became possible to quantitatively study the block copolymer morphology in the transitional region, and it was shown that the twisted grain boundary is energetically favorable compared to the T-junction grain boundary. [Nano Letters, 9, 2300 (2010)]. This theoretical method successfully explained the experimental results.

  5. Effect of III-V on insulator structure on quantum well intermixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Seiya; Ikku, Yuki; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2016-04-01

    To achieve the monolithic active/passive integration on the III-V CMOS photonics platform, quantum well intermixing (QWI) on III-V on insulator (III-V-OI) is studied for fabricating multi-bandgap III-V-OI wafers. By optimizing the QWI condition for a 250-nm-thick III-V layer, which contains a five-layer InGaAsP-based multi-quantum well (MQW) with 80-nm-thick indium phosphide (InP) cladding layers, we have successfully achieved a photoluminescence (PL) peak shift of over 100 nm on the III-V-OI wafer. We have also found that the progress of QWI on the III-V-OI wafer is slower than that on the InP bulk wafer regardless of the buried oxide (BOX) thickness, bonding interface materials, and handle wafers. We have also found that the progress of QWI on the III-V-OI wafer is slower than that on the InP bulk wafer regardless of the buried oxide (BOX) thickness, bonding interface materials, and bulk support wafers on which the III-V-OI structure is formed (handle wafers). By comparing between the measured PL shift and simulated diffusions of phosphorus vacancies and interstitials during QWI, we have found that the slow QWI progress in the III-V-OI wafer is probably attributed to the enhanced recombination of vacancies and interstitials by the diffusion blocking of vacancies and interstitials at the BOX interface.

  6. Representation of blocking in an ensemble of high-resolution global atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiemann, Reinhard; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Shaffrey, Len C.; Strachan, Jane; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Matsueda, Mio; Wehner, Michael F.

    2015-04-01

    The representation of modes of variability in atmospheric models depends crucially on the model's ability to simulate persistent circulation anomalies, for example during blocking episodes. Furthermore, models tend to underestimate blocking occurrence and it has been suggested that their relatively coarse resolution limits their ability to represent mid-latitude blocking. Assessing the role of model resolution for blocking is computationally expensive, as multi-decadal simulations at the desired resolution are necessary for a robust estimation of blocking statistics. Here, we use an ensemble of four atmosphere-only global models for which simulations that fulfil this requirement are available at resolutions of roughly 25 km horizontal grid spacing in the mid-latitudes. This corresponds to about a fourfold increase in resolution over the highest-resolution CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5) models. The four models are (i) the ECMWF model (IFS) as used in the project Athena, (ii) the MRI-AGCM 3.2, (iii) CAM5, and (iv) our own HadGEM3-GA3 simulations obtained in the UPSCALE project (UK on PrACE - weather-resolving Simulations of Climate for globAL Environmental risk). We also use coarser (100-200 km grid spacing) versions of these four models with an as similar as possible model formulation to assess the sensitivity to resolution in a controlled modelling setup. We use a two-dimensional blocking index to assess the representation of blocking in these simulations and in three reanalyses (ERA-Interim, ERA-40, MERRA). We evaluate the spatial distribution of climatological blocking frequency, the interannual variability of blocking occurrence as well as the persistence of blocking events. Furthermore, the degree to which blocking biases are associated with mean-state biases is quantified in the different models. We find that the three reanalyses agree well on the blocking climatology. The sensitivity of the simulated blocking to model resolution

  7. SUPERSTARS III: 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  8. SUPERSTARS III: 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  9. Using dBase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Janet; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Four articles on dBASE III include three on library applications: a photocopy invoicing system for interlibrary loan, a vertical file subject headings list program, and a subject index to statistical resources. Another article explains the differences between interpreters and compilers and the advantages of the Clipper compiler for dBASE III. (EM)

  10. Title III and Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Title III Quarterly, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Title III projects dealing with cultural diversity in the classroom are described in this issue of the Title III Quarterly. Major articles are devoted to the following projects: Two Arts Culture Three Project, developing the crafts and music of mountain whites, blacks, and Cherokees; the Rota Bilingual Project, the Marianas District, emphasizing…

  11. Division III--Another Ballgame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grites, Thomas J.; James, G. Larry

    1986-01-01

    The non-scholarship athletes of Division III represent a substantial group of advisees that are similar to, and yet different from the scholarship athlete. Division III student-athletes, their characteristics, situations, and needs are examined and specific efforts to improve their quality of student life are identified. (MLW)

  12. THE GENUS VEILLONELLA III.

    PubMed Central

    Rogosa, Morrison; Bishop, Ferial S.

    1964-01-01

    Rogosa, Morrison (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.), and Ferial S. Bishop. The genus Veillonella. III. Hydrogen sulfide production by growing cultures. J. Bacteriol. 88:37–41. 1964.—The conditions necessary for H2S production by 105 strains of Veillonella, from a variety of sources and comprising seven anti-genic groups, are presented and discussed. All strains, during 1 to 2 days of growth, produced H2S in a defined medium supplemented with proper amounts of l-cysteine, l-cystine, reduced glutathione, thiosulfate, thiocyanate, or thioglycolate. Erratic or negative results were obtained with some commonly used media containing yeast extract and casein digest, but which were not supplemented with appropriate substrates for H2S production. Previous literature descriptions of V. alcalescens as not producing H2S are incorrect; H2S production, or the previously presumed lack of it, cannot be used as a criterion differentiating V. alcalescens from V. parvula. PMID:14198791

  13. [Atrioventricular block caused by tick bite--Lyme's carditis].

    PubMed

    Lörincz, I; Várvölgyi, C; Lakos, A; Wórum, F; Kovács, P; Polgár, P

    1989-10-22

    The authors present the case of a 44-year-old patient who was admitted to the hospital because of AV block of degree III. Six weeks earlier a tick was removed from the left foot of the patient. Two weeks later an erythema of 8 cm in diameter, spreading peripherally as well as painful inguinal lymphadenitis developed at the site of the bite with transient arthralgia and myalgia in the region of the waist and left lower limb. After the temporary use of pacemaker, steroid and atropine therapy applied because of the pronounced bradycardia the block became of degree I on the 4th day however negative T-waves appeared in leads III, aVF, V3. By the 14th day the AV time returned to normal and the pathological signs of repolarization disappeared. Serological examinations revealed increased Borrelia burgdorferi antibody level. Lyme's carditis may be prevented by starting the antibiotic therapy at the time of the chronic erythema migrans. Upon medication the patient may recover from the carditis without remaining symptoms.

  14. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III instrument proposed for EOS - A conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E.; Mccormick, M. P.; Zawodny, J. M.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.; Gustafson, J. C.; Maddrea, G. L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument proposed for the Earth Observing System (EOS), which is designed to monitor the vertical distribution of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and temperature by measuring the extinction and scattering of solar radiation in the 03 to 1.6 micron range through the atmosphere. The SAGE III employs proven concepts which have evolved from the SAM II, SAGE, and SAGE II programs. The launch is scheduled for the summer of 1996. The SAGE II block diagram is included.

  15. PREFACE: Quantum Optics III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orszag, M.; Retamal, J. C.; Saavedra, C.; Wallentowitz, S.

    2007-06-01

    All the 50 years of conscious pondering did not bring me nearer to an answer to the question `what is light quanta?'. Nowadays, every rascal believes, he knows it, however, he is mistaken. (A Einstein, 1951 in a letter to M Besso) Quantum optics has played a key role in physics in the last several decades. On the other hand, in these early decades of the information age, the flow of information is becoming more and more central to our daily life. Thus, the related fields of quantum information theory as well as Bose-Einstein condensation have acquired tremendous importance in the last couple of decades. In Quantum Optics III, a fusion of these fields appears in a natural way. Quantum Optics III was held in Pucón, Chile, in 27-30 of November, 2006. This beautiful location in the south of Chile is near the lake Villarrica and below the snow covered volcano of the same name. This fantastic environment contributed to a relaxed atmosphere, suitable for informal discussion and for the students to have a chance to meet the key figures in the field. The previous Quantum Optics conferences took place in Santiago, Chile (Quantum Optics I, 2000) and Cozumel, Mexico (Quantum Optics II, 2004). About 115 participants from 19 countries attended and participated in the meeting to discuss a wide variety of topics such as quantum-information processing, experiments related to non-linear optics and squeezing, various aspects of entanglement including its sudden death, correlated twin-photon experiments, light storage, decoherence-free subspaces, Bose-Einstein condensation, discrete Wigner functions and many more. There was a strong Latin-American participation from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and Mexico, as well as from Europe, USA, China, and Australia. New experimental and theoretical results were presented at the conference. In Latin-America a quiet revolution has taken place in the last twenty years. Several groups working in quantum optics and

  16. Hillslope-derived blocks retard river incision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobe, Charles M.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Anderson, Robert S.

    2016-05-01

    The most common detachment-limited river incision models ignore the effects of sediment on fluvial erosion, yet steep reaches of mountain rivers often host clusters of large (>1 m) blocks. We argue that this distribution of blocks is a manifestation of an autogenic negative feedback in which fast vertical river incision steepens adjacent hillslopes, which deliver blocks to the channel. Blocks inhibit incision by shielding the bed and enhancing form drag. We explore this feedback with a 1-D channel-reach model in which block delivery by hillslopes depends on the river incision rate. Results indicate that incision-dependent block delivery can explain the block distribution in Boulder Creek, Colorado. The proposed negative feedback may significantly slow knickpoint retreat, channel adjustment, and landscape response compared to rates predicted by current theory. The influence of hillslope-derived blocks may complicate efforts to extract base level histories from river profiles.

  17. The importance of non-quasigeostrophic forcing during the development of a blocking anticyclone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, Chih-Hua; Smith, Phillip J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the impact of non-quasigeostrophic (NQG) processes during the development of a blocking anticyclone (January 21, 1979 over the southern tip of Greenland) and a precursor, upstream intense cyclone (January 18, 1979). Energy quantities and height tendencies determined from quasigeostrophic estimates are compared with the same quantities obtained from more general formulations. GLA FGGE Level III-b analysis on a 4 deg lat by 5 deg long grid was used to obtain energetics results. It is concluded that NQG processes strengthened the intensity of the block and a precursor explosive cyclone and that a portion of this increase resulted from enhanced baroclinic conversion of eddy potential to eddy kinetic energy and reduced barotropic energy conversion from eddy to zonal flow. It is suggested that NQG vorticity advection, instead of moderating wave developments, enhanced the block development, and it is also suggested that QG forcing might not have been adequate to produce the observed block development.

  18. Curcumin blocks brain tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Purkayastha, Sudarshana; Berliner, Alexandra; Fernando, Suraj Shawn; Ranasinghe, Buddima; Ray, Indrani; Tariq, Hussnain; Banerjee, Probal

    2009-04-17

    Turmeric, an essential ingredient of culinary preparations of Southeast Asia, contains a major polyphenolic compound, named curcumin or diferuloylmethane, which eliminates cancer cells derived from a variety of peripheral tissues. Although in vitro experiments have addressed its anti-tumor property, no in vivo studies have explored its anti-cancer activity in the brain. Oral delivery of this food component has been less effective because of its low solubility in water.We show that a soluble formulation of curcumin crosses the blood–brain barrier but does not suppress normal brain cell viability. Furthermore, tail vein injection, or more effectively, intracerebral injection through a cannula, blocks brain tumor formation in mice that had already received an intracerebral bolus of mouse melanoma cells (B16F10).While exploring the mechanism of its action in vitro we observed that the solubilized curcumin causes activation of proapoptotic enzymes caspase 3/7 in human oligodendroglioma (HOG) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells, and mouse tumor cells N18(neuroblastoma), GL261 (glioma), and B16F10. A simultaneous decrease in cell viability is also revealed by MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide]assays. Further examination of the B16F10 cells showed that curcumin effectively suppresses Cyclin D1, P-NF-kB, BclXL, P-Akt, and VEGF, which explains its efficacy in blocking proliferation, survival, and invasion of the B16F10 cells in the brain. Taken together,solubilized curcumin effectively blocks brain tumor formation and also eliminates brain tumor cells. Therefore, judicious application of such injectable formulations of curcumin could be developed into a safe therapeutic strategy for treating brain tumors.

  19. Method for making block siloxane copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Butler, N.L.; Jessop, E.S.; Kolb, J.R.

    1981-02-25

    A method for synthesizing block polysiloxane copolymers is disclosed. Diorganoscyclosiloxanes and an end-blocking compound are interacted in the presence of a ring opening polymerization catalyst, producing a blocked prepolymer. The prepolymer is then interacted with a silanediol, resulting in condensation polymerization of the prepolymers. A second end-blocking compound is subsequently introduced to end-cap the polymers and copolymers formed from the condensation polymerization.

  20. Method for making block siloxane copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Nora; Jessop, Edward S.; Kolb, John R.

    1982-01-01

    A method for synthesizing block polysiloxane copolymers. Diorganoscyclosiloxanes and an end-blocking compound are interacted in the presence of a ring opening polymerization catalyst, producing a blocked prepolymer. The prepolymer is then interacted with a silanediol, resulting in condensation polymerization of the prepolymers. A second end-blocking compound is subsequently introduced to end-cap the polymers and copolymers formed from the condensation polymerization.

  1. Large block test status report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, D.G.; Lin, W.; Blair, S.C.

    1997-08-26

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved.

  2. Blocking in the spatial domain.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, T; Chamizo, V D; McLaren, I P; Mackintosh, N J

    1997-01-01

    An initial series of experiments with rats in a swimming pool established that they could find a hidden platform the location of which was defined in terms of 3 or 4 landmarks and that, when trained with all 4, any subset of 3 (or even, after a sufficient number of swimming trials, 2) landmarks was sufficient to produce accurate performance. When only one landmark was present during testing, however, performance fell to chance. Two additional experiments demonstrated a significant blocking effect: If rats were first trained to locate the platform with 3 landmarks, they did not learn to use a 4th landmark added to their initial set of 3.

  3. Block Oriented Simulation System (BOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, Jaimie

    1988-01-01

    Computer simulation is assuming greater importance as a flexible and expedient approach to modeling system and subsystem behavior. Simulation has played a key role in the growth of complex, multiple access space communications such as those used by the space shuttle and the TRW-built Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). A powerful new simulator for use in designing and modeling the communication system of NASA's planned Space Station is being developed. Progress to date on the Block (Diagram) Oriented Simulation System (BOSS) is described.

  4. Suboptimum decoding of block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates a class of decomposable codes, their distance and structural properties. it is shown that this class includes several classes of well known and efficient codes as subclasses. Several methods for constructing decomposable codes or decomposing codes are presented. A two-stage soft decision decoding scheme for decomposable codes, their translates or unions of translates is devised. This two-stage soft-decision decoding is suboptimum, and provides an excellent trade-off between the error performance and decoding complexity for codes of moderate and long block length.

  5. 43 CFR 8.4 - Blocking out.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Blocking out. 8.4 Section 8.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.4 Blocking out. Blocking out will be accomplished in...

  6. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  7. Basalt-Block Heat-Storage Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Concept for storage of solar heat for later use based on use of basalt, cast into blocks and stacked in inflatable gas-tight enclosure serving as heat-storage chamber. Heat flows to blocks from solar collector during day and from blocks to heat engine at night.

  8. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  9. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  10. Block Play: Practical Suggestions for Common Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunks, Karyn Wellhousen

    2009-01-01

    Learning materials and teaching methods used in early childhood classrooms have fluctuated greatly over the past century. However, one learning tool has stood the test of time: Wood building blocks, often called unit blocks, continue to be a source of pleasure and learning for young children at play. Wood blocks have the unique capacity to engage…

  11. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus to encode message input symbols in accordance with an accumulate-repeat-accumulate code with repetition three or four are disclosed. Block circulant matrices are used. A first method and apparatus make use of the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. A second method and apparatus use block-circulant generator matrices.

  12. Naming Block Structures: A Multimodal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Lynn; Uhry, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This study describes symbolic representation in block play in a culturally diverse suburban preschool classroom. Block play is "multimodal" and can allow children to experiment with materials to represent the world in many forms of literacy. Combined qualitative and quantitative data from seventy-seven block structures were collected and analyzed.…

  13. 49 CFR 236.804 - Signal, block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Signal, block. 236.804 Section 236.804..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.804 Signal, block. A roadway signal operated either automatically or manually at the entrance to a block. ...

  14. 49 CFR 236.804 - Signal, block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Signal, block. 236.804 Section 236.804..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.804 Signal, block. A roadway signal operated either automatically or manually at the entrance to a block. ...

  15. 49 CFR 236.804 - Signal, block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, block. 236.804 Section 236.804..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.804 Signal, block. A roadway signal operated either automatically or manually at the entrance to a block. ...

  16. 49 CFR 236.804 - Signal, block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Signal, block. 236.804 Section 236.804..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.804 Signal, block. A roadway signal operated either automatically or manually at the entrance to a block. ...

  17. 49 CFR 236.804 - Signal, block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signal, block. 236.804 Section 236.804..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.804 Signal, block. A roadway signal operated either automatically or manually at the entrance to a block. ...

  18. Naming Block Structures: A Multimodal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Lynn; Uhry, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This study describes symbolic representation in block play in a culturally diverse suburban preschool classroom. Block play is "multimodal" and can allow children to experiment with materials to represent the world in many forms of literacy. Combined qualitative and quantitative data from seventy-seven block structures were collected and analyzed.…

  19. Standardized Curriculum for Brick, Block, and Stonemasonry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: brick, block, and stonemasonry I and II. The six units in brick, block, and stonemasonry I are as follows: orientation and leadership activities; safety; basic tools and equipment; masonry units; mortar; and wall layout. Brick, block,…

  20. Evaluation of 4 X 4 Block Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutter, Davida W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes 4 X 4 block scheduling and its advantages and disadvantages. Examines block scheduling's effects on a Virginia high school's students, teachers, and administration, based on school data and survey results. Most participants preferred block scheduling over the six-period schedule. Grades, attendance, and discipline improved; students…

  1. 43 CFR 8.4 - Blocking out.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blocking out. 8.4 Section 8.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.4 Blocking out. Blocking out will be accomplished...

  2. 43 CFR 8.4 - Blocking out.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blocking out. 8.4 Section 8.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.4 Blocking out. Blocking out will be accomplished...

  3. 43 CFR 8.4 - Blocking out.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Blocking out. 8.4 Section 8.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.4 Blocking out. Blocking out will be accomplished...

  4. 43 CFR 8.4 - Blocking out.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Blocking out. 8.4 Section 8.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.4 Blocking out. Blocking out will be accomplished...

  5. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  6. Block Play: Practical Suggestions for Common Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunks, Karyn Wellhousen

    2009-01-01

    Learning materials and teaching methods used in early childhood classrooms have fluctuated greatly over the past century. However, one learning tool has stood the test of time: Wood building blocks, often called unit blocks, continue to be a source of pleasure and learning for young children at play. Wood blocks have the unique capacity to engage…

  7. Imide/arylene ether block copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Bass, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Two series of imide/arylene either block copolymers were prepared using an arylene ether block and either an amorphous or semi-crystalline imide block. The resulting copolymers were characterized and selected physical and mechanical properties were determined. These results, as well as comparisons to the homopolymer properties, are discussed.

