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Sample records for iii latin american

  1. The Latin American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joseph, Ed.; Weatherhead, Richard W., Ed.

    A comparative overview is presented of the Latin American university, which is seen as an institution with a particular history and definite role. Chapters are as follows: "The Latin American University: An Introduction," by Joseph Maier and Richard W. Weatherhead; "Origin and Philosophy of the Spanish American University," by Mario Gongora;…

  2. Latin American Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsunce, Cesar A. Garcia

    1983-01-01

    Examination of the situation of archives in four Latin American countries--Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Costa Rica--highlights national systems, buildings, staff, processing of documents, accessibility and services to the public and publications and extension services. (EJS)

  3. Latin American privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Hennagir, T.; Hernandez, L.A. Jr. )

    1994-01-01

    Fundamental change is reshaping the Latin America power sector as governments explore new and improved privatization schemes. Latin American power markets are second in size only to those found in Asia. As the region grows and capacity needs increase, governments are turning to private power as a way to meet new demands for electric energy. Following the privatization model initiated by Chile, an increasing number of Latin American countries are following suit with an array of private power schemes for their state-owned utilities. The move means great opportunities for developers willing to enter this growing market. The recently established Scudder Latin American Trust for Independent Power is a prime example of new equity players becoming involved in this region. In Chile, the privatization process started more than 12 years ago. Currently, the power sector has been fully restructured to concentrate price and quality regulation on transmission and distribution, leaving generation and sales to a marketplace largely in the hands of the private sector. Furthermore, the Chilean government controls only about 15 percent of the installed generation in the country, so there is free-flow in this segment of the industry or a free market modality.

  4. Latin American demand

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    From Mexico to Argentina, independent power companies are finding great demand for their services in Latin America. But while legal and economic conditions are increasingly favorable, political and financial uncertainties make power development challenging.

  5. Latin American Studies. ERIC Digest No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kay K.

    This ERIC Digest considers the present state of teaching about Latin America in elementary and secondary schools in the United States, the need and rationale for Latin American studies, effective approaches to teaching Latin American studies, and resources to supplement textbooks that treat Latin America inadequately. Following an introductory…

  6. Latin American Research Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Martin H.

    Over 2,000 research resources, most of which were published during the 1960's and 1970's, are listed in this annotated bibliography for students, teachers, librarians, researchers, and others interested in interdisciplinary resources on Latin America. Although there is a section listing materials for teaching children and young adults, the bulk of…

  7. Women in Latin American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  8. Improvisation in Latin American Musics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behague, Gerard

    1980-01-01

    Improvisation implies a relative freedom to choose elements within stylistic norms of rules proper to a given culture. Improvisatory processes for music from several cultures are described. These cultures are: Indian, Spanish, African, and Afro-Cuban (rumba). A few resources focusing on improvisation in Latin American music are presented. (KC)

  9. Latin American Folk Art Prints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  10. LATIN--Latin American Regional News Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, John Spicer

    The establishment of a regional news agency for Latin America to improve the balance of news flow and increase the transmission of news more applicable to regional problems has often been proposed. Despite wide acceptance of the concept, the birth of the Third World's first regional news agency, Agencia Latinoamericana de Informacion (LATIN), has…

  11. Latin American guidelines on hypertension. Latin American Expert Group.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ramiro A; Ayala, Miryam; Baglivo, Hugo; Velazquez, Carlos; Burlando, Guillermo; Kohlmann, Oswaldo; Jimenez, Jorge; Jaramillo, Patricio López; Brandao, Ayrton; Valdes, Gloria; Alcocer, Luis; Bendersky, Mario; Ramirez, Agustín José; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the world and particularly overwhelming in low and middle-income countries. Recent reports from the WHO and the World Bank highlight the importance of chronic diseases such as hypertension as an obstacle to the achievement of good health status. It must be added that for most low and middle-income countries, deficient strategies of primary healthcare are the major obstacles for blood pressure control. Furthermore, the epidemiology of hypertension and related diseases, healthcare resources and priorities, the socioeconomic status of the population vary considerably in different countries and in different regions of individual countries. Considering the low rates of blood pressure control achieved in Latin America and the benefits that can be expected from an improved control, it was decided to invite specialists from different Latin American countries to analyze the regional situation and to provide a consensus document on detection, evaluation and treatment of hypertension that may prove to be cost-utility adequate. The recommendations here included are the result of preparatory documents by invited experts and a subsequent very active debate by different discussion panels, held during a 2-day sessions in Asuncion, Paraguay, in May 2008. Finally, in order to improve clinical practice, the publication of the guidelines should be followed by implementation of effective interventions capable of overcoming barriers (cognitive, behavioral and affective) preventing attitude changes in both physicians and patients.

  12. Crossroads: Identity struggles in Latin America and Latin American psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Renato D; Pérez-Rincón, Héctor

    2010-01-01

    Identity can be defined from different perspectives such as those from philosophy, social sciences and phenomenology. The latter entails sameness, uniqueness, distinctiveness, continuity, diversity, universality and equality connotations to define characteristics of the existence and action of individuals, institutions, entities, organizations and collectivities. In order to elaborate on the identity of Latin American Psychiatry, this chapter deals first with the identity of the Latin American continent, the result of a 'collision of cultures' with mestizaje as its most prominent collective contribution. In turn, the Latin American population (and its 'Hispanic' equivalent in other countries and regions of the world) has been the subject of a pluralistic search, and played a combined role of hope and conflict, advances and setbacks in a fascinating historical process. In such context, Latin American psychiatry offers a mixed identity, resulting from a succession of mythic-religious, moral, phenomenologico-existential, biological and social/community-based routes. Each of them are assessed, and the contributions of two eponymous figures, Honorio Delgado and Gregorio Bermann, are duly delineated. Current realities in Latin American psychiatry and mental health in socio-political, conceptual, professional, ideological, academic and heuristic areas, are examined. The chapter ends with considerations of the future of psychiatry in the continent, the postulation of a 'new synthesis' embracing the essence of contemporary neurobiological knowledge and a new, revitalized humanism in the context of a healthy eclecticism, progressive educational training and didactic programmes, and concrete contributions embodying the promise of well justified expectations. PMID:20874062

  13. From Latin Americans to Latinos: Latin American Immigration in US: The Unwanted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraña, Ana

    2007-01-01

    It is my understanding that Latin American immigrants in the United States, during the contested process of becoming Latinos (US citizens or the offspring of Latin Americans born in US) are for the most part socially portrayed as unwanted, messy children who need to be educated before they can become American citizens. Whether they can be called…

  14. Latin American Conference on Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agan, Ray

    1971-01-01

    Presents the subject matter of a UNESCO sponsored conference in Pamplona, Colombia, April 26- May 23, 1970 of school directors and Ministry officials in Agricultural Education from 12 Latin American Countries. (GB)

  15. HICC 1990 Latin American energy forum

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, F.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the Forum were to bring together senior industry leaders and energy government officials of Latin America and the United States to explore new business opportunities and enhance trade relations between energy forum participants. The Forum focused on the economic and energy outlook of the countries, legislative and/or administrative changes which have an impact on foreign company relations, including concession policies and other joint venture arrangements. Additionally, the Latin American Energy Forum was designed to present the energy needs of the national oil companies of Latin America for United States oil equipment, service and technology as well as to project long-term expansion of development plans providing new and attractive investor opportunities for US businesses. The goal of the first Latin American Energy Forum was to provide a comfortable, friendly business environment in which each country or state-owned oil firm could project and overview of the country's energy outlook and/or most important energy matters at present, providing each speaker the viable option to customize his or her presentation to best suit the immediate needs of the featured Latin American country. By allowing a broad-base of optional subjects to be presented in an informal structure, the Houston Interamerican Chamber of Commerce (HICC) felt this approach for the first Energy Forum in Houston would open doors for a return visit by the Latin American delegation for future energy conferences organized.

  16. Latin American Battery Forecast Report

    SciTech Connect

    Malacon, S.

    1995-12-31

    A forecast of battery production in Latin America is described. The economic influence and political difficulties which have influenced the market are discussed. Data is presented for original equipment shipments and replacement batteries.

  17. Mexican Celebrations. Latin American Culture Studies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Lubeck, Maria; Salinas, Ana Maria

    Developed for elementary school children, this unit is designed to teach about Mexican American culture through the study of holidays celebrated throughout much of Latin America and the southwestern United States. The unit describes and provides background information about nine Mexican American holidays. Among the activities included are the…

  18. "The South American Way": Hollywood Looks at Latins and at Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Latin elements or themes made for the North American market have been used in American films, but at the same time these films have been playing in a Latin American market, making it useful to examine how Latin America has been portrayed in these films. The taste for exotic locales and themes is an element that has been present since the…

  19. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet).

    PubMed

    García, O; Di Giorgio, M; Radl, A; Taja, M R; Sapienza, C E; Deminge, M M; Fernández Rearte, J; Stuck Oliveira, M; Valdivia, P; Lamadrid, A I; González, J E; Romero, I; Mandina, T; Guerrero-Carbajal, C; ArceoMaldonado, C; Cortina Ramírez, G E; Espinoza, M; Martínez-López, W; Di Tomasso, M

    2016-09-01

    Biological Dosimetry is a necessary support for national radiation protection programmes and emergency response schemes. The Latin American Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNet) was formally founded in 2007 to provide early biological dosimetry assistance in case of radiation emergencies in the Latin American Region. Here are presented the main topics considered in the foundational document of the network, which comprise: mission, partners, concept of operation, including the mechanism to request support for biological dosimetry assistance in the region, and the network capabilities. The process for network activation and the role of the coordinating laboratory during biological dosimetry emergency response is also presented. This information is preceded by historical remarks on biological dosimetry cooperation in Latin America. A summary of the main experimental and practical results already obtained by the LBDNet is also included.

  20. Latin American Immigrant Women and Intergenerational Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcalde, Maria Cristina; Quelopana, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    People of Latin American descent make up the largest and fastest-growing minority group in the USA. Rates of pregnancy, childbirth, and sexually transmitted infections among people of Latin American descent are higher than among other ethnic groups. This paper builds on research that suggests that among families of Latin American descent, mothers…

  1. Imagining Globalization through Latin American Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seminet, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Through a combination of practical applications and theoretical underpinnings, this article explores the question of how to approach the teaching of Latin American Literature in the current period of globalization. Many theorists argue that we need new epistemologies in which to ground our pedagogy for the 21st century. Understanding the effects…

  2. Library Guide: Latin American Literature, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sumar, Juanita Jara, Comp.

    Intended for use by those conducting research in Latin American literature written in Spanish, this guide contains annotations for a wide range of selected works. The guide is divided into the seven sections: (1) General Encyclopedias (1 annotation); (2) Guides to the Literature (4 annotations); (3) Literary Encyclopedias, Dictionaries and…

  3. Latin American traditions and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Celina

    1983-09-01

    Educational and related non-pedagogical issues are generally described and discussed. Implicitly or explicitly, the theology of liberation, educación popular and traditional education tend to perpetuate male/female roles and very often incite violence. Peace education in Latin America should concentrate more on the pathology of the violent man. The so-called `weaknesses' associated with women and their `powerlessness' in Western civilization are precisely those which are absolutely essential to our survival. It is important for women to reject Western patterns of violence and participate actively in finding a viable alternative.

  4. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, L. E.; Casas, J. P.; Herrera, V. M.; Miranda, J. J.; Perel, P.; Pichardo, R.; González, A.; Sanchez, J. R.; Ferreccio, C.; Aguilera, X.; Silva, E.; Oróstegui, M.; Gómez, L. F.; Chirinos, J. A.; Medina-Lezama, J.; Pérez, C. M.; Suárez, E.; Ortiz, A. P.; Rosero, L.; Schapochnik, N.; Ortiz, Z.; Ferrante, D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Current, high-quality data are needed to evaluate the health impact of the epidemic of obesity in Latin America. The Latin American Consortium of Studies of Obesity (LASO) has been established, with the objectives of (i) Accurately estimating the prevalence of obesity and its distribution by sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) Identifying ethnic, socioeconomic and behavioural determinants of obesity; (iii) Estimating the association between various anthropometric indicators or obesity and major cardiovascular risk factors and (iv) Quantifying the validity of standard definitions of the various indexes of obesity in Latin American population. To achieve these objectives, LASO makes use of individual data from existing studies. To date, the LASO consortium includes data from 11 studies from eight countries (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Peru, Puerto Rico and Venezuela), including a total of 32 462 subjects. This article describes the overall organization of LASO, the individual studies involved and the overall strategy for data analysis. LASO will foster the development of collaborative obesity research among Latin American investigators. More important, results from LASO will be instrumental to inform health policies aiming to curtail the epidemic of obesity in the region. PMID:19438980

  5. Latin American petroleum sector at crossroads

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that Latin America's petroleum industry stands at a precarious crossroads of change. Fundamental changes of democratization, privatization, and economic reform that have marked South America's petroleum sectors since the late 1980s are seeping into other Latin American regions. An unprecedented return of capital that had fled the region in the 1980s - Latin America's lost decade - is under way in full force. That demonstrates the improved credibility of the region's economic reform programs, reports the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Even as those reform efforts marked progress in South America in 1991, however, that progress has been threatened in 1992 by political scandal, government crisis, and environmental controversy. Just as the fitful transition to capitalism in the former U.S.S.R. has threatened to collapse the former Soviet republics into chaos because of its economic fallout, so has economic reform in such nations as Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela stumbled. On the other hand, privatization continues apace in Argentina and Mexico. Those Latin American nations and others caught in the rising tide of privatization pulled by an increasingly market oriented global economy continue to avow their commitment to economic reform.

  6. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L.

    1998-12-31

    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  7. The Bologna Process from a Latin American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Jose Joaquin

    2009-01-01

    Although Latin America's geography, history, and languages might seem a suitable foundation for a Bologna-type process, the development of a common Latin American higher education and research area meets predictable difficulties.The reasons are to be found in the continent's historic and modern institutional patterns. Latin American governments…

  8. Inefficiency in Latin-American market indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, L.; Tabak, B. M.; Pérez, D. G.; Garavaglia, M.; Rosso, O. A.

    2007-11-01

    We explore the deviations from efficiency in the returns and volatility returns of Latin-American market indices. Two different approaches are considered. The dynamics of the Hurst exponent is obtained via a wavelet rolling sample approach, quantifying the degree of long memory exhibited by the stock market indices under analysis. On the other hand, the Tsallis q entropic index is measured in order to take into account the deviations from the Gaussian hypothesis. Different dynamic rankings of inefficieny are obtained, each of them contemplates a different source of inefficiency. Comparing with the results obtained for a developed country (US), we confirm a similar degree of long-range dependence for our emerging markets. Moreover, we show that the inefficiency in the Latin-American countries comes principally from the non-Gaussian form of the probability distributions.

  9. Ignoring taboos: Maria Lenk, Latin American inspirationalist.

    PubMed

    Votre, S; Mourão, L

    2001-01-01

    Maria Lenk is widely recognized as an exceptional athlete who participated in women's sport from around 1930 until 1950. In 1932, at the age of seventeen, she was the first woman to be included in a Latin American delegation to the Olympic Games. As a swimmer, she still sets world records at the age of eighty-six. This super-champion's sporting achievements and her persistent dedication to the advancement of sport still impress and surprise todays professional swimmers and researchers. Contextualised in the male-dominated society of Brazil during the first half of the twentieth century, this chapter traces the achievement, and rise to international fame, of Maria Lenk. It examines the factors that enabled her to emerge not only as an important figure in sport but also as an icon of female emancipation in Brazilian and Latin American society. The focus is on Lenk's influence on the issues which affected the development of women's sport in Latin America. It also highlights the significance of Lenk's contribution to the changing place of women in Brazilian and South American society.

  10. Ignoring taboos: Maria Lenk, Latin American inspirationalist.

    PubMed

    Votre, S; Mourão, L

    2001-01-01

    Maria Lenk is widely recognized as an exceptional athlete who participated in women's sport from around 1930 until 1950. In 1932, at the age of seventeen, she was the first woman to be included in a Latin American delegation to the Olympic Games. As a swimmer, she still sets world records at the age of eighty-six. This super-champion's sporting achievements and her persistent dedication to the advancement of sport still impress and surprise todays professional swimmers and researchers. Contextualised in the male-dominated society of Brazil during the first half of the twentieth century, this chapter traces the achievement, and rise to international fame, of Maria Lenk. It examines the factors that enabled her to emerge not only as an important figure in sport but also as an icon of female emancipation in Brazilian and Latin American society. The focus is on Lenk's influence on the issues which affected the development of women's sport in Latin America. It also highlights the significance of Lenk's contribution to the changing place of women in Brazilian and South American society. PMID:18604909

  11. The Latin American Social Medicine database

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan D; Waitzkin, Howard; Buchanan, Holly S; Teal, Janis; Iriart, Celia; Wiley, Kevin; Tregear, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Background Public health practitioners and researchers for many years have been attempting to understand more clearly the links between social conditions and the health of populations. Until recently, most public health professionals in English-speaking countries were unaware that their colleagues in Latin America had developed an entire field of inquiry and practice devoted to making these links more clearly understood. The Latin American Social Medicine (LASM) database finally bridges this previous gap. Description This public health informatics case study describes the key features of a unique information resource intended to improve access to LASM literature and to augment understanding about the social determinants of health. This case study includes both quantitative and qualitative evaluation data. Currently the LASM database at The University of New Mexico brings important information, originally known mostly within professional networks located in Latin American countries to public health professionals worldwide via the Internet. The LASM database uses Spanish, Portuguese, and English language trilingual, structured abstracts to summarize classic and contemporary works. Conclusion This database provides helpful information for public health professionals on the social determinants of health and expands access to LASM. PMID:15627401

  12. The historical setting of Latin American bioethics.

    PubMed

    Gracia, D

    1996-12-01

    The historical stages through which Latin American society has passed are at least four: the first, dominated by a particular sort of ethic I have termed the "ethic of the gift;" then the period of conquest, in which the prevalent ethic was one of war and subjection by force, which I call the "ethic of despotism;" followed by the colonial age, in which a new ethical model of "paternalism" emerged; and finally the stage of the "ethic of autonomy," which began with the independence movements of the 18th and 19th centuries and is far from ended. Independence was won by the criollos from European domination with very little participation by the Indian population. The latter was left out of the democratic process and saw itself relegated to a worse situation than in the centuries of colonial rule, for it was no longer protected by the paternalism of the Laws of the Indies of 1542. This is the reason for the division of the Latin American society of the last century into two quite different social strata: one bourgeois, which has assimilated the liberal revolution, and enjoys a health care quite similar to that available in any other Western country and hence faces the same bioethical problems as any developed Western society; the other a very poor stratum, without any economic or social power and hence unable to exercise its civil rights, such as the rights to life and to humane treatment. In this population sector; which is numerically the larger, the major bioethical problems are those of justice and the distribution of scarce resources. The study of Latin American medical ethics can earn for these subjects, whose deplorable condition has been essentially ignored in the bioethics of the first-world countries, the importance they merit.

  13. [Latin American science museums and equity].

    PubMed

    Tagüeña, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean form a region of great variations yet marked by cultural resemblances. The origins of the region's countries, of their wealth, and also of their problems are quite similar. Indeed, there are clear points of contact in the most basic aspects, such as each society's worldview. Throughout the region there is a very strong democratizing trend that seeks more just and more educated societies. Science plays a key role in the development as a powerful weapon for tolerance and equity and therefore should be disseminated among the greatest possible number of Latin Americans. Red POP the network for the Popularization of Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean - was created to help reach this goal. Under the auspices of ORCYT-UNESCO, Red POP is an interactive network of centers and programs that work to bring science and technology to the public at large. It fosters exchange, skill-acquisition, and resource use among its members. Based on the network's experience, we explore to what extent science museums favor equity in their home societies.

  14. Latin American Art and Music: A Handbook for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Judith Page, Ed.

    This collection of essays, curriculum units, and study guides on Latin American art and musical traditions is designed to help interested teachers take a comprehensive approach to teaching these subjects. The introduction features the essay, "Media Resources Available on Latin American Culture: A Survey of Art, Architecture, and Music Articles…

  15. Latin American Culture Studies: Information and Materials for Teaching About Latin America. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glab, Edward, Jr., Ed.

    This resource manual provides ideas, lesson plans, course outlines, arts and crafts projects, games, and other materials for teaching K-12 students about Latin America. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate the diverse Latin American culture. There are six chapters in this volume. Chapter one discusses key ideas that can…

  16. Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations.

    PubMed

    Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Sans, Mónica

    2014-03-01

    A general introduction to the origins and history of Latin American populations is followed by a systematic review of the data from molecular autosomal assessments of the ethnic/continental (European, African, Amerindian) ancestries for 24 Latin American countries or territories. The data surveyed are of varying quality but provide a general picture of the present constitution of these populations. A brief discussion about the applications of these results (admixture mapping) is also provided. Latin American populations can be viewed as natural experiments for the investigation of unique anthropological and epidemiological issues. PMID:24764751

  17. Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations

    PubMed Central

    Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Sans, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    A general introduction to the origins and history of Latin American populations is followed by a systematic review of the data from molecular autosomal assessments of the ethnic/continental (European, African, Amerindian) ancestries for 24 Latin American countries or territories. The data surveyed are of varying quality but provide a general picture of the present constitution of these populations. A brief discussion about the applications of these results (admixture mapping) is also provided. Latin American populations can be viewed as natural experiments for the investigation of unique anthropological and epidemiological issues. PMID:24764751

  18. Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin…

  19. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  20. U.S.-Latin American Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamman, William

    1992-01-01

    Reviews United States-Latin America diplomatic and trade relations from early days of the Republic to contemporary times. Contends that Monroe Doctrine was a way of eliminating European competition for economic and political control of Latin America. Argues that the end of the Cold War may bring a more equal relationship between the United States…

  1. Latin American USOMs Seminar on Agrarian Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This report of seminar proceedings discusses land reform policies and programs and their place in the economic development of Latin America. It analyzes experiences and current situations in Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere which shed light on the problems and possibilities of agrarian reform. An appraisal of existing physical,…

  2. Education and Globalisation: A Latin American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineau, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the historical relationship between education and globalisation in Latin America. This is no straightforward task. Hegel's vision of a continent without history and the rapacious expansion of Western culture from the sixteenth century profoundly transformed Latin America, and in turn stimulated a search for a distinctive "Latin…

  3. The face of Latin American comparative biochemistry and physiology.

    PubMed

    Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Navas, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    Latin America has experienced a vigorous growth in scientific production since the 1990s, rising from 1.7% of the world's share of science publications in 1990 to 3.2% in 2000. This appears to be a consequence of increasing investment in tertiary education, especially at the doctoral level. However, such growth is not homogeneous among the nations of Latin America, being affected by many issues, such as economical power and expenses in science and technology. Biology--including comparative biochemistry and physiology (CBP)--is one of the scientific areas of tremendous growth in the continent. Thus, in order to celebrate the increasing participation of Latin America in the field of CBP, the editorial board of Comp. Biochem. Physiol. decided to organize a special volume dedicated to Latin American authors (CBP-Latin America). From May to November 2005, 52 manuscripts were submitted to CBP-Latin America from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Uruguay and Venezuela. This opening issue contains the first two dozen manuscripts, highlighting the diversity of experimental approaches and the breadth and uniqueness of the biological systems available to researchers in Latin America. We hope that the CBP-Latin America project becomes a significant editorial initiative, one that will meet the goals of highlighting, integrating, and mapping CBP research in Latin America.

  4. An American Management Training Model in a Latin American Context: Some Implications for International Business Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisani, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates an American management training program within a Latin American context, exploring the efficacy of using exported, prepackaged training materials within a different cultural realm. The paper focuses on a case study from rural Nicaragua. Suggests that a different approach to management training in Latin America is justified based on…

  5. [Notes on childhood and theory: a Latin American approach].

    PubMed

    Bustelo Graffigna, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    This work seeks to introduce and examine different historically relevant theories and propose certain frameworks that allow for the development of a Latin American theoretical approach based in a new discourse regarding childhood and adolescence. In order to undertake the creation of this Latin American approach, understanding the category of childhood as a social and historical construction, the work draws upon the contributions of structuralism (in particular, childhood as a permanent category, its relational dimension with regards to adulthood and its historical and intercultural dimension) and Foucault and Deleuze's concept of the society of control associated with the category of domination, an essential aspect of Latin American thought. The text was presented as a speech in the V World Congress for the Rights of Children and Adolescents held in San Juan, Argentina, from October 15-19, 2012. PMID:23681461

  6. Civilization and Barbarism. A Guide to the Teaching of Latin American Literature. Latin American Curriculum Units for Junior and Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliphant, Dave

    This guide was developed as part of a project to encourage more, and more accurate, teaching about Latin America in U.S. community colleges. The specific purpose of the guide is to survey the range of 20th century Latin American literature in order to suggest various ways in which works from Latin American countries may be integrated into any…

  7. Instructional Technology Research in Latin American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Clifton B.

    Both the broad field of educational technology and research activities in the more limited area of instructional technology in Latin America are examined. Research studies, the current situation, and/or research needs are reviewed briefly for each of the following areas: distance education; microcomputers; educational radio; learning strategies…

  8. Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sijia; Ray, Nicolas; Rojas, Winston; Parra, Maria V.; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Hill, Kim; Hurtado, Ana M.; Camrena, Beatriz; Nicolini, Humberto; Klitz, William; Barrantes, Ramiro; Molina, Julio A.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M.; Petzl-Erler, Maria L.; Tsuneto, Luiza T.; Dipierri, José E.; Alfaro, Emma L.; Bailliet, Graciela; Bianchi, Nestor O.; Llop, Elena; Rothhammer, Francisco; Excoffier, Laurent; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2008-01-01

    The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement) from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry) among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. Our findings agree with available information on the demographic history of Latin America and have a number of implications for the design of association studies in population from the region. PMID:18369456

  9. Overview of Spanish and Latin American Distance Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis

    1991-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…

  10. 5th Latin American pesticide residue workshop (LAPRW 2015)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This invited editorial proceedings article introduces the 6 research papers published in the special topical collection for the 5th Latin American Pesticide Residue Workshop held in Santiago, Chile, May 10-13, 2015. The meeting was a great success with more than 50 talks, 140 posters, 21 vendors, a...

  11. Poetry, Healing, and the Latin American Battered Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Marja

    1999-01-01

    Explores how poetry can be used in support groups as an adjunctive treatment technique to empower and to raise consciousness of Latina battered women. Offers examples of Latin American women's literary works to demonstrate the connections poetry has to everyday lives, and how Latina spouse-abuse survivors can gain a deeper understanding of…

  12. Latin American Independence: Education and the Invention of New Polities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Latin American independence from Spain and Portugal in the first decades of the nineteenth century was a process of global relevance. A considerable number of new polities emerged that had to deal with radically new political situations. Particularly in the case of the former Spanish colonies, a general rejection of the colonial past determined…

  13. Cooperative Cataloging of Latin-American Books: The Unfulfilled Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Mark L.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of cooperative activities among libraries focuses on cataloging of Latin American materials among research libraries. Differences in motivation for cooperation in acquisitions and in cataloging are discussed; and a study is described that examined which libraries were providing online cataloging, and differences between OCLC and RLIN…

  14. Pedagogy of a Latin-American Festival: A Mojado Ethnography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murillo, Enrique G., Jr.

    This paper describes and reflects on the pedagogical meaning of a festival held to showcase and celebrate Latin American culture in a North Carolina town undergoing a cultural transition as its Latino population grows. Following a successful event the previous year, a 2-day festival was organized to include a soccer tournament, booths selling…

  15. [Chronic infections in Latin American immigrants in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Jackson, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Recently arrived immigrants from Latin American countries represent a growing population in Switzerland. This article reviews the evidences on the most frequent chronic infections affecting this population group in Switzerland and presents screening recommendations adapted to primary care practice. Efforts should particularly focus on screening for Trypanosoma cruzi and Strongyloides stercoralis, especially in groups at higher risk of complication or transmission. PMID:27323479

  16. Literary Analysis of Three Latin American Short Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vantrease, Maureen

    This unit was developed to give students in grades 7-12 a fuller understanding of the Latin American world, which is a growing part of the multicultural atmosphere in the United States. The unit is used currently in the seventh grade gifted Language Arts program at B. T. Washington Junior High School (Florida). The unit includes; (1) basic…

  17. Cultural Values in Latin and North American Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manaster, Guy J.; Ahumada, Isa

    1971-01-01

    Study was conducted among adolescents in Puerto Rico, and replicated earlier studies in Buenos Aires and Chicago. Implications were drawn from frequencies in San Juan and compared with the Latin passive" pattern in Buenos Aires and the North American active" pattern in Chicago. (DM)

  18. Latin American and Caribbean regional conference on population and development. Latin American and Caribbean Consensus on Population and Development.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean Population and Development Conference was held in Mexico City from April 29 to May 4, 1993, during which discussions were held on population growth, structure, and distribution in the region; socioeconomic trends and implications; population dynamics and development in the Caribbean subregion; population policies and programs; population growth and distribution and their relation to development and the environment; women and population dynamics; and family planning, health, and family well-being. The conference adopted the Latin American and Caribbean Consensus on Population and Development which is presented in sections on the situation of population and development in Latin America and the Caribbean in the early 1990s, and recommendations on population growth and structure, population distribution, development, the environment, women and population dynamics, population policies and programs, health, family planning and well-being, international migration and development, training, data production, research, and international cooperation in the population field.

  19. The cost of Latin American science Introduction for the second issue of CBP-Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Beleboni, René Oliveira; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2007-04-01

    Latin American researchers in science and engineering (S&E), including those in biology and biomedical sciences, are frequently exposed to unstable conditions of financial support, material and human resources, and a limited number of positions at public and private institutions. Such uncertainties impose continuous challenges for the scientific community which, in the best of cases, responds with careful planning and creativity, and in the worst scenario endures the migration of scientists to the USA or Europe. Still, the number of scientific publications from Latin American institutions in the last decade increased at a much faster rate than publications from the USA and Canada. A brief analysis per country of the gross domestic product (GDP) spent in research and development (R&D) and the S&E production reported by the Pascal bibliographic database suggests that the number and quality of S&E publications is directly proportional to the financial support for R&D. However, the investment in R&D in Latin America did not increase at the same rate (from 0.49 to 0.55% of GDP, from 1990 to 2003) at which S&E publications did in the same period (2.9-fold increase, from 1988 to 2001). In Latin America, the traditional financial support for scientific research continues to be from federal and state government funds, associated in some cases with institutional funds that are mostly directed towards administrative costs and infrastructure maintenance. The aim of this introduction is to briefly discuss the production cost of articles published in refereed S&E journals, including the cost of the scientific research behind them, and, at the same time, to increase the awareness of the high quality of scientific research in Latin American institutions despite the many challenges, especially financial constraints, faced by their scientists. The second issue of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology dedicated to Latin America ("The Face of Latin American Comparative Biochemistry

  20. Latin American Universities and the Bologna Process: From Commercialisation to the "Tuning" Competencies Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboites, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Through the "Tuning-Latin America" competencies project, Latin American universities have been incorporated into the Bologna Process. In 2003 the European Commission approved an initiative of this project for Latin America and began to promote it among ministries, university presidents' organisations and other institutions in Latin America. This…

  1. The politics of Latin American family-planning policy.

    PubMed

    Weaver, J L

    1978-07-01

    In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process.

  2. The American Library Association in Latin America: American Librarianship as a "Modern" Model during the Good Neighbor Policy Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maymi-Sugranes, Hector J.

    2002-01-01

    Through American Library Association (ALA) projects in Latin America, American librarianship progressed from conceptualization to implementation as the model in modernizing Latin American library practices and societies. Development of library practices was fundamental to pursuit of a "modern" society. In fighting fascist propaganda, the United…

  3. Conference scene: Latin American Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine Conference.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2012-10-01

    There are nearly 600 million people living in 24 Latin American countries, speaking two major languages (Portuguese and Spanish) and sharing ancestral roots in America, Europe and Africa. Ethnic and cultural diversity, socioeconomical, scientific and technological disparities across Latin America must be taken into account in the design, interpretation and implications of pharmacogenomic studies in this region. The conference covered some of these aspects, but also took on a more global approach on the growing contribution of genomic information and biotechnological tools to the way medicines are developed, regulated and prescribed to patients. Translation of pharmacogenomics into clinical practice was the topic of a keynote lecture and two debate sessions. A preconference Introductory Course of Pharmacogenomics was offered.

  4. Volatility transmission among Latin American stock markets under structural breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güloğlu, Bülent; Kaya, Pınar; Aydemir, Resul

    2016-11-01

    The paper investigates the volatility spillovers among five major Latin American (LA) stock markets under the presence of the structural breaks in variance. We employ a multivariate dynamic conditional correlation (DCC GARCH) model allowing for structural breaks in variance. The dynamic correlations show that volatility spillover effects among the markets are not strong. Causality in mean tests indicate one way causality from BOVESPA to all markets, whereas causality in variance tests indicate one way causality only from BOVESPA to IPSA. These findings suggest that while the markets in the sample are interdependent, there is not enough statistical evidence to infer the contagion effects among the markets.

  5. Food insecurity among Latin American recent immigrants in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Mandana; Damba, Cynthia; Rocha, Cecilia; Montoya, Elizabeth Cristina

    2011-10-01

    Food security is an important social determinant of health. The 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 reported high prevalence of food insecurity among low income households and those formed by recent immigrants. Exploration of the extent and correlates of food insecurity among recent Latin Americans (LA) immigrants is essential considering they encompasses an increasing number of young immigrants, many of whom, despite relatively high education, are unemployed or have low wage positions. This study examines the extent of food insecurity and its correlates among recent Latin American (LA) immigrants in Toronto. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 70 adult LA recent immigrants. Participants were recruited from selected community health centres across Toronto using snow ball sampling. Data were collected using questionnaires in face-to-face interviews with primary household care givers. A considerably high rate of food insecurity (56%) was found among participants. Household food insecurity was highly related to: being on social assistance; limited proficiency in English; and the use of foodbanks. Our findings indicate that the primary correlate of a household's food security status is income, which suggests the potential for strategies to improve the financial power of new immigrants to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally acceptable food. Enhancing the employability of new immigrants, reforming the income structure for working adults beyond social assistance, and providing more subsidized English language and housing programs may be effective.

  6. Highlights from the 1st ISCB Latin American Student Council Symposium 2014

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the scientific content and activities of the first edition of the Latin American Symposium organized by the Student Council of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB), held in conjunction with the Third Latin American conference from the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB-LA 2014) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, on October 27, 2014. PMID:25955751

  7. Transnational Ties, Poverty, and Identity: Latin American Immigrant Women in Public Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Silvia; Lubitow, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This study used ethnographic data to examine the nature and functions of transnational relationships of low-income Latin American women who had immigrated to the United States and were living in areas of extreme poverty. Findings indicated that these Latin American mothers utilized transnational ties to help maintain the cultural identities of…

  8. Canonizing Latin American Literature: Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Mario Vargas Llosa Enter the English Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cellini, Alva V.

    As Latin American literature progressively enters into the English curriculum, two writers deserve special commentary for their representative contribution to the literary world. Through their works, the Columbian author, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and the Peruvian author, Mario Vargas Llosa clearly convey the Latin American writer's desire to be…

  9. Family Literacy Practices and Parental Involvement of Latin American Immigrant Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Lorna; Lavan, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    This article draws upon three years of interviews and participant observation research in the Chelsea Public Schools, to discuss the impact of the Chelsea Family Literacy Program on promoting Latin American immigrant mothers' involvement in their children's education. The authors present the voices of Latin American immigrant mothers who describe…

  10. Quality of Life from the Point of View of Latin American Families: A Participative Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, A. S.; Castanon, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: To date, little research has focused on what factors constitute a quality of life (QOL) among Latin American families with a member who is intellectually disabled. Method: Total 180 Latin American families cooperated in a participative research project. During 18 months, the families and a team exchanged information about their QOL by…

  11. From magic to science: a journey throughout Latin American medical mycology.

    PubMed

    San-Blas, G

    2000-01-01

    The start of Latin America's love story with fungi may be placed in pre-Hispanic times when the use of fungi in both ritual ceremonies and daily life were common to the native civilizations. But the medical mycology discipline in Latin America started at the end of the 19th Century. At that time, scholars such as A. Posadas, R. Seeber, A. Lutz and P. Almeida, discovered agents of fungal diseases, the study of which has influenced the regional research ever since. Heirs to them are the researchers that today thrive in regional Universities and Research Institutes. Two current initiatives improve cooperation among Latin American medical mycologists. First, the periodical organization of International Paracoccidioidomycosis Meetings (seven so far, from 1979 to 1999); second, the creation of the Latin American Association for Mycology in 1991 (three Congresses, from 1993 to 1999). Latin American publications have increased in international specialized journals such as that from our Society (ISHAM) (from 8% in 1967 to 19% in 1999), and the Iberoamerican Journal of Mycology (Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia; > 40% from 1997 to 1999). In addition, Latin American participation at ISHAM International Congresses has risen from 6.9% in 1975 to 21.3% in 1997, and 43.2% at the 14th ISHAM Congress, held for the first time in a Latin American country, Argentina. A significant contribution of women to the scientific establishment of Latin American medical mycology (e.g., 45% of Latin American papers vs. 18% of other regions published in Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology in 1987, had women as authors or coauthors) suggests a better academic consideration of Latin American women against their counterparts in the developed world. Taken together, all these figures reflect the enthusiasm of our Latin American colleagues in the field, despite the difficulties that afflict our region, and affect our work.

  12. Anaphylaxis in Latin America: a report of the online Latin American survey on anaphylaxis (OLASA)

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Dirceu; Ivancevich, Juan Carlos; Borges, Mario Sánchez; Coelho, Magna Adaci; Rosário, Nelson A; Ardusso, Ledit Ramón Francisco; Bernd, Luis Antônio Guerra

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of the Online Latin American Survey of Anaphylaxis (OLASA) were to identify the main clinical manifestations, triggers, and treatments of severe allergic reactions in patients who were seen by allergists from July 2008 to June 2010 in 15 Latin American countries and Portugal (n = 634). RESULTS: Of all patients, 68.5% were older than 18 years, 41.6% were male, and 65.4% experienced the allergic reaction at home. The etiologic agent was identified in 87.4% of cases and predominantly consisted of drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3%), and insect stings (14.9%). The main symptom categories observed during the acute episodes were cutaneous (94.0%) and respiratory (79.0%). The majority of patients (71.6%) were treated initially by a physician (office/emergency room) within the first hour after the reaction occurred (60.2%), and 43.5% recovered in the first hour after treatment. Most patients were treated in an emergency setting, but only 37.3% received parenteral epinephrine alone or associated with other medication. However, 80.5% and 70.2% were treated with corticosteroids or antihistamines (alone or in association), respectively. A total of 12.9% of the patients underwent reanimation maneuvers, and 15.2% were hospitalized. Only 5.8% of the patients returned to the emergency room after discharge, with 21.7% returning in the first 6 hours after initial treatment. CONCLUSION: The main clinical manifestations of severe allergic reactions were cutaneous. The etiologic agents that were identified as causing these acute episodes differed according to age group. Following in order: drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3% and insect stings (14.9%) in adults with foods predominance in children. Treatment provided for acute anaphylactic reactions was not appropriate. It is necessary to improve educational programs in order to enhance the knowledge on this potentially fatal emergency. PMID:21808856

  13. Inflammation in peritoneal dialysis: a Latin-American perspective.

    PubMed

    Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M; González-Espinoza, Liliana; Martin del Campo, Fabiola; Fortes, Paulo C; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients present an extremely high mortality rate, but the mechanisms mediating the increased risk of mortality observed in this group of patients are still largely unknown, which limits the perspective of effective therapeutic strategies. The leading hypothesis that tries to explain this high mortality risk is that PD patients are exposed to a number of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) already at the onset of their chronic kidney disease (CKD), since many of these risk factors are common to both CVD and CKD. Of particular importance, chronic inflammation recently emerged as an important novel risk factor related to multiple complications of CKD. There are many stimuli of the inflammatory response in CKD patients, such as fluid overload, decreased cytokine clearance, presence of uremia-modified proteins, presence of chronic infections, metabolic disturbances (including hyperglycemia), obesity. Many of these factors are related to PD. Latin America has made some progress in economic issues; however, a large portion of the population is still living in poverty, in poor sanitary conditions, and with many health-related issues, such as an increasing elderly population, low birth weights, and increasingly high energy intake in the adult population, which, in combination with changes in lifestyle, has provoked an increase in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Therefore, in Latin America, there seems to be a peculiar situation combining high prevalence of low education level, poor sanitary conditions, and poverty with increases in obesity, diabetes, and sedentary lifestyle. Since inflammation and mortality risk are intimately related to both sides of those health issues, in this review we aim to analyze the peculiarities of inflammation and mortality risk in the Latin-American PD population.

  14. Diabetes Prevention Interventions in Latin American Countries: a Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Heisler, Michele; Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Rana, Gurpreet K; Piette, John D

    2016-09-01

    Public policies, population health initiatives, and targeted behavioral change interventions for individuals at risk for developing diabetes are all essential for diabetes prevention in Latin American countries (LACs). This scoping review examines (1) the current evidence on diabetes prevention policies and interventions in LACs to identify components of effective diabetes prevention models in those countries and (2) effective diabetes prevention interventions targeting Latino populations in the USA to explore possible lessons from these interventions for LACs. Diabetes prevention programs in LACs evaluated to date consist of short-term health professional-led face-to-face behavioral counseling sessions. Intervention components of US-based programs for Latinos that might benefit diabetes prevention programs in Latin America include (1) deployment of community health workers ("promotoras") for diabetes screening and delivery of lifestyle modification programs, (2) multiple modes of program delivery beyond face-to-face sessions, (3) information technology to automate and enhance program delivery, (4) leveraging of pre-existing familial relationships to engage in and sustain lifestyle modifications, and (5) innovative environmental change strategies such as collaborations with local food stores and markets to promote healthy behaviors. PMID:27424069

  15. Diabetes Prevention Interventions in Latin American Countries: a Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Heisler, Michele; Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Rana, Gurpreet K; Piette, John D

    2016-09-01

    Public policies, population health initiatives, and targeted behavioral change interventions for individuals at risk for developing diabetes are all essential for diabetes prevention in Latin American countries (LACs). This scoping review examines (1) the current evidence on diabetes prevention policies and interventions in LACs to identify components of effective diabetes prevention models in those countries and (2) effective diabetes prevention interventions targeting Latino populations in the USA to explore possible lessons from these interventions for LACs. Diabetes prevention programs in LACs evaluated to date consist of short-term health professional-led face-to-face behavioral counseling sessions. Intervention components of US-based programs for Latinos that might benefit diabetes prevention programs in Latin America include (1) deployment of community health workers ("promotoras") for diabetes screening and delivery of lifestyle modification programs, (2) multiple modes of program delivery beyond face-to-face sessions, (3) information technology to automate and enhance program delivery, (4) leveraging of pre-existing familial relationships to engage in and sustain lifestyle modifications, and (5) innovative environmental change strategies such as collaborations with local food stores and markets to promote healthy behaviors.

  16. The Latin American contribution to the psychoanalytic concept of phantasy.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Izelinda Garcia

    2012-12-01

    The author argues that the ubiquity of phantasies at various levels of mental functioning is undisputed in the current schools of psychoanalytic thought; however, she demonstrates some variations in their understanding of how the psychotherapeutic access to different configurations occurs. In the process of examining and acknowledging the central role played by unconscious phantasies in his patients' symptoms, Freud gradually broadened the vernacular meaning of the German word 'Phantasie' that refers to imagination and the world of imagination, conferring on it the specific features that came to characterize its use in the psychoanalytic vocabulary. Later, the expansion of the concept derived from Melanie Klein's clinical material obtained from child analyses gave rise to important debates. The author discusses the main points of disagreement that led to these debates, as well as their various theoretical and technical implications. Psychoanalytic associations in Latin America were strongly influenced by Klein and her followers. Thus, most of their scientific writings use the concept of unconscious phantasy put forward by the Kleinian school. Taking Kleinian principles as their starting point, Baranger and Baranger made the most original Latin American contribution to the concept of unconscious phantasy with their works on the unconscious phantasies generated by the analytic pair.

  17. The Latin American contribution to the psychoanalytic concept of phantasy.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Izelinda Garcia

    2012-12-01

    The author argues that the ubiquity of phantasies at various levels of mental functioning is undisputed in the current schools of psychoanalytic thought; however, she demonstrates some variations in their understanding of how the psychotherapeutic access to different configurations occurs. In the process of examining and acknowledging the central role played by unconscious phantasies in his patients' symptoms, Freud gradually broadened the vernacular meaning of the German word 'Phantasie' that refers to imagination and the world of imagination, conferring on it the specific features that came to characterize its use in the psychoanalytic vocabulary. Later, the expansion of the concept derived from Melanie Klein's clinical material obtained from child analyses gave rise to important debates. The author discusses the main points of disagreement that led to these debates, as well as their various theoretical and technical implications. Psychoanalytic associations in Latin America were strongly influenced by Klein and her followers. Thus, most of their scientific writings use the concept of unconscious phantasy put forward by the Kleinian school. Taking Kleinian principles as their starting point, Baranger and Baranger made the most original Latin American contribution to the concept of unconscious phantasy with their works on the unconscious phantasies generated by the analytic pair. PMID:23278202

  18. Latin American Social Medicine and Global Social Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Seiji

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental change in the theory underlying public health and medicine is needed. Latin American social medicine (LASM), originating in a region of the world that has been subjected to colonial and postcolonial influence, will be part of this change. To the extent that the social production of disease among people in other regions is a consequence of various large-scale forms of domination, LASM offers a relevant analysis, models of resistance, and exemplars of social medicine in practice. I draw upon LASM to examine the social production of disease in the Marshall Islands and Iraq. I suggest a basis for a global social medicine in the shared experience of suffering and describe implications for public health theory and practice. PMID:14652319

  19. Perceptions of Latin American scientists about science and post-graduate education: Introduction to the 5th issue of CBP-Latin America.

    PubMed

    Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Polcheira, Cássia; Trigueiro, Michelangelo; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira

    2008-11-01

    Although science and engineering (S&E) publications and doctoral degree awards in Latin America had experienced an impressive growth in the past decades, a qualitative evaluation of this increased output must be performed. Previous studies have indicated that growth in visibility of Latin American science - determined by ratio of citations per paper - has not kept pace with the increase in number of publications. In the present editorial, we analyzed - by means of a 12-item questionnaire - the individual perceptions of forty senior researchers involved in CBP-Latin America (29 Brazilians and 11 non-Brazilians) plus a special group composed by six extraordinary Latin American scientists (the "masters"). The questionnaire - using 6-point Likert-like scale for quantification of perception - focused on issues surrounding doctoral educational system as well as the governmental educational policies and publication pressure from funding agencies. In general, the most striking result was the perception (by 82% of respondents) of lack of job opportunities for people holding a PhD diploma in the field of comparative biochemistry and physiology. Other major trends include (i) lack of satisfaction with governmental policies for science and post-graduate education due to policies promoting mass production for papers and PhD diplomas (65-77% of respondents felt that way) (ii) that current PhD students are doing an adequate job, but have not improved in quality as compared to those from 10 years ago (the same was observed for PhD thesis in terms of present versus past), and (iii) that research infrastructure and the curricula of post-graduate courses do not constitute a problem, but (iv) recent-PhDs are not as fit as they should be in paper-writing skills, especially as perceived by Brazilian respondents. The general perceptions were very similar among Brazilians, non-Brazilians and "masters". The use of a larger study-population, with scientists of more diverse fields is the

  20. PREFACE: XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anteneodo, Celia; da Luz, Marcos G. E.

    2010-09-01

    The XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena (LAWNP) has been held in Búzios-RJ, Brazil, from 5-9 October 2009. This international conference is one in a series that have gathered biennially, over the past 21 years, physicists and other scientists who direct their work towards several aspects of nonlinear phenomena and complex systems. The main purpose of LAWNP meetings is to create a friendly and motivating environment, such that researchers from Latin America and from other parts of the globe can discuss not only their own latest results but also the trends and perspectives in this very interdisciplinary field of investigation. Hence, it constitutes a forum for promoting scientific collaboration and fomenting the emergence of new ideas, helping to advance the field. The XI edition (LAWNP'09) has gathered more than 230 scientists and students (most from Latin America), covering all of the world (27 different countries from North and South America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania). In total there were 18 plenary lectures, 80 parallel talks, and 140 poster contributions. A stimulating round-table discussion also took place devoted to the present and future of the Latin American Institutions in Complex Phenomena (a summary can be found at http://lawnp09.fis.puc-rio.br, in the Round-Table report link). The 2009 workshop was devoted to a wide scope of themes and points of view, pursuing to include the latest trends and developments in the science of nonlinearity. In this way, we have a great pleasure in publishing this Proceedings volume based on the high quality scientific works presented at LAWNP'09, covering already established methods as well as new approaches, discussing both theoretical and practical aspects, and addressing paradigmatic systems and also completely new problems, in nonlinearity and complexity. In fact, the present volume may be a very valuable reference for those interested in an overview on how nonlinear interactions can affect different

  1. Training on Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones for Latin American students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfán, L. M.; Raga, G. B.

    2009-05-01

    Tropical cyclones are one of the most impressive atmospheric phenomena and their development in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific basins has potential to affect several Latin-American and Caribbean countries, where human resources are limited. As part of an international research project, we are offering short courses based on the current understanding of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific basin. Our main goal is to train students from higher-education institutions from various countries in Latin America. Key aspects are tropical cyclone formation and evolution, with particular emphasis on their development off the west coast of Mexico. Our approach includes lectures on tropical cyclone climatology and formation, dynamic and thermodynamic models, air-sea interaction and oceanic response, ocean waves and coastal impacts as well as variability and climate-related predictions. In particular, we use a best-track dataset issued by the United States National Hurricane Center and satellite observations to analyze convective patterns for the period 1970-2006. Case studies that resulted in landfall over northwestern Mexico are analyzed in more detail; this includes systems that developed during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 seasons. Additionally, we have organized a human-dimensions symposium to discuss socio-economic issues that are associated with the landfall of tropical cyclones. This includes coastal zone impact and flooding, the link between cyclones and water resources, the flow of weather and climate information from scientists to policy- makers, the role of emergency managers and decision makers, impact over health issues and the viewpoint of the insurance industry.

  2. Higher Education and the State in Latin American: Private Challenges to Public Dominance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel C.

    Major patterns of relationship between the public and private sectors in Latin American higher education are discussed. Three key evolutionary waves are identified that have led to three private-public patterns dominant in Latin America today. For both the public and private sectors, attention is directed to origins and growth, who pays and rules,…

  3. Some Contributions from Latin American Career Counselling for Dealing with Situations of Psychosocial Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Marcelo Afonso; da Conceição Coropos Uvaldo, Maria; da Silva, Fabiano Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Facing a working world more flexible, unstable and potentially generator of vulnerabilities, the career counselling has required contemporary approaches that meet these demands, which ones have been present in Latin America for a long time. Thus, the present paper aimed to analyse some Latin American proposals and highlight general principles to…

  4. Schooling, Cognitive Skills, and the Latin American Growth Puzzle. NBER Working Paper No. 15066

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2009-01-01

    Economic development in Latin America has trailed most other world regions over the past four decades despite its relatively high initial development and school attainment levels. This puzzle can be resolved by considering the actual learning as expressed in tests of cognitive skills, on which Latin American countries consistently perform at the…

  5. Assisted reproductive techniques in Latin America: The Latin American Registry, 2013.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Schwarze, Juan Enrique; Crosby, Javier A; Musri, Carolina; Urbina, Maria Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Multinational data on assisted reproduction techniques undertaken in 2013 were collected from 158 institutions in 15 Latin American countries. Individualized cycle-based data included 57,456 initiated cycles. Treatments included autologous IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), frozen embryo transfers, oocyte donations. In autologous reproduction, 29.22% of women were younger than 35 years, 40.1% were 35-39 years and 30.6% were 40 years or older. Overall delivery rate per oocyte retrieval was 20.6% for ICSI and 25.4% for IVF. Multiple births included 20.7% for twins and 1.1% for triplets and over. In oocyte donations, twins reached 30% and triplets 1.4%. In singletons, pre-term births were 7.5%: 36.58% in twins and 65.52% in triplets. The relative risk for prematurity was 4.9 (95% CI 4.5 to 5.3) in twins and 8.7 (95% CI 7.6 to 10.0) in triplets and above. Perinatal mortality was 29.4 per 1000 in singletons, 39.9 per 1000 in twins and 71.6 per 1000 in high order multiples. Elective single embryo transfer represented only 2% of cycles, with delivery rate of 39.1% in women aged 34 years or less. Given the effect of multiple births and prematurity, it is mandatory to reduce the number of embryos transferred in the region.