  8. Viking Phase III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    VIKING PHASE III - With the incredible success of the Viking missions on Mars, mission operations have progressed though a series of phases - each being funded as mission success dictated its potential. The Viking Primary Mission phase was concluded in November, 1976, when the reins were passed on to the second phase - the Viking Extended Mission. The Extended Mission successfully carried spacecraft operations through the desired period of time needed to provided a profile of a full Martian year, but would have fallen a little short of connecting and overlapping a full Martian year of Viking operations which scientists desired as a means of determining the degree of duplicity in the red planet's seasons - at least for the summer period. Without this continuation of spacecraft data acquisitions to and beyond the seasonal points when the spacecraft actually began their Mars observations, there would be no way of knowing whether the changing environmental values - such as temperatures and winds atmospheric dynamics and water vapor, surface thermal dynamics, etc. - would match up with those acquired as the spacecraft began investigations during the summer and fall of 1976. This same broad interest can be specifically pursued at the surface - where hundreds of rocks, soil drifts and other features have become extremely familiar during long-term analysis. This picture was acquired on the 690th Martian day of Lander 1 operations - 4009th picture sequence commanded of the two Viking Landers. As such, it became the first picture acquired as the third phase of Viking operations got under way - the Viking Continuation Mission. Between the start of the Continuation Mission in April, 1978, until spacecraft operations are concluded in November, the landers will acquire an additional 200 pictures. These will be used to monitor the two landscaped for the surface changes. All four cameras, two on Lander 1 and two on Lander 2, continue to operate perfectly. Both landers will also

  9. Coastal protection using topological interlocking blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2013-04-01

    The coastal protection systems mainly rely on the self-weight of armour blocks to ensure its stability. We propose a system of interlocking armour blocks, which form plate-shape assemblies. The shape and the position of the blocks are chosen in such a way as to impose kinematic constraints that prevent the blocks from being removed from the assembly. The topological interlocking shapes include simple convex blocks such as platonic solids, the most practical being tetrahedra, cubes and octahedra. Another class of topological interlocking blocks is so-called osteomorphic blocks, which form plate-like assemblies tolerant to random block removal (almost 25% of blocks need to be removed for the assembly to loose integrity). Both classes require peripheral constraint, which can be provided either by the weight of the blocks or post-tensioned internal cables. The interlocking assemblies provide increased stability because lifting one block involves lifting (and bending) the whole assembly. We model the effect of interlocking by introducing an equivalent additional self-weight of the armour blocks. This additional self-weight is proportional to the critical pressure needed to cause bending of the interlocking assembly when it loses stability. Using beam approximation we find an equivalent stability coefficient for interlocking. It is found to be greater than the stability coefficient of a structure with similar blocks without interlocking. In the case when the peripheral constraint is provided by the weight of the blocks and for the slope angle of 45o, the effective stability coefficient for a structure of 100 blocks is 33% higher than the one for a similar structure without interlocking. Further increase in the stability coefficient can be reached by a specially constructed peripheral constraint system, for instance by using post-tension cables.

  10. Serotonin-induced cleavage of the atypical protein kinase C Apl III in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Bougie, Joanna K; Cai, Diancai; Hastings, Margaret; Farah, Carole A; Chen, Shanping; Fan, Xiaotang; McCamphill, Patrick K; Glanzman, David L; Sossin, Wayne S

    2012-10-17

    A constitutively active kinase, known as protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ), is proposed to act as a long-lasting molecular memory trace. While PKMζ is formed in rodents through translation of a transcript initiating in an intron of the protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) gene, this transcript does not exist in Aplysia californica despite the fact that inhibitors of PKMζ erase memory in Aplysia in a fashion similar to rodents. We have previously shown that, in Aplysia, the ortholog of PKCζ, PKC Apl III, is cleaved by calpain to form a PKM after overexpression of PKC Apl III. We now show that kinase activity is required for this cleavage. We further use a FRET reporter to measure cleavage of PKC Apl III into PKM Apl III in live neurons using a stimulus that induces plasticity. Our results show that a 10 min application of serotonin induces cleavage of PKC Apl III in motor neuron processes in a calpain- and protein synthesis-dependent manner, but does not induce cleavage of PKC Apl III in sensory neuron processes. Furthermore, a dominant-negative PKM Apl III expressed in the motor neuron blocked the late phase of intermediate-term facilitation in sensory-motor neuron cocultures induced by 10 min of serotonin. In summary, we provide evidence that PKC Apl III is cleaved into PKM Apl III during memory formation, that the requirements for cleavage are the same as the requirements for the plasticity, and that PKM in the motor neuron is required for intermediate-term facilitation.

  11. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA complex in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Novotnik, Breda; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila; Filipič, Metka; Žegura, Bojana

    2016-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) are common environmental pollutants and can be present in high concentrations in surface waters at the same time. Therefore, chelation of Cr with EDTA can occur and thereby stable Cr(III)-EDTA complex is formed. Since there are no literature data on Cr(III)-EDTA toxicity, the aim of our work was to evaluate and compare Cr(III)-EDTA cytotoxic and genotoxic activity with those of Cr(VI) and Cr(III)-nitrate in human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line. First the effect of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on cell viability was studied in the concentration range from 0.04 μg mL(-1) to 25 μg mL(-1) after 24 h exposure. Further the influence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on DNA damage and genomic stability was determined with the comet assay and cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay, respectively. Cell viability was decreased only by Cr(VI) at concentrations above 1.0 μg mL(-1). Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1) and Cr(III) at ≥1.0 μg mL(-1) induced DNA damage, while after Cr(III)-EDTA exposure no formation DNA strand breaks was determined. Statistically significant formation of micronuclei was induced only by Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1), while no influence on the frequency of nuclear buds nor nucleoplasmic bridges was observed at any exposure. This study provides the first evidence that Cr(III)-EDTA did not induce DNA damage and had no influence on the genomic stability of HepG2 cells.

  12. The Application of a WISC-III Short Form for Screening Gifted Elementary Students in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Betty A.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation explored the accuracy of a short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III} in predicting Full Scale IQ when administered as a separate test. The Dumont-Faro short form (i.e., Picture Completion, Information, Coding, Block Design, and Vocabulary; Dumont & Faro, 1993) was administered to 60…

  13. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetic type of cranial mononeuropathy III is a complication of diabetes . It causes double vision and eyelid drooping . ... Cooper ME, Vinik AI, Plutzky J, Boulton AJM. Complications of diabetes mellitus. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg ...

  14. Division III: Planetary Systems Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowell, Edward L. G.; Meech, Karen J.; Williams, Iwan P.; Boss, Alan; Courtin, Régis; Gustafson, Bo Å. S.; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Mayor, Michel; Spurný, Pavel; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Consolmagno, Guy J.; Fernández, Julio A.; Huebner, Walter F.; Marov, Mikhail Ya.; Schulz, Rita M.; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.; Witt, Adolf N.

    2010-05-01

    The meeting was opened by Ted Bowell, president, at 11 am. The 2006 Division III meetings were reviewed by Guy Consolmagno, secretary; as the minutes of those meetings have already been published, they were assumed to be approved.

  15. Division Iii: Planetary System Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Iwan P.; Bowell, Edward L. G.; Marov, Mikhail Ya.; Consolmagno, Guy J.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Boss, Alan P.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Levasseur-Regord, Anny-Chantal; Morrison, David; Tinney, Christopher G.

    2007-12-01

    Division III gathers astronomers engaged in the study of a comprehensive range of phenomena in the solar system and its bodies, from the major planets via comets to meteorites and interplanetary dust.

  16. BLOCKING OSCILLATOR DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Haase, J.A.

    1961-01-24

    A double-pulse generator, particuiarly a double-pulse generator comprising a blocking oscillator utilizing a feedback circuit to provide means for producing a second pulse within the recovery time of the blocking oscillator, is described. The invention utilized a passive network which permits adjustment of the spacing between the original pulses derived from the blocking oscillator and further utilizes the original pulses to trigger a circuit from which other pulses are initiated. These other pulses are delayed and then applied to the input of the blocking oscillator, with the result that the output from the oscillator circuit contains twice the number of pulses originally initiated by the blocking oscillator itself.

  17. [Total atrioventricular block following a tick bite].

    PubMed

    Verbunt, R J A M; Visser, R F

    2007-09-01

    A 40-year-old man was referred to the cardiology outpatient clinic with dizziness, palpitations and shortness of breath. He remembered being bitten by a tick two to three years previously, but had not noticed a characteristic skin rash. The ECG showed a prominent first degree atrioventricular (AV) block and ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring showed an intermittent complete AV block. A definitive pacemaker was implanted. Antibodies to Borrelia were found. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone. In the weeks and months following implantation, the AV block disappeared completely. The reversibility of the AV block secured the diagnosis 'Lyme carditis with secondary AV block', and the pacemaker was explanted.

  18. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Veterinary Specialist, Blocks III-VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These instructor materials and student texts, study guides, and workbooks for a postsecondary-level course to train veterinary specialists are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. It is the first half of a two-part course (see…

  19. Report of the Task Force - Space for Health Sciences. Building Blocks. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    The Task Force on Space for Health Sciences is one of four task forces established by the Committee on Capital Financing of the Council of Ontario Universities to work toward the development of a capital formula that would define space needs and building costs for Ontario universities. Each task force has a particular assignment related to the…

  20. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. General Purpose Vehicle Mechanic, Block III, 8-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This plan of instruction, lesson plans, and student materials (study guides, workbooks, and programed texts) for a secondary-postsecondary level course in engine mechanics is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. It is the second…

  1. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Specialist, Blocks I-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This plan of instruction, study guides, workbooks, and programmed texts for a secondary-postsecondary-level course in refrigeration and air conditioning are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. It is the first section of a…

  2. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Veterinary Specialist, Blocks III-VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These instructor materials and student texts, study guides, and workbooks for a postsecondary-level course to train veterinary specialists are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. It is the first half of a two-part course (see…

  3. Updating quasar bolometric luminosity corrections - III. [O iii] bolometric corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennell, Alison; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Brotherton, M. S.

    2017-06-01

    We present quasar bolometric corrections using the [O III] λ 5007 narrow emission line luminosity based on the detailed spectral energy distributions of 53 bright quasars at low to moderate redshift (0.0345 < z < 1.0002). We adopted two functional forms to calculate Liso, the bolometric luminosity determined under the assumption of isotropy: {L_{iso}}=A {L_{[O III]}} for comparison with the literature and {log(L_{iso})}=B+C log(L_{[O III]}), which better characterizes the data. We also explored whether 'Eigenvector 1 (EV1)', which describes the range of quasar spectral properties and quantifies their diversity, introduces scatter into the L_{[O III]}-Liso relationship. We found that the {[O III]} bolometric correction can be significantly improved by adding a term including the equivalent width ratio R_{Fe II} ≡ EW_{{Fe II}}/EW_{Hβ }, which is an EV1 indicator. Inclusion of R_{Fe II} in predicting Liso is significant at nearly the 3σ level and reduces the scatter and systematic offset of the luminosity residuals. Typically, {[O III]} bolometric corrections are adopted for Type 2 sources where the quasar continuum is not observed and in these cases, R_{Fe II} cannot be measured. We searched for an alternative measure of EV1 that could be measured in the optical spectra of Type 2 sources but were unable to identify one. Thus, the main contribution of this work is to present an improved {[O III]} bolometric correction based on measured bolometric luminosities and highlight the EV1 dependence of the correction in Type 1 sources.

  4. A technique for optimizing grid blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenhoffer, John F., III

    1995-01-01

    A new technique for automatically combining grid blocks of a given block-structured grid into logically-rectangular clusters which are 'optimal' is presented. This technique uses the simulated annealing optimization method to reorganize the blocks into an optimum configuration, that is, one which minimizes a user-defined objective function such as the number of clusters or the differential in the sizes of all the clusters. The clusters which result from applying the technique to two different two-dimensional configurations are presented for a variety of objective function definitions. In all cases, the automatically-generated clusters are significantly better than the original clusters. While this new technique can be applied to block-structured grids generated from any source, it is particularly useful for operating on block-structured grids containing many blocks, such as those produced by the emerging automatic block-structured grid generators.

  5. Active angular alignment of gauge block in system for contactless gauge block calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchta, Zdeněk.; Šarbort, Martin; Řeřucha, Šimon; Hucl, Václav; Čížek, Martin; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a method for active angular alignment of gauge block implemented in a system for automatic contactless calibration of gauge blocks designed at ISI ASCR. The system combines low-coherence interferometry and laser interferometry, where the first identifies the gauge block sides position and the second one measures the gauge block length itself. A crucial part of the system is the algorithm for gauge block alignment to the measuring beam which is able to compensate the gauge block lateral and longitudinal tilt up to 0.141 mrad. The algorithm is also important for the gauge block position monitoring during its length measurement.

  6. Automatic Orientation of Large Blocks of Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Remondino, F.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, multi-camera platforms combining nadir and oblique cameras are experiencing a revival. Due to their advantages such as ease of interpretation, completeness through mitigation of occluding areas, as well as system accessibility, they have found their place in numerous civil applications. However, automatic post-processing of such imagery still remains a topic of research. Configuration of cameras poses a challenge on the traditional photogrammetric pipeline used in commercial software and manual measurements are inevitable. For large image blocks it is certainly an impediment. Within theoretical part of the work we review three common least square adjustment methods and recap on possible ways for a multi-camera system orientation. In the practical part we present an approach that successfully oriented a block of 550 images acquired with an imaging system composed of 5 cameras (Canon Eos 1D Mark III) with different focal lengths. Oblique cameras are rotated in the four looking directions (forward, backward, left and right) by 45° with respect to the nadir camera. The workflow relies only upon open-source software: a developed tool to analyse image connectivity and Apero to orient the image block. The benefits of the connectivity tool are twofold: in terms of computational time and success of Bundle Block Adjustment. It exploits the georeferenced information provided by the Applanix system in constraining feature point extraction to relevant images only, and guides the concatenation of images during the relative orientation. Ultimately an absolute transformation is performed resulting in mean re-projection residuals equal to 0.6 pix.

  7. Translational regulation of Yersinia enterocolitica mRNA encoding a type III secretion substrate.

    PubMed

    Kopaskie, Karyl S; Ligtenberg, Katherine Given; Schneewind, Olaf

    2013-12-06

    Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion machines transport YopQ and other Yop effectors into host immune cells. YopD and its chaperone LcrH are essential components of the Yersinia type III pathway, enabling effector translocation into host cells. YopD, LcrH, and YscM1 also regulate yop expression post-transcriptionally in response to environmental signals; however, the molecular mechanisms for this regulation and Yop secretion are unknown. We show here that YopD associates with 30 S ribosomal particles in a manner requiring LcrH. When added to ribosomes, YopD, LcrH, and YscM1 block the translation of yopQ mRNA. We propose a model whereby LcrH-dependent association of YopD with 30 S ribosomal particles enables YscM1 to block yopQ translation unless type III machines are induced to secrete the effector.

  8. LARGE BLOCK TEST STATUS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, D. G.; Blair, S. C.; Buscheck, T.; Carloson, R. C.; Lee, K.; Meike, A.; Ramirez, J. L.; Sevougian, D.

    1997-08-26

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is investigatinq the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. As shown in Fig. 1-1, the site is located about 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in an area of uninhabited desert.

  9. Blocking for Sequential Political Experiments.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ryan T; Moore, Sally A

    2013-10-01

    In typical political experiments, researchers randomize a set of households, precincts, or individuals to treatments all at once, and characteristics of all units are known at the time of randomization. However, in many other experiments, subjects "trickle in" to be randomized to treatment conditions, usually via complete randomization. To take advantage of the rich background data that researchers often have (but underutilize) in these experiments, we develop methods that use continuous covariates to assign treatments sequentially. We build on biased coin and minimization procedures for discrete covariates and demonstrate that our methods outperform complete randomization, producing better covariate balance in simulated data. We then describe how we selected and deployed a sequential blocking method in a clinical trial and demonstrate the advantages of our having done so. Further, we show how that method would have performed in two larger sequential political trials. Finally, we compare causal effect estimates from differences in means, augmented inverse propensity weighted estimators, and randomization test inversion.

  10. Dynamic Covalent Nanoparticle Building Blocks

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rational and generalisable methods for engineering surface functionality will be crucial to realising the technological potential of nanomaterials. Nanoparticle‐bound dynamic covalent exchange combines the error‐correcting and environment‐responsive features of equilibrium processes with the stability, structural precision, and vast diversity of covalent chemistry, defining a new and powerful approach for manipulating structure, function and properties at nanomaterial surfaces. Dynamic covalent nanoparticle (DCNP) building blocks thus present a whole host of possibilities for constructing adaptive systems, devices and materials that incorporate both nanoscale and molecular functional components. At the same time, DCNPs have the potential to reveal fundamental insights regarding dynamic and complex chemical systems confined to nanoscale interfaces. PMID:27312526

  11. [Ultrasound for peripheral neural block].

    PubMed

    Kefalianakis, F

    2005-03-01

    Ultrasound is well established in medicine. Unfortunately, ultrasound is still rarely used in the area of anesthesia. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the possibilities and limitations of ultrasound in regional anesthesia. The basic principles of ultrasound are the piezoelectric effect and the behaviour of acoustic waveforms in human tissue. Ultrasound imaging in medicine uses high frequency pulses of sound waves (2.5-10 MHz). The following images are built up from the reflected sounds. The ultrasound devices used in regional anesthesia (commonly by 10 MHz) deliver a two-dimensional view. The main step for a successful regional anaesthesia is to identify the exact position of the nerve. In addition, specific surface landmarks and the use of peripheral nerve stimulator help to detect the correct position of the needle. Nerves are demonstrated as an composition of hyperechogenic (white) and hypoechogenic (black) areas. The surrounding hyperechogenic parts are epi- and perineurium, the dark hypoechogenic part is the neural tissue. The composition of peripheral nerves are always similar, but the quantities of each part, of surrounding perineurium and nerval structures, differ. Further the imaging of nerves is significantly influenced by the angle of beam to the nerve and the surrounding anatomic structures. Only experience and correct interpretation make the ultrasound a valid method in clinical practice. Correct interpretation has to be learned by standardized education. Three examples of peripheral nerve blocks are described. The detection of nerves and the visualization of the correct spread of local anesthetics to the nerves are the main principles of effective ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia, whereas closest proximity of the needle to the target nerve is not necessary. The described examples of ultrasound guidance for nerval block illustrates the specific procedures with reduced probability of nerval irritation, high success and low rate of

  12. Axially Symmetric U-O-Ln- and U-O-U-Containing Molecules from the Control of Uranyl Reduction with Simple f-Block Halides.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Polly L; Cowie, Bradley E; Suvova, Markéta; Zegke, Markus; Magnani, Nicola; Colineau, Eric; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Caciuffo, Roberto; Love, Jason B

    2017-08-28

    The reduction of U(VI) uranyl halides or amides with simple Ln(II) or U(III) salts forms highly symmetric, linear, oxo-bridged trinuclear U(V) /Ln(III) /U(V) , Ln(III) /U(IV) /Ln(III) , and U(IV) /U(IV) /U(IV) complexes or linear Ln(III) /U(V) polymers depending on the stoichiometry and solvent. The reactions can be tuned to give the products of one- or two-electron uranyl reduction. The reactivity and magnetism of these compounds are discussed in the context of using a series of strongly oxo-coupled homo- and heterometallic poly(f-block) chains to better understand fundamental electronic structure in the f-block. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Impact analysis of Minuteman III Payload Transporter Type III

    SciTech Connect

    Stirbis, P.P.

    1993-12-01

    An analysis of the impact of the Minuteman III Payload Transporter Type III into a nonyielding target at 46 m.p.h. and 30 m.p.h., and into a yielding target at 46 m.p.h. is presented. The analysis considers the structural response of the tiedown system which secures the Minuteman III re-entry system to the floor of the payload transporter. A finite element model of the re-entry system, its tiedown system, which includes tie-rods and shear pins, and the pallet plate which is attached to the transporter floating plate, was constructed. Because accelerations of the payload transporter are not known, acceleration data from one-quarter scale testing of the Safe Secure Trailer was used to investigate the response of the tiedown system. These accelerations were applied to the pallet plate. The ABAQUS computer code was used to predict the forces in the members of the tiedown system.

  14. Dissociation of cerium(III) and neodymium(III) phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomova, T. N.

    2015-07-01

    The kinetics of dissociation of phthalocyanine complexes with cerium(III) and neodymium(III) (X)LnPc (X = Cl-, Br-, AcO-) under the action of acetic acid in ethanol with isolation of the macrocyclic ligand depending on the temperature was studied. The kinetic equations with the numerical values of rate constants, activation parameters, and the stoichiometric mechanisms with the limiting simple reaction between the nonionized AcOH molecule and (phthalocyaninato)lanthanide(III) in the axially coordinated ((X)LnPc, cerium complexes) or axially ionized ([(AcOH)LnPc]+X-, neodymium complexes) state were derived by solving the direct and inverse problems. As shown by a comparative analysis of quantitative kinetic data, the state is determined by the electronic structure of the metal cation and the mutual effect of the axial and equatorial ligands in the first coordination sphere.

  15. The crucial roles of apolipoproteins E and C-III in apoB lipoprotein metabolism in normolipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Frank M

    2015-02-01

    To describe the roles of apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) and apoE in VLDL and LDL metabolism ApoC-III can block clearance from the circulation of apolipoprotein B (apoB) lipoproteins, whereas apoE mediates their clearance. Normolipidemia is sustained by hepatic secretion of VLDL and IDL subspecies that contain both apoE and apoC-III (VLDL E+C-III+). Most of this VLDL E+C-III+ is speedily lipolyzed, reduced in apoC-III content, and cleared from the circulation as apoE containing dense VLDL, IDL, and light LDL. In contrast, in hypertriglyceridemia, most VLDL is secreted with apoC-III but without apoE, and so it is not cleared until it loses apoC-III during lipolysis to dense LDL. In normolipidemia, the liver also secretes IDL and large and medium-size LDL, whereas in hypertriglyceridemia, the liver secretes more dense LDL with and without apoC-III. These pathways establish the hypertriglyceridemic phenotype and link it metabolically to dense LDL. Dietary carbohydrate compared with unsaturated fat suppresses metabolic pathways mediated by apoE that are qualitatively similar to those suppressed in hypertriglyceridemia. The opposing actions of apoC-III and apoE on subspecies of VLDL and LDL, and the direct secretion of LDL in several sizes, establish much of the basic structure of human apoB lipoprotein metabolism in normal and hypertriglyceridemic humans.

  16. The START III bargaining space

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, T.H.

    1998-08-01

    The declining state of the Russian military and precarious Russian economic condition will give the US considerable advantages at the START III bargaining table. Taking the US-RF asymmetries into account, this paper discusses a menu of START III measures the US could ask for, and measures it could offer in return, in attempting to negotiate an equitable treaty. Measures the US might seek in a START III treaty include: further reductions in deployed strategic nuclear warheads, irreversibility of reductions through warhead dismantlement; beginning to bring theater nuclear weapons under mutual control, and increased transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. The US may, however, wish to apply its bargaining advantages to attempting to achieve the first steps toward two long-range goals that would enhance US security: bringing theater nuclear weapons into the US-RF arms control arena, and increasing transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. In exchange for measures relating to these objectives, the US might consider offering to Russia: Further strategic weapons reductions approaching levels at which the Russians believe they could maintain a degree of parity with the US; Measures to decrease the large disparities in potential deliver-system uploading capabilities that appear likely under current START II/START III scenarios; and Financial assistance in achieving START II/START III reductions as rapidly as is technically possible.

  17. Block truncation signature coding for hyperspectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Sumit; Chang, Chein-I.

    2008-08-01

    This paper introduces a new signature coding which is designed based on the well-known Block Truncation Coding (BTC). It comprises of bit-maps of the signature blocks generated by different threshold criteria. Two new BTC-based algorithms are developed for signature coding, to be called Block Truncation Signature Coding (BTSC) and 2-level BTSC (2BTSC). In order to compare the developed BTC based algorithms with current binary signature coding schemes such as Spectral Program Analysis Manager (SPAM) developed by Mazer et al. and Spectral Feature-based Binary Coding (SFBC) by Qian et al., three different thresholding functions, local block mean, local block gradient, local block correlation are derived to improve the BTSC performance where the combined bit-maps generated by these thresholds can provide better spectral signature characterization. Experimental results reveal that the new BTC-based signature coding performs more effectively in characterizing spectral variations than currently available binary signature coding methods.

  18. Thermal and optical properties of Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) co-complexed silicone fluorinated acrylate copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yinfeng; Xie, Hongde; Cai, Haijun; Cai, Peiqing; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2015-07-01

    Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) activated silicone fluorinated acrylate (SFA) have been successfully synthesized using the method of semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. The copolymers are characterized by flourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectroscopy. The copolymer containing Tb(III) and Eu(III) ions display green and red luminescent colors under UV light excitation, respectively. The TGA curves show the thermal decomposition temperatures of the copolymers are up to about 300 °C. The PL spectra show a strong green emission at 546 nm (5D4 → 7F5) of Tb(III) complexed copolymers, and show a prominent red emission at 615 nm (5D0 → 7F2) of Eu(III) complexed copolymers. Different concentrations of Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions are introduced into the copolymer and the energy transfer from Tb(III) to Eu(III) ions in the copolymer was found. Thus, based on the results it can be suggested that SFA:Eu(III), SFA:Tb(III) and SFA:Tb(III)/Eu(III) can be used potentially as luminescent materials.

  19. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Hubail, Zakariya; Ebrahim, Ishaq M

    2016-04-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  20. Solving Problems of Ice-Blocked Drainage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    operations. These techniques may allow ice to form, but will slow down its formation or will maintain an unfrozen opening so that drainage flow can -0...Hampshire 03755 Solving problems of ice-blocked 0 drainage 0 - *O 0 Kevin L. Carey % - S 0 Introduction Once the processes that lead to ice-blocked drainage ...facili- ties are understood (Ice-Blocked Drainage : Problems and - , Processes, Cold Regions Technical Digest No. 83-2), it is pos- sible to work out

  1. Block Lanczos tridiagonalization of complex symmetric matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Sanzheng; Liu, Guohong; Xu, Wei

    2005-08-01

    The classic Lanczos method is an effective method for tridiagonalizing real symmetric matrices. Its block algorithm can significantly improve performance by exploiting memory hierarchies. In this paper, we present a block Lanczos method for tridiagonalizing complex symmetric matrices. Also, we propose a novel componentwise technique for detecting the loss of orthogonality to stablize the block Lanczos algorithm. Our experiments have shown our componentwise technique can reduce the number of orthogonalizations.

  2. III-Nitride nanowire optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Songrui; Nguyen, Hieu P. T.; Kibria, Md. G.; Mi, Zetian

    2015-11-01

    Group-III nitride nanowire structures, including GaN, InN, AlN and their alloys, have been intensively studied in the past decade. Unique to this material system is that its energy bandgap can be tuned from the deep ultraviolet (~6.2 eV for AlN) to the near infrared (~0.65 eV for InN). In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress made in III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, single photon sources, intraband devices, solar cells, and artificial photosynthesis. The present challenges and future prospects of III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices are also discussed.

  3. Self-assembled microspheres from f-block elements and nucleoamphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Louis; Ziarelli, Fabio; Grinstaff, Mark W; Barthélémy, Philippe

    2006-04-21

    Hollow microspheres featuring a hybrid lipid-cation multilamellar shell are prepared by hydration of a nucleoside based amphiphile with an aqueous solution containing either actinide or lanthanide salts. The physico-chemical data collected clearly indicate that the formation of these microspheres is a consequence of the following concomitant stabilizing factors: (i) hydrophobic interactions, (ii) nucleobase dimer formation and (iii) phosphate/f-block element salt binding.

  4. Horner's Syndrome after Superficial Cervical Plexus Block.

    PubMed

    Flores, Stefan; Riguzzi, Christine; Herring, Andrew A; Nagdev, Arun

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks are becoming more essential for the management of acute pain in the emergency department (ED). With increased block frequency comes unexpected complications that require prompt recognition and treatment. The superficial cervical plexus block (SCPB) has been recently described as a method for ED management of clavicle fracture pain. Horner's syndrome (HS) is a rare and self-limiting complication of regional anesthesia in neck region such as brachial and cervical plexus blocks. Herein we describe the first reported case of a HS after an ultrasound-guided SCPB performed in the ED and discuss the complex anatomy of the neck that contributes to the occurrence of this complication.

  5. Backward Blocking in First-Order Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Urushihara, Kouji; Miller, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    Three lick suppression experiments with rats investigated backward blocking in first-order conditioning. As has been suggested in prior studies, the experiments demonstrated that backward blocking is difficult to obtain in conventional first-order conditioning situations. However, we demonstrate here that backward blocking is observed in first-order conditioning if the target cue’s behavioral control is weak at the time of elemental training of the blocking cue. The target cue’s behavioral control was weakened through forward blocking of the target cue by a third cue (Experiment 1), conducting compound and elemental training with backward temporal relationships to the US (Experiment 2), and extinguishing the target cue following compound training (Experiment 3). The results of these experiments suggest that weak control of behavior by the blocked cue at the time of elemental training of the blocking cue is a critical determinant of whether blocking can be observed. Prior failures to detect backward blocking in first-order conditioning are seemingly due to a difficulty in decreasing the response-eliciting potential of a cue by indirect means such as associative inflation of a competing cue. PMID:20384407

  6. [A new bite block for laryngeal mask].

    PubMed

    Ohe, Y; Ota, M; Tachibana, C; Aoyama, Y

    2001-05-01

    We devised a new bite block made of a used connector of anesthesia machine (ACOMA medical industry CO., LTD.) for laryngeal mask. Fitness for laryngeal mask and strength against patient's biting are the key for its use. Cutting lengthwise the connector (the outside diameter 22 mm, inside diameter 15-19 mm, 55 mm in length) we made a bite block for laryngeal mask. We studied the strength of a new bite block experimentally and recognized its ability to bear the human biting. We conclude a new bite block for laryngeal mask is clinically useful and can be used during anesthesia for its fitness and safety.

  7. Blocking Losses on an Optical Communications Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Piazzolla, Sabino

    2011-01-01

    Many photon-counting photo-detectors have the property that they become inoperative for some time after detection event. We say the detector is blocked during this time.Blocking produces losses when using the detector as a photon-counter to detect a communications signal. In this paper, we characterize blocking losses for single detectors and for arrays of detectors. For arrays, we discuss conditions under which the output may be approximated as a Poisson point process, and provide a simple approximation to the blocking loss. We show how to extend the analysis to arrays of non-uniformly illuminated arrays.

  8. Tectonic blocks and molecular clocks

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary timescales have mainly used fossils for calibrating molecular clocks, though fossils only really provide minimum clade age constraints. In their place, phylogenetic trees can be calibrated by precisely dated geological events that have shaped biogeography. However, tectonic episodes are protracted, their role in vicariance is rarely justified, the biogeography of living clades and their antecedents may differ, and the impact of such events is contingent on ecology. Biogeographic calibrations are no panacea for the shortcomings of fossil calibrations, but their associated uncertainties can be accommodated. We provide examples of how biogeographic calibrations based on geological data can be established for the fragmentation of the Pangaean supercontinent: (i) for the uplift of the Isthmus of Panama, (ii) the separation of New Zealand from Gondwana, and (iii) for the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Biogeographic and fossil calibrations are complementary, not competing, approaches to constraining molecular clock analyses, providing alternative constraints on the age of clades that are vital to avoiding circularity in investigating the role of biogeographic mechanisms in shaping modern biodiversity. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325840

  9. Tectonic blocks and molecular clocks.

    PubMed

    De Baets, Kenneth; Antonelli, Alexandre; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2016-07-19

    Evolutionary timescales have mainly used fossils for calibrating molecular clocks, though fossils only really provide minimum clade age constraints. In their place, phylogenetic trees can be calibrated by precisely dated geological events that have shaped biogeography. However, tectonic episodes are protracted, their role in vicariance is rarely justified, the biogeography of living clades and their antecedents may differ, and the impact of such events is contingent on ecology. Biogeographic calibrations are no panacea for the shortcomings of fossil calibrations, but their associated uncertainties can be accommodated. We provide examples of how biogeographic calibrations based on geological data can be established for the fragmentation of the Pangaean supercontinent: (i) for the uplift of the Isthmus of Panama, (ii) the separation of New Zealand from Gondwana, and (iii) for the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Biogeographic and fossil calibrations are complementary, not competing, approaches to constraining molecular clock analyses, providing alternative constraints on the age of clades that are vital to avoiding circularity in investigating the role of biogeographic mechanisms in shaping modern biodiversity.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. PACS photometer calibration block analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moór, A.; Müller, T. G.; Kiss, C.; Balog, Z.; Billot, N.; Marton, G.

    2014-07-01

    The absolute stability of the PACS bolometer response over the entire mission lifetime without applying any corrections is about 0.5 % (standard deviation) or about 8 % peak-to-peak. This fantastic stability allows us to calibrate all scientific measurements by a fixed and time-independent response file, without using any information from the PACS internal calibration sources. However, the analysis of calibration block observations revealed clear correlations of the internal source signals with the evaporator temperature and a signal drift during the first half hour after the cooler recycling. These effects are small, but can be seen in repeated measurements of standard stars. From our analysis we established corrections for both effects which push the stability of the PACS bolometer response to about 0.2 % (stdev) or 2 % in the blue, 3 % in the green and 5 % in the red channel (peak-to-peak). After both corrections we still see a correlation of the signals with PACS FPU temperatures, possibly caused by parasitic heat influences via the Kevlar wires which connect the bolometers with the PACS Focal Plane Unit. No aging effect or degradation of the photometric system during the mission lifetime has been found.

  11. Blocking for Sequential Political Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    In typical political experiments, researchers randomize a set of households, precincts, or individuals to treatments all at once, and characteristics of all units are known at the time of randomization. However, in many other experiments, subjects “trickle in” to be randomized to treatment conditions, usually via complete randomization. To take advantage of the rich background data that researchers often have (but underutilize) in these experiments, we develop methods that use continuous covariates to assign treatments sequentially. We build on biased coin and minimization procedures for discrete covariates and demonstrate that our methods outperform complete randomization, producing better covariate balance in simulated data. We then describe how we selected and deployed a sequential blocking method in a clinical trial and demonstrate the advantages of our having done so. Further, we show how that method would have performed in two larger sequential political trials. Finally, we compare causal effect estimates from differences in means, augmented inverse propensity weighted estimators, and randomization test inversion. PMID:24143061

  12. Capturing Reality at Centre Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, C.; Ouimet, C.; Yeomans, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Centre Block of Canada's Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS) of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  13. First Stars III Conference Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, B. W.; McKee, C. F.; Heger, A.; Abel, T.

    2008-03-01

    The understanding of the formation, life, and death of Population III stars, as well as the impact that these objects had on later generations of structure formation, is one of the foremost issues in modern cosmological research and has been an active area of research during the past several years. We summarize the results presented at "First Stars III," a conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics. This conference, the third in a series, took place in July 2007 at the La Fonda Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S.A.

  14. Synteny Portal: a web-based application portal for synteny block analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongin; Hong, Woon-young; Cho, Minah; Sim, Mikang; Lee, Daehwan; Ko, Younhee; Kim, Jaebum

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies and genome assembly algorithms have enabled the accumulation of a huge volume of genome sequences from various species. This has provided new opportunities for large-scale comparative genomics studies. Identifying and utilizing synteny blocks, which are genomic regions conserved among multiple species, is key to understanding genomic architecture and the evolutionary history of genomes. However, the construction and visualization of such synteny blocks from multiple species are very challenging, especially for biologists with a lack of computational skills. Here, we present Synteny Portal, a versatile web-based application portal for constructing, visualizing and browsing synteny blocks. With Synteny Portal, users can easily (i) construct synteny blocks among multiple species by using prebuilt alignments in the UCSC genome browser database, (ii) visualize and download syntenic relationships as high-quality images, (iii) browse synteny blocks with genetic information and (iv) download the details of synteny blocks to be used as input for downstream synteny-based analyses, all in an intuitive and easy-to-use web-based interface. We believe that Synteny Portal will serve as a highly valuable tool that will enable biologists to easily perform comparative genomics studies by compensating limitations of existing tools. Synteny Portal is freely available at http://bioinfo.konkuk.ac.kr/synteny_portal. PMID:27154270

  15. Optimization of Blocked Designs in fMRI Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maus, Barbel; van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Goebel, Rainer; Berger, Martijn P. F.

    2010-01-01

    Blocked designs in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are useful to localize functional brain areas. A blocked design consists of different blocks of trials of the same stimulus type and is characterized by three factors: the length of blocks, i.e., number of trials per blocks, the ordering of task and rest blocks, and the time between…

  16. Optimization of Blocked Designs in fMRI Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maus, Barbel; van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Goebel, Rainer; Berger, Martijn P. F.

    2010-01-01

    Blocked designs in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are useful to localize functional brain areas. A blocked design consists of different blocks of trials of the same stimulus type and is characterized by three factors: the length of blocks, i.e., number of trials per blocks, the ordering of task and rest blocks, and the time between…

  17. Nanostructured particles from multi scale building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampsey, J. Eric

    Nanotechnology has emerged as one of the most exciting new and developing fields in science today. New nanoscale materials and devices such as nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanowires, and nanosensors could revolutionize the 21st century in the same way that the transistor and Internet led to the information age. One key component in developing these new technologies is to assemble individual atomic and molecular building blocks into larger structures with fundamentally new properties and functions. Nature is very efficient at assembling multi scale building blocks such as proteins, lipids, and minerals into nanostructured materials such as bone, teeth, diatoms, eggshells, seashells, cell membranes, and DNA. Surfactant and colloidal building block can also be assembled into different nanoscale materials and devices by utilizing hydrophobic/hydrophilic and other surface interactions. Using these concepts, this dissertation focuses on the syntheses and applications of nanostructured particles assembled from multi scale building blocks. Important factors in the synthesis of the particles include particle size, particle morphology, pore size and pore structure. Five different types of nanostructured particles assembled from different multi scale building blocks are demonstrated in this work: (1) Spherical metal/silica mesoporous particles with high surface areas and controllable pore sizes, pore structures, and metal content are synthesized from surfactant, silicate, and metal building blocks for catalytic applications; (2) Mesoporous hollow spheres with controllable pore sizes and pore structures are synthesized from surfactant, silica, and polystyrene building blocks; (3) Spherical mesoporous carbon particles with controllable pore sizes and pore structures are templated from silica particles assembled from silica and surfactant building blocks; (4) Spherical mesoporous, microporous, and bimodal carbon particles are synthesized from sucrose and silica building blocks

  18. Ionization of amphiphilic acidic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Colombani, Olivier; Lejeune, Elise; Charbonneau, Céline; Chassenieux, Christophe; Nicolai, Taco

    2012-06-28

    The ionization behavior of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(n-butyl acrylate(50%)-stat-acrylic acid(50%))(100)-block-poly(acrylic acid)(100) (P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(100), DH50) and of its equivalent triblock copolymer P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(200)-b-P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) (TH50) were studied by potentiometric titration either in pure water or in 0.5 M NaCl. These polymers consist of a hydrophilic acidic block (PAA) connected to a hydrophobic block, P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100), whose hydrophobic character has been mitigated by copolymerization with hydrophilic units. We show that all AA units, even those in the hydrophobic block could be ionized. However, the AA units within the hydrophobic block were less acidic than those in the hydrophilic block, resulting in the preferential ionization of the latter block. The preferential ionization of PAA over that of P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) was stronger at higher ionic strength. Remarkably, the covalent bonds between the PAA and P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) blocks in the diblock or the triblock did not affect the ionization of each block, although the self-association of the block copolymers into spherical aggregates modified the environment of the PAA blocks compared to when PAA was molecularly dispersed.

  19. Improved Wavelengths and Oscillator Strengths of Cr III, Co III, and Fe III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter L.; Smillie, D. G.; Pickering, J. C.; Blackwell-Whitehead, R. J.

    2008-05-01

    Improvements in the resolution, accuracy, and range of spectra obtained by state-of-the-art space- and ground-based astronomical spectrographs have demonstrated a need for corresponding improvements in atomic data. Transition wavelengths with uncertainties of 1 part in 10^7 and oscillator strengths (f-values) with uncertainties of 10 to 15% are needed to accurately interpret modern astrophysical spectra. Our focus has been on spectra of doubly ionized iron group elements that dominate the UV spectra of hot B stars. We report here completion of measurements on Cr III, Co III, Fe III made with a UV high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) [J. C. Pickering, Vibrational Spectrosc. 29, 27 (2002)] with a typical wavelength/wavenumber uncertainty of a few parts in 10^8, supplemented by measurements were carried out at the US National Institute of Standards & Technology using their FTS and the Normal Incidence Vacuum (grating) Spectrograph (NIVS). The spectra were analyzed and line lists were produced to give calibrated line wavelengths and relative intensities. Measured wavelengths are, in many cases, an order of magnitude more accurate than previous measurements, and the energy level uncertainties are typically reduced by a factor or 3 more. Summaries of submitted papers on Cr III and Co III will be presented, as will work on improved wavelengths, energy levels, and oscillator strengths for Fe III. Limitations to the method and possible solutions will be discussed. This work is, or has been, supported in part by NASA Grant NAG5-12668; NASA inter-agency agreement W-10255; PPARC; the Royal Society of the UK; and by the Leverhulme Trust.