  6. Assisted reproductive techniques in Latin America: the Latin American Registry, 2013.

    PubMed

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Schwarze, Juan Enrique; Crosby, Javier A; Musri, Carolina; Urbina, Maria Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Multinational data on assisted reproduction techniques undertaken in 2013 were collected from 158 institutions in 15 Latin American countries. Individualized cycle-based data included 57,456 initiated cycles. Treatments included autologous IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), frozen embryo transfers, oocyte donations. In autologous reproduction, 29.22% of women were younger than 35 years, 40.1% were 35-39 years and 30.6% were 40 years or older. Overall delivery rate per oocyte retrieval was 20.6% for ICSI and 25.4% for IVF. Multiple births included 20.7% for twins and 1.1% for triplets and over. In oocyte donations, twins reached 30% and triplets 1.4%. In singletons, pre-term births were 7.5%: 36.58% in twins and 65.52% in triplets. The relative risk for prematurity was 4.9 (95% CI 4.5 to 5.3) in twins and 8.7 (95% CI 7.6 to 10.0) in triplets and above. Perinatal mortality was 29.4 per 1000 in singletons, 39.9 per 1000 in twins and 71.6 per 1000 in high order multiples. Elective single embryo transfer represented only 2% of cycles, with delivery rate of 39.1% in women aged 34 years or less. Given the effect of multiple births and prematurity, it is mandatory to reduce the number of embryos transferred in the region.

  7. The relevance and recognition of Latin American science. Introduction to the fourth issue of CBP-Latin America.

    PubMed

    Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Alencastro, Antonieta C R; Santos, Natacha C F; Navas, Carlos A; Beleboni, Rene O

    2007-01-01

    Although the number of science and engineering (S&E) publications produced in Latin America grew exponentially over the past 15 years, the investment in science and the number of full time researchers did not grow at a comparable rate. Moreover, Latin American science is handicapped by constrained resources and access to information, higher costs of research, English-language barriers and brain-drain. One possible explanation for the observed rise in paper numbers, therefore, is that Latin American scientists have increased production, perhaps at the cost of quality. As an alternative, Latin America authors may have increased production while maintaining quality (e.g., through creativity, intense work and enhancement of international cooperation). Our aim is to verify which of these interpretations best applies for the field of comparative biochemistry and physiology (CBP). To achieve this goal, we compared the impact indicators of two randomly selected samples of authors (n=20; all with 8 to 30 years of scientific production), one from Latin America and another from developed countries. For additional comparison, we included also a group of twelve highly cited and recognized CBP researchers. We used Hirsch's indexes (h and m) as main indicators of performance, but compared also classical bibliometric indexes such as total number of citations, total number of papers and the ratio of citation per paper (CpP). The mean of most indexes were not significantly different between the two groups of regular CBP researchers, except for CpP, which was 1.7-fold higher in authors from developed countries. As expected, both groups had mean indicators well below those from the sample of highly cited researchers (average h values for top and regular CBP researchers were 37.3+/-3.0 and 11.4+/-0.9, respectively). Considering that Hirsch's indexes are more suitable indicators of performance than CpP, we conclude that Latin American CBP researchers, despite handicaps, perform

  8. PREFACE: First Latin-American Conference on Bioimpedance (CLABIO 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertemes Filho, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented growth in medical technologies and a new generation of diagnostics, characterized by mobility, virtualization, homecare and costs. The ever growing demand and the rapid need for low cost tools for characterizing human tissue, and supporting intelligence and technologies for non-invasive tissue cancer investigation raise unique and evolving opportunities for research in Electrical Bioimpedance. The CLABIO2012 - First Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance is a premier Latin-American conference on Bioimpedance for research groups working on Electrical Bioimpedance. It allows Latin American researchers to share their experiences with other groups from all over the world by presenting scientific work and potential innovations in this research area and also in the social events promoting informal get togethers in the Brazilian style. The work covers a broad range including Biomedical Engineering and Computing, Medical Physics and Medical Sciences, Environment, Biology and Chemistry. Also, the Conference is intended to give students and research groups the opportunity to learn more about Bioimpedance as an important tool in biological material characterization and also in diagnosis. The conference is designed to showcase cutting edge research and accomplishments, and to enrich the educational and industrial experience in this field. It also represents a unique opportunity to meet colleagues and friends, exchanging ideas, and learning about new developments and best practice, while working to advance the understanding of the knowledge base that we will collectively draw upon in the years ahead to meet future challenges. Participants will attend presentations by scholars representing both institutes and academia. The CLABIO2012 proceedings include over 25 papers selected via a peer review process. The conference program features tutorial talks by world-leading scholars and five sessions for regular paper oral presentations

  9. Latin America: A Filmic Approach. Latin American Studies Program, Film Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Leon G.; And Others

    This document describes a university course designed to provide an historical understanding of Latin America through feature films. The booklet contains an introductory essay on the teaching of a film course on Latin America, a general discussion of strengths and weaknesses of student analyses of films, and nine analyses written by students during…

  10. The Latin American cohabitation boom, 1970–2007.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Albert; Lesthaeghe, Ron; López-Gay, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the rise of unmarried cohabitation in Latin American countries during the last 30 years of the twentieth century, both at the national and regional levels. It documents that this major increase occurred in regions with and without traditional forms of cohabitation alike. In addition, the striking degree of catching up of cohabitation among the better-educated population segments is illustrated. The connections between these trends and economic (periods of high inflation) and cultural (reduction of stigmas in ethical domains) factors are discussed. The conclusion is that the periods of inflation and hyperinflation may have been general catalysts, but no clear indications of correlation were found between such economic factors and the rise in cohabitation. The shift toward more tolerance for hitherto stigmatized forms of conduct (e.g., homosexuality, euthanasia, abortion, singleparent household) is in line with the rise of cohabitation in regions of Argentina, Chile, and Brazil where cohabitation used to be uncommon. Further rises in cohabitation during the first decade of the twenty-first century are expected in a number of countries (e.g., mexico) despite conditions of much lower inflation.

  11. Malaria-related anaemia: a Latin American perspective

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Juan Pablo; Siqueira, André Machado; Tobón, Alberto; Blair, Silvia; Moreno, Alberto; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Valencia, Sócrates Herrera

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is the most important parasitic disease worldwide, responsible for an estimated 225 million clinical cases each year. It mainly affects children, pregnant women and non-immune adults who frequently die victims of cerebral manifestations and anaemia. Although the contribution of the American continent to the global malaria burden is only around 1.2 million clinical cases annually, there are 170 million inhabitants living at risk of malaria transmission in this region. On the African continent, where Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent human malaria parasite, anaemia is responsible for about half of the malaria-related deaths. Conversely, in Latin America (LA), malaria-related anaemia appears to be uncommon, though there is a limited knowledge about its real prevalence. This may be partially explained by several factors, including that the overall malaria burden in LA is significantly lower than that of Africa, that Plasmodium vivax, the predominant Plasmodium species in the region, appears to display a different clinical spectrus and most likely because better health services in LA prevent the development of severe malaria cases. With the aim of contributing to the understanding of the real importance of malaria-related anaemia in LA, we discuss here a revision of the available literature on the subject and the usefulness of experimental animal models, including New World monkeys, particularly for the study of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of malaria. PMID:21881762

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of congenital hemophilia with inhibitors a Latin American perspective.

    PubMed

    Pérez Bianco, Raúl; Ozelo, Margareth Castro; Villaça, Paula Ribeiro; Solano, Maria Helena; Jimenez Cruze, Guillermo; Martinez Murillo, Carlos; Garcia Chavez, Jaime; Mendoza, Saul; Rodriguez Grecco, Ismael; Ruiz-Saez, Arlette

    2008-01-01

    The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups (CLOTTING) is composed of a number of hemophilia specialists from Latin America. The group aims to encourage the adoption of a good standard of care for Latin American patients with hemophilia. The occurrence of inhibitors in patients with hemophilia poses clinical challenges, and it is estimated that between 1000 and 3000 patients in Latin America are affected by hemophilia with inhibitors. There is an urgent need to establish a regional consensus and clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. We present an extensive review based on best current clinical practice and published literature, as seen from a Latin American perspective, taking into account the variable nature of hemophilia care available in the various countries in this Region.

  13. "Looking at the world through women's eyes": Latin Americans at Beijing.

    PubMed

    Farmelo, M

    1996-01-01

    This news article discusses the perspective brought by Latin American women to the women's conference held in Beijing in 1995. One major accomplishment was the inclusion of Caribbean women into the regional Latin American exhibition space and the regional gatherings. The Latin American conference space was used to present regional exhibits, music and dance performances, theater productions, and messages from country delegates. The official government conference included the well-organized advocacy efforts among Latin American delegates. This accomplishment reflected the improvement in skills among delegates since the Mar del Plata meetings. The nongovernmental organization (NGO) conference had some serious transportation difficulties due to its location in Huairou, 35 miles north of Beijing. The distance exhausted participants and reduced the NGO forum impact on the official conference. Participants at the NGO conference also were restricted in their freedom of movement by the Chinese Organizing Committee. There was insufficient infrastructure for handling planned plenary sessions, lack of access for the disabled, harassment of certain special interest groups, and obstruction of meetings in hotels. Secret searches were conducted by Chinese officials in delegates' hotel rooms. Non-English speakers were able to participate only in large plenary sessions and selected workshops. Non-Spanish speaking Latin Americans walked out of Latin American events held in Spanish. Women were also frustrated that views strongly articulated on the plenary floor were excluded from the Plan of Action and from press coverage. To be successful, plans for the post-Beijing period must account for the diversity of women's groups.

  14. Regional overview of Latin American and Caribbean energy production, consumption, and future growth. Report series No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean region - comprising Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean - is relatively well endowed with energy resources, although the distribution of these resources is uneven across countries. The region produces more energy than it consumes, and the surplus energy, which amounts to 3.6 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d), is mostly oil. While the region`s total oil (crude and products) exports decreased from 4.4 million barrels per day (b/d) in 1981 to 3.8 million b/d in 1992, its net oil exports increased from about 1.6 million b/d in 1981 to 2.8 million b/d in 1992. In 1993, the surplus oil in Latin America and the Caribbean remained at 2.8 million b/d. This report analyzes the key issues of the Latin American and Caribbean energy industry and presents the future outlook for oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power developments in the region. In addition, the status of biomass energy, geothermal, and other noncommercial energy in the region will be briefly discussed in the context of overall energy development. The rest of the report is organized as follows: Section II assesses the current situation of Latin American and Caribbean energy production and consumption, covering primary energy supply, primary energy consumption, downstream petroleum sector development, and natural gas utilization. Section III presents the results of our study of future energy growth in Latin America. Important hydrocarbons policy issues in the region are discussed in Section IV, and a summary and concluding remarks are provided in Section V.

  15. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    PubMed

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation. PMID:18592684

  16. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    PubMed

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation.

  17. Teaching about Women and Underdevelopment in Latin American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Julio Cesar

    2001-01-01

    Latin America, the most advanced of the underdeveloped regions of the world, is a perfect showcase for exploring the contradictions that come into play when the historical construction of gender clashes with economic practice. The history of modern Latin America shows that economic development can actually work to the detriment of women. The most…

  18. Facial asymmetry and genetic ancestry in Latin American admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Cintas, Celia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio Cesar; Ramallo, Virginia; Castillo, Lucia; Farrera, Arodi; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, Williams; Fuentes, Macarena; Everardo, Paola; de Avila, Francisco; Gomez-Valdés, Jorge; Hünemeier, Tábita; Gibbon, Shara; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; González-José, Rolando

    2015-05-01

    Fluctuating and directional asymmetry are aspects of morphological variation widely used to infer environmental and genetic factors affecting facial phenotypes. However, the genetic basis and environmental determinants of both asymmetry types is far from being completely known. The analysis of facial asymmetries in admixed individuals can be of help to characterize the impact of a genome's heterozygosity on the developmental basis of both fluctuating and directional asymmetries. Here we characterize the association between genetic ancestry and individual asymmetry on a sample of Latin-American admixed populations. To do so, three-dimensional (3D) facial shape attributes were explored on a sample of 4,104 volunteers aged between 18 and 85 years. Individual ancestry and heterozygosity was estimated using more than 730,000 genome-wide markers. Multivariate techniques applied to geometric morphometric data were used to evaluate the magnitude and significance of directional and fluctuating asymmetry (FA), as well as correlations and multiple regressions aimed to estimate the relationship between facial FA scores and heterozygosity and a set of covariates. Results indicate that directional and FA are both significant, the former being the strongest expression of asymmetry in this sample. In addition, our analyses suggest that there are some specific patterns of facial asymmetries characterizing the different ancestry groups. Finally, we find that more heterozygous individuals exhibit lower levels of asymmetry. Our results highlight the importance of including ancestry-admixture estimators, especially when the analyses are aimed to compare levels of asymmetries on groups differing on socioeconomic levels, as a proxy to estimate developmental noise. PMID:25582401

  19. Birth Outcomes of Latin Americans in Two Countries with Contrasting Immigration Admission Policies: Canada and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.

    2015-01-01

    Background We delved into the selective migration hypothesis on health by comparing birth outcomes of Latin American immigrants giving birth in two receiving countries with dissimilar immigration admission policies: Canada and Spain. We hypothesized that a stronger immigrant selection in Canada will reflect more favourable outcomes among Latin Americans giving birth in Canada than among their counterparts giving birth in Spain. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional bi-national comparative study. We analyzed birth data of singleton infants born in Canada (2000–2005) (N = 31,767) and Spain (1998–2007) (N = 150,405) to mothers born in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. We compared mean birthweight at 37–41 weeks gestation, and low birthweight and preterm birth rates between Latin American immigrants to Canada vs. Spain. Regression analysis for aggregate data was used to obtain Odds Ratios and Mean birthweight differences adjusted for infant sex, maternal age, parity, marital status, and father born in same source country. Results Latin American women in Canada had heavier newborns than their same-country counterparts giving birth in Spain, overall [adjusted mean birthweight difference: 101 grams; 95% confidence interval (CI): 98, 104], and within each maternal country of origin. Latin American women in Canada had fewer low birthweight and preterm infants than those giving birth in Spain [adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.94 for low birthweight, and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93 for preterm birth, respectively]. Conclusion Latin American immigrant women had better birth outcomes in Canada than in Spain, suggesting a more selective migration in Canada than in Spain. PMID:26308857

  20. Mexican American Literature: A Preliminary Bibliography of Literary Criticism. Latin American Curriculum Units for Junior and Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzaldua, Mike

    This preliminary bibliography of Mexican American literary criticism includes approximately 500 items, most published between 1960 and 1980. The bibliography includes background materials, novels, short stories, poetry, drama, and anthologies. The introductory material cites 13 bibliographies, most available in the Benson Latin American Collection…

  1. Pathogenic differences between North American and Latin American strains of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum in experimentally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Michelle M; Connolly, Patricia A; Karimi, Kian; Wheat, Emerson; Schnizlein-Bick, Carol; Allen, Stephen D; Alves, Katia; Tewari, Ram P; Keath, Elizabeth

    2004-09-01

    Clinical differences in histoplasmosis between North America and Brazil prompted investigation of experimental infection with representative strains. Mortality was higher with Latin American strains, and lung pathology showed large necrotizing granuloma with prominent neutrophilic infiltration. Chronic disease was unique to the North American strain. PMID:15365047

  2. The Status of Environmental Education in Latin American Middle and High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin-Jones, Linda; Penwell, Rebecca; Hakverdi, Meral; Cline, Shannon; Johnson, Courtney; Scales, Ingrid

    This research investigated the status of environmental education (EE) in private American and international middle and high schools throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The study population consisted of all 50 dues-paying member schools in the Association of American Schools of Central America, Columbia-Caribbean, and Mexico (the…

  3. Constitutional Prospects for the Implementation of Funding and Governance Reforms in Latin American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernasconi, Andres

    2007-01-01

    The rationale for comprehensive reform of Latin American higher education crystallized in the mid-1990s in policy documents published by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. This "Washington consensus" of the multilateral banks advocated, among other measures, greater reliance on private sources of funding, increased…

  4. Emotion socialization and ethnicity: an examination of practices and outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families.

    PubMed

    Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2013-06-01

    The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of "adaptive" and "maladaptive" emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed.

  5. Emotion Socialization and Ethnicity: An Examination of Practices and Outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American Families

    PubMed Central

    Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2013-01-01

    The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of “adaptive” and “maladaptive” emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed. PMID:23766738

  6. Climate Change and Climate Variability in the Latin American Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrin, G. O.; Gay Garcia, C.; Cruz Choque, D.; Gimenez-Sal, J. C.; Moreno, A. R.; Nagy, G. J.; Nobre, C.; Villamizar, A.

    2007-05-01

    ; and g) Changing some human diseases distribution and provoking the emergence of new ones. The impact of climate change in Latin America's productive sectors is estimated to be of a 1.3 percent reduction of the region's GDP for a change of 2ºC in global temperature (without consider non market sectors and extremes events). Moreover, if the LA countries continue to follow the business as usual scenario, the wealth of natural resources that have supported economic and socio-cultural development in the region will be further degraded, reducing the regional potential for growth. Urgent measures must be taken to help bring environmental and social considerations from the margins to the decision-making and development strategies. This presentation is part of the revision done for the Latin American (LA) chapter under the IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report.

  7. New World Orders: Continuities and Changes in Latin American Migration

    PubMed Central

    DURAND, JORGE; MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.

    2010-01-01

    Although migration from Mexico to the United States is more than a century old, until recently most other countries in Latin America did not send out significant numbers of migrants to foreign destinations. Over the past thirty years, however, emigration has emerged as an important demographic force throughout the region. This article outlines trends in the volume and composition of the migrant outflows emanating from various countries in Latin America, highlighting their diversity with respect to country of destination; multiplicity of destinations; legal auspices of entry; gender and class composition; racial, ethnic, and national origins; and the mode of insertion into the receiving society. The review underscores the broadening of international migration away from unidirectional flows toward the United States to new streams going to Europe, Canada, Australia, and Japan, as well as to other countries in Latin America itself. PMID:20814591

  8. Possible treatments for arsenic removal in Latin American waters for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Litter, Marta I; Morgada, Maria E; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2010-05-01

    Considering the toxic effects of arsenic, the World Health Organization recommends a maximum concentration of 10 microg L(-1) of arsenic in drinking water. Latin American populations present severe health problems due to consumption of waters with high arsenic contents. The physicochemical properties of surface and groundwaters are different from those of other more studied regions of the planet, and the problem is still publicly unknown. Methods for arsenic removal suitable to be applied in Latin American waters are here summarized and commented. Conventional technologies (oxidation, coagulation-coprecipitation, adsorption, reverse osmosis, use of ion exchangers) are described, but emphasis is made in emergent decentralized economical methods as the use of inexpensive natural adsorbents, solar light technologies or biological treatments, as essential to palliate the situation in poor, isolated and dispersed populations of Latin American regions.

  9. Possible treatments for arsenic removal in Latin American waters for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Litter, Marta I; Morgada, Maria E; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2010-05-01

    Considering the toxic effects of arsenic, the World Health Organization recommends a maximum concentration of 10 microg L(-1) of arsenic in drinking water. Latin American populations present severe health problems due to consumption of waters with high arsenic contents. The physicochemical properties of surface and groundwaters are different from those of other more studied regions of the planet, and the problem is still publicly unknown. Methods for arsenic removal suitable to be applied in Latin American waters are here summarized and commented. Conventional technologies (oxidation, coagulation-coprecipitation, adsorption, reverse osmosis, use of ion exchangers) are described, but emphasis is made in emergent decentralized economical methods as the use of inexpensive natural adsorbents, solar light technologies or biological treatments, as essential to palliate the situation in poor, isolated and dispersed populations of Latin American regions. PMID:20189697

  10. Lupus in Latin-American patients: lessons from the GLADEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Pons-Estel, G J; Catoggio, L J; Cardiel, M H; Bonfa, E; Caeiro, F; Sato, E; Massardo, L; Molina-Restrepo, J F; Toledano, M Guibert; Barile-Fabris, L A; Amigo, M C; Acevedo-Vásquez, E M; Abadi, I; Wojdyla, D; Alarcón-Riquelme, M E; Alarcón, G S; Pons-Estel, B A

    2015-05-01

    The need for comprehensive published epidemiologic and clinical data from Latin American systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients motivated the late Dr Alarcón-Segovia and other Latin American professionals taking care of these patients to spearhead the creation of the G: rupo L: atino A: mericano D: e E: studio del L: upus (GLADEL) cohort in 1997. This inception cohort recruited a total of 1480 multiethnic (Mestizo, African-Latin American (ALA), Caucasian and other) SLE patients diagnosed within two years from the time of enrollment from 34 Latin American centers with expertise in the diagnosis and management of this disease. In addition to the initial 2004 description of the cohort, GLADEL has contributed to improving our knowledge about the course and outcome of lupus in patients from this part of the Americas. The major findings from this cohort are highlighted in this review. They have had important clinical implications for the adequate care of SLE patients both in Latin America and worldwide where these patients may have emigrated.

  11. Lupus in Latin-American patients: lessons from the GLADEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Pons-Estel, G J; Catoggio, L J; Cardiel, M H; Bonfa, E; Caeiro, F; Sato, E; Massardo, L; Molina-Restrepo, J F; Toledano, M Guibert; Barile-Fabris, L A; Amigo, M C; Acevedo-Vásquez, E M; Abadi, I; Wojdyla, D; Alarcón-Riquelme, M E; Alarcón, G S; Pons-Estel, B A

    2015-05-01

    The need for comprehensive published epidemiologic and clinical data from Latin American systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients motivated the late Dr Alarcón-Segovia and other Latin American professionals taking care of these patients to spearhead the creation of the G: rupo L: atino A: mericano D: e E: studio del L: upus (GLADEL) cohort in 1997. This inception cohort recruited a total of 1480 multiethnic (Mestizo, African-Latin American (ALA), Caucasian and other) SLE patients diagnosed within two years from the time of enrollment from 34 Latin American centers with expertise in the diagnosis and management of this disease. In addition to the initial 2004 description of the cohort, GLADEL has contributed to improving our knowledge about the course and outcome of lupus in patients from this part of the Americas. The major findings from this cohort are highlighted in this review. They have had important clinical implications for the adequate care of SLE patients both in Latin America and worldwide where these patients may have emigrated. PMID:25697768

  12. Repeating: An Overlooked Problem of Latin American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    1975-01-01

    Typically, the cause of the low rate of retention in primary schools in Latin America is assumed to be socioeconomic. This paper attempted to show that this definition of retention is incorrect, that desertion is highly over-estimated, and that the root cause of low retention in primary education is repetition. (Author/RK)

  13. Income and beyond: Multidimensional Poverty in Six Latin American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiston, Diego; Cruces, Guillermo; Lopez-Calva, Luis Felipe; Lugo, Maria Ana; Santos, Maria Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies multidimensional poverty for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay for the period 1992-2006. The approach overcomes the limitations of the two traditional methods of poverty analysis in Latin America (income-based and unmet basic needs) by combining income with five other dimensions: school attendance for…

  14. Is There a Latin American Model of the University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernasconi, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Latin America has seen the advent of research activities to meet the call for research that long preceded them and of the full-time research faculty who engage in them. These developments have taken place as the region partakes in contemporary worldwide trends that have affected universities elsewhere: the consequences of the increased…

  15. Intercultural Education Series. Selected Latin American Literature for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Earl, Ed.

    The appearance of this collection of readings partially fulfills one of Programa de Educacion Interamericana's objectives described in SO 001 424: that of helping our students become better acquainted with the literature of Latin America. This volume was not prepared for just literature or Spanish classes; the introductions and the works cover a…

  16. The Latin American University: Facing the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albornoz, Orlando

    This collection of essays examines the status of higher education in Latin America and the Caribbean, focusing on historical trends, the administration of universities, and the influence of higher education on the greater society. It reviews the evolution of universities in the area during the 20th century, highlighting the emergence of Latin…

  17. Language Policy and Planning: Challenges for Latin American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Rainer Enrique; Álvarez López, Elisa; Carvalhal, Tatiana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    This article starts with an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Latin America as a context for language policy and planning (LPP) decisions in the academic field. Then it gives a brief overview of the language policy challenges faced by universities to cope with neoliberal internationalisation. A conceptualisation of the domain as a…

  18. Six Latin American countries could join in new gas market

    SciTech Connect

    Bechelli, C.M. ); Brandt, R.D. )

    1991-10-21

    The development of a regional natural gas market in southern Latin America based on a common pipeline network is a clear possibility in the medium term. This paper is, therefore, important to summarize precisely the present status and outlook for the natural gas industry in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and Paraguay.

  19. A Brief History of International Latin American Student Fraternities: A Movement That Lasted 86 Years (1889-1975)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajardo, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    An international Latin American student fraternity movement preceded the current Latino Greeks that are seen on college campuses today. This document provides new information that has not been published. The movement lasted 86 years and primarily served wealthy international Latin American students who came to the United States to study and, once…

  20. Stereotypes and Beliefs about Different Ethnic Groups in Spain: A Study with Spanish and Latin American Children Living in Madrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enesco, Ileana; Navarro, Alejandra; Paradela, Isabel; Guerrero, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    96 Spanish and Latin American children from 3 grades in Madrid reported their knowledge of positive and negative stereotypes regarding Spaniards, Gypsies, Latin American and Chinese people. Their personal beliefs about these four ethnic groups were also assessed. Stereotypes about Spaniards were perceived as overwhelmingly positive and least…

  1. US strategic and critical materials imports: Dependency and vulnerability. The Latin American alternative. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Colombo, J.L.

    1989-05-31

    In time of war or during a National Emergency, it will be necessary for the United States to minimize dependence on extra hemisphere supply. This paper examines the extent to which current suppliers of strategic and critical imported minerals and petroleum, received from outside the American Continent, could be superseded with Latin American sources, including the Caribbean, Central and South America. The paper concludes that this substitution of trade would be a desirable course of action now, to be pursued in peacetime, not only for the U.S. but also for the Latin American States as well. This paper lists the strategic and critical imported materials for the U.S., and also identifies current supply sources; determines to what extent current supply sources could be replaced by Latin American ones; identifies major U.S. policy changes that would be required to make new trade arrangements suitable, feasible, and acceptable; proposes conclusions, which are related to the future of the U.S. strategic stockpiling and to the improvement of the Latin American sources of supply.

  2. Atopic dermatitis guideline. Position paper from the Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jorge; Páez, Bruno; Macías, A; Olmos, C; de Falco, A

    2014-01-01

    As in other regions, the incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America has been increasing in recent years. Although there are several clinical guidelines, many of their recommendations cannot be universal since they depend on the characteristics of each region. Thus, we decided to create a consensus guideline on atopic dermatitis applicable in Latin America and other tropical regions, taking into account socio-economic, geographical, cultural and health care system characteristics. The Latin American Society of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (SLAAI) conducted a systematic search for articles related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis using various electronic resources such as Google, Pubmed, EMBASE (Ovid) and Cochrane data base. We have also looked for all published articles in Latin America on the subject using LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences) database. Each section was reviewed by at least two members of the committee, and the final version was subsequently approved by all of them, using the Delphi methodology for consensus building. Afterward, the final document was shared for external evaluation with physicians, specialists (allergists, dermatologists and pediatricians), patients and academic institutions such as universities and scientific societies related to the topic. All recommendations made by these groups were taken into account for the final drafting of the document. There are few original studies conducted in Latin America about dermatitis; however, we were able to create a practical guideline for Latin America taking into account the particularities of the region. Moreover, the integral management was highlighted including many of the recommendations from different participants in the health care of this disease (patients, families, primary care physicians and specialists). This practical guide presents a concise approach to the diagnosis and management of atopic dermatitis that can be

  3. Kawasaki Disease in Latin American Children: Past, Current, and Future Challenges.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Salgado, Andrea P; Tremoulet, Adriana H

    2014-12-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired cardiac disease in children in developed countries and Asia. However, there is a paucity of data available from Latin America. In response to the gap in knowledge about KD in Latin America, a group of pediatric infectious disease researchers from the Kawasaki Disease Research Center at the University of California San Diego and the Sociedad Latinoamericana de Infectología Pediátrica joined efforts during the last decade to address this problem. The Red de Enfermedad de Kawasaki en América Latina (Latin American Kawasaki Disease Network) was launched in 2013 to study the epidemiology of KD among children from the major pediatric tertiary referral hospitals in Latin America. This multinational multicenter network is primarily composed of pediatric infectious diseases, cardiology, rheumatology, and immunology subspecialists and pediatricians from 20 countries, and it is one of the world's largest networks to study the general epidemiology of KD. The first 2 prospective and retrospective multinational multicenter studies looking at the epidemiology of KD in the region were initiated in 2014. Future plans for the network include establishing collaborative research alliances and projects with other centers around the world. To date [ 1], there have been no published studies describing the overall incidence and prevalence of KD in Latin American children. The most important and recent epidemiological study addressing this issue, related to Chile, was published in 2012 [ 2]. Of these, the most recent relevant study addressed the seasonality of KD in different parts of the globe, including some Latin American and Caribbean countries [ 4]. In this document, we briefly summarize relevant available information from Latin America. Although there have been other publications from individual countries that are outside the scope of this communication, the majority of these reports are single case reports, or case series

  4. Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2004-10-04

    This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

  5. Epidemic of cardiometabolic diseases: a Latin American point of view.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Lahera, Vicente; Lopez-Lopez, Jose

    2011-04-01

    Poor early nutrition has varying effects on subsequent cardiometabolic disease (CMD) rates. Fetal and neonatal periods are critical for the development and growth of the systems involved in CMD. The increased rates of hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2, renal failure and heart failure observed nowadays in Latin America could be the result of the discrepancy between the nutritional environment during fetal and early life and the adult environment. This discrepancy causes a mismatch between the fetal programming of the subject and its adult circumstances created by the imposition of new life styles. The two largest international studies on cardiovascular risk factors for a first myocardial infarction (INTERHEART) and stroke (INTERSTROKE) demonstrated that in Latin America the factor with the highest attributable population risk was abdominal obesity. The conflict between the earlier programming and the later presence of abdominal obesity produced a higher sensitivity of this population to develop a state of low-degree inflammation, insulin resistance and the epidemic of CMD to lower levels of abdominal adiposity. The relative roles played by genetic and environmental factors and the interaction between the two are the still subjects of great debate. We have reviewed the relationship between maternal malnutrition, early growth restriction, epigenetic adaptations, and the later occurrence of abdominal obesity and CMD in Latin America. PMID:21406494

  6. A Comparison of North American and Latin American Societies and Their Social-Political Pressures: A Preliminary Statement for Instructional Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Ronald H.

    In this paper, a comparison of the Latin American and the North American society is presented as a preliminary to future refinement of the concepts into instructional devices for secondary students. Following discussion of the distinctions between the two general societal types (Latin America as organic-centripetal and North America as…

  7. The "Other" Internment: Teaching the Hidden Story of Japanese Latin Americans during WWII

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonamine, Moe

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how the author teaches 8th graders to imagine the experiences of people from another time in history and make connections to today. Through a role play, the author teaches the hidden story of Japanese Latin Americans during WWII. The role play engages students in exploration of a little-known piece of history--the…

  8. Publication and Language Trends of References in Spanish and Latin American Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, David S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined references found in three journals in the field of Spanish and Latin American literary studies. Few previous studies have examined types of publishers producing highly cited/referenced books. The data indicate that the primary publishers of scholarly monographs referenced in the journals are U.S. university presses, foreign…

  9. The Importance of Negotiation for Policy Dialogue: Latin American Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Maria Clara

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing public policy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary…

  10. Theological Curriculum in Brazil: A Proposal from Latin American Theology and Critical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Cesar Marques

    2013-01-01

    With a focus on Brazilian theological seminaries that self-identify as evangelical and which emphasize teaching, learning, and doing a contextually Latin American theology, this research inquiries into related theoretical fields in order to establish a framework from which these schools may further develop educational approaches more adequate to…

  11. The Bureaucratic Tradition in Latin American Education: The Legacy of Spanish Colonialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark

    As Latin American nations marshall their rapidly growing human and material resources, they frequently encounter organizational infrastructures which are incapable of supporting the rapid process of modernization. Yet, these inadequate infrastructures persist over time, leaving behind unrecoverable losses. Attempts to understand the problems of…

  12. Two Decades of Planning in Latin American Universities: Trends and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escala, Miguel J.

    The paper provides a framework for identifying trends in planning in Latin American universities for the last 20 years. Identification of the planning trends is based on two main dimensions: the purpose of the relationship between universities and the external environment (organization-centered versus society-centered), and the degree by which the…

  13. Machismo: Manifestations of a cultural value in the Latin American casino.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W N

    1991-06-01

    Casino operations were observed in twelve Latin American countries. Owners, managers, employees, players, and government regulators in each of these countries were interviewed. The concept of machismo is described in its historical and cultural context. It is then used to illuminate casino operations and the mode of play in existence in these casinos.

  14. Latino Trajectories in Barcelona: A Longitudinal Ethnographic Study of Latin American Adolescents in Catalonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The ethnographic research presented in this paper consists of two parts developed chronologically. The first part is based on a study (Corona, V., Nussbaum, L., & Unamuno, V. [2012]. The emergence of new linguistic repertoires among Barcelona's youth of Latin American origin. "International Journal of Bilingual Education and…

  15. Social Capital and Student Learning: Empirical Results from Latin American Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Joan B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between social capital and student math and language achievement and the probability of promotion, using data gathered from fourth grade classrooms in public schools in four Latin American cities. The results suggest that social capital among teachers in a school, between teacher and…

  16. Problems and Prospects of Introducing Latin American Studies into the Community and Junior College Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glab, Edward, Jr., Comp.

    These papers represent a general discussion of the problems and prospects for teaching Latin American Studies in two-year colleges. More broadly, they highlight the difficulties of introducing any sort of intercultural dimension into the two-year college curriculum. Sheila Tesar discusses the constraints of state regulations and student attitudes…

  17. What Goes on inside Latin American Math and Science Classrooms: A Video Study of Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Näslund-Hadley, Emma; Loera Varela, Armando; Hepworth, Katelyn Ann

    2014-01-01

    Beyond common associated factors, such as teacher characteristics and socioeconomic background of students, little is known about how student achievement relates to differences in the pedagogical approaches used in Latin American classrooms. This paper highlights the main findings from a qualitative study on cross-country differences in teaching…

  18. Assessing the Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Undergraduate Latin American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Jack

    This paper assesses the impact of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in three American University undergraduate classes, a General Education survey course on Latin America (taught in English), and two Spanish language courses. The courses utilized both commercial software programs and software programs authored by faculty using Macintosh…

  19. Afro-Brazilian Literature: A New Dimension for Black and Latin American Studies Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    This paper profiles representative Afro-Brazilian writers and provides a guide to English language translations and critical studies of their work. The aim is to encourage instructors to broaden the scope of current curricula in black and Latin American studies courses. Recent studies estimate that more than 40 percent of Brazil's inhabitants are…

  20. Film as Revolutionary Weapon: A Pedagogical Analysis. Latin American Studies Program, Film Series No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Riverside. Latin American Studies Program.

    This paper describes a university course designed to examine the use of film as a revolutionary medium in Latin American countries. Objectives of the course were to illustrate the complexity of studying a film genre, develop an analytical framework for comparing revolutionary films, and encourage students to reach their own conclusions about the…

  1. Characteristics of La Literatura: A Reference Study of Spanish and Latin American Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the characteristics of scholarly communication, with particular emphasis on the usage of the monograph, in the field of Spanish and Latin American literature over a 30-year period. In addition, this study examines the age of materials referenced in an effort to gain insight into the shelf-life of these…

  2. CILA: A New Approach to Problems in the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clouston, John Samuel

    This paper attempts to provide a contextual study of CILA--Centro Interamericano de Libros Academicos--a new scheme for the distribution of scholarly books in the Americas. Because of the scheme's peculiar relevance to the needs of Canadian academic libraries, the status of Latin American studies and relevant library collections in Canada are…

  3. Women Academic Leaders in a Latin American University: Reconciling the Paradoxes of Professional Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Susan B.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 18 female academic leaders at the University of Costa Rica investigated factors in the women's professional success, career paths and obstacles, and the role of Latin American and institutional culture in their professional choices and lives. Results suggest an alternative to traditional Western theory of women's careers, focusing on…

  4. Engaging Language and Cultural Spaces: Latin American Parents' Reflections on Language Loss and Maintenance in Vancouver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardado, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to explore the loss and maintenance of Spanish in Latin American children in Vancouver from the perspective of parents. It focuses on the experiences of children either developing bilingually (Spanish-English) or monolingually (English). The participating families were from Colombia, Guatemala, and El Salvador, and had…

  5. The ETK Model: Effects on Latin American Higher Education Faculty Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas, Jorge Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The problem. This study was designed to investigate emotional human, E, technology awareness, T, and knowledge management, K, competences or dimensions of Latin American public post-secondary educational institution departments; specifically how these ETK competences or dimensions affect faculty satisfaction. Method. Three-hundred and…

  6. No Tours beyond This Point: From Service to Civic Learning in Latin American Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromberg, Shelly Jarrett

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the design and implementation of a new course in Latin American Studies that sought to integrate traditional elements of undergraduate education with a more progressive pedagogical approach stressing experiential applications of classroom education. Civic engagement seemed particularly well suited to the course because of…

  7. The Educated Citizen: Cultural and Gender Capital in the Schooling of Latin American Children in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Vazquez, Genaro

    2011-01-01

    An ethnographic study on a Japanese language tutoring programme for foreign children was conducted from 2003 to 2006. The investigation attempted to shed light on issues of language acquisition among Latin American children who attended three public primary schools in Japan. This article combines extensive participant observation and in-depth…

  8. Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

  9. Adult Education as a Human Right: The Latin American Context and the Ecopedagogic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well…

  10. Transnational Stakeholders: Latin American Migrant Transnationalism and Civic Engagement in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Ricardo; Felix, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    In the current period of international migration there is no consensus among analysts regarding the relationship between immigrant transnationalism and civic engagement in the United States. Focusing mainly on the transnational behaviors of Latin American migrants, three views predominate: critics argue that immigrant transnationalism hinders…

  11. Comparing Work-Life Balance in Spanish and Latin-American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlier, Sandra Idrovo; Llorente, Consuelo Leon; Grau, Marc Grau

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to determine the level of awareness and implementation of family-responsible parameters: policies, enablers, practices, and culture, in Spanish and Latin-American companies, and how they impact work-life balance. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses data from different national IESE's Family-Responsible Employer…

  12. [Social perceptions on genomics in four Latin American countries. Ethical-legal implications].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo; Valdebenito Herrera, Carolina; Misseroni, Adelio; Fernández Milla, Lautaro; Outomuro, Delia; Schiattino Lemus, Irene; Lolas Stepke, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyze under an ethical and legal perspective the consequences and anxieties generated by the human genome project in the population of four Latin American countries: Argentine, Chile, México and Perú, through bibliographical analysis and interviews done to biomedical researches, lawyers and legislators, students and lay civilians.

  13. Hepatitis B in Latin America: epidemiological patterns and eradication strategy. The Latin American Regional Study Group.

    PubMed

    Fay, O H

    1990-03-01

    A comprehensive epidemiological analysis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity and transmission in Latin America was carried out to suggest policies and strategies for the use of hepatitis B vaccine in the region. The pattern of HBV endemicity based on available data from blood bank screening programmes and clinical and epidemiological studies varied widely: it was low in temperate South America, Mexico and some Caribbean islands; moderate in Brazil, Andean countries, part of central America and the Caribbean; and high in Hispaniola, St. Kitts/Nevis and in the Amazon basin (parts of Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, Colombia). Statistical estimates of HBV-related morbidity showed that greater than 150,000 acute HBV cases occur per year. As the endemicity of HBV varies considerably, different prevention strategies should be applied in this area. The highest priority should be the prevention of perinatal and early childhood transmission, but vaccination of adults belonging to high-risk groups should also be recommended.

  14. Chagas Disease Awareness among Latin American Immigrants Living in Los Angeles, California

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Daniel R.; Traina, Mahmoud I.; Hernandez, Salvador; Smer, Aiman M.; Khamag, Haneen; Meymandi, Sheba K.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 300,000 persons have Chagas disease in the United States, although almost all persons acquired the disease in Latin America. We examined awareness of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. We surveyed 2,677 persons (age range = 18–60 years) in Los Angeles who resided in Latin America for at least six months. A total of 62% of the participants recalled seeing triatomines in Latin America, and 27% of the participants reported triatomine bites at least once per year while living abroad. A total of 86% of the participants had never heard of Chagas disease. Of persons who had heard of Chagas disease, 81% believed that it was not serious. More than 95% of those who had heard of Chagas disease would want to be tested and treated. Most Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles recalled exposure to vectors of Chagas disease. However, they have little knowledge of this disease. Increasing awareness of Chagas disease is needed in this high-risk population. PMID:25200261

  15. Tobacco smoking in seven Latin American cities: the CARMELA study

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, B M; Schargrodsky, H; Pramparo, P; Boissonnet, C; Wilson, E

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to explore tobacco smoking in seven major cities of Latin America. Methods The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study is a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 11 550 adults between 25 and 64 years old in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. Tobacco smoking, including cigarettes, cigars and pipes, was surveyed among other cardiovascular risk factors. Results Santiago and Buenos Aires had the highest smoking prevalence (45.4% and 38.6%, respectively); male and female rates were similar. In other cities, men smoked more than women, most markedly in Quito (49.4% of men vs 10.5% of women). Peak male smoking prevalence occurred among the youngest two age groups (25–34 and 35–44 years old). Men and women of Buenos Aires smoked the highest number of cigarettes per day on average (15.7 and 12.4, respectively). Men initiated regular smoking earlier than women in each city (ranges 13.7–20.0 years vs 14.2–21.1 years, respectively). Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at workplace for more than 5 h per day was higher in Barquisimeto (28.7%), Buenos Aires (26.8%) and Santiago (21.5%). The highest prevalence of former smokers was found among men in Buenos Aires, Santiago and Lima (30.0%, 26.8% and 26.0% respectively). Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high in the seven CARMELA cities, although patterns of smoking varied among cities. A major health and economic burden is inevitable in urban Latin America unless effective comprehensive tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are implemented. PMID:20709777

  16. Latin American Consensus: Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA) experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ≤ -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature (< -2.0 SD) and a growth velocity < 25th percentile for their age, and should continue until final height (a growth velocity below 2 cm/year or a bone age of > 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys) is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group

  17. Liquid biofuels as a development tool in Latin American agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    McCombs, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a policy analysis to explore a distinct interpretation of issues in the vital inter-sector relationship of energy and agriculture. Bioenergy to power a sustainable agriculture, and beyond, is seen as a viable possibility in response to often-contradictory goals of both sectors. The greatest critical energy needs in agriculture have been long identified as fertilizer and fuels. The paper examines large and small scales of liquid biofuel production and the potential of Latin America small farms not only to contribute to fuel and fertilizer supply but to participate more broadly in rural economic development.

  18. Latin American and Caribbean intercomparison of surface contamination monitoring equipment.

    PubMed

    Cabral, T S; Ramos, M M O; Laranjeira, A S; Santos, D S; Suarez, R C

    2011-03-01

    In October 2009, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored an intercomparison exercise of surface contamination monitoring equipment, which was held at the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, from the Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro. This intercomparison was performed to evaluate the calibration accessibility in Latin America and the Caribbean. Thirteen countries within the region and IAEA have sent instruments to be compared, but only five countries and IAEA were considered apt to participate. Analysis of instruments, results and discussions are presented and recommendations are drawn. PMID:21051429

  19. Approach to sustainable e-Infrastructures - The case of the Latin American Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Roberto; Diacovo, Ramon; Brasileiro, Francisco; Carvalho, Diego; Dutra, Inês; Faerman, Marcio; Gavillet, Philippe; Hoeger, Herbert; Lopez Pourailly, Maria Jose; Marechal, Bernard; Garcia, Rafael Mayo; Neumann Ciuffo, Leandro; Ramos Pollan, Paul; Scardaci, Diego; Stanton, Michael

    2010-05-01

    The EELA (E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America) and EELA-2 (E-science grid facility for Europe and Latin America) projects, co-funded by the European Commission under FP6 and FP7, respectively, have been successful in building a high capacity, production-quality, scalable Grid Facility for a wide spectrum of applications (e.g. Earth & Life Sciences, High energy physics, etc.) from several European and Latin American User Communities. This paper presents the 4-year experience of EELA and EELA-2 in: • Providing each Member Institution the unique opportunity to benefit of a huge distributed computing platform for its research activities, in particular through initiatives such as OurGrid which proposes a so-called Opportunistic Grid Computing well adapted to small and medium Research Laboratories such as most of those of Latin America and Africa; • Developing a realistic strategy to ensure the long-term continuity of the e-Infrastructure in the Latin American continent, beyond the term of the EELA-2 project, in association with CLARA and collaborating with EGI. Previous interactions between EELA and African Grid members at events such as the IST Africa'07, 08 and 09, the International Conference on Open Access'08 and EuroAfriCa-ICT'08, to which EELA and EELA-2 contributed, have shown that the e-Infrastructure situation in Africa compares well with the Latin American one. This means that African Grids are likely to face the same problems that EELA and EELA-2 experienced, especially in getting the necessary User and Decision Makers support to create NGIs and, later, a possible continent-wide African Grid Initiative (AGI). The hope is that the EELA-2 endeavour towards sustainability as described in this presentation could help the progress of African Grids.

  20. Transport and health: a look at three Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Janeth Mosquera; Reis, Rodrigo S; Frank, Lawrence D; Ramirez-Marrero, Farah A; Welle, Benjamin; Arriaga Cordero, Eugenio; Mendez Paz, Fabian; Crespo, Carlos; Dujon, Veronica; Jacoby, Enrique; Dill, Jennifer; Weigand, Lynn; Padin, Carlos M

    2013-04-01

    Transport is associated with environmental problems, economic losses, health and social inequalities. A number of European and US cities have implemented initiatives to promote multimodal modes of transport. In Latin America changes are occurring in public transport systems and a number of projects aimed at stimulating non-motorized modes of transport (walking and cycling) have already been implemented. Based on articles from peer-reviewed academic journals, this paper examines experiences in Bogotá (Colombia), Curitiba (Brazil), and Santiago (Chile), and identifies how changes to the transport system contribute to encourage active transportation. Bus rapid transit, ciclovias, bike paths/lanes, and car use restriction are initiatives that contribute to promoting active transportation in these cities. Few studies have been carried out on the relationship between transport and physical activity. Car ownership continues to increase. The public health sector needs to be a stronger activist in the transport policy decision-making process to incorporate health issues into the transport agenda in Latin America.

  1. The first Latin American workshop on professional skills for young female scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, A.; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Ponce-Dawson, Silvina

    2015-12-01

    To effectively build capacity for research and training in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) across Latin America and the Caribbean, a gender perspective must be factored in. Working from an awareness of the gender situation as well as of the multiple personal challenges experienced due to gender disparity, a group of Latin American female scientists organized a workshop with the goal of empowering young female scientists and assessing the challenges they face. In this paper we summarize the outcomes of the workshop, highlighting the barriers that are common in the region. Among other aspects, the workshop stressed the need for resource platforms for finding technical and professional networks, jobs, and scholarships.

  2. Treatment of Mentally Ill Offenders in Nine Developing Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Almanzar, Santiago; Katz, Craig L; Harry, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric conditions among prisoners in Latin America is greatly underestimated, and because of the lack of awareness about mental illness among service providers in Latin American prisons, oftentimes these conditions go unrecognized or are not treated properly. In the worst-case scenarios, human rights violations occur. Despite the high levels of need, many prisoners have not received adequate or timely treatment. The sparse existing literature documents prison conditions throughout Latin American countries, ranging from poor to extremely harsh, overcrowded, and life threatening. Most prison systems do not meet international prison standards. The information on forensic mental health services and the treatment of offenders with mental illness have been less extensively studied and compared with forensic practices in developed American nations. This study analyzes the existing literature on forensic psychiatry, focusing on nine socioeconomically developing nations in Latin America, to improve understanding of treatment approaches for offenders with mental illness and identify emerging themes. A review was conducted and data were included in regression analyses to investigate information relative to the treatment of offenders with mental illness and its interaction with the mental health system.

  3. Treatment of Mentally Ill Offenders in Nine Developing Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Almanzar, Santiago; Katz, Craig L; Harry, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric conditions among prisoners in Latin America is greatly underestimated, and because of the lack of awareness about mental illness among service providers in Latin American prisons, oftentimes these conditions go unrecognized or are not treated properly. In the worst-case scenarios, human rights violations occur. Despite the high levels of need, many prisoners have not received adequate or timely treatment. The sparse existing literature documents prison conditions throughout Latin American countries, ranging from poor to extremely harsh, overcrowded, and life threatening. Most prison systems do not meet international prison standards. The information on forensic mental health services and the treatment of offenders with mental illness have been less extensively studied and compared with forensic practices in developed American nations. This study analyzes the existing literature on forensic psychiatry, focusing on nine socioeconomically developing nations in Latin America, to improve understanding of treatment approaches for offenders with mental illness and identify emerging themes. A review was conducted and data were included in regression analyses to investigate information relative to the treatment of offenders with mental illness and its interaction with the mental health system. PMID:26438812

  4. Ayurveda in Argentina and other Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Berra, Jorge Luis; Molho, Rosana

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the Fundacion Salud de Ayurved Prema Argentina has spread the knowledge of Ayurveda throughout Latin America. The Fundacion is based in Buenos Aires in the Argentine Republic, where it now runs courses in two of the country’s major medical schools - at the School of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires, and the National University of Cordoba’s School of Medicine. Based on an MoU with Gujarat Ayurveda University, at Jamnagar, Gujarat, the Fundacion has been accredited as a Collaborating Center for teaching, assistance and research in the field of Ayurvedic Medicine in Argentina. This has led to successful missions to other countries in the region where the Fundacion and its associates have been able to start dialogues with governments, and in places hold sizeable courses. The knowledge of Ayurveda is now spreading throughout South and Central America and hardly a country remains untouched by it. PMID:21547054

  5. Social epidemiology of mental disorders. A review of Latin-American studies.

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Filho, N

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature about the relationships between cultural change and psychopathology produced by Latin American researchers. With the analysis of 22 epidemiological studies, the author shows how culture has been traditionally viewed by social psychiatric research in Latin America as an independent variable associated with the prevalence of mental disorders. Two basic approaches have been analyzed: one of anthropological origin and the other based on sociological explanations. The hypotheses of cultural shock, stress of acculturation and cultural marginalization belong to the first approach, while the second one is manifested by the notions of urban stress, life change, social support and goal-striving stress. Methodological issues were brought about to evaluate the results on the association of cultural processes and psychopathology available in contemporary socio-psychiatric research in Latin America.