  20. Biopolymers Containing Unnatural Building Blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-06-30

    Although the main chain structure of polymers has a profound effect on their materials properties, the side groups can also have dramatic effects on their properties including conductivity, liquid crystallinity, hydrophobicity, elasticity and biodegradability. Unfortunately control over the side chain structure of polymers remains a challenge – it is difficult to control the sequence of chain elongation when mixtures of monomers are polymerized, and postpolymerization side chain modification is made difficult by polymer effects on side chain reactivity. In contrast, the mRNA templated synthesis of polypeptides on the ribosome affords absolute control over the primary sequence of the twenty amino acid monomers. Moreover, the length of the biopolymer is precisely controlled as are sites of crosslinking. However, whereas synthetic polymers can be synthesized from monomers with a wide range of chemically defined structures, ribosomal biosynthesis is largely limited to the 20 canonical amino acids. For many applications in material sciences, additional building blocks would be desirable, for example, amino acids containing metallocene, photoactive, and halogenated side chains. To overcome this natural constraint we have developed a method that allows unnatural amino acids, beyond the common twenty, to be genetically encoded in response to nonsense or frameshift codons in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells with high fidelity and good yields. Here we have developed methods that allow identical or distinct noncanonical amino acids to be incorporated at multiple sites in a polypeptide chain, potentially leading to a new class of templated biopolymers. We have also developed improved methods for genetically encoding unnatural amino acids. In addition, we have genetically encoded new amino acids with novel physical and chemical properties that allow selective modification of proteins with synthetic agents. Finally, we have evolved new metal-ion binding sites in proteins

  1. Erosion patterns on dissolving blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Cohen, Caroline; Derr, Julien; Berhanu, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Patterns in nature are shaped under water flows and wind action, and the understanding of their morphodynamics goes through the identification of the physical mechanisms at play. When a dissoluble body is exposed to a water flow, typical patterns with scallop-like shapes may appear [1,2]. These shapes are observed on the walls of underground rivers or icebergs. We experimentally study the erosion of dissolving bodies made of salt, caramel or ice into water solutions without external flow. The dissolving mixture, which is created at the solid/liquid interface, undergoes a buoyancy-driven instability comparable to a Rayleigh-Bénard instability so that the dissolving front destabilizes into filaments. This mechanism yields to spatial variations of solute concentration and to differential dissolution of the dissolving block. We first observe longitudinal stripes with a well defined wavelength, which evolve towards chevrons and scallops that interact and move again the dissolving current. Thanks to a careful analysis of the competing physical mechanisms, we propose scaling laws, which account for the characteristic lengths and times of the early regime in experiments. The long-term evolution of patterns is understood qualitatively. A close related mechanism has been proposed to explain structures observed on the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes [3] and we suggest that our experiments are analogous and explain the scallop-like patterns on iceberg walls. [1] P. Meakin and B. Jamtveit, Geological pattern formation by growth and dissolution in aqueous systems, Proc. R. Soc. A 466, 659-694 (2010). [2] P.N. Blumberg and R.L. Curl, Experimental and theoretical studies of dissolution roughness, J. Fluid Mech. 65, 735-751 (1974). [3] L. Solari and G. Parker, Morphodynamic modelling of the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes, J.G.R. 118, 1432-1442 (2013).

  2. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S; Farnaby, Joy H; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G; Love, Jason B; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on U(III) and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to Np(IV). Here we report the synthesis of three new Np(III) organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that Np(III) complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of Np(II) is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key Np(III) orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  3. Terrain Perception for DEMO III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manduchi, R.; Bellutta, P.; Matthies, L.; Owens, K.; Rankin, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Demo III program has as its primary focus the development of autonomous mobility for a small rugged cross country vehicle. In this paper we report recent progress on both stereo-based obstacle detection and terrain cover color-based classification.

  4. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  5. Atomic structure and handedness of the building block of a biological assembly.

    PubMed

    Loquet, Antoine; Habenstein, Birgit; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2013-12-26

    Noncovalent supramolecular assemblies possess in general several unique subunit-subunit interfaces.The basic building block of such an assembly consists of several subunits and contains all unique interfaces. Atomic-resolution structures of monomeric subunits are typically accessed by crystallography or solution NMR and fitted into electron microscopy density maps. However, the structure of the intact building block in the assembled state remains unknown with this hybrid approach. Here, we present the solid-state NMR atomic structure of the building block of the type III secretion system needle. The building block structure consists of a homotetrameric subunit complex with three unique supramolecular interfaces. Side-chain positions at the interfaces were solved at atomic detail. The high-resolution structure reveals unambiguously the helical handedness of the assembly, determined to be right-handed for the type III secretion system needle.Additionally, the axial rise per subunit could be extracted from the tetramer structure and independently validated by mass-per-length measurements.

  6. The Block Grant Record: Lessons from Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Anne H.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluates the performance of federal block grants in health, law enforcement, peoplepower training, community development, and Social Security programs, to help forecast the effects of such grants in education. Finds that block grants did not improve local control, accountability, citizen participation, efficiency, targeting of funds, or program…

  7. Young Children's Block Play and Mathematical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Boyoung; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Boyd, Barbara Foulks

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated young children's mathematical engagement in play with wooden unit blocks. Two boys, ages 6 and 7, were independently observed completing the task of filling outlined regions with the various sets of blocks. Three major mathematical actions were observed: categorizing geometric shapes, composing a larger shape…

  8. Precision aligned split V-block

    DOEpatents

    George, Irwin S.

    1984-01-01

    A precision aligned split V-block for holding a workpiece during a milling operation having an expandable frame for allowing various sized workpieces to be accommodated, is easily secured directly to the mill table and having key lugs in one base of the split V-block that assures constant alignment.

  9. Block Grants: Federal Data Collection Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This fact sheet compares statutory data collection and reporting provisions of the federal education block grant (chapter 2 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981) with the nine other block grant programs funded in fiscal year 1986; data on statutory administrative cost limits are also provided. Each grant's legislation was…

  10. Light extraction block with curved surface

    DOEpatents

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  11. Efficient Distribution of Triggered Synchronous Block Diagrams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-21

    called a trigger. At a given synchronous step, if the trigger is true , the block fires normally; otherwise, the block stutters , that is, keeps its...trigger is false, no updates are made and the values written at the outputs are the same as in the previous step (i.e., the process “ stutters ”). All

  12. Young Children's Block Play and Mathematical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Boyoung; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Boyd, Barbara Foulks

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated young children's mathematical engagement in play with wooden unit blocks. Two boys, ages 6 and 7, were independently observed completing the task of filling outlined regions with the various sets of blocks. Three major mathematical actions were observed: categorizing geometric shapes, composing a larger shape…

  13. GPS Block IIF Atomic Frequency Standard Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Frequency stability of GPS constellation for October 2010 (NGA products). REFERENCES [1] “ Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard (RAFS) GPS...Block IIR Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard Life Test,” in Proceedings of the 30 th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and...42 nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 181 GPS BLOCK IIF ATOMIC FREQUENCY STANDARD ANALYSIS

  14. Content Analysis of Block Play Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Annabel

    This study examined research on children's block play, using content analysis to review 75 documents that focused on such play. Each document was coded by type (empirical study or nonempirical article) and by 15 topics and 76 subtopics grouped into 4 broad categories: (1) environment/ecology; (2) block play and the school curriculum; (3) block…

  15. LJ Teaching Award 2007: Rick J. Block

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2008-01-01

    This article profiles Rick J. Block, the recipient of the 2008 "LJ Teaching Award." Despite his "day job" and a heavy schedule of classroom teaching, Block finds time and intense energy to be the mentor, internship supervisor, and individual advisor to the students who fill every available seat in his classes at two LIS…

  16. Earthquake Resistant Submarine Drydock Block System Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    acceleration time history. It Is observed that the block on block surfaces for this system had been painted. According to Rabinowicz (1987) [13J, a...Maryland, 1982, p. 272. 166 13. Rabinowicz , Ernest, Lecture, "Tribology", M.I.T., Course 2.800, Fall 1987. 14. Telephone conversation between Tingley

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Block Copolymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    Polyether-Polyimide Block Copolymers; Three series of Polyether-Polyimide (PEPI) block copolymers were synthesized. Soft segments were poly( propylene ... glycol ) (PPO) Mn = 2,000 and 4,000. Hard segments were pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and di-(2-hydroxyethyl)-dimethylhydantoin (H). The hard

  18. Spin resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of [Mn6(III)Cr(III)]3+ single-molecule magnets and of manganese compounds as reference layers.

    PubMed

    Helmstedt, Andreas; Müller, Norbert; Gryzia, Aaron; Dohmeier, Niklas; Brechling, Armin; Sacher, Marc D; Heinzmann, Ulrich; Hoeke, Veronika; Krickemeyer, Erich; Glaser, Thorsten; Bouvron, Samuel; Fonin, Mikhail; Neumann, Manfred

    2011-07-06

    Properties of the manganese-based single-molecule magnet [Mn(6)(III)Cr(III)](3+) are studied. It contains six Mn(III) ions arranged in two bowl-shaped trinuclear triplesalen building blocks linked by a hexacyanochromate and exhibits a large spin ground state of S(t) = 21/2. The dominant structures in the electron emission spectra of [Mn(6)(III)Cr(III)](3+) resonantly excited at the L(3)-edge are the L(3)M(2, 3)M(2, 3), L(3)M(2, 3)V and L(3)VV Auger emission groups following the decay of the primary p(3/2) core hole state. Significant differences of the Auger spectra from intact and degraded [Mn(6)(III)Cr(III)](3+) show up. First measurements of the electron spin polarization in the L(3)M(2, 3)V and L(3)VV Auger emission peaks from the manganese constituents in [Mn(6)(III)Cr(III)](3+) resonantly excited at the L(3)-edge near 640 eV by circularly polarized synchrotron radiation are reported. In addition spin resolved Auger electron spectra of the reference substances MnO, Mn(2)O(3) and Mn(II)(acetate)(2)·4H(2)O are given. The applicability of spin resolved electron spectroscopy for characterizing magnetic states of constituent atoms compared to magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) is verified: the spin polarization obtained from Mn(II)(acetate)(2)·4H(2)O at room temperature in the paramagnetic state compares to the MCD asymmetry revealed for a star-shaped molecule with a Mn(4)(II)O(6) core at 5 K in an external magnetic field of 5 T.

  19. A Nonlinear Multi-Scale Interaction Model for Atmospheric Blocking: The Eddy-Blocking Matching Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dehai; Cha, Jing; Zhong, Linhao; Dai, Aiguo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear multi-scale interaction (NMI) model is used to propose an eddy-blocking matching (EBM) mechanism to account for how synoptic eddies reinforce or suppress a blocking flow. It is shown that the spatial structure of the eddy vorticity forcing (EVF) arising from upstream synoptic eddies determines whether an incipient block can grow into a meandering blocking flow through its interaction with the transient synoptic eddies from the west. Under certain conditions, the EVF exhibits a low-frequency oscillation on timescales of 2-3 weeks. During the EVF phase with a negative-over- positive dipole structure, a blocking event can be resonantly excited through the transport of eddy energy into the incipient block by the EVF. As the EVF changes into an opposite phase, the blocking decays. The NMI model produces life cycles of blocking events that resemble observations. Moreover, it is shown that the eddy north-south straining is a response of the eddies to a dipole- or Ω-type block. In our model, as in observations, two synoptic anticyclones (cyclones) can attract and merge with one another as the blocking intensifies, but only when the feedback of the blocking on the eddies is included. Thus, we attribute the eddy straining and associated vortex interaction to the feedback of the intensified blocking on synoptic eddies. The results illustrate the concomitant nature of the eddy deformation, whose role as a PV source for the blocking flow becomes important only during the mature stage of a block. Our EBM mechanism suggests that an incipient block flow is amplified (or suppressed) under certain conditions by the EVF coming from the upstream of the blocking region.

  20. Commotio Cordis and complete heart block: Where is the block level?

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussam; Furlanello, Francesco; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Foresti, Sara; De Ambroggi, Guido; Epicoco, Gianluca; Fundaliotis, Angelica; Cappato, Riccardo

    Ventricular fibrillation is typically the initial arrhythmia in commotio cordis following precordium impacts that occur within an electrically vulnerable period of the cardiac cycle. Conversely, complete heart block is very rare in this context, and its mechanism and temporal course are poorly understood. The presented case concerns a 12-year-old boy, athletic skier, who developed a transient complete heart block following commotio cordis. The electrocardiographic features, the proposed block level and mechanisms of complete heart block following commotio cordis are discussed.

  1. Pyrazine-imide complexes: reversible redox and MOF building blocks.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Matthew G; Miller, Reece G; Brooker, Sally

    2015-02-14

    The synthesis of the symmetric pyrazine imide ligand, N-(2-pyrazylcarbonyl)-2-pyrazinecarboxamide, (Hdpzca) and five new first row transition metal complexes of it are reported: [M(II)(dpzca)(2)], M(II) = Fe, Cu, Zn; [Cu(II)(dpzca)(H(2)O)(2)]BF(4), [Cu(II)(dpzca)(H(2)O)(3)](2)SiF(6). The crystal structures of Hdpzca, [Co(II)(dpzca)(2)], [Cu(II)(dpzca)(2)], {[Co(III)(dpzca)(2)](BF(4))}(2)·5CH(3)CN and [Cu(II)(dpzca)(H(2)O)(3))](2)SiF(6)·2H(2)O were determined and reveal an orthogonal positioning of the 'spare' pyrazine nitrogen atoms and 'spare' pairs of imide oxygen atoms. The [M(II)(dpzca)(2)] complexes are therefore useful six-coordinate building blocks for producing larger supramolecular assemblies. Two examples of secondary assembly of [M(II)(dpzca)(2)] complexes, with M = Co and Ni, with silver nitrate gave single crystals; {[Co(III)(dpzca)(2)Ag](NO(3))(2)·2H(2)O}n and {([Ni(II)(dpzca)(2)Ag(I)(1/2)](1/2NO(3))(xH(2)O}n were structurally characterised. The redox processes of [M(II)(dpzca)(2)], with M(II) = Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn, are reported and, as seen for M(II) = Co, reversible metal- and ligand-based redox processes are observed, with E(m)(M(II)/M(III)) values 0.15-0.24 V higher than for the analogous complexes of Hpypzca (non-symmetric pyridine/pyrazine imide ligand), and 0.35-0.36 V higher than for the complexes of Hbpca (symmetric pyridine imide ligand).

  2. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog,1 which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video2 shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a majority of the bloggers to claim that the block shot off-center should not go as high as the one shot dead center. Others have claimed that the energy tied up as rotational energy is insignificant and the two blocks should rise to the same height within experimental error.

  3. Syncope and Idiopathic (Paroxysmal) AV Block.

    PubMed

    Brignole, Michele; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Guieu, Regis

    2015-08-01

    Syncope due to idiopathic AV block is characterized by: 1) ECG documentation (usually by means of prolonged ECG monitoring) of paroxysmal complete AV block with one or multiple consecutive pauses, without P-P cycle lengthening or PR interval prolongation, not triggered by atrial or ventricular premature beats nor by rate variations; 2) long history of recurrent syncope without prodromes; 3) absence of cardiac and ECG abnormalities; 4) absence of progression to persistent forms of AV block; 5) efficacy of cardiac pacing therapy. The patients affected by idiopathic AV block have low baseline adenosine plasma level values and show an increased susceptibility to exogenous adenosine. The APL value of the patients with idiopathic AV block is much lower than patients affected by vasovagal syncope who have high adenosine values.

  4. Block copolymer structures in nano-pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinna, Marco; Guo, Xiaohu; Zvelindovsky, Andrei

    2010-03-01

    We present results of coarse-grained computer modelling of block copolymer systems in cylindrical and spherical nanopores on Cell Dynamics Simulation. We study both cylindrical and spherical pores and systematically investigate structures formed by lamellar, cylinders and spherical block copolymer systems for various pore radii and affinity of block copolymer blocks to the pore walls. The obtained structures include: standing lamellae and cylinders, ``onions,'' cylinder ``knitting balls,'' ``golf-ball,'' layered spherical, ``virus''-like and mixed morphologies with T-junctions and U-type defects [1]. Kinetics of the structure formation and the differences with planar films are discussed. Our simulations suggest that novel porous nano-containers can be formed by confining block copolymers in pores of different geometries [1,2]. [4pt] [1] M. Pinna, X. Guo, A.V. Zvelindovsky, Polymer 49, 2797 (2008).[0pt] [2] M. Pinna, X. Guo, A.V. Zvelindovsky, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 214902 (2009).

  5. Painful peripheral states and sympathetic blocks.

    PubMed Central

    Loh, L; Nathan, P W

    1978-01-01

    In various chronic painful states, the sympathetic nerve supply was blocked either by injecting the sympathetic chain and ganglia with local anaesthesia or by the injection of guanethidine during occlusion of the circulation. There was a striking relation between the presence of hyperpathia and the relief of pain by the blocks. The sympathetic block was unlikely to relieve the pain unless hyperpathia accompanied the pain; when hyperpathia was present, a sympathetic block relieved both the constant pain and the hyperpathia. The effectiveness of the guanethidine blocks shows that the pain and the hyperpathia are maintained by the emission of noradrenaline in the periphery. The facts related to the sympathetic system and sensibility are discussed. PMID:690645

  6. Efficacy of Transversus Abdominis Plane Block and Rectus Sheath Block in Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Takebayashi, Katsushi; Matsumura, Masakata; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Hoashi, Takahiko; Katsura, Nagato; Fukuda, Seijun; Shimizu, Kenji; Inada, Takuji; Sato, Masugi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and rectus sheath (RS) block in patients undergoing laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery. Few studies have addressed the efficacy and safety associated with TAP block and RS block for laparoscopic surgery. Thirty-two patients underwent laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery, either with TAP and RS block (Block+ group, n = 18) or without peripheral nerve block (Block− group, n = 14). Preoperatively, TAP and RS block were performed through ultrasound guidance. We evaluated postoperative pain control and patient outcomes. The mean postoperative hospital stays were 1.56 days (Block+ group) and 2.07 days (Block− group; range, 1–3 days in both groups; P = 0.0038). A total of 11 patients and 1 patient underwent day surgery in the Block+ and Block− groups, respectively (P = 0.0012). Good postoperative pain control was more commonly observed in the Block+ group than in the Block− group (P = 0.011). TAP and RS block was effective in reducing postoperative pain and was associated with a fast recovery in patients undergoing laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery. PMID:25875548

  7. A Parent's Guide to Imaginative Block Play: Why Blocks Are Still One of America's Favorite Toys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.C. Timber/Habermaass Corp., Skaneateles, NY.

    This brochure, developed by a manufacturer of wooden blocks and trains, offers advice on the selection and use of toy blocks with children. The guide asserts that blocks, while often thought of as the most simple of toys, have great strength as creativity builders. Topics discussed in the brochure include: "Why We Want Our Children to…

  8. The effect of mixing 1.5% mepivacaine and 0.5% bupivacaine on duration of analgesia and latency of block onset in ultrasound-guided interscalene block.

    PubMed

    Gadsden, Jeff; Hadzic, Admir; Gandhi, Kishor; Shariat, Ali; Xu, Daquan; Maliakal, Thomas; Patel, Vijay

    2011-02-01

    Short- and long-acting local anesthetics are commonly mixed to achieve nerve blocks with short onset and long duration. However, there is a paucity of data on advantages of such mixtures. We hypothesized that a mixture of mepivacaine and bupivacaine results in a faster onset than does bupivacaine and in a longer duration of blockade than does mepivacaine. Sixty-four patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery (ages 18 to 65 years; ASA physical status I-II) with ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block as the sole anesthetic were studied. The subjects were randomized to receive 1 of 3 study solutions: 30 mL of mepivacaine 1.5%, 30 mL of bupivacaine 0.5%, or a mixture of 15 mL each of bupivacaine 0.5% and mepivacaine 1.5%. The block onset time and duration of motor and sensory block were assessed. Onset of sensory block in the axillary nerve distribution (superior trunk) was similar among the 3 groups (8.7 ± 4.3 minutes for mepivacaine, 10.0 ± 5.1 minutes for bupivacaine, and 11.3 ± 5.3 minutes for the combination group; P = 0.21 between all groups). The duration of motor block for the combination group (11.5 ± 4.7 hours) was between that of the bupivacaine (16.4 ± 9.4 hours) and mepivacaine (6.0 ± 4.2 hours) groups (P = 0.03 between bupivacaine and combination groups; P = 0.01 between mepivacaine and combination groups). Duration of analgesia was the shortest with mepivacaine (4.9 ± 2.4 hours), longest with bupivacaine (14.0 ± 6.2 hours), and intermediate with the combination group (10.3 ± 4.9 hours) (P < 0.001 for mepivacaine vs. combination group; P = 0.01 for bupivacaine vs. combination group). For ultrasound-guided interscalene block, a combination of mepivacaine 1.5% and bupivacaine 0.5% results in a block onset similar to either local anesthetic alone. The mean duration of blockade with a mepivacaine-bupivacaine mixture was significantly longer than block with mepivacaine 1.5% alone but significantly shorter than the block with

  9. Fast glycorrhachia and cerebrospinal fluid protein as predictors of sensory block in anesthesia with subarachnoid Ropivacaine.

    PubMed

    Collini, S; Troisi, F; Pacella, F; Merlin, P; De Sio, S; Pacella, E

    2016-01-01

    Identify if glycorrhachia and cerebrospinal fluid protein could influence the time of sensory block to T10, the duration and the metameric block's level, after a standard dose of Ropivacaine. 80 patients, ASA I - III undergoing to transurethral prostate resection with spinal anesthesia in a prospected open study were recruited. A 0.2 ml liquor's sample was taken; glycorrhachia, by glycemic stix and CSF protein, by urinary stix, were got, before Ropivacaine 0.5% 15 mg injection (0.10 - 0.15 mlsec). After anti-trendelemburg, with 30 ° tilting for 15 min, the onset of sensory block to T10, the maximum metameric level to 15' and the time of sensory block were reported. The data collection were analyzed using the software language R. A significant correlation liquor specific weigh preoperative glycemia (0.749), liquoral specific weigh glycorrhachia (rho = 0.751; R2 = 0.564; P 0.05) and specific weigh CSF protein (rho = 0.684; R2 = 0.468; P 0.05) were reported. Inverse relation CSF weightsensory block level (rho -0.789, P 0.05, R2 0.621) was evidenced. Inverse relation onset time to T10 glycorrhachia (84%) and cephalic block glycorrhachia (76%) were found. Inverse correlation onset time to T 10 CSF protein and cephalic block proteinorrachia was respectively 84% and 67%. A rho of 0.712 with R2 of 51% BMI onset to T10 and rho of 0.681 with R2 of 51% BMI maximum cephalic block with P 0.05 were reported. The predictability of a iso-hypobaric local anesthetic could reduce the risk of procedure failure and adverse events by further cephalic spread.

  10. Paravertebral Block Plus Thoracic Wall Block versus Paravertebral Block Alone for Analgesia of Modified Radical Mastectomy: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nai-Liang; Yu, Ben-Long; Hung, Chen-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Paravertebral block placement was the main anesthetic technique for modified radical mastectomy in our hospital until February 2014, when its combination with blocks targeting the pectoral musculature was initiated. We compared the analgesic effects of paravertebral blocks with or without blocks targeting the pectoral musculature for modified radical mastectomy. Methods We retrospectively collected data from a single surgeon and anesthesiologist from June 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015. Intraoperative sedatives and analgesic requirements, time to the first analgesic request, postoperative analgesic doses, patient satisfaction, and complications were compared. Results Fifty-four patients received a paravertebral block alone (PECS 0), and 46 received a paravertebral block combined with blocks targeting the pectoral musculature (PECS 1). The highest intraoperative effect–site concentration of propofol was significantly lower in the PECS 1 group than in the PECS 0 group [2.3 (1.5, 2.8) vs 2.5 (1.5, 4) μg/mL, p = 0.0014]. The intraoperative rescue analgesic dose was significantly lower in the PECS 1 group [0 (0, 25) vs 0 (0, 75) mg of ketamine, p = 0.0384]. Furthermore, the PECS 1 group had a significantly longer time to the first analgesic request [636.5 (15, 720) vs 182.5 (14, 720) min, p = 0.0001]. After further adjustment for age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification, chronic pain history, incidence of a superficial cervical plexus block placement, and operation duration, blocks targeting the pectoral musculature were determined to be the only significant factor (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.23–0.58; p < 0.0001). Very few patients used potent analgesics including morphine and ketorolac; the cumulative use of morphine or ketorolac was similar in the study groups. However, the incidence of all analgesic use, namely morphine, ketorolac, acetaminophen, and celecoxib, was

  11. Atmospheric Blocking in the Northern Hemisphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, John Lewis

    Blocking is generally understood as the obstruction on a large scale of the normal west - to - east motion of mid-latitude pressure systems. It is a persistent phenomenon lasting from one to several weeks and the resulting prolonged weather regimes may have serious economic and social consequences. The recent Northern Hemisphere winters, starting with 1976 -77, featured unusually large circulation anomalies, many of which can be directly related to prolonged episodes of large scale blocking. The intent of this study is to investigate the statistics and certain diagnostics of blocking in the Northern Hemisphere. The first of the three primary objectives is to present and interpret the spatial and temporal distribution of blocking during the past 33 years. We develop objective identification criteria, adaptable to machine processing methods, by relating the blocking anticyclone to its associated positive anomaly of 5-day mean 500MB height. Anomalies meeting the criteria are called 'blocking signatures.' We present the seasonal frequency of occurrence of these signatures by longitude and by area. The results are in good agreement with published studies for the oceans, but they also reveal a high frequency of blocking signatures over the Northeastern Canadian Archipelago. This result, dubbed the 'Baffin Island Paradox' is further investigated and rationalized. A catalogue has been prepared which identifies the date, centre location and magnitude of every blocking signature which occurred from January 1, 1946 to December 31, 1978. A supplementary Catalogue identifies sequences of these signatures corresponding to actual blocking episodes. The second objective is to investigate whether regions with high incidence of blocking, in either the developing or the mature stage, features non-Gaussian distributions of 5-day mean geopotential. During winter, fields of significantly low kurtosis are found in certain mid-latitude regions where the genesis and amplification of

  12. Comparison of block characteristics of spinal anesthesia following intravenous dexmedetomidine and clonidine

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Akansha; Agrawal, Sanjay; Payal, Yashwant S

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Different routes of administration of α2 adrenergic receptor agonists have been found to prolong the duration of spinal block. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients, aged 18-60 years, of ASA physical status I or II posted for elective fixation of fractures of lower limb under spinal anesthesia were selected. Spinal anesthesia was administered with 2.5 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine mixed with 10 μg fentanyl. The patients were randomized to receive intravenous (IV) dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg/h for 15 min followed by infusion of 0.3 μg/kg/h (Group I), IV Clonidine 2 μg/kg/h for 15 min followed by infusion of 0.5 μg kg/h (Group II) or 15 ml of normal saline for 15 min followed by infusion at 50 ml/h (Group III). Motor and sensory blockade was evaluated using bromage score and pin prick method respectively. Results: The median block height in all groups was T8. Time to achieve block height was fastest in Group I. Time of regression of sensory block to T12/L1 dermatome was 230.75 ± 21.25 min (Group I), 196.25 ± 20.27 min (Group II) and 163.88 ± 15.46 min (Group III) respectively. Regression of motor blocks to Bromage 0/1 was 274 ± 21.25 min, 234.25 ± 32.41 min and 130.12 ± 20.70 min in Groups I, II and III respectively. Bradycardia was seen in one patient in Group I and two patients in Group II. Hypotension was seen in five patients in Group I and seven patients in Group II. First requirement for postoperative analgesic was after 353.13 ± 39.60 min, 314.38 ± 30.64 min and 193.25 ± 17.74 min in Groups I, II and III respectively. Conclusion: IV α2 agonists are useful adjuvants for prolongation of the duration of spinal block. IV dexmedetomidine produces a better clinical profile compared to clonidine. PMID:27625482

  13. Bacterial dissimilatory reduction of arsenic(V) to arsenic(III) in anoxic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowdle, P.R.; Laverman, A.M.; Oremland, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Incubation of anoxic salt marsh sediment slurries with 10 mM As(V) resulted in the disappearance over time of the As(V) in conjunction with its recovery as As(III). No As(V) reduction to As(III) occurred in heat- sterilized or formalin-killed controls or in live sediments incubated in air. The rate of As(V) reduction in slurries was enhanced by addition of the electron donor lactate, H2, or glucose, whereas the respiratory inhibitor/uncoupler dinitrophenol, rotenone, or 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide blocked As(V) reduction. As(V) reduction was also inhibited by tungstate but not by molybdate, sulfate, or phosphate. Nitrate inhibited As(V) reduction by its action as a preferred respiratory electron acceptor rather than as a structural analog of As(V). Nitrate-respiring sediments could reduce As(V) to As(III) once all the nitrate was removed. Chloramphenicol blocked the reduction of As(V) to As(III) in nitrate- respiring sediments, suggesting that nitrate and arsenate were reduced by separate enzyme systems. Oxidation of [2-14C]acetate to 14CO2 by salt marsh and freshwater sediments was coupled to As(V). Collectively, these results show that reduction of As(V) in sediments proceeds by a dissimilatory process. Bacterial sulfate reduction was completely inhibited by As(V) as well as by As(III).

  14. In vitro growth characteristics of simian T-lymphotropic virus type III.

    PubMed Central

    Kannagi, M; Yetz, J M; Letvin, N L

    1985-01-01

    The type C retrovirus simian T-lymphotropic virus type III (STLV-III) has been isolated recently from immunodeficient macaque monkeys at the New England Regional Primate Research Center. The present studies were done to define the in vitro growth characteristics of this agent. STLV-III replicates efficiently in interleukin 2-dependent T-cell cultures of macaque peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), less efficiently in such cultures of human and gibbon PBL, and inefficiently in baboon PBL. No replication, as assessed by measuring reverse transcriptase activity in these culture supernatants, could be detected in similarly maintained cultures of chimpanzee, squirrel monkey, and cotton-top tamarin PBL. Like the human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV), STLV-III replicates in T4+ but not T8+ lymphocytes and its infection of macaque and human lymphocytes can be blocked with monoclonal anti-T4 antibodies. STLV-III differs from the human AIDS virus, however, in its apparent inability to grow in the Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes tested, the differing range of nonhuman primate T-cell populations that support its growth, and its less striking toxicity for T lymphocytes. These studies provide further characterization of an agent that will be extremely important in facilitating the development of vaccines and antiviral therapy for AIDS. PMID:2996002

  15. Cobaltocenium-containing block copolymers: ring-opening metathesis polymerization, self-assembly and precursors for template synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lixia; Zhang, Jiuyang; Hardy, Christopher G; Ma, Shuguo; Tang, Chuanbing

    2012-04-13

    Side-chain cobaltocenium-containing block copolymers are prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). These block copolymers include one cobaltocenium-containing block, with the second block being either a nonmetal-containing segment or a cobaltocenium-containing segment with different counterions. These block copolymers are self-assembled into spherical core/shell micelles in solutions. A template strategy is used to prepare cobalt (II or III)-containing nanoparticles by treating the self-assembled micelles via UV/ozonolysis and pyrolysis. Characterization by X-ray photon spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction indicates that these nanoparticles consist of different oxidants of cobalt, depending on the chemical compositions of block copolymers. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Block-based scalable wavelet image codec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yiliang; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1999-10-01

    This paper presents a high performance block-based wavelet image coder which is designed to be of very low implementational complexity yet with rich features. In this image coder, the Dual-Sliding Wavelet Transform (DSWT) is first applied to image data to generate wavelet coefficients in fixed-size blocks. Here, a block only consists of wavelet coefficients from a single subband. The coefficient blocks are directly coded with the Low Complexity Binary Description (LCBiD) coefficient coding algorithm. Each block is encoded using binary context-based bitplane coding. No parent-child correlation is exploited in the coding process. There is also no intermediate buffering needed in between DSWT and LCBiD. The compressed bit stream generated by the proposed coder is both SNR and resolution scalable, as well as highly resilient to transmission errors. Both DSWT and LCBiD process the data in blocks whose size is independent of the size of the original image. This gives more flexibility in the implementation. The codec has a very good coding performance even the block size is (16,16).

  17. Development of Alkali Activated Geopolymer Masonry Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod

    2016-09-01

    Cement masonry units are not considered as sustainable since their production involves consumption of fuel, cement and natural resources and therefore it is essential to find alternatives. This paper reports on making of geopolymer solid & hollow blocks and masonry prisms using non conventional materials like fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and manufactured sand and curing at ambient temperature. They were tested for water absorption, initial rate of water absorption, dry density, dimensionality, compressive, flexural and bond-strength which were tested for bond strength with and without lateral confinement, modulus of elasticity, alternative drying & wetting and masonry efficiency. The properties of geopolymer blocks were found superior to traditional masonry blocks and the masonry efficiency was found to increase with decrease in thickness of cement mortar joints. There was marginal difference in strength between rendered and unrendered geopolymer masonry blocks. The percentage weight gain after 7 cycles was less than 6% and the percentage reduction in strength of geopolymer solid blocks and hollow blocks were 26% and 28% respectively. Since the properties of geopolymer blocks are comparatively better than the traditional masonry they can be strongly recommended for structural masonry.

  18. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique

    PubMed Central

    Thangavelu, K.; Kannan, R.; Kumar, N. Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple technique. Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to find an alternative inferior alveolar nerve block that has a higher success rate than other routine techniques. To this purpose, a simple painless inferior alveolar nerve block was designed to anesthetize the inferior alveolar nerve. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Oral surgery department of Vinayaka Mission's dental college Salem from May 2009 to May 2011. Five hundred patients between the age of 20 years and 65 years who required extraction of teeth in mandible were included in the study. Out of 500 patients 270 were males and 230 were females. The effectiveness of the IANB was evaluated by using a sharp dental explorer in the regions innervated by the inferior alveolar, lingual, and buccal nerves after 3, 5, and 7 min, respectively. Conclusion: This study concludes that inferior alveolar nerve block is an appropriate alternative nerve block to anesthetize inferior alveolar nerve due to its several advantages. PMID:25885503

  19. NIF Title III engineering plan

    SciTech Connect

    Deis, G

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the work that must be accomplished by the NIF Project during Title III Engineering. This definition is intended to be sufficiently detailed to provide a framework for yearly planning, to clearly identify the specific deliverables so that the Project teams can focus on them, and to provide a common set of objectives and processes across the Project. This plan has been preceded by similar documents for Title I and Title II design and complements the Site Management Plan, the Project Control Manual, the Quality Assurance Program Plan, the RM Parsons NIF Title III Configuration Control Plan, the Integrated Project Schedule, the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, the Configuration Management Plan, and the Transition Plan.

  20. Transition probabilities in O III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froese Fischer, Charlotte

    1994-01-01

    Transition data has been computed in the MCHF + Breit-Pauli approximation for a number of the low lying triplets in O III. Special attention was given to the 2p3p 3P-2p3d 3P transition which is a primary cascade for the Bowen fluorescence mechanism in O III. The relativistic, largely spin-orbit, effect on the intensity ratio of primary decays was found to be as large as 50%, whereas the effect on secondary cascades was less than 30%. Agreement with astrophysically observed intensity ratios is excellent. There also is good agreement between the present liftimes and the beam-foil mean lifetimes obtained by Pinnington et al., though for 2p3p 3D and 3S the theoretical lifetimes are considerably shorter.

  1. Jovian type III radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1989-01-01

    Radio bursts have been observed in the Voyager plasma wave data from Jupiter that bear a striking resemblance to solar type III radio bursts. The emissions lie in the frequency range near 10 kHz, have durations of a minute or so, and occur in a set of periodically spaced bursts. The spacing between primary bursts is typically 15 min, but the bursts may have additional components which recur on time scales of about 3 min. The similarity with solar type III radio bursts suggests a source mechanism involving the movement of energetic electrons through a density gradient in the plasma surrounding Jupiter. The periodicity of bursts suggests Io may be involved in the generation of waves, since the timing is similar to the Alfven wave travel time from one hemisphere to the other through the Io torus.

  2. Brief Report: The Use of WAIS-III in Adults with HFA and Asperger Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Scholte, Evert M.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2007-01-01

    The WAIS III was administered to 16 adults with high functioning autism (HFA) and 27 adults with Asperger syndrome. Differences between Verbal Intelligence (VIQ) and Performance Intelligence (PIQ) were not found. Processing Speed problems in people with HFA appeared. At the subtest level, the Asperger syndrome group performed weak on Digit Span. Comprehension and Block Design were relative strengths. In the HFA group, performance on Digit-Symbol Coding and Symbol Search was relatively poor. Strengths were found on Information and Matrix Reasoning. The results suggest that the VIQ-PIQ difference cannot distinguish between HFA and Asperger syndrome. WAIS III Factor Scale and Subtest patterning provides a more valid indicator. PMID:17879152

  3. Brief report: The use of WAIS-III in adults with HFA and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spek, Antoinette A; Scholte, Evert M; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A

    2008-04-01

    The WAIS III was administered to 16 adults with high functioning autism (HFA) and 27 adults with Asperger syndrome. Differences between Verbal Intelligence (VIQ) and Performance Intelligence (PIQ) were not found. Processing Speed problems in people with HFA appeared. At the subtest level, the Asperger syndrome group performed weak on Digit Span. Comprehension and Block Design were relative strengths. In the HFA group, performance on Digit-Symbol Coding and Symbol Search was relatively poor. Strengths were found on Information and Matrix Reasoning. The results suggest that the VIQ-PIQ difference cannot distinguish between HFA and Asperger syndrome. WAIS III Factor Scale and Subtest patterning provides a more valid indicator.

  4. Silver europium(III) polyphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Mounir; Férid, Mokhtar; Moine, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Europium(III) silver polyphosphate, AgEu(PO3)4, was prepared by the flux method. The atomic arrangement is built up by infinite (PO3)n chains (periodicity of 4) extending along the c axis. These chains are joined to each other by EuO8 dodeca­hedra. The Ag+ cations are located in the voids of this arrangement and are surrounded by five oxygen atoms in a distorted [4+1] coordination. PMID:21582031

  5. Possible interaction between the bacterial transcription factor ArtA and the eukaryotic RNA polymerase III promoter.

    PubMed

    Matsutani, Sachiko

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) transcribes tRNA genes and short interspersed elements that have internal promoters consisting of A- and B-blocks. The B-block binding subunit of the transcription initiation factor TFIIIC binds to the B-block. The mobile bacterial insertion sequence (IS) 1 contains a RNAP III promoter-like sequence, which stimulates bacterial transcription along with the bacterial ArtA protein. Here, the DNA-binding ability of ArtA was examined in vitro using a simple, newly developed method. Various DNA fragments, including RNAP III promoter fragments, were separately incubated with purified ArtA, and then loaded onto a polyacrylamide gel. Since DNAs bound by ArtA remain in the gel wells during electrophoresis, SDS was added into the wells at the electrophoresis halfway point. It was hypothesized that SDS would dissociate the DNA-ArtA complexes in the wells, and then the DNAs would begin to migrate. In fact, new bands appeared in all of the lanes at similar intensities, indicating that ArtA binds nonspecifically to DNA. Therefore, labeled wild-type RNAP III promoter fragments were incubated with either the unlabeled wild-type or mutant fragments and ArtA, and electrophoresed. The B-block(-like) sequences of IS1, a human Alu element, and an anuran tRNA gene were important for binding to ArtA. Additionally, in silico analyses revealed the presence of the RNAP III promoter-like structures in the IS1 isoforms and the IS3 family elements. These results suggest the presence of parts of the RNAP III transcription machinery in bacteria, and might imply that its prototype existed in the common ancestor.

  6. An introduction to blocked impurity band detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, Jon

    1988-01-01

    Blocked impurity band detectors fabricated using standard silicon technologies offer the possibility of combining high sensitivity and high accuracy in a single detector operating in a low background environment. The solid state photomultiplier described by Petroff et al., which is a new type of blocked impurity band detector, offers even higher sensitivity as well as operation in the visible spectral region. The principle of operation and possible application of blocked impurity band detectors for stellar seismology and the search for extra-solar planets are described.

  7. Block Copolymer Membranes for Biofuel Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evren Ozcam, Ali; Balsara, Nitash

    2012-02-01

    Purification of biofuels such as ethanol is a matter of considerable concern as they are produced in complex multicomponent fermentation broths. Our objective is to design pervaporation membranes for concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous mixtures. Polystyrene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polystyrene block copolymers were synthesized by anionic polymerization. The polydimethylsiloxane domains provide ethanol-transporting pathways, while the polystyrene domains provide structural integrity for the membrane. The morphology of the membranes is governed by the composition of the block copolymer while the size of the domains is governed by the molecular weight of the block copolymer. Pervaporation data as a function of these two parameters will be presented.