  6. Zebrafish invade Valparaiso: third meeting and symposium of the Latin American zebrafish network.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2014-12-01

    Zebrafish are an excellent model system for research and teaching. Because of their relatively low maintenance costs, beautiful and bountiful embryos, and tool box of molecular genetic technique, zebrafish are ideal for countries with smaller research budgets and less well-developed science infrastructure. For these reasons, zebrafish are growing in popularity as a model system for research in Latin America. In response to this growing need, we held the Third Latin American Zebrafish Network (LAZEN) Course and Symposium in Valparaiso, Chile, in April 4-13, 2014. The course covered a wide variety of topics from fish husbandry to outreach and ended with a symposium hosting excellent scientists from Latin America and beyond.

  7. The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: Summary. Bulletin 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

    This UNESCO bulletin includes reports that focus on diagnoses and strategies that ratify the validity of the goals set by the Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Four articles are featured: "Literacy, Human Rights and Democracy" (Jose Rivero H.); "Primary Schooling and Illiteracy in Latin America and…

  8. Odds and Ends: Instructional Materials Developed at the First National Seminar on the Teaching of Latin American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Miriam, Ed.; Casteel, J. Doyle, Ed.

    Learning activities intended to supplement regular curriculum on Latin American studies at all grade levels are presented. Developed by 60 elementary, secondary, and college level teachers with the cooperation of 35 Latin Americanists at a cross-cultural seminar, the activities were generated with two key objectives in mind--(1) to expand and…

  9. The color of health: skin color, ethnoracial classification, and discrimination in the health of Latin Americans.

    PubMed

    Perreira, Krista M; Telles, Edward E

    2014-09-01

    Latin America is one of the most ethnoracially heterogeneous regions of the world. Despite this, health disparities research in Latin America tends to focus on gender, class and regional health differences while downplaying ethnoracial differences. Few scholars have conducted studies of ethnoracial identification and health disparities in Latin America. Research that examines multiple measures of ethnoracial identification is rarer still. Official data on race/ethnicity in Latin America are based on self-identification which can differ from interviewer-ascribed or phenotypic classification based on skin color. We use data from Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to examine associations of interviewer-ascribed skin color, interviewer-ascribed race/ethnicity, and self-reported race/ethnicity with self-rated health among Latin American adults (ages 18-65). We also examine associations of observer-ascribed skin color with three additional correlates of health - skin color discrimination, class discrimination, and socio-economic status. We find a significant gradient in self-rated health by skin color. Those with darker skin colors report poorer health. Darker skin color influences self-rated health primarily by increasing exposure to class discrimination and low socio-economic status.

  10. The Color of Health: Skin Color, Ethnoracial Classification, and Discrimination in the Health of Latin Americans

    PubMed Central

    Perreira, Krista M.; Telles, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is one of the most ethnoracially heterogeneous regions of the world. Despite this, health disparities research in Latin America tends to focus on gender, class and regional health differences while downplaying ethnoracial differences. Few scholars have conducted studies of ethnoracial identification and health disparities in Latin America. Research that examines multiple measures of ethnoracial identification is rarer still. Official data on race/ethnicity in Latin America are based on self-identification which can differ from interviewer-ascribed or phenotypic classification based on skin color. We use data from Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to examine associations of interviewer-ascribed skin color, interviewer-ascribed race/ethnicity, and self-reported race/ethnicity with self-rated health among Latin American adults (ages 18-65). We also examine associations of observer-ascribed skin color with three additional correlates of health – skin color discrimination, class discrimination, and socio-economic status. We find a significant gradient in self-rated health by skin color. Those with darker skin colors report poorer health. Darker skin color influences self-rated health primarily by increasing exposure to class discrimination and low socio-economic status. PMID:24957692

  11. Current state and future perspectives of the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID).

    PubMed

    Condino-Neto, A; Sorensen, R U; Gómez Raccio, A C; King, A; Espinosa-Rosales, F J; Franco, J L

    2015-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are genetic diseases that affect the immune system and for the last 20 years, the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID) has been promoting initiatives in awareness, research, diagnosis, and treatment for the affected patients in Latin America. These initiatives have resulted in the development of programmes such as the LASID Registry (with 4900 patients registered as of January 2014), fellowships in basic and clinical research, PID summer schools, biannual meetings, and scientific reports, amongst others. These achievements highlight the critical role that LASID plays as a scientific organisation in promoting science, research and education in this field in Latin America. However, challenges remain in some of these areas and the Society must envision additional strategies to tackle them for the benefit of the patients. In June 2013, a group of experts in the field met to discuss the contributions of LASID to the initiatives of PID in Latin America, and this article summarises the current state and future perspectives of this society and its role in the advance of PIDs in Latin America. PMID:25294607

  12. The Challenge of Providing Renal Replacement Therapy in Developing Countries: The Latin American Perspective.

    PubMed

    Obrador, Gregorio T; Rubilar, Ximena; Agazzi, Evandro; Estefan, Janette

    2016-03-01

    The costs of health care place developing countries under enormous economic pressure. Latin America is a region characterized by wide ethnic and per capita gross domestic product variations among different countries. Chronic kidney failure prevalence and incidence, as well as provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT), have increased in all Latin American countries over the last 20 years. From an ethical point of view, life-sustaining therapies such as RRT should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease who might benefit. However, even among Latin American countries with similar per capita incomes and health care expenditures, only some have been able to achieve universal access to RRT. This indicates that it is not just a problem of wealth or distribution of scarce health care resources, but one of social justice. Strategies to increase the availability of RRT and renal palliative-supportive care, as well as implementation of interventions to prevent chronic kidney disease development and progression, are needed in Latin America and other developing countries. PMID:26709109

  13. The Challenge of Providing Renal Replacement Therapy in Developing Countries: The Latin American Perspective.

    PubMed

    Obrador, Gregorio T; Rubilar, Ximena; Agazzi, Evandro; Estefan, Janette

    2016-03-01

    The costs of health care place developing countries under enormous economic pressure. Latin America is a region characterized by wide ethnic and per capita gross domestic product variations among different countries. Chronic kidney failure prevalence and incidence, as well as provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT), have increased in all Latin American countries over the last 20 years. From an ethical point of view, life-sustaining therapies such as RRT should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease who might benefit. However, even among Latin American countries with similar per capita incomes and health care expenditures, only some have been able to achieve universal access to RRT. This indicates that it is not just a problem of wealth or distribution of scarce health care resources, but one of social justice. Strategies to increase the availability of RRT and renal palliative-supportive care, as well as implementation of interventions to prevent chronic kidney disease development and progression, are needed in Latin America and other developing countries.

  14. [From passive to active: policies for Latin American emigrants].

    PubMed

    Maletta, H

    1988-12-01

    The conventional view of emigration holds that it represents a loss of resources from a country and that the only possible policy response is to discourage new emigration while promoting return of those who have left. A new policy is needed based on a fuller understanding of the potential benefits of emigration for the country of origin. The cost of emigration is usually counted as the loss of educational investment, the loss of labor force, and the loss of the contributions to development that would have been made by talented emigrants. But such views usually do not include a serious treatment of the economic problems of labor supply and demand in general or of skilled labor in particular. Underemployment or unemployment of highly educated persons and overproduction of educated persons are problems throughout Latin America and much of the developing world. A truer evaluation of the costs of education which considered decreasing marginal costs rather than average costs per student, nominally variable costs that actually behave as fixed costs, and an adequate assignment of costs for students leaving school before graduating would lead to much lower estimates of average cost per university student in Latin America. Significant emigration may actually result indirectly in an increase in national income by reducing pressure on the labor market and allowing wages to rise for remaining workers. Remittances for emigrants and repatriation of savings may contribute significantly to national income and balance of payments, and may compensate for or even exceed the economic losses of emigration. National policy for emigrants should aim at maximizing the economic benefits of emigration by providing incentives for the accumulation of capital obtained abroad and its transfer to the country of origin. The 1st major goal of emigration policy should be to maintain affective and social ties between the emigrant and the country of origin as a necessary condition for channeling

  15. [From passive to active: policies for Latin American emigrants].

    PubMed

    Maletta, H

    1988-12-01

    The conventional view of emigration holds that it represents a loss of resources from a country and that the only possible policy response is to discourage new emigration while promoting return of those who have left. A new policy is needed based on a fuller understanding of the potential benefits of emigration for the country of origin. The cost of emigration is usually counted as the loss of educational investment, the loss of labor force, and the loss of the contributions to development that would have been made by talented emigrants. But such views usually do not include a serious treatment of the economic problems of labor supply and demand in general or of skilled labor in particular. Underemployment or unemployment of highly educated persons and overproduction of educated persons are problems throughout Latin America and much of the developing world. A truer evaluation of the costs of education which considered decreasing marginal costs rather than average costs per student, nominally variable costs that actually behave as fixed costs, and an adequate assignment of costs for students leaving school before graduating would lead to much lower estimates of average cost per university student in Latin America. Significant emigration may actually result indirectly in an increase in national income by reducing pressure on the labor market and allowing wages to rise for remaining workers. Remittances for emigrants and repatriation of savings may contribute significantly to national income and balance of payments, and may compensate for or even exceed the economic losses of emigration. National policy for emigrants should aim at maximizing the economic benefits of emigration by providing incentives for the accumulation of capital obtained abroad and its transfer to the country of origin. The 1st major goal of emigration policy should be to maintain affective and social ties between the emigrant and the country of origin as a necessary condition for channeling

  16. Latin American hospitals improve postabortion care. Maternal health.

    PubMed

    Harel, K

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 4 million women undergo illegal abortions each year in Latin America and the Caribbean, and hundreds of thousands of women with postabortion medical emergencies or incomplete abortions seek hospital care. Once in an emergency ward, a woman may await treatment for 24 hours, bleeding, frightened, and in pain. A woman in such a situation may also experience nurses who chastise her for becoming pregnant or committing a sin, be examined with several staff members observing, undergo unexplained treatment without anesthesia, and/or leave the service facility without knowing whether she is still fertile or how to avoid pregnancy. INOPAL, Population Council's operations research program on family planning and reproductive health in the region, is working to find the best ways, medically and financially, for hospitals to deliver high-quality, comprehensive services to postabortion patients. Most maternal deaths and injuries could be prevented by access to family planning services and information about contraceptive use. The Population Council and colleagues from hospitals, governments, and nongovernmental organizations are conducting studies in Guatemala, Peru, and Mexico on the emergency treatment of incomplete abortions with the goal of improving and standardizing postabortion services.

  17. The tuition dilemma in the Latin American University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrian, William

    1983-12-01

    Governments in Latin America appear to have reached the limits of public subsidy of higher education and they are searching for funding alternatives. Tuition is viewed as one of the means of diversifying support and thereby of reducing the financial pressures on the budgets of these countries. In addition to the economic rationale, advocates of tuition base their arguments on the inequities of public subsidy, on the concept of `the ability to pay', and the need to redirect public subsidy to the elementary and secondary levels. Opposition to tuition is led by the students, with support from faculty and administration in higher education. Opposition is based on the ideology of `free' education, which views higher education as a basic societal obligation and fears the `privatization' of universities if governments do not fulfill their obligations. Tuition is much more than an economic issue and reflects a traditional distrust of government motives within higher education. Without additional sources of funds, however, it is likely that opportunity for higher education will be denied large numbers of students. It is ironic that expansion of opportunity may depend on the implementation of tuition as one method of raising financial support.

  18. Current status and expected developments in the area of satellite communications in the Latin American and Caribbean region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayala, S.

    1986-01-01

    The present capabilities of various Latin American countries in the area of satellite communications are discussed. Their current needs in this area are covered and how these needs are now being met, as well as prospects for future advancements.

  19. La Traduccion de la Nueva Novela Latinoamericana al Ingles (English Translation of the New Latin American Novel)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez-Ayona, Gerardo

    1978-01-01

    While distinguishing between literary criticism and the scientific study of translation, Latin American translations are analyzed according to the identification of "speech facts," levels of stylistic performance, translating from scratch, and the stylistic features of Rabassa. (NCR)

  20. South of the Border: The NBC and CBS Radio Networks and the Latin American Venture, 1930-1942

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deihl, E. Roderick

    1977-01-01

    Examines the "Americanization" process dominating world electronic systems by surveying research observations and studying the roots of America's first international broadcast which was the shortwave programing of CBS and NBC to Latin America. (MH)

  1. [Contributions from two Latin American psychiatric classifications to the development of ICD-11].

    PubMed

    Rivas Rodríguez, Mar; Reed, Geoffrey M; First, Michael B; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

    2011-02-01

    In the context of the updating of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), this study conducted a code-by-code comparison between the ICD-10 chapter "Mental and Behavioural Disorders" and the diagnostic categories of two Latin American classification schemes: the Third Cuban Psychiatric Glossary (GC-3) and the Latin American Guide to Psychiatric Diagnosis (GLADP). The objective was to help define what categories in the current classification should be broadened and what new categories might be added to the future ICD-11 to make it more applicable in local sociocultural and clinical contexts that differ from those found in regions whose perspectives have historically dominated the ICD, namely, the United States and Europe. It is hoped that the results will contribute to the efforts under way to develop a genuinely international classification system. PMID:21437371

  2. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding intrauterine contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Bahamondes, Luis; Makuch, Maria Y; Monteiro, Ilza; Marin, Victor; Lynen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Intrauterine contraceptives (IUCs), including the copper intrauterine device and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), are among the reversible contraceptive methods with high effectiveness. However, use is low in many settings, including some Latin American countries, mainly due to the influences of myths, fears, and negative attitudes, not only of users and potential users, but also of different cadres of health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of a group of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding IUCs. Methods A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting organized in Chile in 2014 to present and discuss updated information about contraception. Obstetricians and gynecologists from 12 Latin American countries, who reported that they provide daily contraception services in both the public and private sectors, participated in the meeting. Participants who agreed to take part in the survey responded to a multiple-choice questionnaire on issues regarding knowledge, use, and attitudes about IUCs. Results Of the 210 obstetricians and gynecologists participating in the meeting, the respondents to each question varied from 168 (80.0%) to 205 (97.6%). Almost 50% recognized that the failure rate of combined oral contraceptives, patches, and vaginal rings is 8%–10%. Furthermore, 10% of the participants did not recognize the high contraceptive effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Additionally, almost 80% of the respondents answered that they did not offer IUCs to nulligravidas and almost 10% did not offer IUCs to adolescents, albeit almost 90% of the respondents reported that nulligravidas are candidates for an LNG-IUS. Conclusion Some deficiencies and contradictions in terms of knowledge and attitudes were identified from the answers of the Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists who participated in the survey. The knowledge and

  3. The 8th Latin American congress on surface science: Surfaces, vacuum, and their applications. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Calderon, I.; Asomoza, R.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 8th Latin American Congress on Surface Science and its Applications. The wide spectrum of subjects covered included theoretical and experimental research in low dimensional systems, vacuum system design, biomaterial interfaces, surface magnetism, superconductivity, catalysis, adsorption, surface imaging, porous and amorphous materials, surface spectroscopies, electronic properties, and other topics. There were 131 papers presented and 26 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  4. Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in Latin American and Caribbean countries

    PubMed Central

    RAZZOUK, DENISE; GREGÓRIO, GUILHERME; ANTUNES, RENATO; MARI, JAIR DE JESUS

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings for the Latin American and Caribbean countries of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Implementation of Community Mental Health Care. It presents an overview of the provision of mental health services in the region; describes key experiences in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Jamaica and Mexico; and discusses the lessons learned in developing community mental health care. PMID:23024680

  5. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies.

  6. Mother-Youth Acculturation Gaps and Health-Risking/Emotional Problems among Latin-American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D

    2015-07-20

    Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p < .05, ES = 0.15) related to less engagement in early health-risking sexual behaviors, possibly reflecting selective acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.

  7. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  8. Increasing access to Latin American social medicine resources: a preliminary report*

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Holly Shipp; Waitzkin, Howard; Eldredge, Jonathan; Davidson, Russ; Iriart, Celia; Teal, Janis

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary report describes the development and implementation of a project to improve access to literature in Latin American social medicine (LASM). Methods: The University of New Mexico project team collaborated with participants from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Ecuador to identify approximately 400 articles and books in Latin American social medicine. Structured abstracts were prepared, translated into English, Spanish, and Portuguese, assigned Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), and loaded into a Web-based database for public searching. The project has initiated Web-based publication for two LASM journals. Evaluation included measures of use and content. Results: The LASM Website (http://hsc.unm.edu/lasm) and database create access to formerly little-known literature that addresses problems relevant to current medicine and public health. This Website offers a unique resource for researchers, practitioners, and teachers who seek to understand the links between socioeconomic conditions and health. The project provides a model for collaboration between librarians and health care providers. Challenges included procurement of primary material; preparation of concise abstracts; working with trilingual translations of abstracts, metadata, and indexing; and the work processes of the multidisciplinary team. Conclusions: The literature of Latin American social medicine has become more readily available to researchers worldwide. The LASM project serves as a collaborative model for the creation of sustainable solutions for disseminating information that is difficult to access through traditional methods. PMID:14566372

  9. [Latin-American Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation Registry: data on the treatment of end-stage renal disease in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Cusumano, A M; Romao, J E; Poblete Badal, H; Elgueta Miranda, S; Gomez, R; Cerdas Calderon, M; Almaguer Lopez, M; Moscoso, J; Leiva Merino, R; Sánchez Polo, J V; Garcia, G G; Franco Acosta, B V; Saavedra Lopez, A; Mena, E; Gonzalez, C; Milanes, C L

    2008-01-01

    Latin America, a region composed of a series of neighboring countries that share their history, Latin ancestry and language (Spanish or Portuguese), includes Mexico, Central America, the Spanish Caribbean islands, and South America. The Latin-American Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation Registry, which has been operative since 1991, collects data from 20 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Venezuela and Uruguay), where 97% of Latin Americans live. The prevalence of renal replacement therapy (RRT) has increased from 119 patients per million (pmp) in 1991 to 478.2 in 2005 (147,158 patients [57%] on chronic hemodialysis, 58,251 [23%] on peritoneal dialysis and 52,565 [20%] living with a functioning kidney graft). The incidence rate also increased from 27.8 pmp in 1992 to 167 in 2005. The increment in prevalence and incidence occurred in all Latin- American countries. The transplantation rate increased from 3,7 pmp in 1987 to 15 pmp in 2005 (7,968 kidney transplants performed this year, the cumulative number being 98,415). Access to RRT was available for every patient diagnosed with end-stage renal disease only in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Venezuela and Uruguay. In Latin America, the incidence and prevalence of RRT increased year by year. Only in some countries is access to RRT available to 100% of diagnosed patients. Detection and prevention programs for chronic kidney disease are needed in the region. Meanwhile, access to RRT has to be improved for everybody who needs it.

  10. [Latin American consensus on hypertension in patients with diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Sánchez, Ramiro A; Díaz, Margarita; Cobos, Leonardo; Bryce, Alfonso; Parra-Carrillo, José Z; Lizcano, Fernando; Lanas, Fernando; Sinay, Isaac; Sierra, Iván D; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Benderky, Mario; Schmid, Helena; Botero, Rodrigo; Urina, Manuel; Lara, Joffre; Foos, Milton C; Márquez, Gustavo; Harrap, Stephen; Ramírez, Agustín J; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The present document has been prepared by a group of experts, members of Cardiology, Endocrinology, Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Diabetes societies of Latin American countries, to serve as a guide to physicians taking care of patients with diabetes, hypertension and comorbidities or complications of both conditions. Although the concept of metabolic syndrome is currently disputed, the higher prevalence in Latin America of that cluster of metabolic alterations has suggested that metabolic syndrome is useful nosography entity in the context of Latin American medicine. Therefore, in the present document, particular attention is paid to this syndrome in order to alert physicians on a particular high- risk population, usually underestimated and undertreated. These recommendations results from presentation and debates by discussion panels during a 2-day conference held in Bucaramanga, in October 2012, and all the participants have approved the final conclusions. The authors acknowledge that the publication and diffusion of guidelines do not suffice to achieve the recommended changes in diagnostic or therapeutic strategies, and plan suitable interventions overcoming both physicians and patients from effectively adhering to guideline recommendations. PMID:24365579

  11. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS)

    PubMed Central

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G.; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952

  12. Differences on Primary Care Labor Perceptions in Medical Students from 11 Latin American Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Mejia, Christian R.; Abudinén A., Gabriel; Azucas-Peralta, Rita; Barrezueta-Fernandez, Jorge; Cerna-Urrutia, Luis; DaSilva-DeAbreu, Adrián; Mondragón-Cardona, Alvaro; Moya, Geovanna; Valverde-Solano, Christian D.; Theodorus-Villar, Rhanniel; Vizárraga-León, Maribel

    2016-01-01

    Background The shortage in Latin-American Primary Care (PC) workforce may be due to negative perceptions about it. These perceptions might be probably influenced by particular features of health systems and academic environments, thus varying between countries. Methods Observational, analytic and cross-sectional multicountry study that evaluated 9,561 first and fifth-year medical students from 63 medical schools of 11 Latin American countries through a survey. Perceptions on PC work was evaluated through a previously validated scale. Tertiles of the scores were created in order to compare the different countries. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated using simple and multiple Poisson regression with robust variance. Results Approximately 53% of subjects were female; mean age was 20.4±2.9 years; 35.5% were fifth-year students. Statistically significant differences were found between the study subjects’ country, using Peru as reference. Students from Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Paraguay perceived PC work more positively, while those from Ecuador showed a less favorable position. No differences were found among perceptions of Bolivian, Salvadoran, Honduran and Venezuelan students when compared to their Peruvian peers. Conclusions Perceptions of PC among medical students from Latin America vary according to country. Considering such differences can be of major importance for potential local specific interventions. PMID:27414643

  13. Latin American consensus on hypertension in patients with diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Sánchez, Ramiro A; Diaz, Margarita; Cobos, Leonardo; Bryce, Alfonso; Parra Carrillo, Jose Z; Lizcano, Fernando; Lanas, Fernando; Sinay, Isaac; Sierra, Iván D; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Bendersky, Mario; Schmid, Helena; Botero, Rodrigo; Urina, Manuel; Lara, Joffre; Foss, Milton C; Márquez, Gustavo; Harrap, Stephen; Ramírez, Agustín J; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    The present document has been prepared by a group of experts, members of cardiology, endocrinology and diabetes societies of Latin American countries, to serve as a guide to physicians taking care of patients with diabetes, hypertension and comorbidities or complications of both conditions. Although the concept of 'metabolic syndrome' is currently disputed, the higher prevalence in Latin America of that cluster of metabolic alterations has suggested that 'metabolic syndrome' is a useful nosographic entity in the context of Latin American medicine. Therefore, in the present document, particular attention is paid to this syndrome in order to alert physicians on a particularly high-risk population, usually underestimated and undertreated. These recommendations result from presentations and debates by discussion panels during a 2-day conference held in Bucaramanga, in October 2012, and all the participants have approved the final conclusions. The authors acknowledge that the publication and diffusion of guidelines do not suffice to achieve the recommended changes in diagnostic or therapeutic strategies, and plan suitable interventions overcoming knowledge, attitude and behavioural barriers, preventing both physicians and patients from effectively adhering to guideline recommendations.

  14. [Latin American consensus on hypertension in patients with diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Sánchez, Ramiro A; Diaz, Margarita; Cobos, Leonardo; Bryce, Alfonso; Parra-Carrillo, Jose Z; Lizcano, Fernando; Lanas, Fernando; Sinay, Isaac; Sierra, Iván D; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Bendersky, Mario; Schmid, Helena; Botero, Rodrigo; Urina, Manuel; Lara, Joffre; Foss, Milton C; Márquez, Gustavo; Harrap, Stephen; Ramírez, Agustín J; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    The present document has been prepared by a group of experts, members of cardiology, endocrinology, internal medicine, nephrology and diabetes societies of Latin American countries, to serve as a guide to physicians taking care of patients with diabetes, hypertension and comorbidities or complications of both conditions. Although the concept of metabolic syndrome is currently disputed, the higher prevalence in Latin America of that cluster of metabolic alterations has suggested that metabolic syndrome is a useful nosography entity in the context of Latin American medicine. Therefore, in the present document, particular attention is paid to this syndrome in order to alert physicians on a particular high-risk population, usually underestimated and undertreated. These recommendations result from presentations and debates by discussion panels during a 2-day conference held in Bucaramanga, in October 2012, and all the participants have approved the final conclusions. The authors acknowledge that the publication and diffusion of guidelines do not suffice to achieve the recommended changes in diagnostic or therapeutic strategies, and plan suitable interventions overcoming knowledge, attitude and behavioural barriers, preventing both physicians and patients from effectively adhering to guideline recommendations.

  15. [Latin American consensus on hypertension in patients with diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Sánchez, Ramiro A; Díaz, Margarita; Cobos, Leonardo; Bryce, Alfonso; Parra-Carrillo, José Z; Lizcano, Fernando; Lanas, Fernando; Sinay, Isaac; Sierra, Iván D; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Benderky, Mario; Schmid, Helena; Botero, Rodrigo; Urina, Manuel; Lara, Joffre; Foos, Milton C; Márquez, Gustavo; Harrap, Stephen; Ramírez, Agustín J; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The present document has been prepared by a group of experts, members of Cardiology, Endocrinology, Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Diabetes societies of Latin American countries, to serve as a guide to physicians taking care of patients with diabetes, hypertension and comorbidities or complications of both conditions. Although the concept of metabolic syndrome is currently disputed, the higher prevalence in Latin America of that cluster of metabolic alterations has suggested that metabolic syndrome is useful nosography entity in the context of Latin American medicine. Therefore, in the present document, particular attention is paid to this syndrome in order to alert physicians on a particular high- risk population, usually underestimated and undertreated. These recommendations results from presentation and debates by discussion panels during a 2-day conference held in Bucaramanga, in October 2012, and all the participants have approved the final conclusions. The authors acknowledge that the publication and diffusion of guidelines do not suffice to achieve the recommended changes in diagnostic or therapeutic strategies, and plan suitable interventions overcoming both physicians and patients from effectively adhering to guideline recommendations.

  16. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS).

    PubMed

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z; Tucker, Katherine L; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952

  17. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS).

    PubMed

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z; Tucker, Katherine L; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-09-16

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region.

  18. High Energy Physics: Proceedings of the Fifth Latin American Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano Salinas, C. J.; Pereyra Ravinez, O.; Ochoa Jiménez, R.; Masperi, Luis

    2006-04-01

    Preface -- Series editorial board and other committees -- Local organizing committee -- Foreword by the editors -- Gallery -- Homages. In Memoriam Luis Masperi. Round table: collaborations in physics in Latin America -- Lectures. An introduction to strings and some of its phenomenological aspects / G. Aldazabal. Neutrino phenomenology / E. Roulet. An introduction to cosmology / D. J. H. Chung. Innovative experimental particle physics through technological advances-past, present and future / H. W. K. Cheung -- Seminars. Grand unification and physics beyond the standard model / E. Ma. QCD evolution in dense medium / M. B. Gay Ducati. Future experiments-GRID and LHC / A. Santoro. BTeV: using heavy quark decays to test the standard model / M. Sheaff. Recent results from CDF and DO experiments / C. Avila. Matter under extreme conditions the ALICE experiment / G. Herrera Corral and ALICE-Mexico. Recent results from PHOBOS at RHIC / E. Garcia -- Contributions. SO(10) as the minimal supersymmetric GUT / A. Melfo. A supersymmetric three-family model without Higgsinos / W. A. Ponce and L. A. Sánchez. Area-preserving diffeomorphisms groups, the Majorana representation of spins, and SU(N) / J. D. Swain. On the magnetized Kerr-Newman black hole electrodynamics / E. P. Esteban. Supernova neutrinos and the absolute scale of neutrino masses-a Bayesian approach / E. Nardi. Loop quantum gravity and ultra high energy cosmic rays / J. Alfaro and G. A. Palma. QQ¯ bound states in an extended QCD2 model / P. Labraña, J. Alfaro and A. A. Andrianov. Observational constraints on Lorentz symmetry deformation / J. Alfaro and M. Cambiaso. Variable-mass dark matter and the age of the universe / U. Franca and R. Rosenfeld. Dynamical study of spinodal decomposition in heavy ion collisions / A. Barraṍn and J. A. López. Predictions for single spin asymmetries in inclusive reactions involving photons / V. Gupta, C. J. Solano Salinas and H. S. Mani. Bosonization and the generalized Mandelstam

  19. Interaction of science and diplomacy: Latin American, the United States and nuclear energy, 1945-1955

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral, R.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear programs in Argentina and Brazil can be traced to August 1945 when their scientific communities articulated responses to the atomic bombings of Japan. They culminated in attempts to develop independent nuclear programs, sharply opposed by the United States, during the nationalist governments of Juan Peron and Getulio Vargas. This dissertation, based on primary sources from the three nations, analyzes these programs and the American responses. Latin America entered the nuclear age attempting to control natural resources, to improve scientific establishments, and to appraise Latin American-United States relations. Despite some clear warnings about nuclear dangers, the new form of energy was seen as the solution to industrial problems, poverty, and outside political interference. International opposition, which may have included nuclear threats from the United States, blocked Argentina's first attempt in 1947. After 1948, Peron wanted a nuclear program for cheap energy and prestige. The qualifications of the Brazilian scientists gave more substance to their program. The program originated in August, 1945, but assumed national proportion with the government of Vargas in 1951. Lack of American cooperation forced Vargas to establish a secret program with Germany. American troops intervened taking over the German equipment already completed. The final collapse came about with Vargas' suicide in August, 1954.

  20. Ancestry variation and footprints of natural selection along the genome in Latin American populations.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lian; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Sijia

    2016-01-01

    Latin American populations stem from the admixture of Europeans, Africans and Native Americans, which started over 400 years ago and had lasted for several centuries. Extreme deviation over the genome-wide average in ancestry estimations at certain genomic locations could reflect recent natural selection. We evaluated the distribution of ancestry estimations using 678 genome-wide microsatellite markers in 249 individuals from 13 admixed populations across Latin America. We found significant deviations in ancestry estimations including three locations with more than 3.5 times standard deviations from the genome-wide average: an excess of European ancestry at 1p36 and 14q32, and an excess of African ancestry at 6p22. Using simulations, we could show that at least the deviation at 6p22 was unlikely to result from genetic drift alone. By applying different linguistic groups as well as the most likely ancestral Native American populations as the ancestry, we showed that the choice of Native American ancestry could affect the local ancestry estimation. However, the signal at 6p22 consistently appeared in most of the analyses using various ancestral groups. This study provided important insights for recent natural selection in the context of the unique history of the New World and implications for disease mapping. PMID:26887503

  1. [Which are the most influential journals, books and scientists in Latin American biology?].

    PubMed

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Benavides-Varela, Catalina; Morera, Bernal

    2004-03-01

    A survey was distributed by e-mail to 553 biologists who study the Neotropics, in order to identify the journals, books and researchers with the greatest influence over Latin American biology. The biologists' database of the Revista de Biología Tropical was used to obtain their addresses. One third of them answered. The Revista de Biología Tropical is considered the most influential journal in the region. The majority of other influential journals are published in developed countries. The thematic distribution of answers, as well as independent assessments found in the literature, indicate that these and other survey results are not biased by the use of the journal's database. By subject, marine and ecological journals are the most influential. In contrast with American science, there are no researchers or books that clearly dominate the field. These results hint to the subjectivity of many awards and qualifications and possibly reflect a lack of tradition regarding appearance of local scientists in the mass media, the small capacity of world wide diffusion for local research and the low priority of science in the Iberoamerican culture. Latin American journals should improve, specially through efficient communication with authors, stringent rejection of inferior manuscripts and through widespread and timely distribution. The marked dominance by male researchers may reflect the lower number of women in the field, and social inequality. Despite the absence of "superstars", there was a correlation: most scientists in the "list of outstanding researchers" were from large countries. The publication of the most influential journal in one of the smallest countries of the region might reflect the relatively long period of existence of the Revista (half a century), the lack of other alternatives in the region and the journal's inclusion in international indices. Recommendations for Latin American science include a selection of the best journals to receive financial

  2. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey George Harkness III, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey George Harkness III, Photographer, April 10, 1934 VIEW OF DOME AND LANTERN FROM NORTH - Old St. Louis Courthouse, Fourth to Broadway, Market to Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey George Harkness III, Photographer, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey George Harkness III, Photographer, April 10, 1934 VIEW OF DOME AND DRUM FROM NORTH - Old St. Louis Courthouse, Fourth to Broadway, Market to Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer, Robert Fulton III, June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer, Robert Fulton III, June 1967 INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST - Third Congregational Society, Church of the Redeemer, 292 Orange Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  5. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Robert Fulton III, Photographer, June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Robert Fulton III, Photographer, June 1967 CHOIR LOFT, LOOKING EAST - Third Congregational Society, Church of the Redeemer, 292 Orange Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Robert Fulton III, Photographer, June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Robert Fulton III, Photographer, June 1967 REAR OF CITY HALL - New Haven City Hall & Courthouse, Church Street, between Court & Elm Streets, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  7. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Robert Fulton III, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Robert Fulton III, Photographer June 1967 FRONT FACADE FACING NEW HAVEN GREEN - First Church of Christ, Congregational, Temple Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer, Robert Fulton III, June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer, Robert Fulton III, June 1967 EXTERIOR, FACING WALL STREET - Third Congregational Society, Church of the Redeemer, 292 Orange Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  9. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Robert Fulton III, Photographer, June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Robert Fulton III, Photographer, June 1964 NORTHWEST (REAR) FACADE, FACING HIGH STREET - Yale University, Dwight Hall, 69 High Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  10. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Robert Fulton III, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Robert Fulton III, Photographer June 1967 MAIN BANKING ROOM ENTRANCE, FACING SOUTH - Townsend City Savings Bank, 793 Chapel Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  11. [Challenges to Latin-American health systems: what can be learned from the European experience?].

    PubMed

    Figueras, J; Musgrove, P; Carrin, G; Durán, A

    2002-01-01

    This article compares the challenges of health systems in Latin America and the experience in Europe. The framework is the analysis of four functions: a) to generate resources; b) to produce activities; c) to finance, and d) to exercise stewardship. It is at this level where actors can influence health system responsiveness. Five challenges are identified in Latin America: a) to extend (prepayment and solidarity) financial protection; b) to stabilise that protection for crisis times; c) to equilibrate resources in accordance to capacity for financing services; d) to increase efficiency (technical and of placement) to produce services, and e) to improve the stewardship function in public and private sectors (the most important and difficult challenge Latin-American systems have nowadays). The experience of reform in Europe is analysed, showing: a) experiences about financial protection in Beveridge and Bismarck systems; b) stability in crisis times, recently confirm (West) and with important obstacles (East); c) efforts to equilibrate hospital beds and health care professionals, combining regulation and incentives; d) increase of efficiency in services production, with more express prioritisation, empowering patients, decentralising management and with market incentives, and e) improvement of stewardship with better (not less, sometimes even more) regulation. Three areas of European experience stand out: a) to combine solidarity with financial sustainability; b) to introduce market incentives in a measured way, but maintaining a clear stewardship role for the state, and c) to adopt innovations in organising and producing services. In spite of methodological difficulties, convergence of challenges and adopted solutions justify this analysis, but learning must be seen in each national context. A future article will analyse lessons offered by reform in Latin-American systems for European reforms.

  12. The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Registry Annual Report 2002.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Ana Maria; Di Gioia, Cristina; Hermida, Osvaldo; Lavorato, Carlos

    2005-08-01

    Latin America is a conglomerate of adjacent countries having in common a Latin extraction and language (Spanish or Portuguese) and exhibiting extreme variations in socioeconomic status. The Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Registry was created in 1991. Annual data are sent by local societies in 3 forms: patient, center, and country. The prevalence of renal replacement therapy (RRT) (all modalities) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 349 pmp in 2001; the acceptance rate was 91.7 pmp in 2001. Dialysis prevalence was 277 pmp; hemodialysis was the predominant modality, except in Mexico (86% on peritoneal dialysis). The highest dialysis prevalence and acceptance rates were reported by Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Chile. Among incident patients, diabetic nephropathy (33%) and nephroangioesclerosis (32%) were the primary causes; 38% were older than 65 years old. Renal transplants increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 13.7 pmp in 2001. In 2003, 6357 transplants were performed (55% living donor); the cumulative number performed since 1987 reached 55,947. Prevalence and incidence are low because not all patients with end-stage renal disease have access to RRT because of restricted availability, difficulties in referral, and inequities in coverage. The annual increase in the number of patients on RRT (8%-10%) is higher, proportionally, than the annual growth of the Latin American population in general (1.5%). Efforts must be focused on prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease, especially in diabetic and older patients, and in implementing better organ donation programs to improve the pool of cadaveric donors.

  13. Immigrant advantage? Substance use among Latin American immigrant and native-born youth in Spain.

    PubMed

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen; Luengo, Maria Angeles; Nieri, Tanya; Villar, Paula

    2008-04-01

    This article reports the results of a descriptive study conducted with middle school and high school age youth residing in northwestern Spain. The main outcome of the study is to advance knowledge about the drug use attitudes and behaviors of immigrants versus native youth in a social context where Latin American immigrants share a common language and a set of core cultural norms with the host society. The research was conducted by a bi-national Spain-US research team as a preliminary study leading to the development of joint culturally appropriate prevention interventions for youth in the northern region of Galicia, Spain. Surveys were administered in Spring 2005 to 817 students in 7th to 10th grades in 10 urban, secondary schools with high immigrant enrollment. The sample included Spanish natives (two-thirds) and Latin American immigrants (one-third), mainly from Colombia, Argentina, and Venezuela. Multiple regression analyses predicted substance use intentions, and a composite variable measuring lifetime and last 30-day frequency and amount of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use. Controlling for the fact that the immigrant students were generally older and performing less well academically than natives, and for other predictors, Latin American immigrant youth were less at risk than native youth on their intentions to use substances and on their reported actual substance use. In a mediational analysis, most of the key explanatory variables in youth substance use etiology failed to account for the immigrant versus native differences, including a range of risk and protective factors for substance use, substance use norms, strength of ethnic identity, and degree of social integration within native-born social networks. Differential access to drugs mediated the immigrant-native gap in substance use intentions but did not mediate differences in actual substance use. PMID:18425712

  14. Immigrant advantage? Substance use among Latin American immigrant and native-born youth in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen; Luengo, Maria Ángeles; Nieri, Tanya; Villar, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the results of a descriptive study conducted with middle school and high school age youth residing in northwestern Spain. The main outcome of the study is to advance knowledge about the drug use attitudes and behaviors of immigrants versus native youth in a social context where Latin American immigrants share a common language and a set of core cultural norms with the host society. The research was conducted by a bi-national Spain–US research team as a preliminary study leading to the development of joint culturally appropriate prevention interventions for youth in the northern region of Galicia, Spain. Surveys were administered in Spring 2005 to 817 students in 7th to 10th grades in 10 urban, secondary schools with high immigrant enrollment. The sample included Spanish natives (two-thirds) and Latin American immigrants (one-third), mainly from Colombia, Argentina, and Venezuela. Multiple regression analyses predicted substance use intentions, and a composite variable measuring lifetime and last 30-day frequency and amount of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use. Controlling for the fact that the immigrant students were generally older and performing less well academically than natives, and for other predictors, Latin American immigrant youth were less at risk than native youth on their intentions to use substances and on their reported actual substance use. In a mediational analysis, most of the key explanatory variables in youth substance use etiology failed to account for the immigrant versus native differences, including a range of risk and protective factors for substance use, substance use norms, strength of ethnic identity, and degree of social integration within native-born social networks. Differential access to drugs mediated the immigrant–native gap in substance use intentions but did not mediate differences in actual substance use. PMID:18425712

  15. The impact of Converso Jews on the genomes of modern Latin Americans.

    PubMed

    Velez, C; Palamara, P F; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Hao, L; Karafet, T; Guevara-Aguirre, M; Pearlman, A; Oddoux, C; Hammer, M; Burns, E; Pe'er, I; Atzmon, G; Ostrer, H

    2012-02-01

    Modern day Latin America resulted from the encounter of Europeans with the indigenous peoples of the Americas in 1492, followed by waves of migration from Europe and Africa. As a result, the genomic structure of present day Latin Americans was determined both by the genetic structure of the founding populations and the numbers of migrants from these different populations. Here, we analyzed DNA collected from two well-established communities in Colorado (33 unrelated individuals) and Ecuador (20 unrelated individuals) with a measurable prevalence of the BRCA1 c.185delAG and the GHR c.E180 mutations, respectively, using Affymetrix Genome-wide Human SNP 6.0 arrays to identify their ancestry. These mutations are thought to have been brought to these communities by Sephardic Jewish progenitors. Principal component analysis and clustering methods were employed to determine the genome-wide patterns of continental ancestry within both populations using single nucleotide polymorphisms, complemented by determination of Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. When examining the presumed European component of these two communities, we demonstrate enrichment for Sephardic Jewish ancestry not only for these mutations, but also for other segments as well. Although comparison of both groups to a reference Hispanic/Latino population of Mexicans demonstrated proximity and similarity to other modern day communities derived from a European and Native American two-way admixture, identity-by-descent and Y-chromosome mapping demonstrated signatures of Sephardim in both communities. These findings are consistent with historical accounts of Jewish migration from the realms that comprise modern Spain and Portugal during the Age of Discovery. More importantly, they provide a rationale for the occurrence of mutations typically associated with the Jewish Diaspora in Latin American communities.

  16. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi's Discrete Typing Units in a cohort of Latin American migrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Perez, Angela; Poveda, Cristina; Ramírez, Juan David; Norman, Francesca; Gironés, Núria; Guhl, Felipe; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Fresno, Manuel; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. This is an endemic disease in the Americas, but increased migration to Europe has made it emerge in countries where it was previously unknown, being Spain the second non endemic country in number of patients. T. cruzi is a parasite with a wide genetic diversity, which has been grouped by consensus into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) affecting humans. Some authors have linked these DTUs either to a specific epidemiological context or to the different clinical presentations. Our main objective was to describe the T. cruzi DTUs identified from a population of chronically infected Latin American migrants attending a reference clinic in Madrid. 149 patients meeting this condition were selected for the study. Molecular characterization was performed by an algorithm that combines PCR of the intergenic region of the mini exon-gene, the 24Sα and 18S regions of rDNA and the variable region of the satellite DNA. A descriptive analysis was performed and associations between geographical/clinical data and the different DTUs were tested. DTUs could be determined in 105 out of 149 patients, 93.3% were from Bolivia, 67.7% were women and median age was 35 years (IQR 29-44). The most common DTU found was TcV (58; 55.2%), followed by TcIV (17; 16.2%), TcII (10; 9.5%) and TcI (4; 3.8%). TcIII and TcVI were not identified from any patient, and 15.2% patients presented mixed infections. In addition, we determined DTUs after treatment in a subset of patients. In 57% patients had different DTUs before and after treatment. DTUs distribution from this study indicates active transmission of T. cruzi is occurring in Bolivia, in both domestic and sylvatic cycles. TcIV was confirmed as a cause of chronic human disease. The current results indicate no correlation between DTU and any specific clinical presentation associated with Chagas disease, nor with geographical origin. Treatment with benznidazole does not always clear T. cruzi

  17. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi's Discrete Typing Units in a cohort of Latin American migrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Perez, Angela; Poveda, Cristina; Ramírez, Juan David; Norman, Francesca; Gironés, Núria; Guhl, Felipe; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Fresno, Manuel; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. This is an endemic disease in the Americas, but increased migration to Europe has made it emerge in countries where it was previously unknown, being Spain the second non endemic country in number of patients. T. cruzi is a parasite with a wide genetic diversity, which has been grouped by consensus into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) affecting humans. Some authors have linked these DTUs either to a specific epidemiological context or to the different clinical presentations. Our main objective was to describe the T. cruzi DTUs identified from a population of chronically infected Latin American migrants attending a reference clinic in Madrid. 149 patients meeting this condition were selected for the study. Molecular characterization was performed by an algorithm that combines PCR of the intergenic region of the mini exon-gene, the 24Sα and 18S regions of rDNA and the variable region of the satellite DNA. A descriptive analysis was performed and associations between geographical/clinical data and the different DTUs were tested. DTUs could be determined in 105 out of 149 patients, 93.3% were from Bolivia, 67.7% were women and median age was 35 years (IQR 29-44). The most common DTU found was TcV (58; 55.2%), followed by TcIV (17; 16.2%), TcII (10; 9.5%) and TcI (4; 3.8%). TcIII and TcVI were not identified from any patient, and 15.2% patients presented mixed infections. In addition, we determined DTUs after treatment in a subset of patients. In 57% patients had different DTUs before and after treatment. DTUs distribution from this study indicates active transmission of T. cruzi is occurring in Bolivia, in both domestic and sylvatic cycles. TcIV was confirmed as a cause of chronic human disease. The current results indicate no correlation between DTU and any specific clinical presentation associated with Chagas disease, nor with geographical origin. Treatment with benznidazole does not always clear T. cruzi

  18. [Conceptualizing mental health into practice: considerations from the Latin American social medicine/collective health perspective].

    PubMed

    Stolkiner, Alicia; Gómez, Sara Ardila

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss about the possibilities of a mental health definition from the perspective of the Latin American social medicine/collective health movement. Some relations between that movement and the mental health are pointed out. A historical analysis of that movement is presented. The conceptualizations of the health-sickness-care process are considered, emphasizing the complexity, rights perspective and the reference to life, in contrast with the objetivation/medicalization trend. Finally, these ideas are linked with the current debates on the Mental Health field.

  19. Homophobic Attitudes and Associated Factors Among Adolescents: A Comparison of Six Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Enrique; León, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Homophobic attitudes are still very common in the world, although there are large differences between countries. This study analyzed the responses of almost 30,000 8th- and 9th-grade students from six countries who participated in the Latin American component of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study. Higher levels of homophobia were found in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay than in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Homophobic attitudes were positively associated with being male, having lower levels of empathy, spending less time with friends and the media, having aggressive attitudes, and being more religious, in particular non-Catholic Christian. PMID:26861958

  20. Homophobic Attitudes and Associated Factors Among Adolescents: A Comparison of Six Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Enrique; León, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Homophobic attitudes are still very common in the world, although there are large differences between countries. This study analyzed the responses of almost 30,000 8th- and 9th-grade students from six countries who participated in the Latin American component of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study. Higher levels of homophobia were found in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay than in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Homophobic attitudes were positively associated with being male, having lower levels of empathy, spending less time with friends and the media, having aggressive attitudes, and being more religious, in particular non-Catholic Christian.

  1. Dental health knowledge in a group of Latin American refugees in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Groisman, M; Bratthall, G T; Harari, S G; Tapia, J A

    1989-01-01

    Sixty-nine Latin American refugees with a mean age of 31 years participated in this study. The knowledge about dental health before and after reading a self-instructional manual in Spanish was tested by questionnaires. The test persons were also interviewed about their dietary habits. The results showed an improvement of 30% of right answers after reading the manual and that a frequent sugar consumption was common. This indicates that a self-instructional manual can be of value in oral health prevention in a similar group of non-resident immigrants.

  2. North American Adult Literacy Programs and Latin American Immigrants: How Critical Pedagogy Can Help Nonprofit Literacy Programming in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    As nonprofit adult literacy programs are often the only options for low-income Latin American immigrants in North America, problems accompanying these programs affect the ability of immigrants to benefit from them. North American nonprofit adult literacy programs often struggle due to the difficulties inherent in using volunteer instructors (often…

  3. The First Two Years of the Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (relea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

    2006-08-01

    We present and discuss in this work the motivations, goals and strategies adopted for its creation and launch of the e-journal LATIN-AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMY EDUCATION (RELEA). The RELEA "first light" was in August, 2004 with the appearance of No. 1 and it is now completing two years of existence. The creation of the new journal was prompted by: a) the noteworthy absence of a specific publication in the field in Latin-America; b) the lack of classroom material in Spanish/Portuguese that could be directly used without too many adaptations; and c) the need of a regional forum to discuss and suggest public policies concerning the teaching of Sciences in general and Astronomy in particular. We identify and present the difficulties encountered for the achievement of the proposed objectives and operational issues in this period, together with the adopted solutions (refereeing procedure, periodicity, etc.). Finally, we attempt to evaluate the long-run impact of such initiatives on the scientific education as a tool for effective citizenship decision making, so critical for Third-World countries. References Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E. , 2004, Editorial of the RELEA No.1, available at (http://www.iscafaculdades.com.br/relea/). Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E. , 2005, Editorial of the RELEA No.2, available at (http://www.iscafaculdades.com.br/relea/). Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E., A Revista Latino-Americana de Educação em Astronomia: objetivos e estratégias. In: Encontro Brasileiro de Ensino de Astronomia, 8, 2004, São Paulo. Proceedings. (In press). [The Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education: Objectives and Strategies. In: 8th Brazilian Meeting on Astronomy Teaching.

  4. Genealogical information and the structure of rural Latin-American populations: reality and fantasy.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E E; Adams, J

    1996-01-01

    Genetic data organized in the form of genealogies can provide much information regarding the history and genetic structure of human populations. A large proportion of the population of Latin America is organized in small rural semi-isolated communities, with little immigration, and until the last 50-100 years, little emigration. These communities have a strong sense of their genealogical history, and this "genealogical conscience' is a frequent leitmotif in modern Latin-American literature. In this communication, we compare the characteristics of fictitious genealogies described in two masterpieces of Latin-American literature, García Márquez' Cien Años de Soledad (A Hundred Years of Solitude), and Verissimo's O Tempo e o Vento (Time and the Wind), with one existing well-studied population in Argentina, Aicuña. All three populations exhibit a number of common characteristics, such as histories of long periods of civil war, and large pedigrees with complex paths of inheritance resulting in complex patterns of inbreeding. Genetic themes common to all three are: (1) the use of genealogical records to substantiate the property of the land or the political power of a kinship; (2) the genealogical registry of biological descendants, independent of their legal or marital status in the clan; (3) the existence of pedigrees of the aristocratic branches in the same kindreds, which illustrate the legal principle of primogeniture; (4) the value of last names as indicators of kinships and the extent of genetic isolation, and (5) the awareness of the deleterious consequences of consanguinity.

  5. Latin American special project: kidney health cooperation project between Uruguay and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Sola, Laura; Plata-Cornejo, Raúl; Fernández-Cean, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay and Bolivia are two countries that show heterogenicity of the Latin American region, including the national income, the expenditure on health and the services for renal care. In Bolivia, there is manpower shortage for renal care with only 5 nephrologists per million people (pmp) and the prevalence of patients on dialysis is only 200 pmp. This is much lower than the mean prevalence rate of renal replacement therapy for Latin America as a whole. Uruguay on the other hand has more dedicated renal resources with 50 nephrologists pmp, and renal replacement therapy is provided to ~ 1,000 dialysis patients pmp. In November 2012, a collaborative project financed by the Uruguayan International Cooperation Agency was signed by both the Uruguay and Bolivia Ministries of Health, and the goal was to develop a comprehensive program for the prevention and management of all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Bolivia. The specific objectives were to: a) promote renal healthcare in the primary healthcare setting, b) identify kidney disease in populations at risk, and c) optimize patient care at all stages of CKD, including dialysis and transplantation supported with a national ESRD registry in Bolivia. As a first step, delegates from the Bolivian Health Ministry, visited Uruguay in April 2014, primarily to strengthen the development of tools required for developing and maintaining a national registry. In addition, during this visit, a meeting with the president of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) culminated in designing a training program for peritoneal dialysis. This highly cooperative relationship is advancing the prevention and care of CKD in Bolivia and may serve as a model for international approaches to advance system level CKD care in countries with limited healthcare resources.

  6. Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis: a new boost is needed in Latin American populations.