  8. Mixing thermodynamics of block-random copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckingham, Bryan Scott

    Random copolymerization of A and B monomers represents a versatile method to tune interaction strengths between polymers, as ArB random copolymers will exhibit a smaller effective Flory interaction parameter chi; (or interaction energy density X) upon mixing with A or B homopolymers than upon mixing A and B homopolymers with each other, and the ArB composition can be tuned continuously. Thus, the incorporation of a random copolymer block into the classical block copolymer architecture to yield "block-random" copolymers introduces an additional tuning mechanism for the control of structure-property relationships, as the interblock interactions and physical properties can be tuned continuously through the random block's composition. However, typical living or controlled polymerizations produce compositional gradients along the "random" block, which can in turn influence the phase behavior. This dissertation demonstrates a method by which narrow-distribution copolymers of styrene and isoprene of any desired composition, with no measurable down-chain gradient, are synthesized. This synthetic method is then utilized to incorporate random copolymers of styrene and isoprene as blocks into block-random copolymers in order to examine the resulting interblock mixing thermodynamics. A series of well-defined near-symmetric block and block-random copolymers (S-I, Bd-S, I-SrI, S-SrI and Bd-S rI diblocks, where S is polystyrene, I is polyisoprene and Bd is polybutadiene), with varying molecular weight and random-block composition are synthesized and the mixing thermodynamics---via comparison of their interaction energy densities, X---of their hydrogenated derivatives is examined through measurement of the order-disorder transition (ODT) temperature. Hydrogenated derivatives of I-SrI and S-SrI block-random copolymers, both wherein the styrene aromaticity is retained and derivatives wherein the styrene units are saturated to vinylcyclohexane (VCH), are found to hew closely to the

  9. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Kenneth; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present two encoding methods for block-circulant LDPC codes. The first is an iterative encoding method based on the erasure decoding algorithm, and the computations required are well organized due to the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. The second method uses block-circulant generator matrices, and the encoders are very similar to those for recursive convolutional codes. Some encoders of the second type have been implemented in a small Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and operate at 100 Msymbols/second.

  10. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S.; Farnaby, Joy H.; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G.; Love, Jason B.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on UIII and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to NpIV. Here we report the synthesis of three new NpIII organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that NpIII complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of NpII is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key NpIII orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  11. Association of europium(III), americium(III), and curium(III) with cellulose, chitin, and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Takuo; Kimura, Takaumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kirishima, Akira; Yoshida, Takahiro; Isobe, Hiroshi; Francis, Arokiasamy J

    2006-08-01

    The association of trivalent f-elements-Eu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III)--with cellulose, chitin, and chitosan was determined by batch experiments and time-resolved, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The properties of these biopolymers as an adsorbent were characterized based on speciation calculation of Eu(III). The adsorption study showed that an increase of the ionic strength by NaCl did not affect the adsorption kinetics of Eu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III) for all the biopolymers, but the addition of Na2CO3 significantly delayed the kinetics because of their trivalent f-element complexation with carbonate ions. It also was suggested from the speciation calculation study that all the biopolymers were degraded under alkaline conditions, leading to their masking of the adsorption of Eu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III) on the nondegraded biopolymers. The masking effect was higher for cellulose than for chitin and chitosan, indicating that of the three, cellulose was degraded most significantly in alkaline solutions. Desorption experiments suggested that some portion of the adsorbed Eu(III) penetrated deep into the matrix, being isolated in a cavity-like site. The TRLFS study showed that the coordination environment of Eu(III) is stabilized mainly by the inner spherical coordination in chitin and by the outer spherical coordination in chitosan, with less association in cellulose in comparison to chitin and chitosan. These results suggest that the association of these biopolymers with Eu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III) is governed not only by the affinity of the functional groups alone but also by other factors, such as the macromolecular steric effect. The association of degraded materials of the biopolymers also should be taken into consideration for an accurate prediction of the influence of biopolymers on the migration behavior of trivalent f-elements.

  12. Postoperative Analgesia Using Psoas Sheath Block Versus Three-in-One Block in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    were blocked and two cases where all nerves were blocked. Key Words: Regional Anesthesia; Lumbar Plexus Block, Postoperative Pain Management; Pre...and sciatic(Lumbar4-Sacral3). A "psoas sheath block" and a "three-in-one block" are two techniques used to block the lumbar plexus from which the...nerve blockade Operational definition. A regional anesthetic technique used to block transmission of the nerves of the lumbar plexus including the

  13. Ultrasound guided nerve block for breast surgery.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, P; Casas, P; López, S; Fajardo, M

    2016-03-01

    The breast surgery has undergone changes in recent years, encouraging new initiatives for the anaesthetic management of these patients in order to achieve maximum quality and rapid recovery. The fundamental tool that has allowed a significant improvement in the progress of regional anaesthesia for breast disease has been ultrasound, boosting the description and introduction into clinical practice of interfascial chest wall blocks, although the reference standard is still the paravertebral block. It is very likely that these blocks will change the protocols in the coming years. A review is presented of the anatomy of the breast region, description of nerve blocks and techniques, as well as their indications, all according to published articles and the opinion of the authors based on their experience.

  14. Case History of an 8-Block Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Molly J.

    1997-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of the process undertaken by one school district in Missouri to explore and then implement a schedule change (in particular a block program)--a process involving parents, teachers, administrators, school board members, and students. (SR)

  15. Dynamic code block size for JPEG 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ping-Sing; LeCornec, Yann

    2008-02-01

    Since the standardization of the JPEG 2000, it has found its way into many different applications such as DICOM (digital imaging and communication in medicine), satellite photography, military surveillance, digital cinema initiative, professional video cameras, and so on. The unified framework of the JPEG 2000 architecture makes practical high quality real-time compression possible even in video mode, i.e. motion JPEG 2000. In this paper, we present a study of the compression impact using dynamic code block size instead of fixed code block size as specified in the JPEG 2000 standard. The simulation results show that there is no significant impact on compression if dynamic code block sizes are used. In this study, we also unveil the advantages of using dynamic code block sizes.

  16. Epoxy coatings over latex block fillers

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, L.D.

    1997-12-01

    Failures of polymerized epoxy coatings applied over latex/acrylic block fillers continue to plague owners of commercial buildings, particularly those with high architectural content such as condominiums, high rise offices, etc. Water treatment facilities in paper mills are especially prone to this problem. The types of failures include delamination of the topcoats, blisters in both the block fillers and the topcoats and disintegration of the block filler itself. While the problem is well known, the approach to a solution is not. A study of several coatings manufacturer`s Product Data Sheets shows a wide variance in the recommendations for what are purportedly generically equivalent block fillers. While one manufacturer might take an essentially architectural approach, another will take a heavy-duty industrial approach. To the specifying architect or engineer who has little training in the complexities of protective coating systems, this presents a dilemma. Who does he believe? What does he specify? To whom can he turn for independent advice?

  17. Extrinsic germanium Blocked Impurity Bank (BIB) detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabach, Timothy N.; Huffman, James E.; Watson, Dan M.

    1989-01-01

    Ge:Ga blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detectors with long wavelength thresholds greater than 190 microns and peak quantum efficiencies of 4 percent, at an operating temperature of 1.8 K, have been fabricated. These proof of concept devices consist of a high purity germanium blocking layer epitaxially grown on a Ga-doped Ge substrate. This demonstration of BIB behavior in germanium enables the development of far infrared detector arrays similar to the current silicon-based devices. Present efforts are focussed on improving the chemical vapor deposition process used to create the blocking layer and on the lithographic processing required to produce monolithic detector arrays in germanium. Approaches to test the impurity levels in both the blocking and active layers are considered.

  18. Atmospheric Blocking and Atlantic Multidecadal Ocean Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B.; Worthen, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic, which involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5 days or more, influences fundamentally the ocean circulation and upper ocean properties by affecting wind patterns. Winters with clusters of more frequent blocking between Greenland and western Europe correspond to a warmer, more saline subpolar ocean. The correspondence between blocked westerly winds and warm ocean holds in recent decadal episodes (especially 1996 to 2010). It also describes much longer time scale Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability (AMV), including the extreme pre-greenhouse-gas northern warming of the 1930s to 1960s. The space-time structure of the wind forcing associated with a blocked regime leads to weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat exchange, both of which contribute to the warm phase of AMV.

  19. Electrostatic control of block copolymer morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, Charles E.; Zwanikken, Jos W.; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2014-07-01

    Energy storage is at present one of the foremost issues society faces. However, material challenges now serve as bottlenecks in technological progress. Lithium-ion batteries are the current gold standard to meet energy storage needs; however, they are limited owing to the inherent instability of liquid electrolytes. Block copolymers can self-assemble into nanostructures that simultaneously facilitate ion transport and provide mechanical stability. The ions themselves have a profound, yet previously unpredictable, effect on how these nanostructures assemble and thus the efficiency of ion transport. Here we demonstrate that varying the charge of a block copolymer is a powerful mechanism to predictably tune nanostructures. In particular, we demonstrate that highly asymmetric charge cohesion effects can induce the formation of nanostructures that are inaccessible to conventional uncharged block copolymers, including percolated phases desired for ion transport. This vastly expands the design space for block copolymer materials and is informative for the versatile design of battery electrolyte materials.

  20. Block 5 documentation and solar modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Design and fabrication of Spire Corporation's Block 5 photovoltaic flat plate module is reviewed. These modules exhibited power of about 70 watts under standard test conditions. Results of performance and environmental testing are provided.

  1. Flood-Emplaced Blocks in Holden Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-21

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows blocks of bright, layered rock embedded in darker material that are thought to have been deposited by a giant flood that occurred when Uzboi Valles breached the rim of Holden Crater.

  2. Atmospheric blocking and Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B; Worthen, Denise L

    2011-11-04

    Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic, which involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5 days or more, influences fundamentally the ocean circulation and upper ocean properties by affecting wind patterns. Winters with clusters of more frequent blocking between Greenland and western Europe correspond to a warmer, more saline subpolar ocean. The correspondence between blocked westerly winds and warm ocean holds in recent decadal episodes (especially 1996 to 2010). It also describes much longer time scale Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability (AMV), including the extreme pre-greenhouse-gas northern warming of the 1930s to 1960s. The space-time structure of the wind forcing associated with a blocked regime leads to weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat exchange, both of which contribute to the warm phase of AMV.

  3. Formation of Anisotropic Block Copolymer Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Chya Yan; Shull, Kenneth; Henderson, Kevin; Joester, Derk

    2011-03-01

    Anisotropic, fibrillar gels are important in a variety of processes. Biomineralization is one example, where the mineralization process often occurs within a matrix of collagen or chitin fibers that trap the mineral precursors and direct the mineralization process. We wish to replicate this type of behavior within block copolymer gels. Particularly, we are interested in employing gels composed of cylindrical micelles, which are anisotropic and closely mimic biological fibers. Micelle geometry is controlled in our system by manipulating the ratio of molecular weights of the two blocks and by controlling the detailed thermal processing history of the copolymer solutions. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and Dynamic Light Scattering are used to determine the temperature dependence of the gel formation process. Initial experiments are based on a thermally-reversible alcohol-soluble system, that can be subsequently converted to a water soluble system by hydrolysis of a poly(t-butyl methacrylate) block to a poly (methacrylic acid) block. MRSEC.

  4. Case History of an 8-Block Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Molly J.

    1997-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of the process undertaken by one school district in Missouri to explore and then implement a schedule change (in particular a block program)--a process involving parents, teachers, administrators, school board members, and students. (SR)

  5. Atmospheric Blocking and Atlantic Multidecadal Ocean Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B.; Worthen, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic, which involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5 days or more, influences fundamentally the ocean circulation and upper ocean properties by affecting wind patterns. Winters with clusters of more frequent blocking between Greenland and western Europe correspond to a warmer, more saline subpolar ocean. The correspondence between blocked westerly winds and warm ocean holds in recent decadal episodes (especially 1996 to 2010). It also describes much longer time scale Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability (AMV), including the extreme pre-greenhouse-gas northern warming of the 1930s to 1960s. The space-time structure of the wind forcing associated with a blocked regime leads to weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat exchange, both of which contribute to the warm phase of AMV.

  6. A Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn; Miyake, Robert; Dodge, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    The presentation describes a Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool. It is used by JPL's Team X in studying missions during the Pre-Phase A. It helps generate cost and mass estimates using proprietary data bases.

  7. The Core of the Stuttering Block

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Martin F.

    1974-01-01

    A model of the core of the stuttering block is presented, based on evidence that the disorder is essentially an inappropriate, vigorous contraction of the posterior cricoarytenoid in response to the subglottal air pressures required for speech. (Author)

  8. Quaternary ammonium block of mutant Na+ channels lacking inactivation: features of a transition-intermediate mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kimbrough, J T; Gingrich, K J

    2000-01-01

    The quaternary ammonium (QA) lidocaine derivative QX-314 (2-(triethylamino)-N--(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-acetamide) induces internal pore blockade of single cardiac Na+ channels enzymatically modified (papain) to eliminate fast inactivation. The mechanism involves dual, interacting blocking modes (rapid and discrete) with binding domains deep in the pore from the cytoplasmic mouth, and where the rapid blocked configuration serves as a transition-intermediate for the development of discrete block. The primary goals of this study were to test for this mechanism in a recombinant Na+ channel genetically engineered to selectively lack fast inactivation, and if present, to explore the underlying structural features. Fast inactivation was removed in rat skeletal muscle μ1 Na+ channels (RSkM1) with an IFM-QQQ mutation in the cytoplasmic III-IV interdomain (QQQ). QQQ was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and single-channel activity was studied in cell-free, inside-out membrane patches. Application of QX-314 (QX, 0-4 mM) to the cytoplasmic membrane surface caused two distinct modalities of single-channel blockade: reduction of unitary current and interruptions of current lasting tens of milliseconds. These are consistent with rapid and discrete pore block, respectively. The voltage and concentration dependence of block indicates that the modes interact and have binding sites that share a deep location in the pore, at ≈65 % of the membrane electric field in from the cytoplasmic mouth. Mutation of phenylalanine (F1579) in domain IV-S6, critical in local anaesthetic block, to alanine in QQQ (QQQ-F1579A) disabled discrete block but notably failed to alter rapid block, single-channel gating and slope conductance. Amplitude distribution analysis was applied to long bursts (> 50 ms) of QQQ-F1579A activity to investigate the kinetics of rapid block. Computed rapid blocking and unblocking rate constants are 42 000 ± 18 000 M−1 ms−1 and 82 ± 22 ms−1, respectively (n = 3, -20 mV). The

  9. [Evaluation of safety and anesthetic effect for ultrasound-guided cervical plexus block].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Shi, Tong; Shi, Ke-jian; Hua, Ping-an; Chen, Li-mei; Wang, Quan-guang; Liu, Le; Xu, Xu-zhong

    2011-07-19

    To observe the influences upon the degree of diaphragmatic excursion during deep cervical plexus block at the third cervical vertebra (C3) and compare the safety and anesthetic effect of modified cervical plexus block by ultrasonic guidance and blocking of cervical plexus at one point. Part I: 30 patients of ASA (American society of anesthesiologists) I-II scheduled for thyroid surgery were selected for bilateral cervical plexus block at C3 and bilateral skin nerve branches via ultrasonic guidance. Diaphragmatic excursion was recorded. Part II: 80 patients of ASAI-II scheduled for thyroid surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (Group U) and control group (Group C). In Group U, modified cervical plexus block was used to fix both sides of C3 and skin nerve branches. The anesthetic mixture with 2% lidocaine and 0.75% ropivacaine was injected. And anesthetic effects and complications were detected. In control group, traditional one-point method for blocking cervical plexus was employed. High-frequency Doppler sonography could clearly visualize important neck structures and precisely guide the injection of mixture to the transverse process of C3. Diaphragmatic excursion decreased significantly at 15 and 30 min post-blocking (P < 0.05). And no paralysis of diaphragmatic muscle occurred. Hoverer 3 cases had partial diaphragmatic paralysis. Both blood pressure and heart rate increased significantly post-blocking in both groups (P < 0.05 or 0.01). In comparison with Group C, the range of blood pressure was notably lower at 10 and 20 min in Group U. And heart rate was notably lower at 5, 10, 20 and 30 min (P < 0.05 or 0.01). Furthermore the onset time of skin nerve branches was significantly shorter in Group U (P < 0.01). And the anesthetic effect score was better than that in Group C (P < 0.01). The incidence of complications, such as hoarseness, was significantly lower in Group U (12 cases in Group C but none in Group U, P < 0.01) and Horner

  10. Arsenic Binding and Transfer by the ArsD As(III) Metallochaperone†

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianbo; Rawat, Swati; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Rosen, Barry P.

    2010-01-01

    ArsD is a metallochaperone that delivers trivalent metalloids [As(III) or Sb(III)] to the ArsA ATPase, the catalytic subunit of the ArsAB pump encoded by the arsRDABC operon of Escherichia coli plasmid R773. Interaction with ArsD increases the affinity of ArsA for As(III), conferring resistance to environmental concentrations of arsenic. Previous genetic analysis suggested that ArsD residues Cys12, Cys13, and Cys18 are involved in the transfer of As(III) to ArsA. Here X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to show that As(III) is coordinated with three sulfur atoms, consistent with the three cysteine residues forming the As(III) binding site. Two single-tryptophan derivatives of ArsD exhibited quenching of intrinsic protein fluorescence upon binding of As(III) or Sb(III), which allowed estimation of the rates of binding and affinities for metalloids. Substitution of Cys12, Cys13, or Cys18 decreased the affinity for As(III) more than 10-fold. Reduced glutathione greatly increased the rate of binding of As(III) to ArsD but did not affect binding of As(III) to ArsA. This suggests that in vivo cytosolic As(III) might be initially bound to GSH and transferred to ArsD and then to ArsAB, which pumps the metalloid out of the cell. The As(III) chelator dimercaptosuccinic acid did not block the transfer from ArsD to ArsA, consistent with channeling of the metalloid from one protein to the other, as opposed to release and rebinding of the metalloid. Finally, transfer of As(III) from ArsD to ArsA occurred in the presence of MgATP at 23 °C but not at 4 °C. Neither MgADP nor MgATP-γ-S could replace MgATP. These results suggest that transfer occurs with a conformation of ArsA that transiently forms during the catalytic cycle. PMID:20361763

  11. Above Elbow Amputation Under Brachial Plexus Block at Supraclavicular and Interscalene Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Hassan; Yadagiri, Manjula; Macrosson, Duncan; Majeed, Amer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The brachial plexus block is a commonly performed procedure in the anesthetic practice today. It is performed for analgesia as well as anesthesia for upper limb procedures. It has been used for amputation and replantation surgeries of the upper limb. Case presentation: We present the case of a 68-year-old gentleman who had brachial plexus block at supraclavicular and interscalene levels as the sole anesthetic for undergoing above elbow amputation. He was deemed to be very high risk for a general anesthetic as he suffered from severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a very poor exercise tolerance (NYHA Class III). The supraclavicular brachial plexus block was supplemented with an interscalene brachial plexus block due to inadequate surgical anesthesia encountered with the former. The procedure was successfully completed under regional anesthesia. Conclusions: The brachial plexus block can be performed at different levels in the same patient to achieve desired results, while employing sound anatomical knowledge and adhering to the maximum safe dose limit of the local anesthetic. PMID:26705518

  12. Kilohertz frequency nerve block enhances anti-inflammatory effects of vagus nerve stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Yogi A.; Saxena, Tarun; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.; Butera, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Efferent activation of the cervical vagus nerve (cVN) dampens systemic inflammatory processes, potentially modulating a wide-range of inflammatory pathological conditions. In contrast, afferent cVN activation amplifies systemic inflammatory processes, leading to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the sympathetic nervous system through the greater splanchnic nerve (GSN), and elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ideally, to clinically implement anti-inflammatory therapy via cervical vagus nerve stimulation (cVNS) one should selectively activate the efferent pathway. Unfortunately, current implementations, in animal and clinical investigations, activate both afferent and efferent pathways. We paired cVNS with kilohertz electrical stimulation (KES) nerve block to preferentially activate efferent pathways while blocking afferent pathways. Selective efferent cVNS enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of cVNS. Our results demonstrate that: (i) afferent, but not efferent, cVNS synchronously activates the GSN in a dose-dependent manner; (ii) efferent cVNS enabled by complete afferent KES nerve block enhances the anti-inflammatory benefits of cVNS; and (iii) incomplete afferent KES nerve block exacerbates systemic inflammation. Overall, these data demonstrate the utility of paired efferent cVNS and afferent KES nerve block for achieving selective efferent cVNS, specifically as it relates to neuromodulation of systemic inflammation. PMID:28054557

  13. Perineural administration of dexmedetomidine in combination with ropivacaine prolongs axillary brachial plexus block.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Chang-Song; Shi, Jing-Hui; Sun, Bo; Liu, Shu-Jie; Li, Peng; Li, En-You

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that adding dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine prolongs axillary brachial plexus block. Forty-five patients of ASA I~II and aged 25-60 yr who were scheduled for elective forearm and hand surgery were randomly divided into 3 equal groups and received 40 ml of 0.33% ropivacaine + 1 ml dexmedetomidine (50 μg) (Group DR1), 40 ml of 0.33% ropivacaine + 1 ml dexmedetomidine (100 μg) (group DR2) or 40 ml of 0.33% ropivacaine + 1 ml saline (group R) in a double-blind fashion. The onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks and side effects were recorded. The demographic data and surgical characteristics were similar in each group. Sensory and motor block onset times were the same in the three groups. Sensory and motor blockade durations were longer in group DR2 than in group R (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the sensory blockade duration between group DR1 and group R. Bradycardia, hypertension and hypotension were not observed in group R and occurred more often in group DR2 than in group DR1. Dexmedetomidine added to ropivacaine for an axillary brachial plexus block prolongs the duration of the block. However, dexmedetomidine may also lead to side effects such as bradycardia, hypertension, and hypotension.

  14. 49 CFR 236.824 - System, automatic block signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false System, automatic block signal. 236.824 Section... § 236.824 System, automatic block signal. A block signal system wherein the use of each block is governed by an automatic block signal, cab signal, or both. ...

  15. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Palte, Howard D

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon’s block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar) block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar) approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it promotes local anesthetic diffusion and hastens block onset time but it is allergenic. Ultrasound-guided eye blocks afford real-time visualization of needle position and local

  16. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Palte, Howard D

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon's block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar) block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar) approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it promotes local anesthetic diffusion and hastens block onset time but it is allergenic. Ultrasound-guided eye blocks afford real-time visualization of needle position and local

  17. Superconformal blocks for SCFTs with eight supercharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobev, Nikolay; Lauria, Edoardo; Mazáč, Dalimil

    2017-07-01

    We show how to treat the superconformal algebras with eight Poincaré super-charges in a unified manner for spacetime dimension 2 < d ≤ 6. This formalism is ideally suited for analyzing the quadratic Casimir operator of the superconformal algebra and its use in deriving superconformal blocks. We illustrate this by an explicit construction of the superconformal blocks, for any value of the spacetime dimension, for external protected scalar operators which are the lowest component of flavor current multiplets.

  18. Tricarboranyl pentaerythritol-based building block.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Alexis; Zharov, Ilya

    2006-12-11

    A new tricarborane building block based on pentaerythritol was prepared for applications in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Its X-ray single-crystal structure revealed a high degree of steric congestion. To enable the attachment of the building block to other moieties, a succinimidyl linker has been introduced at the focal point, and a generation-2 hexacarborane-containing dendron carrying 60 boron atoms has been prepared using a 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid core.

  19. Ice-Blocked Drainage: Problems and Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    1983 USA Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.’ ".Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 "" " •" • .;; ~.* .P-.- .-":- Ice-blocked drainage : Problems...railroads,. - 0 airfields, and other public works. Among the causes of these ,, , .-.. , headaches are drainage facilities that become blocked by ice...Many ice problems can be avoided by good drainage design. - Maintenance personnel have made many worthwhile sugges- *. tions to designers, based on

  20. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A method and a computer program are presented to calculate probability of system success from an arbitrary reliability block diagram. The class of reliability block diagrams that can be handled include any active/standby combination of redundancy, and the computations include the effects of dormancy and switching in any standby redundancy. The mechanics of the program are based on an extension of the probability tree method of computing system probabilities.

  1. deepBlockAlign: a tool for aligning RNA-seq profiles of read block patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ekstrøm, Claus T.; Stadler, Peter F.; Hoffmann, Steve; Gorodkin, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: High-throughput sequencing methods allow whole transcriptomes to be sequenced fast and cost-effectively. Short RNA sequencing provides not only quantitative expression data but also an opportunity to identify novel coding and non-coding RNAs. Many long transcripts undergo post-transcriptional processing that generates short RNA sequence fragments. Mapped back to a reference genome, they form distinctive patterns that convey information on both the structure of the parent transcript and the modalities of its processing. The miR-miR* pattern from microRNA precursors is the best-known, but by no means singular, example. Results: deepBlockAlign introduces a two-step approach to align RNA-seq read patterns with the aim of quickly identifying RNAs that share similar processing footprints. Overlapping mapped reads are first merged to blocks and then closely spaced blocks are combined to block groups, each representing a locus of expression. In order to compare block groups, the constituent blocks are first compared using a modified sequence alignment algorithm to determine similarity scores for pairs of blocks. In the second stage, block patterns are compared by means of a modified Sankoff algorithm that takes both block similarities and similarities of pattern of distances within the block groups into account. Hierarchical clustering of block groups clearly separates most miRNA and tRNA, and also identifies about a dozen tRNAs clustering together with miRNA. Most of these putative Dicer-processed tRNAs, including eight cases reported to generate products with miRNA-like features in literature, exhibit read blocks distinguished by precise start position of reads. Availability: The program deepBlockAlign is available as source code from http://rth.dk/resources/dba/. Contact: gorodkin@rth.dk; studla@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22053076

  2. Enhancing the blocking temperature in single-molecule magnets by incorporating 3d-5d exchange interactions.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Kasper S; Schau-Magnussen, Magnus; Bendix, Jesper; Weihe, Høgni; Palii, Andrei V; Klokishner, Sophia I; Ostrovsky, Serghei; Reu, Oleg S; Mutka, Hannu; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W

    2010-12-03

    We report the first single-molecule magnet (SMM) to incorporate the [Os(CN)(6)](3-) moiety. The compound (1) has a trimeric, cyanide-bridged Mn(III)-Os(III)-Mn(III) skeleton in which Mn(III) designates a [Mn(5-Brsalen)(MeOH)](+) unit (5-Brsalen=N,N'-ethylenebis(5-bromosalicylideneiminato)). X-ray crystallographic experiments reveal that 1 is isostructural with the Mn(III)-Fe(III)-Mn(III) analogue (2). Both compounds exhibit a frequency-dependent out-of-phase χ''(T) alternating current (ac) susceptibility signal that is suggestive of SMM behaviour. From the Arrhenius expression, the effective barrier for 1 is found to be Δ(eff)/k(B)=19 K (τ(0)=5.0×10(-7) s; k(B)=Boltzmann constant), whereas only the onset (1.5 kHz, 1.8 K) of χ''(T) is observed for 2, thus indicating a higher blocking temperature for 1. The strong spin-orbit coupling present in Os(III) isolates the E'(1g(1/2))(O(h)*) Kramers doublet that exhibits orbital contributions to the single-ion anisotropy. Magnetic susceptibility and inelastic neutron-scattering measurements reveal that substitution of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) by the [Os(CN)(6)](3-) anion results in larger ferromagnetic, anisotropic exchange interactions going from quasi-Ising exchange interactions in 2 to pure Ising exchange for 1 with J(parallel)(MnOs)=-30.6 cm(-1). The combination of diffuse magnetic orbitals and the Ising-type exchange interaction effectively contributes to a higher blocking temperature. This result is in accordance with theoretical predictions and paves the way for the design of a new generation of SMMs with enhanced SMM properties.

  3. Capacitor blocks for linear transformer driver stages.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Kumpyak, E V; Smorudov, G V; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2014-01-01

    In the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology, the low inductance energy storage components and switches are directly incorporated into the individual cavities (named stages) to generate a fast output voltage pulse, which is added along a vacuum coaxial line like in an inductive voltage adder. LTD stages with air insulation were recently developed, where air is used both as insulation in a primary side of the stages and as working gas in the LTD spark gap switches. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. The capacitor block incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and multichannel multigap gas switch. Several modifications of the capacitor blocks were developed and tested on the life time and self breakdown probability. Blocks were tested both as separate units and in an assembly of capacitive module, consisting of five capacitor blocks. This paper presents detailed design of capacitor blocks, description of operation regimes, numerical simulation of electric field in the switches, and test results.

  4. Capacitor blocks for linear transformer driver stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Kumpyak, E. V.; Smorudov, G. V.; Zherlitsyn, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    In the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology, the low inductance energy storage components and switches are directly incorporated into the individual cavities (named stages) to generate a fast output voltage pulse, which is added along a vacuum coaxial line like in an inductive voltage adder. LTD stages with air insulation were recently developed, where air is used both as insulation in a primary side of the stages and as working gas in the LTD spark gap switches. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. The capacitor block incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and multichannel multigap gas switch. Several modifications of the capacitor blocks were developed and tested on the life time and self breakdown probability. Blocks were tested both as separate units and in an assembly of capacitive module, consisting of five capacitor blocks. This paper presents detailed design of capacitor blocks, description of operation regimes, numerical simulation of electric field in the switches, and test results.

  5. Tunable Morphologies from Charged Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Monojoy; Sumpter, Bobby G; Mays, Jimmy; Messman, Jamie M

    2010-01-01

    The bulk morphologies formed by a new class of charged block copolymers, 75 vol % fluorinated polyisoprene (FPI) 25 vol% sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) with 50% sulfonation, are characterized, and the fundamental underlying forces that promote the self-assembly processes are elucidated. The results show how the bulk morphologies are substantially different from their uncharged diblock counterparts (PS-PI) and also how morphology can be tuned with volume fraction of the charged block and the casting solvent. A physical understanding based on the underlying strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions is obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The 75/25 FPI-PSS shows hexagonal morphologies with the minority blocks (PSS) forming the continuous phase due to charge percolation and the FPI blocks arranged in hexagonal cylinders. Some long-range order can be sustained even if lipophobicity is increased (addition of water), albeit with lower dimensional structures. However, thermal annealing provides sufficient energy to disrupt the percolated charges and promotes aggregation of ionic sites which leads to a disordered system. Diverse and atypical morphologies are readily accessible by simply changing the number distribution of the charges on PSS block.

  6. Improving massive experiments with threshold blocking

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Michael J.; Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    2016-01-01

    Inferences from randomized experiments can be improved by blocking: assigning treatment in fixed proportions within groups of similar units. However, the use of the method is limited by the difficulty in deriving these groups. Current blocking methods are restricted to special cases or run in exponential time; are not sensitive to clustering of data points; and are often heuristic, providing an unsatisfactory solution in many common instances. We present an algorithm that implements a widely applicable class of blocking—threshold blocking—that solves these problems. Given a minimum required group size and a distance metric, we study the blocking problem of minimizing the maximum distance between any two units within the same group. We prove this is a nondeterministic polynomial-time hard problem and derive an approximation algorithm that yields a blocking where the maximum distance is guaranteed to be, at most, four times the optimal value. This algorithm runs in O(n log n) time with O(n) space complexity. This makes it, to our knowledge, the first blocking method with an ensured level of performance that works in massive experiments. Whereas many commonly used algorithms form pairs of units, our algorithm constructs the groups flexibly for any chosen minimum size. This facilitates complex experiments with several treatment arms and clustered data. A simulation study demonstrates the efficiency and efficacy of the algorithm; tens of millions of units can be blocked using a desktop computer in a few minutes. PMID:27382151

  7. MIBSA: Multi Interacting Blocks for Slope Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattola, Giuseppe; Crosta, Giovanni; Castellanza, Riccardo; di Prisco, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    As it is well known, the slope instabilities have very important consequences in terms of human lives and activities. So predicting the evolution in time and space of slope mass movements becomes fundamental. This is even more relevant when we consider that the triggering mechanisms are a rising ground water level and the occurrence of earthquakes. Therefore, seasonal rainfall has a direct influence on the triggering of large rock and earthslide with a composite failure surface and causing differential behaviors within the sliding mass. In this contribution, a model describing the slope mass by means of an array of blocks that move on a prefixed failure surface, is defined. A shear band located at the base of each block, whose behavior is modelled via a viscous plastic model based on the Perzyna's approach, controls the slip velocity of the block. The motion of the blocks is obtained by solving the second balance equation in which the normal and tangential interaction forces are obtained by a specific interaction model. The model has been implemented in an original code and it is used to perform a parametric analysis that describes the effects of block interactions under a transient ground water oscillation. The numerical results confirm that the normal and tangential interactions between blocks can inhibit or induce the slope movements. The model is tested against some real case studies. This model is under development to add the dynamic effects generated by earthquake shaking.

  8. Adaptive overlapped sub-blocks contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Anqiu; Yuan, Fei; Liu, Jing; Liu, Siqi; Li, An; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an overlapped sub-block gray-level average method for contrast enhancement is presented. The digital image correction of uneven illumination under microscope transmittance is a problem in image processing, also sometimes the image in the dark place need to correct the uneven problem. A new correction method was proposed based on the mask method and sub-blocks gray-level average method because Traditional mask method and background fitting method are restricted due to application scenarios, and the corrected image brightness is low by using background fitting method, so it has some limitations of the application. In this paper, we introduce a new method called AOSCE for image contrast enhancement. The image is divided into many sub-blocks which are overlapped, calculate the average gray-level of the whole image as M and the calculate the average gray-level of each one as mi, next for each block it can get d = mi - m, each block minus d to get a new image, and then get the minimum gray-level of each block into a matrix DD to get the background, and use bilinearity to get the same scale of the image. over fitting the image in matlab in order to get smoother image, then minus the background to get the contrast enhancement image.

  9. Technology evaluation: transgenic antithrombin III (rhAT-III), Genzyme Transgenics.

    PubMed

    Yeung, P K

    2000-06-01

    AT-III LLC, a joint venture between Genzyme Transgenics (GTC) and Genzyme General, is developing transgenic recombinant human antithrombin III (rhAT-III) as a potential treatment for sepsis and other disorders involving thrombosis. It is in phase III clinical trials in the US and Europe as an anticoagulant in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery such as cardiopulmonary bypass.

  10. Development of Demographic Norms for Four New WAIS-III/WMS-III Indexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Rael T.; Chelune, Gordon J.; Taylor, Michael J.; Woodward, Todd S.; Heaton, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Following the publication of the third edition Wechsler scales (i.e., WAIS-III and WMS-III), demographically corrected norms were made available in the form of a computerized scoring program (i.e., WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant). These norms correct for age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Since then, four new indexes have been…

  11. Comparative evaluation of different volumes of 70% alcohol in celiac plexus block for upper abdominal malignsancies

    PubMed Central

    Dolly, Archana; Singh, Sarita; Prakash, Ravi; Bogra, Jaishri; Malik, Anita; Singh, Vinita

    2016-01-01

    Context: Celiac plexus block (CPB) (is an effective way to reduce cancer-associated pain in upper abdominal malignancies. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of different volumes of 70% alcohol in CPB. Settings and Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study. Subjects and Methods: Thirty patients of carcinoma gall bladder were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) to receive 20, 30, and 40 ml of 70% alcohol in CPB. Statistical Analysis Used: All the continuous data were assessed analysis of variance followed by post-hoc tests (Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference test). Ordinal data were compared using Kruskal–Wallis H-test followed by Mann–Whitney U-test. Categorical comparisons were performed using Chi-square test. Results: A significant difference in visual analog scale (VAS) score of Group I, Group I and Group III was observed from week 6 onward until the end of the study. At all these time intervals, VAS scores in Group I was higher than both Groups II and III during this time interval. VAS scores in Group III were significantly lower as compared to Group II from week 10 onward until the end of the study. As compared to baseline, at all the follow-up intervals, mean morphine requirement was significantly lower in Group II and Group III. A quality of life (QOL) score of Group III were higher as compared to Group I. Between Group II and Group III, significant difference was observed at week 16 only when Group III had a higher score as compared to Group II. Conclusions: VAS score, QOL, and reduction in morphine consumption were increased on increasing the volume of alcohol in CPB, 40 ml being most effective. PMID:28032091

  12. Bier block regional anesthesia and casting for forearm fractures: safety in the pediatric emergency department setting.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Chad E; Fernandez, Meagan D; Willsey, Matt; Peterson, Bret; Key, Charles; Fabregas, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Bier block regional anesthesia was first described in 1908; however, it is uncommonly used for fears of cardiac and neurological complications. Although recent studies have documented safe usage in an adult population, no study to date has investigated its use in a pediatric setting. In addition, most emergency departments feel that splint placement is safer than casting after acute forearm fracture reduction in the pediatric population. However, to our knowledge there is no such study that documents the complication rates associated with immediate casting. The goal of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of Bier block regional anesthesia and immediate cast application after closed reduction of pediatric forearm fractures. A retrospective review was conducted of patients treated for forearm fractures in a 2-year period at a major metropolitan pediatric hospital. Rates of complications and length and costs of the 2 procedures were analyzed. A total of 600 patients were treated with Bier block regional anesthesia and 645 were treated with conscious sedation for displaced fractures of the forearm in the 2-year study period. No complications requiring admission were seen in either group. No patient experienced compartment syndrome or a need for readmission secondary to cast application. 2.2% and 4.3% (P=0.0382) of patients in the Bier block and sedation groups, respectively, needed their cast bivalved secondary to swelling. The average time from initiation of procedural sedation to discharge was 1 hour and 42 minutes, whereas the time to discharge from initiation of Bier block regional anesthesia was 47 minutes (P<0.0001). The average cost for a patient treated with procedural sedation was $6313, whereas the average cost for the Bier block regional anesthesia group was $4956. Bier block regional anesthesia is a safe, efficient, and cost-effective method of reducing pediatric forearm fractures. Immediate cast application can be used without fear of major

  13. Correlating self-assembly of block copolymers for their application in synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ray, Debes; Aswall, Vinod Kumar; Srivastava, Dinesh

    2011-03-01

    We report the role of self-assembly of polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles from hydrogen tetrachloroaureate (III) hydrate (HAuCl4 x 3H2O) in aqueous solution. The synthesis has been carried out using three different block copolymers P85 [EO26PO39EO26], F88 [EO103PO39EO103] and P105 [EO37PO56EO37], which not only have varying molecular weight but also differ in hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity ratio. The formation of gold nanoparticles is confirmed by the UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides the sizes of the nanoparticles formed in these systems. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) techniques are used to correlate the self-assembly of block copolymer to their propensity to form gold nanoparticles. The yield is found to be in the order P105 > P85 > F88 and is related to the higher tendency of block copolymer to self-assemble to give greater yield of gold nanoparticles. For all the block copolymers, SANS and DLS results suggests that the yield in the synthesis does not always increases with the salt concentration and is limited due to the fact that most of the block copolymers remain unassociated with the gold nanoparticles. By making use of these unassociated block copolymers, we propose two methods (i) step addition method and (ii) additional reductant method, where the synthesis yield of gold nanoparticles can be enhanced by manifold.

  14. Block-Dependent Sedation during Epidural Anaesthesia is Associated with Delayed Brainstem Conduction

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Anupama; Shah, Yunus M.; Lin, Chum-Ming; Haugh, Gilbert S.; Sessler, Daniel I.