    PubMed

    Castro-Santos, Patricia; Díaz-Peña, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease which affects several organs and tissue, predominantly the synovial joints. Like many other autoimmune diseases, RA is a complex disease, where genetic variants, environmental factors and random events interact to trigger pathological pathways. Genetic implication in RA is evident, and recent advances have expanded our knowledge about the genetic factors that contribute to RA. An exponential increment in the number of genes associated with the disease has been described, mainly through gene wide screen studies (GWAS) involving international consortia with large patient cohorts. However, there are a few studies on Latin American populations. This article describes what is known about the RA genetics, the future that is emerging, and how this will develop a more personalized approach for the treatment of the disease. Latin American RA patients cannot be excluded from this final aim, and a higher collaboration with the international consortia may be needed for a better knowledge of the genetic profile of patients from this origin.

  7. [Nutritional Sciences' Journals in Ibero Latin American countries in the XXIst Century].

    PubMed

    Culebras, J M

    2012-11-01

    The presence of nutrition as an independent matter in the educational programs of the Spanish Faculties of Medicine has been scanty until the end of the XXth century. We have witnessed an important development of the specific opportunities for the nutritional sciences in terms of quality and quantity in the XXIst century. Only one Ibero Latin American journal, Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición (ALAN, ISSN 0004-0622), was present in the Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition among the 51 journals under the heading of Nutrition & Dietetics. Three more ibero latin American journals have been incorporated to JCR in the XXIst century, Nutrición Hospitalaria (Nutr Hosp, ISSN 0212-1611) in 2006, Revista de Nutricao (Rev Nutr, ISSN 1415-5273) and Revista Española de Nutrición Comunitaria (Rev Esp Nutr Comunit, ISSN 1135-3074) in 2007. The four journals are having a growing importance in other electronic platforms, rendering an important service to the scientific society, not only in their environment, but also in the rest of the world. Although English language dominates scientific communications, the critical mass of already existing journals in Spanish and the area of influence of this language is a good stimulus for continuing its utilization.

  8. Immigration experience of Latin American working women in Alicante, Spain: an ethnographic study 1

    PubMed Central

    González-Juárez, Liliana; Noreña-Peña, Ana Lucía

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe the experience of Latin American working women regarding immigration, taking into account the expectations and conditions in which this process takes place. METHOD: ethnographic qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 Latin American immigrant women in Spain. The information collected was triangulated through two focal groups. RESULTS: the expectations of migrant women focus on improving family living conditions. Social support is essential for their settling and to perform daily life activities. They declare they have adapted to the settlement country, although they live with stress. They perceive they have greater sexual freedom and power with their partners but keep greater responsibility in childcare, combining that with the role of working woman. CONCLUSIONS: migrant women play a key role in the survival of households, they build and create new meanings about being a woman, their understanding of life, their social and couple relationships. Such importance is shaped by their expectations and the conditions in which the migration process takes place, as well as their work integration. PMID:25493683

  9. Genetic Variability and Host Specialization in the Latin American Clade of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christine J; Harrington, Thomas C; Krauss, Ulrike; Alfenas, Acelino C

    2003-10-01

    ABSTRACT The Ceratocystis fimbriata complex includes many undescribed species that cause wilt and canker diseases of many economically important plants. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences have delineated three geographic clades within Ceratocystis fimbriata. This study examined host specialization in the Latin American clade, in which a number of lineages were identified using sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA. Three host-associated lineages were identified from cacao (Theobroma cacao), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), and sycamore (Platanus spp.), respectively. Isolates from these three lineages showed strong host specialization in reciprocal inoculation experiments on these three hosts. Six cacao isolates from Ecuador, Trinidad, and Columbia differed genetically from other cacao isolates and were not pathogenic to cacao in inoculation tests. Further evidence of host specialization within the Latin American clade of Ceratocystis fimbriata was demonstrated in inoculation experiments in growth chambers using sweet potato, sycamore, Colocasia esculenta, coffee (Coffea arabica), and mango (Mangifera indica) plants; inoculation experiments in Brazil using Brazilian isolates from cacao, Eucalyptus spp., mango, and Gmelina arborea; and inoculation experiments in Costa Rica using Costa Rican isolates from cacao, coffee, and Xantho-soma sp. Hosts native to the Americas appeared to be colonized by only select pathogen genotypes, whereas nonnative hosts were colonized by several genotypes. We hypothesize that local populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata have specialized to different hosts; some of these populations are nascent species, and some host-specialized genotypes have been moved to new areas by humans. PMID:18944327

  10. [Nutritional Sciences' Journals in Ibero Latin American countries in the XXIst Century].

    PubMed

    Culebras, J M

    2012-11-01

    The presence of nutrition as an independent matter in the educational programs of the Spanish Faculties of Medicine has been scanty until the end of the XXth century. We have witnessed an important development of the specific opportunities for the nutritional sciences in terms of quality and quantity in the XXIst century. Only one Ibero Latin American journal, Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición (ALAN, ISSN 0004-0622), was present in the Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition among the 51 journals under the heading of Nutrition & Dietetics. Three more ibero latin American journals have been incorporated to JCR in the XXIst century, Nutrición Hospitalaria (Nutr Hosp, ISSN 0212-1611) in 2006, Revista de Nutricao (Rev Nutr, ISSN 1415-5273) and Revista Española de Nutrición Comunitaria (Rev Esp Nutr Comunit, ISSN 1135-3074) in 2007. The four journals are having a growing importance in other electronic platforms, rendering an important service to the scientific society, not only in their environment, but also in the rest of the world. Although English language dominates scientific communications, the critical mass of already existing journals in Spanish and the area of influence of this language is a good stimulus for continuing its utilization. PMID:23568391

  11. Are Latin American and Caribbean men irresponsible with regard to family planning? A surprising male view.

    PubMed

    Santiso, R

    1988-04-01

    The viewpoint expressed in this article by the executive director of family planning in Guatemala is that Latin American men are interested in family planning. The "machismo" of the past is declining rapidly. Reference is made to studies since the 1970s that show that men are open to family planning and will permit their wives to use contraceptives. Men also, if properly informed and if their fears are dealt with, would accept vasectomy or other male methods. In fact, over 40 million Latin American men may be using condoms, and another 15 million practice periodic abstinence. The experiences of APROFAM in Guatemala have shown that males will accept vasectomy. The APROFAM program provides for presentations made to men in factories and in social groups. Announcements are made during football games. The program was successful in part because men's fears about the quality of services were removed. When services were provided in private by dedicated personnel, the acceptance of vasectomy increased. The program was also successful in bringing couples in together to discuss contraceptive services. The percentage of men who supported the use of contraceptives was greater than expected. It is argued that communication campaigns will continue to play an important role increasing male participation by increasing men's knowledge of methods, reducing men's fears about vasectomy, and reducing men's fears about female methods of contraception. PMID:12179851

  12. Latin American health policy and additive reform: the case of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, J L

    1985-01-01

    Until the mid-1960s, the market-based, dependent-development-conditioned structure of Latin American health systems reflected the skewed distribution of wealth in the region: most (including government) health resources were found in curative care medicine and were concentrated in the capital cities, where they primarily served the needs of the elite. But for many countries of the area, the 1964 PAHO-led efforts to introduce health planning, intended as a first step in rationalizing the health sector, marked a fundamental turning point in the structural development of their delivery systems. Since then, this commitment has been reaffirmed in the Latin American Ministers of Health's 1973 adoption of the primary care approach as the cornerstone of their national health plans, and their ongoing endorsement and pursuit of "Health For All by 2000." Guatemala, however, was and remains an exception. Guatemalan technocrats have proven unable to plan effectively. But, far more fundamentally, the Guatemalan oligarchy has proven unwilling to appropriate the resources necessary to effect change. The reforms that have been made have been the products of bilateral and multilateral agencies, which have conceptualized, promoted, designed, built, and underwritten them. Those changes have not altered the fundamental structure of the system, but instead have been tacked onto it, and exemplify what may be termed "additive reform." Evidence suggests that without the continued sponsorship, support, and guidance of the bilateral and multilateral agencies, even these "reforms" will prove evanescent.

  13. Self-concealment, social self-efficacy, acculturative stress, and depression in African, Asian, and Latin American international college students.

    PubMed

    Constantine, Madonna G; Okazaki, Sumie; Utsey, Shawn O

    2004-07-01

    The primary purpose of this exploratory investigation was to examine self-concealment behaviors and social self-efficacy skills as potential mediators in the relationship between acculturative stress and depression in a sample of 320 African, Asian, and Latin American international college students. The authors found several differences by demography with regard to the study's variables. After controlling for regional group membership, sex, and English language fluency, they found that self-concealment and social self-efficacy did not serve as mediators in the relationship between African, Asian, and Latin American international students' acculturative stress experiences and depressive symptomatology. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (15th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 23-26, 1970). Final Report and Working Papers, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Susan Shattuck: Bresie, Mayellen

    Volume 2 contains 13 working papers from the 15th Seminar on Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials. The papers are: (1) A Report on Bibliographic Activities; (2) Microfilm Projects Newsletter; (3) Role of Latin American Legal Material in the Social Science Research Library; (4) A description of sources for Legal and Social Science…

  15. El Que No Tiene Dingo, Tiene Mandingo: The Inadequacy of the "Mestizo" as a Theoretical Construct in the Field of Latin American Studies--The Problem and Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Andrew Juan

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the "mestizo" paradigm as a theoretical construct used in Latin American studies denies the historical and cultural contributions of Africans to Latin American society and that it is fundamentally inaccurate and racist. Discusses ways of correcting these misconceptions. (GR)

  16. Abroad with Translators: Annotated Bibliographies with Introductory Essays on Latin American Literature and Society for the English Language Reader and Student; Bibliographical Essay on Puerto Rico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Robert N.; MacCameron, Robert

    This publication provides an introduction to selected works of Latin American literature that are available in English. Following an introduction that presents an overview of Latin American literature, a brief section lists and annotates relevant works of description, analysis, and criticism. The major section of the publication provides annotated…

  17. Teaching Afro-Latin American Culture through Film: "Raices de mi corazon" and Cuba's "Guerrita de los Negros"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown an absence of Afro-Latin American culture at all levels of Spanish instruction. In this essay, I propose the use of film to expand the undergraduate curriculum. Film provides both a visual and cultural narrative for the understanding of Latin American history, culture, and literature, and is an invaluable resource for teaching…

  18. Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (13th, Lawrence, Kansas, June 20-22, 1968). Final Report and Working Papers. Vol. II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Alma; Rovira, Carmen

    The eight working papers used as documentation for the Thirteenth Seminar are included in volume II. They are: (1) "Progress Report on the Seminars on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials, 1968;" (2) "Significant Acquisitions of Latin American Material by U.S. Libraries, 1967/68;" (3) "A Report of Bibliographic Activities,…

  19. An Amerindian derivation for Latin American creole illnesses and their treatment.

    PubMed

    Colson, A B; de Armellada, C

    1983-01-01

    We present an extended argument which we consider to be sufficient demonstration that a humoral tradition, notably a hot and cold classification, underlies medical etiologies and treatments used by certain groups of South American Indians, and that this is indigenous. We argue that several major, widespread categories of illness and treatments also have a mainly indigenous, Amerindian derivation: that they have not been derived, as often assumed, from unique importations from Spain or other Old World countries, so dating only from the Conquest and surviving in Latin American folk systems up to the present. Our ethnographic data derive from the Akawaio and northern Pemon (Arekuna, Taurepan and Kamarakoto), Carib-speaking Indians in the Guiana Highlands of the border areas of Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. We stress the following points: The existence amongst these Amerindians, as amongst many Latin American creole and peasant groups, of certain specific and distinctive forms and interpretations of illness, their causations and cures. These include the binary oppositions of hot and cold and the notion of imbalance accompanying the concept of the mediate and harmonious state: sould loss through shock and fright: the capture of soul: whirlwind or cold air sickness: illness from contagious and powerful forces. Similarities between practitioners and remedies also exist. An interdependent relationship between indigenous concepts and language relating to the medical system Is demonstrated. Close associations between the medical system and the physical environment and the depiction of these in metaphors and symbols are detailed. Historical evidence in 17th century literature on Carib peoples is taken into account as well as evidence from remote, mostly unacculturated Amerindian societies of the recent past and of today. In the case of the Akawaio and Pemon, only the beginnings of syncretism in the medical system have been discovered. If our ethnographic data and the

  20. An Amerindian derivation for Latin American creole illnesses and their treatment.

    PubMed

    Colson, A B; de Armellada, C

    1983-01-01

    We present an extended argument which we consider to be sufficient demonstration that a humoral tradition, notably a hot and cold classification, underlies medical etiologies and treatments used by certain groups of South American Indians, and that this is indigenous. We argue that several major, widespread categories of illness and treatments also have a mainly indigenous, Amerindian derivation: that they have not been derived, as often assumed, from unique importations from Spain or other Old World countries, so dating only from the Conquest and surviving in Latin American folk systems up to the present. Our ethnographic data derive from the Akawaio and northern Pemon (Arekuna, Taurepan and Kamarakoto), Carib-speaking Indians in the Guiana Highlands of the border areas of Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. We stress the following points: The existence amongst these Amerindians, as amongst many Latin American creole and peasant groups, of certain specific and distinctive forms and interpretations of illness, their causations and cures. These include the binary oppositions of hot and cold and the notion of imbalance accompanying the concept of the mediate and harmonious state: sould loss through shock and fright: the capture of soul: whirlwind or cold air sickness: illness from contagious and powerful forces. Similarities between practitioners and remedies also exist. An interdependent relationship between indigenous concepts and language relating to the medical system Is demonstrated. Close associations between the medical system and the physical environment and the depiction of these in metaphors and symbols are detailed. Historical evidence in 17th century literature on Carib peoples is taken into account as well as evidence from remote, mostly unacculturated Amerindian societies of the recent past and of today. In the case of the Akawaio and Pemon, only the beginnings of syncretism in the medical system have been discovered. If our ethnographic data and the

  1. Social security reform in Central and Eastern Europe: variations on a Latin American theme.

    PubMed

    Kritzer, B E

    After Chile reformed its social security system in 1981, several other Latin American countries and certain Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either a single- or multitier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems retain some form of public program and add mandatory individual accounts. Most of the CEE countries did not want to incur the high transition costs associated with the Chilean model. The switch to a market economy had already strained their economies. Also, the countries' desire to adopt the European Union's Euro as their currency--a move that required a specific debt ceiling--limited the amount of additional debt they could incur. This article describes the CEE reforms and makes some comparisons with the Latin American experience. Most of the CEE countries have chosen a mixed system and have restructured the pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) tier, while the Latin American countries have both single- and multi-tier systems. Some CEE countries have set up notional defined contribution (NDC) schemes for the PAYGO tier in which each insured person has a hypothetical account made up of all contributions during his or her working life. Survivors and disability programs in CEE have remained in the public tier, but in most of the Latin American programs the insured must purchase a separate insurance policy. Issues common to both regions include: Administrative costs are high and competition is keen, which has led to consolidation and mergers among the companies and a large market share controlled by a few companies. Benefits are proportionately lower for women than for men. A large, informal sector is not covered by social security. This sector is apparently much larger in Latin America than in the CEE countries. Issues that are unique

  2. [Open circuit: the exchange of medical and scientific knowledge in Latin American in the early 20th century].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marta de

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Latin American Medical Congresses and International Exhibitions on Hygiene held in the first few decades of the 20th century as a strategy for underpinning and influencing medical knowledge within the specialized community itself and for public authorities, which were fundamental for presenting to society at large as they were seen as the vehicles of official know-how on the art of medicating. These events made up part of a broader movement to internationalize and coordinate the professional field of medicine in Latin America. The article further suggests that the activities that took place during these events played a key role in the propagation of ideas and exchange of experience between Latin American nations, forming a network of scientific exchange in the continent.

  3. Indigenous People and Development in Latin America: A Literature Survey and Recommendations. Latin American Monograph & Document Series 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, J. Montgomery; Frechione, John; DeWalt, Billie R.

    This report presents findings and conclusions gleaned from a review of 42 cases of indigenous development in Latin America. Findings indicate that the lack of a legal framework for indigenous rights presents a basic obstacle to indigenous self-development; the most common aspect of successful indigenous development was involvement of indigenous…

  4. The challenge of changing the inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine in Latin America: declaration of the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE).

    PubMed

    Falleiros-Arlant, Luiza Helena; Avila-Agüero, María Luisa; Brea del Castillo, José; Mariño, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Even though we have already covered 99% of the path to eradicate poliomyelitis from the world, this disease is still causing paralysis in children. Its eradication means not only the end of wild poliovirus circulation, but vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation as well. Taking into account different factors such as: current epidemiological data, adverse events of the attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), the availability of an injectable inactivated vaccine (IPV) without the potential of causing the severe adverse events of the oral vaccine (OPV), the efficacy and effectiveness of the IPV in several countries of the world where it has been used for several years, the rationale of changing the vaccination schedule in different Latin American countries; the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE) announces its recommendation of switching to IPV in Latin America, by this Declaration, with an Action Plan for 2014-2015 period as regards vaccination against polio policies in Latin America. 1. The optimal proposed schedule consists of four IPV doses (three doses in the primary schedule plus a booster dose), whether IPV is combined or not with other indicated vaccines in the immunization program of the country. During the OPV to IPV transition phase, an alternative schedule is acceptable; 2. Countries should set optimal strategies in order to maintain and improve vaccination coverage, and implement a nominal immunization registry; 3. Improving the Epidemiological Surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) and setting up an environmental surveillance program; 4. Setting up strategies for introducing IPV in National Immunization Programs, such as communicating properly with the population, among others; 5. Bringing scientific societies closer to decision makers; 6. Ensuring optimal supply and prices for IPV introduction; 7. Training vaccination teams; 8. Enhancing the distribution and storing logistics of vaccines. In addition to the

  5. The challenge of changing the inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine in Latin America: declaration of the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE).

    PubMed

    Falleiros-Arlant, Luiza Helena; Avila-Agüero, María Luisa; Brea del Castillo, José; Mariño, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Even though we have already covered 99% of the path to eradicate poliomyelitis from the world, this disease is still causing paralysis in children. Its eradication means not only the end of wild poliovirus circulation, but vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation as well. Taking into account different factors such as: current epidemiological data, adverse events of the attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), the availability of an injectable inactivated vaccine (IPV) without the potential of causing the severe adverse events of the oral vaccine (OPV), the efficacy and effectiveness of the IPV in several countries of the world where it has been used for several years, the rationale of changing the vaccination schedule in different Latin American countries; the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE) announces its recommendation of switching to IPV in Latin America, by this Declaration, with an Action Plan for 2014-2015 period as regards vaccination against polio policies in Latin America. 1. The optimal proposed schedule consists of four IPV doses (three doses in the primary schedule plus a booster dose), whether IPV is combined or not with other indicated vaccines in the immunization program of the country. During the OPV to IPV transition phase, an alternative schedule is acceptable; 2. Countries should set optimal strategies in order to maintain and improve vaccination coverage, and implement a nominal immunization registry; 3. Improving the Epidemiological Surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) and setting up an environmental surveillance program; 4. Setting up strategies for introducing IPV in National Immunization Programs, such as communicating properly with the population, among others; 5. Bringing scientific societies closer to decision makers; 6. Ensuring optimal supply and prices for IPV introduction; 7. Training vaccination teams; 8. Enhancing the distribution and storing logistics of vaccines. In addition to the

  6. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Patterns of Learning and Academic Performance of Spanish and Latin-American Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Fernández, J. Reinaldo; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the learning patterns of higher education students from Spain and three Latin-American countries (Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela). For this purpose Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) was translated into Spanish and tested. The participants were 456 undergraduates enrolled in a teacher…

  7. Learning Environments with Technological Resources: A Look at Their Contribution to Student Performance in Latin American Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrasco, Marcela Roman; Torrecilla, F. Javier Murillo

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that computer access and use has a positive effect on the performance reached by Latin American schoolchildren in sixth grade. This is supported by Multilevel models of 4 and 3 levels with data from the Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study, developed by UNESCO (2008) in 16 countries and analyzing around 3,000 schools,…

  8. Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining…

  9. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the women…

  10. Planning, Re-Bordering and Setting Times: A Comparative Analysis of European and Latin American "Education Spaces"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambla, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The article compares educational regionalisation in Europe and Latin America. This analysis unveils the influence of three social phenomena in the two case studies, namely power, fields of activity and knowledge. Mostly, it focuses on the initiatives led by the European Union and the Organisation of Ibero-American States in order to implement…

  11. The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin 10-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The Major Project in the Field of Education stresses renewed and intensive efforts by Latin American and Caribbean Island countries to provide the resources and training necessary to meet basic education needs by the year 2000. This document examines project achievements, innovations, and problems through 1986 in the areas of rural education,…

  12. Educating "Barbaros": Educational Policies on the Latin American Frontiers between Colonies and Independent Republics (Araucania, Southern Chile/Sonora, Mexico)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holck, Lasse; Saiz, Monika Contreras

    2010-01-01

    This article compares the methods and means employed by the state to enforce the education of (semi-)autonomous indigenous groups in southern Chile and northwestern Mexico (Sonora), border regions in the Latin American periphery, covering the transition from colonial times to the consolidation of independent republics until the middle of the…

  13. Los Arboles Hablan: A Spanish Language Curriculum Unit Based on the Study of Latin American Rain Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuman, John P.

    "Los Arboles Hablan," a video-based curriculum that promotes the learning of Spanish as a second language through study of the Latin American rain forests is described. The 12-session unit was designed for use at the middle school level and integrates science, social science, and environmental education with content focusing on the Amazon rain…

  14. Some Notes on the Teaching of African and Latin American Politics and Political Development in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenski, Henry C.; Kenski, Margaret Corgan

    1976-01-01

    Presents comparative 1973 survey data on teaching African politics, Latin American politics, and political development courses in the United States. The authors investigated the (1) use of teaching techniques and evaluation of their effectiveness, and (2) theoretical approaches to political development that were found useful. (Author/ND)

  15. Educating Counseling and Guidance Professionals from a Pedagogy Perspective: Experiences from a Latin American Undergraduate Academic Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, George Davy; Jiménez, Dorelys

    2015-01-01

    Specialized literature shows that counseling and guidance represents an interdisciplinary profession, practiced differently in various Latin American countries. Likewise, counseling and guidance is understood as being a multicontextual and politically worthy profession that is connected to the personal, socioeconomic, cultural, and collective…

  16. The First Two Years of the Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

    2006-08-01

    We present and discuss in this work the motivations, goals and strategies adopted for its creation and launch of the e-journal LATIN-AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMY EDUCATION (RELEA). The RELEA "first light" was in August, 2004 with the appearance of No. 1 and it is now completing two years of existence. The creation of the new journal was prompted by: a) the noteworthy absence of a specific publication in the field in Latin-America; b) the lack of classroom material in spanish/portuguese that could be directly used without too many adaptations; and c) the need of a regional forum to discuss and suggest public policies concerning the teaching of Sciences in general and Astronomy in particular. We identify and present the difficulties encountered for the achievement of the proposed objectives and operational issues in this period, together with the adopted solutions (refereeing procedure, periodicity, etc.). Finally, we attempt to evaluate the long-run impact of such initiatives on the scientific education as a tool for effective citizenship decision making, so critical for Third-World countries.

  17. Gaps In Primary Care And Health System Performance In Six Latin American And Caribbean Countries.

    PubMed

    Macinko, James; Guanais, Frederico C; Mullachery, Pricila; Jimenez, Geronimo

    2016-08-01

    The rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions occurring in Latin America and the Caribbean have led to high levels of noncommunicable diseases in the region. In addition to reduced risk factors for chronic conditions, a strong health system for managing chronic conditions is vital. This study assessed the extent to which populations in six Latin American and Caribbean countries receive high-quality primary care, and it examined the relationship between experiences with care and perceptions of health system performance. We applied a validated survey on access, use, and satisfaction with health care services to nationally representative samples of the populations of Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, and Panama. Respondents reported considerable gaps in the ways in which primary care is organized, financed, and delivered. Nearly half reported using the emergency department for a condition they considered treatable in a primary care setting. Reports of more primary care problems were associated with worse perceptions of health system performance and quality and less receipt of preventive care. Urgent attention to primary care performance is required as the region's population continues to age at an unprecedented rate. PMID:27503978

  18. Group Violence and Migration Experience among Latin American Youths in Justice Enforcement Centers (Madrid, Spain).

    PubMed

    Martínez García, José Manuel; Martín López, María Jesús

    2015-10-30

    Group violence among Latin American immigrant youth has led to ongoing debates in political, legal, and media circles, yet none of those many perspectives has arrived at a solid, empirically supported definition for the phenomenon. This study aims to explore the relationship between the immigrant experience and violent group behavior in youths from Latin America serving prison sentences in Justice Enforcement Centers in the Community of Madrid. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 juveniles, and content analysis was applied to the resulting transcripts, employing Grounded Theory to create an axial codification of intra- and inter-categorical contents, and Delphi panels for quality control. The research team delved into 62 topics, addressing participants' perceptions of the immigrant experience and its effects on five socialization settings (neighborhood, school, family, peer group, and significant other), and each one's relationship to violent behavior. The results led us to believe the young people's immigration experiences had been systematically examined. Their personal and social development was influenced by negative socioeconomic conditions, ineffective parental supervision, maladjustment and conflict at school, and experiences of marginalization and xenophobia. All those conditions favored affiliation with violent groups that provided them instrumental (economic and material), expressive, or affective support.

  19. Group Violence and Migration Experience among Latin American Youths in Justice Enforcement Centers (Madrid, Spain).

    PubMed

    Martínez García, José Manuel; Martín López, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Group violence among Latin American immigrant youth has led to ongoing debates in political, legal, and media circles, yet none of those many perspectives has arrived at a solid, empirically supported definition for the phenomenon. This study aims to explore the relationship between the immigrant experience and violent group behavior in youths from Latin America serving prison sentences in Justice Enforcement Centers in the Community of Madrid. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 juveniles, and content analysis was applied to the resulting transcripts, employing Grounded Theory to create an axial codification of intra- and inter-categorical contents, and Delphi panels for quality control. The research team delved into 62 topics, addressing participants' perceptions of the immigrant experience and its effects on five socialization settings (neighborhood, school, family, peer group, and significant other), and each one's relationship to violent behavior. The results led us to believe the young people's immigration experiences had been systematically examined. Their personal and social development was influenced by negative socioeconomic conditions, ineffective parental supervision, maladjustment and conflict at school, and experiences of marginalization and xenophobia. All those conditions favored affiliation with violent groups that provided them instrumental (economic and material), expressive, or affective support. PMID:26514376

  20. Gaps In Primary Care And Health System Performance In Six Latin American And Caribbean Countries.

    PubMed

    Macinko, James; Guanais, Frederico C; Mullachery, Pricila; Jimenez, Geronimo

    2016-08-01

    The rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions occurring in Latin America and the Caribbean have led to high levels of noncommunicable diseases in the region. In addition to reduced risk factors for chronic conditions, a strong health system for managing chronic conditions is vital. This study assessed the extent to which populations in six Latin American and Caribbean countries receive high-quality primary care, and it examined the relationship between experiences with care and perceptions of health system performance. We applied a validated survey on access, use, and satisfaction with health care services to nationally representative samples of the populations of Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, and Panama. Respondents reported considerable gaps in the ways in which primary care is organized, financed, and delivered. Nearly half reported using the emergency department for a condition they considered treatable in a primary care setting. Reports of more primary care problems were associated with worse perceptions of health system performance and quality and less receipt of preventive care. Urgent attention to primary care performance is required as the region's population continues to age at an unprecedented rate.

  1. Compliance with clinical trial registration and reporting guidelines by Latin American and Caribbean journals.

    PubMed

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Villanueva, Eleana; Iko, Chimaraoke; Simera, Iveta

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine to what extent Latin American and Caribbean biomedical journals have endorsed and complied with clinical trial registration and reporting guidelines. A search of randomized clinical trials was carried out using the LILACS database. The randomized clinical trials identified through the search were assessed to determine whether trial registration and CONSORT guidance was mentioned. Information regarding endorsement of the ICMJE, trial registration and other reporting guidelines was extracted from the online instructions for authors of the journals included in the study. The search identified 477 references. We assessed a random sample of 240 titles of which 101 were randomized clinical trials published in 56 journals. Trial registration was reported in 19.8% of the randomized clinical trials, 6.9% were prospectively registered and 3% mentioned CONSORT. The ICMJE was mentioned by 68% of the journals and 36% of journals required trial registration. Fewer journals provided advice on reporting guidelines: CONSORT (13%), PRISMA (1.8%), STROBE (1.8%), and the EQUATOR network (3.6%). Wider endorsement of trial registration and adherence to reporting guidelines is necessary in clinical trials conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  2. Setting up a scientific community by means of a small grants program: the Latin American experience.

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, R

    1994-08-01

    The study of tropical diseases in Latin America has been dominated by the biomedical sciences, and whilst recently social science health research has been developed, there has been little collaboration between the two. The Latin American Small Grants Programme for Social and Economic Aspects of Tropical Diseases, launched by WHO/TDR in 1990, aimed to attract junior researchers into the area of social sciences and tropical diseases, and to create among them a scientific community. The program is unique in that it has involved the transfer of decision-making power from an international organisation (WHO/TDR) to a regional group. This article discusses the organisational structure of the program, the methods by which the program handled proposals, the evaluation process, the types of research proposals received, a profile of applicants, and the results of the applications. There was a balance of biomedical and social science applications. We conclude that the Small Grants Programme has been successful in fulfilling its objectives, due to the design of the grants scheme itself.

  3. A multicenter study of major depressive disorder among emergency department patients in Latin-American countries.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Puentes, Ruby C; Secin, Ricardo; Grau, Arturo; Galeno, Roxanna; Feijo de Mello, Marcelo; Pena, Nuri; Sanchez-Russi, Carlos A

    2008-01-01

    This multicenter study estimated the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) among emergency department patients in Latin America. To identify patients with MDD, we used a combination of DSM IV- criteria interview and a questionnaire screen including the center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. We analyzed data from consecutive adult patients from hospitals in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico and described the demographic and health status differences between MDD and non-MDD patients. Prevalence of MDD ranges from 23.0 to 35.0%. The estimates are based on a total of 1,835 patients aged 18 years and over, with response rates of 83.0%. Compared to non-MDD patients, MDD patients were more likely to be middle-aged, female, smokers, of lower socioeconomic status, and to report a diagnosis of asthma or arthritis/rheumatism. Multivariate analysis identified a lower level of education, smoking, and self-reported anxiety, chronic fatigue, and back problems to be independently associated with MDD. Our data suggest that the prevalence of MDD is elevated among emergency department patients in Latin American countries. The integration of depression screening into routine emergency care merits serious consideration, especially if such screening can be linked to psychiatric treatment.

  4. Illicit drug use in seven Latin American countries: critical perspectives of families and familiars.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment. PMID:20011899

  5. Wealth gradients in early childhood cognitive development in five Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Schady, Norbert; Behrman, Jere; Araujo, Maria Caridad; Azuero, Rodrigo; Bernal, Raquel; Bravo, David; Lopez-Boo, Florencia; Macours, Karen; Marshall, Daniela; Paxson, Christina; Vakis, Renos

    2014-01-01

    Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and non-cognitive ability appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, we use the same measure of receptive language ability for all five countries. We find important differences in development in early childhood across countries, and steep socioeconomic gradients within every country. For the three countries where we can follow children over time, there are few substantive changes in scores once children enter school. Our results are robust to different ways of defining socioeconomic status, to different ways of standardizing outcomes, and to selective non-response on our measure of cognitive development. PMID:25983344

  6. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  7. SSA 04-1 SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN LATIN AMERICAN GUIDELINES FROM OTHERS.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Agustin

    2016-09-01

    The presentation will focus on the different guidelines we have actually in hands (JNCHT 8, ESH / ESC, ISH) and compare them to the last Latin-American Society of Hypertension Guidelines to be published in this year.In this way, we will focus our attention in the socio-economic problem of the different countries in LA and the differences we have included in our Guidelines due to the actual needs in LA.Additionally we will specially mention the special populations from LA like andineans, people living over 500m from sea level, and the different black populations that are different from those described in North America.Relating treatment the need to use generic forms of drugs related to the economic difficulties to access to original drugs will also be discussed.Finally the need for further studies relating epidemiology, prevalence of hypertension and the morbi-mortality related will be presented. PMID:27643326

  8. SSA 04-1 SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN LATIN AMERICAN GUIDELINES FROM OTHERS.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Agustin

    2016-09-01

    The presentation will focus on the different guidelines we have actually in hands (JNCHT 8, ESH / ESC, ISH) and compare them to the last Latin-American Society of Hypertension Guidelines to be published in this year.In this way, we will focus our attention in the socio-economic problem of the different countries in LA and the differences we have included in our Guidelines due to the actual needs in LA.Additionally we will specially mention the special populations from LA like andineans, people living over 500m from sea level, and the different black populations that are different from those described in North America.Relating treatment the need to use generic forms of drugs related to the economic difficulties to access to original drugs will also be discussed.Finally the need for further studies relating epidemiology, prevalence of hypertension and the morbi-mortality related will be presented.

  9. Latin American Lidar Network (LALINET) for aerosol research: Diagnosis on network instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Landulfo, Eduardo; Antuña, Juan Carlos; de Melo Jorge Barbosa, Henrique; Barja, Boris; Bastidas, Álvaro Efrain; Bedoya, Andrés Esteban; da Costa, Renata Facundes; Estevan, René; Forno, Ricardo; Gouveia, Diego Alvés; Jiménez, Cristofer; Larroza, Eliane Gonçalves; da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Montilla-Rosero, Elena; Arruda Moreira, Gregori de; Nakaema, Walker Morinobu; Nisperuza, Daniel; Alegria, Dairo; Múnera, Mauricio; Otero, Lidia; Papandrea, Sebastián; Pallota, Juan Vicente; Pawelko, Ezequiel; Quel, Eduardo Jaime; Ristori, Pablo; Rodrigues, Patricia Ferrini; Salvador, Jacobo; Sánchez, Maria Fernanda; Silva, Antonieta

    2016-02-01

    LALINET (Latin American Lidar Network), previously known as ALINE, is the first fully operative lidar network for aerosol research in South America, probing the atmosphere on regular basis since September 2013. The general purpose of this network is to attempt to fill the gap in the knowledge on aerosol vertical distribution over South America and its direct and indirect impact on weather and climate by the establishment of a vertically-resolved dataset of aerosol properties. Similarly to other lidar research networks, most of the LALINET instruments are not commercially produced and, consequently, configurations, capabilities and derived-products can be remarkably different among stations. It is a fact that such un-biased 4D dataset calls for a strict standardization from the instrumental and data processing point of view. This study has been envisaged to investigate the ongoing network configurations with the aim of highlighting the instrumental strengths and weaknesses of LALINET.

  10. Particle Physics and Cosmology: First Tropical Workshop; High Energy Physics: Second Latin American Symposium. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, J.F.

    1998-10-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the First Tropical Workshop on Particle Physics and Cosmology and the Second Latin American Symposium on High Energy Physics held in Puerto Rico in April 1998. Topics covered included neutrino physics, dark matter, and cosmology; flavor physics and CP violation, supersymmetry, w physics and standard model tests, and QCD and tau physics. The Workshop was sponsored in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Arecibo Observatory. The combined conference brought together leading experimentalists from the D0 and CDF groups at Fermilab as well as the various LEP collaborations. There are 49 papers included in these proceedings, out of these 25 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  11. Latin American Consensus on the use of transcranial Doppler in the diagnosis of brain death

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler evaluates cerebral hemodynamics in patients with brain injury and is a useful technical tool in diagnosing cerebral circulatory arrest, usually present in the brain-dead patient. This Latin American Consensus was formed by a group of 26 physicians experienced in the use of transcranial Doppler in the context of brain death. The purpose of this agreement was to make recommendations regarding the indications, technique, and interpretation of the study of transcranial ultrasonography in patients with a clinical diagnosis of brain death or in the patient whose clinical diagnosis presents difficulties; a working group was formed to enable further knowledge and to strengthen ties between Latin American physicians working on the same topic. A review of the literature, concepts, and experiences were exchanged in two meetings and via the Internet. Questions about pathophysiology, equipment, techniques, findings, common problems, and the interpretation of transcranial Doppler in the context of brain death were answered. The basic consensus statements are the following: cerebral circulatory arrest is the final stage in the evolution of progressive intracranial hypertension, which is visualized with transcranial Doppler as a "pattern of cerebral circulatory arrest". The following are accepted as the standard of cerebral circulatory arrest: reverberant pattern, systolic spikes, and absence of previously demonstrated flow. Ultrasonography should be used - in acceptable hemodynamic conditions - in the anterior circulation bilaterally (middle cerebral artery) and in the posterior (basilar artery) territory. If no ultrasonographic images are found in any or all of these vessels, their proximal arteries are acceptable to be studied to look for a a pattern of cerebral circulatory arrest. PMID:25295818

  12. Beliefs about health and illness in latin-american migrants with diabetes living in sweden.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, Katarina; Bard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The study explored beliefs about health and illness in Latin American migrants diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) living in Sweden, and investigated the influence on health-related behavior including self-care and care-seeking behavior. Migrants are particularly affected in the diabetes pandemia. Beliefs about health and illness determine health-related behaviour and health but no studies have been found on Latin American migrants with DM. An explorative study design with focus-group interviews of nine persons aged 36-77 years from a diabetes clinic was used. Health was described from a pathogenetic or a salutogenetic perspective: 'freedom from disease or feeling of well-being', and being autonomous and able to work. Economic hardship due to expenses for medications and food for DM affected health. Individual factors such as diet, exercise and compliance with advice, and social factors with good social relations and avoidance of stress, often caused by having experienced severe events related to migrational experiences, were considered important for maintaining health and could cause DM. Disturbed relations to others (social factors), punishment by God or Fate (supernatural factors), intake of diuretics and imbalance between warmth and cold (natural factors) were also perceived as causes. A mix of biomedical and traditional explanations and active self-care behaviour with frequent use of herbs was found. It is important to assess the individual's beliefs, and health professionals, particularly nurses, should incorporate discussions of alternative treatments and other components of explanatory models and co-operate with social workers to consider influence of finances and migrational experiences on health. PMID:23802030

  13. Human Leukocyte Antigen Profiles of Latin American Populations: Differential Admixture and Its Potential Impact on Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta-Bolaños, Esteban; Madrigal, J. Alejandro; Shaw, Bronwen E.

    2012-01-01

    The outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is shaped by both clinical and genetic factors that determine its success. Genetic factors including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genetic variants are believed to influence the risk of potentially fatal complications after the transplant. Moreover, ethnicity has been proposed as a factor modifying the risk of graft-versus-host disease. The populations of Latin America are a complex array of different admixture processes with varying degrees of ancestral population proportions that came in different migration waves. This complexity makes the study of genetic risks in this region complicated unless the extent of this variation is thoroughly characterized. In this study we compared the HLA-A and HLA-B allele group profiles for 31 Latin American populations and 61 ancestral populations from Iberia, Italy, Sub-Saharan Africa, and America. Results from population genetics comparisons show a wide variation in the HLA profiles from the Latin American populations that correlate with different admixture proportions. Populations in Latin America seem to be organized in at least three groups with (1) strong Amerindian admixture, (2) strong Caucasian component, and (3) a Caucasian-African gradient. These results imply that genetic risk assessment for HSCT in Latin America has to be adapted for different population subgroups rather than as a pan-Hispanic/Latino analysis. PMID:23213535

  14. Republic of Argentina: Argentina is the envy of other Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Spain, D

    1984-05-01

    Argentina's economic and political history may appear grim by US standards, but it is envied by many other Latin American nations, and by Latin American standards its demographic situation is enviable as well. A low population growth rate combined with abundant natural resources means that the poverty of its neighbors has not hit Argentina. Almost everyone eats well and the staple is beef -- about 240 pounds per capita per year. Final figures for the 1980 census of population and housing report a total of 27.9 million people, an increase of 17% from the 23.8 million people counted in 1970. The average annual rate of increase was 1.5% a year. With the exception of Uruguay, this is the lowest rate of increase in continental Latin America. The birthrate of 24 births/1000 population is third only to Chile and Uruguay as the lowest in continental Latin America, although the death rate is about average at 9/1000. After several decades of decline, the death rate is rising again because the population is aging. A current problem is the emigration of Argentinians to other countries, a problem that is most severe among highly trained professionals. Over 1/3 of those who leave Argentina come to the US, with Spain and Canada receiving the next highest numbers. At its current growth rate, Argentina's population will double in 46 years. It is estimated that the population was 29.1 million in 1983; it is projected to be 34.5 million by the year 2000 and 39.6 million by 2020. Over 1/3 of the population live in and around Gran Buenos Aires, the largest metropolitan area in South America and among the ten largest in the world. There is a large core of Spanish descendents still living, but some other European countries are well represented also. The 1980 census recorded 7.1 million households; the average number of persons per household was 3.9. There were 8.2 million dwellings counted in 1980, with an average of 3.3 people per dwelling. 13% of all dwellings were unoccupied at the

  15. PREFACE: XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics (17-21 September 2007, Caracas, Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puerta, Julio

    2008-10-01

    Some years ago a group of Latin American physicists took the initiative to consult about the viability of organizing a meeting on plasma physics for researchers and students of the region. The result was that it was not only a good idea, but a necessity in order to show and share everyone's work, and to keep updated on latest advances and technologies on plasma physics. It was decided that for new researchers as well as students of Physics, it would prove to be the best way to keep them posted on such matters. This was the birth of a series of meetings known as Latin American workshops on plasma physics that take place every two years in a different Latin American country. In Venezuela we have had the opportunity to organize two editions of this interesting and important reunion of physicists. The first of these Latin American workshops on plasma physics was held in Cambuquira (Brazil) in 1982. After organizing the first six editions of the workshop, the VII LAWPP meeting was realized in Caracas in January 1997. It was designed with a structure similar to the first edition. It developed in two stages, a first week devoted to short courses with lecturers in different fields of plasma physics and a second week for contributed and invited presentations. Participants from sixteen different countries were present, half of them from this continent and the other half from overseas, demonstrating the international character of this meeting. There have been four more editions of the workshop and once again, we have had the opportunity to organize this latest edition of the series: the XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics, which took place in Caracas, Venezuela from the 17th to the 21st of September 2007. The structure was modified, because contributed and review papers were together during the first stage, with short courses realized during the second one, called mini-courses, and given by several high level contributors such as José Boedo, Leopoldo Soto, Claude

  16. The Latin American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA): contributions and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this work is to present an analysis of articles published by the Latin American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA) since its beginning (2004) to the present. We analyzed the 59 articles available on the website of the journal (http://www.relea.ufscar.br), published in 15 issues. The articles were classified by: year of publication, issue, author's institutions, grade level, focus of the study and content. The results show that the number of articles is still small - although the journal has been initially qualified as B3 within the Journal Ranking scheme Qualis CAPES and in the latest ranking (current) advanced to the concept B1 in the Qualis, it is too early to expect an increase in the number of articles submitted. Among the main factors for the relatively low number of articles we can mention that the initially nominated Editorial Board did not succeed in a proper dissemination of the journal and call for papers, the ongoing absence of a ``critical mass'' of astronomy education researchers and the lack of publishing tradition in the area. Important aspects of the writing of articles submitted are also discussed, such as refereeing, acceptance rate of articles, participation of authors from countries other than Brazil and theoretical and methodological frameworks, as well as the recent editorial restructuration of the international Editorial Board of the RELEA and the nomination of Associate Editors from Brazil. Concluding, it is possible to note the contribution to the field up to the moment through citations in other works in the field. However, it is necessary to advance with regard to: publishing more articles, articles from greater variety of Latin American countries, training of the community for a minimum quality of the writing of articles submitted for publication in a journal aimed at education research. In this sense, additional analyses of the published papers would be desirable. Finally, it is pointed out the need for greater

  17. PREFACE: XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serquis, Adriana; Balseiro, Carlos; Bolcatto, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    This volume contains selected papers which have been presented at the XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX) held at Puerto Iguazú, Argentina, from 5--10 October 2008. The conference, covering all areas of Solid State Physics, is one of the most important and traditional meetings in Physics in our region. The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics is a forum where researchers and students from Latin America as well as leading scientists from other parts of the world get together to exchange information, strengthen collaborations and identify new challenges in Solid State Physics. This successful series of meetings has been organised in eight different countries, the last three held in Mérida, Venezuela (2002), La Habana, Cuba (2004) and Puebla, México (2006). Following the trends of previous events, SLAFES XIX included seven plenary talks, eighteen invited talks and contributions, and 28 oral and 255 poster presentations, covering mostly the latest experimental and theoretical advances in Nanophysics, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Spintronics, Magnetism, New Materials, Superconductivity, Surfaces and Interfaces, Low-Dimensional Systems, Materials Preparation and Characterization, Theory and Computing Simulations of Materials among other topics. The group of scientists participating had come from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Brazil, France, Spain, Switzerland and the USA We are indebted to all participants for their enthusiasm and contributions and to the members of the International Advisory Commitees. We also wish to thank to the rest of the Organizing Committee: Gustavo Lozano, Ana María Llois, Laura Steren and Edith Goldberg and very specially to Javier Schmidt, Gustavo Ruano, Marcelo Romero, Lucila Cristina and Juan Carlos Moreno for their invaluable assistance during the event. Finally we gratefully aknowledge the financial support the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET

  18. [Gaucher disease in Latin America. A report from the Gaucher Disease International Registry and the Latin American Group for Gaucher Disease].

    PubMed

    Drelichman, Guillermo; Linares, Adriana; Villalobos, Jacobo; Cabello, Juan Francisco; Kerstenetzky, Marcelo; Kohan, Regina M; Martins, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    Gaucher disease -due to its low frequency- is considered an orphan disease. In 1991 the International Gaucher Registry was created and in 1992 the first patients from Latin America were enrolled. In 2008 the Latin American Group for Gaucher Disease was initiated. Its main objectives are to promote regional consensus, to stimulate the enrollment of patients into the International Gaucher Registry and the enhancement of knowledge on this disease, and to achieve better care and quality of life of patients in our Region. Until April 2010, 5828 patients have been enrolled all around the world, 911 (15.6%) from Latin America. This is the first comprehensive report of the disease in the Region. In our population there is a predominance of females, the most common clinical form is the type I (95%) and the age at diagnosis is before 20 years in 68% of patients. The most frequent clinical manifestations at diagnosis are splenomegaly (96%) and anemia (49%). Eighty percent of patients had radiographic findings of bone involvement. In our Region, the vast majority of patients (89%) had received enzyme replacement therapy with imiglucerase; with a long follow-up (up to 10 years) they have achieved the therapeutic goals, showing the great effectiveness of therapy. While the percentage of patients with therapy is high, discontinuations are common. The main deficiencies in our Region are: the lack of visceral volumetric evaluations and densitometries as well as molecular analysis for some patients. The main problem is the under-diagnosis of patients. PMID:22892077

  19. Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2014-08-01

    The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI (r(2) 0.86; P < 0.05) and life expectancy at birth (r(2) 0.58; P < 0.05). The HD prevalence and the kidney Tx rate correlated significantly with the same indexes, whereas the PD rate showed no correlation with these variables. A tendency to rate stabilization/little growth was reported in the most regional countries. As in previous reports, the global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r(2) 0.63; P < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (45%) and infections (22%). Neoplasms accounted for 10% of the causes of death. The

  20. Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2014-01-01

    The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI (r2 0.86; P < 0.05) and life expectancy at birth (r2 0.58; P < 0.05). The HD prevalence and the kidney Tx rate correlated significantly with the same indexes, whereas the PD rate showed no correlation with these variables. A tendency to rate stabilization/little growth was reported in the most regional countries. As in previous reports, the global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r2 0.63; P < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (45%) and infections (22%). Neoplasms accounted for 10% of the causes of death. The

  1. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of neuropathic pain: consensus of a group of Latin American experts.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Juan Carlos; Amaya, Abraham; Casasola, Oscar de León; Chinchilla, Nelson; De Giorgis, Marcelo; Florez, Sandra; Genis, Miguel Angel; Gomez-Barrios, Juan Vicente; Hernández, John Jairo; Ibarra, Eduardo; Moreno, Carlos; Orrillo, Enrique; Pasternak, Danilo; Romero, Sabina; Vallejo, Mariana; Velasco, Maritza; Villalobos, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    These consensus guidelines have been developed by a group of Latin American experts in pain management, to point out patterns and make practical recommendations to guide the diagnosis, identify warning signs (yellow and red flags), and establish comprehensive medical management (pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment) and monitoring plans for patients enduring neuropathic pain. From the viewpoint of pharmacologic management, drugs are classified into groups according to efficacy, availability/accessibility, and safety criteria. Drugs are recommended for use depending on the disease and particular circumstances of each patient, with an approach that favors multimodal treatment while taking into consideration the idiosyncrasies of medical practice in Latin America.

  2. Screening of Imported Infectious Diseases among Asymptomatic Sub-Saharan African and Latin American Immigrants: A Public Health Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Norman, Francesca F.; Ferrere-González, Federico; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Migrants from developing countries are usually young and healthy but several studies report they may harbor asymptomatic infections for prolonged periods. Prevalence of infections were determined for asymptomatic immigrants from Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa who ettended to a European Tropical Medicine Referral Center from 2000 to 2009. A systematic screening protocol for selected infections was used. Data from 317 sub-Saharan Africans and 383 Latin Americans were analyzed. Patients were mostly young (mean age 29 years); there were significantly more males among sub-Saharan Africans (83% versus 31.6%) and pre-consultation period was longer for Latin Americans (5 versus 42 months). Diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection, and latent tuberculosis were significantly more frequent in sub-Saharan Africans (2.3% versus 0.3%; 14% versus 1.6%; 1.3 versus 0%; 71% versus 32.1%). There were no significant differences in prevalence for syphilis and intestinal parasites. Malaria and schistosomiasis prevalence in sub-Saharan Africans was 4.6% and 5.9%, respectively, and prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin Americans was 48.5%. Identifying and treating asymptomatic imported infectious diseases may have an impact both for the individual concerned and for public health. Based on these results, a systematic screening protocol for asymptomatic immigrants is proposed. PMID:25646257

  3. Magnetism, Magnetic Materials and their Applications III - Proceedings of the III Latin American Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leccabue, F.; Sagredo, V.

    1996-08-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Section I: Fundamental, Techniques and Materials * Magnetism in finite size Ising aggregates * Magnetic anisotropy in thin films * Magnetocrystalline anisotropy in rare earth intermetallics * Ferromagnetism vs Kondo effect in normal and superconducting CeTyX4-y * Magnetic phase transition and magnetocrystalline anisotropy of rare-earth transition-metal alloys * Giant magnetoresistance and related effects in multilayer and granular magnetic materials for practical applications * Magnetic properties of dilute PdMn alloys * TbFe amorphous thin films. Structural, magnetic and magnetoelastic studies * Nanophase exchange coupled alloys with enhanced hard magnetic properties * Exchange interactions in ferrimagnetic rare earth-transition metal multilayers * Superparamagnetic relaxation in interacting γ-Fe2O3 particles * Magnetic circular X-ray dichroism * Non-frustrated domains in Ising lattices with competing interactions * Thermomagnetic and X-ray diffraction analysis of Nd3Fe29-xTix and (Nd1-xYx)3Fe27.3Ti1.7 alloys * Electron paramagnetic resonance above the ordering temperature in La1-xCaxMnO3+δ * Spin-polarisation at Cr/Fe and Mn/Fe interfaces * Interplay of segregation, phase separation and magnetism in cobalt-copper slabs * High temperature behaviour of amorphous and nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials * Preparation of magnetic oxide thin films * Magnetic interactions in enhanced-remanence permanent magnets * Section II: Poster Session : Fundamental, Techniques and Materials * Magnetic properties in inorganic materials * Thermoreflactance measurements on Cd1-xCoxSe magnetic semiconductors * Analytical solutions of the NCA equations for the Coqblin-Schrieffer model in the zero temperature limit * Magneto-structural and spectroscopic investigation of MnxCd1-xIn2Te4 solid solutions * Magnetic after-effect processes in barium hexagonal ferrites * Electron paramagnetic resonance in PtFe alloys * Synthesis and magnetic properties of PbFe12O19 powders by decomposition of hydroxide carbonate and metallorganic precipitates * Dilute antiferromagnets: effect of dilution on the sub-lattice magnetisation * Resitivity and magnetoresistance in Cu2SnSe3 and Cu2SnTe3 * Magnetic properties of nickel and cobalt chlorides graphite intercalation compounds under pressure * A system for the determination of the saturation magnetostriction constant in soft ferromagnetic amorphous ribbons * Analysis of magnetic relaxation by means of resonance and magnetic disaccomodation techniques * Generation of vertical Bloch lines and chaotic motion of domain walls in magnetic garnets * Order parameters and percolation for ground-state of honeycomb lattices * Electrical properties of CuInSSe * Influence of the preparation on the magnetic and structural properties of Fe-Si-B alloys * Analytic expressions of the geometrical characteristics of clusters * Magnetic properties of very thin Mn films on fcc Co(001) * Dynamical behaviour of the soliton instability in the planar ferromagnet * Crystal growth and characterisation of MnIn2SxSe4-x single crystals * CVT growth, structural and magnetic characterisation of MnIn2-2xCr2xSe4 single crystals * Electron paramagnetic resonance on the Cd1-xMnxIn2S4 diluted magnetic semiconductor system * Magnetic study of the effect of rare earth (La, Gd) doping effect on Ba-M hexaferrites * Magnetic phase diagram of the FexAl0.7-xMn0.3 alloy series * Magnetic behaviour in compounds type Hf(Fe1-xZx)2 (Z = Al, Si and B), due to structural variations * Subject Index * Authors Index

  4. Latin American Cancer Research Coalition. Community primary care/academic partnership model for cancer control.

    PubMed

    Kreling, Barbara A; Cañar, Janet; Catipon, Ericson; Goodman, Michelle; Pallesen, Nancy; Pomeroy, Jyl; Rodriguez, Yosselyn; Romagoza, Juan; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Mandelblatt, Jeanne; Huerta, Elmer E

    2006-10-15

    The Latin American Cancer Research Coalition (LACRC) was funded by NCI as a Special Populations Network to 1) provide training to clinic staff in cancer control and foster development of Latino faculty training, 2) conduct a needs assessment with the community clinics, 3) enhance the ability of the clinics to promote healthy lifestyles, 4) collaborate on research projects to improve use of early detection, and 5) explore partnerships to increase access to culturally competent cancer care. The LACRC developed a model for cancer control focused on community-based clinics as the focal point for in-reach and community outreach targeted to Latinos to reduce cancer disparities. This framework was designed to link the community to local hospitals and academic centers, build capacity, and promote diffusion of innovations directly into delivery systems. Eight research projects submitted by junior investigator/clinic teams have been funded by NCI. These research projects range from recruiting for clinical trials to prevention to survivorship. The LACRC has trained 6 cancer control coordinators from partner sites and educated 59 undergraduate minority student interns in aspects of cancer control research. Central to LACRC's success to date has been the creation and maintenance of an infrastructure of trusting relationships, especially those developed between clinician/investigators and individuals within the greater Latino community. Community clinics can be effective agents for cancer control among Latinos. Latinos are likely to participate in research conducted by culturally representative teams of researchers using culturally appropriate recruiting strategies. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society. PMID:16986105

  5. Effects of HIV-Prevention Interventions for Samples with Higher and Lower Percents of Latinos and Latin Americans: A Meta-Analysis of Change in Condom Use and Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Albarracin, Julia; Durantini, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis (N = 110,092) assessed the efficacy of HIV-prevention interventions across samples with higher and lower concentrations of Latinos/Latin Americans. Findings indicated that groups with higher percents of Latinos increased condom and HIV-related knowledge to a lesser extent than groups with lower percents of Latinos/ Latin Americans. Moreover, groups with greater percents of Latinos/Latin Americans only benefited from intervention strategies that included threat-inducing arguments, whereas groups with lower percents of Latinos/Latin Americans benefited from numerous strategies. In addition, groups with greater percents of Latinos/Latin Americans increased condom use when interventions were conducted by a lay community member, whereas groups with lower percents of these groups increased condom use the most in response to experts. Not surprisingly, there were important differences among Latinos/Latin Americans with different education levels, different genders, and US/Latin American nationality. PMID:17265011

  6. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics.

    PubMed

    Chazdon, Robin L; Broadbent, Eben N; Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Craven, Dylan; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velazquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, Isabel Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans; Vieira, Ima Celia G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-05-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km(2) of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  7. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics

    PubMed Central

    Chazdon, Robin L.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T. Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Craven, Dylan; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S.; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S.; Dent, Daisy H.; DeWalt, Saara J.; Dupuy, Juan M.; Durán, Sandra M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Fandino, María C.; César, Ricardo G.; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Junqueira, André B.; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G.; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A.; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R. F.; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S.; Rodríguez-Velazquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, Isabel Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B.; Steininger, Marc K.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D. M.; Vester, Hans; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G. Bruce; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-01-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km2 of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services. PMID:27386528

  8. Availability and affordability of new medicines in Latin American countries where pivotal clinical trials were conducted

    PubMed Central

    Ugalde, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess whether new pharmaceutical products approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 and 2012 were registered, commercialized and sold at affordable prices in the Latin American countries where they were tested. Methods We obtained a list of new molecular entities (new pharmaceutical products) approved by the FDA in 2011 and 2012. FDA medical reviews indicated the countries where pivotal clinical trials had been conducted. The registration status of the products was obtained from pharmaceutical registers; pharmaceutical companies confirmed their availability in national markets and local pricing observatories provided the price of medicines in retail pharmacies. Affordability was assessed as the cost of a course of treatment as a proportion of monthly income. Information on safety and efficacy was gathered from independent drug bulletins. Findings Of an expected 114 registrations, if the 33 products had been registered in all the countries where tested, only 68 (60%) were completed. Eight products were registered and commercialized in all countries but 10 had not been registered in any of the countries. With one exception, products for which we obtained pricing information (n = 18) cost more than the monthly minimum wage in all countries and 12 products cost at least five times the monthly minimum wage. Conclusion Many pharmaceutical products tested in Latin America are unavailable and/or unaffordable to most of the population. Ethical review committees should consider the local affordability and therapeutic relevance of new products as additional criteria for the approval of clinical trials. Finally, clinical trials have opportunity costs that need to be assessed. PMID:26600609

  9. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics.

    PubMed

    Chazdon, Robin L; Broadbent, Eben N; Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Craven, Dylan; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velazquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, Isabel Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans; Vieira, Ima Celia G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-05-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km(2) of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services. PMID:27386528

  10. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and

  11. Latin American Marketing Project. Grade 10 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antilla, Madeline; DeMonet, J.

    In this lesson, students work as marketing teams hired by a U.S. fast food company to study the feasibility of selling fast food in Latin America. Teams are composed of cultural, production, marketing, and advertising experts. Each marketing team will investigate a product and a Latin American country. Teams will present their research and…

  12. PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-04-01

    The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES) started in Caracas-Venezuela, and over time the symposia have taken place in 9 different Latin American countries. The last five events took place in Mérida-Venezuela (2002), Havana-Cuba (2004), Puebla-Mexico (2006), Puerto Iguazú-Argentina (2008) and Maragogi-Brazil (2011). During the last years, in the different SLAFES editions, the aim has been to bring together researches from Latina America and invite renowned scientists from around the world to a unique forum to discuss the latest developments regarding Solid state Physics. The 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI) was held in Villa de Leyva-Colombia, from September 30 to October 04, 2013. The 21st SLAFES version featured the participation of experts in various areas of Solid State Physics from countries such as Belgium, Germany, United States, Spain, Ireland, Chile, Argentina and Brazil, had 270 submitted works and was attended by 140 researchers. The development of this event was made possible by financial support from the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad del Norte-CO, Universidad de Magdalena-CO, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco-BR and the Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exatas, Naturales y Física. Editors Professor J Albino Aguiar Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: albino@df.ufpe.br Professor Jairo Roa-Rojas Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC, Colombia e-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co Professor Carlos Arturo Parra Vargas Grupo Física de Materiales Escuela de Física Universidad Padagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia Tunja Colombia e-mail: carlos.parra@uptc.edu.co Professor David A Land\\'i nez Téllez Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC

  13. 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics

  14. What Does Latin American Social Medicine Do When It Governs? The Case of the Mexico City Government

    PubMed Central

    Laurell, Asa Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Latin American social medicine (LASM) emerged as a movement in the 1970s and played an important role in the Brazilian health care reform of the 1980s, both of which focused on decentralization and on health care as a social right. The dominant health care reform model in Latin America has included a market-driven, private subsystem for the insured and a public subsystem for the uninsured and the poor. In contrast, the Mexico City government has launched a comprehensive policy based on social rights and redistribution of resources. A universal pension for senior citizens and free medical services are financed by grants, eliminating routine government corruption and waste. The Mexico City policy reflects the influence of Latin American social medicine. In this article, I outline the basic traits of LASM and those of the prevailing health care reform model in Latin America and describe the Mexico City social and health policy, emphasizing the influence of LASM in values, principles, and concrete programs. PMID:14652327

  15. Genome-Wide Study of the Defective Sucrose Fermenter Strain of Vibrio cholerae from the Latin American Cholera Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Daniel Rios; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Loureiro, Edvaldo Carlos Brito; Dutilh, Bas E.; Inada, Davi Toshio; Junior, Edivaldo Costa Sousa; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Nunes, Márcio Roberto T.; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; Nunes, Keley Nascimento Barbosa; Santos, Elisabeth C. O.; Edwards, Robert A.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; de Sá Morais, Lena Lillian Canto

    2012-01-01

    The 7th cholera pandemic reached Latin America in 1991, spreading from Peru to virtually all Latin American countries. During the late epidemic period, a strain that failed to ferment sucrose dominated cholera outbreaks in the Northern Brazilian Amazon region. In order to understand the genomic characteristics and the determinants of this altered sucrose fermenting phenotype, the genome of the strain IEC224 was sequenced. This paper reports a broad genomic study of this strain, showing its correlation with the major epidemic lineage. The potentially mobile genomic regions are shown to possess GC content deviation, and harbor the main V. cholera virulence genes. A novel bioinformatic approach was applied in order to identify the putative functions of hypothetical proteins, and was compared with the automatic annotation by RAST. The genome of a large bacteriophage was found to be integrated to the IEC224's alanine aminopeptidase gene. The presence of this phage is shown to be a common characteristic of the El Tor strains from the Latin American epidemic, as well as its putative ancestor from Angola. The defective sucrose fermenting phenotype is shown to be due to a single nucleotide insertion in the V. cholerae sucrose-specific transportation gene. This frame-shift mutation truncated a membrane protein, altering its structural pore-like conformation. Further, the identification of a common bacteriophage reinforces both the monophyletic and African-Origin hypotheses for the main causative agent of the 1991 Latin America cholera epidemics. PMID:22662140

  16. Antibiotic Prescriptions in Critically-Ill Patients: A Latin American Experience

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, D

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is widely acknowledged that the presence of infection is an important outcome determinant for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In fact, antibiotics are one of the most common therapies administered in the ICU settings. Aim: To evaluate the current usage of antibiotics in Latin American ICUs. Subjects and Methods: A one-day p-oint prevalence study to investigate the patterns of antibiotic was undertaken in 72 Latin American (LA) ICUs. Data was analyzed using the Statistix 8 statistical software, version 2.0 (USA). Results were expressed as proportions. When applicable, two tailed hypothesis testing for difference in proportions was used (Proportion Test); a P value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of 704 patients admitted, 359 received antibiotic treatment on the day of the study (51%), of which 167/359 cases (46.5%) were due to hospital-acquired infections. The most frequent infection reorted was nosocomial pneumonia (74/359, 21%). Only in 264/359 patients (73.5%), cultures before starting antibiotic treatment were performed. Thirty-eight percent of the isolated microorganisms were Enterobacteriaceae extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing, 11% methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 10% carbapenems-resistant non-fermentative Gram-negatives. The antibiotics most frequently prescribed were carbapenems (125/359, 35%), alone or in combination with vancomycin or other antibiotic. There were no significant differences in the “restricted” antibiotic prescription (carbapenems, vancomycin, piperacillin–tazobactam, broad-spectrum cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, tigecycline and linezolid) between patients with APACHE II score at the beginning of the antibiotic treatment <15 [83/114 (72.5%)] and ≥15 [179/245 (73%)] (P = 0.96). Only 29% of the antibiotic treatments were cultured directed (104/359). Conclusion: Carbapenems (alone or in combination) were the most frequently prescribed antibiotics in LA ICUs. However, the problem

  17. Articles by Latin American Authors in Prestigious Journals Have Fewer Citations

    PubMed Central

    Meneghini, Rogerio; Packer, Abel L.; Nassi-Calò, Lilian

    2008-01-01

    Background The journal Impact factor (IF) is generally accepted to be a good measurement of the relevance/quality of articles that a journal publishes. In spite of an, apparently, homogenous peer-review process for a given journal, we hypothesize that the country affiliation of authors from developing Latin American (LA) countries affects the IF of a journal detrimentally. Methodology/Principal Findings Seven prestigious international journals, one multidisciplinary journal and six serving specific branches of science, were examined in terms of their IF in the Web of Science. Two subsets of each journal were then selected to evaluate the influence of author's affiliation on the IF. They comprised contributions (i) with authorship from four Latin American (LA) countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico) and (ii) with authorship from five developed countries (England, France, Germany, Japan and USA). Both subsets were further subdivided into two groups: articles with authorship from one country only and collaborative articles with authorship from other countries. Articles from the five developed countries had IF close to the overall IF of the journals and the influence of collaboration on this value was minor. In the case of LA articles the effect of collaboration (virtually all with developed countries) was significant. The IFs for non-collaborative articles averaged 66% of the overall IF of the journals whereas the articles in collaboration raised the IFs to values close to the overall IF. Conclusion/Significance The study shows a significantly lower IF in the group of the subsets of non-collaborative LA articles and thus that country affiliation of authors from non-developed LA countries does affect the IF of a journal detrimentally. There are no data to indicate whether the lower IFs of LA articles were due to their inherent inferior quality/relevance or psycho-social trend towards under-citation of articles from these countries. However, further study is

  18. Insulin resistance and glucose and lipid concentrations in a cohort of perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Rohan; Hance, Laura Freimanis; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Machado, Daisy Maria; Saavedra, Mariza; Motta, Fabrizio; Harris, D Robert

    2013-07-01

    We measured glucose, insulin and lipids in 249 perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. Only 1 subject had impaired fasting glucose; 6.8% had insulin resistance. Abnormalities in total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were reported for 13%, 13%, 21% and 34%, respectively. Continued follow-up of this population is necessary to characterize the evolution and clinical consequences of these findings.

  19. Knowledge of Latin American Obstetricians and Gynecologists regarding Heavy Menstrual Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Bahamondes, Luis; Marin, Victor; Ciarmatori, Silvia; Silva-Filho, Agnaldo L; Acuña, Juan Manuel; Makuch, Maria Y

    2016-01-01

    Background. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common gynecological complaint affecting quality of life. Objectives. To assess knowledge on diagnosis and treatments of HMB of Latin American (LA) obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs). Methods. A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting, organized to provide updated information on topics of reproductive medicine to OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire. Results. Of the 210 OBGYNs participating in the survey, from 169 (80.4%) to 203 (96.7%) answered the questions. Most respondents (80%) gave accurate answers regarding the amount of blood loss which defines HMB, underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB, and were aware that the use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) with ethynyl estradiol is not an adequate treatment in women with HMB. Female OBGYNs and those who worked in the private sector were more prone to report a higher possibility of improvement of HMB with a COC that contained estradiol valerate and dienogest or with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Conclusions. In general, the respondents were aware of the importance of HMB in gynecological practice and of the new medical treatments and underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB. PMID:27648073

  20. Antimicrobial Sensitivity of Avibacterium paragallinarum Isolates from Four Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Luna-Galaz, G A; Morales-Erasto, V; Peñuelas-Rivas, C G; Blackall, P J; Soriano-Vargas, E

    2016-09-01

    The antimicrobial sensitivity of 11 reference strains and 66 Avibacterium paragallinarum isolates from four Latin American countries was investigated. All 11 reference strains were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, fosfomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The 11 reference strains were all resistant to lincomycin. All isolates (100%) from Mexico, Panama, and Peru were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, and fosfomycin. The Ecuadorian isolates showed some level of resistance to all 16 agents tested. The Ecuadorian isolates were significantly more sensitive to erythromycin, lincomycin, and streptomycin, and significantly more resistant to gentamicin, kanamycin, penicillin, and tetracycline, than the Mexican isolates. A total of 57.5% (38/66) of tested isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR), with 16 MDR patterns detected in 88.4% (23/26) of the antimicrobial-resistant isolates from Ecuador, and 8 MDR patterns detected in 42.8% (15/35) of the antimicrobial-resistant isolates from Mexico. In conclusion, the variation in antimicrobial sensitivity patterns between isolates from Ecuador and Mexico emphasizes the importance of active, ongoing monitoring of A. paragallinarum isolates. PMID:27610729

  1. Multiple reputation domains and cooperative behaviour in two Latin American communities.

    PubMed

    Macfarlan, Shane J; Lyle, Henry F

    2015-12-01

    Reputations are a ubiquitous feature of human social life, and a large literature has been dedicated to explaining the relationship between prosocial reputations and cooperation in social dilemmas. However, humans form reputations in domains other than prosociality, such as economic competency that could affect cooperation. To date, no research has evaluated the relative effects of multiple reputation domains on cooperation. To bridge this gap, we analyse how prosocial and competency reputations affect cooperation in two Latin American communities (Bwa Mawego, Dominica, and Pucucanchita, Peru) across a number of social contexts (Dominica: labour contracting, labour exchange and conjugal partnership formation; Peru: agricultural and health advice network size). First, we examine the behavioural correlates of prosocial and competency reputations. Following, we analyse whether prosocial, competency, or both reputation domains explain the flow of cooperative benefits within the two communities. Our analyses suggest that (i) although some behaviours affect both reputation domains simultaneously, each reputation domain has a unique behavioural signature; and (ii) competency reputations affect cooperation across a greater number of social contexts compared to prosocial reputations. Results are contextualized with reference to the social markets in which behaviour is embedded and a call for greater theory development is stressed.

  2. Do Latin American scientific journals follow dual-use review policies?

    PubMed

    Valles, Edith Gladys; Bernacchi, Adriana Silvina

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others.

  3. Do Latin American scientific journals follow dual-use review policies?

    PubMed

    Valles, Edith Gladys; Bernacchi, Adriana Silvina

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others. PMID:24693885

  4. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards. PMID:23434119

  5. Latin American immigrant parents and their children's teachers in U.S. early childhood education programmes.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; Ansari, Arya

    2015-12-01

    For many immigrants, their children's schools offer their first sustained interaction with the major societal institutions of their new countries, and so exploring the ways in which immigrant parents manage their children's educational experiences offers insight into how they adapt to new cultural norms, customs and expectations and how they are treated in return. This study delved into the involvement of Latin American immigrant parents in U.S. education, shifting the traditional focus down from elementary and secondary school to early childhood education. Statistical analysis of nationally representative data revealed that Latina immigrants had lower frequencies of most home- and community-based involvement behaviours than U.S.-born and foreign-born parents of varying racial/ethnic backgrounds but higher frequencies of involvement behaviours requiring participation in early childhood education programmes. As a window into these national patterns, qualitative data from an early childhood programme in an immigration-heavy state revealed that Latina immigrant mothers and their children's teachers often talked about each other as partners in supporting children's educational experiences but that their actual interactions tended to socialise mothers into being more passive recipients of teachers' directives.

  6. Knowledge of Latin American Obstetricians and Gynecologists regarding Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Victor; Ciarmatori, Silvia; Silva-Filho, Agnaldo L.; Acuña, Juan Manuel; Makuch, Maria Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common gynecological complaint affecting quality of life. Objectives. To assess knowledge on diagnosis and treatments of HMB of Latin American (LA) obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs). Methods. A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting, organized to provide updated information on topics of reproductive medicine to OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire. Results. Of the 210 OBGYNs participating in the survey, from 169 (80.4%) to 203 (96.7%) answered the questions. Most respondents (80%) gave accurate answers regarding the amount of blood loss which defines HMB, underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB, and were aware that the use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) with ethynyl estradiol is not an adequate treatment in women with HMB. Female OBGYNs and those who worked in the private sector were more prone to report a higher possibility of improvement of HMB with a COC that contained estradiol valerate and dienogest or with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Conclusions. In general, the respondents were aware of the importance of HMB in gynecological practice and of the new medical treatments and underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB.

  7. Knowledge of Latin American Obstetricians and Gynecologists regarding Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Victor; Ciarmatori, Silvia; Silva-Filho, Agnaldo L.; Acuña, Juan Manuel; Makuch, Maria Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common gynecological complaint affecting quality of life. Objectives. To assess knowledge on diagnosis and treatments of HMB of Latin American (LA) obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs). Methods. A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting, organized to provide updated information on topics of reproductive medicine to OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire. Results. Of the 210 OBGYNs participating in the survey, from 169 (80.4%) to 203 (96.7%) answered the questions. Most respondents (80%) gave accurate answers regarding the amount of blood loss which defines HMB, underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB, and were aware that the use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) with ethynyl estradiol is not an adequate treatment in women with HMB. Female OBGYNs and those who worked in the private sector were more prone to report a higher possibility of improvement of HMB with a COC that contained estradiol valerate and dienogest or with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Conclusions. In general, the respondents were aware of the importance of HMB in gynecological practice and of the new medical treatments and underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB. PMID:27648073

  8. Work, malaise, and well-being in Spanish and Latin-American doctors

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Paola; Blanch, Josep M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the relations between the meanings of working and the levels of doctors work well-being in the context of their working conditions. METHOD The research combined the qualitative methodology of textual analysis and the quantitative one of correspondence factor analysis. A convenience, intentional, and stratified sample composed of 305 Spanish and Latin American doctors completed an extensive questionnaire on the topics of the research. RESULTS The general meaning of working for the group located in the quartile of malaise included perceptions of discomfort, frustration, and exhaustion. However, those showing higher levels of well-being, located on the opposite quartile, associated their working experience with good conditions and the development of their professional and personal competences. CONCLUSIONS The study provides empirical evidence of the relationship between contextual factors and the meanings of working for participants with higher levels of malaise, and of the importance granted both to intrinsic and extrinsic factors by those who scored highest on well-being. PMID:27191157

  9. [Parasitology and entomology in the 29th century in Latin American narrative].

    PubMed

    Schenone, H

    2000-01-01

    In the present review of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers--Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela--paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folklore representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozoiasis (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amebiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressively to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjunction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glow worms, dragonflies).

  10. [The anatomical pathology, an indispensable discipline, and its only Latin American journal].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Velasco, Alicia; Valencia-Mayoral, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    As a medical discipline, pathological anatomy was born between the 16th and 17th centuries, when the bases for scientific and technological development, as we know them today, were established. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), one of the greatest clinicians of the 18th century, introduced the concept of correlation between clinical manifestations and pathological anatomic structures. Just like that the pathology has contributed to the characterization of many diseases. Correlation of anatomopathological changes with signs and symptoms of disease is still common practice to date, which constitutes the basis for one of the most relevant pedagogical activities in medicine: the clinical pathological conference. The American Society of Investigative Pathology describes pathology as "the medical specialty that provides the scientific foundation of medical practice". Advances in this discipline have been transmitted mainly in periodical publications as early as the 19th century, and many scientific journals dedicated to communication of relevant findings from all over the world have been created since. The uninterrupted publication of a scientific journal for 51 years, the journal Patología. Revista Latinoamericana, dedicated to one of the most important medical disciplines is, undoubtedly, an achievement worthy of celebration, for being the only one in Spanish in Latin America.

  11. Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-08-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

  12. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

    2013-12-01

    We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  13. Do Latin American Scientific Journals Follow Dual-Use Review Policies?

    PubMed Central

    Valles, Edith Gladys

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others. PMID:24693885

  14. Universal health coverage in Latin American countries: how to improve solidarity-based schemes.

    PubMed

    Titelman, Daniel; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Acosta, Olga Lucía

    2015-04-01

    In this Health Policy we examine the association between the financing structure of health systems and universal health coverage. Latin American health systems encompass a wide range of financial sources, which translate into different solidarity-based schemes that combine contributory (payroll taxes) and non-contributory (general taxes) sources of financing. To move towards universal health coverage, solidarity-based schemes must heavily rely on countries' capacity to increase public expenditure in health. Improvement of solidarity-based schemes will need the expansion of mandatory universal insurance systems and strengthening of the public sector including increased fiscal expenditure. These actions demand a new model to integrate different sources of health-sector financing, including general tax revenue, social security contributions, and private expenditure. The extent of integration achieved among these sources will be the main determinant of solidarity and universal health coverage. The basic challenges for improvement of universal health coverage are not only to spend more on health, but also to reduce the proportion of out-of-pocket spending, which will need increased fiscal resources. PMID:25458734

  15. [The anatomical pathology, an indispensable discipline, and its only Latin American journal].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Velasco, Alicia; Valencia-Mayoral, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    As a medical discipline, pathological anatomy was born between the 16th and 17th centuries, when the bases for scientific and technological development, as we know them today, were established. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), one of the greatest clinicians of the 18th century, introduced the concept of correlation between clinical manifestations and pathological anatomic structures. Just like that the pathology has contributed to the characterization of many diseases. Correlation of anatomopathological changes with signs and symptoms of disease is still common practice to date, which constitutes the basis for one of the most relevant pedagogical activities in medicine: the clinical pathological conference. The American Society of Investigative Pathology describes pathology as "the medical specialty that provides the scientific foundation of medical practice". Advances in this discipline have been transmitted mainly in periodical publications as early as the 19th century, and many scientific journals dedicated to communication of relevant findings from all over the world have been created since. The uninterrupted publication of a scientific journal for 51 years, the journal Patología. Revista Latinoamericana, dedicated to one of the most important medical disciplines is, undoubtedly, an achievement worthy of celebration, for being the only one in Spanish in Latin America. PMID:24758866

  16. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  17. Environmental health indicators and a case study of air pollution in Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; Cifuentes, Luis A; Davis, Devra L; Cushing, Erin; Telles, Adriana Gusman; Gouveia, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Environmental health indicators (EHIs) are applied in a variety of research and decision-making settings to gauge the health consequences of environmental hazards, to summarize complex information, or to compare policy impacts across locations or time periods. While EHIs can provide a useful means of conveying information, they also can be misused. Additional research is needed to help researchers and policy-makers understand categories of indicators and their appropriate application. In this article, we review current frameworks for environmental health indicators and discuss the advantages and limitations of various forms. A case study EHI system was developed for air pollution and health for urban Latin American centers in order to explore how underlying assumptions affect indicator results. Sixteen cities were ranked according to five indicators that considered: population exposed, children exposed, comparison to health-based guidelines, and overall PM(10) levels. Results indicate that although some overall patterns in rankings were observed, cities' relative rankings were highly dependent on the indicator used. In fact, a city that was ranked best under one indicator was ranked worst with another. The sensitivity of rankings, even when considering a simple case of a single pollutant, highlights the need for clear understanding of EHIs and how they may be affected by underlying assumptions. Careful consideration should be given to the purpose, assumptions, and limitations of EHIs used individually or in combination in order to minimize misinterpretation of their implications and enhance their usefulness.

  18. Prevalence of Latin-American-Mediterranean genetic family in population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Valcheva, Violeta; Rastogi, Nalin; Mokrousov, Igor

    2015-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) control remains an important public health priority for Bulgaria. The population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is clonal and certain genetic families of this species (e.g., Latin-American-Mediterranean [LAM]) have attracted more attention due to their global dissemination and/or particular pathogenic properties, e.g., association with multidrug resistance (MDR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the M. tuberculosis LAM family in Bulgaria based on the use of different molecular markers. A total of 101 previously spoligotyped M. tuberculosis strains were studied by LAM-specific PCR assay to detect an insertion of IS6110 in the specific genome region. On the whole, clear-cut results were obtained for most strains; spoligotype-based family was reassigned in some of them. At the same time, double bands were amplified in some cases and warrant further validation studies of this method. The higher MDR rate among LAM versus other genotype isolates was observed (P=0.04). In conclusion, these results suggest a low (<4%) prevalence rate of LAM in Bulgaria (that is similar to its Balkan neighbors) and highlight the importance of using robust markers for correct detection of the LAM family. PMID:27649865

  19. Admixture and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos regarding Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Flores, J; Zuñiga-Chiquette, F; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Álvarez-Miranda, J L; Zetina-Hérnandez, A; Martínez-Sevilla, V M; González-Andrade, F; Corach, D; Vullo, C; Álvarez, J C; Lorente, J A; Sánchez-Diz, P; Herrera, R J; Cerda-Flores, R M; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2015-02-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) of the combined DNA index system (CODIS) are probably the most employed markers for human identification purposes. STR databases generated to interpret DNA profiles are also helpful for anthropological purposes. In this work, we report admixture, population structure, and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos with respect to Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs. In addition, new STR population data were included from Tijuana, Baja California (Northwest, Mexico), which represents an interesting case of elevated genetic flow as a bordering city with the USA. Inter-population analyses included CODIS-STR data from 11 Mexican Mestizo, 12 Latin American and four Caribbean populations, in addition to European, Amerindian, and African genetic pools as ancestral references. We report allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest (PD, PE, Het, PIC, typical PI), for 15 STRs in Tijuana, Baja California. This Mexican border city was peculiar by the increase of African ancestry, and by presenting three STRs in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, probably explained by recurrent gene flow. The Amerindian ancestry in Central and Southeast of Mexico was the greatest in Latin America (50.9-68.6%), only comparable with the North of Central America and Ecuador (48.8-56.4%), whereas the European ancestry was prevalent in South America (66.7-75%). The African ancestry in Mexico was the smallest (2.2-6.3%) in Latin America (≥ 2.6%), particularly regarding Brazil (21%), Honduras (62%), and the Caribbean (43.2-65.2%). CODIS-STRs allowed detecting significant population structure in Latin America based on greater presence of European, Amerindian, and African ancestries in Central/South America, Mexican Mestizos, and the Caribbean, respectively. PMID:25435058

  20. Admixture and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos regarding Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Flores, J; Zuñiga-Chiquette, F; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Álvarez-Miranda, J L; Zetina-Hérnandez, A; Martínez-Sevilla, V M; González-Andrade, F; Corach, D; Vullo, C; Álvarez, J C; Lorente, J A; Sánchez-Diz, P; Herrera, R J; Cerda-Flores, R M; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2015-02-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) of the combined DNA index system (CODIS) are probably the most employed markers for human identification purposes. STR databases generated to interpret DNA profiles are also helpful for anthropological purposes. In this work, we report admixture, population structure, and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos with respect to Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs. In addition, new STR population data were included from Tijuana, Baja California (Northwest, Mexico), which represents an interesting case of elevated genetic flow as a bordering city with the USA. Inter-population analyses included CODIS-STR data from 11 Mexican Mestizo, 12 Latin American and four Caribbean populations, in addition to European, Amerindian, and African genetic pools as ancestral references. We report allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest (PD, PE, Het, PIC, typical PI), for 15 STRs in Tijuana, Baja California. This Mexican border city was peculiar by the increase of African ancestry, and by presenting three STRs in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, probably explained by recurrent gene flow. The Amerindian ancestry in Central and Southeast of Mexico was the greatest in Latin America (50.9-68.6%), only comparable with the North of Central America and Ecuador (48.8-56.4%), whereas the European ancestry was prevalent in South America (66.7-75%). The African ancestry in Mexico was the smallest (2.2-6.3%) in Latin America (≥ 2.6%), particularly regarding Brazil (21%), Honduras (62%), and the Caribbean (43.2-65.2%). CODIS-STRs allowed detecting significant population structure in Latin America based on greater presence of European, Amerindian, and African ancestries in Central/South America, Mexican Mestizos, and the Caribbean, respectively.

  1. Immigration to the United States from Latin America: Past and Present. The Latin American Project: Volume 1, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League of United Latin American Citizens, Washington, DC.

    Immigration legislation in the United States is aimed primarily at Mexican migrants, who account for over half of all undocumented immigrants in the United States. Citizens of Central American and Caribbean countries contribute another 20%. The first section of this booklet traces the development of United States immigration legislation from the…

  2. [Production of scientific articles about health in six Latin American countries, 1973-1992].

    PubMed

    Pellegrini Filho, A; Goldbaum, M; Silvi, J

    1997-01-01

    citation index of 4.36 per article. It is concluded that, despite the inherent limitations, this type of study reveals some general trends in the development of research in the six Latin American countries with the greatest scientific production and makes it possible to formulate hypotheses on the factors that influence these trends. Taken with the paper caution, the results of studies like this one can be of great value in defining health science and technology policies.

  3. Atrophic gastritis: Risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Latin-American population

    PubMed Central

    Almodova, Emiliano de Carvalho; de Oliveira, Walmar Kerche; Machado, Lucas Faria Abrahão; Grejo, Juliana Rigotto; da Cunha, Thiago Rabelo; Colaiacovo, Wagner; Ortolan, Erika Veruska Paiva

    2013-01-01

    conditional logistic regression between AG and ECSS in this sample of Latin-American population. PMID:23599625

  4. The Planning of Latin American Universities: In Search of Its Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escala, Miguel J.

    College planning in Latin America is discussed, with attention to underdevelopment, political instability, and the economic crisis of the 1980s. Alternative planning approaches used in U.S. higher education institutions are considered. Latin America refers to 18 Spanish-speaking republics of the Western Hemisphere, along with Brazil and Haiti. The…

  5. Teaching Afro-Latin American Culture in the Intermediate Spanish Class: Resources and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    Supplementing traditional cultural material with presentation of African elements of the folklore and culture of Latin America is proposed as a means of increasing black student interest in intermediate Spanish language courses. Topics and suggested lesson titles reflecting diverse nonliterary aspects of the black experience in Latin America that…

  6. PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

    2012-06-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20-25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 135 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, as well as others from Europe and Asia. In addition, a School on Plasma Physics and a Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) were organized together with the main meeting. The five-day School held in the week previous to the meeting was intended for young scientists starting their research in Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the objective of the AITP Workshop was to enhance regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. Topics addressed at LAWPP 2011 included space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, non-thermal plasmas, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation and industrial plasma applications. This variety of subjects is reflected in these proceedings, which the editors hope will result in enjoyable and fruitful reading for those interested in Plasma Physics. It is a pleasure to thank the Institutions that sponsored the meeting, as well as all the participants and collaborators for making this meeting possible. The Editors Luis Bilbao, Fernando Minotti and Hector Kelly LAWPP participants Participants of the 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, 20-25 November 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina International Scientific Committee Carlos Alejaldre, Spain María Virginia Alves, Brazil Ibere Caldas, Brazil Luis Felipe Delgado-Aparicio, Peru Mayo Villagrán, Mexico Kohnosuke Sato, Japan Héctor Kelly, Argentina Edberto Leal-Quirós, Puerto Rico George Morales, USA Julio Puerta

  7. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American gynecologists regarding unplanned pregnancy and use of combined oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Bahamondes, Luis; Lira-Plascencia, Josefina; Martin, Ricardo; Marin, Victor; Makuch, Maria Y

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintended pregnancy is a public health problem and unmet medical need worldwide. It is estimated that in the year 2012, almost 213 million pregnancies occurred, and the global pregnancy rate decreased only slightly from 2008 to 2012. It was also estimated that 85 million pregnancies (40% of all pregnancies) were unintended and that 38% ended in an unintended birth. Objectives To assess knowledge and attitudes of Latin American (LA) obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs) regarding unintended pregnancies and aspects of combined oral contraceptive (COC) use. Methods A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting about contraception in 2014, in which OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who provide attention in contraception were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire to assess their knowledge and attitudes regarding unplanned pregnancy and some aspects regarding COC use. Results A total of 210 OBGYNs participated in the study. Their knowledge regarding COC failure was low. The participants reported they believed that their patients habitually forgot to take a pill and that their patients did not know what to do in these situations. They were aware of the benefits of COC use; however, they were less prone to prescribe COCs for the purpose of protecting against ovarian and endometrial cancer, and one-quarter of them had doubts about the association between COC use and cancer risk. Conclusion The interviewed LA OBGYNs showed some flaws in terms of knowledge of COC failure rates and the non-contraceptive benefits and risks of COCs. To adequately counsel their patients regarding COC intake, OBGYNs must be updated regarding all aspects of COC use. PMID:25999766

  8. Current cariology education in dental schools in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Martignon, Stefania; Gomez, Juliana; Tellez, Marisol; Ruiz, Jaime A; Marin, Lina M; Rangel, Maria C

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to provide an overview of current cariology education in Spanish-speaking Latin American dental schools. Data collection was via an eighteen-item survey with questions about curriculum, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and instructors' perceptions about cariology teaching. The response rate was 62.1 percent (n=54), and distribution of participating schools by country was as follows: Bolivia (four), Chile (four), Colombia (twenty-four), Costa Rica (one), Cuba (one), Dominican Republic (two), El Salvador (two), Mexico (six), Panama (two), Peru (four), Puerto Rico (one), Uruguay (two), and Venezuela (one). Forty percent of the responding schools considered cariology the key axis of a course, with a cariology department in 16.7 percent. All schools reported teaching cariology, but with varying hours and at varying times in the curriculum, and 77.8 percent reported having preclinical practices. The majority reported teaching most main teaching topics, except for behavioral sciences, microbiology, saliva and systemic diseases, caries-risk factors, root caries, erosion, and early caries management strategies. The most frequently taught caries detection methods were visual-tactile (96.3 percent), radiographic (92.6 percent), and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) (61.1 percent). Respondents said their schools' clinics make an operative treatment decision when radiolucency is in the inner half of enamel (42.3 percent) for radiographic criteria and when the lesion is visually non-cavitated (5.8 percent). All respondents reported that their schools teach preventive strategies, but only 43.4 percent said they tie it to risk assessment and 40.7 percent said they implement nonsurgical management regularly.

  9. Public Outreach and Educational Experiences in Mexico and Latin American communities in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres De Leo-Winkler, Mario; Canalizo, Gabriela; Pichardo, Barbara; Arias, Brenda

    2015-08-01

    I have created and applied diverse methods in public outreach at National Autonomous Univerisity of Mexico (UNAM) since 2001.A student-led volunteer astronomical club has been created, the biggest in Mexico. We serve over 10,000 people per year. We have created public outreach activities for the general audience: archeo-astronomical outings, scientific movie debates, conferences, courses, public telescope viewings. We have also worked with juvenile delinquents to offer them scientific opportunities when released from jail.I've also created and worked the social media for the Institute of Astronomy UNAM, which is currently the biggest social media site on astronomy in Spanish in the world. I've created and organized a mass photo exhibition (over 1 million people served) for the Institute of Astronomy, UNAM which was citizen-funded through an online platform, the first of its kind in the country. Together with my colleages, we created workshops on astronomy for children with the Mexican's government funding.I've participated in several radio and television programs/capsules designed to bring astronomy to the general audience, one in particular ("Astrophysics for Dummies") was very successful in nation-wide Mexican radio.I am currently applying all experiences to develop a new public outreach project on astronomy for the University of California - Riverside and its on-campus and surrounding Latin American communities. We are offering new workshops for blind and deaf children. We want to integrate the Latino community to our outreach activities and offer science in their language in a simple and entertaining fashion. We have also successfully applied astrophotography as a course which brings social-science and arts undergraduate students into natural sciences.Sharing experiences, success and failure stories will help new and experienced educators and public outreach professionals learn and better from past experiences.

  10. Twelve Years of Scientific Production on Medline by Latin American Spine Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Teles, Alisson Roberto; Guarise da Silva, Pedro; Martins, Delio; Guyot, Juan Pablo; Gonzalez, Alvaro Silva; Avila, José Maria Jiménez; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the small contribution of LA in the Science Citation Index (SCI), a growing contribution by LA research to international literature has been observed in recent years. Study Design Systematic review. Purpose To evaluate the scientific contribution of Latin American (LA) Spine Surgeons in the last decade. Methods A literature search of publications by LA spinal surgeons on topics concerning the spine or spinal cord was performed using an online database; Pubmed.gov. The results were limited to articles published from January 2000 to December 2011. The quality of the publication was evaluated with the journal impact factor (IF), Oxford classification and number of citations. Results This study comprised 320 articles published in the Medline database by LA spine surgeons from 2000 to 2011. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of publications by LA spine surgeons. It was observed that 38.4% of LA papers were published in LA journals. 46.6% of the articles were published in journals with an IF lower than 1, and there was no statistically significant difference in the number of articles published in journals with a higher IF during the period. Linear-by-linear association analysis demonstrated an improvement in the level of evidence provided by LA articles published in recent years. Conclusions This study showed a growth in the number of publications in last 12 years by LA spinal surgeons. It is necessary to discuss a way to increase quantity and quality of scientific publications, mainly through a better education in research. PMID:24505336

  11. 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics

  12. Pneumocystis and Pneumocystosis: first meeting of experts from Latin-American and Portuguese-speaking countries - a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Francisco; Medrano, Francisco J; de Armas, Yaxsier; Wissmann, Gustavo; Calderón, Enrique J; Matos, Olga

    2014-05-01

    The Pneumocystis and Pneumocystosis: first meeting of experts from Latin-American and Portuguese-speaking countries was held in Lisbon, Portugal, on 24-26 October 2013. A total of 20 speakers from Latin America, Africa and Europe participated in the meeting. The epidemiological studies presented in this meeting begin to change the misconception that since the AIDS epidemic, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) has become an infrequent disease, showing that today PcP remains a major opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients in both developed and developing countries and an emerging problem in immunocompromised patients without HIV infection worldwide. PcP management remains a challenge. Right now, the combination of caspofungin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a promising therapeutic approach that needs to be assessed in controlled clinical trials. PMID:24617414

  13. The Impact of Social Security on Return Migration among Latin American Elderly in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Alma

    2014-01-01

    International migration has long been considered the preserve of working-age adults. However, the rapid diversification of the elderly population calls for increased attention to the migration patterns of this group and its possible motivations. This study examines whether Latin American immigrants who are primary Social Security beneficiaries are more likely to return to their home countries during later life if they receive lower Social Security benefits. Using a regression discontinuity approach on restricted data from the U.S. Social Security Administration (N=1,515), this study presents the results of a natural experiment whereby the Social Security Administration unexpectedly lowered the Social Security benefits of the 1917-1921 birth cohorts due to a miscalculation in the benefit-calculation formula. Results suggest that approximately 10% of primary Social Security beneficiaries from Latin America born close to these dates return migrated, the probability of which was not affected by Social Security benefit levels. PMID:26279596

  14. Pneumocystis and Pneumocystosis: first meeting of experts from Latin-American and Portuguese-speaking countries - a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Francisco; Medrano, Francisco J; de Armas, Yaxsier; Wissmann, Gustavo; Calderón, Enrique J; Matos, Olga

    2014-05-01

    The Pneumocystis and Pneumocystosis: first meeting of experts from Latin-American and Portuguese-speaking countries was held in Lisbon, Portugal, on 24-26 October 2013. A total of 20 speakers from Latin America, Africa and Europe participated in the meeting. The epidemiological studies presented in this meeting begin to change the misconception that since the AIDS epidemic, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) has become an infrequent disease, showing that today PcP remains a major opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients in both developed and developing countries and an emerging problem in immunocompromised patients without HIV infection worldwide. PcP management remains a challenge. Right now, the combination of caspofungin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a promising therapeutic approach that needs to be assessed in controlled clinical trials.

  15. Efficacy of HIV Prevention Interventions in Latin American and Caribbean Nations, 1995–2008: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Boynton, Marcella H.; Warren, Michelle R.; LaCroix, Jessica M.; Carey, Michael P.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 34 HIV prevention interventions (from 27 studies) that were evaluated in Latin American and Caribbean nations. These studies were obtained through systematic searches of English, Spanish, and Portuguese-language databases available as of January 2009. Overall, interventions significantly increased knowledge (d = 0.51) and condom use (d = 0.28) but the effects varied widely. Interventions produced more condom use when they focused on high-risk individuals, distributed condoms, and explicitly addressed socio-cultural components. The best-fitting models utilized factors related to geography, especially indices of a nations’ human development index (HDI) and income inequality (i.e., Gini index). Interventions that provided at least three hours of content succeeded better when HDI and income inequality were lower, suggesting that intensive HIV prevention activities succeed best where the need is greatest. Implications for HIV intervention development in Latin America and the Caribbean are discussed. PMID:20661768

  16. The avoidable health effects of air pollution in three Latin American cities: Santiago, São Paulo, and Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; Davis, Devra L; Gouveia, Nelson; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H; Cifuentes, Luis A

    2006-03-01

    Urban centers in Latin American often face high levels of air pollution as a result of economic and industrial growth. Decisions with regard to industry, transportation, and development will affect air pollution and health both in the short term and in the far future through climate change. We investigated the pollution health consequences of modest changes in fossil fuel use for three case study cities in Latin American: Mexico City, Mexico; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. Annual levels of ozone and particulate matter were estimated from 2000 to 2020 for two emissions scenarios: (1) business-as-usual based on current emissions patterns and regulatory trends and (2) a control policy aimed at lowering air pollution emissions. The resulting air pollution levels were linked to health endpoints through concentration-response functions derived from epidemiological studies, using local studies where available. Results indicate that the air pollution control policy would have vast health benefits for each of the three cities, averting numerous adverse health outcomes including over 156,000 deaths, 4 million asthma attacks, 300,000 children's medical visits, and almost 48,000 cases of chronic bronchitis in the three cities over the 20-year period. The economic value of the avoided health impacts is roughly 21 to 165 billion Dollars (US). Sensitivity analysis shows that the control policy yields significant health and economic benefits even with relaxed assumptions with regard to population growth, pollutant concentrations for the control policy, concentration-response functions, and economic value of health outcomes. This research demonstrates the health and economic burden from air pollution in Latin American urban centers and the magnitude of health benefits from control policies.

  17. "Carrying Ibuprofen in the Bag": Priority Health Concerns of Latin American Migrants in Spain- A Participatory Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Roura, Maria; Bisoffi, Federico; Navaza, Barbara; Pool, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 2.7 million Latin Americans reside in Europe, mostly in Spain. Part of a broader project aimed at developing a research agenda on the health status and determinants of this population, this qualitative study engaged Latin American migrants in the identification of research priorities. Methods We conducted 30 group discussions between November 2012—March 2013 with 84 participants purposively selected for maximum diversity in Madrid and Barcelona (Spain). We facilitated sequences of task-oriented visual activities to explore their views on priority health concerns. We tape-recorded and transcribed discussions and developed a coding frame based on socio-ecological frameworks, which we applied to all the data using NVIVO-10. A final round of eight group discussions allowed us to triangulate and enrich interpretations by including participants’ insights. Findings The cumulative toll of daily stresses was the major health concern perceived by a population that conceptualised ill-health as a constellation of symptoms rather than as specific diseases. Work-related factors, legislative frameworks regulating citizenship entitlements and feeling ethnically discriminated were major sources of psycho-social strain. Except for sexually transmitted infections, participants rarely referred to communicable diseases as a concern. The perception that clinicians systematically prescribed painkillers discouraged health seeking and fostered self-medication. Participants felt that the medicalised, chemicalised, sexually liberal and accelerated culture of the host society damaged their own, and the local populations’ health. Conclusion Health systems bear a disproportionate responsibility in addressing health problems rooted in other sectors. Occupational and migration policies should be recognised explicitly as health policies. The mismatch between researchers’ emphasis on communicable infections and the health concerns of Latin American migrants

  18. Contribution of Latin-American scientists to the study of the magnetosphere of the Earth. A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, M.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    Since the very beginning of the space era, Latin-American scientists have been contributing to the understanding of the magnetosphere of the Earth. This review summarizes some significant contributions in this field with emphasis on results obtained during the last decade. Special attention is paid to most important topics of the magnetosphere of the Earth such as geomagnetic storms and substorms and possible relations between them, interplanetary origin of storms, role of turbulent processes in the magnetosphere dynamics, and analysis of the dynamics of the magnetosphere as a complex self-organized non-linear system.

  19. The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics: promoting education and collaboration in genetics and ethics applied to health sciences across the continent.

    PubMed

    Giugliani, Roberto; Baldo, Guilherme; Vairo, Filippo; Lujan Lopez, Monica; Matte, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    The Latin American Network of Human Genetics (RELAGH) created the Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) to prepare young researchers and professionals of Latin America to deal with the growing challenge of the genomic medicine. ELAG promotes an annually course since 2005, which received 838 students from 17 Latin American countries over these 10 years. ELAG plays an important role to provide education in genetics applied to health sciences to fellows who live in countries with a less favorable economic situation. Influenced, among others, by the humanitarian perspective of José Maria Cantú, one of its founders, ELAG has always favored the discussion of ethical and social issues related to genetics in Latin America. Few initiatives in Latin America lasted 10 consecutive years. One of the factors responsible for the ELAG's success has been its group of faculty members, who contribute to a friendly environment prone to facilitating the exchange of their own experiences with young researchers. PMID:26007289

  20. Sustainable development and migration policies: their treatment within the Latin American economic integration blocks.

    PubMed

    Marmora, L

    1994-01-01

    Without an equal sharing of costs and benefits of natural and human resources worldwide, imbalances and lack of human development lead to migration within and between countries. Economic integration blocks in Latin America provide a context for shared development: in Central America, in the Andean Region, and in the Southern Cone. Over the past 60 years migration policy was based on national protectionism, labor supply, and/or occupation of territory. When economic conditions changed to market economies and world markets, migration policy was redefined. Each of the economic integration blocks has developed its own strategies. The Andean Agreement on Labor Migrations was established to determine the rules for bilateral and multilateral treatment of problems. In the Southern Cone bilateral agreements have been longstanding. Multilateral efforts were recently underway within the Southern Common Market and throughout the region. The Central American Organization for Migrations has spearheaded the adoption of a multilateral strategy. All three regions have made considerable progress in the last three years in constructing multilateral policies for economic integration. Government awareness has been the primary force in these policy changes. Government has come to an understanding that clear domestic and regional migration policies were lacking and that obsolete migration practices of the 1930s did not meet the needs of the 1990s. Migration policy was considered an instrument of development. Movement of economic factors or goods was considered equally with movement of labor. Migration policies must integrate the human rights of migrants into their definitions. Methods of facilitating the movements of populations need to be constructed within the computerization and modernization of the migration administration. Legalization of illegal immigrants has occurred among a number of countries. PROCAM and PRIMCOS were action programs which aimed to integrate migration and

  1. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in six Latin American countries (SWOG Trial S0701)

    PubMed Central

    Nodora, Jesse; Sexton, Rachael; Ferreccio, Catterina; Jimenez, Silvia; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Cook, Paz; Anderson, Garnet; Morgan, Douglas R.; Baker, Laurence H.; Greenberg, E. Robert; Herrero, Rolando

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential determinants of Helicobacter pylori infection between adults 21–65 years old. Methods Data are from the initial screening visit of a randomized clinical trial of three antibiotic regimens to eradicate H. pylori, conducted in seven sites (Santiago–Chile, Túquerres–Colombia, Guanacaste–Costa Rica, Copán–Honduras, Obregón and Tapachula–México, León–Nicaragua). Thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine adults from the general population were screened for H. pylori infection using an urea breath test (UBT) and were interviewed to assess socioeconomic-, demographic-, and symptom-related characteristics. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between these characteristics and H. pylori positivity at enrollment. Results Among the 1,852 eligible participants for whom a conclusive UBT result was obtained, H. pylori prevalence was 79.4 %, ranging from 70.1 to 84.7 % among the seven centers. Prevalence did not differ by sex (female: 78.4, male: 80.9; p = 0.20) or age (p = 0.08). H. pylori positivity increased with increasing number of siblings (p trend <0.0001). Participants with education beyond 12 years were less likely to be UBT-positive (OR 0.4: 0.3–0.6, compared to participants with 0–6 years of schooling) as were those employed outside the home (OR 0.7: 0.6–1.0). Odds of H. pylori infection increased with the presence of certain living conditions during childhood including having lived in a household with an earth floor (OR 1.8: 1.4–2.4), lack of indoor plumbing (OR 1.3: 1.0–1.8) and crowding (OR 1.4: 1.0–1.8, for having more than two persons per bedroom). Regarding current household conditions, living with more than 3 children in the household (OR 1.7: 1.2–2.5) and crowding (OR 1.8: 1.3–2.3) were associated with H. pylori infection. Conclusions The prevalence of H. pylori in adults was high and differed significantly among the six Latin American countries studied (p < 0.001). Our

  2. Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food. Design A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique. Results Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants’ ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources. Conclusion The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community-based food programs and

  3. Toxocara Seropositivity, Atopy and Wheezing in Children Living in Poor Neighbourhoods in Urban Latin American

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Lívia Ribeiro; Veiga, Rafael Valente; Dattoli, Vitor Camilo Cavalcante; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina; Fiaccone, Rosemeire; Santos, Jackson; Cruz, Álvaro Augusto; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Cooper, Philip John; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxocara canis and T. cati are parasites of dogs and cats, respectively, that infect humans and cause human toxocariasis. Infection may cause asthma-like symptoms but is often asymptomatic and is associated with a marked eosinophilia. Previous epidemiological studies indicate that T. canis infection may be associated with the development of atopy and asthma. Objectives To investigate possible associations between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and atopy and childhood wheezing in a population of children living in non-affluent areas of a large Latin American city. Methods The study was conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Data on wheezing symptoms were collected by questionnaire, and atopy was measured by the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE (sIgE). Skin prick test (SPT), total IgE and peripheral eosinophilia were measured. Toxocara seropositivity was determined by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, and intestinal helminth infections were determined by stool microscopy. Findings Children aged 4 to 11 years were studied, of whom 47% were seropositive for anti-Toxocara IgG; eosinophilia >4% occurred in 74.2% and >10% in 25.4%; 59.6% had elevated levels of total IgE; 36.8% had sIgE≥0.70 kU/L and 30.4% had SPT for at least one aeroallergen; 22.4% had current wheezing symptoms. Anti-Toxocara IgG was positively associated with elevated eosinophils counts, total IgE and the presence of specific IgE to aeroallergens but was inversely associated with skin prick test reactivity. Conclusion The prevalence of Toxocara seropositivity was high in the studied population of children living in conditions of poverty in urban Brazil. Toxocara infection, although associated with total IgE, sIgE and eosinophilia, may prevent the development of skin hypersensitivity to aeroallergens, possibly through increased polyclonal IgE and the induction of a modified Th2 immune reaction. PMID:23133689

  4. Role of gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer and its precursor lesions: Current knowledge and perspectives in Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Chiurillo, Miguel Angel

    2014-01-01

    Latin America shows one of the highest incidence rates of gastric cancer in the world, with variations in mortality rates among nations or even within countries belonging to this region. Gastric cancer is the result of a multifactorial complex process, for which a multistep model of carcinogenesis is currently accepted. Additionally to the infection with Helicobacter pylori, that plays a major role, environmental factors as well as genetic susceptibility factors are significant players at different stages in the gastric cancer process. The differences in population origin, demographic structure, socio-economic development, and the impact of globalization lifestyles experienced in Latin America in the last decades, all together offer opportunities for studying in this context the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the susceptibility to gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to discuss current trends on gastric cancer in Latin American countries and to review the available published information about studies of association of gene polymorphisms involved in gastric cancer susceptibility from this region of the world. A total of 40 genes or genomic regions and 69 genetic variants, 58% representing markers involved in inflammatory response, have been used in a number of studies in which predominates a low number of individuals (cases and controls) included. Polymorphisms of IL-1B (-511 C/T, 14 studies; -31 T/C, 10 studies) and IL-1RN (variable number of tandem repeats, 17 studies) are the most represented ones in the reviewed studies. Other genetic variants recently evaluated in large meta-analyses and associated with gastric cancer risk were also analyzed in a few studies [e.g., prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), CDH1, Survivin]. Further and better analysis centered in gene polymorphisms linked to other covariates, epidemiological studies and the information provided by meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies should help to improve our understanding of

  5. Chagas Disease among the Latin American Adult Population Attending in a Primary Care Center in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Carme; Pinazo, María Jesús; López-Chejade, Paolo; Bayó, Joan; Posada, Elizabeth; López-Solana, Jordi; Gállego, Montserrat; Portús, Montserrat; Gascón, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims The epidemiology of Chagas disease, until recently confined to areas of continental Latin America, has undergone considerable changes in recent decades due to migration to other parts of the world, including Spain. We studied the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin American patients treated at a health center in Barcelona and evaluated its clinical phase. We make some recommendations for screening for the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed an observational, cross-sectional prevalence study by means of an immunochromatographic test screening of all continental Latin American patients over the age of 14 years visiting the health centre from October 2007 to October 2009. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods: conventional in-house ELISA (cELISA), a commercial kit (rELISA) and ELISA using T cruzi lysate (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) (oELISA). Of 766 patients studied, 22 were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection, showing a prevalence of 2.87% (95% CI, 1.6–4.12%). Of the infected patients, 45.45% men and 54.55% women, 21 were from Bolivia, showing a prevalence in the Bolivian subgroup (n = 127) of 16.53% (95% CI, 9.6–23.39%). All the infected patients were in a chronic phase of Chagas disease: 81% with the indeterminate form, 9.5% with the cardiac form and 9.5% with the cardiodigestive form. All patients infected with T. cruzi had heard of Chagas disease in their country of origin, 82% knew someone affected, and 77% had a significant history of living in adobe houses in rural areas. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in immigrants from Bolivia. Detection of T. cruzi–infected persons by screening programs in non-endemic countries would control non-vectorial transmission and would benefit the persons affected, public health and national health systems. PMID:21572511

  6. Lead exposure in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lead Research Group of the Pan-American Health Organization.

    PubMed Central

    Romieu, I; Lacasana, M; McConnell, R

    1997-01-01

    As a result of the rapid industrialization of Latin America and the Caribbean during the second half of this century, exposure to lead has become an increasingly important problem. To obtain an estimate of the magnitude of lead exposure in the region, we carried out a survey and a literature search on potential sources of lead exposure and on blood lead concentrations. Sixteen out of 18 Latin American and 2 out of 10 Caribbean countries responded to the survey. Lead in gasoline remains a major problem, although the lead content has decreased in many countries in the last few years. The impact of leaded fuel is more important in urban settings, given their high vehicular density. Seventy-five percent of the population of the region lives in urban areas, and children younger than 15 years of age, the most susceptible group, comprise 30% of the population. Other sources of lead exposure identified in the region included industrial emissions, battery recycling, paint and varnishes, and contaminated food and water. Lead is recognized as a priority problem by national authorities in 72% of the countries that responded to the survey, and in 50% of the countries some legislation exists to regulate the lead content in certain products. However, compliance is low. There is an urgent need for a broad-based coalition between policy makers, industry, workers, unions, health care providers, and the community to take actions to reduce environmental and occupational lead exposures in all the Latin American and Caribbean countries. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9189704

  7. Do foreign exchange and equity markets co-move in Latin American region? Detrended cross-correlation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Usman; Yu, Yugang; Hussain, Muntazir; Zebende, Gilney F.

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of the relationship between foreign exchange markets and stock markets through time varying co-movements. In this sense, we analyzed the time series monthly of Latin American countries for the period from 1991 to 2015. Furthermore, we apply Granger causality to verify the direction of causality between foreign exchange and stock market and detrended cross-correlation approach (ρDCCA) for any co-movements at different time scales. Our empirical results suggest a positive cross correlation between exchange rate and stock price for all Latin American countries. The findings reveal two clear patterns of correlation. First, Brazil and Argentina have positive correlation in both short and long time frames. Second, the remaining countries are negatively correlated in shorter time scale, gradually moving to positive. This paper contributes to the field in three ways. First, we verified the co-movements of exchange rate and stock prices that were rarely discussed in previous empirical studies. Second, ρDCCA coefficient is a robust and powerful methodology to measure the cross correlation when dealing with non stationarity of time series. Third, most of the studies employed one or two time scales using co-integration and vector autoregressive approaches. Not much is known about the co-movements at varying time scales between foreign exchange and stock markets. ρDCCA coefficient facilitates the understanding of its explanatory depth.

  8. Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework—Effectively Maintained Inequality—and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context. PMID:22962512

  9. Supportive Adult Relationships and the Academic Engagement of Latin American Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, G.; Rhodes, J.; Hirsch, A. H.; Suarez-Orozco, C.; Camic, P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this study was to explore the academic engagement trajectories of a sample of recently arrived immigrant students from Latin America. Using an analytic framework that can dynamically model time-sensitive fluctuations (HLM; [Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchicical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis…

  10. Stereotypes of the Latin Image in American Films: Silent Period to 1945.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svenningsen, Karen

    This paper presents a history of motion pictures that focuses on how motion pictures, from 1894 to the present, have portrayed Latins. The role that Hollywood has played in the perpetuation of stereotypes is illustrated. There is an explanation of how film has illuminated a world beyond everyday experiences and has introduced the movie-goer to new…

  11. Social Studies: History. Latin American Curriculum Units for Junior and Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Richard; Goldston, Angela

    These two self-contained units of study will help community college students learn about the history of Latin America. Each unit contains notes to the teachers and student readings. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading selections. In the first unit students are engaged in a comparative historical study of slavery in Brazil and in…

  12. [Agricultural structures and internal migration in a historical perspective: Latin American case studies].

    PubMed

    Balan, J

    1981-01-01

    This study is concerned with the ways in which changes in the structure of rural life influence internal migration in Latin America. The author describes how changes such as the abolition of slavery affected Peru and Bolivia and how the expansion of the international grain market affected Argentina, particularly regarding migration. Recent changes considered include the mechanization of agriculture and the decline of immigration.

  13. Teacher Perceptions Regarding the Status of Environmental Education in Latin American Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penwell, Rebecca; Cronin-Jones, Linda; Hakverdi, Meral; Cline, Shannon; Johnson, Courtney

    This research, commissioned by the U.S. Department of State, Office of Overseas Schools, was designed to determine the status of environmental education in private U.S. and international elementary schools throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The study population consisted of all 50 dues-paying member schools in the Association of American…

  14. The space transportation system and its impact on Latin American development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, F. R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The three components of the Space Transportation System: the space shuttle, the permanent orbital space station and the transorbital vehicle are described. The stages of completion of the various plans are discussed and the impact of the project's implementation is discussed with particular reference to Latin America and with special emphasis on the telecommunications sector.

  15. Closing the Gap in Education and Technology. World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ferranti, David; Perry, Guillermo E.; Gill, Indermit; Guasch, J. Luis; Maloney, William F.; Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina; Schady, Norbert

    This document examines the gap between the Latin America and Caribbean region and the world's developed nations in the areas of education and technology. It also examines policies and strategies to close the gap. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) skills upgrading and innovation policies (the major actors; the role of…

  16. The Latin American Book Market: Problems and Prospects. Studies on Books and Reading No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augsburger, Alberto E.

    Focusing on the present state of book development in Latin America, this report examines measures that might improve local book industries and meet the need for endogenous literature. The various sections of the report discuss (1) the demographic, economic, and educational factors governing the book market in the region and ways to evaluate its…

  17. Cite Globally, Analyze Locally: Citation Analysis from a Local Latin American Studies Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schadl, Suzanne M.; Todeschini, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This citation analysis examines the use of Spanish- and Portuguese-language books and articles in PhD dissertations on Latin America at the University of New Mexico between 2000 and 2009. Two sets of data are presented: The first identifies the use of Spanish- and Portuguese-language books and articles across 17 academic departments; and the…

  18. Emotions in the History of Latin American Popular Education: Constructions for a Thinking-Feeling Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streck, Danilo R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the presence of emotions in the constitution of popular education in Latin America, thus contributing to understand popular education as a thinking-feeling practice. It starts from the assumption that emotions are also historical and cultural expressions that mark societies and their understanding of…

  19. The Effects of Tougher Enforcement on the Job Prospects of Recent Latin American Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2009-01-01

    Attempts to enforce immigration laws in the U.S. interior have proliferated in recent years, yet the effects of these laws on immigrants are largely unknown. This paper examines whether increases in immigration-related law enforcement since 2001 have adversely affected the labor market outcomes of low-education male immigrants from Latin America,…

  20. Seminario latinoamericano de didactica de los medios audiovisuales (Latin American Seminar on Teaching with Audiovisual Aids).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eduplan Informa, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This seminar on the use of audiovisual aids reached several conclusions on the need for and the use of such aids in Latin America. The need for educational innovation in the face of a new society, a new type of communication, and a new vision of man is stressed. A new definition of teaching and learning as a fundamental process of communication is…

  1. Educational Building in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baza, Jadille; Vaz, Rita de Cassia Alves; Millan, Eduardo; Almeida, Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    Presents articles describing recent developments in three Latin American countries (Chile, Brazil, and Venezuela) to expand public education facilities, along with a report on UNESCO's recent seminar in Latin America on architecture for an inclusive education. (EV)

  2. La Capacitacion de Docentes Como Prioridad de los Sistemas Educativos de America Latino y al Caribe (In-Service Teacher Training as a Priority of Latin American and Caribbean Educational Systems).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Whenever top-level officials in Latin American and Caribbean educational systems are approached, the topic of inservice teacher training is presented as a major priority. This paper outlines some ideas about the subject of inservice teacher training as a priority of educational systems in Latin American and Caribbean countries. The most frequent…

  3. [Latin-American Consensus on Difficult-to-Control Asthma. 2008 Update].

    PubMed

    2008-06-01

    Asthma, which is more of a syndrome than a disease, usually responds to inhaled corticosteroid treatment, with or without the addition of long-acting beta-agonists. However, in a certain group of patients asthma cannot be controlled despite administering appropriate drugs at high doses. Difficult-to-control asthma cases are the target of this consensus meeting. Clinical practice guidelines and consensus on this subject already exist, so we must emphasize that the objective of this document is to review said guidelines and adapt them to regional situations. It is also necessary to update the guidelines, as new treatment alternatives have appeared in our countries. Difficult-to-control asthma has many different names, such as severe, serious, difficult, refractory, unstable, life-threatening, corticoid-resistant, and corticoid-dependent asthma, among others. The prevalence of difficult-to-control asthma has not clearly been established, but several publications estimate it to represent 5% of the asthma population. However, the significant impact on asthma-related direct and indirect costs and the quality of life impairment in this patient population have been clearly shown. The Latin American Consensus on Difficult-to-Control Asthma submits the following definition: "Inadequately-controlled asthma existing despite appropriate treatment strategy adjusted to the clinical severity level (level 4 or higher of the Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA]), indicated by a physician and administered for at least six months". The correct diagnosis of difficult-to-control asthma usually is made when there is no response to adequate treatment adjusted to the clinical severity level. However, many conditions can mimic difficult-to-control asthma, while others can exacerbate it. Therefore, in order to ensure a correct diagnosis, certain requirements - systematic assessments - must be met which confirm the asthma diagnosis and rule out other conditions. The therapeutic approach to

  4. Section III: Examining American Values: Value Choices Since Revolutionary Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The statements of Erik Erikson and Urie Bronfenbrenner on American values are followed by a values clarification exercise and an activity based on biographical sketches of five Americans who lived before and after the American Revolution. (KM)

  5. IAEA INTERCOMPARISON EXERCISES OF THYROID MEASUREMENT: PERFORMANCE OF LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN LABORATORIES.

    PubMed

    Dantas, B M; Dantas, A L A; Cruz-Suarez, R

    2016-09-01

    (131)I is widely used in Latin America and Caribbean Region in the field of nuclear medicine and has been recognised as one of the main sources of potential intake of radionuclides by the staff. The In Vivo Monitoring laboratory of the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD-CNEN-Brazil) organised three intercomparison exercises (2005, 2009 and 2013) in the scope of IAEA technical cooperation projects RLA9049 and RLA9066 aimed to disseminate and harmonise the technique for measuring (131)I in the human thyroid. The number of participants in Latin America increased from 9 to 20 institutions from 7 and 13 countries, respectively, over the last 10 y. The participants have improved significantly their ability on the in vivo measurement technique. In the 2013 round all laboratories which reported results presented performances in an acceptable range according to the ISO criteria indicating the benefit of such exercises in the region. PMID:26546253

  6. The food industry and conflicts of interest in nutrition research: A Latin American perspective.

    PubMed

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Nestle, Marion

    2015-10-29

    Conflicts of interest arise when corporations marketing harmful products establish financial relationships with research institutions, researchers, or public health organizations. As obesity becomes a worldwide epidemic, such relationships threaten to jeopardize the integrity of scientific research. Latin America, a region undergoing rapid development, is particularly vulnerable to such conflicts. Here, we provide examples of how food and beverage companies are funding nutrition-focused research and institutions in Latin America, putting their credibility at risk. Public health organizations and institutions should take measures to identify, manage, and limit (or eliminate) conflicts of interest caused by partnerships with food companies making and marketing unhealthful products.Journal of Public Health Policy advance online publication, 29 October 2015; doi:10.1057/jphp.2015.37.

  7. Capitalism and population in Latin American agriculture: recent trends and problems.

    PubMed

    Miro, C A; Rodriguez, D

    1982-04-01

    "On the basis of a body of empirical research, the authors explore the relationship between agrarian structure and population [in Latin America]. After an introduction in which they present their theoretical and methodological orientation, they describe the current changing trends in agrarian structure, among which are the 'intensification' of the process of the penetration of capitalistic forms into agriculture." They then discuss the relationships between agrarian structure and demographic variables, particularly fertility and migration. In the final section, some guidelines for future research are presented. This paper is a revised version of an evaluation study carried out to assess the contributions of 14 research projects financed by the Programme of Social Research on Population in Latin America (PISPAL).

  8. Nuclear proliferation and Latin American Security: Is the bomb' program dead in Brazil. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    De Jesus, E.

    1994-03-24

    This thesis addresses the possibility of a Brazilian hidden agenda in order to support one of the most advanced nuclear research and nuclear power programs in Latin America. From the early 1970s to the late 1980s Brazilian military leaders pursued the development of nuclear weapons. With the emergence of democratic regimes during the 1980s, these covert projects were halted or terminated. The civilian administration in Brazil is now supporting an ambiguous and uncompromising position by not ratifying significant agreements renouncing nuclear weapons programs. With Brazil still rejecting the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), not formally embracing the Tlatelolco Treaty (which prohibits nuclear weapons in Latin America), and not allowing full implementation of inspections and International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safeguards on its nuclear facilities, the future of the Brazilian nuclear program appears to be a dormant but potential political factor in Brazilian foreign policy.

  9. Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Latin America: A Comparison with the United States. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)

    PubMed Central

    Chirinos, Julio A.; Gómez, Luis F.; Perel, Pablo; Pichardo, Rafael; González, Angel; Sánchez, José R.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Aguilera, Ximena; Silva, Eglé; Oróstegui, Myriam; Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Suárez, Erick; Ortiz, Ana P.; Rosero, Luis; Schapochnik, Noberto; Ortiz, Zulma; Ferrante, Daniel; Casas, Juan P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited knowledge on the prevalence and distribution of risk factors impairs the planning and implementation of cardiovascular prevention programs in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. Methods and Findings Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, abnormal lipoprotein levels, obesity, and smoking were estimated from individual-level patient data pooled from population-based surveys (1998–2007, n = 31,009) from eight LAC countries and from a national survey of the United States (US) population (1999–2004) Age and gender specific prevalence were estimated and age-gender adjusted comparisons between both populations were conducted. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in LAC were 5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 3.4, 7.9), 20.2% (95% CI: 12.5, 31), and 53.3% (95% CI: 47, 63.4), respectively. Compared to LAC region’s average, the prevalence of each risk factor tended to be lower in Peru and higher in Chile. LAC women had higher prevalence of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol than men. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were more prevalent in the US population than in LAC population (31 vs. 16.1%, 16.8 vs. 8.9%, and 36.2 vs. 26.5%, respectively). However, the prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol was higher in LAC than in the US (53.3 vs. 33.7%). Conclusions Major cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in LAC region, in particular low HDL-cholesterol. In addition, marked differences do exist in this prevalence profile between LAC and the US. The observed patterns of obesity-related risk factors and their current and future impact on the burden of cardiovascular diseases remain to be explained. PMID:23349785

  10. Report from the First Latin American Urological Oncology Symposium (SLAURO) 19–21 June 2014, Viña del Mar, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Caglevic, Christian; Pinto, Ivàn; Altamirano, Jaime; Vilches, Roberto; Martìn, Eu Marìa Eliana San; Gallardo, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most important diseases in Chile, with alarming incidence and mortality rates that are among the highest in Latin America. Economic growth in South America has led to demographic change, with an aging population typical of developed countries, but also a growing population with cancer. The incidence and mortality of urological cancers in Chile is significant, and has led to the formulation of health laws and policies promoting the early treatment of urological cancers. It is also well known that there are regions of Chile with extremely high incidence and mortality of bladder cancer caused by arsenic exposure. SLAURO (Simposio Latinoamericano de Urología Oncológica [Latin American Oncological Urology Symposium]) is a new Latin American forum for discussing and promoting knowledge of urological cancers across the region. PMID:25525468

  11. Report from the First Latin American Urological Oncology Symposium (SLAURO) 19-21 June 2014, Viña del Mar, Chile.

    PubMed

    Caglevic, Christian; Pinto, Ivàn; Altamirano, Jaime; Vilches, Roberto; Martìn, Eu Marìa Eliana San; Gallardo, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most important diseases in Chile, with alarming incidence and mortality rates that are among the highest in Latin America. Economic growth in South America has led to demographic change, with an aging population typical of developed countries, but also a growing population with cancer. The incidence and mortality of urological cancers in Chile is significant, and has led to the formulation of health laws and policies promoting the early treatment of urological cancers. It is also well known that there are regions of Chile with extremely high incidence and mortality of bladder cancer caused by arsenic exposure. SLAURO (Simposio Latinoamericano de Urología Oncológica [Latin American Oncological Urology Symposium]) is a new Latin American forum for discussing and promoting knowledge of urological cancers across the region.

  12. Report from the First Latin American Urological Oncology Symposium (SLAURO) 19-21 June 2014, Viña del Mar, Chile.

    PubMed

    Caglevic, Christian; Pinto, Ivàn; Altamirano, Jaime; Vilches, Roberto; Martìn, Eu Marìa Eliana San; Gallardo, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most important diseases in Chile, with alarming incidence and mortality rates that are among the highest in Latin America. Economic growth in South America has led to demographic change, with an aging population typical of developed countries, but also a growing population with cancer. The incidence and mortality of urological cancers in Chile is significant, and has led to the formulation of health laws and policies promoting the early treatment of urological cancers. It is also well known that there are regions of Chile with extremely high incidence and mortality of bladder cancer caused by arsenic exposure. SLAURO (Simposio Latinoamericano de Urología Oncológica [Latin American Oncological Urology Symposium]) is a new Latin American forum for discussing and promoting knowledge of urological cancers across the region. PMID:25525468

  13. The role of the Organization of American States in the development of seismology in Latin America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quesada, A.

    1982-01-01

    Seismological studies in Latin America were initiated at the beginning of the 20th century, when the first seismological stations were deployed by certain scientific associations. These efforts provided an incentive to the professional community for further activites. Until this date, the only seismic records that existed were historical accounts of catastrophes caused by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. This type of information of course, leads to "fantasy" and incorrect descriptions of what has taken place. 

  14. [Studies on Latin American freshwater macroinvertebrates: recent advances and future directions].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Alonso; Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E

    2014-04-01

    Latin America is an active scientific research area, in particular with respect to the study of freshwater macroinvertebrates. The present serves as an introduction to a special issue that highlights recent research projects on macroinvertebrates in Latin America. As part of this introduction, we conducted a literature analysis of the last 14 years of publications from the region that highlights the steady increase in publications on macroinvertebrates. Most studies from 2000-2013 were conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Argentina, and Costa Rica, and were focused on taxonomy and different issues related to biodiversity and distribution. There was a tendency for the use of local low-impact journals, but high impact publications were also found. This special issue contributes with 18 studies conducted in eight different countries. Two major topics are covered in the special issue, the ecology and natural history of aquatic macroinvertebrates and their use in the evaluation of anthropogenic impacts to aquatic ecosystems. Based on the literature review and contributions included in the issue, we discuss research needs for the region. Identified needs include: (1) to continue emphasizing taxonomic research, (2) assess mechanisms responsible for changes in biodiversity, (3) assess the role of macroinvertebrates in ecosystem processes and function, (4) improve biomonitoring efforts beyond unimetric indices, (5) the need for an ecosystem perspective, and (6) establishing long-term studies. This special issue is an initial effort to advance our knowledge on freshwater macroinvertebrates in Latin America. PMID:25189066

  15. [Studies on Latin American freshwater macroinvertebrates: recent advances and future directions].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Alonso; Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E

    2014-04-01

    Latin America is an active scientific research area, in particular with respect to the study of freshwater macroinvertebrates. The present serves as an introduction to a special issue that highlights recent research projects on macroinvertebrates in Latin America. As part of this introduction, we conducted a literature analysis of the last 14 years of publications from the region that highlights the steady increase in publications on macroinvertebrates. Most studies from 2000-2013 were conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Argentina, and Costa Rica, and were focused on taxonomy and different issues related to biodiversity and distribution. There was a tendency for the use of local low-impact journals, but high impact publications were also found. This special issue contributes with 18 studies conducted in eight different countries. Two major topics are covered in the special issue, the ecology and natural history of aquatic macroinvertebrates and their use in the evaluation of anthropogenic impacts to aquatic ecosystems. Based on the literature review and contributions included in the issue, we discuss research needs for the region. Identified needs include: (1) to continue emphasizing taxonomic research, (2) assess mechanisms responsible for changes in biodiversity, (3) assess the role of macroinvertebrates in ecosystem processes and function, (4) improve biomonitoring efforts beyond unimetric indices, (5) the need for an ecosystem perspective, and (6) establishing long-term studies. This special issue is an initial effort to advance our knowledge on freshwater macroinvertebrates in Latin America.

  16. Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7 = low, 8-14 = moderate, and 15-21 = high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3–14 (mean = 8.1 ± 2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation

  17. Characterization and Clinical Impact of Bloodstream Infection Caused by Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Seven Latin American Countries

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Maria Virginia; Pallares, Christian J.; Hernández-Gómez, Cristhian; Correa, Adriana; Álvarez, Carlos; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Luna, Carlos; Zurita, Jeannete; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos; Cortesía, Manuel; Guzmán-Suárez, Alfonso; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a public health problem associated with higher mortality rates, longer hospitalization and increased healthcare costs. We carried out a study to describe the characteristics of patients with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and non-CPE bloodstream infection (BSI) from Latin American hospitals and to determine the clinical impact in terms of mortality and antibiotic therapy. Methods Between July 2013 and November 2014, we conducted a multicenter observational study in 11 hospitals from 7 Latin American countries (Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Venezuela). Patients with BSI caused by Enterobacteriaceae were included and classified either as CPE or non-CPE based on detection of blaKPC, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM and blaOXA-48 by polymerase chain reaction. Enrolled subjects were followed until discharge or death. Demographic, microbiological and clinical characteristics were collected from medical records. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the information. Results A total of 255 patients with Enterobacteriaceae BSI were included; CPE were identified in 53 of them. In vitro non-susceptibility to all screened antibiotics was higher in the patients with CPE BSI, remaining colistin, tigecycline and amikacin as the most active drugs. Combination therapy was significantly more frequent in the CPE BSI group (p < 0.001). The most common regimen was carbapenem + colistin or polymyxin B. The overall mortality was 37% (94/255). Overall and attributable mortality were significantly higher in patients with CPE BSI (p < 0.001); however, we found that patients with CPE BSI who received combination therapy and those who received monotherapy had similar mortality. After multivariate adjustment, CPE BSI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–9.5; p = 0.002) and critical illness (aOR 6.5; 95% CI 3.1–13.7; p < 0

  18. Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity.

    PubMed

    Galaviz, Karla I; Harden, Samantha M; Smith, Erin; Blackman, Kacie Ca; Berrey, Leanna M; Mama, Scherezade K; Almeida, Fabio A; Lee, Rebecca E; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2014-06-17

    The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7 = low, 8-14 = moderate, and 15-21 = high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3-14 (mean = 8.1 ± 2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation

  19. A "Great Roads" Approach to Teaching Modern World History and Latin American Regional Survey Courses: A Veracruz to Mexico City Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James Seay, Jr.; Sullivan-Gonzalez, Douglass

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an innovative way of teaching "World History Since 1500" at Samford University (Birmingham, Alabama) called the "great roads" approach, centered upon important roads in a country's history. Presents the "Veracruz to Mexico City corridor" case study used to teach a Latin American modern history course. (CMK)

  20. 1969 MLA International Bibliography of Books and Articles on the Modern Languages and Literatures. Volume I: General, English, American, Medieval and Neo-Latin, and Celtic Literatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meserole, Harrison T., Comp.

    Volume 1 of the 4-volume, international bibliography contains some 9,000 entries referring to books and articles which focus on general, English, American, medieval and neo-Latin, and Celtic literatures. The master list of the nearly 1,500 periodicals from which entries are derived is furnished at the beginning of the volume with a table of…

  1. Las historias de la narrativa hispanoamericana: Criterios, metodos y ausencias. (Histories of the Latin-American Narrative: Criteria, Methods, and Absences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavalo, Lauro

    This paper explains that materials on the teaching of Latin-American literature are sparse, even though most researchers in the field will dedicate much of their time to teaching. The paper adds that, in scholarly journals, little attention is given to teaching literature, and the topic is also absent from most academic congresses. The paper then…

  2. Latin American Literatures and Cultures: Self and Society. Papers from the National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute (La Jolla, California, August 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabrook, John H., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This special issue contains the following articles: (1) "Critiquing the Center: Rigoberta Menchu and Enrique Dussel" (Joseph R. Hoff); (2) "Caroline Maria De Jesus: A Testimonial Voice in the Wilderness" (Eva Bueno); (3) "Latin American Women's Voices: La Malinche to Rigoberta Menchu" (Ana Maria Romo de Mease); (4) "China in Borges''The Garden of…

  3. Latin American Youth Entrepreneurs: Differences between Coached and Laissez-Faire Entrepreneurial Experiences in Their Employability Skills and Their Entrepreneurial Innovative Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman Maqueira, Juana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the development of employability skills and entrepreneurial innovative attitude in Latin American youth entrepreneurs 18-29 years of age after participating in at least 1 year of an entrepreneurship experience. The design involved analyzing two groups. The first was a coached group…

  4. A genome-wide association scan in admixed Latin Americans identifies loci influencing facial and scalp hair features.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fontanil, Tania; Cal, Santiago; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Al-Saadi, Farah; Johansson, Jeanette A; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; López-Otín, Carlos; Tobin, Desmond J; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2016-03-01

    We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-119)), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair.

  5. A genome-wide association scan in admixed Latin Americans identifies loci influencing facial and scalp hair features.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fontanil, Tania; Cal, Santiago; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Al-Saadi, Farah; Johansson, Jeanette A; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; López-Otín, Carlos; Tobin, Desmond J; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-119)), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair. PMID:26926045

  6. [Partnership between a university and an international organization with a view to drugs research training for Latin American nursing teachers].

    PubMed

    Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de; Mamede, Marli Villela; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto; Chisman, Anna McG

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the experience of the specialization course called: research training program for nurses to study the drugs phenomenon in Latin America, which was offered by two institutions, one of which is local (University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing) while the other is an international organization (Interamerican Drug Abuse Control Commission - CICAD of the Organization of American States - OAS). This program was offered consecutively in 2002 and 2003. The report discloses data on the negotiation and didactical planning process for the first course, the distribution of contents and activities, experiences acquired during the teaching process and student evaluations. According to the participating students, teachers and institutions involved, offering partially in-class and partially distance courses, like the above mentioned program, has proved to be a successful experience with political, academic and social repercussions for the participants.

  7. Change in ethnic identity across the high school years among adolescents with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Baldelomar, Oscar A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Changes in adolescents' ethnic identity (e.g., exploration, belonging) were examined over the 4 years of high school. Results from 541 adolescents (51% female) with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds suggest that, as a group, adolescents do not report developmental changes in their ethnic exploration and belonging over time. Yet, within-person analyses of change reveal that individual adolescents exhibited substantial fluctuation in ethnic identity across the years, and this fluctuation was associated with concurrent changes in family cohesion, proportion of same-ethnic peers, and ethnic centrality. The discussion focuses on the value of examining intraindividual change over at least several years in order to more fully understand processes of ethnic identity development during adolescence.

  8. A genome-wide association scan in admixed Latin Americans identifies loci influencing facial and scalp hair features

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fontanil, Tania; Cal, Santiago; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Al-Saadi, Farah; Johansson, Jeanette A.; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C.; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; López-Otín, Carlos; Tobin, Desmond J.; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10−8 to 3 × 10−119), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair. PMID:26926045

  9. Validity and applicability of a video-based animated tool to assess mobility in elderly Latin American populations

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Oliveira, Bruna Silva; Alvarado, Beatriz Eugenia; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Rejeski, W Jack; Marsh, Anthony P; Ip, Edward H; Barnard, Ryan T; Guralnik, Jack M; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the reliability and the validity of Portuguese- and Spanish-translated versions of the video-based short-form Mobility Assessment Tool in assessing self-reported mobility, and to provide evidence for the applicability of these videos in elderly Latin American populations as a complement to physical performance measures. Methods The sample consisted of 300 elderly participants (150 from Brazil, 150 from Colombia) recruited at neighborhood social centers. Mobility was assessed with the Mobility Assessment Tool, and compared with the Short Physical Performance Battery score and self-reported functional limitations. Reliability was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess associations among mobility assessment tools and health, and sociodemographic variables. Results A significant gradient of increasing Mobility Assessment Tool score with better physical function was observed for both self-reported and objective measures, and in each city. Associations between self-reported mobility and health were strong, and significant. Mobility Assessment Tool scores were lower in women at both sites. Intraclass correlation coefficients of the Mobility Assessment Tool were 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.90–0.97) in Brazil and 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.66–0.91) in Colombia. Mobility Assessment Tool scores were lower in Manizales than in Natal after adjustment by Short Physical Performance Battery, self-rated health and sex. Conclusions These results provide evidence for high reliability and good validity of the Mobility Assessment Tool in its Spanish and Portuguese versions used in Latin American populations. In addition, the Mobility Assessment Tool can detect mobility differences related to environmental features that cannot be captured by objective perfor mance measures. PMID:24666718

  10. [Programs destined to decrease the chronic malnutrition. A review in Latin American].

    PubMed

    Galván, Marcos; Amigo, Hugo

    2007-12-01

    Stunting affects 16% of children under 5 years old, in Latin America. This is a cumulative effect of poor diets and repeated episodes of infectious diseases. Our aim was to analyze the impact of nutrition programs oriented to increase food availability at the family level on the growth of under fives in Latin America. We included all evaluated and published interventions on food availability. An electronic and manual search of papers published between 1995-2005 in PUBMED, LILACS, SCIELO and international organizations, was performed. Three type of programs were identified: Conditioned Economical Transference Programs (CETP) (n= ), Complementary Feeding Programs (CFP) (n= ), and Food Security Programs (FSP) (n=). Operational deficiencies were reported, some of them being participants attrition, non acceptance of the food supplement or its dilution among other members of the family. Beneficiaries of CETP (<36 months) gained up to 1 cm while the CFP registered impact but only in the low socioeconomic children. Conversely, the (FSP) did not show the expected effects on growth. This reduced impact is understandable because in order to permit the development of the children's growth potential interventions should be directed to strike on poverty as the main mechanism of the children's hampered growth. Hence, the best results are obtained by coordinated programs that combat poverty optimizing the intervention's continuity and management and give priority to the most vulnerable groups.

  11. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  12. Continuing Education Needs in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capanema, Clelia de Freitas

    Continuing education needs of the Latin American population are related to the need of Latin American countries for social and economic development. The source of continuing educaton needs is the area's differentiated socioeconomic development and cultural diversity. Some common features of Latin American educational systems, well known as…

  13. Aspects of Youth Participation in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montiel, Edgar

    1984-01-01

    The systematic intervention of Latin American youth in their societies sets them apart from young people in other world regions. The reasons for the distinctiveness of the Latin American student movement are discussed. The attitudes that the different kinds of Latin American political systems take toward youth participation are examined. (RM)

  14. Forgotten Americans and the National Pastime: Bibliographical Guide to Literature on Baseball's Cultural Diversity--Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarkman, Peter C.

    1992-01-01

    Continues a series by presenting a representative list of fiction and nonfiction titles on the topic of baseball and cultural diversity. Sources and novels on African-American, Latin American, and Jewish ballplayers are listed, for a total of 246 references. (SLD)

  15. Policy Shocks: On the Legal Auspices of Latin American Migration to the United States

    PubMed Central

    Riosmena, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I compare the transition into legal permanent residence (LPR) of Mexicans, Dominicans, and Nicaraguans. Dominicans had the highest likelihood of obtaining residence, mostly sponsored by parents and spouses. Mexicans had the lowest LPR transition rates and presented sharp gender differentials in modes: women mostly legalized through husbands while men were sponsored through IRCA, parents. Nicaraguans stood in-between, presenting few gender differences in rates and modes of transition and a heavy dependence on asylum and special provisions such as IRCA and NACARA. I argue these patterns stem from the interplay of conditions favoring the emigration of and the specific immigration policy context faced by migrant pioneers; the influence of social networks in reproducing the legal character of flows; and differences in the actual use of kinship ties as sponsors. I discuss the implications of these trends on the observed gendered patterns of migration from Latin America. PMID:21921965

  16. [Control of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin-American women and her children].

    PubMed

    Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María

    2013-09-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area.

  17. [Control of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin-American women and her children].

    PubMed

    Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María

    2013-09-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area. PMID:24080893

  18. The Latin American DILI Registry Experience: A Successful Ongoing Collaborative Strategic Initiative.

    PubMed

    Bessone, Fernando; Hernandez, Nelia; Lucena, M Isabel; Andrade, Raúl J

    2016-02-29

    Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare but well recognized serious adverse reaction. Pre-marketing studies may not detect liver injury, and DILI becomes very often apparent after the drug is launched to the market. Specific biomarkers for DILI prediction or diagnosis are not available. Toxic liver reactions present with a wide spectrum of phenotypes and severity, and our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying idiosyncratic reactions and individual susceptibility is still limited. To overcome these limitations, country-based registries and multicenter research networks have been created in Europe and North America. Reliable epidemiological data on DILI in Latin America (LA), a region with a large variety of ethnic groups, were however lacking. Fortunately, a LA network of DILI was set up in 2011, with the support of the Spanish DILI Registry from the University of Malaga. The primary aim of the Latin DILI Network (LATINDILIN) Registry was to prospectively identify bona fide DILI cases and to collect biological samples to study genetic biomarkers. Physicians involved in the project must complete a structured report form describing the DILI case presentation and follow-up which is submitted to a Coordinator Center in each country, where it is further assessed for completeness. During the last four years, several LA countries (Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela and Colombia) have joined the network and committed with this project. At that point, to identify both our strengths and weaknesses was a very important issue. In this review, we will describe how the LATINDILI Registry was created. The aims and methods to achieve these objectives will be discussed in depth. Additionally, both the difficulties we have faced and the strategies to solve them will be also pinpointed. Finally, we will report on our preliminary results, and discuss ideas to expand and to keep running this network.

  19. The Latin American DILI Registry Experience: A Successful Ongoing Collaborative Strategic Initiative.

    PubMed

    Bessone, Fernando; Hernandez, Nelia; Lucena, M Isabel; Andrade, Raúl J

    2016-01-01

    Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare but well recognized serious adverse reaction. Pre-marketing studies may not detect liver injury, and DILI becomes very often apparent after the drug is launched to the market. Specific biomarkers for DILI prediction or diagnosis are not available. Toxic liver reactions present with a wide spectrum of phenotypes and severity, and our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying idiosyncratic reactions and individual susceptibility is still limited. To overcome these limitations, country-based registries and multicenter research networks have been created in Europe and North America. Reliable epidemiological data on DILI in Latin America (LA), a region with a large variety of ethnic groups, were however lacking. Fortunately, a LA network of DILI was set up in 2011, with the support of the Spanish DILI Registry from the University of Malaga. The primary aim of the Latin DILI Network (LATINDILIN) Registry was to prospectively identify bona fide DILI cases and to collect biological samples to study genetic biomarkers. Physicians involved in the project must complete a structured report form describing the DILI case presentation and follow-up which is submitted to a Coordinator Center in each country, where it is further assessed for completeness. During the last four years, several LA countries (Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela and Colombia) have joined the network and committed with this project. At that point, to identify both our strengths and weaknesses was a very important issue. In this review, we will describe how the LATINDILI Registry was created. The aims and methods to achieve these objectives will be discussed in depth. Additionally, both the difficulties we have faced and the strategies to solve them will be also pinpointed. Finally, we will report on our preliminary results, and discuss ideas to expand and to keep running this network. PMID:26938524

  20. The Latin American DILI Registry Experience: A Successful Ongoing Collaborative Strategic Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Bessone, Fernando; Hernandez, Nelia; Lucena, M. Isabel; Andrade, Raúl J.

    2016-01-01

    Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare but well recognized serious adverse reaction. Pre-marketing studies may not detect liver injury, and DILI becomes very often apparent after the drug is launched to the market. Specific biomarkers for DILI prediction or diagnosis are not available. Toxic liver reactions present with a wide spectrum of phenotypes and severity, and our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying idiosyncratic reactions and individual susceptibility is still limited. To overcome these limitations, country-based registries and multicenter research networks have been created in Europe and North America. Reliable epidemiological data on DILI in Latin America (LA), a region with a large variety of ethnic groups, were however lacking. Fortunately, a LA network of DILI was set up in 2011, with the support of the Spanish DILI Registry from the University of Malaga. The primary aim of the Latin DILI Network (LATINDILIN) Registry was to prospectively identify bona fide DILI cases and to collect biological samples to study genetic biomarkers. Physicians involved in the project must complete a structured report form describing the DILI case presentation and follow-up which is submitted to a Coordinator Center in each country, where it is further assessed for completeness. During the last four years, several LA countries (Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela and Colombia) have joined the network and committed with this project. At that point, to identify both our strengths and weaknesses was a very important issue. In this review, we will describe how the LATINDILI Registry was created. The aims and methods to achieve these objectives will be discussed in depth. Additionally, both the difficulties we have faced and the strategies to solve them will be also pinpointed. Finally, we will report on our preliminary results, and discuss ideas to expand and to keep running this network. PMID:26938524

  1. Four Topics in Latin American History: The People; Nation Building; Race, Class, and Identity; and Foreign Policy: U.S. and Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egginton, Everett; Gill, Barbara

    This curricular unit is intended for use at the secondary level. The understandings in Topic I are organized under four main heaings: The Indigenous Population or the pre-Columbian civilizations; The Immigrants from Europe and West Africa; Slavery In Latin America during the pre-colonial and colonial periods and, Race mixture including racial…

  2. [Hypotheses on the origin of certain parasites on the Latin American continent].

    PubMed

    Nozais, J P

    1985-01-01

    The South American continent has been connected to Africa over millions of centuries. In prehistorical time, the filling of the Bering strait allowed passage on firm ground between Asia and North America. South American peopling has thus occurred from North America, through the Pacific sea and, from the 15th century A.C., through the Atlantic. Necator americanus was present in South America prior to the arrival of black slaves and its African origin is probably related to contacts between Africa and South America; the same applies to Leishmania donovani and Biom-Phalaria glabrata. Ankylostoma duodenale originates from Asia as well as Plasmodium falciparum which was brought by man at time of his migration. To the contrary, muco-cutaneous Leishmaniasis stem (or have a South American origin) from South America. Finally, it is difficult to understand for which reasons Loa loa has not established itself in South America as did Schistosoma mansoni. PMID:3928184

  3. Migratory movements and their effects on family structure: the Latin American case.

    PubMed

    Torrealba Orellana, R

    1989-06-01

    The main causes of population mobility in Latin America have been 1) dissolution of the traditional rural societies, 2) expansion of the agro-industrial economy, and 3) consolidation of an urban economic and cultural model. Disparities in wages and exchange rates and inequality in development between different countries have led to emigration to countries at higher levels of economic development and to the industrialized Western countries. More recently, political instability and institutionalized violence in Central America have induced population movements to other countries in the region. 6 basic types of migration in Latin America are 1) seasonal migration of small farmers to urban areas or the rural areas in other countries, 2) migration by young rural people to cities or urban areas of other countries, 3) rural-urban and international migration by the whole family group, 4) international urban-urban migration by individuals or by the whole family group, 5) migration for family reunification, and 6) return migration. The predominant type of mobility has been from the countryside to the cities. Both men and women migrate, although the proportion of migrant women is increasing and women occasionally outnumber males. Migrant women generally find less skilled jobs which are less well paid. Migrant workers frequently have access only to less skilled and poorly paid jobs or enter the informal sector of the urban economy. The impact of migration on the structure and functioning of the family unit in the sending society is determined by the number, sex, and role of the family members who migrate. Other economic and social factors such as assistance received by the migrant, the work found, the level of income, and the specific characteristics of the receiving society determine the success of the venture, the capacity to some or all of the remaining family members. Family members who stay in the sending society must adjust their behavior in ways determined by the number

  4. The housing, geography, and mobility of Latin American urban poor: the prevailing model and the case of Quito, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Klak, T; Holtzclaw, M

    1993-01-01

    In this study of the constraints of low-income migrants in securing decent housing in Quito, Ecuador (a rapidly growing city), there is a literature review of Latin American intraurban mobility and housing, the development of a theoretical model, and a bivariate analysis. John Turner's model of the three stages in the life cycle of migrants and the three concentric zones of urbanization provides the initial framework for examining Quito migration. Quito differs from other Third World and Latin American cities in that its origins are pre-Colombian, and physical barriers surround the city. Data were obtained from housing data collected independently in 1990 and 1991 and survey data on households living in 1000 inadequate housing units in 1989. 35.5% of Quito's population live in inadequate housing (poor building materials, poor construction, deterioration, or lack of basic services). Three concentric and elongated zones are constructed based on distance from the center city and periphery and are representative of shelter types (rented rooms, shanty, house, and apartment). Shelter improves with type of ownership status. The attitudes of local officials influences the proportion of the poor living in rental or self-help housing. 36% of Quito's low-income residents live in rented rooms, and 38% live in shanties and houses. Bridgeheaders (new migrants who are usually young single males) tend to live in rented rooms for under five years and to move over time to shanties and then houses. Colonial preservation in central Quito and landlords' incentives for encouraging migrants to stay in rental housing interferes with the third phase of the model. Mixed housing throughout the city fits the third phase. Local laws prevent squatters and self-help housing. Rented rooms are primarily in the central city. Occupant income increases with shifts from rented rooms, to shanties, to houses. Shelter, geographic, and mobility patterns that do not fit the model are identified. Urban

  5. Mestizos with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Develop Renal Disease Early while Antimalarials Retard its Appearance: Data from a Latin American Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Burgos, Paula I.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Nieto, Romina; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Catoggio, Luis J.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Sarano, Judith; Massardo, Loreto; Vásquez, Gloria M.; Iglesias-Gamarra, Antonio; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Da Silva, Nilzio A.; Alfaro, José L.; Abadi, Isaac; Segami, María I.; Huerta, Guillermo; Cardiel, Mario H.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the predictors of time-to-lupus renal disease in Latin American patients. Methods SLE patients (n=1480) from GLADEL’s (Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Lupus) longitudinal inception cohort were studied. Endpoint was ACR renal criterion development after SLE diagnosis (prevalent cases excluded). Renal disease predictors were examined by univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Antimalarials were considered time-dependent in alternative analyses. Results Of the entire cohort, 265 patients (17.9%) developed renal disease after entering the cohort. Of them, 88 (33.2%) developed persistent proteinuria, 44 (16.6%) cellular casts and 133 (50.2%) both; 233 patients (87.9%) were women; mean (± SD) age at diagnosis was 28.0 (11.9) years; 12.8% were African-Latin Americans, 52.5% Mestizos, 34.7% Caucasians (p=0.0016). Mestizo ethnicity (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.19–2.17), hypertension (HR 3.99, 95% CI 3.02–5.26) and SLEDAI at diagnosis (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) were associated with a shorter time-to-renal disease occurrence; antimalarial use (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43–0.77), older age at onset (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85–0.95, for every 5 years) and photosensitivity (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56–0.98) were associated with a longer time. Alternative model results were consistent with the antimalarial protective effect (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50–0.99). Conclusions Our data strongly support the fact that Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing renal disease early while antimalarials seem to delay the appearance of this SLE manifestation. These data have important implications for the treatment of these patients regardless of their geographic location. PMID:23857989

  6. Is the present cut-point to define type 2 diabetes appropriate in Latin-Americans?

    PubMed Central

    López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Velandia-Carrillo, Carlos; Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Aldana-Campos, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is based either on increased plasma glucose or Glycated hemoglobin levels. Since these measures are the only means for diagnosis of DM2, they must be well adapted to each population according to their metabolic characteristics, given that these may vary in each population. The World Health Organization (WHO) determined the cut-points of plasma glucose levels for the diagnosis of DM2 by associating hyperglycemia with the risk of a specific microvascular complication-retinopathy. Cardiovascular diseases are however the principal causes of mortality in patients with DM2 and we reported that in the Colombo-Ecuadorian population impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance are both risk markers for myocardial infarction. We propose that the current cut-points accepted by the WHO need to be revaluated in populations such as Latin America and that there should be lower cut points for glycaemia in this population, to reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular complications associated with DM2. PMID:25512777

  7. The data acquisition system of the Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofo Haro, M.; Arnaldi, L. H.; Alvarez, W.; Alvarez, C.; Araujo, C.; Areso, O.; Arnaldi, H.; Asorey, H.; Audelo, M.; Barros, H.; Bertou, X.; Bonnett, M.; Calderon, R.; Calderon, M.; Campos-Fauth, A.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, E.; Carrera, E.; Cazar, D.; Cifuentes, E.; Cogollo, D.; Conde, R.; Cotzomi, J.; Dasso, S.; De Castro, A.; De La Torre, J.; De León, R.; Estupiñan, A.; Galindo, A.; Garcia, L.; Gómez Berisso, M.; González, M.; Guevara, W.; Gulisano, A. M.; Hernández, H.; Jaimes, A.; López, J.; Mantilla, C.; Martín, R.; Martinez-Mendez, A.; Martínez, O.; Martins, E.; Masías-Meza, J. J.; Mayo-García, R.; Melo, T.; Mendoza, J.; Miranda, P.; Montes, E.; Morales, E.; Morales, I.; Moreno, E.; Murrugarra, C.; Nina, C.; Núñez, L. A.; Núñez-Castiñeyra, A.; Otiniano, L.; Peña-Rodríguez, J.; Perenguez, J.; Pérez, H.; Perez, Y.; Perez, G.; Pinilla-Velandia, S.; Ponce, E.; Quishpe, R.; Quispe, F.; Reyes, K.; Rivera, H.; Rodriguez, J.; Rodríguez-Pascual, M.; Romero, M.; Rubio-Montero, A. J.; Salazar, H.; Salinas, J.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sidelnik, I.; Haro, M. Sofo; Suárez-Durán, M.; Subieta, M.; Tello, J.; Ticona, R.; Torres, I.; Torres-Niño, L.; Truyenque, J.; Valencia-Otero, M.; Vargas, S.; Vásquez, N.; Villasenor, L.; Zamalloa, M.; Zavala, L.

    2016-06-01

    LAGO is an extended cosmic ray observatory composed of water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD) placed throughout Latin America. It is dedicated to the study of various issues related to astrophysics, space weather and atmospheric physics at the regional scale. In this paper we present the design and implementation of the front-end electronics and the data acquisition system for readout of the WCDs of LAGO. The system consists of preamplifiers and a digital board sending data to a computer via an USB interface. The analog signals are acquired from three independent channels at a maximum rate of ~1.2×105 pulses per second and a sampling rate of 40 MHz. To avoid false trigger due to baseline fluctuations, we present in this work a baseline correction algorithm that makes it possible to use WCDs to study variations of the environmental radiation. A data logging software has been designed to format the received data. It also enables an easy access to the data for an off-line analysis, together with the operational conditions and environmental information. The system is currently used at different sites of LAGO.

  8. Primary care and reform of health systems: a framework for the analysis of Latin American experiences.

    PubMed

    Frenk, J; González-Block, M A

    1992-03-01

    The article first proposes a framework within which to assess the potential of health sector reforms in Latin America for primary health care (PHC). Two dimensions are recognized: the scope of the reforms, content, and the means of participation that are put into play. This framework is then complemented through a critique of the often-sought but little-analyzed PHC reform strategies of decentralization and health sector integration. The analytical framework is next directed to the financing of health services, a chief aspect of any reform aiming toward PHC. Two facets of health service finance are first distinguished: its formal aspect as a means for economic subsistence and growth, and its substantive aspect as a means to promote the rational use of services and thus improvement of health. Once finance is understood in this microeconomic perspective, the focus shifts to the analysis of health care reforms at the macro, health policy level. The article concludes by positing that PHC is in essence a new health care paradigm, oriented by the values of universality, redistribution, integration, plurality, quality, and efficiency.

  9. Cross-national comparison of disability in Latin American and Caribbean persons aged 75 and older.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Ostir, Glenn V; Pelaez, Martha; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare rates of instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) and activity of daily living (ADL) difficulties and examine sociodemographic and health correlates of IADL and ADL difficulties. Data were extracted from the first interview of Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study (abbreviated from Spanish name as: SABE = salud, bienestar y envejecimiento en America Latina y el Caribe). This analysis included 3225 subjects aged 75 and older living in seven capital cities during 1999-2000. Reporting either IADL or ADL difficulties were the outcomes. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between IADL or ADL difficulties and sociodemographics, and health characteristics. The highest prevalence of IADL difficulties was reported in Sao Paulo (33.8%) and the lowest in Montevideo (12.0%). The highest prevalence of ADL difficulties was reported in Santiago (34.7%) and the lowest in Bridgetown (16.9%). In a combined analysis across cities, increased age, fewer years of education, lower body mass index (BMI) (<20), and high number of medical conditions were independently significantly associated with IADL and ADL difficulties. In conclusion, about a third of persons aged 75 and older reported difficulty in at least one IADL or ADL. There was a wide variation on disability rates and correlates across cities. PMID:16126289

  10. Illustrating Latin American Geology With Free Geospatial Data Obtained Through the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolins, M. J.; Cole, L.; Estep, T.; Collins, L.; Travers, L.

    2006-12-01

    Geoscience educators can use images from global geospatial data archives to illustrate the geology of any part of the world. For example, Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) Geosciences faculty and students used free geospatial data obtained through the internet to prepare illustrations for a "Geology for Teachers" course to be taught in Costa Rica during Summer 2007. MTSU geoscientists downloaded data with the freeware Multi-protocol Geoinformation Client (MPGC) developed by the NASA Earth Observing System Higher-Education Alliance ("GeoBrain"). MTSU geoscientists used MPGC to download images from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory World Map Service and the Integrated Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) European Data Server. These images were derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mapping (SRTM), Blue Marble Next Generation (BMNG), Defense Meteorological Satellite Mapping (DMSP) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. MTSU geoscientists also downloaded SRTM data through the U.S. Geological Survey Seamless Data Distribution System, and they downloaded bathymetry through the University of California, San Diego's Satellite Geodesy web site. After downloading the data, MTSU geoscientists used Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) software to prepare the illustrations. Features visible on illustrations include the geomorphic regions of Costa Rica, the Middle America Trench off Costa Rica's Pacific Coast, faults, active volcanoes and human settlements. With data downloaded through MPGC and the other internet data sources listed above, geoscientists can illustrate the geology of any part of Latin America.

  11. Association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Marín-Guerrero, A C; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, P; López-García, Esther; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan L

    2015-01-28

    The dietary patterns of immigrants usually change with the duration of residence and progressively resemble those of the host country. However, very few studies have investigated individuals migrating to countries with a high-quality diet, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), and none has yet focused on Latin-American immigrants. The present study examined the association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants residing in Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008-10 in a representative sample of the adult population residing in Spain. Adherence to the MD was defined as a MD Adherence Screener score ≥ 9. Analyses were conducted by including 419 individuals aged 18-64 years born in Latin-American countries. Compared with immigrants residing in Spain for < 5 years, those residing for ≥ 10 years accounted for a lower percentage of individuals who habitually ate at fast-food restaurants and never trimmed visible fat from meat. Moreover, these immigrants were found to have a lower intake of sugary beverages and a higher intake of Na, saturated fat, fibre, olive oil, vegetables and fish and to more frequently strictly adhere to the MD. A longer duration of residence in Spain was found to be associated with both healthy and unhealthy changes in some eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants. Some of the healthy changes observed contrasted the 'Westernisation' of the diet reported in studies conducted in other Western countries. The results of the present study support the role of the food environment of the host country in the modification of the dietary patterns of immigrants.

  12. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Two Latin American-Mediterranean Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates from Medellín, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, N; Haft, D; Hurtado, U A; Robledo, J; Rouzaud, F

    2016-01-01

    Colombia, with a tuberculosis incidence of 33 cases per 100,000 population, is one of the countries that have reported extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (XDR-TB). We report the high-quality draft genome sequences of two Latin American-Mediterranean XDR-TB clinical isolates (TBR-152 and TBR-175), comprising 4,303,775 bp and 4,330,115 bp, respectively. PMID:27034498

  13. Association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Marín-Guerrero, A C; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, P; López-García, Esther; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan L

    2015-01-28

    The dietary patterns of immigrants usually change with the duration of residence and progressively resemble those of the host country. However, very few studies have investigated individuals migrating to countries with a high-quality diet, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), and none has yet focused on Latin-American immigrants. The present study examined the association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants residing in Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008-10 in a representative sample of the adult population residing in Spain. Adherence to the MD was defined as a MD Adherence Screener score ≥ 9. Analyses were conducted by including 419 individuals aged 18-64 years born in Latin-American countries. Compared with immigrants residing in Spain for < 5 years, those residing for ≥ 10 years accounted for a lower percentage of individuals who habitually ate at fast-food restaurants and never trimmed visible fat from meat. Moreover, these immigrants were found to have a lower intake of sugary beverages and a higher intake of Na, saturated fat, fibre, olive oil, vegetables and fish and to more frequently strictly adhere to the MD. A longer duration of residence in Spain was found to be associated with both healthy and unhealthy changes in some eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants. Some of the healthy changes observed contrasted the 'Westernisation' of the diet reported in studies conducted in other Western countries. The results of the present study support the role of the food environment of the host country in the modification of the dietary patterns of immigrants. PMID:25418887

  14. Latin American Dialysis and Transplant Registry: Experience and contributions to end-stage renal disease epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, Ana Maria; Rosa-Diez, Guillermo Javier; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria Carlota

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, 634387 million people (9% of the world’s population) resided in Latin America (LA), with half of those populating Brazil and Mexico. The LA Dialysis and Transplant Registry was initiated in 1991, with the aim of collecting data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) from the 20 LA-affiliated countries. Since then, the Registry has revealed a trend of increasing prevalence and incidence of end-stage kidney disease on RRT, which is ongoing and is correlated with gross national income, life expectancy at birth, and percentage of population that is older than 65 years. In addition, the rate of kidney transplantation has increased yearly, with > 70% being performed from deceased donors. According to the numbers reported for 2013, the rates of prevalence, incidence and transplantation were (in patients per million population) 669, 149 and 19.4, respectively. Hemodialysis was the treatment of choice (90%), and 43% of the patients undergoing this treatment was located in Brazil; in contrast, peritoneal dialysis prevailed in Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala. To date, the Registry remains the only source of RRT data available to healthcare authorities in many LA countries. It not only serves to promote knowledge regarding epidemiology of end-stage renal disease and the related RRT but also for training of nephrologists and renal researchers, to improve understanding and clinical application of dialysis and transplantation services. In LA, accessibility to RRT is still limited and it remains necessary to develop effective programs that will reduce risk factors, promote early diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease, and strengthen transplantation programs. PMID:27648403

  15. Latin American Dialysis and Transplant Registry: Experience and contributions to end-stage renal disease epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Ana Maria; Rosa-Diez, Guillermo Javier; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria Carlota

    2016-09-01

    In 2015, 634387 million people (9% of the world's population) resided in Latin America (LA), with half of those populating Brazil and Mexico. The LA Dialysis and Transplant Registry was initiated in 1991, with the aim of collecting data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) from the 20 LA-affiliated countries. Since then, the Registry has revealed a trend of increasing prevalence and incidence of end-stage kidney disease on RRT, which is ongoing and is correlated with gross national income, life expectancy at birth, and percentage of population that is older than 65 years. In addition, the rate of kidney transplantation has increased yearly, with > 70% being performed from deceased donors. According to the numbers reported for 2013, the rates of prevalence, incidence and transplantation were (in patients per million population) 669, 149 and 19.4, respectively. Hemodialysis was the treatment of choice (90%), and 43% of the patients undergoing this treatment was located in Brazil; in contrast, peritoneal dialysis prevailed in Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala. To date, the Registry remains the only source of RRT data available to healthcare authorities in many LA countries. It not only serves to promote knowledge regarding epidemiology of end-stage renal disease and the related RRT but also for training of nephrologists and renal researchers, to improve understanding and clinical application of dialysis and transplantation services. In LA, accessibility to RRT is still limited and it remains necessary to develop effective programs that will reduce risk factors, promote early diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease, and strengthen transplantation programs. PMID:27648403

  16. Health insurance and cervical cancer screening among older women in Latin American and Caribbean cities

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Velez, Luis F; Camacho, Maria E; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear use for cervical cancer screening and to estimate its association with type of health care insurance. Methods A cross-sectional study using data from the Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study (SABE). The sample includes 6357 women aged 60 and older from seven cities. The outcome was reporting a Pap smear for cervical cancer screening during the previous 2 years. Main independent variable was health care insurance. Covariates were demographic or socioeconomic variables, medical conditions and functional status. Results Prevalence of Pap smear use across the seven cities ranged from 21% in Bridgetown to 45% in Mexico City. In a multivariate analysis of the combined sample, without Havana that has universal health care insurance, women with public insurance (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.43–0.71) or with no insurance (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.15–0.34) were less likely to have a Pap smear compared with women with private insurance. Also, women with no insurance were less likely to have a Pap smear (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30–0.54) compared with women with any health insurance. Conclusions In general, the prevalence of Pap smear use was lower than that reported for Hispanic populations in the United States. Overall, lack of health insurance or having public health insurance determined lower odds for having a Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. PMID:18511488

  17. Serological response to Helicobacter pylori infection among Latin American populations with contrasting risks of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Camargo, M Constanza; Beltran, Mauricio; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Harris, Paul R; Michel, Angelika; Waterboer, Tim; Carolina Flórez, Astrid; Torres, Javier; Ferreccio, Catterina; Sampson, Joshua N; Pawlita, Michael; Rabkin, Charles S

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer is a rare outcome of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Serologic profiles may reveal bacterial, environmental and/or host factors associated with cancer risk. We therefore compared specific anti-H. pylori antibodies among populations with at least twofold differences in gastric cancer mortality from Mexico, Colombia and Chile. Our study included 1,776 adults (mean age 42 years) from three nationally representative surveys, equally divided between residents of high- and low-risk areas. Antibodies to 15 immunogenic H. pylori antigens were measured by fluorescent bead-based multiplex assays; results were summarized to identify overall H. pylori seropositivity. We used logistic regression to model associations between antibody seroreactivity and regional cancer risk (high vs. low), adjusting for country, age and sex. Both risk areas had similar H. pylori seroprevalence. Residents in high- and low-risk areas were seroreactive to a similar number of antigens (means 8.2 vs. 7.9, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, OR: 1.02, p = 0.05). Seroreactivities to Catalase and the known virulence proteins CagA and VacA were each significantly (p < 0.05) associated with residence in high-risk areas, but ORs were moderate (1.26, 1.42 and 1.41, respectively) and their discriminatory power was low (area under the curve < 0.6). The association of Catalase was independent from effects of either CagA or VacA. Sensitivity analyses for antibody associations restricted to H. pylori-seropositive individuals generally replicated significant associations. Our findings suggest that humoral responses to H. pylori are insufficient to distinguish high and low gastric cancer risk in Latin America. Factors determining population variation of gastric cancer burden remain to be identified.

  18. Latin American Dialysis and Transplant Registry: Experience and contributions to end-stage renal disease epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Ana Maria; Rosa-Diez, Guillermo Javier; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria Carlota

    2016-09-01

    In 2015, 634387 million people (9% of the world's population) resided in Latin America (LA), with half of those populating Brazil and Mexico. The LA Dialysis and Transplant Registry was initiated in 1991, with the aim of collecting data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) from the 20 LA-affiliated countries. Since then, the Registry has revealed a trend of increasing prevalence and incidence of end-stage kidney disease on RRT, which is ongoing and is correlated with gross national income, life expectancy at birth, and percentage of population that is older than 65 years. In addition, the rate of kidney transplantation has increased yearly, with > 70% being performed from deceased donors. According to the numbers reported for 2013, the rates of prevalence, incidence and transplantation were (in patients per million population) 669, 149 and 19.4, respectively. Hemodialysis was the treatment of choice (90%), and 43% of the patients undergoing this treatment was located in Brazil; in contrast, peritoneal dialysis prevailed in Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala. To date, the Registry remains the only source of RRT data available to healthcare authorities in many LA countries. It not only serves to promote knowledge regarding epidemiology of end-stage renal disease and the related RRT but also for training of nephrologists and renal researchers, to improve understanding and clinical application of dialysis and transplantation services. In LA, accessibility to RRT is still limited and it remains necessary to develop effective programs that will reduce risk factors, promote early diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease, and strengthen transplantation programs.

  19. Latin American Dialysis and Transplant Registry: Experience and contributions to end-stage renal disease epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, Ana Maria; Rosa-Diez, Guillermo Javier; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria Carlota

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, 634387 million people (9% of the world’s population) resided in Latin America (LA), with half of those populating Brazil and Mexico. The LA Dialysis and Transplant Registry was initiated in 1991, with the aim of collecting data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) from the 20 LA-affiliated countries. Since then, the Registry has revealed a trend of increasing prevalence and incidence of end-stage kidney disease on RRT, which is ongoing and is correlated with gross national income, life expectancy at birth, and percentage of population that is older than 65 years. In addition, the rate of kidney transplantation has increased yearly, with > 70% being performed from deceased donors. According to the numbers reported for 2013, the rates of prevalence, incidence and transplantation were (in patients per million population) 669, 149 and 19.4, respectively. Hemodialysis was the treatment of choice (90%), and 43% of the patients undergoing this treatment was located in Brazil; in contrast, peritoneal dialysis prevailed in Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala. To date, the Registry remains the only source of RRT data available to healthcare authorities in many LA countries. It not only serves to promote knowledge regarding epidemiology of end-stage renal disease and the related RRT but also for training of nephrologists and renal researchers, to improve understanding and clinical application of dialysis and transplantation services. In LA, accessibility to RRT is still limited and it remains necessary to develop effective programs that will reduce risk factors, promote early diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease, and strengthen transplantation programs.

  20. Serological response to Helicobacter pylori infection among Latin American populations with contrasting risks of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Camargo, M Constanza; Beltran, Mauricio; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Harris, Paul R; Michel, Angelika; Waterboer, Tim; Carolina Flórez, Astrid; Torres, Javier; Ferreccio, Catterina; Sampson, Joshua N; Pawlita, Michael; Rabkin, Charles S

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer is a rare outcome of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Serologic profiles may reveal bacterial, environmental and/or host factors associated with cancer risk. We therefore compared specific anti-H. pylori antibodies among populations with at least twofold differences in gastric cancer mortality from Mexico, Colombia and Chile. Our study included 1,776 adults (mean age 42 years) from three nationally representative surveys, equally divided between residents of high- and low-risk areas. Antibodies to 15 immunogenic H. pylori antigens were measured by fluorescent bead-based multiplex assays; results were summarized to identify overall H. pylori seropositivity. We used logistic regression to model associations between antibody seroreactivity and regional cancer risk (high vs. low), adjusting for country, age and sex. Both risk areas had similar H. pylori seroprevalence. Residents in high- and low-risk areas were seroreactive to a similar number of antigens (means 8.2 vs. 7.9, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, OR: 1.02, p = 0.05). Seroreactivities to Catalase and the known virulence proteins CagA and VacA were each significantly (p < 0.05) associated with residence in high-risk areas, but ORs were moderate (1.26, 1.42 and 1.41, respectively) and their discriminatory power was low (area under the curve < 0.6). The association of Catalase was independent from effects of either CagA or VacA. Sensitivity analyses for antibody associations restricted to H. pylori-seropositive individuals generally replicated significant associations. Our findings suggest that humoral responses to H. pylori are insufficient to distinguish high and low gastric cancer risk in Latin America. Factors determining population variation of gastric cancer burden remain to be identified. PMID:26178251

  1. Low vitamin D status among pregnant Latin American and Caribbean women with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jao, Jennifer; Freimanis, Laura; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Cohen, Rachel A.; Monteiro, Jacqueline P.; Cruz, Maria L.; Sperling, Rhoda S.; Branch, Andrea; Siberry, George K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and predictors of low vitamin D status among pregnant women with HIV infection. Methods The present cross-sectional study analyzed repository specimens collected at 12–34 weeks of pregnancy among women enrolled in across 17 sites in Latin America and the Caribbean between 2002 and 2009. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify factors associated with low vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D <30 ng/mL). Results Among 715 women, 218 (30.5%) were vitamin D deficient (<20 ng/mL) and 252 (35.2%) were insufficient (21–29 ng/mL). Factors associated with low vitamin D status included residence in subtropical latitudes (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35–2.88), assessment during non-summer seasons (autumn: aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.20–2.86; spring: 4.3, 2.65–6.95; winter: 10.82, 5.74–20.41), employment (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.06–2.38), and assessment before 20 weeks of pregnancy (aOR 1.89, 95% CI 1.18–3.06). Factors protective against low vitamin D status were CD4 count below 200 cells per mm3 (aOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.26–0.77) and protease inhibitors (aOR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40–0.95). Conclusion Low vitamin D status was prevalent among pregnant women with HIV infection. Further studies are warranted to identify the impact of low maternal vitamin D status. PMID:25912414

  2. Mammography use among older women of seven Latin American and Caribbean cities

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.; Freeman, Jean L.; Peláez, Martha; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Goodwin, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Background To describe the prevalence of mammography use, and to estimate its association with sociodemographics. Methods A sample of 6207 women aged 60 and older from the first interview of Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study (SABE) in seven cities (Buenos Aires, Bridgetown, Havana, Mexico, Montevideo, Santiago, and Sao Paulo). The outcome was reporting a mammogram within the last 2 years. Results Prevalence of mammography use ranged from 9.8% in Havana to 34.4% in Sao Paulo. Independent predictors of mammography use across cities were older age (lowest odds ratio [OR] = 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89–0.95), higher education (highest OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.08–1.20), public health insurance (lowest OR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.76), or no insurance (lowest OR = 0.08, 95% CI 0.02–0.34) compared with private insurance. In a combined sample of six cities, higher education was associated with higher mammography use, but older age and insurance (public: OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.45–0.65; no insurance: OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.23–0.40; compared with private insurance) were associated with lower mammography use. Conclusions Prevalence of mammography use across cities was lower than that reported for Hispanic populations in the US. In the overall sample, mammography use was increased in highly educated people and decreased in people without insurance. PMID:16563480

  3. CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS OF HOT FLASHES AND NIGHT SWEATS: LATIN-AMERICAN IMMIGRANTS TO MADRID AND THEIR SPANISH NEIGHBORS

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Alcalá, Irene; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Reher, David Sven

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study applies a biocultural perspective to better understand the determinants of hot flashes and night sweats within immigrant and local populations in Madrid, Spain. Methods A combined sample of 575 women from Madrid, aged 45 to 55, was drawn from two studies. The Spanish sample (n=274) participated in the Decisions at Menopause Study (DAMES) in 2000–2002. The Latin-American sample (n=301) was drawn from immigrants to Madrid in 2010–2011. Chi square analyses and logistic regression models were carried out among the combined controlling by origin of provenance. Results Forty four percent of the women reported hot flashes, 36% reported night sweats and 26% both symptoms. Compared to Spanish women, Latin-American women were less likely to report hot flashes (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4–0.9) after controlling for demographic variables and menopausal status. The same was not found for night sweats and for both symptoms combined. Determinants of hot flashes differed from determinants of night sweats. Conclusions Because determinants differed, hot flashes and night sweats should be queried and analyzed separately. Latin-American women were less likely to report hot flashes, but not night sweats or both symptoms combined. More research is needed to clarify the differences in reported hot flashes as the lesser report among immigrants could have been a cultural rather than a biological phenomenon. PMID:23571525

  4. Survival and Clinical Behavior of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in a Latin American Cohort in Contrast to Cohorts from the Developed World

    PubMed Central

    Espinola-Zavaleta, Nilda; Vega, Antonio; Basto, Diego Martínez; Alcantar-Fernández, Ana Cecilia; Guarner Lans, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common hereditary heart disease with diverse phenotipyc, genetic expession and clinical presentations. The evolution of patients with HCM in Latin America has not been properly described being the frequency, the long-term prognosis as well as the predominant phenotypic expression still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the survival rate of HCM patients having different phenotypes in a Mexican cohort of patients. Methods Clinical and echocardiographic data obtained from 77 Mexican patients with recently diagnosed HCM were analyzed. The follow-up was of 12.5 years. Results 96.1% of patients were in functional class I/II according to the New York Heart Association, 2.6% in class III and 1.3% in class IV. Only 3.9% of them went to surgery for myectomy. During the follow-up, 17 patients (22%) died: 4/9 (44%) had apical HCM, 5/20 (25%) had obstructive septal asymmetric HCM, 6/35 (17%) had nonobstructive septal asymmetric HCM and 2/3 (15%) had concentric HCM. The survival rate was worse for patients with apical HCM, followed by those with obstructive and nonobstructive septal asymmetric HCM and patients showing concentric HCM had the best survival rates. There is significant difference in survival rates which declined in 65% in a 9 years-period. Log rank test showed significant differences (p < 0.002). Conclusion The survival rate of patients with HCM was worse in those with apical variety. The majority of patients received medical treatment. The indication for myectomy was below that observed in other international centers. PMID:25883752

  5. Quality assessment of chronologies in Latin American pollen records: a contribution to centennial to millennial scale studies of environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flantua, S. G. A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Blaauw, M.

    2015-04-01

    The newly updated inventory of the Latin American Pollen Database (LAPD) offers an important overview of data available for multi-proxy and multi-site purposes. However, heterogeneous paleoecological databases are not suitable to be integrated without an uncertainty assessment of existing chronologies. Therefore, we collected all chronological control points and age model metadata from the LAPD literature to create a complementary chronological database of 5116 dates from 1097 pollen records. We start with an overview on chronological dating and reporting in Central and South America. Specific problems and recommendations for chronology reporting are discussed. Subsequently, we implement a temporal quality assessment of pollen records from northwest South-America to support research on climate forcers and responses at a centennial-millennial time-scale. New chronologies are generated for 233 pollen records based on updated calibration curves. Different time windows are discussed on sample resolution and temporal uncertainty. Approximately one in four pollen diagrams depicts < 500 years resolution data at the Younger Dryas/Holocene transition. Overall, our analyses suggest that the temporal resolution of multi-site syntheses of late Pleistocene fossil pollen records in the northwest South-America is ca. 240 years, a resolution which allows analysis of ecological responses to centennial-millennial-scale climate change during the last deglaciation.

  6. The Effects of Gendered Social Capital on U.S. Migration: A Comparison of Four Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Côté, Rochelle R; Jensen, Jessica Eva; Roth, Louise Marie; Way, Sandra M

    2015-06-01

    This article contributes to understandings of gendered social capital by analyzing the effects of gendered ties on the migration of men and women from four Latin American countries (Mexico, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic) to the United States. The research theorizes the importance of strong and weak ties to men and women in each sending country as a product of the gender equity gap in economic participation (low/high) and incidence of female-led families (low/high). The findings reveal that ties to men increase the odds of migration from countries where gender equity and incidence of female-led families are low, while ties to women are more important for migration from countries where gender equity and female-led families are high. Previous research on migration and social capital details the importance of network ties for providing resources and the role of gender in mediating social capital quality and access to network support. Results reveal that not only are different kinds of ties important to female and male migration, but migrants from different countries look to different sources of social capital for assistance.

  7. “Vulnerability, Resiliency, and Adaptation: The Health of Latin Americans during the Migration Process to the United States”*

    PubMed Central

    Riosmena, Fernando; Jochem, Warren C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a general outlook of the health of Latin Americans (with a special emphasis on Mexicans) during the different stages of the migration process to the U.S. given the usefulness of the social vulnerability concept and given that said vulnerability varies conspicuously across the different stages of the migration process. Severe migrant vulnerability during the transit and crossing has serious negative health consequences. Yet, upon their arrival to the U.S., migrant health is favorable in outcomes such as mortality by many causes of death and in several chronic conditions and risk factors, though these apparent advantages seem to disappear during the process of adaptation to the host society. We discuss potential explanations for the initial health advantage and the sources of vulnerability that explain its erosion, with special emphasis in systematic timely access to health care. Given that migration can affect social vulnerability processes in sending areas, we discuss the potential health consequences for these places and conclude by considering the immigration and health policy implications of these issues for the United States and sending countries, with emphasis on Mexico. PMID:24660053

  8. Contributions of community psychology to rural advisory services: an analysis of Latin American rural extensionists' point of view.

    PubMed

    Landini, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    During the last decade, rural extension has received interest as being a key tool for rural development. Despite rural extension being affected by many psychosocial processes, psychology has made scarce contributions to it. An investigation was conducted with the aim of gaining knowledge of rural extensionists' expectations of psychology, as well as to contribute to shaping community psychologists' role in the context of rural extension . 652 extensionists from 12 Latin American countries were surveyed. The survey included closed socio-demographic questions as well as open ones addressing extension practice and psychologists' potential contributions. 90.6 % of surveyed extensionists considered psychology could help them improve their practice. Most mentioned areas of contribution go in line with community psychology, including managing farmers groups, facilitating participatory processes and training extensionists; while others, such as the expectation of changing farmers' mindset and increasing the adoption of external technologies, go against its principles. Thus, in some cases, extensionists' expectations could help generate an interesting interaction between community psychology and rural extension, while in others, they need to be put up for discussion. In brief, community psychology has the potential to contribute to rural extension, but it needs to acknowledge extension practice as an interesting area for intervention.

  9. "Vulnerability, Resiliency, and Adaptation: The Health of Latin Americans during the Migration Process to the United States"

    PubMed

    Riosmena, Fernando; Jochem, Warren C

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a general outlook of the health of Latin Americans (with a special emphasis on Mexicans) during the different stages of the migration process to the U.S. given the usefulness of the social vulnerability concept and given that said vulnerability varies conspicuously across the different stages of the migration process. Severe migrant vulnerability during the transit and crossing has serious negative health consequences. Yet, upon their arrival to the U.S., migrant health is favorable in outcomes such as mortality by many causes of death and in several chronic conditions and risk factors, though these apparent advantages seem to disappear during the process of adaptation to the host society. We discuss potential explanations for the initial health advantage and the sources of vulnerability that explain its erosion, with special emphasis in systematic timely access to health care. Given that migration can affect social vulnerability processes in sending areas, we discuss the potential health consequences for these places and conclude by considering the immigration and health policy implications of these issues for the United States and sending countries, with emphasis on Mexico.

  10. Cardiovascular Disease in Latin American Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Cross-Sectional Study and a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Caro-Moreno, Julián; Molano-González, Nicolás; Mantilla, Rubén D.; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin American (LA) patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. First, a cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 310 Colombian patients with SLE in whom CVD was assessed. Associated factors were examined by multivariate regression analyses. Second, a systematic review of the literature on CVD in SLE in LA was performed. Results. There were 133 (36.5%) Colombian SLE patients with CVD. Dyslipidemia, smoking, coffee consumption, and pleural effusion were positively associated with CVD. An independent effect of coffee consumption and cigarette on CVD was found regardless of gender and duration of disease. In the systematic review, 60 articles fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included. A wide range of CVD prevalence was found (4%–79.5%). Several studies reported ancestry, genetic factors, and polyautoimmunity as novel risk factors for such a condition. Conclusions. A high rate of CVD is observed in LA patients with SLE. Awareness of the observed risk factors should encourage preventive population strategies for CVD in patients with SLE aimed at facilitating the suppression of cigarette smoking and coffee consumption as well as at the tight control of dyslipidemia and other modifiable risk factors. PMID:24294522

  11. Latin American Immigrant Parents and their Children’s Teachers in U.S. Early Childhood Education Programs

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Ansari, Arya

    2015-01-01

    For many immigrants, their children’s schools offer their first sustained interaction with the major societal institutions of their new countries, and so exploring the ways in which immigrant parents manage their children’s educational experiences offers insight into how they adapt to new cultural norms, customs, and expectations and how they are treated in return. This study delved into the involvement of Latin American immigrant parents in U.S. education, shifting the traditional focus down from elementary and secondary school to early childhood education. Statistical analysis of nationally representative data revealed that Latina immigrants had lower frequencies of most home- and community-based involvement behaviors than U.S.-born and foreign-born parents of varying racial/ethnic backgrounds but higher frequencies of involvement behaviors requiring participation in early childhood education programs. As a window into these national patterns, qualitative data from an early childhood program in an immigration-heavy state revealed that Latina immigrant mothers and their children’s teachers often talked about each other as partners in supporting children’s educational experiences but that their actual interactions tended to socialize mothers into being more passive recipients of teachers’ directives. PMID:26010079

  12. TRANSCULTURALIZATION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEVELOPING LATIN AMERICAN CLINICAL PRACTICE ALGORITHMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY--PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2015 PAN-AMERICAN WORKSHOP BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Harrell, R Mack; Allende-Vigo, Myriam Z; Alvayero, Carlos; Arita-Melzer, Onix; Aschner, Pablo; Camacho, Pauline M; Castillo, Rogelio Zacarias; Cerdas, Sonia; Coutinho, Walmir F; Davidson, Jaime A; Garber, Jeffrey R; Garvey, W Timothy; González, Fernando Javier Lavalle; Granados, Denis O; Hamdy, Osama; Handelsman, Yehuda; Jiménez-Navarrete, Manuel Francisco; Lupo, Mark A; Mendoza, Enrique J; Jiménez-Montero, José G; Zangeneh, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) convened their first Workshop for recommendations to optimize Clinical Practice Algorithm (CPA) development for Latin America (LA) in diabetes (focusing on glycemic control), obesity (focusing on weight loss), thyroid (focusing on thyroid nodule diagnostics), and bone (focusing on postmenopausal osteoporosis) on February 28, 2015, in San Jose, Costa Rica. A standardized methodology is presented incorporating various transculturalization factors: resource availability (including imaging equipment and approved pharmaceuticals), health care professional and patient preferences, lifestyle variables, socio-economic parameters, web-based global accessibility, electronic implementation, and need for validation protocols. A standardized CPA template with node-specific recommendations to assist the local transculturalization process is provided. Participants unanimously agreed on the following five overarching principles for LA: (1) there is only one level of optimal endocrine care, (2) hemoglobin A1C should be utilized at every level of diabetes care, (3) nutrition education and increased pharmaceutical options are necessary to optimize the obesity care model, (4) quality neck ultrasound must be part of an optimal thyroid nodule care model, and (5) more scientific evidence is needed on osteoporosis prevalence and cost to justify intervention by governmental health care authorities. This 2015 AACE/ACE Workshop marks the beginning of a structured activity that assists local experts in creating culturally sensitive, evidence-based, and easy-to-implement tools for optimizing endocrine care on a global scale. PMID:27031655

  13. TRANSCULTURALIZATION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEVELOPING LATIN AMERICAN CLINICAL PRACTICE ALGORITHMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY--PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2015 PAN-AMERICAN WORKSHOP BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Harrell, R Mack; Allende-Vigo, Myriam Z; Alvayero, Carlos; Arita-Melzer, Onix; Aschner, Pablo; Camacho, Pauline M; Castillo, Rogelio Zacarias; Cerdas, Sonia; Coutinho, Walmir F; Davidson, Jaime A; Garber, Jeffrey R; Garvey, W Timothy; González, Fernando Javier Lavalle; Granados, Denis O; Hamdy, Osama; Handelsman, Yehuda; Jiménez-Navarrete, Manuel Francisco; Lupo, Mark A; Mendoza, Enrique J; Jiménez-Montero, José G; Zangeneh, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) convened their first Workshop for recommendations to optimize Clinical Practice Algorithm (CPA) development for Latin America (LA) in diabetes (focusing on glycemic control), obesity (focusing on weight loss), thyroid (focusing on thyroid nodule diagnostics), and bone (focusing on postmenopausal osteoporosis) on February 28, 2015, in San Jose, Costa Rica. A standardized methodology is presented incorporating various transculturalization factors: resource availability (including imaging equipment and approved pharmaceuticals), health care professional and patient preferences, lifestyle variables, socio-economic parameters, web-based global accessibility, electronic implementation, and need for validation protocols. A standardized CPA template with node-specific recommendations to assist the local transculturalization process is provided. Participants unanimously agreed on the following five overarching principles for LA: (1) there is only one level of optimal endocrine care, (2) hemoglobin A1C should be utilized at every level of diabetes care, (3) nutrition education and increased pharmaceutical options are necessary to optimize the obesity care model, (4) quality neck ultrasound must be part of an optimal thyroid nodule care model, and (5) more scientific evidence is needed on osteoporosis prevalence and cost to justify intervention by governmental health care authorities. This 2015 AACE/ACE Workshop marks the beginning of a structured activity that assists local experts in creating culturally sensitive, evidence-based, and easy-to-implement tools for optimizing endocrine care on a global scale.

  14. Intraurban Variations in Adult Mortality in a Large Latin American City

    PubMed Central

    Green Franklin, Tracy; Alazraqui, Marcio; Spinelli, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization is high and growing in low- and middle-income countries, but intraurban variations in adult health have been infrequently examined. We used spatial analysis methods to investigate spatial variation in total, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and neoplasm adult mortality in Buenos Aires, Argentina, a large city within a middle-income country in Latin America. Conditional autoregressive models were used to examine the contribution of socioeconomic inequalities to the spatial patterning observed. Spatial autocorrelation was present in both men and women for total deaths, cardiovascular deaths, and other causes of death (Moran’s Is ranging from 0.15 to 0.37). There was some spatial autocorrelation for respiratory deaths, which was stronger in men than in women. Neoplasm deaths were not spatially patterned. Socioeconomic disadvantage explained some of this spatial patterning and was strongly associated with death from all causes except respiratory deaths in women and neoplasms in men and women [relative rates (RR) for 90th vs 10th percentile of percent of adults with incomplete high school and 95% confidence intervals: 1.23 and 1.09–1.39 vs 1.24 and 1.08–1.42 for total deaths in men and women, respectively; 1.36 and 1.15–1.60 vs 1.22 and 1.01–1.47 for cardiovascular deaths; 1.21 and 0.97–1.52 vs 1.07 and 0.85–1.34 for respiratory deaths; 0.94 and 0.85–1.04 vs 1.03 and 0.87–1.22 for neoplasms; and 1.49 and 1.20–1.85 vs 1.63 and 1.31–2.03 for other deaths].There is substantial intraurban variation in risk of death within cities. This spatial variability was present for multiple causes of death and is partly explained by the spatial patterning of socioeconomic disadvantage. Our results highlight the pervasive role of space and social inequalities in shaping life and death within large cities. PMID:17357849

  15. Latin American dose survey results in mammography studies under IAEA programme: radiological protection of patients in medical exposures (TSA3).

    PubMed

    Mora, Patricia; Blanco, Susana; Khoury, Helen; Leyton, Fernando; Cárdenas, Juan; Defaz, María Yolanda; Garay, Fernando; Telón, Flaviano; Aguilar, Juan Garcia; Roas, Norma; Gamarra, Mirtha; Blanco, Daniel; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Nader, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela) working under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Cooperation Programme: TSA3 Radiological Protection of Patients in Medical Exposures have joined efforts in the optimisation of radiation protection in mammography practice. Through surveys of patient doses, the region has a unique database of diagnostic reference levels for analogue and digital equipment that will direct future optimisation activities towards the early detection of breast cancer among asymptomatic women. During RLA9/057 (2007-09) 24 institutions participated with analogue equipment in a dose survey. Regional training on methodology and measurement equipment was addressed in May 2007. The mean glandular dose (DG) was estimated using the incident kerma in air and relevant conversion coefficients for both projections craneo caudal and mediolateral oblique (CC and MLO). For Phase 2, RLA9/067 (2010-11), it was decided to include also digital systems in order to see their impact in future dose optimisation activities. Any new country that joined the project received training in the activities through IAEA expert missions. Twenty-nine new institutions participated (9 analogue and 20 digital equipment). A total of 2262 patient doses were collected during this study and from them D(G) (mGy) for both projections were estimated for each institution and country. Regional results (75 percentile in mGy) show for CC and MLO views, respectively: RLA9/057 (analogue) 2.63 and 3.17; RLA/067: 2.57 and 3.15 (analogue) and 2.69 and 2.90 (digital). Regarding only digital equipment for CC and MLO, respectively, computed radiography systems showed 2.59 and 2.78 and direct digital radiography (DDR) systems 2.78 and 3.04. Based on the IAEA Basic Safety Standard (BSS) reference dose (3 mGy), it can be observed that there is enough room to start

  16. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in six Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A recently developed 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) is expected to afford protection against more than two thirds of isolates causing IPD in children in Latin America, and also against acute otitis media caused by both Spn and NTHi. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of PHiD-CV in comparison to non-vaccination in children under 10 years of age in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Methods We used a static, deterministic, compartmental simulation model. The dosing regimen considered included three vaccine doses (at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months) and a booster dose (at 13 months) (3 + 1 schedule). Model outcomes included number of cases prevented, deaths averted, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and costs. Discount for costs and benefits of long term sequelae was done at 3.5%, and currency reported in 2008-2009 U$S varying between countries. Results The largest effect in case prevention was observed in pneumococcal meningitis (from 27% in Peru to 47% in Colombia), neurologic sequelae after meningitis (from 38% in Peru to 65% in Brazil) and bacteremia (from 42% in Argentina to 49% in Colombia). The proportion of predicted deaths averted annually ranged from 18% in Peru to 33% in Brazil. Overall, the health benefits achieved with PHiD-CV vaccination resulted in a lower QALY loss (from 15% lower in Peru to 26% in Brazil). At a cost of USD 20 per vaccine dose, vaccination was cost-effective in all countries, from being cost saving in Chile to a maximum Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio of 7,088 US$ Dollars per QALY gained. Results were robust in the sensitivity analysis, and scenarios with indirect costs affected results more than those with herd immunity. Conclusions The incorporation of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into routine infant immunization programs in Latin American countries could be a cost-effective strategy

  17. Latin American dose survey results in mammography studies under IAEA programme: radiological protection of patients in medical exposures (TSA3).

    PubMed

    Mora, Patricia; Blanco, Susana; Khoury, Helen; Leyton, Fernando; Cárdenas, Juan; Defaz, María Yolanda; Garay, Fernando; Telón, Flaviano; Aguilar, Juan Garcia; Roas, Norma; Gamarra, Mirtha; Blanco, Daniel; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Nader, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela) working under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Cooperation Programme: TSA3 Radiological Protection of Patients in Medical Exposures have joined efforts in the optimisation of radiation protection in mammography practice. Through surveys of patient doses, the region has a unique database of diagnostic reference levels for analogue and digital equipment that will direct future optimisation activities towards the early detection of breast cancer among asymptomatic women. During RLA9/057 (2007-09) 24 institutions participated with analogue equipment in a dose survey. Regional training on methodology and measurement equipment was addressed in May 2007. The mean glandular dose (DG) was estimated using the incident kerma in air and relevant conversion coefficients for both projections craneo caudal and mediolateral oblique (CC and MLO). For Phase 2, RLA9/067 (2010-11), it was decided to include also digital systems in order to see their impact in future dose optimisation activities. Any new country that joined the project received training in the activities through IAEA expert missions. Twenty-nine new institutions participated (9 analogue and 20 digital equipment). A total of 2262 patient doses were collected during this study and from them D(G) (mGy) for both projections were estimated for each institution and country. Regional results (75 percentile in mGy) show for CC and MLO views, respectively: RLA9/057 (analogue) 2.63 and 3.17; RLA/067: 2.57 and 3.15 (analogue) and 2.69 and 2.90 (digital). Regarding only digital equipment for CC and MLO, respectively, computed radiography systems showed 2.59 and 2.78 and direct digital radiography (DDR) systems 2.78 and 3.04. Based on the IAEA Basic Safety Standard (BSS) reference dose (3 mGy), it can be observed that there is enough room to start

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life of Latin-American Immigrants and Spanish-Born Attended in Spanish Primary Health Care: Socio-Demographic and Psychosocial Factors

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on

  19. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Latin American black flies for pool screening PCR using high-throughput automated DNA isolation for transmission surveillance.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Gopal, Hemavathi; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; De Luna-Santillana, Erick Jesús; Gurrola-Reyes, J Natividad; Guo, Xianwu

    2013-11-01

    The posttreatment entomological surveillance (ES) of onchocerciasis in Latin America requires quite large numbers of flies to be examined for parasite infection to prove that the control strategies have worked and that the infection is on the path of elimination. Here, we report a high-throughput automated DNA isolation of Onchocerca volvulus for PCR using a major Latin American black fly vector of onchocerciasis. The sensitivity and relative effectiveness of silica-coated paramagnetic beads was evaluated in comparison with phenol chloroform (PC) method which is known as the gold standard of DNA extraction for ES in Latin America. The automated method was optimized in the laboratory and validated in the field to detect parasite DNA in Simulium ochraceum sensu lato flies in comparison with PC. The optimization of the automated method showed that it is sensitive to detect O. volvulus with a pool size of 100 flies as compared with PC which utilizes 50 flies pool size. The validation of the automated method in comparison with PC in an endemic community showed that 5/67 and 3/134 heads pools were positive for the two methods, respectively. There was no statistical variation (P < 0.05) in the estimation of transmission indices generated by automated method when compared with PC method. The fact that the automated method is sensitive to pool size up to 100 confers advantage over PC method and can, therefore, be employed in large-scale ES of onchocerciasis transmission in endemic areas of Latin America. PMID:24030195

  20. [Health initiatives in Latin America: a historical assessment from the inception of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau to the Mesoamerican Health Initiative].

    PubMed

    Santos Preciado, José Ignacio; Franco Paredes, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Latin America has undergone gradual transformations in public health influenced by historical events locally or at a global level. These epidemiologic transitions have also occurred through the implementation of interventions by public institutions such as the Pan-American Health Organization, by philanthropic foundations, non-governmental organizations, and bilateral or multilateral international donor organizations. These public health initiatives have produced substantial improvements in the heath status of many populations in Latin America. Overall, human development and health have advanced over the past century. However, these public health benefits have not been shared equally among all areas of Latin America. The Mesoamerican Region -the area encompassing from Southern Mexico to Panama- continues to experience profound social inequities focalized to indigenous communities and groups of African-descent living in urban, periurban, or rural areas. The Mesoamerican Health Initiative is a private-public partnership that attempts to close the gap of health inequalities affecting the most vulnerable populations in this region of Latin America.

  1. Asthma in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Cepeda, Alfonso; Yañez, Anahi; Solé, Dirceu; Cooper, Philip; Avila, Lydiana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the diversity of Latin America, there is profound variability in asthma burden among and within countries in this region. Regional variation in asthma prevalence is likely multifactorial and due to genetics, perinatal exposures, diet, obesity, tobacco use, indoor and outdoor pollutants, psychosocial stress, and microbial or parasitic infections. Similarly, nonuniform progress in asthma management leads to regional variability in disease morbidity. Future studies of distinct asthma phenotypes should follow up well-characterized Latin American subgroups and examine risk factors that are unique or common in Latin America (e.g. stress and violence, parasitic infections and use of biomass fuels for cooking). Because most Latin American countries share the same barriers to asthma management, concerted and multifaceted public health and research efforts are needed, including approaches to curtail tobacco use, campaigns to improve asthma treatment, broadening access to care and clinical trials of non-pharmacologic interventions (e.g. replacing biomass fuels with gas or electric stoves). PMID:26103996

  2. Asthma in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Cepeda, Alfonso; Yañez, Anahi; Solé, Dirceu; Cooper, Philip; Avila, Lydiana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-09-01

    Consistent with the diversity of Latin America, there is profound variability in asthma burden among and within countries in this region. Regional variation in asthma prevalence is likely multifactorial and due to genetics, perinatal exposures, diet, obesity, tobacco use, indoor and outdoor pollutants, psychosocial stress and microbial or parasitic infections. Similarly, non-uniform progress in asthma management leads to regional variability in disease morbidity. Future studies of distinct asthma phenotypes should follow-up well-characterised Latin American subgroups and examine risk factors that are unique or common in Latin America (eg, stress and violence, parasitic infections and use of biomass fuels for cooking). Because most Latin American countries share the same barriers to asthma management, concerted and multifaceted public health and research efforts are needed, including approaches to curtail tobacco use, campaigns to improve asthma treatment, broadening access to care and clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions (eg, replacing biomass fuels with gas or electric stoves).

  3. Efalizumab in the Treatment of Scalp, Palmoplantar and Nail Psoriasis: Results of a 24-Week Latin American Study

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, María Denise; Chouela, Edgardo Néstor; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; Roselino, Ana Maria; Santamaria, Jesùs; Allevato, Miguel Angel; Cestari, Tania; de Aillaud, Maria Eugenia Manzanera; Stengel, Fernando Miguel; Licu, Daiana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Plaque-type psoriasis affecting the nails, scalp, hands or feet can often be difficult to treat; for example, topical treatments and phototherapy may not penetrate the nail plate or scalp. The objective of this large, international, multicentre study was to investigate the efficacy of efalizumab in a Latin American population of adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Methods Eligible patients were enrolled in a 24-week, open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIb/IV study of continuous treatment with subcutaneous efalizumab, 1.0 mg/kg/wk. Involvement of the nails, scalp, or hands or feet was assessed using the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI), the Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI), or the Palmoplantar Pustulosis Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PPPASI), respectively. Missing data were handled using a last observation carried forward or nonresponder imputation approach. Results Of the 189 patients who received treatment, 112 patients had nail involvement, 172 had scalp involvement, and 19 had palmoplantar disease at baseline. At Week 24, ≥50% improvement on the NAPSI, PSSI and PPPASI was observed in 31%, 71% and 68% of patients, respectively, whereas ≥75% improvement on these scores was observed in 17%, 52% and 63%, respectively. Descriptive statistics showed lower NAPSI-75 and higher PSSI-75 and -50 response rates among patients with higher baseline scores. Conclusions This open-label, uncontrolled study provides supportive evidence of the potential of efalizumab as a treatment for nail, scalp and palmoplantar psoriasis. PMID:20428227

  4. Prevalence and Predictors of Elevated Aspartate Aminotransferase-to-Platelet Ratio Index in Latin American Perinatally HIV-infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Siberry, George K.; Cohen, Rachel A.; Harris, D. Robert; Cruz, Maria Leticia Santos; Oliveira, Ricardo; Peixoto, Mario F.; Cervi, Maria Celia; Hazra, Rohan; Pinto, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic liver disease has emerged as an important problem in adults with longstanding HIV infection, but data are lacking for children. We characterized elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI ), a marker of possible liver fibrosis, in perinatally HIV-infected children. Methods NISDI [NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) International Site Development Initiative] enrolled HIV-infected children (ages 0.1-20.1 years) from five Latin American countries in an observational cohort from 2002–2009. Twice yearly visits included medical history, physical examination and laboratory evaluations. The prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of APRI>1.5 was calculated and associations with demographic, HIV-related and liver-related variables were investigated in bivariate analyses. Results APRI was available for 1012 of 1032 children. APRI was >1.5 in 32 (3.2%, 95% CI: 2.2%-4.4%) including 2 of 4 participants with hepatitis B (HBV) infection. Factors significantly associated with APRI>1.5 (p<0.01 compared to APRI≤1.5) included country, younger age, past or current HBV, higher alanine aminotransferase, lower total cholesterol, higher log10 current viral load, lower current CD4 count, lower nadir CD4 count, use of hepatotoxic non-antiretroviral (ARV) medications, and no prior ARV use. Rates of APRI>1.5 varied significantly by current ARV regimen (p=0.0002), from 8.0% for no ARV to 3.2% for non-protease inhibitor (PI) regimens to 1.5% for PI-based regimens. Conclusions Elevated APRI occurred in approximately 3% of perinatally HIV-infected children. PI-based ARVs appeared protective while inadequate HIV control appeared to increase risk of elevated APRI. Additional investigations are needed to better assess potential subclinical, chronic liver disease in HIV-infected children. PMID:23799515

  5. Bird Richness and Abundance in Response to Urban Form in a Latin American City: Valdivia, Chile as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carmen Paz; García, Cristóbal E; Estay, Sergio A; Barbosa, Olga

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that urban areas influence biodiversity. Generalizations however require that multiple urban areas on multiple continents be examined. Here we evaluated the role of urban areas on avian diversity for a South American city, allowing us to examine the effects of urban features common worldwide, using the city of Valdivia, Chile as case study. We assessed the number of birds and their relative abundance in 152 grid cells of equal size (250 m2) distributed across the city. We estimated nine independent variables: land cover diversity (DC), building density (BD), impervious surface (IS),municipal green space (MG),non-municipal green space (NG), domestic garden space (DG), distance to the periphery (DP), social welfare index (SW), and vegetation diversity (RV). Impervious surface represent 41.8% of the study area, while municipal green, non-municipal green and domestic garden represent 11.6%, 23.6% and 16% of the non- man made surface. Exotic vegetation species represent 74.6% of the total species identified across the city. We found 32 bird species, all native with the exception of House Sparrow and Rock Pigeon. The most common species were House Sparrow and Chilean Swallow. Total bird richness responds negatively to IS and MG, while native bird richness responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS DG and, RV. Total abundance increase in areas with higher values of DC and BD, and decrease in areas of higher values of IS, SW and VR. Native bird abundance responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS MG, DG and RV. Our results suggest that not all the general patterns described in previous studies, conducted mainly in the USA, Europe, and Australia, can be applied to Latin American cities, having important implications for urban planning. Conservation efforts should focus on non-municipal areas, which harbor higher bird diversity, while municipal green areas need to be improved to include elements that can enhance habitat quality for

  6. Bird Richness and Abundance in Response to Urban Form in a Latin American City: Valdivia, Chile as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    García, Cristóbal E.; Estay, Sergio A.

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that urban areas influence biodiversity. Generalizations however require that multiple urban areas on multiple continents be examined. Here we evaluated the role of urban areas on avian diversity for a South American city, allowing us to examine the effects of urban features common worldwide, using the city of Valdivia, Chile as case study. We assessed the number of birds and their relative abundance in 152 grid cells of equal size (250 m2) distributed across the city. We estimated nine independent variables: land cover diversity (DC), building density (BD), impervious surface (IS),municipal green space (MG),non-municipal green space (NG), domestic garden space (DG), distance to the periphery (DP), social welfare index (SW), and vegetation diversity (RV). Impervious surface represent 41.8% of the study area, while municipal green, non-municipal green and domestic garden represent 11.6%, 23.6% and 16% of the non- man made surface. Exotic vegetation species represent 74.6% of the total species identified across the city. We found 32 bird species, all native with the exception of House Sparrow and Rock Pigeon. The most common species were House Sparrow and Chilean Swallow. Total bird richness responds negatively to IS and MG, while native bird richness responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS DG and, RV. Total abundance increase in areas with higher values of DC and BD, and decrease in areas of higher values of IS, SW and VR. Native bird abundance responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS MG, DG and RV. Our results suggest that not all the general patterns described in previous studies, conducted mainly in the USA, Europe, and Australia, can be applied to Latin American cities, having important implications for urban planning. Conservation efforts should focus on non-municipal areas, which harbor higher bird diversity, while municipal green areas need to be improved to include elements that can enhance habitat quality for

  7. Bird Richness and Abundance in Response to Urban Form in a Latin American City: Valdivia, Chile as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carmen Paz; García, Cristóbal E; Estay, Sergio A; Barbosa, Olga

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that urban areas influence biodiversity. Generalizations however require that multiple urban areas on multiple continents be examined. Here we evaluated the role of urban areas on avian diversity for a South American city, allowing us to examine the effects of urban features common worldwide, using the city of Valdivia, Chile as case study. We assessed the number of birds and their relative abundance in 152 grid cells of equal size (250 m2) distributed across the city. We estimated nine independent variables: land cover diversity (DC), building density (BD), impervious surface (IS),municipal green space (MG),non-municipal green space (NG), domestic garden space (DG), distance to the periphery (DP), social welfare index (SW), and vegetation diversity (RV). Impervious surface represent 41.8% of the study area, while municipal green, non-municipal green and domestic garden represent 11.6%, 23.6% and 16% of the non- man made surface. Exotic vegetation species represent 74.6% of the total species identified across the city. We found 32 bird species, all native with the exception of House Sparrow and Rock Pigeon. The most common species were House Sparrow and Chilean Swallow. Total bird richness responds negatively to IS and MG, while native bird richness responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS DG and, RV. Total abundance increase in areas with higher values of DC and BD, and decrease in areas of higher values of IS, SW and VR. Native bird abundance responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS MG, DG and RV. Our results suggest that not all the general patterns described in previous studies, conducted mainly in the USA, Europe, and Australia, can be applied to Latin American cities, having important implications for urban planning. Conservation efforts should focus on non-municipal areas, which harbor higher bird diversity, while municipal green areas need to be improved to include elements that can enhance habitat quality for

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean Family and Its Sublineages in the Light of Robust Evolutionary Markers

    PubMed Central

    Vyazovaya, Anna; Narvskaya, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a clonal population structure, and the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family is one of the largest and most widespread within this species, showing evidence for remarkable pathobiology and a confusing phylogeny. Here, we applied robust phylogenetic markers to study the evolution of the LAM family and its major sublineages circulating in Russia and neighboring countries. A total of 250 M. tuberculosis isolates were confirmed to belong to the LAM family based on the analysis of the LAM-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Rv3062 and Rv0129c genes. At this stage, the family status was rectified for 121 isolates misleadingly assigned by CRISPR spoligotyping to non-LAM families (T1- or T5-RUS1). Consequently, the reestimated LAM prevalence rate increased 2-fold in Russia and Kazakhstan and 4-fold in Belarus. The majority (91.8 to 98.7%) of the LAM isolates from all three countries belonged to the LAM-RUS sublineage. In contrast, the Ibero-American LAM RD-Rio sublineage was identified in only 7 Russian isolates. Taken together, our findings and further analyses suggest a monophyletic origin of LAM-RUS: at a historically distant time, in Russia, in a small founding bacterial/human population. Its dissemination pattern and high prevalence rate in Northern Eurasia may indicate a long-term coexistence of the LAM-RUS sublineage and local human populations hypothetically leading to coadaptation and reduced pathogenicity of the relatively more ancient clones, such as spoligotype international type 254 (SIT254), compared to the more recent SIT252 and SIT266 clones. In contrast, rare LAM RD-Rio isolates were likely brought to Russia through occasional human contact. The spread of RD-Rio strains is not as global as commonly claimed and is determined largely by human migration flows (rather than by pathobiological properties of these strains). Consequently, a host population factor appears to play a major role in shaping the in

  9. Assessing the Denominational Identity of American Evangelical Colleges and Universities, Part III: The Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davignon, Phil; Glanzer, Perry; Rine, P. Jesse

    2013-01-01

    As the conclusion to a three-part series assessing the denominational identity of American evangelical colleges and universities, this article presents findings from Phase III of the CCCU Denominational Study. Data for this research were gathered via an online survey that was completed by 3,160 full-time undergraduate students attending 16…

  10. Mexican Americans. An Appendix to "A Curriculum Guide in Spanish (Levels III-V)".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Dora F.

    This teaching and resource unit on Mexican Americans is specifically designed for advanced Spanish students. Though it is presented mostly in English, it is to be implemented for the most part in Spanish, according to the methodology set forth in "A Curriculum Guide in Spanish (Levels III-V)." The main purpose of the unit is to increase student…

  11. 77 FR 34032 - American River Power III, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Water Power Project No. 14375, to be located at the existing Dillon Lake Dam on the Licking River, near... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power III, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, the American River Power III, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section...

  12. Assessment of the Status of African-Americans. Volume III: The Education of African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; Garibaldi, Antoine M., Ed.; Reed, Wornie L., Ed.

    In 1987 a project was undertaken to assess the status of African Americans in the United States in the topical areas to be addressed by the National Research Council's Study Committee on the Status of Black Americans: education, employment, income and occupations, political participation and the administration of justice, social and cultural…

  13. Risk of Recurrent Helicobacter pylori Infection 1 Year After Initial Eradication Therapy in 7 Latin American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Douglas R.; Torres, Javier; Sexton, Rachael; Herrero, Rolando; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Robert Greenberg, E.; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C.; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Peña, Edgar M.; Peña, Rodolfo; Correa, Pelayo; Martínez, María Elena; Chey, William D.; Valdivieso, Manuel; Anderson, Garnet L.; Goodman, Gary E.; Crowley, John J.; Baker, Laurence H.

    2013-01-01

    Importance The long-term effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication programs for preventing gastric cancer will depend on recurrence risk and individual and community factors. Objective To estimate risk of H pylori recurrence and assess factors associated with successful eradication 1 year after treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants Cohort analysis of 1463 randomized trial participants aged 21 to 65 years from 7 Latin American communities, who were treated for H pylori and observed between September 2009 and July 2011. Interventions Randomization to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 14-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (triple therapy); 5-day lansoprazole and amoxicillin followed by 5-day lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (sequential); or 5-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (concomitant). Participants with a positive (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) 6 to 8 weeks posttreatment were offered voluntary re-treatment with 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy. Measurements Recurrent infection after a negative posttreatment UBT and factors associated with successful eradication at 1-year follow-up. Results Among participants with UBT-negative results who had a 1-year follow-up UBT (n=1091), 125 tested UBT positive, a recurrence risk of 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%–13.5%). Recurrence was significantly associated with study site (P=.03), nonadherence to initial therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.94; 95% CI, 1.31–6.13; P=.01), and children in the household (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.35 per child; P=.03). Of the 281 with positive posttreatment UBT results, 138 completed re-treatment, of whom 93 tested UBT negative at 1 year. Among the 1340 who had a 1-year UBT, 80.4% (95% CI, 76.4%–83.9%), 79.8% (95% CI, 75.8%–83.5%), and 77.8% (95% CI, 73.6%–81.6%) had UBT-negative results in the triple, sequential, and concomitant groups, respectively (P=.61), with 79.3% overall effectiveness (95% CI, 77.1%–81.5%). In a

  14. In Vitro Activity of Ceftaroline against Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Collected in 2012 from Latin American Countries as Part of the AWARE Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Biedenbach, Douglas J; Hoban, Daryl J; Reiszner, Edina; Lahiri, Sushmita D; Alm, Richard A; Sahm, Daniel F; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Ambler, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    The in vitro activities of ceftaroline and comparators, using broth microdilution, were determined against 1,066 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from hospitalized patients. Seventeen medical centers from Latin American countries contributed isolates. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) percentages ranged from 46% (Brazil) to 62% (Argentina). All methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were susceptible to ceftaroline. Ceftaroline activity against MRSA varied with MIC90s of 0.5 (Venezuela) to 2 (Brazil, Chile, and Colombia) μg/ml, which was the highest MIC value. ST-5 was the most common sequence type. PMID:26416860

  15. In Vitro Activity of Ceftaroline against Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Collected in 2012 from Latin American Countries as Part of the AWARE Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Biedenbach, Douglas J.; Hoban, Daryl J.; Reiszner, Edina; Lahiri, Sushmita D.; Alm, Richard A.; Bouchillon, Samuel K.; Ambler, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro activities of ceftaroline and comparators, using broth microdilution, were determined against 1,066 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from hospitalized patients. Seventeen medical centers from Latin American countries contributed isolates. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) percentages ranged from 46% (Brazil) to 62% (Argentina). All methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were susceptible to ceftaroline. Ceftaroline activity against MRSA varied with MIC90s of 0.5 (Venezuela) to 2 (Brazil, Chile, and Colombia) μg/ml, which was the highest MIC value. ST-5 was the most common sequence type. PMID:26416860

  16. Computational Tracking of Mental Health in Youth: Latin American Contributions to a Low-Cost and Effective Solution for Early Psychiatric Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mota, Natália Bezerra; Copelli, Mauro; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2016-06-01

    The early onset of mental disorders can lead to serious cognitive damage, and timely interventions are needed in order to prevent them. In patients of low socioeconomic status, as is common in Latin America, it can be hard to identify children at risk. Here, we briefly introduce the problem by reviewing the scarce epidemiological data from Latin America regarding the onset of mental disorders, and discussing the difficulties associated with early diagnosis. Then we present computational psychiatry, a new field to which we and other Latin American researchers have contributed methods particularly relevant for the quantitative investigation of psychopathologies manifested during childhood. We focus on new technologies that help to identify mental disease and provide prodromal evaluation, so as to promote early differential diagnosis and intervention. To conclude, we discuss the application of these methods to clinical and educational practice. A comprehensive and quantitative characterization of verbal behavior in children, from hospitals and laboratories to homes and schools, may lead to more effective pedagogical and medical intervention. PMID:27254827

  17. Highlights from the 1st Latin American meeting on metronomic chemotherapy and drug repositioning in oncology, 27-28 May, 2016, Rosario, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rosé, Adriana; André, Nicolas; Rozados, Viviana R; Mainetti, Leandro E; Márquez, Mauricio Menacho; Rico, María José; Schaiquevich, Paula; Villarroel, Milena; Gregianin, Lauro; Graupera, Jaume Mora; García, Wendy Gómez; Epelman, Sidnei; Alasino, Carlos; Alonso, Daniel; Chantada, Guillermo; Scharovsky, O Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Following previous metronomic meetings in Marseille (2011), Milano (2014), and Mumbai (2016), the first Latin American metronomic meeting was held in the School of Medical Sciences, National University of Rosario, Rosario, Argentina on 27 and 28 of May, 2016. For the first time, clinicians and researchers with experience in the field of metronomics, coming from different countries in Latin America, had the opportunity of presenting and discussing their work. The talks were organised in three main sessions related to experience in the pre-clinical, and clinical (paediatric and adult) areas. The different presentations demonstrated that the fields of metronomic chemotherapy and repurposing drugs in oncology, known as metronomics, constitute a branch of cancer therapy in permanent evolution, which have strong groups working in Latin America, both in the preclinical and the clinical settings including large, adequately designed randomised studies. It was shown that metronomics offers treatments, which, whether they are combined or not with the standard therapeutic approaches, are not only effective but also minimally toxic, with the consequent improvement of the patient's quality of life, and inexpensive, a feature very important in low resource clinical settings. The potential use of metronomic chemotherapy was proposed as a cost/effective treatment in low-/middle-income countries, for adjuvant therapy in selected tumours. The fundamental role of the governmental agencies and non-governmental alliances, as the Metronomic Global Health Initiative, in supporting this research with public interest was underlined. PMID:27610198

  18. Highlights from the 1st Latin American meeting on metronomic chemotherapy and drug repositioning in oncology, 27–28 May, 2016, Rosario, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Rosé, Adriana; André, Nicolas; Rozados, Viviana R.; Mainetti, Leandro E; Márquez, Mauricio Menacho; Rico, María José; Schaiquevich, Paula; Villarroel, Milena; Gregianin, Lauro; Graupera, Jaume Mora; García, Wendy Gómez; Epelman, Sidnei; Alasino, Carlos; Alonso, Daniel; Chantada, Guillermo; Scharovsky, O Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Following previous metronomic meetings in Marseille (2011), Milano (2014), and Mumbai (2016), the first Latin American metronomic meeting was held in the School of Medical Sciences, National University of Rosario, Rosario, Argentina on 27 and 28 of May, 2016. For the first time, clinicians and researchers with experience in the field of metronomics, coming from different countries in Latin America, had the opportunity of presenting and discussing their work. The talks were organised in three main sessions related to experience in the pre-clinical, and clinical (paediatric and adult) areas. The different presentations demonstrated that the fields of metronomic chemotherapy and repurposing drugs in oncology, known as metronomics, constitute a branch of cancer therapy in permanent evolution, which have strong groups working in Latin America, both in the preclinical and the clinical settings including large, adequately designed randomised studies. It was shown that metronomics offers treatments, which, whether they are combined or not with the standard therapeutic approaches, are not only effective but also minimally toxic, with the consequent improvement of the patient’s quality of life, and inexpensive, a feature very important in low resource clinical settings. The potential use of metronomic chemotherapy was proposed as a cost/effective treatment in low-/middle-income countries, for adjuvant therapy in selected tumours. The fundamental role of the governmental agencies and non-governmental alliances, as the Metronomic Global Health Initiative, in supporting this research with public interest was underlined.

  19. Highlights from the 1st Latin American meeting on metronomic chemotherapy and drug repositioning in oncology, 27-28 May, 2016, Rosario, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rosé, Adriana; André, Nicolas; Rozados, Viviana R; Mainetti, Leandro E; Márquez, Mauricio Menacho; Rico, María José; Schaiquevich, Paula; Villarroel, Milena; Gregianin, Lauro; Graupera, Jaume Mora; García, Wendy Gómez; Epelman, Sidnei; Alasino, Carlos; Alonso, Daniel; Chantada, Guillermo; Scharovsky, O Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Following previous metronomic meetings in Marseille (2011), Milano (2014), and Mumbai (2016), the first Latin American metronomic meeting was held in the School of Medical Sciences, National University of Rosario, Rosario, Argentina on 27 and 28 of May, 2016. For the first time, clinicians and researchers with experience in the field of metronomics, coming from different countries in Latin America, had the opportunity of presenting and discussing their work. The talks were organised in three main sessions related to experience in the pre-clinical, and clinical (paediatric and adult) areas. The different presentations demonstrated that the fields of metronomic chemotherapy and repurposing drugs in oncology, known as metronomics, constitute a branch of cancer therapy in permanent evolution, which have strong groups working in Latin America, both in the preclinical and the clinical settings including large, adequately designed randomised studies. It was shown that metronomics offers treatments, which, whether they are combined or not with the standard therapeutic approaches, are not only effective but also minimally toxic, with the consequent improvement of the patient's quality of life, and inexpensive, a feature very important in low resource clinical settings. The potential use of metronomic chemotherapy was proposed as a cost/effective treatment in low-/middle-income countries, for adjuvant therapy in selected tumours. The fundamental role of the governmental agencies and non-governmental alliances, as the Metronomic Global Health Initiative, in supporting this research with public interest was underlined.

  20. Highlights from the 1st Latin American meeting on metronomic chemotherapy and drug repositioning in oncology, 27–28 May, 2016, Rosario, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Rosé, Adriana; André, Nicolas; Rozados, Viviana R.; Mainetti, Leandro E; Márquez, Mauricio Menacho; Rico, María José; Schaiquevich, Paula; Villarroel, Milena; Gregianin, Lauro; Graupera, Jaume Mora; García, Wendy Gómez; Epelman, Sidnei; Alasino, Carlos; Alonso, Daniel; Chantada, Guillermo; Scharovsky, O Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Following previous metronomic meetings in Marseille (2011), Milano (2014), and Mumbai (2016), the first Latin American metronomic meeting was held in the School of Medical Sciences, National University of Rosario, Rosario, Argentina on 27 and 28 of May, 2016. For the first time, clinicians and researchers with experience in the field of metronomics, coming from different countries in Latin America, had the opportunity of presenting and discussing their work. The talks were organised in three main sessions related to experience in the pre-clinical, and clinical (paediatric and adult) areas. The different presentations demonstrated that the fields of metronomic chemotherapy and repurposing drugs in oncology, known as metronomics, constitute a branch of cancer therapy in permanent evolution, which have strong groups working in Latin America, both in the preclinical and the clinical settings including large, adequately designed randomised studies. It was shown that metronomics offers treatments, which, whether they are combined or not with the standard therapeutic approaches, are not only effective but also minimally toxic, with the consequent improvement of the patient’s quality of life, and inexpensive, a feature very important in low resource clinical settings. The potential use of metronomic chemotherapy was proposed as a cost/effective treatment in low-/middle-income countries, for adjuvant therapy in selected tumours. The fundamental role of the governmental agencies and non-governmental alliances, as the Metronomic Global Health Initiative, in supporting this research with public interest was underlined. PMID:27610198

  1. Encouraging and Attracting Underrepresented Racial Minorities to the Field of Geosciences-A Latin American Graduate Student Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero Gill, R. P.; Herbert, T.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that interactions between same-race and same-gender faculty and graduate students are reported to have a greater impact on the future success of those students. In the same manner, I believe graduate students can play a pivotal role in training and attracting underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) at the high school and undergraduate level to pursue a career in geosciences. Working at Brown University for the last couple of years, I have been involved in a number of initiatives aimed at solidifying ties with the community. Most of my social work has revolved around mentoring underrepresented local minorities, as I feel that this area is where I can contribute the most. This year I began participating in the NSF funded Brown GK-12: "Physical Processes in the Environment" program. As a Latin American female graduate student in the geological sciences, I hope to teach the students-by example-that being a minority is not necessarily an obstacle, but rather an advantage that can offer a different, valuable point of view when pursuing their professional goals. I think that sharing part of my experiences and knowledge as a researcher with young minds contributes to the way they imagine themselves in the future, allowing them to believe that a career in science is within their reach and that higher education is a realistic option worth pursuing if they have the interest in doing so. From my short time as a graduate student, to have a greater impact in attracting URMs, it is critical to have the support of advisors and committee members. One must keep in mind that a graduate career is a time consuming commitment; therefore, it is necessary to undertake activities that will have the most impact on minority students in the short time available. The experience becomes even more effective if advisors are actively involved, particularly financially. Faculty advisors who can allocate funds to, for example support summer activities designed to involve

  2. Internet Resources for Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Molly E., Comp.

    This directory compiles information products and services and other resources pertaining to Latin America that were available on the Internet as of February 1996. Part 1 lists 15 World Wide Web (WWW) URLs that link to other subject or geographical lists of Internet sites providing Latin American resources. Part 2 lists approximately 115…

  3. Considerations for Integrating Technology in Developing Communities in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponte, Daniela Núñez; Cullen, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses issues related to introducing new information and communication technologies (ICT) into Latin American countries. Latin American countries are gaining world focus with political changes such as the death of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela and the election of the first Latin American Pope. This region will host the World Cup,…

  4. Sources of social support associated with health and quality of life: a cross-sectional study among Canadian and Latin American older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Phillips, Susan P; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the association between emotional support and indicators of health and quality of life differs between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Social support from friends, family members, children and partner was measured with a previously validated social network and support scale (IMIAS-SNSS). Low social support was defined as ranking in the lowest site-specific quartile. Prevalence ratios (PR) of good health, depression and good quality of life were estimated with Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, gender, education, income and disability in activities of daily living. Setting Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe in Canada, Manizales in Colombia and Natal in Brazil. Participants 1600 community-dwelling adults aged 65–74 years, n=400 at each site. Outcome measures Likert scale question on self-rated health, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and 10-point analogical quality-of-life (QoL) scale. Results Relationships between social support and study outcomes differed between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Among Canadians, those without a partner had a lower prevalence of good health (PR=0.90; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.98), and those with high support from friends had a higher prevalence of good health (PR=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Among Latin Americans, depression was lower among those with high levels of support from family (PR=0.63; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.83), children (PR=0.60; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.80) and partner (PR=0.57; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77); good QoL was associated with high levels of support from children (PR=1.54; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99) and partner (PR=1.31; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.67). Conclusions Among older adults, different sources of support were relevant to health across societies. Support from friends and having a partner were related to good health in Canada, whereas in Latin America, support from family, children and

  5. Does the Decline in Caries Prevalence of Latin American and Caribbean Children Continue in the New Century? Evidence from Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Thais; Bispo, Beatriz Albuquerque; Souza, Daniela Pereira; Viganó, Maria Eduarda; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Bönecker, Marcelo; Braga, Mariana Minatel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To carry out a systematic review with meta-analysis of prevalence of caries in Latin America and Caribbean children considering studies performed in this new century. Methods Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, LILACS and governmental databases through May 2016 to identify papers published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Studies in those countries performed with 5–6 or 11–13 year-old children and that presented separate prevalence figures from primary and permanent teeth were selected. We performed a descriptive analysis of studies and meta-analysis to calculate the overall prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) in both primary and permanent teeth. We also analyzed the trends of prevalence of caries through the years and influence of other variables on caries prevalence using multilevel analysis. Results Seventy-five studies were included from the 1,306 articles initially retrieved. The meta-analysis of caries prevalence grouped for Latin American and the Caribbean countries were highly different from Brazil and other investigated countries for primary teeth (5–6 years-old—Brazil: 0.52, other countries:0.70) and permanent teeth (11–12 years-old—Brazil: 0.56, other countries: 0.63). For studies conducted only in Brazil the prevalence was significant lower for primary but not for permanent teeth. In Brazil, a downward trend of caries prevalence was observed in 11-13-year-old children. Conclusion Despite the decline of caries prevalence in permanent teeth, mainly in Brazil, the disease still affects more than half of the children population in Latin American and Caribbean countries in the 21st Century. PMID:27768737

  6. Covariates of Subjective Well-Being among Latin American Immigrants in Spain: The Role of Social Integration in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrero, Juan; Fuente, Asur; Gracia, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the influence that social integration in the community might have on subjective well-being (SWB) beyond the influence of sociodemographic characteristics, self-esteem, stressful life events, and social support from intimate and confidant relationships. We explore this set of relationships among Latin American…

  7. A Senior High School Social Studies Unit on Latin American History. World History Series, Bulletin No. 257.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Paul

    This secondary level curriculum guide provides a program and identifies materials for the history and culture of Latin America. The primary purpose of the course is to stimulate throught and to encourage students to make valid generalizations and intelligent assessments of the forces and events that have shaped the history and culture of Latin…

  8. Exploring the Convergence of the Liberal Arts Model and the Ecuadorian Culture in a Latin American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana Paredes, Matias

    2013-01-01

    The replication of the U.S. cultural models in business and social organizations is a common practice in Latin America. In Ecuador, a university operates under the liberal arts model, understanding it as a replication of an U.S. cultural model, in an environment where the Ecuadorian cultural beliefs and values constitute the national cultural…

  9. Social Studies: Economics, International Relations, and Political Science. Latin American Curriculum Units for Junior and Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glade, William P.; Baldwin, Emily

    These three self-contained units of study will help community college students learn about the economics, international relations, and politics of Latin America. Each unit can be used independently and contains introductory notes for instructors, student materials, and a bibliography. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading…

  10. The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin #13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This document addresses several of the problems of educational planning in Latin America. Emilia Ferreiro, in "Alternatives to Understanding Illiteracy in the Region," suggests that illiteracy in this region is preventing the attainment of democracy. As social inequality increases, so does the percentage of illiterate adults. Revolutionary social…

  11. The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

    The initiative and activities carried out by 29 countries in Latin and South America and the Caribbean in the UNESCO Major Project in the Field of Education to correct deficiencies and meet unsatisfied basic educational needs are summarized. Many summaries reflect revisions made during 1983 in National Plans of Action with respect to enhancing…

  12. Education as Part of the Migratory Project of Latin American Migrant Women Traveling to the United States in Undocumented Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Rodríguez, Rocio; Terrón-Caro, Teresa; Vázquez Delgado, Blanca Delia; Cueva-Luna, Teresa Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Education is an indispensable element for the development of society. In Latin America, the point of origin of most of the undocumented immigrants to the United States, equal opportunity in access to education and educational achievement is still pending. The study presented here focuses on the analysis of the expectations of female migrants via…

  13. Female Immigrants to the United States: Caribbean, Latin American, and African Experiences. RIIES Occasional Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Delores M., Ed.; Bryce-Laporte, Roy S., Ed.

    Seminar papers on the recent immigrantion of women from the Caribbean, Latin America, and Africa are collected in the first part of this two-part book. Titles (and authors) of the papers are: (1) "The New Immigration: The Female Majority" (Roy S. Bryce-Laporte); (2) "Race, Ethnicity, and Sex in the Recent Immigration: Some Preliminary Comments"…

  14. School Infrastructure and Resources Do Matter: Analysis of the Incidence of School Resources on the Performance of Latin American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murillo, F. Javier; Roman, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the incidence of school infrastructure and resources and its impact on the academic performance of primary education students in Latin America. A 4-level multilevel model was applied to the data of the Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (SERCE) conducted by UNESCO, which researched…

  15. Update: Newsletter of the Outreach Services of the African, Asian, Latin American, and Russian Centers, No. 39, December, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Four papers in this issue focus on population and urban growth in: (1) sub-Saharan Africa; (2) Latin America; (3) the Soviet Union; and (4) Japan and China. While each region has unique population features, similarities exist based on northern or southern hemisphere geographic locations and on a communist or non-communist political orientation.…

  16. Phase III Technology for All Americans Project: Creating Assessment, Professional Development, and Program Standards for Technological Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugger, William E., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The goals of Phase III of the Technology for All Americans Project are to develop student assessment standards, professional development standards, program standards, and effective leaders. The project is based on the Standards for Technology Literacy, a NASA initiative. (JOW)

  17. Latin America: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This learning aid is intended to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with Latin Americans. The book consists of the following: (1) a map of Latin America, with area and population statistics for the various countries; (2) a brief description of the land, the people, the economy, diet, religion, government,…

  18. The Legal Situation of Latin American and Caribbean Women as Defined according to the Resolutions and Mandates of the United Nations System. Volume II: File Sheets of Resolutions on the Legal Situation of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    This document contains a systematized inventory of the measures relating to the legal and social status of women adopted in various regional and world forums. The inventory was used to study the legal situation of Latin American and Caribbean women, defined according to the resolutions and mandates of the United Nations system. Organized by forum…

  19. The first Latin-American risk stratification system for cardiac surgery: can be used as a graphic pocket-card score.

    PubMed

    Carosella, Victorio C; Navia, Jose L; Al-Ruzzeh, Sharif; Grancelli, Hugo; Rodriguez, Walter; Cardenas, Cesar; Bilbao, Jorge; Nojek, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    This study aims to develop the first Latin-American risk model that can be used as a simple, pocket-card graphic score at bedside. The risk model was developed on 2903 patients who underwent cardiac surgery at the Spanish Hospital of Buenos Aires, Argentina, between June 1994 and December 1999. Internal validation was performed on 708 patients between January 2000 and June 2001 at the same center. External validation was performed on 1087 patients between February 2000 and January 2007 at three other centers in Argentina. In the development dataset the area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was 0.73 and the Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) test was P=0.88. In the internal validation ROC curve was 0.77. In the external validation ROC curve was 0.81, but imperfect calibration was detected because the observed in-hospital mortality (3.96%) was significantly lower than the development dataset (8.20%) (P<0.0001). Recalibration was done in 2007, showing excellent level of agreement between the observed and predicted mortality rates on all patients (P=0.92). This is the first risk model for cardiac surgery developed in a population of Latin-America with both internal and external validation. A simple graphic pocket-card score allows an easy bedside application with acceptable statistic precision.

  20. [Technical cooperation strategies of the Pan American Health Organization in the new phase of mental health services reform in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    de Almeida, José Miguel Caldas

    2005-01-01

    The beginning of the new millennium coincided with the start of a new phase in the reform of mental health services in Latin America and the Caribbean. This new phase has imposed new priorities and prompted new technical cooperation strategies at the international level. This piece points out the main characteristics of the first phases in the reform of mental health services in Latin America and the Caribbean, discusses the factors that led to the phase that started in 2001, and describes the strategies and the technical cooperation activities of the Pan American Health Organization to deal with the challenges that have arisen in the current stage of reform. The piece also considers the prospects for international cooperation in this field, as well as the advantages of establishing a program for the reform of mental health services in the Americas that would contribute to the combined efforts of governments and international organizations in an action plan with defined objectives. The piece recommends taking advantage of the celebration of the 15th anniversary of the Declaration of Caracas in order to launch an action plan that gives new impetus to mental health services reform in the Americas.

  1. Breast Cancer in Young Women in Latin America: An Unmet, Growing Burden

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Christian; Magallanes-Hoyos, Maria C.; Mohar, Alejandro; Bargalló, Enrique; Meneses, Abelardo; Cazap, Eduardo; Gomez, Henry; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Chávarri-Guerra, Yanin; Murillo, Raúl; Barrios, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of malignancy-related deaths among women aged ≤45 years. There are unexplored and uncertain issues for BC in this particular group in Latin America. The aim of this study is to evaluate BC incidence and mortality among young women and related clinicopathological and survivorship aspects in this region. Materials and Methods. Data were obtained from Globocan 2008 and the International Agency for Research on Cancer's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series plus databases. We requested collaboration from the 12 different national cancer institutes in Latin America through SLACOM, the Latin American and Caribbean Society of Medical Oncology, and conducted a systematic literature review to obtain local data regarding the prevalence of BC among young women and their characteristics, outcomes, and survivorship-related issues. Results. BC incidence and mortality proportions for Latin American women aged <44 years were higher when compared with those of developed countries (20% vs. 12% and 14% vs. 7%, respectively). We found only a few Latin American series addressing this topic, and prevalence varied between 8% and 14%. Stage II and III disease, high histological grade, and triple-negative and HER2 BC were features frequently observed among young Latin American BC patients. Conclusion. The rising incidence and mortality of BC in young Latin American women is a call to action in the region. It is necessary to monitor the epidemiological and clinical data through reliable cancer registries and to consider the implementation of protocols for education of patients and health professionals. This unmet, growing burden must be considered as a top priority of the national programs in the fight against BC, and models of specialized units should be implemented for this particular group of patients to provide better care for this emergent challenge. PMID:24277771

  2. Immigrating to the US: What Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian Women Have to Say About Changes to Their Lifestyle That May be Associated with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Tovar, Alison; Must, Aviva; Metayer, Nesly; Gute, David M.; Pirie, Alex; Hyatt, Raymond R.; Economos, Christina D.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to explore the perceived determinants of obesity in Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian women. This is part of an ongoing community-based participatory intervention. Focus groups by immigrant group were conducted and themes extracted. Women expressed differences in beliefs, attitudes, and barriers regarding diet and physical activity in the US versus their home country. Participants thought food in the US is “less natural,” there is less time for preparation, and there is more variety. The weather is a barrier to physical activity in the US and work is more physically demanding. Job-related efforts were not considered physical activity. They reported higher levels of stress, less control of their time and less social support in the US. Providing immigrants with appropriate support and education early in the acculturation process has the potential to help prevent obesity. PMID:22736266

  3. Immigrating to the US: what Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian women have to say about changes to their lifestyle that may be associated with obesity.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Alison; Must, Aviva; Metayer, Nesly; Gute, David M; Pirie, Alex; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2013-04-01

    Our goal was to explore the perceived determinants of obesity in Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian women. This is part of an ongoing community-based participatory intervention. Focus groups by immigrant group were conducted and themes extracted. Women expressed differences in beliefs, attitudes, and barriers regarding diet and physical activity in the US versus their home country. Participants thought food in the US is "less natural," there is less time for preparation, and there is more variety. The weather is a barrier to physical activity in the US and work is more physically demanding. Job-related efforts were not considered physical activity. They reported higher levels of stress, less control of their time and less social support in the US. Providing immigrants with appropriate support and education early in the acculturation process has the potential to help prevent obesity. PMID:22736266

  4. Translating Latin American/US Latina frameworks and methods in gender and health equity: linking women's health education and participatory social change.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Ester R

    This article applies transdisciplinary approaches to critical health education for gender equity by analyzing textual and political strategies translating/culturally adapting the U.S. feminist health text, Our Bodies Ourselves (OBOS), for Latin American/Caribbean and U.S. Latina women. The resulting text, Nuestros Cuerpos, Nuestras Vidas (NCNV), was revised at multiple levels to reflect different cultural\\sociopolitical assumptions connecting individual knowledge, community-based and transnational activist organizations, and strategic social change. Translation/cultural adaptation decisions were designed to ensure that gender-equitable health promotion education crossed cultural borders, conveying personal knowledge and motivating individual actions while also inspiring participation in partnerships for change. Transdisciplinary approaches integrating critical ecosystemic frameworks and participatory methods can help design health promotion education mobilizing engaged, gender-equitable health citizenship supporting both personal and societal change. PMID:24366020

  5. Culture-sensitive adaptation and validation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases methodology for rheumatic disease in Latin American indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Granados, Ysabel; Silvestre, Adriana; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Valls, Evart; Quintana, Rosana; Figuera, Yemina; Santiago, Flor Julian; Goñi, Mario; González, Rosa; Santana, Natalia; Nieto, Romina; Brito, Irais; García, Imelda; Barrios, Maria Cecilia; Marcano, Manuel; Loyola-Sánchez, Adalberto; Stekman, Ivan; Jorfen, Marisa; Goycochea-Robles, Maria Victoria; Midauar, Fadua; Chacón, Rosa; Martin, Maria Celeste; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to validate a culturally sensitive adaptation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases (COPCORD) methodology in several Latin American indigenous populations. The COPCORD Spanish questionnaire was translated and back-translated into seven indigenous languages: Warao, Kariña and Chaima (Venezuela), Mixteco, Maya-Yucateco and Raramuri (Mexico) and Qom (Argentina). The questionnaire was administered to almost 100 subjects in each community with the assistance of bilingual translators. Individuals with pain, stiffness or swelling in any part of the body in the previous 7 days and/or at any point in life were evaluated by physicians to confirm a diagnosis according to criteria for rheumatic diseases. Overall, individuals did not understand the use of a 0-10 visual analog scale for pain intensity and severity grading and preferred a Likert scale comprising four items for pain intensity (no pain, minimal pain, strong pain, and intense pain). They were unable to discriminate between pain intensity and pain severity, so only pain intensity was included. For validation, 702 subjects (286 male, 416 female, mean age 42.7 ± 18.3 years) were interviewed in their own language. In the last 7 days, 198 (28.2 %) subjects reported having musculoskeletal pain, and 90 (45.4 %) of these had intense pain. Compared with the physician-confirmed diagnosis, the COPCORD questionnaire had 73.8 % sensitivity, 72.9 % specificity, a positive likelihood ratio of 2.7 and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73. The COPCORD questionnaire is a valid screening tool for rheumatic diseases in indigenous Latin American populations.

  6. Culture-sensitive adaptation and validation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases methodology for rheumatic disease in Latin American indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Granados, Ysabel; Silvestre, Adriana; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Valls, Evart; Quintana, Rosana; Figuera, Yemina; Santiago, Flor Julian; Goñi, Mario; González, Rosa; Santana, Natalia; Nieto, Romina; Brito, Irais; García, Imelda; Barrios, Maria Cecilia; Marcano, Manuel; Loyola-Sánchez, Adalberto; Stekman, Ivan; Jorfen, Marisa; Goycochea-Robles, Maria Victoria; Midauar, Fadua; Chacón, Rosa; Martin, Maria Celeste; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to validate a culturally sensitive adaptation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases (COPCORD) methodology in several Latin American indigenous populations. The COPCORD Spanish questionnaire was translated and back-translated into seven indigenous languages: Warao, Kariña and Chaima (Venezuela), Mixteco, Maya-Yucateco and Raramuri (Mexico) and Qom (Argentina). The questionnaire was administered to almost 100 subjects in each community with the assistance of bilingual translators. Individuals with pain, stiffness or swelling in any part of the body in the previous 7 days and/or at any point in life were evaluated by physicians to confirm a diagnosis according to criteria for rheumatic diseases. Overall, individuals did not understand the use of a 0-10 visual analog scale for pain intensity and severity grading and preferred a Likert scale comprising four items for pain intensity (no pain, minimal pain, strong pain, and intense pain). They were unable to discriminate between pain intensity and pain severity, so only pain intensity was included. For validation, 702 subjects (286 male, 416 female, mean age 42.7 ± 18.3 years) were interviewed in their own language. In the last 7 days, 198 (28.2 %) subjects reported having musculoskeletal pain, and 90 (45.4 %) of these had intense pain. Compared with the physician-confirmed diagnosis, the COPCORD questionnaire had 73.8 % sensitivity, 72.9 % specificity, a positive likelihood ratio of 2.7 and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73. The COPCORD questionnaire is a valid screening tool for rheumatic diseases in indigenous Latin American populations. PMID:24682426

  7. "Curso de Vulcanología General": Web-education efforts on volcanic hazards for the Latin American region from Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    Education of volcanic hazards is a never-ending task in countries where volcanoes erupt very frequently as they do in the Latin American region (LAR). Eleven countries in the LAR have active volcanoes within their territories and some volcanoes are located in between countries so the volcanic hazards associated to the eruption of those volcanoes affect more than one country. Besides, countries without volcanoes within their territory (i. e. Belize, Honduras or Brazil) can be impacted as well. Personnel working at several volcano observatories in the LAR need training in Volcanology and, more importantly, in Volcanic Hazards. Unfortunately, Volcanology is a discipline that is not taught at universities of some countries. Even worse, Earth Sciences are not even taught at high education centers in some countries of the LAR. Thus, there is an important need for the acquisition of volcanological knowledge by the personnel working at volcano observatories but there are no possibilities for them to study at their countries or they are impended for travel abroad for training. The international course: "Curso de Vulcanología General" taught from Mexico City at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) has been successfully implemented and has been active over the last five years. Nearly 700 students have participated in this course although only ~150 have been awarded the certificate UNAM grants to the students who have concluded the course successfully. This course has been sponsored by UNAM, ALVO (Latin American Volcanological Association) and IAVCEI (International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior). More than 50 lecturers from LAR, Europe and US have been involved in these courses. Here, Reflections on the course, the opportunities sparkled, the educational tools, benefits, statistics and virtues of the course are presented.

  8. A 13-month multicenter clinical experience of a low-dose monophasic oral contraceptive containing 20 microg ethinylestradiol and 75 microg gestodene in Latin American women.

    PubMed

    Bassol, Susana; Alvarado, Gloria; Arreola, Ranferi Gaona; Celis-Gonzalez, Cuauhtemoc; Peña, Efrain Perez; Flores, Josue Garza; Ahued, Jose R; Ricalde, Roger Lara; Lopez, Carlos R; Prieto, Gustavo; Gurucharri, Carlos; Heredia, Monica G; Ortiz, Oscar Contreras; Percossi, Gabriela; Figueroa Casas, Pedro R; Botto, Elida; Tozzini, Roberto Italo; Botti, Gustavo; Nuñez de Pierro, Anibal; Fernandez, Mirta; Lastreto, Enrique; Nañez, Monica; Carneiro de Oliveira, Hildoberto; Diogenes Holanda Yazlle, Martha E; Silva, Jaime; Salazar, German; Gomez, Jorge; Penagos, Gloria; Cifuentes, Rodrigo; Torres, Luz A; Reyes-Marquez, Roberto; Albrecht, Gerhard

    2003-05-01

    This prospective, multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the contraceptive reliability, cycle control and tolerability of a 21-day oral contraceptive regimen containing 20 microg ethinylestradiol and 75 microg gestodene in four Latin American countries (Mexico, Argentina, Brazil and Colombia). Participants took trial medication daily for 21 days. Contraceptive efficacy, cycle control and tolerability were evaluated over a period of 13 cycles. Efficacy data gathered from 5,109 treatment cycles were obtained from 393 participants. The trial medication proved to be an effective contraceptive and provided good cycle control. One pregnancy because of poor compliance was recorded. This resulted in a study Pearl index of 0.25. Forty-six percent of Latin American women reported one intracyclic spotting bleeding episode and 37.6% reported one intracyclic breakthrough bleeding (medium/excessive bleeding) episode during cycles 2-4 (primary target). Overall, intracyclic bleeding was reported in 41%. Overall, there was a trend towards a lower incidence of spotting in all the countries and this difference had statistical significance between Argentina and the others three countries (p < 0.05) during cycles 2-4. This trend was also apparent with respect to breakthrough bleeding, but again the difference did not achieve statistical significance. The discontinuation rate because of adverse events was low (3%); no serious adverse events were reported. More than 78% of the women in the four countries maintained constant body weight or lost weight (2 kg) during the study. The treatment effect on blood pressure was negligible. There were no appreciable changes in mean laboratory values over the course of the study. PMID:12742559

  9. The Impact of Rural Residency on the Expression and Outcome of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Data From a Multiethnic Latin American Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Saurit, Verónica; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Alfaro-Lozano, José L.; de la Torre, Ignacio García; Massardo, Loreto; Esteva-Spinetti, Maria H.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Ramirez Gómez, Luis A.; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Sauza del Pozo, María J.; Silveira, Luis H.; Cavalcanti, Fernando; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of place of residency in the expression and outcomes of SLE in a multi-ethnic Latin American cohort. Patients and Methods SLE patients (<2 years of diagnosis) from 34 centers constitute this cohort. Residency was dichotomized into rural and urban, cut-off: 10,000 inhabitants. Socio-demographic, clinical/laboratory, and mortality rates were compared between them using descriptive tests. The influence of place of residency on disease activity at diagnosis and renal disease was examined by multivariable regression analyses. Results 122 (8.6%) of 1426 patients were rural residents. Their median age (onset, diagnosis) were 23.5 and 25.5 years; 85 (69.7%) patients were Mestizos, 28 (22.9%) Caucasians and 9 (7.4%) African-Latin Americans. Rural residents were more frequently younger at diagnosis, Mestizo and uninsured; they also had fewer years of education and a lower socioeconomic status, exhibited hypertension and renal disease more frequently, and had higher levels of disease activity at diagnosis; they used methotrexate, cyclophosphamide pulses, and hemodialysis more frequently than urban patients. Disease activity over time, renal damage, overall damage and the proportion of deceased patients were comparable in both, rural and urban patients.. In multivariable analyses, rural residency was associated with high levels of disease activity at diagnosis (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.06–2.57) and renal disease occurrence (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.00–3.11). Conclusions Rural residency associates with Mestizo ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, and renal disease occurrence. It also plays a role on disease activity at diagnosis and kidney involvement but not on the other end-points examined. PMID:22941567

  10. Internationalizing Business Education in Latin America: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elahee, Mohammad; Norbis, Mario

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…

  11. [Latin-American plants as a source of new antineoplastic drugs, current situation and new opportunities against cancer].

    PubMed

    Orrego Escobar, Eduardo Freddy

    2015-04-13

    Cancer is one of the most relevant pandemics in modern world. There is a clear predominance of this pathology with distinct epidemiological characteristics in developing and developed countries. Effective, low-cost treatment and prophylaxis strategies that also have minimal side effects are needed. The present work is a brief revision of research that show the great therapeutic potential of plants, highlighting those carried out in Latin America with local plants considering that this is a yet incipient field of study. The great pool of organic compounds and other substances such as proteins indicate that they might provide a reliable alternative in the search for new actors in the battle against cancer.

  12. Socioeconomic and environmental determinants of adolescent asthma in urban Latin America: an ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Gisel Lorena; Santos, Carlos Antonio de Souza Teles; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of asthma is high in urban areas of many Latin-American countries where societies show high levels of inequality and different levels of development. This study aimed to examine the relationship between asthma symptoms prevalence in adolescents living in Latin American urban centers and socioeconomic and environmental determinants measured at the ecological level. Asthma prevalence symptoms were obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase III. A hierarchical conceptual framework was defined and the explanatory variables were organized in three levels: distal, intermediate, proximal. Linear regression models weighed by sample size were undertaken between asthma prevalence and the selected variables. Asthma prevalence was positively associated with Gini index, water supply and homicide rate, and inversely associated with the Human Development Index, crowding and adequate sanitation. This study provides evidence of the potential influence of poverty and social inequalities on current wheezing in adolescents in a complex social context like Latin America.

  13. Latin and Cross Latin Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emanouilidis, Emanuel

    2008-01-01

    Latin squares were first introduced and studied by the famous mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 1700s. Through the years, Latin squares have been used in areas such as statistics, graph theory, coding theory, the generation of random numbers as well as in the design and analysis of experiments. Recently, with the international popularity of…

  14. Machismo and Virginidad: Sex Roles in Latin America. Discussion Paper 79-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones, Julio

    The purpose of this paper is to present a view of Latin American males and females that describes the situation in Latin America more accurately than the current stereotypical view accepted in the United States. The author discusses the roots of the North American misconception, citing differences between Latin American and North American cultures…

  15. Molecular epidemiologic characterization of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive pediatric isolates recovered in six Latin-American countries: an overview. PAHO/Rockefeller University Workshop. Pan American Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Tomasz, A; Corso, A; Severina, E P; Echániz-Aviles, G; Brandileone, M C; Camou, T; Castañeda, E; Figueroa, O; Rossi, A; Di Fabio, J L

    1998-01-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has conducted a study of Streptococcus pneumoniae in six Latin-American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Uruguay. Sterile site isolates from children aged < or =5 years showing clinical symptoms of pneumonia (as defined by the clinical criteria of WHO), meningitis, sepsis or bacteremia (without infectious foci), arthritis, and peritonitis were the source of most of the invasive pneumococcal isolates collected between the end of 1993 and 1996 in the six participating countries. Partial characterization of these isolates (antibiotic resistance and serotyping) have already been described (Microbial Drug Resistance 3:(2):131-163, 1997). In the next phase of the study, 326 S. pneumoniae isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility were transferred to the Laboratory of Microbiology at The Rockefeller University for molecular characterization, and a summary and overview of the findings is described in this article. Some of the most interesting findings were as follows: (1) There was a surprisingly high representation of two internationally spread clones, which made up >80% of the strains with penicillin MIC of 1 microg/ml or higher; most of these isolates were recovered in large cities, supporting the likelihood that the source of these clones is through international travel. (2) The frequency of resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was extremely high (present in 85% of all isolates with decreased penicillin susceptibility). (3) None of these isolates was resistant to ofloxacin, and macrolide resistance was rare (present in 6.4% of the isolates). (4) There was an apparent inverse relationship between level of penicillin resistance and genetic diversity. (5) There were striking differences in the "microbiologic profiles" of the six different Latin-American countries.

  16. [Scientific journals of medical students in Latin-America].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Samith, Ignacio; Oróstegui-Pinilla, Diana; Angulo-Bazán, Yolanda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2010-11-01

    This article deals with the history and evolution of student's scientific journals in Latin-America, their beginnings, how many still exist and which is their future projection. Relevant events show the growth of student's scientific journals in Latin-America and how are they working together to improve their quality. This article is addressed not only for Latin American readers but also to worldwide readers. Latin American medical students are consistently working together to publish scientific research, whose quality is constantly improving.

  17. Patterns, trends and sex differences in HIV/AIDS reported mortality in Latin American countries: 1996-2007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background International cohort studies have shown that antiretroviral treatment (ART) has improved survival of HIV-infected individuals. National population based studies of HIV mortality exist in industrialized settings but few have been presented from developing countries. Our objective was to investigate on a population basis, the regional situation regarding HIV mortality and trends in Latin America (LA) in the context of adoption of public ART policies and gender differences. Methods Cause of death data from vital statistics registries from 1996 to 2007 with "good" or "average" quality of mortality data were examined. Standardized mortality rates and Poisson regression models by country were developed and differences among countries assessed to identify patterns of HIV mortality over time occurring in Latin America. Results Standardized HIV mortality following the adoption of public ART policies was highest in Panama and El Salvador and lowest in Chile. During the study period, three overall patterns were identified in HIV mortality trends- following the adoption of the free ART public policies; a remarkable decrement, a remarkable increment and a slight increment. HIV mortality was consistently higher in males compared to females. Mean age of death attributable to HIV increased in the majority of countries over the study period. Conclusions Vital statistics registries provide valuable information on HIV mortality in LA. While the introduction of national policies for free ART provision has coincided with declines in population-level HIV mortality and increasing age of death in some countries, in others HIV mortality has increased. Barriers to effective ART implementation and uptake in the context of free ART public provision policies should be further investigated. PMID:21801402

  18. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for

  19. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for

  20. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Latin American Variant in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis and HIV Infected in a Hospital in Bogotá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Carvajal, Lina P; Rincón, Sandra; Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Tres Palacios, Alba A; Mercado, Marcela; Palomá, Sandra L; Rayo, Leidy X; Acevedo, Jessica A; Reyes, Jinnethe; Panesso, Diana; García-Padilla, Paola; Alvarez, Carlos; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA colonization and examine the molecular characteristics of colonizing isolates in patients receiving hemodialysis and HIV-infected in a Colombian hospital. Patients on hemodialysis and HIV-infected were prospectively followed between July 2011 and June 2012 in Bogota, Colombia. Nasal and axillary swabs were obtained and cultured. Colonizing S. aureus isolates were identified by standard and molecular techniques. Molecular typing was performed by using pulse-field gel electrophoresis and evaluating the presence of lukF-PV/lukS-PV by PCR. A total of 29% (n = 82) of HIV-infected and 45.5% (n = 15) of patients on hemodialysis exhibited S. aureus colonization. MSSA/MRSA colonization was observed in 28% and 3.6% of the HIV patients, respectively and in 42.4% and 13.3% of the hemodialysis patients, respectively. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing showed that four MRSA isolates harbored the type IV cassette, and one type I. In the hemodialysis group, two MRSA isolates were classified as belonging to the USA300-LV genetic lineage. Conversely, in the HIV infected group, no colonizing isolates belonging to the USA300-Latin American Variant (UDA300-LV) lineage were identified. Colonizing isolates recovered from the HIV-infected group belonged to the prevalent hospital-associated clones circulating in Latin America (Chilean [n = 1] and Pediatric [n = 2]). The prevalence of MRSA colonization in the study groups was 3.6% (HIV) and 13.3% (hemodialysis). Surveillance programs should be implemented in this group of patients in order to understand the dynamics of colonization and infection in high-risk patients.