    2005-01-01

    Neuraxial anaesthesia produces a sedative and anesthetic-sparing effect. Recent evidence suggests that spinal cord anaesthesia modifies reticulo-thalamo-cortical arousal by decreasing afferent sensory transmission. We hypothesized that epidural anaesthesia produces sensory deafferentation-dependent sedation that is associated with impairment of brainstem transmission. We used brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) to evaluate reticular function in 11 volunteers. Epidural anaesthesia was induced with 2% 2-chloroprocaine. Hemodynamic and respiratory responses, sensory block level, sedation depth and BAEP were assessed throughout induction and resolution of epidural anaesthesia. Sedation was evaluated using verbal rating score (VRS), observer's assessment alertness/sedation (OAA/S) score, and bispectral index (BIS). Prediction probability (PK) was used to associate sensory block with sedation, as well as BIS with other sedation measures. Spearman rank order correlation was used to associate block level and sedation with the absolute and interpeak BAEP latencies. Sensory block level significantly predicted VRS (PK = 0.747), OAA/S score (PK = 0.748) and BIS. Bispectral index predicted VRS and OAA/S score (PK = 0.728). The latency of wave III of BAEP significantly correlated with sedation level (rho = 0.335, P < 0.01) and sensory block (rho = 0.394, P < 0.01). The other BAEP parameters did not change during epidural anaesthesia. Hemodynamic and respiratory responses remained stable throughout the study. Sedation during epidural anaesthesia depends on sensory block level and is associated with detectable block-dependent alterations in the brainstem auditory evoked responses. Sensory deafferentation may reduce CNS alertness through mechanisms related to brainstem neural activity. PMID:15220178

  15. Palladium(III) in Synthesis and Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Powers, David C.; Ritter, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    While the organometallic chemistry of Pd in its (0), (+II), and (+IV) oxidation states is well-established, organometallic Pd(III) chemistry remains widely unexplored. Few characterized Pd(III) complexes are known, which has inhibited detailed study of the organometallic chemistry of Pd(III). In this review, the potential roles of both mono- and dinuclear Pd(III) complexes in organometallic chemistry will be discussed. While not widely recognized, Pd in the (+III) oxidation state may play a significant role in a variety of known Pd-catalyzed reactions. PMID:21461129

  16. On the Temperature Dependence of the Formation Constant of Thiocyanatopentaaquochromium (III) in Acidic Solution.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    constants for metal ion complexes Bflandamer’s method Chromium (III) complexes Heat capacity of activation Equilibrium and kinetics of reactions in solution...20 ABSTRACT (Continue on reveree aide if neceetary and Identify by block number) The equilibrium constants for the ionization of carboxylic acids in...water pass through a maximum as temperature changes. If the equilibrium constant repre- sents a one-step process, then the attendant thermodynamic

  17. Optical properties of the Eu(III)-La(III)-complex-doped polyolefine film and rod samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogreb, Roman; Popov, Oleg; Lirtsman, Vlad; Pyshkin, Oleg; Kazachkov, Alexander; Musin, Albina; Finkelshtein, Binyamin; Shmukler, Yuri; Davidov, Dan; Bormashenko, Edward

    2005-04-01

    The work is devoted to luminescent properties of trivalent lanthanide complexes dispersed in thermoplastic host matrices. Polyethylene-based film and polypropylene-based rod both doped with these complexes were manufactured using an extrusion technique. Two kinds of dopants were used: Eu(III)-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-1,10-phenanthroline complex (Eu(III)) and Eu(III)-La(III)-1,10-phenanthroline complex (Eu(III)-La(III)). Comparison was made between these samples regarding absorption, excitation, emission and a lifetime of luminescence. Dependence of emission intensity on the excitation energy was determined. Emission spectra of the films were studied at room and helium temperatures. Optical properties of Eu(III) samples are different from Eu(III)-La(III) samples. Significant difference in spectra of these two types of samples may be attributed to the La(III) action.

  18. Development of demographic norms for four new WAIS-III/WMS-III indexes.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Taylor, Michael J; Woodward, Todd S; Heaton, Robert K

    2006-06-01

    Following the publication of the third edition Wechsler scales (i.e., WAIS-III and WMS-III), demographically corrected norms were made available in the form of a computerized scoring program (i.e., WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant). These norms correct for age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Since then, four new indexes have been developed: the WAIS-III General Ability Index, the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index, and the two alternate Immediate and Delayed Memory Indexes. The purpose of this study was to develop demographically corrected norms for the four new indexes using the standardization sample and education oversample from the WAIS-III and WMS-III. These norms were developed using the same methodology as the demographically corrected norms made available in the WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant.

  19. The Nimbus III Michelson Interferometer.

    PubMed

    Hanel, R A; Schlachman, B; Clark, F D; Prokesh, C H; Taylor, J B; Wilson, W M; Chaney, L

    1970-08-01

    The Michelson interferometer flown on Nimbus III in April 1969 has obtained infrared emission spectra of the earth and its atmosphere within 400 cm(-1) and 2000 cm(-1) (5 micro and 25 micro). Spectra of good quality have been recorded with a spectral resolution corresponding to 5 cm(-1). This paper discusses the design of the instrument including the optical layout, the phase locked loop operation of the Michelson motor, and the functioning of the reference interferometer. The methods of data reduction and in-flight calibration are demonstrated on sample spectra recorded while in orbit around the earth.

  20. Division Iii: Planetary Systems Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meech, Karen; Valsecchi, Giovanni; Bowell, Edward L.; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Boss, Alan; Cellino, Alberto; Consolmagno, Guy; Fernandez, Julio; Irvine, William; Lazzaro, Daniela; Michel, Patrick; Noll, Keith; Schulz, Rita; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Zhu, Jin

    2012-04-01

    Division III, with 1126 members, is the third largest of the 12 IAU Divisions, focusing on subject matter related to the physical study of interplanetary dust, comets, minor planets, satellites, planets, planetary systems and astrobiology. Within the Division are very active working groups that are responsible for planetary system and small body nomenclature, as well as a newly created working group on Near Earth Objects which was established order to investigate the requirements for international ground-and/or space-based NEO surveys to characterize 90% of all NEOs with diameters >40m in order to establish a permanent international NEO Early Warning System.

  1. Recent results for Mark III

    SciTech Connect

    Brient, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper presents recent results from the Mark III detector at SPEAR, in the open charm sector. The first topic discussed is the reanalysis of the direct measurement of the D hadronic branching fractions, where a detailed study has been made of the Cabibbo suppressed and multi-..pi../sup 0/'s D decays backgrounds in the double tag sample. Next, the Dalitz plot analysis of the D decays to K..pi pi.. is presented, leading to the relative fractions of three-body versus pseudoscalarvector decays. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Efficacy of magnesium as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in 3-in-1 nerve block for arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament repair

    PubMed Central

    Muthiah, Thilaka; Arora, Mahesh K; Trikha, Anjan; Sunder, Rani A; Prasad, Ganga; Singh, Preet M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Three-in-one and femoral nerve blocks are proven modalities for postoperative analgesia following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of magnesium (Mg) as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in 3-in-1 block for ACL reconstruction. Methods: Sixty patients undergoing arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were randomly allocated to Group I (3-in-1 block with 30 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine preceded by 1.5 ml of intravenous [IV] saline), Group II (3-in-1 block with 30 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine preceded by 1.5 ml of solution containing 150 mg Mg IV) or Group III (3-in-1 block with 30 ml containing 0.25% bupivacaine and 150 mg of Mg as adjuvant preceded by 1.5 ml of IV saline). Post-operatively, patients received morphine when visual analogue scale (VAS) score was ≥4. Quantitative parameters were compared using one-way ANOVA and Kruskal–Wallis test and qualitative data were analysed using Chi-square test. Results: Demographics, haemodynamic parameters, intra-operative fentanyl requirement, post-operative VAS scores and total morphine requirement were comparable between groups. Time to first analgesic requirement was significantly prolonged in Group III (789 ± 436) min compared to Group I (466 ± 290 min) and Group II (519 ± 274 min), (P = 0.02 and 0.05). Significantly less number of patients in Group III (1/20) received morphine in the first 6 h post-operatively, compared to Group I (8/20) and Group II (6/20) (P = 0.008 and 0.03). No side effects were observed. Conclusion: Mg as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in 3-in-1 block for ACL reconstruction significantly prolongs the time to first analgesic requirement and reduces the number of patients requiring morphine in the immediate post-operative period. PMID:27512165

  3. Molecular origin of photovoltaic performance in donor-block-acceptor all-conjugated block copolymers

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Kendall A.; Lin, Yen -Hao; Mok, Jorge W.; ...

    2015-11-03

    All-conjugated block copolymers may be an effective route to self-assembled photovoltaic devices, but we lack basic information on the relationship between molecular characteristics and photovoltaic performance. Here, we synthesize a library of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) block poly((9,9-dialkylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(alkylthiophen-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2',2''-diyl) (PFTBT) donor-block-acceptor all-conjugated block copolymers and carry out a comprehensive study of processing conditions, crystallinity, domain sizes, and side-chain structure on photovoltaic device performance. We find that all block copolymers studied exhibit an out-of-plane crystal orientation after deposition, and on thermal annealing at high temperatures the crystal orientation flips to an in-plane orientation. By varying processing conditions on polymer photovoltaic devices, we show thatmore » the crystal orientation has only a modest effect (15-20%) on photovoltaic performance. The addition of side-chains to the PFTBT block is found to decrease photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies by at least an order of magnitude. Through grazing-incidence X-ray measurements we find that the addition of side-chains to the PFTBT acceptor block results in weak segregation and small (< 10 nm) block copolymer self-assembled donor and acceptor domains. This work is the most comprehensive to date on all-conjugated block copolymer systems and suggests that photovoltaic performance of block copolymers depends strongly on the miscibility of donor and acceptor blocks, which impacts donor and acceptor domain sizes and purity. Lastly, strategies for improving the device performance of block copolymer photovoltaics should seek to increase segregation between donor and acceptor polymer domains.« less

  4. An Organolanthanide Building Block Approach to Single-Molecule Magnets.

    PubMed

    Harriman, Katie L M; Murugesu, Muralee

    2016-06-21

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) are highly sought after for their potential application in high-density information storage, spintronics, and quantum computing. SMMs exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization of purely molecular origin, thus making them excellent candidates towards the aforementioned applications. In recent years, significant focus has been placed on the rare earth elements due to their large intrinsic magnetic anisotropy arising from the near degeneracy of the 4f orbitals. Traditionally, coordination chemistry has been utilized to fabricate lanthanide-based SMMs; however, heteroatomic donor atoms such as oxygen and nitrogen have limited orbital overlap with the shielded 4f orbitals. Thus, control over the anisotropic axis and induction of f-f interactions are limited, meaning that the performance of these systems can only extend so far. To this end, we have placed considerable attention on the development of novel SMMs whose donor atoms are conjugated hydrocarbons, thereby allowing us to perturb the crystal field of lanthanide ions through the use of an electronic π-cloud. This approach allows for fine tuning of the anisotropic axis of the molecule, allowing this method the potential to elicit SMMs capable of reaching much larger values for the two vital performance measurements of an SMM, the energy barrier to spin reversal (Ueff), and the blocking temperature of the magnetization (TB). In this Account, we describe our efforts to exploit the inherent anisotropy of the late 4f elements; namely, Dy(III) and Er(III), through the use of cyclooctatetraenyl (COT) metallocenes. With respect to the Er(III) derivatives, we have seen record breaking success, reaching blocking temperatures as high as 14 K with frozen solution magnetometry. These results represent the first example of such a high TB being observed for a system with only a single spin center, formally known as a single-ion magnet (SIM). Our continued interrelationship between theoretical

  5. 7. BLOCK HOUSE BASEMENT LOOKING THROUGH DOOR INTO CABLE TUNNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BLOCK HOUSE BASEMENT LOOKING THROUGH DOOR INTO CABLE TUNNEL RUNNING BETWEEN BLOCK HOUSE AND STATIC TEST TOWER. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Block House, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  6. Cell block one and southeast guard tower, looking from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block one and southeast guard tower, looking from the central guard tower, facing southeast (note view also includes cell block ten (left) and cell block nine (right)) - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, facing north (note cell block fifteen to the right and cell block fourteen in the distance_ - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Block of the delayed rectifier current (IK) by the 5-HT3 antagonists ondansetron and granisetron in feline ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    de Lorenzi, F G; Bridal, T R; Spinelli, W

    1994-10-01

    1. We investigated the effects of two 5-HT3 antagonists, ondansetron and granisetron, on the action potential duration (APD) and the delayed rectifier current (IK) of feline isolated ventricular myocytes. Whole-cell current and action potential recordings were performed at 37 degrees C with the patch clamp technique. 2. Ondansetron and granisetron blocked IK with a KD of 1.7 +/- 1.0 and 4.3 +/- 1.7 microM, respectively. At a higher concentration (30 microM), both drugs blocked the inward rectifier (IKl). 3. The block of IK was dependent on channel activation. Both drugs slowed the decay of IK tail currents and produced a crossover with the pre-drug current trace. These results are consistent with block and unblock from the open state of the channel. 4. Granisetron showed an intrinsic voltage-dependence as the block increased with depolarization. The equivalent voltage-dependency of block (delta) was 0.10 +/- 0.04, suggesting that granisetron blocks from the intracellular side at a binding site located 10% across the transmembrane electrical field. 5. Ondansetron (1 microM) and granisetron (3 microM) prolonged APD by about 30% at 0.5 Hz. The prolongation of APD by ondansetron was abolished at faster frequencies (3 Hz) showing reverse rate dependence. 6. In conclusion, the 5-HT3 antagonists, ondansetron and granisetron, are open state blockers of the ventricular delayed rectifier and show a clear class III action.

  9. A potential vorticity perspective on atmospheric blocking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croci Maspoli, M.; Schwierz, C.

    2003-04-01

    A persistent large-scale anomaly of the west to east flow in the midlatitudes with a weakening and meridional splitting of the jet can be specified as atmospheric blocking. Lifetimes last from several days up to weeks so that blocking can therefore significantly determine monthly circulation index values. The vertical range affected by this phenomenon covers the entire troposphere as mirrored in increased surface pressure as well as an elevated tropopause and is also felt in the lower-stratosphere. Here we seek to shed more light on the physical mechanisms related to blocking by adopting the PV (potential vorticity) perspective with a focus on tropopause-level dynamics. Processes such as Rossby-wave breaking and diabatic heating can modify the conservative behaviour of the PV and are therefore important features for the formation and maintenance of atmospheric blocking. This motivates the definition of a novel blocking index based upon the three-dimensional structure of the phenomenon. A vertically integrated measure (PV within the 500 - 150 hPa layer, VIPV) is calculated, underlining the quasi-barotropic nature of blocked atmospheric state. Benefits of the new index include: representation of the two-dimensional structure of the phenomenon, its lifecycle and geographical distribution. The investigation is conducted over the period 1979 to 2001 using ECMWF reanalysis data. Characteristics of the VIPV field are presented. The new VIPV index is compared to a standard blocking index (e.g. Tibaldi and Molteni (1989)) on a case study basis and also with respect to seasonal variability. Relations to climate modes/indices (NAO, AO) are also discussed.

  10. Enhancing needle visualization during parasagittal approach in paravertebral block for patients undergoing simple mastectomy using in-plane, multiangle ultrasound needle guidance system.

    PubMed

    Mansour, M A; Sonbaty, M E

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided paravertebral blocks during breast surgeries with in-plane needle approaches can be challenging due to difficult needle visualization. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of using a needle guide while performing in-plane parasagittal approach paravertebral block for breast surgery. Eighty patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-III, aged 20-40 years with breast mass scheduled for simple mastectomy surgery, were involved in prospective, controlled, randomized study, and were randomly divided by closed envelope method into two groups: Group I (n = 40): Scheduled for ultrasound-guided paravertebral block or group II (n = 40): Scheduled for ultrasound-guided paravertebral block using the needle guide. Both techniques compared as regards: (i) Needle visibility and block performance time; (ii) number of needle passes; (iii) duration of the block; (iv) doctor and patient satisfaction; and (v) incidence of complications. Needle visibility score was better in group II (2.92 ± 0.26 vs. 1.9 ± 0.44, P < 0.0001). Block performance time was shorter in group II (90.92 ± 15 vs. 128.25 ± 16s, P < 0.0001). A number of needle passes were less in group II (1.27 ± 0.45 vs. 2.2 ± 0.68, P < 0.0001). Doctor and patient satisfaction were better in group II (P = 0.015). No differences were found regarding the duration of the block and incidence of complications between groups. A needle guide can help reduce the time needed to perform a parasagittal in-plane thoracic paravertebral block, with a significant reduction in the block performance time, the number of needle passes, better needle visibility and better doctor and patient's satisfaction. However, there was no significant difference regarding the duration of the block or incidence of complications.

  11. Ultrasound-guided genitofemoral nerve block for inguinal hernia repair in the male adult: a randomized-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Frassanito, Luciano; Zanfini, Bruno A; Pitoni, Sara; Germini, Paolo; Del Vicario, Miryam; Draisci, Gaetano

    2017-07-05

    Ultrasound-guided (USG) ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve (II/IHN) block is a widely validated anesthetic technique for inguinal herniorrhaphy. As the spermatic cord, scrotum, and adjacent thigh receive sensory innervation from the genital branch of genitofemoral nerve (GFN), the addition of GFN block has been suggested to improve the quality of perioperative anesthesia and analgesia. The aim of this study is to compare GFN block plus II/IHN block with II/IHN block alone for intraoperative anesthesia and post-operative pain management. We enrolled 80, ASA I-III, male adults scheduled for elective open herniorrhaphy. Patients were randomized to receive either USG II/IHN plus GFN block (Case Group) or USG II/IHN block alone (Control Group). The outcome measures were the assessment of postoperative VAS scores on coughing and the adequacy of anesthesia, measured with intraoperative requirement for extra local anesthetic (LA) infiltration and number of patients needing systemic sedation. The requirement of intraoperative additional doses of LA was significantly lower in the Case Group (median LA volume administered by the surgeon: 13.8 ± 5.6 ml vs 20.7 ± 9.1 ml, p<0.05). Two patients in the Control Group needed systemic sedation. VAS scores at 15mins, 30 mins, 1h, 2h, pre-discharge, 24h were significantly lower in the Case Group (p<0.005). Four cases of femoral nerve block were reported, 3 in the Control Group, 1 in the Case Group (2.2% vs 7.7%, p>0.05). The combination of GFN block and II/IHN block is associated with lower postoperative VAS scores and lower doses of intraoperative additional LA.

  12. Cyanido-Bridged {Ln(III)W(V)} Heterobinuclear Complexes: Synthesis and Magneto-Structural Study.

    PubMed

    Alexandru, Maria-Gabriela; Visinescu, Diana; Shova, Sergiu; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2017-09-27

    A new series of cyanido-bridged {Ln(III)W(V)} heterobinuclear complexes of formula [Ln(III)(pyim)2(i-PrOH)(H2O)2(μ-CN)W(V)(CN)7]·2H2O [Ln = Gd (1), Tb (2), Dy (3), Ho (4), and Er (5); pyim = 2-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)-pyridine) and i-PrOH = isopropyl alcohol] were synthesized by one-pot reaction between (NH3Bu)3[W(CN)8] and [Ln(pyim)2](2+) complexes (generated in situ by mixing the corresponding Ln(III) ions and the pyim ligand). Compounds 1-5 are isomorphous and crystallize in the monoclinic system P21/n space group. Their crystal structure consists of binuclear units in which the octacyanotungstate(V) anion coordinates to the corresponding Ln(III) ion through a single cyanide ligand. The tungsten(V) and lanthanide(III) ions are eight-coordinated, in distorted square antiprism (W(V)) and distorted trigonal dodecahedron (Ln(III)) geometries, respectively. The direct-current (dc) magnetic properties for 1-5 reveal the occurrence of weak antiferromagnetic interactions between W(V) and Ln(III) cation, with (8)S7/2, (7)F6, (6)H15/2, (5)I8, and (4)I15/2 as ground terms for Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) Ho(III), and Er(III), respectively [JWLn = -1.19(1) (1), -1.02(2) (2), -1.10(2) (3), -1.30(2) (4), and -1.50(3) cm(-1) (5), the spin Hamiltonian being defined as H = -JWLn SW·SLn]. The fit of the χMT data of 2-4 points out a positive value for the energy gap between the ML components (Δ). This feature is corroborated by their Q-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra at low temperature, which clearly show MJ = 0 (2 and 4) and ±1/2 (3 and 5). Incipient frequency-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility signals are observed for 3 and 5 under applied dc fields supporting the presence of slow magnetic relaxation behavior, the blocking temperatures being below 2.0 K. This new series of {Ln(III)W(V)} heterobinuclear compounds provides more insights into the exchange magnetic interaction between 5d and 4f centers via the cyanide-bridge, for which scarce information

  13. Level III Ecoregions of Indiana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  14. Level III Ecoregions of Ohio

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  15. Level III Ecoregions of Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  16. Level III Ecoregions of Kentucky

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  17. Level III Ecoregions of Florida

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  18. Level III Ecoregions of Alabama

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  19. Level III Ecoregions of Tennessee

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  20. Level III Ecoregions of Arkansas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco