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Sample records for iii line wings

  1. Applications of Displacement Transfer Functions to Deformed Shape Predictions of the G-III Swept-Wing Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lung, Shun-Fat; Ko, William L.

    2016-01-01

    In support of the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge [ACTE] project at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, displacement transfer functions were applied to the swept wing of a Gulfstream G-III airplane (Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, Georgia) to obtain deformed shape predictions. Four strainsensing lines (two on the lower surface, two on the upper surface) were used to calculate the deformed shape of the G III wing under bending and torsion. There being an insufficient number of surface strain sensors, the existing G III wing box finite element model was used to generate simulated surface strains for input to the displacement transfer functions. The resulting predicted deflections have good correlation with the finite-element generated deflections as well as the measured deflections from the ground load calibration test. The convergence study showed that the displacement prediction error at the G III wing tip can be reduced by increasing the number of strain stations (for each strain-sensing line) down to a minimum error of l.6 percent at 17 strain stations; using more than 17 strain stations yielded no benefit because the error slightly increased to 1.9% when 32 strain stations were used.

  2. Transonic swept wings studied by the lifting-line theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, H. K.; Meng, S. Y.; Chow, R.; Smith, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Transonic swept wings are analyzed as a lifting-line problem under a small-disturbance approximation. Basic concepts and principal results of the asymptotic theory are discussed. The study focuses on straight oblique wings and V-shaped swept wings, of which the local centerline curvature can be equated to zero. The three-dimensional (3-D) perturbation of the nonlinear component flow admits a similarity flow structure but requires that all wing sections are generated from a single airfoil profile; the reduced 2-D problems in this case are solved only once for all span stations. Examples of solutions involving high subcritical and slightly supercritical component flows are demonstrated and compared with surface pressure data from 3-D computer codes based on the full-potential equation (FLO 22). Except in the neighborhood of leading edges, where the small-disturbance assumption breaks down, and in the vicinities of wing tips and the symmetry plane, where neither the theory nor the 3-D codes may claim full validity, reasonable agreement is consistently found. The explicit results from the upwash analysis, along with the similarity flow structure, provides a rational approach to the control of 3-D effects in transonic aerodynamic design studies.

  3. Spinning Characteristics of Wings III : a Rectangular and Tapered Clark Y Monoplane Wing with Rounded Tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamber, M J; House, R O

    1937-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the spinning characteristics of Clark Y monoplane wings with different plan forms. A rectangular wing and a wing tapered 5:2, both with rounded tips, were tested on the N.A.C.A. spinning balance in the 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. The aerodynamic characteristics of the models and a prediction of the angles of sideslip for steady spins are given. Also included is an estimate of the yawning moment that must be furnished by the parts of the airplane to balance the inertia couples and wing yawing moment for spinning equilibrium. The effects on the spin of changes in plan form and of variations of some of the important parameters are discussed and the results are compared with those for a rectangular wing with square tips. It is concluded that for a conventional monoplane using Clark Y wing the sideslip will be algebraically larger for the wing with the rounded tip than for the wing with the square tip and will be largest for the tapered wing. The effect of plan form on the spin will vary with the type of airplane; and the provision of a yawing-moment coefficient of -0.025 (i.e., opposing the spin) by the tail, fuselage, and interference effects will insure against the attainment of equilibrium on a steady spin for any of the plan forms tested and for any of the parameters used in the analysis.

  4. EVOLUTION OF [O III] {lambda}5007 EMISSION-LINE PROFILES IN NARROW EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Mao, Y. F.; Wei, J. Y.

    2011-11-01

    The active galactic nucleus (AGN)-host co-evolution issue is investigated here by focusing on the evolution of the [O III] {lambda}5007 emission-line profile. A large sample of narrow emission-line galaxies is selected from the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics/Johns Hopkins University Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 catalog to simultaneously measure both the [O III] line profile and circumnuclear stellar population in an individual spectrum. By requiring that (1) the [O III] line signal-to-noise ratio is larger than 30 and (2) the [O III] line width is larger than the instrumental resolution by a factor of two, our sample is narrowed down to 2333 Seyfert galaxies/LINERs (AGNs), 793 transition galaxies, and 190 star-forming galaxies. In addition to the commonly used profile parameters (i.e., line centroid, relative velocity shift, and velocity dispersion), two dimensionless shape parameters, skewness and kurtosis, are used to quantify the line shape deviation from a pure Gaussian function. We show that the transition galaxies are systematically associated with narrower line widths and weaker [O III] broad wings than the AGNs, which implies that the kinematics of emission-line gas are different in the two kinds of objects. By combining the measured host properties and line shape parameters, we find that the AGNs with stronger blue asymmetries tend to be associated with younger stellar populations. However, a similar trend is not identified in the transition galaxies. The failure likely results from a selection effect in which the transition galaxies are systematically associated with younger stellar populations than the AGNs. The evolutionary significance revealed here suggests that both narrow-line region kinematics and outflow feedback in AGNs co-evolve with their host galaxies.

  5. Brightness fluctuations in the K-line wings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, M. Y.; Orrall, F. Q.

    1973-01-01

    A power-spectrum and cross-spectrum analysis has been made of measurements of temporal fluctuations of intensity observed in the K-line wing (2.07 A from line center) and of simultaneous measurements of temporal fluctuations of Doppler displacement of the cores of 3931.122 Fe I and 3933 Ca II (K3). The measurements were made in a quiet region near the center of the sun's disk. We find that the average power spectra of the intensity fluctuations have two significant peaks of about equal strength: one at 0.0033 Hz (300-sec period); and one at about 0.001 Hz (1000-sec period). The average rms value of these intensity fluctuations is 0.0435 plus or minus 0.0082. Maximum brightness comes before maximum violet displacement of the Fe I line.

  6. An improved quasistatic line-shape theory: The effects of molecular motion on the line wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    A theory is presented for the modification of the line-shape functions and absorption coefficient due to the breakdown of the quasistatic approximation. This breakdown arises from the effects of molecular motion and increases the absorption in the near wings. Numerical calculations for the high-frequency wing of the nu(sub 3) band of CO2 broadened by Ar are reported and it is shown that these effects are significant near the bandhead. The importance of such corrections in other spectral regions and for other systems is discussed briefly.

  7. Kinetic equations for a density matrix describing nonlinear effects in spectral line wings

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, A. I. Shalagin, A. M.

    2011-11-15

    Kinetic quantum equations are derived for a density matrix with collision integrals describing nonlinear effects in spectra line wings. These equations take into account the earlier established inequality of the spectral densities of Einstein coefficients for absorption and stimulated radiation emission by a two-level quantum system in the far wing of a spectral line in the case of frequent collisions. The relationship of the absorption and stimulated emission probabilities with the characteristics of radiation and an elementary scattering event is found.

  8. A lifting line model to investigate the influence of tip feathers on wing performance.

    PubMed

    Fluck, M; Crawford, C

    2014-11-24

    Bird wings have been studied as prototypes for wing design since the beginning of aviation. Although wing tip slots, i.e. wings with distinct gaps between the tip feathers (primaries), are very common in many birds, only a few studies have been conducted on the benefits of tip feathers on the wing's performance, and the aerodynamics behind tip feathers remains to be understood. Consequently most aircraft do not yet copy this feature. To close this knowledge gap an extended lifting line model was created to calculate the lift distribution and drag of wings with tip feathers. With this model, is was easily possible to combine several lifting surfaces into various different birdwing-like configurations. By including viscous drag effects, good agreement with an experimental tip slotted reference case was achieved. Implemented in C++ this model resulted in computation times of less than one minute per wing configuration on a standard notebook computer. Thus it was possible to analyse the performance of over 100 different wing configurations with and without tip feathers. While generally an increase in wing efficiency was obtained by splitting a wing tip into distinct, feather-like winglets, the best performance was generally found when spreading more feathers over a larger dihedral angle out of the wing plane. However, as the results were very sensitive to the precise geometry of the feather fan (especially feather twist) a careless set-up could just as easily degrade performance. Hence a detailed optimization is recommended to realize the full benefits by simultaneously optimizing feather sweep, twist and dihedral angles.

  9. A lifting line model to investigate the influence of tip feathers on wing performance.

    PubMed

    Fluck, M; Crawford, C

    2014-01-01

    Bird wings have been studied as prototypes for wing design since the beginning of aviation. Although wing tip slots, i.e. wings with distinct gaps between the tip feathers (primaries), are very common in many birds, only a few studies have been conducted on the benefits of tip feathers on the wing's performance, and the aerodynamics behind tip feathers remains to be understood. Consequently most aircraft do not yet copy this feature. To close this knowledge gap an extended lifting line model was created to calculate the lift distribution and drag of wings with tip feathers. With this model, is was easily possible to combine several lifting surfaces into various different birdwing-like configurations. By including viscous drag effects, good agreement with an experimental tip slotted reference case was achieved. Implemented in C++ this model resulted in computation times of less than one minute per wing configuration on a standard notebook computer. Thus it was possible to analyse the performance of over 100 different wing configurations with and without tip feathers. While generally an increase in wing efficiency was obtained by splitting a wing tip into distinct, feather-like winglets, the best performance was generally found when spreading more feathers over a larger dihedral angle out of the wing plane. However, as the results were very sensitive to the precise geometry of the feather fan (especially feather twist) a careless set-up could just as easily degrade performance. Hence a detailed optimization is recommended to realize the full benefits by simultaneously optimizing feather sweep, twist and dihedral angles. PMID:25418986

  10. A modified lifting line theory for wing-propeller interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, R. K.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    An inviscid incompressible model for the interaction of a wing with a single propeller slipstream is presented. The model allows the perturbation quantities to be potential even though the undisturbed flow is rotational. The governing equations for the spanwise lift distribution are derived and a simple method of solving these is indicated. Spanwise lift and induced drag distribution for two cases are computed.

  11. Intermittent Turbulence in the Attachment Line Flow Formed on an Infinite Swept Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poll, Ian

    2007-01-01

    The transition process which takes place in the attachment-line boundary layer in the presence of gross contamination is an issue of considerable interest to wing designers. It is well known that this flow is very sensitive to the presence of isolated roughness and that transition can be initiated at a very low value of the local medium thickness Reynolds number.Moreover, once the attachment line is turbulent, the flow over the whole wing chords, top and bottom surface, will be turbulent and this has major implications for wind drag.

  12. Determination of the Mass Moments and Radii of Inertia of the Sections of a Tapered Wing and the Center-of-Gravity Line along the Wing Span

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savelyev, V. V.

    1943-01-01

    For computing the critical flutter velocity of a wing among the data required are the position of the line of centers of gravity of the wing sections along the span and the mass moments and radii of inertia of any section of the wing about the axis passing through the center of gravity of the section. A sufficiently detailed computation of these magnitudes even if the weights of all the wing elements are known, requires a great deal of time expenditure. Thus a rapid competent worker would require from 70 to 100 hours for the preceding computations for one wing only, while hundreds of hours would be required if all the weights were included. With the aid of the formulas derived in the present paper, the preceding work can be performed with a degree of accuracy sufficient for practical purposes in from one to two hours, the only required data being the geometric dimensions of the outer wing (tapered part), the position of its longerons, the total weight of the outer wing, and the approximate weight of the longerons, The entire material presented in this paper is applicable mainly to wings of longeron construction of the CAHI type and investigations are therefore being conducted by CAHI for the derivation of formulas for the determination of the preceding data for wings of other types.

  13. Berry phases and profiles of line wings and rainbow satellites induced by optical collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuryło, R.; Szudy, J.; Baylis, W. E.

    2015-09-01

    The concept of Berry phase is included in an analysis of the intensity distribution in far wings of pressure-broadened spectral lines emitted or absorbed by atoms placed in an external cone-rotating electric field. Particular attention is focused on frequency regions where rainbow satellite bands appear. A classical-path treatment that employs the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is used to derive an expression for the line shape, and it uses a dipole transition moment calculated with quasimolecular wave functions given by the Berry version of the adiabatic approximation. It is found that in the presence of an external rotating electric field, the intensity distribution in far wings can be expressed in terms of the universal line shape function of the unified Franck-Condon theory once energy shifts due to Stark and Berry effects are taken into account. We show that the influence of Berry phase in the profiles of the far wings can be manifested either in the form of deviations of observed profiles from the quasistatic distribution or the appearance of additional features in the vicinity of the maximum of the rainbow satellite band. As an example, the modification of the rainbow satellite at 162.3 nm in the red wing of the self-broadened Lyman-α line of hydrogen, caused by an external rotating electric field, is considered.

  14. 7. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PART III, SECTION 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDING NO. 10, PRODUCER GAS & EXHAUSTER BLDG., PLANT A.' From U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant A, Parts I, II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  15. A z ∼ 5.7 Lyα emission line with an ultrabroad red wing

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Huan; Wang, JunXian; Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Infante, Leopoldo E-mail: jxw@mail.ustc.edu.cn E-mail: smalhotr@asu.edu E-mail: linfante@astro.puc.cl

    2014-03-20

    Using the Lyα emission line as a tracer of high-redshift, star-forming galaxies, hundreds of Lyα emission line galaxies (LAEs) at z > 5 have been detected. These LAEs are considered to be low-mass young galaxies, critical to the re-ionization of the universe and the metal enrichment of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM). It is assumed that outflows in LAEs can help both ionizing photons and Lyα photons escape from galaxies. However, we still know little about the outflows in high-redshift LAEs due to observational difficulties, especially at redshift >5. Models of Lyα radiative transfer predict asymmetric Lyα line profiles with broad red wings in LAEs with outflows. Here, we report a z ∼ 5.7 Lyα emission line with a broad red wing extending to >1000 km s{sup –1} relative to the peak of Lyα line, which has been detected in only a couple of z > 5 LAEs until now. If the broad red wing is ascribed to gas outflow instead of active galactic nucleus activity, the outflow velocity could be larger than the escape velocity (∼500 km s{sup –1}) of a typical halo mass of z ∼ 5.7 LAEs, which is consistent with the idea that outflows in LAEs disperse metals to CGM and IGM.

  16. 43. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PART III, SECTION 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS H-1 TO H-10 INCL., GRINDING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  17. 38. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PART III, SECTION 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS G-1 TO G-10 INCL., PURIFICATION, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLAN 'B'.' From U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  18. FAINT CO LINE WINGS IN FOUR STAR-FORMING (ULTRA)LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Zschaechner, Laura; Bolatto, Alberto; Weiss, Axel

    2015-09-20

    We report the results of a search for large velocity width, low-intensity line wings—a commonly used signature of molecular outflows—in four low redshift (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies that appear to be dominated by star formation. The targets were drawn from a sample of fourteen targets presented in Chung et al., who showed the stacked CO spectrum of the sample to exhibit 1000 km s{sup −1}-wide line wings. We obtained sensitive, wide bandwidth imaging of our targets using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We detect each target at very high significance but do not find the claimed line wings in these four targets. Instead, we constrain the flux in the line wings to be only a few percent. Casting our results as mass outflow rates following Cicone et al. we show them to be consistent with a picture in which very high mass loading factors preferentially occur in systems with high active galactic nucleus contributions to their bolometric luminosity. We identify one of our targets, IRAS 05083 (VII Zw 31), as a candidate molecular outflow.

  19. Reciprocal roles for bowl and lines in specifying the peripodial epithelium and the disc proper of the Drosophila wing primordium

    PubMed Central

    Nusinow, David; Greenberg, Lina; Hatini, Victor

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Central to embryonic development is the generation of molecular asymmetries across fields of undifferentiated cells. The Drosophila wing imaginal disc provides a powerful system to understand how such asymmetries are generated and how they contribute to the formation of complex anatomical structures. Early in development, the wing primordium is subdivided into a thin layer of peripodial epithelium (PE) and an apposing thickened layer of pseudostratified columnar epithelium (CE) known as the disc proper (DP). The DP gives rise to the wing blade, hinge and dorsal mesothorax, while the PE makes only a minor contribution to the ventral hinge and pleura. The mechanisms that generate this major asymmetry and its contribution to wing development are poorly understood. The Lines protein destabilizes the nuclear protein Bowl in ectodermal structures. Here we show that Bowl accumulates in the PE from early stages of wing development and is absent from the DP. Broad inhibition of Bowl in the PE resulted in the replacement of the PE with a mirror image duplication of the DP. The failure to generate the PE severely compromised wing growth and the formation of the notum. Conversely, the activation of bowl in the DP (by removal or inhibition of lines function) resulted in the transformation of the DP into PE. Thus, we provide evidence that bowl and lines act as a binary switch to subdivide the wing primordium into PE and DP, and assign critical roles for this major asymmetry in wing growth and patterning. PMID:18701548

  20. WINGS-SPE. III. Equivalent width measurements, spectral properties, and evolution of local cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, J.; Poggianti, B. M.; Cava, A.; Moretti, A.; Varela, J.; Bettoni, D.; Couch, W. J.; D'Onofrio D'Onofrio, M.; Dressler, A.; Fasano, G.; Kjærgaard, P.; Marziani, P.; Moles, M.; Omizzolo, A.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Cluster galaxies are the ideal sites to look at when studying the influence of the environment on the various aspects of the evolution of galaxies, such as the changes in their stellar content and morphological transformations. In the framework of wings, the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey, we have obtained optical spectra for ~6000 galaxies selected in fields centred on 48 local (0.04 < z < 0.07) X-ray selected clusters to tackle these issues. Aims: By classifying the spectra based on given spectral lines, we investigate the frequency of the various spectral types as a function of both the clusters' properties and the galaxies' characteristics. In this way, using the same classification criteria adopted for studies at higher redshift, we can consistently compare the properties of the local cluster population to those of their more distant counterparts. Methods: We describe a method that we have developed to automatically measure the equivalent width of spectral lines in a robust way, even in spectra with a non optimal signal-to-noise ratio. This way, we can derive a spectral classification reflecting the stellar content, based on the presence and strength of the [Oii] and Hδ lines. Results: After a quality check, we are able to measure 4381 of the ~6000 originally observed spectra in the fields of 48 clusters, of which 2744 are spectroscopically confirmed cluster members. The spectral classification is then analysed as a function of galaxies' luminosity, stellar mass, morphology, local density, and host cluster's global properties and compared to higher redshift samples (MORPHS and EDisCS). The vast majority of galaxies in the local clusters population are passive objects, being also the most luminous and massive. At a magnitude limit of MV < -18, galaxies in a post-starburst phase represent only ~11% of the cluster population, and this fraction is reduced to ~5% at MV < -19.5, which compares to the 18% at the same magnitude limit for high

  1. A far-wing line shape theory which satisfies the detailed balance principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Boulet, C.

    1995-01-01

    A far-wing theory in which the validity of the detailed balance principle is maintained in each step of the derivation is presented. The role of the total density matrix including the initial correlations is analyzed rigorously. By factoring out the rapidly varying terms in the complex-time development operator in the interaction representation, better approximate expressions can be obtained. As a result, the spectral density can be expressed in terms of the line-coupling functions in which two coupled lines are arranged symmetrically and whose frequency detunings are omega - 1/2(omega(sub ji) + omega (sub j'i'). Using the approximate values omega - omega(sub ji) results in expressions that do not satisfy the detailed balance principle. However, this principle remains satisfied for the symmetrized spectral density in which not only the coupled lines are arranged symmetrically, but also the initial and final states belonging to the same lines are arranged symmetrically as well.

  2. Wind-tunnel investigation of aerodynamic efficiency of three planar elliptical wings with curvature of quarter-chord line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.; Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.

    1993-01-01

    Three planar, untwisted wings with the same elliptical chord distribution but with different curvatures of the quarter-chord line were tested in the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (8-ft TPT) and the Langley 7- by 10-Foot High-Speed Tunnel (7 x 10 HST). A fourth wing with a rectangular planform and the same projected area and span was also tested. Force and moment measurements from the 8-ft TPT tests are presented for Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.5 and angles of attack from -4 degrees to 7 degrees. Sketches of the oil-flow patterns on the upper surfaces of the wings and some force and moment measurements from the 7 x 10 HST tests are presented at a Mach number of 0.5. Increasing the curvature of the quarter-chord line makes the angle of zero lift more negative but has little effect on the drag coefficient at zero lift. The changes in lift-curve slope and in the Oswald efficiency factor with the change in curvature of the quarter-chord line (wingtip location) indicate that the elliptical wing with the unswept quarter-chord line has the lowest lifting efficiency and the elliptical wing with the unswept trailing edge has the highest lifting efficiency; the crescent-shaped planform wing has an efficiency in between.

  3. The shape of spectral lines: The importance of the far wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipping, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Spectroscopy, the study of the interaction of radiation and matter, provides most of the information we have gleaned about the composition, structure, and evolution of the universe. As is well known, by measuring the frequencies of spectral lines in absorption or emission, one can uniquely infer the presence of atoms or molecules as well as their physical state and environment (e.g., solid or gaseous, neutral or ionized, moving or stationary, etc.). Furthermore, by studying the intensities of these lines, one can determine the abundance (i.e., number of a particular species per unit volume). Although less well known, the shape of the spectral lines, in particular, the structure of the far wings, plays a very important role in many important atmospheric phenomena such as the greenhouse effect or the absorption of harmful ultraviolet radiation. Although first measured more than 50 years ago, the anomalous absorption of radiation by water vapor in the earth's atmosphere was postulated to be due to far wings of allowed lines. However, only within the past few years has a quantitative verification of this hypothesis been possible through the development of an accurate theoretical description of the shape of self-broadened water lines. During the summer, work has been done on improving this theory and in comparing the results to other theories valid near the center of the lines. The relevance of this work to measurements of greenhouse gases, of earth-based measurements of the 3 K cosmic background radiation, of satellite-based measurements of the atmospheres of the earth and other planets, and other similar problems will be discussed briefly.

  4. Avian Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  5. Stark Shift Measurement of Some Xe III Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Djurovic, S.; Cirisaif, M.; Pelaez, R. J.; Aparicio, J. A.; Mar, S.

    2008-10-22

    Examination of ionized xenon spectrum is of a great interest for plasma diagnostic purposes, theory testing and different applications. In this paper, we present Stark shift data for one blue and five UV Xe III lines. One line belongs to the 5d-6p transition, while all other lines belong to 6s-6p transition. Most of the existing papers are devoted to Stark width measurements and only one paper deals with shift data of the lines studied herein. A low-pressure pulsed arc with 95% of helium and 5% of xenon was used as a plasma source. All measurements were performed under following plasma conditions: electron density (0.2-1.4)10{sup 23}m{sup -3} and electron temperature 18000-23000 K.

  6. Interpretation of the [ClIII] Lines in Gaseous Nebulae.

    PubMed

    Aller, L H; Czyzak, S J; Walker, M F; Krueger, T K

    1970-05-01

    The intensity ratio of the green lambdalambda5517 and 5537 lines of [ClIII] serves as an indicatrix of the electron density in many gaseous nebulae whose spectra can be observed with an image converter. Quantitative interpretation of the line ratio requires accurate values of the collisional strengths and transition probabilities. With improved values of these parameters we have revised electron densities for a number of nebulae; the results seem to be in good accord with those derived from other criteria. PMID:16591829

  7. A Note about Self-Induced Velocity Generated by a Lifting-Line Wing or Rotor Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an elementary analysis of the induced velocity created by a field of vortices that reside in the wake of a rotor blade. Progress achieved by other researchers in the last 70 years is briefly reviewed. The present work is presented in four stages of complexity that carry a lifting-line representation of a fixed wing into a single-blade rotor. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the lifting rotor's spiraling vortex wake structure has very high induced power when compared to the ideal wing. For an advanced ratio of one-half, induced power is on the order of 10 times that of the wing when the comparison is made at wingspan equal to rotor diameter and wing and rotor having equal lift.

  8. Height formation of bright points observed by IRIS in Mg II line wings during flux emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubecka, M.; Schmieder, B.; Berlicki, A.; Heinzel, P.; Dalmasse, K.; Mein, P.

    2016-09-01

    Context. A flux emergence in the active region AR 111850 was observed on September 24, 2013 with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Many bright points are associated with the new emerging flux and show enhancement brightening in the UV spectra. Aims: The aim of this work is to compute the altitude formation of the compact bright points (CBs) observed in Mg II lines in the context of searching Ellerman bombs (EBs). Methods: IRIS provided two large dense rasters of spectra in Mg II h and k lines, Mg II triplet, C II and Si IV lines covering all the active region and slit jaws in the two bandpasses (1400 Å and 2796 Å) starting at 11:44 UT and 15:39 UT, and lasting 20 min each. Synthetic profiles of Mg II and Hα lines are computed with non-local thermodynamic equlibrium (NLTE) radiative transfer treatment in 1D solar atmosphere model including a hotspot region defined by three parameters: temperature, altitude, and width. Results: Within the two IRIS rasters, 74 CBs are detected in the far wings of the Mg II lines (at +/-1 Å and 3.5 Å). Around 10% of CBs have a signature in Si IV and CII. NLTE models with a hotspot located in the low atmosphere were found to fit a sample of Mg II profiles in CBs. The Hα profiles computed with these Mg II CB models are consistent with typical EB profiles observed from ground based telescopes e.g. THEMIS. A 2D NLTE modelling of fibrils (canopy) demonstrates that the Mg II line centres can be significantly affected but not the peaks and the wings of Mg II lines. Conclusions: We conclude that the bright points observed in Mg II lines can be formed in an extended domain of altitudes in the photosphere and/or the chromosphere (400 to 750 km). Our results are consistent with the theory of heating by Joule dissipation in the atmosphere produced by magnetic field reconnection during flux emergence.

  9. Collision frequencies in density-matrix kinetic equations describing nonlinear effects in the wings of spectral lines

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, A I; Shalagin, Anatolii M

    2011-11-30

    Using the eikonal approximation, we have calculated effective collision frequencies in density-matrix kinetic equations describing nonlinear effects in the wings of spectral lines. We have established the relation between the probabilities of absorption and stimulated emission and the characteristics of the radiation and elementary scattering event. The example of the power interaction potential shows that quantum mechanical calculation of the collision frequencies in the eikonal approximation and previously known spectral line wing theory give similar results for the probability of radiation absorption.

  10. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for Ne III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Thomas, R. J.; Landi, E.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ne III. The configurations used are 2s(sup 2) 2p(sup 4),2s2p(sup 5),2s(sup 2) 2p(sup 3)3s, and 2s(sup 2)3p(sup 3)3d giving rise to 57 fine-structure levels in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 Ry. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution at an electron temperature of logT,(K)=5.0, corresponding to maximum abundance of Ne III. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10(exp 8)-10(exp 14) per cubic centimeter. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated. Proton excitation rates between the lowest three levels have been included in the statistical equilibrium equations. The predicted Ne III line intensities are compared with SERTS rocket measurements of a solar active region and of a laboratory EUV light source.

  11. Method for calculating wing characteristics by lifting-line theory using nonlinear section lift data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivells, James C; Neely, Robert H

    1947-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating wing characteristics by lifting-line theory using nonlinear section lift data. Material from various sources is combined with some original work into the single complete method described. Multhopp's systems of multipliers are employed to obtain the induced angle of attack directly from the spanwise lift distribution. Equations are developed for obtaining these multipliers for any even number of spanwise stations, and values are tabulated for 10 stations along the semispan for asymmetrical, symmetrical, and antisymmetrical lift distributions. In order to minimize the computing time and to illustrate the procedures involved, simplified computing forms containing detailed examples are given for symmetrical lift distributions. Similar forms for asymmetrical and antisymmetrical lift distributions, although not shown, can be readily constructed in the same manner as those given. The adaptation of the method for use with linear section lift data is also illustrated. The adaptation has been found to require less computing time than most existing methods.

  12. Extension of the quasistatic far-wing line shape theory to multicomponent anisotropic potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    The formalism developed previously for the calculation of the far-wing line shape function and the corresponding absorption coefficient using a single-component anisotropic interaction term and the binary collision and quasistatic approximations is generalized to multicomponent anisotropic potential functions. Explicit expressions are presented for several common cases, including the long-range dipole-dipole plus dipole-quadrupole interaction and a linear molecule interacting with a perturber atom. After determining the multicomponent functional representation for the interaction between the CO2 and Ar from previously published data, we calculate the theoretical line shape function and the corresponding absorption due to the nu(sub 3) band of CO2 in the frequency range 2400-2580 cm(exp -1) and compare our results with previous calculations carried out using a single-component anisotropic interaction, and with the results obtained assuming Lorentzian line shapes. The principal uncertainties in the present results, possible refinements of the theoretical formalism, and the applicability to other systems are discussed briefly.

  13. Collision strengths for nebular [O III] optical and infrared lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, P. J.; Sochi, Taha; Badnell, N. R.

    2014-07-01

    We present electron collision strengths and their thermally averaged values for the nebular forbidden lines of the astronomically abundant doubly ionized oxygen ion, O2+, in an intermediate coupling scheme using the Breit-Pauli relativistic terms as implemented in an R-matrix atomic scattering code. We use several atomic targets for the R-matrix scattering calculations including one with 72 atomic terms. We also compare with new results obtained using the intermediate coupling frame transformation method. We find spectroscopically significant differences against a recent Breit-Pauli calculation for the excitation of the [O III] λ4363 transition but confirm the results of earlier calculations.

  14. ORIGIN OF SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF SCATTERING POLARIZATION IN THE WINGS OF THE Ca I 4227 A line

    SciTech Connect

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Anusha, L. S.; Stenflo, J. O.; Bianda, M.; Ramelli, R.

    2009-07-10

    Polarization that is produced by coherent scattering can be modified by magnetic fields via the Hanle effect. This has opened a window to explorations of solar magnetism in parameter domains not accessible to the Zeeman effect. According to standard theory the Hanle effect should only be operating in the Doppler core of spectral lines but not in the wings. In contrast, our observations of the scattering polarization in the Ca I 4227 A line reveal the existence of spatial variations of the scattering polarization throughout the far line wings. This raises the question whether the observed spatial variations in wing polarization have a magnetic or nonmagnetic origin. A magnetic origin may be possible if elastic collisions are able to cause sufficient frequency redistribution to make the Hanle effect effective in the wings without causing excessive collisional depolarization, as suggested by recent theories for partial frequency redistribution (PRD) with coherent scattering in magnetic fields. To model the wing polarization we bypass the problem of solving the full polarized radiative transfer equations and instead apply an extended version of the technique based on the 'last scattering approximation'. It assumes that the polarization of the emergent radiation is determined by the anisotropy of the incident radiation field at the last scattering event. We determine this anisotropy from the observed limb darkening as a function of wavelength throughout the spectral line. The empirical anisotropy profile is used together with the single-scattering redistribution matrix, which contains all the PRD, collisional, and magnetic field effects. The model further contains a continuum opacity parameter, which increasingly dilutes the polarized line photons as we move away from the line center, and a continuum polarization parameter that represents the observed polarization level far from the line. This model is highly successful in reproducing the observed Stokes Q

  15. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for Ne III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Thomas, R. J.; Landi, E.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A number of satellites and rockets have been launched to observe radiation from the Sun and other astrophysical objects. Line radiation is emitted when the electron impact excited levels decay to the lower levels by photon emission. From this radiation, the physical parameters such as electron temperature and density of the astrophysical plasma, elemental abundance, and opacity can be inferred. Ne III lines have been observed in H II regions, Ne-rich filaments in supernovae, and planetary nebulae. The allowed line at 489.50 Angstroms due to the transition 2s(sup 2) 2p(sup 5) (sup 3) P2 (goes to) 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 4)(sup 3)P2 has been identified in the solar spectrum by Vernazza and Reeves using Skylab observations. Other Ne III lines in the solar EUV spectrum have been reported by Thomas and Neupert based on observations from the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) instrument. Atomic data for Ne III have been calculated by using a set of programs developed at, University College, London. The Superstructure and Distorted Wave (DW) programs have been updated over the years. In the Superstructure program, configuration interaction can be taken into account and radial functions are calculated in a modified Thomas-Fermi-Amaldi potential. This is a statistical potential and depends on parameters lambda 1 which are determined by optimizing the weighted sum of term energies. They are found to be lambda(sub 0)=1.2467, lambda(sub 1)=1.1617, and lambda(sub 2)=1.0663. The relativistic corrections are included by using the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian as a perturbation to the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian. The same potential is used to calculate reactance matrices in the DW approximation in LS coupling. Collision strengths in intermediate coupling are obtained by using term coupling coefficients obtained from the Superstructure program. In this calculation, the configurations used are 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 4), 2s2p(sup 5), 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 3)3s, 2s(sup 2)p(sup 3)3d giving rise

  16. Broad-wing molecular lines without internal energy sources. [in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blitz, Leo; Magnani, Loris; Wandel, Amri

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of broad CO wings in four high-latitude molecular clouds which do not have associated internal energy sources is reported. The velocity width of the wings is as much as five times greater than the width of the cloud cores. Neither visible stars brighter than the background population, optical nebulosity, nor IRAS point sources are found at the position of the wings, except for one case with an IRAS source 3 arcmin from the peak position of the wings. The possibility that the wings are the result of conductive interfaces resulting from cold molecular clouds in a hotter ambient medium is examined, and it is concluded that the expected column density of such gas is more than three orders of magnitude smaller than that observed.

  17. Tests of Nacelle-Propeller Combinations in Various Positions with Reference to Wings III : Clark Y Wing - Various Radial-engine Cowlings - Tractor Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Donald H

    1933-01-01

    This report is the third of a series giving the results obtained in the 20-foot wind tunnel on the interference drag, and propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller-wing combinations. The first report gave the results of the tests of an NACA cowled air-cooled engine nacelle with tractor propeller located in 21 positions with reference to a thick wing. The second report gave the results for several engine cowlings and nacelles with tractor propeller located in four positions with reference to same wing. The present report gives results of tests of the same nacelles and cowlings in the same positions with reference to a smaller wing of Clark y section. The lift, drag, and propulsive efficiency were determined at several angles of attack for each cowling and in each nacelle location.

  18. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  19. Improved collision strengths and line ratios for forbidden [O III] far-infrared and optical lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palay, Ethan; Nahar, Sultana N.; Pradhan, Anil K.; Eissner, Werner

    2012-06-01

    Far-infrared and optical [O III] lines are useful temperature-density diagnostics of nebular as well as dust obscured astrophysical sources. Fine-structure transitions among the ground state levels 1 s22 s22 p33 P 0,1,2 give rise to the 52- and 88-?m lines, whereas transitions among the 3 P 0,1,2, 1 D 2, 1 S 0 levels yield the well-known optical lines λλ4363, 4959 and 5007 Å. These lines are excited primarily by electron impact excitation. However, despite their importance in nebular diagnostics collision strengths for the associated fine-structure transitions have not been computed taking full account of relativistic effects. We present Breit-Pauli R-matrix calculations for the collision strengths with highly resolved resonance structures. We find significant differences of up to 20 per cent in the Maxwellian averaged rate coefficients from previous works. We also tabulate these to lower temperatures down to 100 K to enable determination of physical conditions in cold dusty environments such photodissociation regions and ultraluminous infrared galaxies observed with the Herschel Space Observatory. We also examine the effect of improved collision strengths on temperature- and density-sensitive line ratios.

  20. Computer program for calculating supersonic flow on the windward side conical delta wings by the method of lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klunker, E. B.; South, J. C., Jr.; Davis, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    A user's manual is presented for a program that calculates the supersonic flow on the windward side of conical delta wings with shock attached at the sharp leading edge by the method of lines. The program also has a limited capability for computing the flow about circular and elliptic cones at incidence. It provides information including the shock shape, flow field, isentropic surface-flow properties, and force coefficients. A description of the program operation, a sample computation, and a FORTRAN 4 program listing are included.

  1. Broad [C II] Line Wings as Tracer of Molecular and Multi-phase Outflows in Infrared Bright Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, A. W.; Christopher, N.; Sturm, E.; Veilleux, S.; Contursi, A.; González-Alfonso, E.; Fischer, J.; Davies, R.; Verma, A.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Genzel, R.; Lutz, D.; Sternberg, A.; Tacconi, L.; Burtscher, L.; Poglitsch, A.

    2016-05-01

    We report a tentative correlation between the outflow characteristics derived from OH absorption at 119 μm and [C ii] emission at 158 μm in a sample of 22 local and bright ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). For this sample, we investigate whether [C ii] broad wings are a good tracer of molecular outflows, and how the two tracers are connected. Fourteen objects in our sample have a broad wing component as traced by [C ii], and all of these also show OH119 absorption indicative of an outflow (in one case an inflow). The other eight cases, where no broad [C ii] component was found, are predominantly objects with no OH outflow or a low-velocity (≤100 km s-1) OH outflow. The FWHM of the broad [C ii] component shows a trend with the OH119 blueshifted velocity, although with significant scatter. Moreover, and despite large uncertainties, the outflow masses derived from OH and broad [C ii] show a 1:1 relation. The main conclusion is therefore that broad [C ii] wings can be used to trace molecular outflows. This may be particularly relevant at high redshift, where the usual tracers of molecular gas (like low-J CO lines) become hard to observe. Additionally, observations of blueshifted Na i D λλ 5890, 5896 absorption are available for 10 of our sources. Outflow velocities of Na i D show a trend with OH velocity and broad [C ii] FWHM. These observations suggest that the atomic and molecular gas phases of the outflow are connected.

  2. Collision strengths and transition probabilities for Co III forbidden lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, P. J.; Sochi, Taha

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we compute the collision strengths and their thermally averaged Maxwellian values for electron transitions between the 15 lowest levels of doubly ionized cobalt, Co2+, which give rise to forbidden emission lines in the visible and infrared region of spectrum. The calculations also include transition probabilities and predicted relative line emissivities. The data are particularly useful for analysing the thermodynamic conditions of supernova ejecta.

  3. ANALYSIS OF BREIT-PAULI TRANSITION PROBABILITIES FOR LINES IN O III

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, C. Froese; Tachiev, G.; Rubin, R. H.; Rodriguez, M.

    2009-09-20

    Accurate atomic data are essential for understanding the properties of both O III lines produced by the Bowen fluorescence mechanism and [O III] forbidden lines observed in numerous gaseous nebulae. Improved Breit-Pauli transition probabilities have been published for the carbon sequence. Included were revised data for O III. The present paper analyzes the accuracy of the data specifically for O III by comparison with other theory as well as some recent experiments and observations. For the electric dipole transition probabilities, good agreement is found for allowed Bowen fluorescence lines between predictions of intensity ratios with observed data. For forbidden transitions, the Breit-Pauli magnetic dipole transition operator requires corrections that often are neglected. Good agreement is found when these transition probabilities are computed with multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock methods.

  4. Nebular and auroral emission lines of [Cl III] in the optical spectra of planetary nebulae.

    PubMed

    Keenan, F P; Aller, L H; Ramsbottom, C A; Bell, K L; Crawford, F L; Hyung, S

    2000-04-25

    Electron impact excitation rates in Cl III, recently determined with the R-matrix code, are used to calculate electron temperature (T(e)) and density (N(e)) emission line ratios involving both the nebular (5517.7, 5537.9 A) and auroral (8433.9, 8480.9, 8500.0 A) transitions. A comparison of these results with observational data for a sample of planetary nebulae, obtained with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph on the 3-m Shane Telescope, reveals that the R(1) = I(5518 A)/I(5538 A) intensity ratio provides estimates of N(e) in excellent agreement with the values derived from other line ratios in the echelle spectra. This agreement indicates that R(1) is a reliable density diagnostic for planetary nebulae, and it also provides observational support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the line ratio calculations. However the [Cl iii] 8433.9 A line is found to be frequently blended with a weak telluric emission feature, although in those instances when the [Cl iii] intensity may be reliably measured, it provides accurate determinations of T(e) when ratioed against the sum of the 5518 and 5538 A line fluxes. Similarly, the 8500.0 A line, previously believed to be free of contamination by the Earth's atmosphere, is also shown to be generally blended with a weak telluric emission feature. The [Cl iii] transition at 8480.9 A is found to be blended with the He i 8480.7 A line, except in planetary nebulae that show a relatively weak He i spectrum, where it also provides reliable estimates of T(e) when ratioed against the nebular lines. Finally, the diagnostic potential of the near-UV [Cl iii] lines at 3344 and 3354 A is briefly discussed. PMID:10759562

  5. Nebular and auroral emission lines of [Cl iii] in the optical spectra of planetary nebulae

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Francis P.; Aller, Lawrence H.; Ramsbottom, Catherine A.; Bell, Kenneth L.; Crawford, Fergal L.; Hyung, Siek

    2000-01-01

    Electron impact excitation rates in Cl III, recently determined with the R-matrix code, are used to calculate electron temperature (Te) and density (Ne) emission line ratios involving both the nebular (5517.7, 5537.9 Å) and auroral (8433.9, 8480.9, 8500.0 Å) transitions. A comparison of these results with observational data for a sample of planetary nebulae, obtained with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph on the 3-m Shane Telescope, reveals that the R1 = I(5518 Å)/I(5538 Å) intensity ratio provides estimates of Ne in excellent agreement with the values derived from other line ratios in the echelle spectra. This agreement indicates that R1 is a reliable density diagnostic for planetary nebulae, and it also provides observational support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the line ratio calculations. However the [Cl iii] 8433.9 Å line is found to be frequently blended with a weak telluric emission feature, although in those instances when the [Cl iii] intensity may be reliably measured, it provides accurate determinations of Te when ratioed against the sum of the 5518 and 5538 Å line fluxes. Similarly, the 8500.0 Å line, previously believed to be free of contamination by the Earth's atmosphere, is also shown to be generally blended with a weak telluric emission feature. The [Cl iii] transition at 8480.9 Å is found to be blended with the He i 8480.7 Å line, except in planetary nebulae that show a relatively weak He i spectrum, where it also provides reliable estimates of Te when ratioed against the nebular lines. Finally, the diagnostic potential of the near-UV [Cl iii] lines at 3344 and 3354 Å is briefly discussed. PMID:10759562

  6. Formulas for the Supersonic Loading, Lift, and Drag of Flat Swept-Back Wings with Leading Edges Behind the Mach Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Doris

    1951-01-01

    The method of superposition of linearized conical flows has been applied to the calculation of the aerodynamic properties, in supersonic flight, of thin flat, swept-back wings at an angle of attack. The wings are assumed to have rectilinear plan forms, with tips parallel to the stream, and to taper in the conventional sense. The investigation covers the moderately supersonic speed range where the Mach lines from the leading-edge apex lie ahead of the wing. The trailing edge may lie ahead of or behind the Mach lines from its apex. The case in which the Mach cone from one tip intersects the other tip is not treated. Formulas are obtained for the load distribution, the total lift, and the drag due to lift. For the cases in which the trailing edge is outside the Mach cone from its apex the formulas are complete. For wings with both leading and trailing edges behind their respective Mach lines, a degree of approximation is necessary. Charts of some of the functions derived are included to facilitate computing, and several examples are worked out in outline.

  7. Calcitonin inhibits the growth of human gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, A; Yamatani, T; Arima, N; Yamashita, Y; Fujita, T; Chiba, T

    1992-02-18

    Calcitonin has a wide variety of actions on gastrointestinal function. In this study, we investigated the effects of calcitonin on the growth of human gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III in comparison with those of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Calcitonin, but not CGRP, significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the growth of KATO III cells. This inhibition of cell growth was accompanied by an increase in cyclic AMP production. The proliferation of KATO III cells was also inhibited by forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, although agents which do not stimulate cyclic AMP production had no effect. Furthermore, in the presence of GTP, calcitonin stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in KATO III cell membranes, and this increase was reduced in the absence of GTP. On the other had, neither calcitonin nor CGRP enhanced the turnover of inositolphospholipid or the intracellular Ca2+ level. In addition, 125I-labeled human calcitonin was specifically bound to KATO III cell membranes, and this binding was dose-dependently displaced by unlabeled calcitonin but not CGRP. Furthermore, the specific binding of 125I-labeled human calcitonin to KATO III cell membranes was significantly reduced by addition of GTP but not ATP. These results suggest that calcitonin inhibits the growth of human gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III by stimulating cyclic AMP production via a GTP-dependent process coupled to specific calcitonin receptors. PMID:1313594

  8. ALMA WILL DETERMINE THE SPECTROSCOPIC REDSHIFT z > 8 WITH FIR [O III] EMISSION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, A. K.; Shimizu, I.; Tamura, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Okamoto, T.; Yoshida, N.

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the potential use of nebular emission lines in the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) for determining spectroscopic redshift of z > 8 galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). After making a line emissivity model as a function of metallicity, especially for the [O III] 88 μm line which is likely to be the strongest FIR line from H II regions, we predict the line fluxes from high-z galaxies based on a cosmological hydrodynamics simulation of galaxy formation. Since the metallicity of galaxies reaches at ∼0.2 Z {sub ☉} even at z > 8 in our simulation, we expect the [O III] 88 μm line as strong as 1.3 mJy for 27 AB objects, which is detectable at a high significance by <1 hr integration with ALMA. Therefore, the [O III] 88 μm line would be the best tool to confirm the spectroscopic redshifts beyond z = 8.

  9. Inflatable wing

    DOEpatents

    Priddy, Tommy G.

    1988-01-01

    An inflatable wing is formed from a pair of tapered, conical inflatable tubes in bonded tangential contact with each other. The tubes are further connected together by means of top and bottom reinforcement boards having corresponding longitudinal edges lying in the same central diametral plane passing through the associated tube. The reinforcement boards are made of a stiff reinforcement material, such as Kevlar, collapsible in a direction parallel to the spanwise wing axis upon deflation of the tubes. The stiff reinforcement material cooperates with the inflated tubes to impart structural I-beam characteristics to the composite structure for transferring inflation pressure-induced tensile stress from the tubes to the reinforcement boards. A plurality of rigid hoops shaped to provide airfoil definition are spaced from each other along the spanwise axis and are connected to the top and bottom reinforcement boards. Tension lines are employed for stabilizing the hoops along the trailing and leading edges thereof.

  10. POLARIZED LINE FORMATION IN MULTI-DIMENSIONAL MEDIA. III. HANLE EFFECT WITH PARTIAL FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Anusha, L. S.; Nagendra, K. N.

    2011-09-01

    In two previous papers, we solved the polarized radiative transfer (RT) equation in multi-dimensional (multi-D) geometries with partial frequency redistribution as the scattering mechanism. We assumed Rayleigh scattering as the only source of linear polarization (Q/I, U/I) in both these papers. In this paper, we extend these previous works to include the effect of weak oriented magnetic fields (Hanle effect) on line scattering. We generalize the technique of Stokes vector decomposition in terms of the irreducible spherical tensors T{sup K}{sub Q}, developed by Anusha and Nagendra, to the case of RT with Hanle effect. A fast iterative method of solution (based on the Stabilized Preconditioned Bi-Conjugate-Gradient technique), developed by Anusha et al., is now generalized to the case of RT in magnetized three-dimensional media. We use the efficient short-characteristics formal solution method for multi-D media, generalized appropriately to the present context. The main results of this paper are the following: (1) a comparison of emergent (I, Q/I, U/I) profiles formed in one-dimensional (1D) media, with the corresponding emergent, spatially averaged profiles formed in multi-D media, shows that in the spatially resolved structures, the assumption of 1D may lead to large errors in linear polarization, especially in the line wings. (2) The multi-D RT in semi-infinite non-magnetic media causes a strong spatial variation of the emergent (Q/I, U/I) profiles, which is more pronounced in the line wings. (3) The presence of a weak magnetic field modifies the spatial variation of the emergent (Q/I, U/I) profiles in the line core, by producing significant changes in their magnitudes.

  11. Direct potential and temperature effects on the MgHe line-core and far-wing photoabsorption profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Reggami, L.; Bouledroua, M.

    2011-03-15

    The present study deals with the collisional broadening of monatomic magnesium, evolving in a helium buffer gas, in the wavelength and temperature ranges 260-310 nm and 100-3000 K, respectively. The computed emission and absorption spectral profiles are based on the most recent potential-energy curves and transition dipole moments. The required interatomic Mg(3s{sup 2})+He(1s{sup 2}) and Mg(3s3p)+He(1s{sup 2}) potentials are constructed from two different sets. The purpose of this treatment is twofold. First, using the quantum-mechanical Baranger impact approximation, the width and shift of the line-core spectra are determined and their variation law with temperature is examined. Then, the satellite structures in the blue and red wings are analyzed quantum mechanically. The calculations show especially that the free-free transitions contribute most to the MgHe photoabsorption spectra and that a satellite structure is observable beyond the temperature 1800 K around the wavelengths 272 or 276 nm, depending on the used potential set. Weak satellites have also been investigated and, for all cases, the obtained results showed good agreement with those already published.

  12. Continuum absorption spectra in the far wings of the Hg 1S0-->3P1 resonance line broadened by Ar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Okunishi, M.; Ohmori, K.; Chiba, H.; Ueda, K.

    1996-02-01

    Absolute reduced absorption coefficients for the Hg resonance line at 253.7 nm broadened by Ar were determined between 390 and 430 K in the spectral range from 20 to 1000 cm-1 on the red wing and from 20 to 400 cm-1 on the blue wing. The resultant reduced absorption coefficients are in fair agreement with those obtained by Petzold and Behmenburg [Z. Naturtorsch. Teil A 33, 1461 (1978)]. The observed A 30+<--X 10+ spectrum in the spectral range from 80 to 800 cm-1 on the red wing agrees remarkably well both in shape and magnitude with the quasistatic line shape calculated using the potential-energy curves of the HgAr van der Waals molecule given by Fuke, Saito, and Kaya [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 2591 (1984)], and Yamanouchi et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 88, 205 (1988)]. The blue-wing spectrum is interpreted as the B 31<--X 10+ free-free transition of HgAr by a simulation of the spectrum using uniform semiclassical treatment for the free-free Franck-Condon factor. The source of the satellites on the blue wing is attributed to the phase-interference effect arising from a stationary phase-shift difference between the B- and X-state translational wave functions. The stationary phase-shift difference arises owing to the existence of a maximum in the difference potential between the B and X states. The repulsive branches of the potential-energy curves of HgAr for the X and B states have been revised to give excellent agreement between the observed and calculated spectra, both in shape and magnitude.

  13. Constraints on the merging of the transition lines at the tricritical point in a wing-structure phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufour, Valentin; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Kogan, Vladimir G.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the phase diagram of a ferromagnetic system driven to a quantum phase transition with a tuning parameter p . Before being suppressed, the transition becomes of the first order at a tricritical point, from which wings emerge under application of the magnetic field H in the T -p -H phase diagram. We show that the edge of the wings merge with tangent slopes at the tricritical point.

  14. Temperature Measurements in the Solar Transition Region Using N III Line Intensity Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doron, R.; Doschek, G. A.; Laming, J. M.; Feldman, U.; Bhatia, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    UV emission from B-like N and O ions a rather rare opportunity for recording spectral lines in a narrow wavelength range that can potentially be used to derive temperatures relevant to the solar transition region. In these ions, the line intensity ratios of the type (2s2p(sup 2) - 2p(sup 3)) / (2s(sup 2)2p - 2s2p(sup 2)) are very sensitive to the electron temperature. Additionally, the lines involving the ratios fall within a range of only - 12 A; in N III the lines fall in the 980 - 992 A range and in O IV in the 780 - 791 A range. In this work, we explore the use of these atomic systems, primarily in N III, for temperature diagnostics of the transition region by analyzing UV spectra obtained by the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer flown on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The N III temperature-sensitive line ratios are measured in more than 60 observations. Most of the measured ratios correspond to temperatures in the range 5.7x10(exp 4) - 6.7x10(exp 4) K. This range is considerably lower than the calculated temperature of maximum abundance of N III, which is approx. 7.6x10(exp 4) K. Detailed analysis of the spectra further indicates that the measured ratios are probably somewhat overestimated due to resonant scattering effects in the 2s(sup 2)2p - 2s2p(sup 2) lines and small blends in the 2s2p(sup 2) - 2p3 lines. Actual lower ratios would only increase the disagreement between the ionization balance calculations and present temperature measurements based on a collisional excitation model. In the case of the O IV spectra, we determined that due to the close proximity in wavelength of the weak line (2s2p(sup 2)-2p3 transitions) to a strong Ne VIII line, sufficiently accurate ratio measurements cannot be obtained. Subject headings: atomic data --- atomic processes --- Sun: transition region --- Sun: U V radiation --- techniques: spectroscopic

  15. The Density Matrix of H20 - N2 In the Coordinate Representation: A Monte Carlo Calculation of the Far-Wing Line Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    The far-wing line shape theory within the binary collision and quasistatic framework has been developed using the coordinate representation. Within this formalism, the main computational task is the evaluation of multidimensional integrals whose variables are the orientational angles needed to specify the initial and final positions of the system during transition processes. Using standard methods, one is able to evaluate the 7-dimensional integrations required for linear molecular systems, or the 7-dimensional integrations for more complicated asymmetric-top (or symmetric-top) molecular systems whose interaction potential contains cyclic coordinates. In order to obviate this latter restriction on the form of the interaction potential, a Monte Carlo method is used to evaluate the 9-dimensional integrations required for systems consisting of one asymmetric-top (or symmetric-top) and one linear molecule, such as H20-N2. Combined with techniques developed previously to deal with sophisticated potential models, one is able to implement realistic potentials for these systems and derive accurate, converged results for the far-wing line shapes and the corresponding absorption coefficients. Conversely, comparison of the far-wing absorption with experimental data can serve as a sensitive diagnostic tool in order to obtain detailed information on the short-range anisotropic dependence of interaction potentials.

  16. Stability and Control Characteristics of a Complete Airplane Model Having a Wing with Quarter-chord Line Swept Back 40 Degrees, Aspect Ratio 2.50, and Taper Ratio 0.42

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulderfrei, Marvin; Comisarow, Paul; Goodson, Kenneth W

    1951-01-01

    An investigation has been made of a complete airplane model having a wing with the quarter-chord line swept back 40 degrees, aspect ratio 2.50, and taper ratio 0.42 to determine its low-speed stability and control characteristics. The longitudinal stability investigation included stabilizer and tail-off tests with different wing dihedral angles (Gamma = 0 degrees and Gamma = -10 degrees) over an angle-of-attack range for the cruising and landing configurations and tests. with a high horizontal-tail location (Gamma = -10 degrees) for the cruising configuration. Tests were made of the wing alone and to determine the effect of wing end plates in pitch. Lateral stability characteristics were determined for the airplane with different geometric wing dihedrals, with end plates, and with several dorsal modifications. Tests were made with ailerons and spoilers to determine control characteristics.

  17. Flight-Test Evaluation of the Longitudinal Stability and Control Characteristics of 0.5-Scale Models of the Fairchild Lark Pilotless-Aircraft Configuration: Standard Configuration with Wing Flaps Deflected 60 Degrees and Model having Tail in Line with Wings, TED No. NACA 2387

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, David G.

    1947-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted at the Flight Test Station of the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division at Wallop Island, Va., to determine the longitudinal control and stability characteristics of 0.5-scale models of the Fairchild Lark pilotless aircraft with the tail in line with the wings a d with the horizontal wing flaps deflected 60 deg. The data were obtained by the use of a telemeter and by radar tracking.

  18. Synoptic and fast events on the sun according to observations at the center and wings of the Ca II K line at the Kislovodsk Mountain station patrol telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlatov, A. G.; Dormidontov, D. V.; Kirpichev, R. V.; Pashchenko, M. P.; Shramko, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Observations performed at the solar telescope-spectroheliograph, which has continuously automatically operated at MAS MAO RAS, were analyzed. Measurements of the activity index in the Ca II K line, which were performed according to the program of synoptic observations, are presented. The development of the solar flares observed at the center and on the wings of the Ca II K line was compared with observations in the X-ray and radio bands. It was shown that the time variations in the intensity in the 1-8 Å range according to the Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellites' (GOES) data and in the Ca II K line are close to each other and that the total X-ray flux and Ca II K intensity amplitude substantially correlate during the entire flare.

  19. Nitrogen line spectroscopy in O-stars. III. The earliest O-stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivero González, J. G.; Puls, J.; Massey, P.; Najarro, F.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The classification scheme proposed by Walborn et al. (2002, AJ, 123, 2754), based primarily on the relative strengths of the N ivλ4058 and N iiiλ4640 emission lines, has been used in a variety of studies to spectroscopically classify early O-type stars. Owing to the lack of a solid theoretical basis, this scheme has not yet been universally accepted though. Aims: We provide first theoretical predictions for the N ivλ4058/N iiiλ4640 emission line ratio in dependence of various parameters, and confront these predictions with results from the analysis of a sample of early-type LMC/SMC O-stars. Methods: Stellar and wind parameters of our sample stars are determined by line profile fitting of hydrogen, helium and nitrogen lines, exploiting the helium and nitrogen ionization balance. Corresponding synthetic spectra are calculated by means of the NLTE atmosphere/spectrum synthesis code fastwind. Results: Though there is a monotonic relationship between the N iv/N iii emission line ratio and the effective temperature, all other parameters being equal, theoretical predictions indicate additional dependencies on surface gravity, mass-loss, metallicity, and, particularly, nitrogen abundance. For a given line ratio (i.e., spectral type), more enriched objects should be typically hotter. These basic predictions are confirmed by results from the alternative model atmosphere code cmfgen. The effective temperatures for the earliest O-stars, inferred from the nitrogen ionization balance, are partly considerably hotter than indicated by previous studies. Consistent with earlier results, effective temperatures increase from supergiants to dwarfs for all spectral types in the LMC. The relation between observed N ivλ4058/N iiiλ4640 emission line ratio and effective temperature, for a given luminosity class, turned out to be quite monotonic for our sample stars, and to be fairly consistent with our model predictions. The scatter within a spectral sub-type is mainly

  20. Electron-impact excitation collision strengths and theoretical line intensities for transitions in S III

    SciTech Connect

    Grieve, M. F. R.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Hudson, C. E.; Keenan, F. P.

    2014-01-01

    We present Maxwellian-averaged effective collision strengths for the electron-impact excitation of S III over a wide range of electron temperatures of astrophysical importance, log T{sub e} (K) = 3.0-6.0. The calculation incorporates 53 fine-structure levels arising from the six configurations—3s {sup 2}3p {sup 2}, 3s3p {sup 3}, 3s {sup 2}3p3d, 3s {sup 2}3p4s, 3s {sup 2}3p4p, and 3s {sup 2}3p4d—giving rise to 1378 individual lines and is undertaken using the recently developed RMATRX II plus FINE95 suite of codes. A detailed comparison is made with a previous R-matrix calculation and significant differences are found for some transitions. The atomic data are subsequently incorporated into the modeling code CLOUDY to generate line intensities for a range of plasma parameters, with emphasis on allowed ultraviolet extreme-ultraviolet emission lines detected from the Io plasma torus. Electron density-sensitive line ratios are calculated with the present atomic data and compared with those from CHIANTI v7.1, as well as with Io plasma torus spectra obtained by Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer. The present line intensities are found to agree well with the observational results and provide a noticeable improvement on the values predicted by CHIANTI.

  1. Measurements of the Far-Infrared [N III] and [O III] Lines in the Outer-Galaxy H II Regions S 206, S 209, and S 212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinerstein, H. L.; Haas, M. R.; Erickson, E. F.; Werner, M. W.

    1993-05-01

    We report measurements of the far-infrared, fine-structure lines [O III] 52, 88 microns, and [N III] 57 microns in three H II regions in the outer Milky Way. The observations were made with a cooled grating spectrometer from NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory. This line trio allows one to determine both the gas density and the N/O abundance as traced by the ratio N(++) /O(++) . We measured all three lines from the regions S 206, S 212, and S 209, located at galactocentric distances of 11.5, 14, and 16 kpc, respectively, assuming a solar galactocentric distance of 8.5 kpc. The [O III] electron densities in these H II regions range from log ne = 1.8 to 2.5. For the recently revised collision strength for the [N III] 57 microns line (Blum and Pradhan 1992, Ap.J.Suppl., 80, 425), the mean value for the ionic N/O ratio in these three regions is N(++) /O(++) = 0.13 +/- 0.03. Our results for these outer-galaxy regions will be compared with N/O abundances derived from the far-infrared lines for H II regions in the inner part of the Galaxy. This research was supported by NASA Airborne Astronomy grant NAG2-372.

  2. On-line solid-phase extraction and multisyringe flow injection analysis of Al(III) and Fe(III) in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vanloot, Pierre; Branger, Catherine; Margaillan, André; Brach-Papa, Christophe; Boudenne, Jean-Luc; Coulomb, Bruno

    2007-11-01

    A new analytical method was developed for on-line monitoring of residual coagulants (aluminium and iron salts) in potable water. The determination was based on a sequential procedure coupling an extraction/enrichment step of the analytes onto a modified resin and a spectrophotometric measurement of a surfactant-sensitized binary complex formed between eluted analytes and Chrome Azurol S. The optimization of the solid phase extraction was performed using factorial design and a Doehlert matrix considering six variables: sample percolation rate, sample metal concentration, flow-through sample volume (all three directly linked to the extraction step), elution flow rate, concentration and volume of eluent (all three directly linked to the elution step). A specific reagent was elaborated for sensitive and specific spectrophotometric determination of Al(III) and Fe(III), by optimizing surfactant and ligand concentrations and buffer composition. The whole procedure was automated by a multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) system. Detection limits of 4.9 and 5.6 microg L(-1) were obtained for Al(III) and Fe(III) determination , respectively, and the linear calibration graph up to 300 microg L(-1) (both for Al(III) and Fe(III)) was well adapted to the monitoring of drinking water quality. The system was successfully applied to the on-site determination of Al(III) and Fe(III) at the outlet of two water treatment units during two periods of the year (winter and summer conditions).

  3. Microvariability of line profiles in the spectra of OB stars: III. The supergiant ρ LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholtygin, A. F.; Fabrika, S. N.; Burlakova, T. E.; Valyavin, G. G.; Chuntonov, G. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Kang, D.; Yushkin, M. V.; Galazutdinov, G. A.

    2007-11-01

    We observed the bright supergiant ρ Leo (B1 lab) in January-February 2004 using the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Russia) and the 1.8-m telescope of the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (South Korea). 47 spectra with high time resolution (4-10 min), signal-to-noise ratios 300-1000, and spectral resolutions 45 000-60 000 were obtained. We detected variability in the HeI, SiII, SiIII, and NII line profiles, which may be due to rotational modulation of the profiles and photospheric pulsations of ρ Leo. The possible influence of the stellar magnetic field on the line-profile variations is discussed.

  4. Sulfatides inhibit binding of Helicobacter pylori to the gastric cancer Kato III cell line.

    PubMed

    Wadström, T; Hirmo, S; Novak, H; Guzman, A; Ringnér-Pantzar, M; Utt, M; Aleljung, P

    1997-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori adhere to Kato III and Hela S3 cells in monolayer cultures. To explore whether cell surface glycoconjugates on these two cell lines mediate binding of H. pylori, various carbohydrates, glycoproteins, and glycolipids were tested to inhibit H.pylori cell adhesion. The adhesion was measured (i) with a urease-based assay and (ii) by cells stained with fluorescein. Sodium periodate and sialidase treatment (but not alpha- or beta-galactosidase, heparitinase,lysozyme, or trypsin) inhibited H. pylori binding to both cell lines. Sulfatides and sulfated glycoconjugates (50 microg/ml) but not heparin or a number of simple carbohydrates inhibited binding (1 mg/ml). The two H.pylori strains studied (CCUG 17874 and strain 25) showed high binding of soluble 125I-labeled heparin and other sulfated carbohydrate compounds. PMID:9099625

  5. Spectrophotometry near the atmospheric cutoff of the strongest Bowen resonance fluorescence lines of O III in two planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Opal, Chet B.

    1989-01-01

    Spectrophotometric results are presented for the stronger, well-resolved Bowen O III resonance fluorescence emission lines in the planetary nebulae 7027 and NGC 7662 down to and including the intrinsically strong line at 3133 A. These data are combined with results from the IUE atlas of spectra and similar results for the longer wavelength lines by Likkel and Aller (1986) to give the first full coverage of the Bowen lines. Good agreement is found with fluorescence theory for the primary cascade lines, except for the Likkel and Aller results. The efficiency of conversion of the exciting He II Ly-alpha into O III lines is determined, and values comparable to other planetary nebulae are found.

  6. C IV Broad Absorption Line Variability in QSO spectra from SDSS I-III Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cicco, D.; Brandt, W. N.; Paolillo, M.; Grier, C. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of our study of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) variability in the spectra of more than 1500 QSO's from several SDSS I-III surveys. Absorption lines in QSO spectra are due to outflowing winds which originate from the accretion disk, at a distance on the order of 1/100 - 1/10 pc from the central super-massive black hole (SMBH). Winds trigger the accretion mechanism onto the SMBH removing angular momentum from the disk and, since they evacuate gas from the host galaxy, they are believed to play a fundamental role in galaxy evolution. Absorption lines can be classified on the basis of their width and of the observed transitions, and their equivalent width can change on timescales from months to years, due to variations in the covering factor and/or in the ionization level. We analyzed the largest sample ever used for such kind of studies. We find that the fraction of disappearing BALs is three times larger than the one found in previous works. Strong evidence is found for a coordinated variability in spectra with multiple BAL troughs which may be interpreted in terms of disk-wind rotation, and/or variations in the physical status of the shielding gas. We also find that, in spectra with multiple BAL troughs, the disappearing ones are generally those with the highest central velocity.

  7. Conceptual design report for environmental, safety and health phase III FY-91 line item

    SciTech Connect

    1988-09-01

    The Mound Facility (Mound), located in Miamisburg, Ohio, is a Department of Energy (DOE) development and production facility performing support work for DOE`s weapons and energy-related programs. EG&G Mound Applied Technologies (EG&G) is the Operating Contractor (OC) for this Government-Owned, Contractor-Operated (GOCO) facility. The work performed at Mound emphasizes nuclear energy and explosives technology. Mound is currently implementing an Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program designed to protect its employees, the public, and the environment from adverse effects caused by the facility`s activities. Design has been completed, and construction is in progress for Phase I of this multiphase program. Phase II has been submitted for fiscal year (FY) 89 funding and Phase IV is being submitted as an FY 92 line item. This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) addresses Phase III of the ES&H program.

  8. Plasma diagnostic techniques in the ultraviolet - The C III density-sensitive lines in the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Foukal, P. V.; Jordan, C.

    1976-01-01

    Spectra and spectroheliograms of the C III transitions at 977 and 1176 A are obtained with the Harvard extreme-ultraviolet spectrometer on Skylab. Analysis of the intensities of these lines, and of their density-sensitive ratio, indicates a wide range of temperature gradients and electron densities in the transition region of various solar features. From values of the observed ratio, we suggest necessary revisions to the excitation rates, and propose a relationship between the ratio and density. The significantly higher ratio found in active regions indicates a density increase of about a factor 2 relative to the network. In the quiet sun, there is no significant difference in density between network and cell interiors, but the uncertainty is as large as a factor 3. The very central 10% of the areas of cell interiors shows a significantly higher density than the mean value for cell interiors.

  9. Joukowski wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margoulis, W

    1922-01-01

    To sum up, Professor Joukowski's theory of supporting wings renders it possible to calculate the coefficient of lift in terms of the angle of attack, and Prandtl's coefficient of induced drag and the correction of the angle of attack in terms of the disposition and aspect ratio of the wings.

  10. Mid-Infrared [NeII] and [NeIII] Emission Line Profiles in Starbursts and AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonyan, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Line profiles and velocities of the [CII] 157μm line observed with the Herschel PACS instrument are compared to high resolution [NeII] 12.81μm and [NeIII] 15.55μm emission lines observed with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). We are analysing spectra of at least 400 galaxies having both IRS high resolution and Herschel PACS [CII] line profiles that are available from the public archives. The goal of the work is the comparison of emission line velocity profiles and fluxes to locate and understand differences in the origins of [CII] compared to the mid-infrared Neon lines. Line velocities and widths are carefully measured, and errors are analyzed to determine if there is any kinematic evidence for [CII] arising from clouds not visible in the mid-infrared emission lines. This will give an answer to two questions: 1. Is there evidence that [CII] is more diffuse, distributed throughout galaxies, than the mid infrared starburst indicators [NeII] and [NeIII]?; 2. Is there evidence for specific, very dusty clouds of [CII] with so much extinction that the [CII] can be seen but the [NeII] and [NeIII] is not seen?

  11. The Frequency Detuning Correction and the Asymmetry of Line Shapes: The Far Wings of H2O-H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A far-wing line shape theory which satisfies the detailed balance principle is applied to the H2O-H2O system. Within this formalism, two line shapes are introduced, corresponding to band-averages over the positive and negative resonance lines, respectively. Using the coordinate representation, the two line shapes can be obtained by evaluating 11-dimensional integrations whose integrands are a product of two factors. One depends on the interaction between the two molecules and is easy to evaluate. The other contains the density matrix of the system and is expressed as a product of two 3-dimensional distributions associated with the density matrices of the absorber and the perturber molecule, respectively. If most of the populated states are included in the averaging process, to obtain these distributions requires extensive computer CPU time, but only have to be computed once for a given temperature. The 11-dimensional integrations are evaluated using the Monte Carlo method, and in order to reduce the variance, the integration variables are chosen such that the sensitivity of the integrands on them is clearly distinguished.

  12. Improved calculations for the C III 1907,1909 and Si III 1883,1892 electron density sensitive emission-line ratios, and a comparison with IUE observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, F. P.; Feibelman, W. A.; Berrington, K. A.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic data are used in conjunction with the statistical equilibrium code of Dufton (1977) to calculate relative C III and Si III level populations, and hence emission-line strengths for a range of electron temperatures and densities. It is assumed that photoexcitation and deexcitaton rates are negligible in comparison with the corresponding collisional rates, that ionization to and recombination from other ionic levels are slow compared with bound-bound rates, and that all transitions are optically thin. The observed values of R1 and R2 for several planetary nebulae and a symbiotic star, measured from high-resolution spectra obtained with the IUE satellite, lead to electron densities that are compatible, and are also in good agreement with those deduced from line ratios in other species.

  13. Systematic experimental study of the Stark broadening of C II, C III, N II, N III, O II and O III spectral lines

    SciTech Connect

    Blagojevic, B.; Popovic, M. V.; Konjevic, N.

    1999-04-01

    We report the experimental Stark widths of plasma broadened lines belonging to 3s-3p and 3p-3d transitions of singly and doubly ionized C, N and O emitters. The light source was a low pressure pulsed arc. The plasma electron densities were determined from the width of the Hell P{sub {alpha}} line while the electron temperatures were measured from the relative line intensities of five N II spectral lines.

  14. ACTE Wing Loads Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) project modified a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft with a new flexible flap that creates a seamless transition between the flap and the wing. As with any new modification, it is crucial to ensure that the aircraft will not become overstressed in flight. To test this, Star CCM a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software program was used to calculate aerodynamic data for the aircraft at given flight conditions.

  15. Wind Tunnel Pressure Distribution Tests on a Series of Biplane Wing Models Part III Effects of Charges in Various Combinations of Stagger, Gap, Sweepback, and Decalage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Noyes, Richard W

    1929-01-01

    A concept for the calculation of the vortex lift of sharp-edge delta wings is presented and compared with experimental data. The concept is based on an analogy between the vortex lift and the leading-edge suction associated with the potential flow about the leading edge. This concept, when combined with potential-flow theory modified to include the nonlinearities associated with the exact boundary condition and the loss of the lift component of the leading-edge suction, provides excellent prediction of the total lift for a wide range of delta wings up to angles of attack of 20 degrees or greater.

  16. Comparisons of mapped magnetic field lines with the source path of the 7 April 1995 type III solar radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Gosling, J. T.; Malaspina, D. M.; Neudegg, D.; Steward, G.; Lobzin, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    Ideally, the sources of type III solar radio bursts, which are produced mainly by flare-accelerated electron beams, trace the magnetic field lines along which the beams propagate from the Sun to interplanetary space. A recently developed 2-D approach for large-scale mapping of magnetic field lines between the Sun and Earth in the solar equatorial plane is applied to the sources of the 7 April 1995 type III radio burst imaged by Ulysses and Wind. The approach uses near-Earth solar wind data and a solar wind model with intrinsic nonradial magnetic field at the source surface of the solar wind. Quantitative agreement is found between the mapped field lines, the observed path of the radio source centroids, and the field configurations inferred from solar wind suprathermal electrons observed by Wind. Moreover, the mapped field lines are consistent with Wind not observing the in situ type III electron beam, Langmuir waves, and local radio emission for this type III event.

  17. Winged pipelaying

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, R.R.; Kopp, F.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes an apparatus for towing at least one submerged pipeline above-seabed comprising: tow means attached to the pipeline; and at least one wing attached to the pipeline and positioned to provide lifting force to the pipeline when the pipeline is being towed, the wing being rotatable from a substantially perpendicular alignment to a substantially perpendicular alignment to a substantially lateral alignment with the pipeline in a non-towing mode.

  18. Induction of apoptosis by gallic acid in human stomach cancer KATO III and colon adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, K; Kataoka, T; Hayashi, T; Hasegawa, M; Ishi, Y; Hibasami, H

    2000-01-01

    Antitumor effects of gallic acid on human stomach cancer KATO III cells and human colon adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells were investigated. The exposures of KATO III and COLO 205 cells to gallic acid led to both growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis. Morphological changes showing apoptotic bodies were observed in both the cell lines treated with gallic acid. The fragmentations by gallic acid of DNA to oligonucleosomal-sized fragments, that are characteristics of apoptosis, were observed to be concentration- and time-dependent. These findings suggest that growth inhibitions by gallic acid of KATO III cells and COLO 205 cells result from the apoptosis induced by gallic acid. Thus, gallic acid might be a candidate drug for digestive gut cancer treatment to overcome the resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:11032918

  19. Theoretical emission line ratios for [Fe III] and [Fe VII] applicable to the optical and infrared spectra of gaseous nebulae.

    PubMed

    Keenan, F P; Aller, L H; Ryans, R S; Hyung, S

    2001-08-14

    Recent calculations of electron impact excitation rates and Einstein A-coefficients for transitions among the 3d(6) levels of Fe III and among the 3d(2) levels of Fe VII are used to derive theoretical emission line ratios applicable to the optical and infrared spectra of gaseous nebulae. Results for [Fe III] are generated for electron temperatures T(e) = 7,000-20,000 K and densities N(e) = 10(2)-10(8) cm(-3), whereas those for [Fe VII] are provided for T(e) = 10,000-30,000 K and N(e) = 10(2)-10(8) cm(-3). The theoretical line ratios are significantly different in some instances from earlier calculations and resolve discrepancies between theory and observation found for the planetary nebulae IC 4997 and NGC 7027. PMID:11493676

  20. Theoretical emission line ratios for [Fe III] and [Fe VII] applicable to the optical and infrared spectra of gaseous nebulae

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Francis P.; Aller, Lawrence H.; Ryans, Robert S. I.; Hyung, Siek

    2001-01-01

    Recent calculations of electron impact excitation rates and Einstein A-coefficients for transitions among the 3d6 levels of Fe III and among the 3d2 levels of Fe VII are used to derive theoretical emission line ratios applicable to the optical and infrared spectra of gaseous nebulae. Results for [Fe III] are generated for electron temperatures Te = 7,000–20,000 K and densities Ne = 102-108 cm−3, whereas those for [Fe VII] are provided for Te = 10,000–30,000 K and Ne = 102-108 cm−3. The theoretical line ratios are significantly different in some instances from earlier calculations and resolve discrepancies between theory and observation found for the planetary nebulae IC 4997 and NGC 7027. PMID:11493676

  1. EARLY RESULTS FROM THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: C III EMISSION LINES IN Of SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Sota, Alfredo; MaIz Apellaniz, Jesus; Alfaro, Emilio J.; Barba, Rodolfo H.; Arias, Julia I.; Gamen, Roberto C. E-mail: sota@iaa.es E-mail: emilio@iaa.es E-mail: rbarba@dfuls.cl E-mail: rgamen@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar

    2010-03-10

    On the basis of an extensive new spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, we introduce the Ofc category, which consists of normal spectra with C III {lambda}{lambda}4647-4650-4652 emission lines of comparable intensity to those of the Of defining lines N III {lambda}{lambda}4634-4640-4642. The former feature is strongly peaked to spectral type O5, at all luminosity classes, but preferentially in some associations or clusters and not others. The relationships of this phenomenon to the selective C III {lambda}5696 emission throughout the normal Of domain, and to the peculiar, variable Of?p category, for which strong C III {lambda}{lambda}4647-4650-4652 emission is a defining characteristic, are discussed. Magnetic fields have recently been detected on two members of the latter category. We also present two new extreme Of?p stars, NGC 1624-2 and CPD -28 deg. 2561, bringing the number known in the Galaxy to five. Modeling of the behavior of these spectral features can be expected to better define the physical parameters of both normal and peculiar objects, as well as the atomic physics involved.

  2. Wing on a String

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an activity that shows students how flight occurs. The "wing on a string" is a simple teacher-made frame that consists of PVC pipe, fishing line, and rubber bands--all readily available hardware store items. The only other materials/tools involved are a sheet of paper, some pieces of a soda straw, a stapler,…

  3. Scapular Winging

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Benjamin W. T.; Geoghegan, John M.; Wallace, W. Angus; Manning, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    This review explores the causes of scapula winging, with overview of the relevant anatomy, proposed aetiology and treatment. Particular focus is given to lesions of the long thoracic nerve, which is reported to be the most common aetiological factor. PMID:27582902

  4. Copernicus studies of interstellar material in the Perseus II complex. III - The line of sight to Zeta Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrophotometric data obtained with Copernicus are used to analyze the distribution, composition, density, temperature, and kinematics of the interstellar material along the line of sight to Zeta Persei. The far-UV extinction curve for the star is evaluated along with the kinematics of the interstellar gas, observations of atomic and molecular hydrogen, curves of growth for neutral and ionized species, atomic abundances and depletions, ionization equilibria, and observations of CO and OH lines. The results show that there are apparently three clouds along the line of sight to Zeta Persei: a main cloud at approximately +13 km/s which contains most of the material and forms all the neutral and molecular lines as well as most of the ionic lines, a second component at +22 km/s which must contribute to the strong UV lines of most ions, and a third component at roughly +2 km/s which gives rise to a strong Si III line at 1206 A. It is also found that the UV extinction curve has a somewhat steep far-UV rise, indicating the presence of a substantial number of small grains, and that about 30% of the hydrogen nuclei over the entire line of sight are in molecular form.

  5. Mechanism of inhibitory action of prostaglandins on the growth of human gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, A; Yamatani, T; Fujita, T; Chiba, T

    1991-10-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) play important roles in the regulation of various gastric functions. In this study, the effects of various PGs on the growth of the human gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III were investigated. All the PGs tested inhibited KATO III cell growth with a relative potency order of PGE2 greater than PGE1 greater than 17S,20-dimethyl-6-oxo PGE1-methyl ester (ornoprostil) greater than PGF2 alpha. This inhibition was accompanied by an increase of cyclic adenosine monophosphate production. Furthermore, in the presence of guanosine triphosphate, these PGs stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the plasma membrane of KATO III cells, followed by enhancement of membrane guanosine triphosphatase activity. The relative potencies of these PGs for increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, activating adenylate cyclase, and enhancing guanosine triphosphatase activity were all comparable to those for inhibiting cell growth. On the other hand, the proliferation of KATO III cells was also inhibited by forskolin as well as dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate, whereas none of the agents that did not increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels had any effect. These results suggest that PGs inhibit KATO III cell growth by stimulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate production via a guanosine triphosphate-dependent process, suggesting the involvement of guanosine triphosphate-binding stimulatory protein, probably coupled to PGE2 receptors, in the action of PGs. PMID:1653751

  6. Short-chain fatty acid modulation of apoptosis in the Kato III human gastric carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Geoffrey M; Howarth, Gordon S; Butler, Ross N

    2007-07-01

    The short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate is known to induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, however, its mode of action is poorly defined, whilst less is known regarding the effects of the SCFA propionate. This study investigated the potential for butyrate and propionate to alter cell viability, cell cycle regulation and intracellular protective mechanisms in a human gastric cancer cell line (Kato III). Kato III cells were incubated with butyrate or propionate for 24, 48 and 72 hr. At each time point, cells were assessed for the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle alterations using flow cytometry. Oxidative pentose pathway (OPP) activity and glutathione (GSH) availability were also measured as an index of intracellular protection. Butyrate and propionate differentially induced apoptosis and necrosis in Kato III cells and arrested cells in the G2-M phase. OPP activity was significantly increased by both SCFAs although butyrate induced a 10-fold greater increase than propionate. GSH availability was significantly decreased in Kato III cells by butyrate and propionate. These findings demonstrate that butyrate and propionate induce apoptosis and cell cycle alterations in Kato III gastric cancer cells. Moreover, the effects of butyrate were significantly greater than propionate. We propose that alterations to intracellular redox state and GSH availability play an important role in SCFA-mediated cell death in this cell type. The inclusion of butyrate and propionate as adjunctive cancer therapies has the potential to enhance the efficacy of current chemotherapeutics in the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:17611404

  7. Side population cells isolated from KATO III human gastric cancer cell line have cancer stem cell-like characteristics

    PubMed Central

    She, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Peng-Ge; Wang, Xuan; Che, Xiang-Ming; Wang, Zi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the side population (SP) cells possess cancer stem cell-like characteristics in vitro and the role of SP cells in tumorigenic process in gastric cancer. METHODS: We analyzed the presence of SP cells in different human gastric carcinoma cell lines, and then isolated and identified the SP cells from the KATO III human gastric cancer cell line by flow cytometry. The clonogenic ability and self-renewal were evaluated by clone and sphere formation assays. The related genes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. To compare tumorigenic ability, SP and non-side population (NSP) cells from the KATO III human gastric cancer cell line were subcutaneously injected into nude mice. RESULTS: SP cells from the total population accounted for 0.57% in KATO III, 1.04% in Hs-746T, and 0.02% in AGS (CRL-1739). SP cells could grow clonally and have self-renewal capability in conditioned media. The expression of ABCG2, MDRI, Bmi-1 and Oct-4 was different between SP and NSP cells. However, there was no apparent difference between SP and NSP cells when they were injected into nude mice. CONCLUSION: SP cells have some cancer stem cell-like characteristics in vitro and can be used for studying the tumorigenic process in gastric cancer. PMID:22969237

  8. Static Longitudinal Characteristics at High Subsonic Speeds of a Complete Airplane Model with a Highly Tapered Wing having the 0.80 Chord Line Unswept and with Several Tail Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodson, Kenneth W.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation was made at high subsonic speeds of a complete model having a highly tapered wing and several tail configurations. The basic aspect-ratio-4.00 wing had zero taper and an unswept 0.80 chord line. Several aspect-ratio modifications to the basic wing were made by clipping off portions of the wing tips. The complete model was tested with a chord-plane tail, a T-tail, and a biplane tail (combined T-tail and chord-plane tail). The model was tested in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.92. The data show that, when reduced to the same static margin, all the tail configurations tested on the model provided fairly good stability characteristics, the biplane tail giving the.best overall characteristics as regards pitching-moment linearity. Changes in static margin at zero lift coefficient with Mach number were small for the model with these tails over the Mach number range investigated.

  9. AST Composite Wing Program: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karal, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The Boeing Company demonstrated the application of stitched/resin infused (S/RFI) composite materials on commercial transport aircraft primary wing structures under the Advanced Subsonic technology (AST) Composite Wing contract. This report describes a weight trade study utilizing a wing torque box design applicable to a 220-passenger commercial aircraft and was used to verify the weight savings a S/RFI structure would offer compared to an identical aluminum wing box design. This trade study was performed in the AST Composite Wing program, and the overall weight savings are reported. Previous program work involved the design of a S/RFI-base-line wing box structural test component and its associated testing hardware. This detail structural design effort which is known as the "semi-span" in this report, was completed under a previous NASA contract. The full-scale wing design was based on a configuration for a MD-90-40X airplane, and the objective of this structural test component was to demonstrate the maturity of the S/RFI technology through the evaluation of a full-scale wing box/fuselage section structural test. However, scope reductions of the AST Composite Wing Program pre-vented the fabrication and evaluation of this wing box structure. Results obtained from the weight trade study, the full-scale test component design effort, fabrication, design development testing, and full-scale testing of the semi-span wing box are reported.

  10. Star formation in Chamaeleon I and III: a molecular line study of the starless core population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitali, A. E.; Belloche, A.; Garrod, R. T.; Parise, B.; Menten, K. M.

    2015-03-01

    Context. The Chamaeleon dark molecular clouds are excellent nearby targets for low-mass star formation studies. Even though they belong to the same cloud complex, Cha I and II are actively forming stars while Cha III shows no sign of ongoing star formation. Aims: We aim to determine the driving factors that have led to the very different levels of star formation activity in Cha I and III and examine the dynamical state and possible evolution of the starless cores within them. Methods: Observations were performed in various molecular transitions with the APEX and Mopra telescopes. We examine the kinematics of the starless cores in the clouds through a virial analysis, a search for contraction motions, and velocity gradients. The chemical differences in the two clouds are explored through their fractional molecular abundances, derived from a non-LTE analysis, and comparison to predictions of chemical models. Results: Five cores are gravitationally bound in Cha I and one in Cha III. The so-called infall signature indicating contraction motions is seen toward 8-17 cores in Cha I and 2-5 cores in Cha III, which leads to a range of 13-28% of the cores in Cha I and 10-25% of the cores in Cha III that are contracting and may become prestellar. There is no significant difference in the turbulence level in the two clouds. Future dynamical interactions between the cores will not be dynamically significant in either Cha I or III, but the subregion Cha I North may experience collisions between cores within ~0.7 Myr. Turbulence dissipation in the cores of both clouds is seen in the high-density tracers N2H+ 1-0 and HC3N 10-9 which have lower non-thermal velocity dispersions compared to C17O 2-1, C18O 2-1, and C34S 2-1. Evidence of depletion in the Cha I core interiors is seen in the abundance distributions of the latter three molecules. The median fractional abundance of C18O is lower in Cha III than Cha I by a factor of ~2. The median abundances of most molecules (except

  11. Exploring AGN-starburst coexistence in galaxies at z ˜ 0.8 using the [O III]4959+5007/[O III]4363 line ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, M.

    2016-09-01

    Using detailed modelling, we analyse the spectra observed from the sample galaxies at z ˜ 0.8 presented by Ly et al., constraining the models by the [O III]5007+4959/[O III]4363 line ratios. Composite models (shock + photoionization) are adopted. Shock velocities ≥100 km s-1 and pre-shock densities n0 ˜ 200 cm-3 characterize the gas surrounding the starburst (SB), while n0 are higher by a factor of 1.5-10 in the AGN emitting gas. SB effective temperatures are similar to those of quiescent galaxies (T* ˜ 4-7 × 104 K). Cloud geometrical thicknesses in the SB are ≤1016 cm, indicating major fragmentation, while in AGN they reach >10 pc. O/H are about solar for all the objects, except for a few AGN clouds with O/H = 0.3-0.5 solar. SB models reproduce most of the data within the observational errors. About half of the objects' spectra are well fitted by an accreting AGN. Some galaxies show multiple radiation sources, such as SB + AGN, or a double AGN.

  12. THE SDSS-III APOGEE SPECTRAL LINE LIST FOR H-BAND SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Shetrone, M.; Bizyaev, D.; Chojnowski, D.; Lawler, J. E.; Prieto, C. Allende; Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Souto, D.; Smith, V. V.; Cunha, K.; Holtzman, J.; Pérez, A. E. García; Sobeck, J.; Majewski, S.; Mészáros, Sz.; Koesterke, L.; Zasowski, G.

    2015-12-15

    We present the H-band spectral line lists adopted by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). The APOGEE line lists comprise astrophysical, theoretical, and laboratory sources from the literature, as well as newly evaluated astrophysical oscillator strengths and damping parameters. We discuss the construction of the APOGEE line list, which is one of the critical inputs for the APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline, and present three different versions that have been used at various stages of the project. The methodology for the newly calculated astrophysical line lists is reviewed. The largest of these three line lists contains 134,457 molecular and atomic transitions. In addition to the format adopted to store the data, the line lists are available in MOOG, Synspec, and Turbospectrum formats. The limitations of the line lists along with guidance for its use on different spectral types are discussed. We also present a list of H-band spectral features that are either poorly represented or completely missing in our line list. This list is based on the average of a large number of spectral fit residuals for APOGEE observations spanning a wide range of stellar parameters.

  13. Theoretical damping in roll and rolling moment due to differential wing incidence for slender cruciform wings and wing-body combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gaynor J; DUGAN DUANE W

    1952-01-01

    A method of analysis based on slender-wing theory is developed to investigate the characteristics in roll of slender cruciform wings and wing-body combinations. The method makes use of the conformal mapping processes of classical hydrodynamics which transform the region outside a circle and the region outside an arbitrary arrangement of line segments intersecting at the origin. The method of analysis may be utilized to solve other slender cruciform wing-body problems involving arbitrarily assigned boundary conditions. (author)

  14. Transition probability of the Si III 189.2-nm intersystem line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, H. S.; Johnson, B. C.; Smith, P. L.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement of the lifetime of the metastable 3s3p(3)P(0)1 level of Si(2+) (Si III), which decays by photon emission at 189.2 nm to the 3s2(1)S0 state, is reported. The data were taken from spontaneous emission from metastable Si III stored in an RF ion trap. The Si III ions were produced through electron bombardment of SiH4 and SiF4 at pressures of 1/100,000,000-1/10,000,000 Torr. A photomultiplier was employed to count the photon emissions from the transitions. A total of 11 decay curves were generated for analysis, with Poisson statistics used to set the uncertainties at within 8 pct. Significant systematic effects were controlled, and the lifetime was found to be within 3.6 microsec of 59.9 microsec. The method used is concluded valid for determining the lifetimes of metastable levels of low-Z ions with low charge, and thereby the transition probabilities.

  15. A flow method based on solvent extraction coupled on-line to a reversed micellar mediated chemiluminescence detection for selective determination of gold(III) and gallium(III) in water and industrial samples.

    PubMed

    Hasanin, Tamer H A; Okamoto, Yasuaki; Fujiwara, Terufumi

    2016-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive flow method, based on the combination of on-line solvent extraction with reversed micellar mediated chemiluminescence (CL) detection using rhodamine B (RB), was investigated for the selective determination of Au(III) and Ga(III) in aqueous solutions. 2.0 M HCl was the optimum for extracting Au(III) while a 5.0M HCl solution containing 2.5M LiCl was selected as an optimum acidic medium for extraction of Ga(III). The Au(III) and Ga(III) chloro-complex anions were extracted from the above aqueous acidic solutions into toluene as their ion-pair complexes with the protonated RBH(+) ion followed by membrane phase separation in a flow system. In a flow cell of a detector, the extract was mixed with the reversed micellar solution of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) in 1-hexanol-cyclohexane/water (1.0M HCl) containing 0.10 M cerium(IV) and 0.05 M lithium sulfate. Then uptake of the ion-pair by the CTAC reversed micelles and the subsequent CL oxidation of RB with Ce(IV) occurred easily and the CL signals produced were recorded. Using a flow injection system, a detection limit (DL) of 0.4 μM Au(III) and 0.6 μM Ga(III), and linear calibration graphs with dynamic ranges from the respective DLs to 10 μM for Au(III) and Ga(III) were obtained under the optimized experimental conditions. The relative standard deviations (n=6) obtained at 2.0 µM Au(III) and 4.0 µM Ga(III) were 3.0% and 2.4%, respectively. The presented CL methodology has been applied for the determination of Au(III) and Ga(III) in water and industrial samples with satisfactory results.

  16. [O III] emission line as a tracer of star-forming galaxies at high redshifts: comparison between Hα and [O III] emitters at z=2.23 in HiZELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T. L.; Kodama, T.; Sobral, D.; Khostovan, A. A.; Hayashi, M.; Shimakawa, R.; Koyama, Y.; Tadaki, K.-i.; Tanaka, I.; Minowa, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Smail, I.; Best, P. N.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the properties of z = 2.23 Hα and [O III] λ5007 emitters using the narrow-band-selected samples obtained from the High-z Emission Line Survey. We construct two samples of the Hα and [O III] emitters and compare their integrated physical properties. We find that the distribution of stellar masses, dust extinction, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs (sSFRs) is not statistically different between the two samples. When we separate the full galaxy sample into three subsamples according to the detections of the Hα and/or [O III] emission lines, most of the sources detected with both Hα and [O III] show log(sSFRUV) ≳ -9.5. The comparison of the three subsamples suggests that sources with strong [O III] line emission tend to have the highest star-forming activity out all galaxies that we study. We argue that the [O III] emission line can be used as a tracer of star-forming galaxies at high redshift, and that it is especially useful to investigate star-forming galaxies at z > 3, for which Hα emission is no longer observable from the ground.

  17. New detections of O III lines in the UV and visible ranges in the terrestrial upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witasse, O. G.; Slanger, T. G.; Thissen, R.

    2011-12-01

    Doubly-charged ions are peculiar atmospheric species interesting to study due to their exotic or unexpected photo-chemistry and their high reactivity. We focus here on the O++ doubly-charged ion, which was detected in the terrestrial atmosphere in 1967 by mass spectrometry. Its photochemistry has been characterized in a number of studies. Excited state fluorescence of this ion is well known, since its doublet centered around 500 nm has been used as a tracer of electron densities and temperatures in gaseous nebulae since the 1940's. O III emissions have been observed in the terrestrial atmosphere in the extreme ultraviolet region. We report here the new and unambiguous detection of two emission lines of O III at 495.8911 and 500.6843 nm, with the Ultraviolet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) mounted on UT2 of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The measurements were performed after sunset, October 30, 2003 during the so-called "Halloween" storm. The intensities of these emissions are ~70 mRayleigh, and ~260 mRayleigh, respectively. We discuss the possible methods of production of the ion. We also discuss the potential identification of O III emission near 166 nm in a spectrum acquired with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) telescope on the dayside, in December 1990. These emissions constitute a new diagnostic of the state of the ionosphere, with potentially interesting applications to Venus and Mars.

  18. Probing the atmosphere of the bulge G5III star OGLE-2002-BUL-069 by analysis of microlensed Hα line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassan, A.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Brillant, S.; Coutures, C.; Dominik, M.; Donatowicz, J.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Kubas, D.; Albrow, M. D.; Caldwell, J. A. R.; Fouqué, P.; Greenhill, J.; Hill, K.; Horne, K.; Kane, S.; Martin, R.; Menzies, J.; Pollard, K. R.; Sahu, K. C.; Vinter, C.; Wambsganss, J.; Watson, R.; Williams, A.; Fendt, C.; Hauschildt, P.; Heinmueller, J.; Marquette, J. B.; Thurl, C.

    2004-05-01

    We discuss high-resolution, time-resolved spectra of the caustic exit of the binary microlensing event OGLE 2002-BLG-069 obtained with UVES on the VLT. The source star is a G5III giant in the Galactic Bulge. During such events, the source star is highly magnified, and a strong differential magnification around the caustic resolves its surface. Using an appropriate model stellar atmosphere generated by the PHOENIX v2.6 code we obtain a model light curve for the caustic exit and compare it with a dense set of photometric observations obtained by the PLANET microlensing follow up network. We further compare predicted variations in the Hα equivalent width with those measured from our spectra. While the model and observations agree in the gross features, there are discrepancies suggesting shortcomings in the model, particularly for the Hα line core, where we have detected amplified emission from the stellar chromosphere after the source star's trailing limb exited the caustic. This achievement became possible by the provision of the very efficient OGLE-III Early Warning System, a network of small telescopes capable of nearly-continuous round-the-clock photometric monitoring, on-line data reduction, daily near-real-time modelling in order to predict caustic crossing parameters, and a fast and efficient response of a 8 m class telescope to a ``Target-of-Opportunity'' observation request. Based on observations made at ESO, 69.D-0261(A), 269.D-5042(A), 169.C-0510(A).

  19. The second spectrum of niobium: III. Evaluation of line isotope shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazza, Safa

    2013-03-01

    Using isotope shift values of only one Nb II line, we propose for the first time to predict isotope shifts of all spectral lines for this ion for any pair of isotopes. For this purpose, we had recourse to ab intio calculations to determine specific mass and field shifts of all relevant Nb II configuration averages, which are respectively proportional to the Vinti integral k-factor and the charge density at the nucleus, 4л|Ψ(o)|2. With the help of very accurate level eigenvectors of these configurations and using the sharing rule, we computed specific mass and field shifts of each level. Since a transition wavenumber is the difference between two energy levels, we then deduced line isotope shifts.

  20. Recombination line intensities for hydrogenic ions. III - Effects of finite optical depth and dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, D. G.; Storey, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect on the recombination spectrum of hydrogen arising from: (1) finite optical thickness in the Lyman lines; (2) the overlapping of Lyman lines near the series limit; (3) the absorption of Lyman lines by dust or photoionization, and (4) the long-wave radiation emitted by dust is examined. Full account is taken of electron and heavy particle collisions in redistributing energy and angular momentum. It is seen that each of these deviations from the classical Case B leads to observable effects, and that dust influences the recombination spectrum in characteristic ways that may make possible new observational constraints on dust properties in nebulosities. On the basis of these calculations it is believed that the uncertainty in the determination of the helium-to-hydrogen abundance ratio in the universe may be larger than currently claimed.

  1. Hydrodynamic models of a Cepheid atmosphere. III - Line spectrum and radius determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Line profiles are computed on the basis of the moving atmospheres from the hydrodynamic models investigated by Karp (1975). It is found that the velocity gradients in the atmosphere can be used to explain the apparent, slightly supersonic microturbulence. The total observed microturbulence is seen to be consistent with the linear sum of the classical microturbulence and that caused by the velocity gradients.

  2. Taste in chimpanzees. III: Labeled-line coding in sweet taste.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, G; Ninomiya, Y; Danilova, V

    1998-11-15

    In peripheral taste the coding mechanism remains an enigma. Among coding theories the "across-fiber pattern" argues that activity across fibers codes for taste, whereas the "labeled line" claims that activity in a particular set of fibers underlies a taste quality. We showed previously that chimpanzee chorda tympani taste fibers grouped according to human taste qualities into an S-cluster, responding predominantly to sweet stimuli, a Q-cluster, sensitive to bitter tastants, and an N-cluster, stimulated by salts. The analysis showed that information in the S-line suffices to distinguish stimuli of one taste quality from the others. However, one condition for the labeled line remained: that blockage of activity in a particular line must cause blockage of one taste quality, but of no other, or its onset give rise to the sensation of a taste quality. Here we studied this requirement with gymnemic acids and miraculin. In humans and chimpanzees, gymnemic acids suppress the sweet taste of all sweeteners whereas miraculin adds a sweet taste quality to sour stimuli. Gymnemic acids also abolish miraculin-induced sweet taste. We found that gymnemic acids practically abolished the response to every sweetener in the chimpanzee S-cluster. Equally important, they had no effect on the responses of the Q- and N-clusters. After miraculin, the S-cluster fibers responded to acids as well as to sweeteners, although they had not responded to acids before miraculin. Gymnemic acids abolished this miraculin-induced response to acids and responses to sweeteners in the S-fibers. These results link the sweet taste quality to activity in fibers of the S-cluster. Thus the S-cluster fibers satisfy the definition of the labeled-line theory: "that activity in a particular fiber type represents a specific taste quality." PMID:9855466

  3. RED SUPERGIANT STARS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES. III. NLTE EFFECTS IN J-BAND MAGNESIUM LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bergemann, Maria; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zach; Davies, Ben; Plez, Bertrand E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: bdavies@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2015-05-10

    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) calculations for Mg i in red supergiant stellar atmospheres are presented to investigate the importance of NLTE for the formation of Mg i lines in the NIR J-band. Recent work using medium resolution spectroscopy of atomic lines in the J-band of individual red supergiant stars has demonstrated this technique is a very promising tool for investigating the chemical composition of the young stellar population in star forming galaxies. As in previous work, where NLTE effects were studied for iron, titanium, and silicon, substantial effects are found resulting in significantly stronger Mg i absorption lines. For the quantitative spectral analysis the NLTE effects lead to magnesium abundances significantly smaller than in local thermodynamic equilibrium with the NLTE abundance corrections varying smoothly between −0.4 dex and −0.1 dex for effective temperatures between 3400 and 4400 K. We discuss the physical reasons of the NLTE effects and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies using individual red supergiants in the young massive galactic double cluster h and χ Persei.

  4. Design, fabrication, and characterization of multifunctional wings to harvest solar energy in flapping wing air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Rosado, Ariel; Gehlhar, Rachel D.; Nolen, Savannah; Gupta, Satyandra K.; Bruck, Hugh A.

    2015-06-01

    Currently, flapping wing unmanned aerial vehicles (a.k.a., ornithopters or robotic birds) sustain very short duration flight due to limited on-board energy storage capacity. Therefore, energy harvesting elements, such as flexible solar cells, need to be used as materials in critical components, such as wing structures, to increase operational performance. In this paper, we describe a layered fabrication method that was developed for realizing multifunctional composite wings for a unique robotic bird we developed, known as Robo Raven, by creating compliant wing structure from flexible solar cells. The deformed wing shape and aerodynamic lift/thrust loads were characterized throughout the flapping cycle to understand wing mechanics. A multifunctional performance analysis was developed to understand how integration of solar cells into the wings influences flight performance under two different operating conditions: (1) directly powering wings to increase operation time, and (2) recharging batteries to eliminate need for external charging sources. The experimental data is then used in the analysis to identify a performance index for assessing benefits of multifunctional compliant wing structures. The resulting platform, Robo Raven III, was the first demonstration of a robotic bird that flew using energy harvested from solar cells. We developed three different versions of the wing design to validate the multifunctional performance analysis. It was also determined that residual thrust correlated to shear deformation of the wing induced by torsional twist, while biaxial strain related to change in aerodynamic shape correlated to lift. It was also found that shear deformation of the solar cells induced changes in power output directly correlating to thrust generation associated with torsional deformation. Thus, it was determined that multifunctional solar cell wings may be capable of three functions: (1) lightweight and flexible structure to generate aerodynamic forces, (2

  5. A DEEP CHANDRA ACIS STUDY OF NGC 4151. III. THE LINE EMISSION AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF THE IONIZATION CONE

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Junfeng; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin; Risaliti, Guido; Karovska, Margarita; Zezas, Andreas; Mundell, Carole G.; Dumas, Gaelle; Schinnerer, Eva

    2011-11-20

    This paper is the third in a series in which we present deep Chandra ACIS-S imaging spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151, devoted to study its complex circumnuclear X-ray emission. Emission features in the soft X-ray spectrum of the bright extended emission (L{sub 0.3-2{sub keV}} {approx} 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}) at r > 130 pc (2'') are consistent with blended brighter O VII, O VIII, and Ne IX lines seen in the Chandra HETGS and XMM-Newton RGS spectra below 2 keV. We construct emission line images of these features and find good morphological correlations with the narrow-line region clouds mapped in [O III] {lambda}5007. Self-consistent photoionization models provide good descriptions of the spectra of the large-scale emission, as well as resolved structures, supporting the dominant role of nuclear photoionization, although displacement of optical and X-ray features implies a more complex medium. Collisionally ionized emission is estimated to be {approx}<12% of the extended emission. Presence of both low- and high-ionization spectral components and extended emission in the X-ray image perpendicular to the bicone indicates leakage of nuclear ionization, likely filtered through warm absorbers, instead of being blocked by a continuous obscuring torus. The ratios of [O III]/soft X-ray flux are approximately constant ({approx}15) for the 1.5 kpc radius spanned by these measurements, indicating similar relative contributions from the low- and high-ionization gas phases at different radial distances from the nucleus. If the [O III] and X-ray emission arise from a single photoionized medium, this further implies an outflow with a wind-like density profile. Using spatially resolved X-ray features, we estimate that the mass outflow rate in NGC 4151 is {approx}2 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} at 130 pc and the kinematic power of the ionized outflow is 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}, approximately 0.3% of the bolometric luminosity of the active nucleus in

  6. Bioeconomic evaluation of embryo transfer in beef production systems: III. Embryo lines for producing bulls.

    PubMed

    Ruvuna, F; Taylor, J F; Walter, J P; Turner, J W; Thallman, R M

    1992-04-01

    A model was developed for the economic evaluation of embryos for producing bull lines for use in commercial beef production. The fundamental concept underlying the model is that a cloned and sexed embryo of known genetic characteristics for beef traits is used to produce a bull. After reaching physiological maturity, the bull is used in natural matings. Equations relating feed energy requirements and growth rates based on NRC requirements and costs and returns discounted to present value allow investigation of expected economic merits of progeny from different embryo bull lines. The model has the flexibility to determine optimal embryo characteristics for different production environments. Model sensitivity to variation in progeny sex ratios, growth rates, yield and quality grades, and herd fertility characteristics was examined. Net present values (NPV) per embryo transferred were determined at the optimal marketing age of progeny produced from mating the bull to 30 cows per year for 5 yr. Relative to the lowest NPV of $18,209 for progeny with an expected quality grade of Select and yield grade of 4 at 400 d, increments in NPV ranged from $329 to $22,708 depending on differences in expected progeny carcass grade characteristics. The difference between NPV for 100% male and 40% male sex ratios was $7,518. The NPV differences between progeny growth rates of 1.6 and .9 kg/d holding herd conception rate constant at .9 and .5 were $8,311 and $4,611, respectively. The model evaluates relative economic values of embryo lines for producing bulls, accommodating interactions among progeny characteristics, and environments.

  7. Understanding star formation in molecular clouds. III. Probability distribution functions of molecular lines in Cygnus X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Ossenkopf, V.; Klessen, R. S.; Simon, R.; Fechtenbaum, S.; Herpin, F.; Tremblin, P.; Csengeri, T.; Myers, P. C.; Hill, T.; Cunningham, M.; Federrath, C.

    2016-03-01

    The probability distribution function of column density (N-PDF) serves as a powerful tool to characterise the various physical processes that influence the structure of molecular clouds. Studies that use extinction maps or H2 column-density maps (N) that are derived from dust show that star-forming clouds can best be characterised by lognormal PDFs for the lower N range and a power-law tail for higher N, which is commonly attributed to turbulence and self-gravity and/or pressure, respectively. While PDFs from dust cover a large dynamic range (typically N ~ 1020-24 cm-2 or Av~ 0.1-1000), PDFs obtained from molecular lines - converted into H2 column density - potentially trace more selectively different regimes of (column) densities and temperatures. They also enable us to distinguish different clouds along the line of sight through using the velocity information. We report here on PDFs that were obtained from observations of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, CS, and N2H+ in the Cygnus X North region, and make a comparison to a PDF that was derived from dust observations with the Herschel satellite. The PDF of 12CO is lognormal for Av ~ 1-30, but is cut for higher Av because of optical depth effects. The PDFs of C18O and 13CO are mostly lognormal up to Av ~ 1-15, followed by excess up to Av ~ 40. Above that value, all CO PDFs drop, which is most likely due to depletion. The high density tracers CS and N2H+ exhibit only a power law distribution between Av ~ 15 and 400, respectively. The PDF from dust is lognormal for Av ~ 3-15 and has a power-law tail up to Av ~ 500. Absolute values for the molecular line column densities are, however, rather uncertain because of abundance and excitation temperature variations. If we take the dust PDF at face value, we "calibrate" the molecular line PDF of CS to that of the dust and determine an abundance [CS]/[H2] of 10-9. The slopes of the power-law tails of the CS, N2H+, and dust PDFs are -1.6, -1.4, and -2.3, respectively, and are thus consistent

  8. Hydrodynamic Models of Line-Driven Accretion Disk Winds III: Local Ionization Equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereyra, Nicolas Antonio; Kallman, Timothy R.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present time-dependent numerical hydrodynamic models of line-driven accretion disk winds in cataclysmic variable systems and calculate wind mass-loss rates and terminal velocities. The models are 2.5-dimensional, include an energy balance condition with radiative heating and cooling processes, and includes local ionization equilibrium introducing time dependence and spatial dependence on the line radiation force parameters. The radiation field is assumed to originate in an optically thick accretion disk. Wind ion populations are calculated under the assumption that local ionization equilibrium is determined by photoionization and radiative recombination, similar to a photoionized nebula. We find a steady wind flowing from the accretion disk. Radiative heating tends to maintain the temperature in the higher density wind regions near the disk surface, rather than cooling adiabatically. For a disk luminosity L (sub disk) = solar luminosity, white dwarf mass M(sub wd) = 0.6 solar mass, and white dwarf radii R(sub wd) = 0.01 solar radius, we obtain a wind mass-loss rate of M(sub wind) = 4 x 10(exp -12) solar mass yr(exp -1) and a terminal velocity of approximately 3000 km per second. These results confirm the general velocity and density structures found in our earlier constant ionization equilibrium adiabatic CV wind models. Further we establish here 2.5D numerical models that can be extended to QSO/AGN winds where the local ionization equilibrium will play a crucial role in the overall dynamics.

  9. Kosmoljot - Soviet wings into space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrowman, G. L.

    1982-02-01

    Possible configurations for a Soviet Shuttle-style vehicle, called the Kosmoljot, are discussed, along with possible developmental lines for lifting body craft. The Kosmoljot is suggested to be a delta-wing vehicle with a 7.2 m wingspan and 10.6 m long, weighing 15,000 lb. The craft would be able to change course by using retrorockets to enter the fringes of the atmosphere, maneuver aerodynamically, then boost back into orbit. Similar tactics were investigated by Northrop in the mid-1960's and were called a synergetic plane change. Concomitant plans for reusable or even lifting-body boosters are discussed, with mention made of the Rogallo wing for the short flight back to base. Soviet statements are quoted as confirming the development of a piggy-back dual-delta wing Kosmoljot for a fully recoverable system, and the economic advantages of multiple use systems are stressed.

  10. Morphological changes in a human scirrhous gastric carcinoma cell line (KATO-III) when cultured in collagen-coated dishes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, R; Tatsuta, M; Nakamura, H; Matsusaka, T; Terada, N; Tamura, H

    1988-01-01

    The morphological differences between cells of a human scirrhous gastric carcinoma cell line (KATO-III) cultured in plastic dishes and in collagen-coated dishes were examined by phase-contrast and electron microscopy. When KATO-III cells were inoculated into plastic dishes, a few cells became attached to the surface of the dishes and the rest remained in suspension. However, when they were inoculated into collagen-coated dishes, they all remained in suspension. In both types of dish, most of the cells in suspension were single although a few were in clusters. The cells in suspension in collagen-coated dishes differed in morphology from those in the plastic dishes. They had abundant cytoplasm, well-developed Golgi complexes, and many microvillus-like cell protrusions. Moreover, they had hemidesmosome-like and desmosome-like structures on their surface and an increased amount of intracytoplasmic desmosome-like structures. The cells in clusters in the collagen-coated dishes were closely connected by junctional complexes, such as tight junctions, desmosomes and interdigitations, whereas those in plastic dishes were linked only by desmosomes. These results suggest that collagen affects the morphology of human scirrhous carcinoma cells. PMID:2900577

  11. Measurement of the transition probability of the C III 190.9 nanometer intersystem line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, Victor H. S.; Fang, Z.; Gibbons, T. T.; Parkinson, W. H.; Smith, Peter L.

    1993-01-01

    A radio-frequency ion trap has been used to store C(2+) ions created by electron bombardment of CO. The transition probability for the 2s2p 3Po1-2s2 1S0 intersystem line of C m has been measured by recording the radiative decay at 190.9 nm. The measured A-value is 121 +/- 7/s and agrees, within mutual uncertainty limits, with that of Laughlin et al. (1978), but is 20 percent larger than that of Nussbaumer and Storey (1978). The effective collision mixing rate coefficient among the fine structure levels of 3Po and the combined quenching and charge transfer rate coefficients out of the 3Po1 level with the CO source gas have also been measured.

  12. Inflatable wing

    SciTech Connect

    Priddy, T.G.

    1988-02-16

    An inflatable aerodynamic wing structure is described comprising: (a) an airfoil having at least two air-tight inflatable tubular enclosure means made of a first flexible material and extending along a spanwise axis; (b) top and bottom reinforcement member means made of a second stiff fabric material and connecting at least two air-tight inflatable tubular enclosure means together for transfer of inflation pressure-induced tensile stress from the enclosure means to the top and bottom reinforcement member means; (c) rigid hoops shaped to provide airfoil definition and spaced from each other along the spanwise axis and extending generally perpendicular thereto, the air-tight inflatable tubular enclosure means extending through the airfoil definition hoops and fastened thereto through the top and bottom reinforcement member means, the rigid hoops collapsing into each other for stacked stowage upon deflation of the enclosure means; and (d) means for forming an airfoil outer surface, made of a third thin, flexible and collapsible material, about substantially the entire tubular enclosure means and the top and bottom reinforcement member means, such that the area of a cross-section of the tubular enclosure means is much smaller than the area of a cross-section of the airfoil outer surface.

  13. A LABORATORY log(gf) MEASUREMENT OF THE Ti II 15873.84 Å H-BAND LINE IN SUPPORT OF SDSS-III APOGEE

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Shetrone, M. D. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu

    2014-06-01

    The SDSS-III APOGEE collaboration has identified a single useable line in the H-band spectra of APOGEE target stars arising from a singly ionized species. This line of Ti II (λ{sub air} = 15873.84 Å) is therefore of great importance for use in stellar surface gravity, or log(g), determinations via the Saha equation. While a theoretical estimate of the line strength exists, to date no laboratory measurement of the line strength has been reported. Herein we report an absolute laboratory transition probability measurement for this important Ti II line. A relative line strength measurement is made of the Ti II H-band line of interest and a reference line with a previously reported absolute transition probability. This ratio is measured using multiple spectra of a high-current water-cooled HC lamp recorded with a calibrated FT-IR spectrometer.

  14. On-line determination of Sb(III) and total Sb using baker's yeast immobilized on polyurethane foam and hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegário, Amauri A.; Silva, Ariovaldo José; Pozzi, Eloísa; Durrant, Steven F.; Abreu, Cassio H.

    2006-09-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was immobilized in cubes of polyurethane foam and the ability of this immobilized material to separate Sb(III) and Sb(V) was investigated. A method based on sequential determination of total Sb (after on-line reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) with thiourea) and Sb(III) (after on-line solid-liquid phase extraction) by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry is proposed. A flow system assembled with solenoid valves was used to manage all stages of the process. The effects of pH, sample loading and elution flow rates on solid-liquid phase extraction of Sb(III) were evaluated. Also, the parameters related to on-line pre-reduction (reaction coil and flow rates) were optimized. Detection limits of 0.8 and 0.15 μg L - 1 were obtained for total Sb and Sb(III), respectively. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of river water and effluent samples. The results obtained for the determination of total Sb were in agreement with expected values, including the river water Standard Reference Material 1640 certified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Recoveries of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in spiked samples were between 81 ± 19 and 111 ±15% when 120 s of sample loading were used.

  15. GALAXY CLUSTERS IN THE LINE OF SIGHT TO BACKGROUND QUASARS. III. MULTI-OBJECT SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, H.; Barrientos, L. F.; Padilla, N.; Lacerna, I.; Lopez, S.; Lira, P.; Maureira, M. J.; Gilbank, D. G.; Ellingson, E.; Gladders, M. D.; Yee, H. K. C.

    2013-09-01

    We present Gemini/GMOS-S multi-object spectroscopy of 31 galaxy cluster candidates at redshifts between 0.2 and 1.0 and centered on QSO sight lines taken from Lopez et al. The targets were selected based on the presence of an intervening Mg II absorption system at a similar redshift to that of a galaxy cluster candidate lying at a projected distance <2 h{sub 71}{sup -1} Mpc from the QSO sight line (a {sup p}hotometric hit{sup )}. The absorption systems span rest-frame equivalent widths between 0.015 and 2.028 A. Our aim was three-fold: (1) to identify the absorbing galaxies and determine their impact parameters, (2) to confirm the galaxy cluster candidates in the vicinity of each quasar sightline, and (3) to determine whether the absorbing galaxies reside in galaxy clusters. In this way, we are able to characterize the absorption systems associated with cluster members. Our main findings are as follows. (1) We identified 10 out of 24 absorbing galaxies with redshifts between 0.2509 {<=} z{sub gal} {<=} 1.0955, up to an impact parameter of 142 h{sub 71}{sup -1} kpc and a maximum velocity difference of 280 km s{sup -1}. (2) We spectroscopically confirmed 20 out of 31 cluster/group candidates, with most of the confirmed clusters/groups at z < 0.7. This relatively low efficiency results from the fact that we centered our observations on the QSO location, and thus occasionally some of the cluster centers were outside the instrument field of view. (3) Following from the results above, we spectroscopically confirmed of 10 out of 14 photometric hits within {approx}650 km s{sup -1} from galaxy clusters/groups, in addition to two new ones related to galaxy group environments. These numbers imply efficiencies of 71% in finding such systems with MOS spectroscopy. This is a remarkable result since we defined a photometric hit as those cluster-absorber pairs having a redshift difference {Delta}z = 0.1. The general population of our confirmed absorbing galaxies have luminosities

  16. View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5) and rear elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5) and rear elevations of facade and tis flaking wings (Wings 1 and 2) - Hospital for Sick Children, 1731 Bunker Hill Road, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Galaxy Clusters in the Line of Sight to Background Quasars. III. Multi-object Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, H.; Barrientos, L. F.; López, S.; Lira, P.; Padilla, N.; Gilbank, D. G.; Lacerna, I.; Maureira, M. J.; Ellingson, E.; Gladders, M. D.; Yee, H. K. C.

    2013-09-01

    We present Gemini/GMOS-S multi-object spectroscopy of 31 galaxy cluster candidates at redshifts between 0.2 and 1.0 and centered on QSO sight lines taken from López et al. The targets were selected based on the presence of an intervening Mg II absorption system at a similar redshift to that of a galaxy cluster candidate lying at a projected distance <2 h_{71}^{-1} Mpc from the QSO sight line (a "photometric hit"). The absorption systems span rest-frame equivalent widths between 0.015 and 2.028 Å. Our aim was three-fold: (1) to identify the absorbing galaxies and determine their impact parameters, (2) to confirm the galaxy cluster candidates in the vicinity of each quasar sightline, and (3) to determine whether the absorbing galaxies reside in galaxy clusters. In this way, we are able to characterize the absorption systems associated with cluster members. Our main findings are as follows. (1) We identified 10 out of 24 absorbing galaxies with redshifts between 0.2509 <= z gal <= 1.0955, up to an impact parameter of 142\\ h_{71}^{-1} kpc and a maximum velocity difference of 280 km s-1. (2) We spectroscopically confirmed 20 out of 31 cluster/group candidates, with most of the confirmed clusters/groups at z < 0.7. This relatively low efficiency results from the fact that we centered our observations on the QSO location, and thus occasionally some of the cluster centers were outside the instrument field of view. (3) Following from the results above, we spectroscopically confirmed of 10 out of 14 photometric hits within ~650 km s-1 from galaxy clusters/groups, in addition to two new ones related to galaxy group environments. These numbers imply efficiencies of 71% in finding such systems with MOS spectroscopy. This is a remarkable result since we defined a photometric hit as those cluster-absorber pairs having a redshift difference Δz = 0.1. The general population of our confirmed absorbing galaxies have luminosities L_{B} \\sim L_{B}^{\\ast } and mean rest

  18. View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5), west wall of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5), west wall of the North Wing (Wing 2) and rear elevations of the facade and its flanking wings (Wings 1 and 2) - Hospital for Sick Children, 1731 Bunker Hill Road, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C.-H.; Lan, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Wing rock is one type of lateral-directional instabilities at high angles of attack. To predict wing rock characteristics and to design airplanes to avoid wing rock, parameters affecting wing rock characteristics must be known. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model is developed to investigate the main aerodynamic nonlinearities causing wing rock. In the present theory, the Beecham-Titchener asymptotic method is used to derive expressions for the limit-cycle amplitude and frequency of wing rock from nonlinear flight dynamics equations. The resulting expressions are capable of explaining the existence of wing rock for all types of aircraft. Wing rock is developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  20. The oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, H G; Schwartz, I

    1941-01-01

    The two-dimensional problem of the oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator is treated in the manner that the wing is replaced by a plate with bends and stages and the airfoil section by a mean line consisting of one or more straights. The computed formulas and tables permit, on these premises, the prediction of the pressure distribution and of the aerodynamic reactions of oscillating elevators and tabs with any position of elevator hinge in respect to elevator leading edge.

  1. LANN wing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firth, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    The LANN wing is the result of a joint effort between Lockheed, the Air Force, NASA, and the Netherlands to measure unsteady pressures at transonic speeds. It is a moderate-aspect-ratio transport wing configuration. The wing was machined from NITRONIC 40 and has 12 percent thick supercritical airfoil sections.

  2. Virilization of the Broad Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei—connection between shifts and widths of broad emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonić, S.; Kovačević-Dojčinović, J.; Ilić, D.; Popović, L. Č.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the virilization of the emission lines {Hβ } and Mg II in the sample of 287 Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database. We explore the connections between the intrinsic line shifts and full widths at different levels of maximal intensity. We found that: (i) {Hβ} seems to be a good virial estimator of black hole masses, and an intrinsic redshift of {Hβ} is dominantly caused by the gravitational effect, (ii) there is an anti-correlation between the redshift and width of the wings of the Mg II line, (iii) the broad Mg II line can be used as virial estimator only at 50 % of the maximal intensity, while the widths and intrinsic shifts of the line wings cannot be used for this purpose.

  3. Theoretical Stark widths and shifts of spectral lines of 2p5nf and 2p55g configurations of Mg III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Díaz, Cristina; Alonso-Medina, Aurelia; Colón, Cristóbal

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we report theoretical Stark widths and shifts calculated using the Griem semi-empirical approach, which corresponds to 111 spectral lines of Mg III. The values of these Stark broadening parameters of spectral lines that arise from levels of 2p5nf and 2p55g configurations of Mg III are presented in the literature for the first time. The aim of this work is to provide values to estimate the electron density of plasma Mg III in astrophysics and industrial applications. The data are presented for the temperatures T = 0.5-10.0 (104 K) and for an electron density of 1017 cm-3. The matrix of elements used in these calculations has been determined from 23 configurations of Mg III: 2s22p6, 2s22p53p, 2s22p54p, 2s22p54f and 2s22p55f for the even parity and 2s22p5ns (n = 3-6), 2s22p5nd (n = 3-9), 2s22p55g and 2s2p6np (n = 3-8) for the odd parity. For the intermediate coupling calculations, we use the standard method of least square fitting from experimental energy levels by means of Cowan’s computer code. Lines with wavelengths of 134.6460, 135.2800, 189.0380, 190.0043, 192.8424, 408.2939 and 409.4375 nm have high probabilities and also have high values of broadening. Therefore, these lines can be used in some applications. A common regularity for the Stark width of the 189.038 nm spectral line of Mg III is discussed.

  4. Observations of far-infrared fine structure lines: o III88.35 micrometer and oI 63.2 micrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, J. W. V.; Watson, D. M.; Townes, C. H.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of the O III 88.35 micrometer line and the O I63.2 micrometer were made with a far infrared spectrometer. The sources M17, NGC 7538, and W51 were mapped in the O III line with 1 arc minute resolution and the emission is found to be quite widespread. In all cases the peak of the emission coincides with the maximum radio continuum. The far infrared continuum was mapped simultaneously and in M17, NGC 7538, and W51 the continuum peak is found to be distinct from the center of ionization. The O III line was also detected in W3, W49, and in a number of positions in the Orion nebula. Upper limits were obtained on NGS 7027, NGC 6572, DR21, G29.9-0.0 and M82. The 63.2 micrometer O I line was detected in M17, M42, and marginally in DR21. A partial map of M42 in this line shows that most of the emission observed arises from the Trapezium and from the bright optical bar to the southeast.

  5. Isophotes of a field in the Cygnus loop photographed in the (O III) and (N II)+H. cap alpha. lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sitnik, T.G.; Toropova, M.S.

    1982-11-01

    From interference-filter image-tube photographs of a 9' field in the western part of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, taken in the lambda5007 (O III) and lambdalambda 6584, 6563 (N II) + H..cap alpha.. lines, sets of isophotes are derived by an equidensitometry technique based on the Sabattier effect. The emission regions in these lines exhibit a relative displacement, interpreted as evidence for radiative cooling of the gas behind the shock generated in the supernova outburst. An explanation is offered for the differing morphology of the nebular filaments in the (O III) and (N II) + H..cap alpha.. lines. The anomalously high I/sub Otsi/II/I/sub H/..beta.. intensity ratio may reflect a spatial separation of the corresponding emission zones.

  6. Flapping of Insectile Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yangyang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. Yet the effects of muscle stiffness on the performance of insect wings remain unclear. Here, we construct an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring and submerged in an oscillatory flow. The wing system is free to rotate and flap. We first explore the extent to which the flyer can withstand roll perturbations, then study its flapping behavior and performance as a function of spring stiffness. We find an optimal range of spring stiffness that results in large flapping amplitudes, high force generation and good storage of elastic energy. We conclude by conjecturing that insects may select and adjust the muscle spring stiffness to achieve desired movement. These findings may have significant implications on the design principles of wings in micro air-vehicles.

  7. The BOSS Emission-line Lens Survey. III. Strong Lensing of Lyα Emitters by Individual Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yiping; Bolton, Adam S.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Oguri, Masamune; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Zheng, Zheng; Mao, Shude; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Marques-Chaves, Rui; Ménard, Brice

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Emission-Line Lens Survey GALaxy-Lyα EmitteR sYstems (BELLS GALLERY) Survey, which is a Hubble Space Telescope program to image a sample of galaxy-scale strong gravitational lens candidate systems with high-redshift Lyα emitters (LAEs) as the background sources. The goal of the BELLS GALLERY Survey is to illuminate dark substructures in galaxy-scale halos by exploiting the small-scale clumpiness of rest-frame far-UV emission in lensed LAEs, and to thereby constrain the slope and normalization of the substructure-mass function. In this paper, we describe in detail the spectroscopic strong-lens selection technique, which is based on methods adopted in the previous Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey, BELLS, and SLACS for the Masses Survey. We present the BELLS GALLERY sample of the 21 highest-quality galaxy-LAE candidates selected from ≈ 1.4× {10}6 galaxy spectra in the BOSS of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. These systems consist of massive galaxies at redshifts of approximately 0.5 strongly lensing LAEs at redshifts from 2-3. The compact nature of LAEs makes them an ideal probe of dark substructures, with a substructure-mass sensitivity that is unprecedented in other optical strong-lens samples. The magnification effect from lensing will also reveal the structure of LAEs below 100 pc scales, providing a detailed look at the sites of the most concentrated unobscured star formation in the universe. The source code used for candidate selection is available for download as a part of this release.

  8. FIFI-LS Imaging of [O III] Line Emission in the Nucleus and Spiral Arm of M83: Tracing the Stellar Radiation FIelds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    We propose to map the [O III] 52 um (two spatial positions) and 88 um (one spatial position) line emission from the nucleus and SW bar/spiral arm interface region of M83. These data will be used together with publically available [O III] 88 um, [N III] 57 um, and [N II] 122 um line emission observed with Herschel/PACS in the same positions to constrain the ionized gas density, the hardness of the stellar radiation fields (hence most massive star on the Main Sequence), and the O/N ratio (which reflects the numbers of cycles for stellar processing). We will also take advantage of the [O I] 63 um, [O I] 146 um, and [C II] 158 um line mapping available in the Herschel archives to complete a far-IR line study of these regions. The combined data sets trace the strength of the FUV (6 - 13.6 eV) radiation field, the numbers of ionizing photons, and the radiation field hardness allowing us to characterize the stellar populations in this nearby grand design spiral galaxy and make a robust measure of the O/N ratio at the nucleus and spiral arm 2.2 kpc away. The FIFI-LS [OIII] 52 um line provides the gas-density probe that is the lynch-pin for our technique. These measurements will provide a local benchmark for our line-ratio techniques that can be applied to fine-structure line studies of high-z galaxies where it is expected that stellar radiation fields will be harder, and the O/N ratio will be larger in the lowest metalicity galaxies. Therefore, the proposed observations are of fundamental importance for the understanding of the evolution of star formation over cosmic time.

  9. Prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha inhibit growth of human gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III with simultaneous stimulation of cyclic AMP production.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, A; Chiba, T; Yamatani, T; Yamaguchi, A; Inui, T; Morishita, T; Kadowaki, S; Fujita, T

    1989-01-01

    The effects of prostaglandins (PGs) on the growth of human gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III were investigated. PGE2 as well as PGF2 alpha significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the growth of this gastric carcinoma cell line (PGE2 greater than PGF2 alpha). This inhibition of cell growth by the PGs was associated with the increase in cyclic AMP production (PGE2 greater than PGF2 alpha), whereas inositol-phospholipid turnover was not affected by either PGE2 or PGF2 alpha as assessed by the formation of 3H-inositol phosphates. Furthermore, the proliferation of these gastric carcinoma cells was also suppressed by the administration of forskolin as well as of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. These results suggest that PGE2 and PGF2 alpha inhibit the growth of cultured human gastric carcinoma cells KATO III via stimulation of cyclic AMP production. PMID:2536452

  10. A Relation between the Mid-Infrared [Ne v] 14.3 Micrometers and [Ne III] 15.6 Micrometer Lines in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorjian, V.; Cleary, K.; Werner, M. W.; Lawrence, C. R.

    2007-01-01

    We present a strong correlation between the [Ne v] 14.3 mm and [Ne III] 15.6 mm emission lines arising from the narrow-line regions (NLRs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), spanning 4 orders of magnitude in luminosity. The data are compiled primarily from Spitzer Space Telescope observations of nearby Seyfert galaxies (median z p 0.01) and 3C radio sources (median z p 0.52). This correlation is consistent with earlier studies in the optical/UV bands showing that line ratios arising in the NLRs are remarkably constant across AGNs. We also show that the correlation allows only a very narrow range in ionization parameter for simple photoionization models. The observed correlation will place tight constraints on alternative models, which predict constant line ratios over a broader range in ionization parameter.

  11. Optimum hovering wing planform.

    PubMed

    Nabawy, Mostafa R A; Crowther, William J

    2016-10-01

    Theoretical analysis is used to identify the optimum wing planform of a flapping/revolving wing in hover. This solution is of interest as a benchmark to which hovering wing geometries driven by broader multidisciplinary evolutionary or engineering constraints can be compared. Furthermore, useful insights into the aerodynamic performance of untwisted hovering wings are delivered. It is shown that profile power is minimised by using an untwisted elliptical planform whereas induced power is minimised by a more highly tapered planform similar to that of a hummingbird. PMID:27329340

  12. Propeller/wing interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, David P.; Johnston, Robert T.; Sullivan, John P.

    1989-01-01

    The present experimental investigation of the steady-state and unsteady-state effects due to the interaction between a tractor propeller's wake and a wing employs, in the steady case, wind tunnel measurements at low subsonic speed; results are obtained which demonstrate wing performance response to variations in configuration geometry. Other steady-state results involve the propeller-hub lift and side-force due to the wing's influence on the propeller. The unsteady effects of interaction were studied through flow visualization of propeller-tip vortex distortion over a wing, again using a tractor-propeller configuration.

  13. The dependence of C IV broad absorption line properties on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption: relating quasar-wind ionization levels, kinematics, and column densities

    SciTech Connect

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Trump, J. R.; Hall, P. B.; Anderson, S. F.; Hamann, F.; Myers, Adam D.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2014-08-20

    We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line of sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for C IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines of sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C IV BALs with no accompanying Si IV or Al III BALs may have only mild or no saturation.

  14. Aerodynamics of wings at low Reynolds numbers: Boundary layer separation and reattachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArthur, John

    Due to advances in electronics technology, it is now possible to build small scale flying and swimming vehicles. These vehicles will have size and velocity scales similar to small birds and fish, and their characteristic Reynolds number will be between 104 and 105. Currently, these flying and swimming vehicles do not perform well, and very little research has been done to characterize them, or to explain why they perform so poorly. This dissertation documents three basic investigations into the performance of small scale lifting surfaces, with Reynolds numbers near 104. Part I. Low Reynolds number aerodynamics. Three airfoil shapes were studied at Reynolds numbers of 1 and 2x104: a flat plate airfoil, a circular arc cambered airfoil, and the Eppler 387 airfoil. Lift and drag force measurements were made on both 2D and 3D conditions, with the 3D wings having an aspect ratio of 6, and the 2D condition being approximated by placing end plates at the wing tips. Comparisons to the limited number of previous measurements show adequate agreement. Previous studies have been inconclusive on whether lifting line theory can be applied to this range of Re, but this study shows that lifting line theory can be applied when there are no sudden changes in the slope of the force curves. This is highly dependent on the airfoil shape of the wing, and explains why previous studies have been inconclusive. Part II. The laminar separation bubble. The Eppler 387 airfoil was studied at two higher Reynolds numbers: 3 and 6x10 4. Previous studies at a Reynolds number of 6x104 had shown this airfoil experiences a drag increase at moderate lift, and a subsequent drag decrease at high lift. Previous studies suggested that the drag increase is caused by a laminar separation bubble, but the experiments used to show this were conducted at higher Reynolds numbers and extrapolated down. Force measurements were combined with flow field measurements at Reynolds numbers 3 and 6x104 to determine whether

  15. Downwash measurements behind wings with detached float

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersohn, E

    1931-01-01

    This investigation, which was made in the small wind tunnel having a diameter of 1.2 m (3.94 feet), embraced three wing models, behind which, at various angles of attack between 0 and 60 degrees, the static pressure and the total pressure along vertical lines (perpendicular to the direction of the undisturbed wind and to the wing span) were measured. The location of these vertical lines are indicated in Figure 1. Moreover, the wing polars were determined by the customary three-component measurements. For testing the pressure field, a Pitot tube and a static probe, both of 2 mm (0.08 in.) in diameter, were mounted 40 mm (1.57 in.) apart on the end of a shaft 1 m (39.37 in.) long.

  16. Observations of the infrared fine-structure lines of S III at 18.71 and 33.47 microns in four H II regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herter, T.; Briotta, D. A., Jr.; Gull, G. E.; Shure, M. A.; Houck, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Infrared fine-structure lines provide a particularly useful probe of ionized nebulae. The present investigation is concerned with measurements of the forbidden S III lines at 18.71 and 33.47 micrometers for four H II regions, S158A, S158G, G75.84+0.4, and W3 IRS 1. These lines are used to estimate densities, and comparisons are made with rms densities determined from radio observations to evaluate the importance of clumping. For the case of the optical H II region S158A, comparisons are made with both optical and forbidden O III line determinations of the density. The reported observations were made using a dual-grating, liquid-helium-cooled spectrometer containing a three-element Si:Sb detector array and a three-element Ge:Ga detector array. It is found that clumping is important in the cases of G75.84+0.4, W3 IRS 1, and M42. These three H II regions have filling factors of 0.024, 0.09, and 0.03, respectively.

  17. Preservation of wing leading edge suction at the plane of symmetry as a factor in wing-fuselage design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larrabee, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    Most fuselage geometries cover a portion of the wing leading edge near the plane of symmetry, and it seems reasonable to expect that a large fraction of the leading edge suction which would be developed by the covered wing at high angles of attack is not developed on the fuselage. This is one of the reasons that the Oswald span efficiency factor for the wing body combination fails to approach the value predicted by lifting line theory for the isolated wing. Some traditional and recent literature on wing-body interference is discussed and high Reynolds number data on wing-body-nacelle drag are reviewed. An exposed central leading edge geometry has been developed for a sailplane configuration. Low Reynolds number tests have not validated the design concept.

  18. High-resolution H-band spectroscopy of Be stars with SDSS-III/apogee. I. New Be stars, line identifications, and line profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Chojnowski, S. Drew; Majewski, Steven R.; Hall, Matthew; Beaton, Rachael; Burton, Adam; Damke, Guillermo; Wilson, John; Whelan, David G.; Wisniewski, John P.; Shetrone, Matthew; Eikenberry, Steve; Hasselquist, Sten; Holtzman, Jon A.; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; and others

    2015-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has amassed the largest ever collection of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R∼22,500), H-band spectra for B-type emission line (Be) stars. These stars were targeted by APOGEE as telluric standard stars and subsequently identified via visual inspection as Be stars based on H i Brackett series emission or shell absorption in addition to otherwise smooth continua and occasionally non-hydrogen emission features. The 128/238 APOGEE Be stars for which emission had never previously been reported serve to increase the total number of known Be stars by ∼6%. Because the H band is relatively unexplored compared to other wavelength regimes, we focus here on identification of the H-band lines and analysis of the emission peak velocity separations (Δv{sub p}) and emission peak intensity ratios (V/R) of the usually double-peaked H i and non-hydrogen emission lines. H i Br11 emission is found to preferentially form in the circumstellar disks at an average distance of ∼2.2 stellar radii. Increasing Δv{sub p} toward the weaker Br12–Br20 lines suggests these lines are formed interior to Br11. By contrast, the observed IR Fe ii emission lines present evidence of having significantly larger formation radii; distinctive phase lags between IR Fe ii and H i Brackett emission lines further supports that these species arise from different radii in Be disks. Several emission lines have been identified for the first time including C i 16895, a prominent feature in the spectra for almost a fifth of the sample and, as inferred from relatively large Δv{sub p} compared to the Br11–Br20, a tracer of the inner regions of Be disks. Emission lines at 15760 Å and 16781 Å remain unidentified, but usually appear along with and always have similar line profile morphology to Fe ii 16878. Unlike the typical metallic lines observed for Be stars in the optical, the H-band metallic lines, such as Fe ii 16878, never exhibit any

  19. Caspase-independent cell death revealed in human gastric cancer cell lines, MKN45 and KATO III treated with phenoxazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Teruhiko; Tabuchi, Takafumi; Shirato, Ken; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Tomoda, Akio

    2007-02-01

    We examined whether phenoxazine derivatives such as 2-amino-4,4alpha-dihydro-4alpha,7-dimethyl-3H-phenoxazine-3-one (Phx-1) and 2-aminophenoxazine-3-one (Phx-3) may have anticancer effects on the human gastric cancer cell lines, MKN45, MKN74, MKN7 and KATO III in vitro. Phx-1 inhibited the growth of these cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 was approximately 65, 25, 100 and 70 microM for MKN45, MKN74, MKN7 and KATO III respectively, after 72 h. Phx-3 exerted stronger antiproliferative effects against these cancer cells (IC50: approximately 5, 1, 10 and 10 microM for MKN45, MKN74, MKN7 and KATO III, respectively, after 72 h) than Phx-1. Phx-1 and Phx-3 increased the population of TUNEL-positive cells in MKN45 and KATO III time-dependently from 24 to 72 h, suggesting that Phx-1 and Phx-3 have apoptotic activity against these gastric cancer cells. The activity of effector caspase-3 significantly increased in MKN45 treated with Phx-3 for 24 h, but did not altered in the cells treated with Phx-1 for 24 h. When z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, was co-treated for 24 h, Phx-3-stimulated caspase-3 activity in MKN45 was reversed to the levels of normal activity, while the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of Phx-3 against the cells were maintained. The activity of caspase-3 was not activated in KATO III by 24 h exposure for Phx-1 or Phx-3. In conclusion, both phenoxazines prevent the growth of the human gastric cancer cell lines, MKN45 and KATO III in vitro, and cause the apoptosis of these cell lines via a caspase-independent pathway. Although the intracellular action mechanisms of Phx-1 and Phx-3 are still unclear, these phenoxazines may be useful for the treatment of gastric cancer in the future. PMID:17203181

  20. Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania).

    PubMed

    Mikó, István; Copeland, Robert S; Balhoff, James P; Yoder, Matthew J; Deans, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea). It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

  1. Folding Wings like a Cockroach: A Review of Transverse Wing Folding Ensign Wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania)

    PubMed Central

    Mikó, István; Copeland, Robert S.; Balhoff, James P.; Yoder, Matthew J.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea). It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves. PMID:24787704

  2. Formation of broad Balmer wings in symbiotic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seok-Jun; Heo, Jeong-Eun; Hong, Chae-Lin; Lee, Hee-Won

    2016-07-01

    Symbiotic stars are binary systems composed of a hot white dwarf and a mass losing giant. In addition to many prominent emission lines symbiotic stars exhibit Raman scattered O VI features at 6825 and 7088 Å. Another notable feature present in the spectra of many symbiotics is the broad wings around Balmer lines. Astrophysical mechanisms that can produce broad wings include Thomson scattering by free electrons and Raman scattering of Ly,β and higher series by neutral hydrogen. In this poster presentation we produce broad wings around Hα and H,β adopting a Monte Carlo techinique in order to make a quantitative comparison of these two mechanisms. Thomson wings are characterized by the exponential cutoff given by the termal width whereas the Raman wings are dependent on the column density and continuum shape in the far UV region. A brief discussion is provided.

  3. Supercritical Wing Technology: A Progress Report on Flight Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The papers in this compilation were presented at the NASA Symposium on "Supercritical Wing Technology: A Progress Report on Flight Evaluation" held at the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., on February 29, 1972. The purpose of the symposium was to present timely information on flight results obtained with the F-8 and T-2C supercritical wing configurations, discuss comparisons with wind-tunnel predictions, and project [ ] flight programs planned for the F-8 and F-III (TACT) airplanes.

  4. 1. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND WING WALL, FROM BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND WING WALL, FROM BRIDGE TO THE WEST, FACING EAST. - Cut Stone Bridge, Southern Pacific Railroad line spanning runoff channel at South Spruce Avenue, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CA

  5. 2. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND WING WALL, FROM EMBANKMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND WING WALL, FROM EMBANKMENT TO THE SOUTHWEST, FACING NORTHEAST. - Cut Stone Bridge, Southern Pacific Railroad line spanning runoff channel at South Spruce Avenue, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CA

  6. Computational wing optimization and comparisons with experiment for a semi-span wing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waggoner, E. G.; Haney, H. P.; Ballhaus, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    A computational wing optimization procedure was developed and verified by an experimental investigation of a semi-span variable camber wing model in the NASA Ames Research Center 14 foot transonic wind tunnel. The Bailey-Ballhaus transonic potential flow analysis and Woodward-Carmichael linear theory codes were linked to Vanderplaats constrained minimization routine to optimize model configurations at several subsonic and transonic design points. The 35 deg swept wing is characterized by multi-segmented leading and trailing edge flaps whose hinge lines are swept relative to the leading and trailing edges of the wing. By varying deflection angles of the flap segments, camber and twist distribution can be optimized for different design conditions. Results indicate that numerical optimization can be both an effective and efficient design tool. The optimized configurations had as good or better lift to drag ratios at the design points as the best designs previously tested during an extensive parametric study.

  7. Force measurements of flexible tandem wings in hovering and forward flights.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yingying; Wu, Yanhua; Tang, Hui

    2015-02-06

    Aerodynamic forces, power consumptions and efficiencies of flexible and rigid tandem wings undergoing combined plunging/pitching motion were measured in a hovering flight and two forward flights with Strouhal numbers of 0.6 and 0.3. Three flexible dragonfly-like tandem wing models termed Wing I, Wing II, and Wing III which are progressively less flexible, as well as a pair of rigid wings as the reference were operated at three phase differences of 0°, 90° and 180°. The results showed that both the flexibility and phase difference have significant effects on the aerodynamic performances. In both hovering and forward flights at a higher oscillation frequency of 1 Hz (St = 0.6), the Wing III model outperformed the other wing models with larger total horizontal force coefficient and efficiency. In forward flight at the lower frequency of 0.5 Hz (St = 0.3), Wing III, rigid wings and Wing II models performed best at 0°, 90° and 180° phase difference, respectively. From the time histories of force coefficients of fore- and hind-wings, different peak values, phase lags, and secondary peaks were found to be the important reasons to cause the differences in the average horizontal force coefficients. Particle image velocimetry and deformation measurements were performed to provide the insights into how the flexibility affects the aerodynamic performance of the tandem wings. The spanwise bending deformation was found to contribute to the horizontal force, by offering a more beneficial position to make LEV more attached to the wing model in both hovering and forward flights, and inducing a higher-velocity region in forward flight.

  8. On-line chemical vapour generation of cadmium in the presence of hexacyanochromate(III) for determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Vedat; Rose, LaKeysha; Little, Maria D.

    2012-01-01

    A vapour generation (VG) procedure has been described for determination of Cd by ICP-MS. Volatile species of Cd were generated on-line by interacting acidic sample solution containing potassium hexacyanochromate(III), K3Cr(CN)6, with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The hexacyanochromate(III) complex was generated on-line by reacting 0.04 mol L−1 chromium(III) nitrate and 0.16 mol L−1 potassium cyanide (KCN) solutions in water. The resulting suspension of chromium(III) hydroxide, Cr(OH)3, was fed continuously to acidic stream of sample solution in the presence of excess KCN. The experimental conditions were optimized for effective generation of volatile species of Cd. Optimum signals were obtained from reaction of sample solutions in 4% v/v HCl with 2% m/v NaBH4 solution. Presence of K3Cr(CN)6 improved the efficiency of Cd vapour generation substantially affording 15-fold higher sensitivity. This phenomenon was thought to occur through formation of reactive intermediates evolved from interaction of [Cr(CN)6]3− with NaBH4 that react with Cd(II) to increase the yield volatile Cd species. Under the optimum conditions, no significant interferences were observed from the transition metals, including Cu and Ni, up to 1.0 μg mL−1 levels. Among the hydride forming elements, Bi, Pb, Sb and Sn depressed the signals above 0.1 μg mL−1. The detection limits (3s) were 6.2 and 5.2 ng L−1 for 110Cd and 111Cd isotopes, respectively. The method was successfully applied to determination of Cd by ICP-MS in several certified reference materials, including Nearshore seawater (CASS-4), Bone ash (SRM 1400), Dogfish liver (DOLT-4) and Mussel tissue (SRM 2976). PMID:23997384

  9. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C. (Inventor); Gea, Lie-Mine (Inventor); McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witowski, David P. (Inventor); Krist, Steven E. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The slot may either extend spanwise along only a portion of the wingspan, or it may extend spanwise along the entire wingspan. In either case, the slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  10. Flying wings / flying fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper has documented the historical relationships between various classes of all lifting vehicles, which includes the flying wing, all wing, tailless, lifting body, and lifting fuselage. The diversity in vehicle focus was to ensure that all vehicle types that map have contributed to or been influenced by the development of the classical flying wing concept was investigated. The paper has provided context and perspective for present and future aircraft design studies that may employ the all lifting vehicle concept. The paper also demonstrated the benefit of developing an understanding of the past in order to obtain the required knowledge to create future concepts with significantly improved aerodynamic performance.

  11. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. III - First observational results on Milky Way gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Lu, Limin; Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Lockman, Felix J.; Sargent, W. L. W.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption lines found near zero redshift due to Milky Way disk and halo gas in the spectra of 15 quasars observed with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) of the HST at a resolution of about 230 km/s are reported. Results show that Milky Way absorption lines comprise about 44 percent of all absorption lines seen in the first group of Key Project FOS spectra. Milky Way lines were observed for 3C 273 and H1821 + 643. Limits to the Mg-to-H abundance ratio obtained for very high velocity Mg II absorption detections imply gas-phase Mg abundances for the very high velocity gas ranging from more than 0.059 to more than 0.32 times the solar abundance. In all cases where high-velocity H I emission is seen, corresponding high-velocity metal-line absorption is observed.

  12. [Down-regulated βIII-tubulin expression can reverse paclitaxel resistance in A549/taxol cells lines].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Yinling; Guo, Qisen

    2014-08-20

    背景与目的 化疗耐药导致肿瘤很快复发和/或转移,是目前肺癌死亡的主要原因之一。β-tubulin是抗微管药物的主要细胞靶点。已有的研究证明:βIII-tubulin高表达与非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC)耐药有关。利用RNA干扰技术沉默耐紫杉醇A549细胞(A549/Taxol)中βIII-tubulin基因表达,探讨靶基因下调后对化疗药物紫杉醇的敏感性的变化以及细胞周期和细胞凋亡情况。方法 构建靶向βIII-tubulin的siRNA,以脂质体为载体介导βIII-tubulin siRNA转染A549/Taxol细胞,利用qRT-PCR检测细胞内βIII-tubulin mRNA的变化情况,并筛选出最佳干扰序列;Western blot法检测A549/Taxol细胞内βIII-tubulin蛋白表达的变化;MTT法检测转染后细胞株对紫杉醇敏感性的变化;流式细胞仪检测细胞周期和细胞凋亡的变化。结果 实时荧光qRT-PCR法显示转染后细胞株靶基因水平较对照组降低,其中βIII-tubulin siRNA-1序列抑制率最高为(87.73±4.87)%(P<0.01);Western blot显示转染后靶蛋白水平较对照组明显降低;MTT法表明紫杉醇处理转染后细胞株的细胞抑制率较对照组明显增加(51.77±4.60)%(P<0.01);细胞凋亡显示βIII-tubulin siRNA+Taxol组细胞早期凋亡率较对照组明显增加(P<0.01),两者的差异有统计学意义;细胞周期检测结果显示紫杉醇处理组的G2/M期细胞百分率高于对照组,且转染后紫杉醇处理组的细胞晚期凋亡率较对照组增加。结论 βIII-tubulin表达下调明显提高A549/Taxol细胞株对Taxol的敏感性。

  13. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  14. Analysis of iced wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebeci, T.; Chen, H. H.; Kaups, K.; Schimke, S.; Shin, J.

    1992-01-01

    A method for computing ice shapes along the leading edge of a wing and a method for predicting its aerodynamic performance degradation due to icing is described. Ice shapes are computed using an extension of the LEWICE code which was developed for airfoils. The aerodynamic properties of the iced wing are determined with an interactive scheme in which the solutions of the inviscid flow equations are obtained from a panel method and the solutions of the viscous flow equations are obtained from an inverse three-dimensional finite-difference boundary-layer method. A new interaction law is used to couple the inviscid and viscous flow solutions. The application of the LEWICE wing code to the calculation of ice shapes on a MS-317 swept wing shows good agreement with measurements. The interactive boundary-layer method is applied to a tapered ice wing in order to study the effect of icing on the aerodynamic properties of the wing at several angles of attack.

  15. Applications of Displacement Transfer Functions to Deformed Shape Predictions of the GIII Swept-Wing Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lung, Shun-Fat; Ko, William L.

    2016-01-01

    The displacement transfer functions (DTFs) were applied to the GIII swept wing for the deformed shape prediction. The calculated deformed shapes are very close to the correlated finite element results as well as the measured data. The convergence study showed that using 17 strain stations, the wing-tip displacement prediction error was 1.6 percent, and that there is no need to use a large number of strain stations for G-III wing shape predictions.

  16. Involvement of the heparan sulphate-binding proteins of Helicobacter pylori in its adherence to HeLa S3 and Kato III cell lines.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Murillo, M A; Ruiz-Bustos, E; Ho, B; Ascencio, F

    2001-04-01

    To determine whether Helicobacter pylori heparan sulphate-binding proteins (HSBPs) are involved in the adherence of H. pylori to HeLa and Kato III cells, monolayers were pre-incubated with various preparations and concentrations of H. pylori HSBPs at 37 degrees C, washed and then challenged with bacteria. HSBPs did not prevent but enhanced H. pylori adherence. However, challenging cultured cells with H. pylori previously incubated with rabbit anti-HSBP IgG resulted in significant inhibition of bacterial adherence. These data demonstrate that the extracellular HSBP plays an important role in promoting H. pylori attachment to Kato III and HeLa S3 cells, that adhesion of H. pylori to Kato III and HeLa S3 cells is promoted by the presence of the 71.5-kDa extracellular HSBP and that rabbit polyclonal antibodies against this HSBP can inhibit adhesion of H. pylori to the cultured cell lines and detach cell-bound H. pylori. PMID:11289517

  17. The evolution of the [O II], H β and [O III] emission line luminosity functions over the last nine billions years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comparat, Johan; Zhu, Guangtun; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Norberg, Peder; Newman, Jeffrey; Tresse, Laurence; Richard, Johan; Yepes, Gustavo; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Raichoor, Anand; Prada, Francisco; Maraston, Claudia; Yèche, Christophe; Delubac, Timothée; Jullo, Eric

    2016-09-01

    Emission line galaxies are one of the main tracers of the large-scale structure to be targeted by the next-generation dark energy surveys. To provide a better understanding of the properties and statistics of these galaxies, we have collected spectroscopic data from the VVDS and DEEP2 deep surveys and estimated the galaxy luminosity functions (LFs) of three distinct emission lines, [O II}] (λ λ 3726,3729) (0.5 < z < 1.3), Hβ (λ4861) (0.3 < z < 0.8) and [O {III}] (λ 5007) (0.3 < z < 0.8). Our measurements are based on 35 639 emission line galaxies and cover a volume of ˜107 Mpc3. We present the first measurement of the Hβ LF at these redshifts. We have also compiled LFs from the literature that were based on independent data or covered different redshift ranges, and we fit the entire set over the whole redshift range with analytic Schechter and Saunders models, assuming a natural redshift dependence of the parameters. We find that the characteristic luminosity (L*) and density (φ*) of all LFs increase with redshift. Using the Schechter model over the redshift ranges considered, we find that, for [O {II}] emitters, the characteristic luminosity L*(z = 0.5) = 3.2 × 1041 erg s-1 increases by a factor of 2.7 ± 0.2 from z = 0.5 to 1.3; for Hβ emitters L*(z = 0.3) = 1.3 × 1041 erg s-1 increases by a factor of 2.0 ± 0.2 from z = 0.3 to 0.8; and for [O {III}] emitters L*(z = 0.3) = 7.3 × 1041 erg s-1 increases by a factor of 3.5 ± 0.4 from z = 0.3 to 0.8.

  18. Low noise wing slat system with rigid cove-filled slat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shmilovich, Arvin (Inventor); Yadlin, Yoram (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Concepts and technologies described herein provide for a low noise aircraft wing slat system. According to one aspect of the disclosure provided herein, a cove-filled wing slat is used in conjunction with a moveable panel rotatably attached to the wing slat to provide a high lift system. The moveable panel rotates upward against the rear surface of the slat during deployment of the slat, and rotates downward to bridge a gap width between the stowed slat and the lower wing surface, completing the continuous outer mold line shape of the wing, when the cove-filled slat is retracted to the stowed position.

  19. Spectral line polarization with angle-dependent partial frequency redistribution. III. Single scattering approximation for the Hanle effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampoorna, M.

    2011-08-01

    Context. The solar limb observations in spectral lines display evidence of linear polarization, caused by non-magnetic resonance scattering process. This polarization is modified by weak magnetic fields - the process of the Hanle effect. These two processes serve as diagnostic tools for weak solar magnetic field determination. In modeling the polarimetric observations the partial frequency redistribution (PRD) effects in line scattering have to be accounted for. For simplicity, it is common practice to use PRD functions averaged over all scattering angles. For weak fields, it has been established that the use of angle-dependent PRD functions instead of angle-averaged functions is essential. Aims: We introduce a single scattering approximation to the problem of polarized line radiative transfer in weak magnetic fields with an angle-dependent PRD. This helps us to rapidly compute an approximate solution to the difficult and numerically expensive problem of polarized line formation with angle-dependent PRD. Methods: We start from the recently developed Stokes vector decomposition technique combined with the Fourier azimuthal expansion for angle-dependent PRD with the Hanle effect. In this decomposition technique, the polarized radiation field (I, Q, U) is decomposed into an infinite set of cylindrically symmetric Fourier coefficients tilde I(k)K_Q, where K = 0,2, with - K ≤ Q ≤ + K, and k is the order of the Fourier coefficients (k takes values from - ∞ to + ∞). In the single scattering approximation, the effect of the magnetic field on the Stokes I is neglected, so that it can be computed using the standard non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) scalar line transfer equation. In the case of angle-dependent PRD, we further assume that the Stokes I is cylindrically symmetric and given by its dominant term tilde I(0)0_0. Keeping only the contribution from tilde I(0)0_0 in the source terms for the K = 2 components (which give rise to Stokes Q and U), the

  20. The Aerodynamics of Deforming Wings at Low Reynolds Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Albert

    Flapping flight has gained much attention in the past decade driven by the desire to understand capabilities observed in nature and the desire to develop agile small-scale aerial vehicles. Advancing our current understanding of unsteady aerodynamics is an essential component in the development of micro-air vehicles (MAV) intended to utilize flight mechanics akin to insect flight. Thus the efforts undertaken that of bio-mimicry. The complexities of insect wing motion are dissected and simplified to more tractable problems to elucidate the fundamentals of unsteady aerodynamics in biologically inspired kinematics. The MAV's fruition would satisfy long established needs in both the military and civilian sectors. Although recent studies have provided great insight into the lift generating mechanisms of flapping wings the deflection response of such wings remains poorly understood. This dissertation numerically and experimentally investigates the aerodynamic performance of passively and actively deflected wings in hover and rotary kinematics. Flexibility is distilled to discrete lines of flexion which acknowledging major flexion lines in insect wings to be the primary avenue for deformation. Of primary concern is the development of the leading-edge vortex (LEV), a high circulation region of low pressure above the wing to which much of the wing's lift generation is attributed. Two-dimensional simulations of wings with chord-wise flexibility in a freestream reveal a lift generating mechanism unavailable to rigid wings with origins in vortical symmetry breaking. The inclusion of flexibility in translating wings accelerated from rest revealed the formation time of the initial LEV was very weakly dependent on the flexible stiffness of the wing, maintaining a universal time scale of four to five chords of travel before shedding. The frequency of oscillatory shedding of the leading and trailing-edge vortices that develops after the initial vortex shedding was shown to be

  1. Modelling the Pan-Spectral Energy Distribution of Starburst Galaxies: III. Emission Line Diagnostics of Ensembles of H II Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Dopita, M A; Fischera, J; Sutherland, R S; Kewley, L J; Leitherer, C; Tuffs, R J; Popescu, C C; van Breugel, W; Groves, B A

    2006-05-10

    We have built, as far as possible, fully self-consistent models of H II regions around aging clusters of stars. These produce strong emission line diagnostics applicable to either individual H II regions in galaxies, or to the integrated emission line spectra of disk or starburst galaxies. The models assume that the expansion and internal pressure of individual H II regions is driven by the net input of mechanical energy from the central cluster, be it through winds or supernova events. This eliminates the ionization parameter as a free variable, replacing it with a parameter which depends on the ratio of the cluster mass to the pressure in the surrounding interstellar medium. These models explain why H II regions with low abundances have high excitation, and demonstrate that at least part of the warm ionized medium is the result of overlapping faint, old, large, and low pressure H II regions. We present a number of line ratios (at both optical and IR wavelengths) that provide reliable abundance diagnostics for either single H II regions or for integrated galaxy spectra, and others that are sensitive to the age of the cluster stars exciting individual H II regions.

  2. Comparative analysis of BRAF, NRAS and c-KIT mutation status between tumor tissues and autologous tumor cell-lines of stage III/IV melanoma.

    PubMed

    Knol, Anne-Chantal; Pandolfino, Marie-Christine; Vallée, Audrey; Nguyen, Frédérique; Lella, Virginie; Khammari, Amir; Denis, Marc; Puaux, Anne-Laure; Dréno, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, advances in molecular biology have provided evidence of the genotypic heterogeneity of melanoma. We analysed BRAF, NRAS and c-KIT alterations in tissue samples from 63 stage III/IV melanoma patients and autologous cell-lines, using either allele-specific or quantitative PCR. The expression of BRAF V600E protein was also investigated using an anti-BRAF antibody in the same tissue samples. 81% of FFPE samples and tumor cell-lines harboured a genetic alteration in either BRAF (54%) or NRAS (27%) oncogenes. There was a strong concordance (100%) between tissue samples and tumor cell-lines. The BRAF V600E mutant-specific antibody showed high sensitivity (96%) and specificity (100%) for detecting the presence of a BRAF V600E mutation. The correlation was of 98% between PCR and immunohistochemistry results for BRAF mutation. These results suggest that BRAF and NRAS mutation status of tumor cells is not affected by culture conditions.

  3. Chordwise and compressibility corrections to slender-wing theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Harvard; Sluder, Loma

    1952-01-01

    Corrections to slender-wing theory are obtained by assuming a spanwise distribution of loading and determining the chordwise variation which satisfies the appropriate integral equation. Such integral equations are set up in terms of the given vertical induced velocity on the center line or, depending on the type of wing plan form, its average value across the span at a given chord station. The chordwise distribution is then obtained by solving these integral equations. Results are shown for flat-plate rectangular, and triangular wings.

  4. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C. H.; Lan, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    A theory is developed for predicting wing rock characteristics. From available data, it can be concluded that wing rock is triggered by flow asymmetries, developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model that includes all essential aerodynamic nonlinearities is developed. The Beecham-Titchener method is applied to obtain approximate analytic solutions for the amplitude and frequency of the limit cycle based on the three degree-of-freedom equations of motion. An iterative scheme is developed to calculate the average aerodynamic derivatives and dynamic characteristics at limit cycle conditions. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  5. Thin-metal lined PRD 49-III composite vessels. [evaluation of pressure vessels for burst strength and fatigue performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoggatt, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Filament wound pressure vessels of various configurations were evaluated for burst strength and fatigue performance. The dimensions and characteristics of the vessels are described. The types of tests conducted are explained. It was determined that all vessels leaked in a relatively few cycles (20 to 60 cycles) with failure occurring in all cases in the metallic liner. The thin liner would de-bond from the composite and buckling took place during depressurization. No composite failures or indications of impeding composite failures were obtained in the metal-lined vessels.

  6. First detection of the O III 495.8911 and 500.6843 nm lines in the Earth's upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witasse, O.; Slanger, T.; Thissen, R.

    2011-12-01

    We report the first detection of two emission lines of the atomic oxygen doubly-charged ion at 495.8911 and 500.6843 nm in the terrestrial upper atmosphere. They correspond to the transitions 1D2-3P1 and 1D2-3P2 of the O++ ion, respectively. The measurements were performed on 30 October 2003 during the "Halloween" storms, with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The intensities of these emissions are ~70 mRayleigh, and ~260 mRayleigh, respectively. These emissions constitute a new diagnostic of the state of the ionosphere.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Collision Strengths for [Co III] Forbidden Lines - SS5 (Storey+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, P. J.; Sochi, T.

    2016-04-01

    The data set consists of 105 files which are labeled as 'OMEGAmn_CoIII.dat' where m=1,2,...,14 and n=2,3,...,15 with m

  8. Autophagy is induced by the type III secretion system of Vibrio alginolyticus in several mammalian cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhe; Zhang, Lvping; Ren, Chunhua; Zhao, Jingjing; Chen, Chang; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chao-Qun

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus is a gram-negative bacterium and has been recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in marine animals as well as humans. Here, we further characterized a cell death mechanism caused by this bacterium in several mammalian cell lines. The T3SS of V. alginolyticus killed HeLa cells by a very similar cell cytolysis mechanism in fish cells, as evidenced by cell rounding and LDH release; however, DNA fragmentation was not observed. Further studies showed that caspase-1 and caspase-3 were not activated during the T3SS-mediated cell death, indicating that the death mechanism is completely independent of pyroptosis and apoptosis in HeLa cells. Conversely, autophagy was detected during the T3SS-mediated cell death by the appearance of MDC-labeled punctate fluorescence and accumulation of autophagic vesicles. Moreover, western blot analysis revealed increase in conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II in infected mammalian cell lines, confirming that autophagy occurs during the process. Together, these data demonstrate that the death process used by V. alginolyticus in mammalian cells is different from that in fish cells, including induction of autophagy, cell rounding and osmotic lysis. This study provides some evidences hinting that differences in death mechanism in responses to V. alginolyticus infection may be attributed to the species of infected cells from which it was derived.

  9. Autonomous Deicing System For Airplane Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, G. A.; Gerardi, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype autonomous deicing system for airplane includes network of electronic and electromechanical modules at various locations in wings and connected to central data-processing unit. Small, integrated solid-state device, using long coils installed under leading edge, exciting small vibrations to detect ice and larger vibrations to knock ice off. In extension of concept, outputs of vibration sensors and other sensors used to detect rivet-line fractures, fatigue cracks, and other potentially dangerous defects.

  10. Butterfly wing colours: scale beads make white pierid wings brighter.

    PubMed Central

    Stavenga, D. G.; Stowe, S.; Siebke, K.; Zeil, J.; Arikawa, K.

    2004-01-01

    The wing-scale morphologies of the pierid butterflies Pieris rapae (small white) and Delias nigrina (common jezabel), and the heliconine Heliconius melpomene are compared and related to the wing-reflectance spectra. Light scattering at the wing scales determines the wing reflectance, but when the scales contain an absorbing pigment, reflectance is suppressed in the absorption wavelength range of the pigment. The reflectance of the white wing areas of P. rapae, where the scales are studded with beads, is considerably higher than that of the white wing areas of H. melpomene, which has scales lacking beads. The beads presumably cause the distinct matt-white colour of the wings of pierids and function to increase the reflectance amplitude. This will improve the visual discrimination between conspecific males and females. PMID:15306303

  11. Aircraft Wing Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    A LMAL carpenter prepares full scale wings for flight research, 1920. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 36), by James Schultz. Published in Engineer in Charge, NASA SP- 4305 (p. 82), by James R. Hansen.

  12. Properties of impurity-bearing ferrihydrite III. Effects of Si on the structure of 2-line ferrihydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cismasu, A. Cristina; Michel, F. Marc; Tcaciuc, A. Patricia; Brown, Gordon E.

    2014-05-01

    stable in natural environments with respect to reductive dissolution or transformation, and to impact the bioavailability of Fe(III).

  13. Calculation of tapered monoplane wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amstutz, E

    1930-01-01

    The tapered wing shape increases the lift in the middle of the wing and thus reduces the bending moment of the lifting forces in the plane of symmetry. Since this portion of the wing is the thickest, the stresses of the wing material are reduced and desirable space is provided for stowing the loads in the wing. This statically excellent form of construction, however, has aerodynamic disadvantages which must be carefully weighed, if failures are to be avoided. This treatise is devoted to the consideration of these problems.

  14. SMA actuators for morphing wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brailovski, V.; Terriault, P.; Georges, T.; Coutu, D.

    An experimental morphing laminar wing was developed to prove the feasibility of aircraft fuel consumption reduction through enhancement of the laminar flow regime over the wing extrados. The morphing wing prototype designed for subsonic cruise flight conditions (Mach 0.2 … 0.3; angle of attack - 1 … +2∘), combines three principal subsystems: (1) flexible extrados, (2) rigid intrados and (3) an actuator group located inside the wing box. The morphing capability of the wing relies on controlled deformation of the wing extrados under the action of shape memory alloys (SMA) actuators. A coupled fluid-structure model of the morphing wing was used to evaluate its mechanical and aerodynamic performances in different flight conditions. A 0.5 m chord and 1 m span prototype of the morphing wing was tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. In this work, SMA actuators for morphing wings were modeled using a coupled thermo-mechanical finite element model and they were windtunnel validated. If the thermo-mechanical model of SMA actuators presented in this work is coupled with the previously developed structureaerodynamic model of the morphing wing, it could serve for the optimization of the entire morphing wing system.

  15. Phase I/II study of bortezomib in combination with carboplatin and bevacizumab as first line therapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Piperdi, Bilal; Walsh, William V; Bradley, Kendra; Zhou, Zheng; Bathini, Venu; Hanrahan-Boshes, Meredith; Hutchinson, Lloyd; Perez-Soler, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of weekly bortezomib in combination with fixed standard doses of carboplatin and bevacizumab and to estimate the efficacy (response rate and progression free survival) and safety of combination therapy with carboplatin, bortezomib and bevacizumab as first line therapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. Experimental Design Patients were assigned to three dose levels of weekly bortezomib with the fixed standard doses of carboplatin (AUC 6) and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) q 3 wks using a standard phase I design. Bortezomib doses were 1.3 mg/m21.6 mg/m2 and 1.8 mg/m2 weekly on D1 and D8 of q 3wk cycle. A maximum of six cycles was administered. Patients with complete, partial response (PR) or stable disease were continued on single agent bevacizumab (15 mg/kg q 3 wks) as maintenance therapy. In phase II, either level III or MTD was administered to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination in first line treatment of advanced NSCLC. Results 16 patients were enrolled (3, 4 and 9 pts in dose level I, II and III respectively). There was no pre-defined dose limiting toxicity in cycle 1 in all 16 patients. The recommended phase II dose is bortezomib 1.8 mg/m2 weekly on day 1 and day 8 in combination with carboplatin AUC of 6 and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg on every 21 day cycle. Total of 9 patients were treated at the recommended phase II dose level. The most common treatment related grade 3/4 toxicities during the subsequent cycles were thrombocytopenia (58%), lymphopenia (25%), neutropenia (12%) and diarrhea (25%). The grade 1/2 neuropathy was seen in 7 out of 16 pts (44%). The response rate, PFS and OS in all patients were 37.5% (95%CI 13.8% - 61.2%), 5.0 months (m) (95%CI: 3.1-8.4), 9.9 m (95% CI: 8.2-14.1) and the 9 patients in phase II portion are 44% (95%CI 15.3% - 77.3%), 5.5 m (95%CI: 3.1-12.2) and 10.9 months (95%CI: 8.0-14.1). Conclusion The recommended phase II dose for this combination is: carboplatin AUC 6

  16. Cytotoxic effects of bromelain in human gastrointestinal carcinoma cell lines (MKN45, KATO-III, HT29-5F12, and HT29-5M21)

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Afshin; Ehteda, Anahid; Masoumi Moghaddam, Samar; Akhter, Javed; Pillai, Krishna; Morris, David Lawson

    2013-01-01

    Background Bromelain is a pineapple stem extract with a variety of therapeutic benefits arising from interaction with a number of different biological processes. Several preclinical studies and anecdotal clinical observations have reported the anticancer properties of bromelain. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of bromelain in four human cancer cell lines of gastrointestinal origin and the mechanisms involved. Methods The gastric carcinoma cell lines (KATO-III and MKN45) and two chemoresistant subpopulations of the HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29-5M21 and HT29-5F12) were treated with a range of concentrations of bromelain, as well as with cisplatin as a positive control. The effect of bromelain on the growth and proliferation of cancer cells was determined using a sulforhodamine B assay after 72 hours of treatment. Expression of apoptosis-associated proteins in MKN45 cells treated with bromelain was analyzed by Western blotting. Results Data from our sulforhodamine B assay showed that bromelain inhibited proliferation of HT29-5F12, HT29-5M21, MKN45, and KATO-III cells, with respective half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 29, 34, 94, and 142 μg/mL. Analyzing the expression of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins in bromelain-treated MKN45 cells, we observed activation of the caspase system, cleavage of PARP and p53, overexpression of cytochrome C, attenuation of phospho-Akt and Bcl2, and removal of MUC1. Apart from the caspase-dependent apoptosis observed, emergence of cleaved p53 supports a direct, extranuclear apoptotic function of p53. Moreover, interrupted Akt signaling and attenuation of Bcl2 and MUC1 oncoproteins suggest impaired survival of cancer cells. Conclusion Our findings collectively indicate that bromelain exerts cytotoxic effects in a panel of human gastric and colon carcinoma cells. Our study of MKN45 cells implicated different mechanisms in bromelain-induced cell death. While promoting apoptosis

  17. When wings touch wakes: understanding locomotor force control by wake wing interference in insect wings.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the fluid dynamics of force control in flying insects requires the exploration of how oscillating wings interact with the surrounding fluid. The production of vorticity and the shedding of vortical structures within the stroke cycle thus depend on two factors: the temporal structure of the flow induced by the wing's own instantaneous motion and the flow components resulting from both the force production in previous wing strokes and the motion of other wings flapping in close proximity. These wake-wing interactions may change on a stroke-by-stroke basis, confronting the neuro-muscular system of the animal with a complex problem for force control. In a single oscillating wing, the flow induced by the preceding half stroke may lower the wing's effective angle of attack but permits the recycling of kinetic energy from the wake via the wake capture mechanism. In two-winged insects, the acceleration fields produced by each wing may strongly interact via the clap-and-fling mechanism during the dorsal stroke reversal. Four-winged insects must cope with the fact that the flow over their hindwings is affected by the presence of the forewings. In these animals, a phase-shift between the stroke cycles of fore- and hindwing modulates aerodynamic performance of the hindwing via leading edge vortex destruction and changes in local flow condition including wake capture. Moreover, robotic wings demonstrate that phase-lag during peak performance and the strength of force modulation depend on the vertical spacing between the two stroke planes and the size ratio between fore- and hindwing. This study broadly summarizes the most prominent mechanisms of wake-wing and wing-wing interactions found in flapping insect wings and evaluates the consequences of these processes for the control of locomotor forces in the behaving animal.

  18. Theory of damped quantum rotation in nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. III. Nuclear permutation symmetry of the line shape equation.

    PubMed

    Szymański, S

    2009-12-28

    The damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory describes manifestations in nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the coherent and stochastic dynamics of N-fold molecular rotors composed of indistinguishable particles. The standard jump model is only a limiting case of the DQR approach; outside this limit, the stochastic motions of such rotors have no kinematic description. In this paper, completing the previous two of this series, consequences of nuclear permutation symmetry for the properties of the DQR line shape equation are considered. The systems addressed are planar rotors, such as aromatic hydrocarbons' rings, occurring inside of molecular crystals oriented in the magnetic field. Under such conditions, oddfold rotors can have nontrivial permutation symmetries only for peculiar orientations while evenfold ones always retain their intrinsic symmetry element, which is rotation by 180 degrees about the N-fold axis; in specific orientations the latter can gain two additional symmetry elements. It is shown that the symmetry selection rules applicable to the classical rate processes in fluids, once recognized as having two diverse aspects, macroscopic and microscopic, are also rigorously valid for the DQR processes in the solid state. However, formal justification of these rules is different because the DQR equation is based on the Pauli principle, which is ignored in the jump model. For objects like the benzene ring, exploitation of these rules in simulations of spectra using the DQR equation can be of critical significance for the feasibility of the calculations. Examples of such calculations for the proton system of the benzene ring in a general orientation are provided. It is also shown that, because of the intrinsic symmetries of the evenfold rotors, many of the DQR processes, which such rotors can undergo, are unobservable in NMR spectra.

  19. Sexual selection on wing interference patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Natsu; Abbott, Jessica K; Kjærandsen, Jostein; Takahashi, Yuma; Svensson, Erik I

    2014-10-21

    Animals with color vision use color information in intra- and interspecific communication, which in turn may drive the evolution of conspicuous colored body traits via natural and sexual selection. A recent study found that the transparent wings of small flies and wasps in lower-reflectance light environments display vivid and stable structural color patterns, called "wing interference patterns" (WIPs). Such WIPs were hypothesized to function in sexual selection among small insects with wing displays, but this has not been experimentally verified. Here, to our knowledge we present the first experimental evidence that WIPs in males of Drosophila melanogaster are targets of mate choice from females, and that two different color traits--saturation and hue--experience directional and stabilizing sexual selection, respectively. Using isogenic lines from the D. melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, we compare attractiveness of different male WIPs against black and white visual backgrounds. We show that males with more vivid wings are more attractive to females than are males with dull wings. Wings with a large magenta area (i.e., intermediate trait values) were also preferred over those with a large blue or yellow area. These experimental results add a visual element to the Drosophila mating array, integrating sexual selection with elements of genetics and evo-devo, potentially applicable to a wide array of small insects with hyaline wings. Our results further underscore that the mode of sexual selection on such visual signals can differ profoundly between different color components, in this case hue and saturation.

  20. A Survey of Local Group Galaxies Currently Forming Stars. III. A Search for Luminous Blue Variables and Other Hα Emission-Line Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip; McNeill, Reagin T.; Olsen, K. A. G.; Hodge, Paul W.; Blaha, Cynthia; Jacoby, George H.; Smith, R. C.; Strong, Shay B.

    2007-12-01

    We describe a search for Hα emission-line stars in M31, M33, and seven dwarfs in or near the Local Group (IC 10, NGC 6822, WLM, Sextans B, Sextans A, Pegasus, and the Phoenix dwarf) using interference filter imaging with the KPNO and CTIO 4 m telescopes and Mosaic cameras. The survey is aimed primarily at identifying new luminous blue variables (LBVs) from their spectroscopic similarity to known LBVs, avoiding the bias toward photometric variability, which may require centuries to manifest itself if LBVs go through long quiescent periods. Follow-up spectroscopy with WIYN confirms that our survey detected a wealth of stars whose spectra are similar to the known LBVs. We "classify" the spectra of known LBVs and compare these to the spectra of the new LBV candidates. We demonstrate spectacular spectral variability for several of the new LBV candidates, such as AM2, previously classified as a Wolf-Rayet star (WR), which now shows Fe I, Fe II, and Balmer emission lines but neither the N III λλ4634, 4642 nor the He II λ4686 emission it did in 1982. Profound spectral changes are also noted for other suspected and known LBVs. Several of the LBV candidates also show >0.5 mag changes in V over the past 10-20 years. The number of known or suspected LBVs is now 24 in M31, 37 in M33, 1 in NGC 6822, and 3 in IC 10. We estimate that the total number of LBVs in M31 and M33 may be several hundred, in contrast to the eight known historically through large-scale photometric variability. This has significant implications for the timescale of the LBV phase. We also identify a few new WRs and peculiar emission-line objects. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

  1. Study of lee-side flows over conically cambered Delta wings at supersonic speeds, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Watson, Carolyn B.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in which surface pressure data, flow visualization data, and force and moment data were obtained on four conical delta wing models which differed in leading edge camber only. Wing leading edge camber was achieved through a deflection of the outboard 30% of the local wing semispan of a reference 75 deg swept flat delta wing. The four wing models have leading edge deflection angles delta sub F of 0, 5, 10, and 15 deg measured streamwise. Data for the wings with delta sub F = 10 and 15 deg showed that hinge line separation dominated the lee-side wing loading and prohibited the development of leading edge separation on the deflected portion of wing leading edge. However, data for the wing with delta sub F = 5 deg showed that at an angle of attack of 5 deg, a vortex was positioned on the deflected leading edge with reattachment at the hinge line. Flow visualization results were presented which detail the influence of Mach number, angle of attack, and camber on the lee-side flow characteristics of conically cambered delta wings. Analysis of photographic data identified the existence of 12 distinctive lee-side flow types.

  2. Deformed wing virus.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Joachim R; Genersch, Elke

    2010-01-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully understood, the transmission of DWV by V.destructor to the developing pupae causes clinical symptoms, including pupal death and adult bees emerging with deformed wings, a bloated, shortened abdomen and discolouration. These bees are not viable and die soon after emergence. In this review we will summarize the historical and recent data on DWV and its relatives, covering the genetics, pathobiology, and transmission of this important viral honeybee pathogen, and discuss these within the wider theoretical concepts relating to the genetic variability and population structure of RNA viruses, the evolution of virulence and the development of disease symptoms.

  3. Torsion in box wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, John B

    1931-01-01

    Logical analysis of a box wing necessitates the allowance for the contribution of the drag spars to the torsional strength of the structure. A rigorous analysis is available in the use of the Method of Least Work. The best logical method of analysis is that applying Prandtl's Membrane Analogy. The results so obtained vary by a negligible amount from those obtained by the rigorous method.

  4. Wing shaping and strain sensing using fiber optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Sergio Licon

    Current technologies to measure strain rely on strain gauges that become heavy with increased measurement points. One significant improvement is the Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) which allows light to reflect through a fiber optic line in relation to the strain applied on that fiber. Significant advantages over conventional strain gauges allow for a light weight detailed view of the strain applied to any structure containing these fibers. The SPACE Center in conjunction with the AERO Institute have produced preliminary conclusions on how to implement such fibers on a wing structure and how they could be used to control the shape of a wing. Such a wing structure could be built lighter and flexible than today's wings thus enabling a lighter aircraft. Further studies show that if a feedback mechanism is encompassed, flutter suppression techniques can be accomplished with the use of these fibers thus avoiding catastrophic failure.

  5. Recent applications of the transonic wing analysis computer code, TWING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, N. R.; Holst, T. L.; Thomas, S. D.

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation of the transonic-wing-analysis computer code TWING is given. TWING utilizes a fully implicit approximate factorization iteration scheme to solve the full potential equation in conservative form. A numerical elliptic-solver grid-generation scheme is used to generate the required finite-difference mesh. Several wing configurations were analyzed, and the limits of applicability of this code was evaluated. Comparisons of computed results were made with available experimental data. Results indicate that the code is robust, accurate (when significant viscous effects are not present), and efficient. TWING generally produces solutions an order of magnitude faster than other conservative full potential codes using successive-line overrelaxation. The present method is applicable to a wide range of isolated wing configurations including high-aspect-ratio transport wings and low-aspect-ratio, high-sweep, fighter configurations.

  6. Enhancement of mucus accumulation in a human gastric scirrhous carcinoma cell line (KATO-III) by fibroblast-tumor cell interaction.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, R; Iishi, H; Tatsuta, M; Nakamura, H; Terada, N; Komatsu, K; Matsusaka, T

    1990-01-01

    Human fibroblasts (WI-38 cells) were found to enhance mucus accumulation by human scirrhous carcinoma cells (KATO-III cells). Coculture of KATO-III with WI-38 cells resulted in enlargement of the KATO-III cells and increases in the proportions of PAS- and colloidal iron-positive KATO-III cells. These morphological alterations were reversed when the KATO-III cells were again cultured without WI-38 cells. Conditioned media from cultures of WI-38 cells or cocultures of KATO-III and WI-38 cells induced the same morphological alterations in KATO-III cells, suggesting that WI-38 cells produce a factor or factors that enhance mucus accumulation in KATO-III cells. This factor seemed to be a protein with a molecular weight of more than 10,000 daltons. PMID:1974095

  7. Essential Role of Duox in Stabilization of Drosophila Wing*

    PubMed Central

    Anh, Nguyen Thi Tu; Nishitani, Maiko; Harada, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Kamei, Kaeko

    2011-01-01

    NADPH oxidase produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Drosophila melanogaster has two homologs of NADPH oxidase, dNox and dDuox, with functions that remain unclear in vivo. To clarify these functions, two independent transgenic fly lines expressing dsRNA targeted for different portions of dDuox mRNA were used. In both flies, en-GAL4> UAS-dDuoxIR976–1145 and en-GAL4> UAS-dDuoxIR370–518, in which dDuox was knocked down selectively in the posterior area of the wing disc, the posterior compartment of the adult wings became paler and more fragile with wing veins that were indistinct by comparison with the anterior one. Fluorescence staining of the en-GAL4> UAS-dDuoxIR976–1145 adult wings revealed that the ROS concentration in the posterior compartment was significantly lower than that in the anterior compartment. Moreover, in these flies, the posterior compartment of the wing imaginal disc showed a greater number of apoptotic cells detected by immunostaining with anti-cleaved caspase-3 antibody than those in the anterior compartment. Respective knockdown of tyrosine hydroxylase or dopa-decarboxylase showed paler wing blades in the posterior compartment similar to the phenotype of dDuox-knockdown files. Along with this observation, analysis of the catecholic and dityrosine components in the wings of adult flies proved that dDuox plays important roles in the stabilization of the cuticle structure of the wings via tyrosine cross-linking, the sclerotization and melanization processes possibly through ROS production. These dDuox-knockdown fly lines would be useful tools for further studying dDuox functions during the development of Drosophila. PMID:21808060

  8. Transonic Drag Characteristics of a Wing-body Combination Showing the Effect of a Large Wing Fillet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, Donald C; Kurbjun, Max C

    1948-01-01

    Results of an investigation by the free-fall method are presented herein for a configuration having a body of revolution of fineness ratio 12 and 45 degrees sweptback wing mounted aft of the maximum diameter of the body. The fillets were designed to provide large increases in the sweep oof the leading edge and the line of maximum thickness as the wing root was approached. Comparison of these results with those for the same configuration without fillets shows that the addition of wing fillets increased the total drag of the configuration by about 35 percent at Mach numbers near 1.0 and about 15 percent at Mach numbers near 1.2. Results indicate that the fillets produced no appreciable change in the wing and tail drags but produced a large increase in body drag due to interference.

  9. Non-linear unsteady wing theory, part 1. Quasi two-dimensional behavior: Airfoils and slender wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccune, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    The initial phases of a study of the large-amplitude unsteady aerodynamics of wings in severe maneuver are reported. The research centers on vortex flows, their initiation at wing surfaces, their subsequent convection, and interaction dynamically with wings and control surfaces. The focus is on 2D and quasi-2D aspects of the problem and features the development of an exact nonlinear unsteady airfoil theory as well as an approach to the crossflow problem for slender wing applications including leading-edge separation. The effective use of interactive on-line computing in quantifying and visualizing the nonsteady effects of severe maneuver is demonstrated. Interactive computational work is now possible, in which a maneuver can be initiated and its effects observed and analyzed immediately.

  10. Fog spontaneously folds mosquito wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Liu, Xing; Zhu, Ting; Hu, David L.

    2015-02-01

    The flexibility of insect wings confers aerodynamic benefits, but can also present a hazard if exposed to fog or dew. Fog can cause water to accumulate on wings, bending them into tight taco shapes and rendering them useless for flight. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we use high-speed video to film the spontaneous folding of isolated mosquito wings due to the evaporation of a water drop. We predict shapes of the deformed wing using two-dimensional elastica theory, considering both surface tension and Laplace pressure. We also recommend fold-resistant geometries for the wings of flapping micro-aerial vehicles. Our work reveals the mechanism of insect wing folding and provides a framework for further study of capillarity-driven folding in both natural and biomimetic systems at small scales.

  11. Theoretical antisymmetric span loading for wings of arbitrary plan form at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, John

    1951-01-01

    A simplified lifting-surface theory that includes effects of compressibility and spanwise variation of section lift-curve slope is used to provide charts with which antisymmetric loading due to arbitrary antisymmetric angle of attack can be found for wings having symmetric plan forms with a constant spanwise sweep angle of the quarter-chord line. Consideration is given to the flexible wing in roll. Aerodynamic characteristics due to rolling, deflected ailerons, and sideslip of wings with dihedral are considered. Solutions are presented for straight-tapered wings for a range of swept plan forms.

  12. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

    2004-10-17

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

  13. Wing Flutter Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Langley Research Center, Orbital Research Inc. developed the Orbital Research Intelligent Control Algorithm (ORICA), the first practical hardware-independent adaptive predictive control structure, specifically suited for optimal control of complex, time-varying systems. ORICA technology has been applied to the problem of controlling aircraft wing flutter. Coupled with NASA expertise, the technology has the possibility of making jet travel safer, more cost effective by extending distance range, and lowering overall aircraft operating costs. Future application areas for ORICA include control of robots, power trains, systems with arrays of sensors, or regulating chemical plants or electrical power plant control.

  14. Nonlinear aerodynamic wing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, Ellwood

    1985-01-01

    The applicability of new nonlinear theoretical techniques is demonstrated for supersonic wing design. The new technology was utilized to define outboard panels for an existing advanced tactical fighter model. Mach 1.6 maneuver point design and multi-operating point compromise surfaces were developed and tested. High aerodynamic efficiency was achieved at the design conditions. A corollary result was that only modest supersonic penalties were incurred to meet multiple aerodynamic requirements. The nonlinear potential analysis of a practical configuration arrangement correlated well with experimental data.

  15. Three-Dimensional Wing Kinematics and Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Beetle in Free Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Tran, Hieu Trung; Quang Le, Tuyen; Park, Hoon Cheol; Kim, Minjun

    2010-11-01

    Detailed three dimensional wing kinematics and aerodynamic characteristics are experimentally presented for the free flight of a beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, which has a pair of elytra (fore wings) and hind wings. The kinematic parameters of the wing motion, such as the wing tip trajectory, angle of attack, torsion angle, and camber deformation, are obtained from a 3D reconstruction technique that involves the use of two or three synchronized high-speed cameras to digitize various points marked on the wings. Our data show outstanding characteristics of wing deformation and flexibility in the free flight of the beetle. To find out the mechanism of aerodynamic force, the leading edge vortex (LEV) and trailing edge vortex (TEV) on both elytron and hind wing were observed by using smoke wire visualization and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) technique. Qualitative smoke lines in the region of the most intent vortex shedding demonstrate clearly the interaction between elytron and hind wing in hovering, forward, and climbing flight conditions. In addition, flow fields near regions of the elytron and the hind wing are quantitatively analyzed in order to visualize the LEV and calculate the circulation and lift coefficient by means of a DPIV experiment.

  16. Study of lee-side flows over conically cambered delta wings at supersonic speeds, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Watson, Carolyn B.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in which surface pressure data, flow visualization data, and force and moment data were obtained on four conical delta wing models which differed in leading-edge camber only. Wing leading-edge camber was achieved through a deflection of the outboard 30% of the local wind semispan of a reference 75 degrees swept flat delta wing. The four wing models have leading-edge deflection angles delta sub F of 0, 5, 10, and 15 degrees measured streamwise. Data for the wings with delta sub F = 10 and 15 degrees showed that hinge-line separation dominated the lee-side wing loading and prohibited the develpment of leading-edge separation on the deflected portion of wing leading edge. However, data for the wing with delta sub F = 5 degrees, a vortex was positioned on the deflected leading edge with reattachment at the hinge line. Flow visualization results were presented which detail the influence of Mach number, angle of attack, and camber on the lee-side flow characteristics of conically cambered delta wings. Analysis of photgraphic data identified the existence of 12 distinctive lee-side flow types. In general, the aerodynamic force and moment data correlated well with the pressure and flow visualization data.

  17. Naturally inspired SERS substrates fabricated by photocatalytically depositing silver nanoparticles on cicada wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanahashi, Ichiro; Harada, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    Densely stacked Ag nanoparticles with an average diameter of 199 nm were effectively deposited on TiO2-coated cicada wings (Ag/TiO2-coated wings) from a water-ethanol solution of AgNO3 using ultraviolet light irradiation at room temperature. It was seen that the surfaces of bare cicada wings contained nanopillar array structures. In the optical absorption spectra of the Ag/TiO2-coated wings, the absorption peak due to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Ag nanoparticles was observed at 440 nm. Strong Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals of Rhodamine 6G adsorbed on the Ag/TiO2-coated wings were clearly observed using the 514.5-nm line of an Ar+ laser. The Ag/TiO2-coated wings can be a promising candidate for naturally inspired SERS substrates.

  18. Attachment Line Blockage Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Photographs shows the attachment-line experiment model with fairing and fence for supersonic attachment-line experiments. The fairing is intended to eliminate the wing/fuselage juncture shock and align the flow for the streamlined fence. The streamlined fence traps the turbulent fuselage boundary layer to prevent turbulent contamination of the leading edge flow.

  19. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Seamless Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a Gulfstream G-III airplane (Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, Georgia) swept wing modified with an experimental seamless, compliant flap called the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flap. The stall characteristics of the modified ACTE wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified, clean wing at the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 feet above mean sea level, in free air as well as in ground effect. A polyhedral finite-volume unstructured full Navier-Stokes CFD code, STAR-CCM (registered trademark) plus (CD-adapco [Computational Dynamics Limited, United Kingdom, and Analysis & Design Application Co., United States]), was used. Steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes CFD simulations were conducted for a clean wing and the ACTE wings at various ACTE deflection angles in free air (-2 degrees, 15 degrees, and 30 degrees) as well as in ground effect (15 degrees and 30 degrees). Solution sensitivities to grid densities were examined. In free air, the ACTE wings are predicted to stall at lower angles of attack than the clean wing. In ground effect, all wings are predicted to stall at lower angles of attack than the corresponding wings in free air. Even though the lift curves are higher in ground effect than in free air, the maximum lift coefficients for all wings are lower in ground effect. Finally, the lift increase due to ground effect for the ACTE wing is predicted to be less than the clean wing.

  20. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  1. Hydrodynamics of penguin wing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noca, Flavio; Cuong Duong, Nhut; Herpich, Jerome

    2010-11-01

    The three-dimensional kinematics of penguin wings were obtained from movie footage in aquariums. A 1:1 scale model of the penguin wing (with an identical planform but with a flat section profile and a rigid configuration) was actuated with a robotic arm in a water channel. The experiments were performed at a chord Reynolds number of about 10^4 (an order of magnitude lower than for the observed penguin). The dynamics of the wing were analyzed with force and flowfield measurements. The two main results are: 1. a net thrust on both the upstroke and downstroke movement; 2. the occurence of a leading edge vortex (LEV) along the wing span. The effects of section profile, wing flexibility, and a higher Reynolds number will be investigated in the future.

  2. A phase I/II study of biweekly capecitabine and irinotecan plus bevacizumab as second-line chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Shinozaki, Eiji; Ozaka, Masato; Ogura, Mariko; Chin, Keisho; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Background Triweekly capecitabine plus irinotecan (XELIRI) is not completely regarded as a valid substitute for fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) because of the potential for greater toxicity. We conducted a phase I/II study to assess the efficacy and safety of biweekly XELIRI plus bevacizumab (BV) as second-line chemotherapy for mCRC. Methods Patients with mCRC who had received prior chemotherapy including oxaliplatin and BV and had a UGT1A1 genotype of wild-type or heterozygous for UGT1A1*6 or *28 were eligible for this study. Treatment comprised capecitabine 1,000 mg/m2 twice daily from the evening of day 1 to the morning of day 8, intravenous irinotecan on day 1, and BV 5 mg/kg on day 1 every 2 weeks. The phase I study consisted of two steps (irinotecan 150 and 180 mg/m2), and dose-limiting toxicity was assessed during the first treatment cycle. The primary endpoint of the phase II study was progression-free survival (PFS). Results The recommended dose of irinotecan was determined to be 180 mg/m2 in the phase I study. Between November 2010 and August 2013, 44 patients were enrolled in phase II. The patients’ characteristics were as follows (N=44): median age, 60 years (range 32–80); male/female, 21/23; and UGT1A1 wild-type/heterozygous, 29/15. The median PFS was 6.8 months (95% confidence interval, 5.3–8.2 months), and the primary endpoint was met. Median overall survival was 18.3 months. The response rate was 22.7%. There was no significant difference in PFS or overall survival according to UGT1A1 status. Grade 3 or higher adverse events were mainly neutropenia in six patients and diarrhea in five patients. There were no other severe adverse events or treatment-related deaths. Conclusion In mCRC patients with wild-type or heterozygous UGT1A1*6 or *28 genotype, biweekly XELIRI + BV is effective and feasible as second-line chemotherapy. Biweekly XELIRI + BV is considered a valid substitute for FOLFIRI

  3. 93. PRODUCTION MOLDS STORAGE, SECOND FLOOR, EAST WING. THE WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. PRODUCTION MOLDS STORAGE, SECOND FLOOR, EAST WING. THE WALL OF THIS ROOM WERE ORIGINALLY LINED WITH STEAM PIPES CONNECTED TO THE BOILER WHICH WERE USED TO DRY THE TILES BEFORE FIRING. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-54. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  4. 54. PRODUCTION MOLD STORAGE, SECOND FLOOR, EAST WING. THE WALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. PRODUCTION MOLD STORAGE, SECOND FLOOR, EAST WING. THE WALLS OF THIS ROOM WERE ORIGINALLY LINED WITH STEAM PIPES CONNECTED TO THE BOILER WHICH WERE USED TO DRY THE TILES BEFORE FIRING. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  5. Line-vortex theory for calculation of supersonic downwash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirels, Harold; Haefeli, Rudolph C

    1950-01-01

    The perturbation field induced by a line vortex in a supersonic stream and the downwash behind a supersonic lifting surface are examined to establish approximate methods for determining the downwash behind supersonic wings. Lifting-lines methods are presented for calculating supersonic downwash. A bent lifting-line method is proposed for computing the downwash field behind swept wings. When applied to triangular wings with subsonic leading edges, this method gives results that, in general, are in good agreement with the exact linearized solution. An unbent lifting-line method (horseshoe-vortex system) is proposed for unswept wings. This method is applied to determine downwash behind rectangular wings with aspect ratios of 2 and 4. Excellent agreement with exact linearized theory is obtained for both aspect ratios by placing the lifting line at the 1/2-chord point. The use of lifting-lines therefore appears promising for obtaining estimates of the downwash behind supersonic wings.

  6. Experimental investigation on the wing-wake interaction at the mid stroke in hovering flight of dragonfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, GuoJun; Shen, GongXin

    2012-11-01

    This paper focuses on flow structures of the wing-wake interaction between the hind wing and the wake of the forewing in hovering flight of a dragonfly since there are arguments whether the wing-wake interaction is useful or not. A mechanical flapping model with two tandem wings is used to study the interaction. In the device, two identical simplified model wings are mounted to the flapping model and they are both scaled up to keep the Reynolds number similar to those of dragonfly in hovering flight since our experiment is conducted in a water tank. The kinetic pattern of dragonfly ( Aeschna juncea) is chosen because of its special interesting asymmetry. A multi-slice phase-locked stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system is used to record flow structures around the hind wing at the mid downstroke ( t/ T=0.25) and the mid upstroke ( t/ T=0.75). To make comparison of the flow field between with and without the influence of the wake, flow structures around a single flapping wing (hind wing without the existence of the forewing) at these two stroke phases are also recorded. A local vortex identification scheme called swirling strength is applied to determine the vortices around the wing and they are visualized with the iso-surface of swirling strength. This paper also presents contour lines of ω z at each spanwise position of the hind wing, the vortex core position of the leading edge vortex (LEV) of hind wing with respect to the upper surface of hind wing, the circulation of the hind wing LEV at each spanwise position and so on. Experimental results show that dimension and strength of the hind wing LEV are impaired at the mid stroke in comparison with the single wing LEV because of the downwash from the forewing. Our results also reveal that a wake vortex from the forewing traverses the upper surface of the hind wing at the mid downstroke and its distance to the upper surface is about 40% of the wing chord length. At the instant, the distance of the hind wing

  7. Insect wing membrane topography is determined by the dorsal wing epithelium.

    PubMed

    Belalcazar, Andrea D; Doyle, Kristy; Hogan, Justin; Neff, David; Collier, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila wing consists of a transparent wing membrane supported by a network of wing veins. Previously, we have shown that the wing membrane cuticle is not flat but is organized into ridges that are the equivalent of one wing epithelial cell in width and multiple cells in length. These cuticle ridges have an anteroposterior orientation in the anterior wing and a proximodistal orientation in the posterior wing. The precise topography of the wing membrane is remarkable because it is a fusion of two independent cuticle contributions from the dorsal and ventral wing epithelia. Here, through morphological and genetic studies, we show that it is the dorsal wing epithelium that determines wing membrane topography. Specifically, we find that wing hair location and membrane topography are coordinated on the dorsal, but not ventral, surface of the wing. In addition, we find that altering Frizzled Planar Cell Polarity (i.e., Fz PCP) signaling in the dorsal wing epithelium alone changes the membrane topography of both dorsal and ventral wing surfaces. We also examined the wing morphology of two model Hymenopterans, the honeybee Apis mellifera and the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis. In both cases, wing hair location and wing membrane topography are coordinated on the dorsal, but not ventral, wing surface, suggesting that the dorsal wing epithelium also controls wing topography in these species. Because phylogenomic studies have identified the Hymenotera as basal within the Endopterygota family tree, these findings suggest that this is a primitive insect character.

  8. Aeroelastic Analysis of Aircraft: Wing and Wing/Fuselage Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, H. H.; Chang, K. C.; Tzong, T.; Cebeci, T.

    1997-01-01

    A previously developed interface method for coupling aerodynamics and structures is used to evaluate the aeroelastic effects for an advanced transport wing at cruise and under-cruise conditions. The calculated results are compared with wind tunnel test data. The capability of the interface method is also investigated for an MD-90 wing/fuselage configuration. In addition, an aircraft trim analysis is described and applied to wing configurations. The accuracy of turbulence models based on the algebraic eddy viscosity formulation of Cebeci and Smith is studied for airfoil flows at low Mach numbers by using methods based on the solutions of the boundary-layer and Navier-Stokes equations.

  9. 5. 'Stones for Wing Walls, Tunnel Walls, BeltCourse and Coping,' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 'Stones for Wing Walls, Tunnel Walls, Belt-Course and Coping,' Southern Pacific Standard Plan Tunnels, ca. 1909. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. The torsional strength of wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, C P

    1930-01-01

    This report describes a simple method for calculating the position of the elastic axis of a wing structure having any number of spars. It is shown that strong drag bracing near the top and bottom of a wing greatly increases the torsional strength. An analytical procedure for finding the contribution of the drag bracing to the torsional strength and stiffness is described, based upon the principle of least work, and involving only one unknown quantity. A coefficient for comparing the torsional rigidity of different wings is derived in this report.

  11. Integrated aerodynamic/structural design of a sailplane wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, B.; Gurdal, Z.; Haftka, R. T.; Strauch, G. J.; Eppard, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Using lifting-line theory and beam analysis, the geometry (planiform and twist) and composite material structural sizes (skin thickness, spar cap, and web thickness) were designed for a sailplane wing, subject to both structural and aerodynamic constraints. For all elements, the integrated design (simultaneously designing the aerodynamics and the structure) was superior in terms of performance and weight to the sequential design (where the aerodynamic geometry is designed to maximize the performance, following which a structural/aeroelastic design minimizes the weight). Integrated designs produced less rigid, higher aspect ratio wings with favorable aerodynamic/structural interactions.

  12. Airplane wing vibrations due to atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastel, R. L.; Caruthers, J. E.; Frost, W.

    1981-01-01

    The magnitude of error introduced due to wing vibration when measuring atmospheric turbulence with a wind probe mounted at the wing tip was studied. It was also determined whether accelerometers mounted on the wing tip are needed to correct this error. A spectrum analysis approach is used to determine the error. Estimates of the B-57 wing characteristics are used to simulate the airplane wing, and von Karman's cross spectrum function is used to simulate atmospheric turbulence. It was found that wing vibration introduces large error in measured spectra of turbulence in the frequency's range close to the natural frequencies of the wing.

  13. Numerical simulation of the tip vortex off a low-aspect-ratio wing at transonic speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, N. N.

    1984-01-01

    The viscous transonic flow around a low-aspect-ratio wing has been computed using an implicit, three-dimensional, 'thin-layer' Navier-Stokes solver. The grid around the geometry of interest is obtained numerically as a solution to a Dirichlet problem for the cube. The geometry chosen for this study is a low-aspect-ratio wing with large sweep, twist, taper, and camber. The topology chosen to wrap the mesh around the wing with good tip resolution is a C-O type mesh. Using this grid, the flow around the wing was computed for a free-stream Mach number of 0.82 at an angle of attack of 5 deg. At this Mach number, an oblique shock forms on the upper surface of the wing, and a tip vortex and three-dimensional flow separation off the wing surface are observed. Particle path lines indicate that the three-dimensional flow separation on the wing surface is part of the roots of the tip-vortex formation. The lifting of the tip vortex before the wing trailing edge is clearly observed by following the trajectory of particles released around the wing tip.

  14. Phase I/II trial of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan in combination with bevacizumab in first line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bazarbashi, Shouki; Aljubran, Ali; Alzahrani, Ahmad; Mohieldin, Ahmed; Soudy, Hussein; Shoukri, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Phase III studies have demonstrated the efficacy of FOLFOXIRI regimens (5-fluorouracil/leucovorin, oxaliplatin, irinotecan) with/without bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Capecitabine is an orally administered fluoropyrimidine that may be used instead of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin. We evaluated a triple-chemotherapy regimen of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan, plus bevacizumab in 53 patients with mCRC. A Phase I study identified the maximum tolerated dose of irinotecan as 150 mg/m2. Median follow-up in a subsequent Phase II study using this dose was 28 months (74% progressed). For all patients, a complete response was achieved in 4% and a partial response in 60%; median progression-free survival (PFS) was 16 months and median overall survival (OS) was 28 months. Median PFS was longer for patients with an early treatment response (28 vs. 9 months for others; P = 0.024), or early tumor shrinkage (25 vs. 9 months for others; P = 0.006), or for patients suitable for surgical removal of metastases with curative intent (median not reached vs. 9 months for others; P = 0.001). Median OS was longer for patients with early tumor shrinkage (median not reached vs. 22 months for others; P = 0.006) or surgery (median not reached vs. 22 months for others, P = 0.002). K-ras mutations status did not influence PFS (P = 0.88) or OS (P = 0.82). Considerable Grade 3/4 toxicity was encountered (36% for diarrhea, 21% for vomiting and 17% for fatigue). In conclusion, the 3-weekly triple-chemotherapy regimen of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan, plus bevacizumab, was active in the first-line treatment of mCRC, although at the expense of a high level of toxicity. PMID:26207614

  15. Biosynthetic pathways for the Leb and Y glycolipids in the gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III as analyzed by a novel assay.

    PubMed

    Blaszczyk-Thurin, M; Sarnesto, A; Thurin, J; Hindsgaul, O; Koprowski, H

    1988-02-29

    The biosynthetic pathways for the difucosylated type 1 and 2 glycolipids, Leb and Y, respectively, were investigated in the gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III, using a novel chromatogram binding assay. The type of fucosylation obtained was deduced from the binding pattern of monoclonal antibodies specific for the biosynthesized glycolipid products using microsomal fractions as the source of enzyme, pure glycolipids and non-radioactive GDP-fucose as acceptor and donor substrates, respectively. The Leb glycolipid (Fuc alpha 1----2Gal beta 1----3GlcNAc(4----1 alpha Fuc) beta 1----3LacCer) was synthesized mainly via the blood group H, type 1, precursor (Fuc alpha 1----2Gal beta 1----3GlcNAc beta 1----3LacCer). However, the Lea glycolipid (Gal beta 1----3GlcNAc(4----1 alpha Fuc)beta 1----3LacCer) also served as a precursor for the alpha 1----2 fucosyltransferase, thus allowing conversion of Lea to Leb. This biosynthetic route represents either an "aberrant" specificity of the Fuc alpha 1----2 transferase associated with these gastric carcinoma cells and/or a new member of the alpha 1----2 fucosyltransferase family. The Y glycolipid (Fuc alpha 1----2Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc(3----1 alpha Fuc)beta 1----3LacCer) was synthesized exclusively via the classical pathway using the blood group H type 2 glycolipid (Fuc alpha 1----2Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc beta 1----3LacCer) as precursor. The X glycolipid (Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc(3----1 alpha Fuc)beta 1----3LacCer) did not serve as an acceptor substrate for the alpha 1----2 fucosyltransferase(s) present. The use of non-radioactive sugar-nucleotides as donor substrate, defined glycolipid precursors as acceptor substrates and of specific monoclonal anti-glycolipid antibodies for detection provides a rapid and highly specific assay for analyzing biosynthetic pathways of glycosyltransferases. PMID:3348768

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, electrochemical behavior and computational analysis of mixed diamine ligand gold(III) complexes: antiproliferative and in vitro cytotoxic evaluations against human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaroudi, Said S; Monim-ul-Mehboob, M; Altaf, Muhammad; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Wazeer, Mohammed I M; Altuwaijri, Saleh; Isab, Anvarhusein A

    2014-12-01

    The gold(III) complexes of the type [(DACH)Au(en)]Cl3, 1,2-Diaminocyclohexane ethylenediamine gold(III) chloride [where 1,2-DACH = cis-, trans-1,2- and S,S-1,2diaminocyclohexane and en = ethylenediamine] have been synthesized and characterized using various analytical and spectroscopic techniques including elemental analysis, UV-Vis and FTIR spectra; and solution as well as solid-state NMR measurements. The solid-state (13)C NMR shows that 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (1,2-DACH) and ethylenediamine (en) are strongly bound to the gold(III) center via N donor atoms. The stability of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) was determined by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra. Their electrochemical behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The structural details and relative stabilities of the four possible isomers of the complexes were also reported at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. The coordination sphere of these complexes around gold(III) center adopts distorted square planar geometry. The computational study also demonstrates that trans- conformations is slightly more stable than the cis-conformations. The antiproliferative effects and cytotoxic properties of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) complexes were evaluated in vitro on human gastric SGC7901 and prostate PC3 cancer cells using MTT assay. The antiproliferative study of the gold(III) complexes on PC3 and SGC7901 cells indicate that complex 1 is the most effective antiproliferative agent among mixed ligand based gold(III) complexes 1-3. The IC50 data reveal that the in vitro cytotoxicity of complexes 1 and 3 against SGC7901 cancer cells are fairly better than that of cisplatin. PMID:25034122

  17. Origin Story: Blended Wing Body

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is partnering with the Boeing Company, among others, to develop and test the blended wing body aircraft. The BWB has the potential to significantly reduce fuel use and noise. In this video, Bo...

  18. Embedded Wing Propulsion Conceptual Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun D.; Saunders, John D.

    2003-01-01

    As a part of distributed propulsion work under NASA's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts or RAC project, a new propulsion-airframe integrated vehicle concept called Embedded Wing Propulsion (EWP) is developed and examined through system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. The idea behind the concept is to fully integrate a propulsion system within a wing structure so that the aircraft takes full benefits of coupling of wing aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of the EWP concept applied to large transport aircraft such as the Blended-Wing-Body aircraft. In this paper, some of early analysis and current status of the study are presented. In addition, other current activities of distributed propulsion under the RAC project are briefly discussed.

  19. The Interference Effects of a Body on the Spanwise Load Distributions of Two 45 Degree Sweptback Wings of Aspect Ratio 8.02 from Low-Speed Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martina, Albert P.

    1956-01-01

    Tests of two wing-body combinations have been conducted in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel at a Reynolds number of 4 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.19 to determine the effects of the bodies on the wing span load distributions. The wings had 45 degrees sweepback of the quarter-chord line, aspect ratio 8.02, taper ratio 0.45, and incorporated 12-percent-thick airfoil sections streamwise. One wing was untwisted and uncambered whereas the second wing incorporated both twist and camber. Identical bodies of revolution, of 10:1 fineness ratio, having diameter-to-span ratios of 0.10, were mounted in mid-high-wing arrangements. The effects of wind incidence, wing fences, and flap deflection were determined for the plane uncambered wing. The addition of the body to the plane wing increased the exposed wing loading at a given lift coefficient as much as 10 percent with the body at 0 degrees incidence and 4 percent at 4 degrees incidence. The bending-moment coefficients at the wing-body juncture were increased about 2 percent with the body at 0 degrees incidence, whereas the increases were as much as 10 percent with the body at 4 degrees incidence. The spanwise load distributions due to the body on the plane wing as calculated by using a swept-wing method employing 19 spanwise lifting elements and control points generally showed satisfactory agreement with experiment. The spanwise load distributions due to body on the flapped plane wing and on the twisted and cambered wing were dissimilar to those obtained on the plane wing. Neither of the methods of calculation which were employed yielded distributions that agreed consistently with experiment for either the flapped plane wing or the twisted and cambered wing.

  20. A Flow Method for Chemiluminescence Determination of Antimony(III) and Antimony(V) Using a Rhodamine B-Cetyltrimethylammonium Chloride Reversed Micelle System Following On-Line Extraction.

    PubMed

    Hasanin, Tamer H A; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Yasuaki; Ishizaka, Shoji; Fujiwara, Terufumi

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive flow method, based on the combination of on-line solvent extraction with reversed micellar mediated chemiluminescence (CL) detection using rhodamine B (RB), was developed for the determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in aqueous samples. The on-line extraction procedure involved ion-pair formation of the antimony(V) chloro-complex anion with the protonated RBH(+) ion and its extraction from an aqueous hydrochloric acid solution into toluene, followed by phase separation using a microporous membrane. When in a flow cell of a detector, the ion-pair in the extract driven was mixed with the reversed micellar solution of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride in 1-hexanol-cyclohexane/water (0.60 mol dm(-3) H2SO4) containing cerium(IV), its uptake by the reversed micelles and the subsequent CL oxidation of RB with Ce(IV) occurred easily, then the produced CL signal was measured. Using the proposed flow method under the optimized experimental conditions, a detection limit (DL) of 0.35 μmol dm(-3) and a linear calibration graph with a dynamic range from DL to 16 μmol dm(-3) were obtained for Sb(V) with a precision of 1.4% relative standard deviation (n = 5) at the Sb(V) concentration of 8.2 μmol dm(-3). The present method was successfully applied to the determination of Sb(V) in water samples and to the differential determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in copper electrolyte industrial samples, where total antimony Sb(III) + Sb(V) was determined after oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) with Ce(IV) and Sb(III) was calculated by difference, for which the DL was almost the same as that for Sb(V). PMID:26860574

  1. Determination of (ultra)trace amounts of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) in water by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration and separation in a knotted reactor.

    PubMed

    Yan, X P; Kerrich, R; Hendry, M J

    1998-11-15

    A method has been developed for determination of (ultra)trace amounts of As(III) and As(V) in water by flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration and separation coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) using a knotted reactor (KR). The determination of As(III) was achieved by selective formation of the As(III)-pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex over a sample acidity range of 0.01-0.7 mol L-1 HNO3, its adsorption onto the inner walls of the KR made from 150-cm-long, 0.5-mm-i.d. PTFE tubing, elution with 1 mol L-1 HNO3, and detection by ICPMS. Total inorganic arsenic was determined after prereduction of As(V) to As(III) in a 1% (m/v) L-cysteine-0.03 mol L-1 HNO3 media. The concentration of As(V) was calculated by difference (the total inorganic arsenic and As(III)). Owing to the group-specific character of the chelating agent, and the use of an efficient rinsing step before elution, the interferences encountered in conventional ICPMS from common major matrix, alkali and alkaline earth metals, and chlorides were eliminated. The presence of organoarsenic species such as monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate in water samples had no effect on the results of As(III) and As(V). Thus, the method can be applied to the speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic at submicrogram per liter levels in aqueous solutions with high total content of dissolved solid and/or high content of chlorides. Using a preconcentration time of 60 s and a sample flow rate of 5 mL min-1, an enhancement factor of 22 was achieved in comparison with conventional ICPMS. The time required for a single determination was 200 s. The detection limits (3s) was evaluated to be 0.021 microgram L-1 for As(III) and 0.029 microgram L-1 for total inorganic arsenic. The precision for 14 replicate determinations of 1 microgram L-1 As(III) was 2.8% (RSD) with drift correction and 3.9% (RSD) without drift correction. The concentrations of As(III) and As(V) in synthetic mixtures obtained

  2. Downwash in the plane of symmetry of an elliptically loaded wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    A closed-form solution for the downwash in the plane of symmetry of an elliptically loaded line is given. This theoretical result is derived from Prandtl's lifting-line theory and assumes that: (1) a three-dimensional wing can be replaced by a straight lifting line, (2) this line is elliptically loaded, and (3) the trailing wake is a flat-sheet which does not roll up. The first assumption is reasonable for distances greater than about 1 chord from the wing aerodynamic center. The second assumption is satisfied by any combination of wing twist, spanwise camber variation, or planform that approximates elliptic loading. The third assumption is justified only for high-aspect-ratio wings at low lift coefficients and downstream distances less than about 1 span from the aerodynamic center. It is shown, however, that assuming the wake to be fully rolled up gives downwash values reasonably close to those of the flat-sheet solution derived in this paper. The wing can therefore be modeled as a single horseshoe vortex with the same lift and total circulation as the equivalent ellipticity loaded line, and the predicted downwash will be a close approximation independent of aspect ratio and lift coefficient. The flat-sheet equation and the fully rolled up wake equation are both one-line formulas that predict the upwash field in front of the wing, as well as the downwash field behind it. These formulas are useful for preliminary estimates of the complex aerodynamic interaction between two wings (i.e., canard, tandem wing, and conventional aircraft) including the effects of gap and stagger.

  3. Effect of FUT3 gene silencing with miRNA on proliferation, invasion and migration abilities of human KATO-III gastric cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y-J; Zheng, X-F; Lu, C-H; Jiang, Q; Liu, Q; Xin, Y-H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of FUT3 gene expression inhibition with miRNA on the proliferation, invasion and migration abilities of KATO-III cells. KATO-III cells were transfected with plasmid pcDNA™6.2-GW/EmGFP-FUT3-miR(FUT3-miRNA) and negative control plasmid in mediation of liposome, respectively, using untransfected cells as blank controls. Forty-eight hours after transfection, FUT3 mRNA levels were tested by RT-PCR. Levels of sLeA proteins were assayed by Western blot. The effects of FUT3-miRNA on the proliferation, invasion and migration of KATO-III cells were determined by CCK8 testing and Transwell assays, respectively. Results indicate that the transfection of FUT3-miRNA may down-regulate sLeA protein expression on the surface of KATO-III cells, and significantly inhibit cell proliferation (p<0.05). As compared to the negative and blank control groups, the number of invasion and migration cells in the FUT3-miRNA group decreased significantly (each p<0.05). Experimental results indicate that the miRNA expression vector which targets the FUT3 gene can effectively inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of KATO-III cells. PMID:27453266

  4. CONNECTION BETWEEN MID-INFRARED EMISSION PROPERTIES AND NARROW-LINE REGION OUTFLOWS IN TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Kai; Wang Tinggui; Dong Xiaobo; Yan Lin

    2013-05-01

    The location of warm dust producing the mid-infrared (MIR) emission in type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is complex and not yet fully known. We explore this problem by studying how the MIR covering factor (CF{sub MIR} = L{sub MIR}/L{sub bol}) correlates with the fundamental parameters of AGN accretion process (such as L{sub bol}, black hole mass M{sub BH}, and Eddington ratio L/L{sub Edd}) and the properties of narrow emission lines (as represented by [O III] {lambda}5007), using large data sets derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS) and the Wide Infrared Sky Survey (WISE). First, we find that the luminosity of the [O III] wing component (L{sub wing}) correlates more tightly with the continuum luminosity ({lambda}L{sub {lambda}}(5100)) than the luminosity of the line core component (L{sub core}) does, which is in line with our previous conclusion that the wing component, generally blueshifted, originates from the polar outflows in the inner narrow-line region (NLR). We then find that the MIR CF shows the strongest correlation with L{sub wing}/L{sub bol} rather than with L{sub core}/L{sub bol} or the above fundamental AGN parameters, and the correlation becomes stronger as the infrared wavelength increases. We also confirm the anti-correlations of CF{sub MIR} with L{sub bol} and M{sub BH}, and the lack of dependence of CF{sub MIR} on the Eddington ratio. These results suggest that a large fraction of the warm dust producing MIR emission in AGNs is likely embedded in polar outflows in the NLR instead of in the torus.

  5. Static aeroelastic analysis of composite wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, IN; Hong, Chang Sun; Miura, Hirokazu; Kim, Seung KO

    1990-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that can predict aerodynamic loads for the deformed shape of the composite wing has been developed. The finite element method (FEM) was used for composite plate structural analysis, and the linear vortex lattice method (VLM) was used for steady aerodynamic analysis. The final deformed shape of the wing due to applied forces is determined by iterative manner using FEM and VLM. FEM and VLM analysis are related by a surface spline interpolation procedure. The wing with Gr/Ep composite material has been investigated to see the wing deformation effect. Aerodynamic load change due to wing flexibility has been investigated. Also, the effect of fiber orientation and sweep angle on the deformation pattern and aerodynamic coefficients are examined. For a certain fiber orientation, the deflection and aerodynamic loading of the composite wing is very much reduced. The swept forward wing has more significant effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic coefficient than the swept back wing does.

  6. Dew-driven folding of insect wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Beadles, Sam; Clement, Courtney; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Small insect wings fold into tacos when exposed to dewfall or fog for extended times. Such shapes are tightly held together and require great force or long evaporation times for the wings to unfold. In this experimental investigation, we use time-lapse and high-speed videography on a mosquito wing exposed to fog to characterize the folding process from a flat wing to a taco. We observe a taco is formed through a series of processes involving wing bending, unbending, and subsequent tight folding of the wing following the sliding of the drop off the wing. We use a simplified 2D model to determine the forces coalescing drops exert on the wing, and present folding-resistant design suggestions for micro-aerial vehicle wings.

  7. Far wing depolarization of light - Generalized absorption profiles. [in laser fluorescence spectroscopy of Sr vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, P.; Burnett, K.; Cooper, J.

    1981-01-01

    An absorption (and/or emission) event which takes place during a strong collision is called a 'correlated event'. It is discussed how correlated events affect the far red wing depolarization of fluorescence. Attention is given to an atomic vapor which is irradiated by linearly polarized light of a frequency on the red side of the resonance line. Two limiting cases are considered, corresponding to excitation in the impact region and in the quasi-static wing. In the quasi-static wing, absorption of a photon followed by fluorescence (rather than Rayleigh scattering), occurs mostly during a collision. Correlated events dominate the scattering process. Expressions derived for the polarization of the fluorescent light are applied to far red wing depolarization. It is found that the polarization of the fluorescent light does not go to zero in the far wing, but depends crucially on the detailed nature of the anisotropy in the long-range part of the interatomic potential.

  8. Gyroscopic sensing in the wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta: the role of sensor location and directional sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Brian T; Morgansen, Kristi A

    2015-10-01

    The wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta are lined with mechanoreceptors called campaniform sensilla that encode wing deformations. During flight, the wings deform in response to a variety of stimuli, including inertial-elastic loads due to the wing flapping motion, aerodynamic loads, and exogenous inertial loads transmitted by disturbances. Because the wings are actuated, flexible structures, the strain-sensitive campaniform sensilla are capable of detecting inertial rotations and accelerations, allowing the wings to serve not only as a primary actuator, but also as a gyroscopic sensor for flight control. We study the gyroscopic sensing of the hawkmoth wings from a control theoretic perspective. Through the development of a low-order model of flexible wing flapping dynamics, and the use of nonlinear observability analysis, we show that the rotational acceleration inherent in wing flapping enables the wings to serve as gyroscopic sensors. We compute a measure of sensor fitness as a function of sensor location and directional sensitivity by using the simulation-based empirical observability Gramian. Our results indicate that gyroscopic information is encoded primarily through shear strain due to wing twisting, where inertial rotations cause detectable changes in pronation and supination timing and magnitude. We solve an observability-based optimal sensor placement problem to find the optimal configuration of strain sensor locations and directional sensitivities for detecting inertial rotations. The optimal sensor configuration shows parallels to the campaniform sensilla found on hawkmoth wings, with clusters of sensors near the wing root and wing tip. The optimal spatial distribution of strain directional sensitivity provides a hypothesis for how heterogeneity of campaniform sensilla may be distributed. PMID:26440705

  9. Investigation into the Role of Dragonfly Wing Flexibility During Passive Wing Pitch Reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Yousaf; Williams, Ventress; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team

    2013-11-01

    Wing deformation is a characteristic part of flapping wing flight. In dragonflies, a torsion wave can be observed propagating from the tip to the root during stroke reversal. In this paper, we utilize high-speed photogrammetry and 3d surface reconstruction techniques to quantify wing deformation and kinematics of a dragonfly. We then use finite elements in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation to estimate strain energy in the wing during wing pitch reversal. We use this data to analyze the role of wing structure in facilitating wing rotation and bringing about the characteristic torsion wave. The influence of the elastic force in facilitating wing rotation is then compared with inertial and aerodynamic forces as well. A quantitative look into the variation of strain energy within the insect wing during wing rotation could lead to more efficient design of dynamic wing pitching mechanisms. Supported by NSF CBET-1343154.

  10. An analytical study of the effects of jets located more than one jet diameter above a wing at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, L. E.

    1974-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to calculate the effects of blowing two jets over a swept tapered wing at low subsonic speeds. The algorithm used is based on a vortex lattice representation of the wing lifting surface and a line sink-source distribution to simulate the effects of the jet exhaust on the wing lift and drag. The method is limited to those cases where the jet exhaust does not intersect or wash the wing. The predictions of this relatively simple procedure are in remarkably good agreement with experimentally measured interference lift and interference induced drag.

  11. An analytical study of the effects of jets located more than one jet diameter above a wing at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, L. E.

    1974-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for calculating the effects of blowing two jets over a swept tapered wing at low subsonic speeds. The algorithm used is based on a vortex-lattice representation of the wing lifting surface and a line sink-source distribution to simulate the effects of the jet exhaust on the wing lift and drag. The method is limited to those cases in which the jet exhaust does not intersect or wash the wing. The predictions of this relatively simple procedure are in remarkably good agreement with experimentally measured interference lift and interference induced drag.

  12. Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Low Speed of the Effects of Chordwise Wing Fences and Horizontal-Tail Position on the Static Longitudinal Stability Characteristics of an Airplane Model with a 35 Degree Sweptback Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queijo, M J; Jaquet, Byron M; Wolhart, Walter D

    1954-01-01

    Low-speed tests of a model with a wing swept back 35 degrees at the 0.33-chord line and a horizontal tail located well above the extended wing-chord plane indicated static longitudinal instability at moderate angles of attack for all configurations tested. An investigation therefore was made to determine whether the longitudinal stability could be improved by the use of chordwise wing fences, by lowering the horizontal tail, or by a combination of both. The results of the investigation showed that the longitudinal stability characteristics of the model with slats retracted could be improved at moderate angles of attack by placing chordwise wing fences at a spanwise station of about 73 percent of the wing semispan from the plane of symmetry provided the nose of the fence extended slightly beyond or around the wing leading edge.

  13. Aircraft wing structural detail design (wing, aileron, flaps, and subsystems)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Robert; Zable, Mike; Hughes, James; Heiser, Terry; Adrian, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this project was to design, in detail, the wing, flaps, and ailerons for a primary flight trainer. Integrated in this design are provisions for the fuel system, the electrical system, and the fuselage/cabin carry-through interface structure. This conceptual design displays the general arrangement of all major components in the wing structure, taking into consideration the requirements set forth by the appropriate sections of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23 (FAR23) as well as those established in the statement of work.

  14. Shock Location Dominated Transonic Flight Loads on the Active Aeroelastic Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William A.; Lizotte, Andrew; Lindsley, Ned J.; Stauf, Rick

    2005-01-01

    During several Active Aeroelastic Wing research flights, the shadow of the over-wing shock could be observed because of natural lighting conditions. As the plane accelerated, the shock location moved aft, and as the shadow passed the aileron and trailing-edge flap hinge lines, their associated hinge moments were substantially affected. The observation of the dominant effect of shock location on aft control surface hinge moments led to this investigation. This report investigates the effect of over-wing shock location on wing loads through flight-measured data and analytical predictions. Wing-root and wing-fold bending moment and torque and leading- and trailing-edge hinge moments have been measured in flight using calibrated strain gages. These same loads have been predicted using a computational fluid dynamics code called the Euler Navier-Stokes Three Dimensional Aeroelastic Code. The computational fluid dynamics study was based on the elastically deformed shape estimated by a twist model, which in turn was derived from in-flight-measured wing deflections provided by a flight deflection measurement system. During level transonic flight, the shock location dominated the wing trailing-edge control surface hinge moments. The computational fluid dynamics analysis based on the shape provided by the flight deflection measurement system produced very similar results and substantially correlated with the measured loads data.

  15. Numerical simulation of the tip vortex off a low-aspect-ratio wing at transonic speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, N. N.

    1984-01-01

    The viscous transonic flow around a low aspect ratio wing was computed by an implicit, three dimensional, thin-layer Navier-Stokes solver. The grid around the geometry of interest is obtained numerically as a solution to a Dirichlet problem for the cube. A low aspect ratio wing with large sweep, twist, taper, and camber is the chosen geometry. The topology chosen to wrap the mesh around the wing with good tip resolution is a C-O type mesh. The flow around the wing was computed for a free stream Mach number of 0.82 at an angle of attack of 5 deg. At this Mach number, an oblique shock forms on the upper surface of the wing, and a tip vortex and three dimensional flow separation off the wind surface are observed. Particle path lines indicate that the three dimensional flow separation on the wing surface is part of the roots of the tip vortex formation. The lifting of the tip vortex before the wing trailing edge is observed by following the trajectory of particles release around the wing tip.

  16. [Maintenance of Pure Lines and Hybridization.] Student Materials. V.A. III. [IV-A-1 through IV-A-2].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Part of a series of eight student learning modules in vocational agriculture, this booklet deals with plant reproduction. Topics covered include the pure line theory and its history, pure line selection, the effect of inbreeding on vitality, the definition of and reasons for hybridization in plants, and techniques for producing hybirds; a list of…

  17. Vonoprazan, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, as a component of first-line and second-line triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a phase III, randomised, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Kazunari; Sakurai, Yuuichi; Shiino, Madoka; Funao, Nobuo; Nishimura, Akira; Asaka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of vonoprazan, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, as a component of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Design A randomised, double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group study was conducted to verify the non-inferiority of vonoprazan 20 mg to lansoprazole 30 mg as part of first-line triple therapy (with amoxicillin 750 mg and clarithromycin 200 or 400 mg) in H pylori-positive patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer history. The first 50 patients failing first-line therapy with good compliance also received second-line vonoprazan-based triple therapy (with amoxicillin 750 mg and metronidazole 250 mg) as an open-label treatment. Results Of the 650 subjects randomly allocated to either first-line triple therapy, 641 subjects completed first-line therapy and 50 subjects completed second-line therapy. The first-line eradication rate (primary end point) was 92.6% (95% CI 89.2% to 95.2%) with vonoprazan versus 75.9% (95% CI 70.9% to 80.5%) with lansoprazole, with the difference being 16.7% (95% CI 11.2% to 22.1%) in favour of vonoprazan, thus confirming the non-inferiority of vonoprazan (p<0.0001). The second-line eradication rate (secondary end point) was also high (98.0%; 95% CI 89.4% to 99.9%) in those who received second-line therapy (n=50). Both first-line triple therapies were well tolerated with no notable differences. Second-line triple therapy was also well tolerated. Conclusion Vonoprazan is effective as part of first-line triple therapy and as part of second-line triple therapy in H pylori-positive patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcer. Trial registration number NCT01505127. PMID:26935876

  18. Lift and Drag of Wings with Small Span

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinig, F.

    1947-01-01

    The lift coefficient of!a wing of small span at first shows a linear increase for the increasing angle of attack, but to a lesser degree then was to be expected according to the theory of the lifting line; thereafter the lift coefficient increases more rapidly than linearity, as contrasted with the the theory of the lifting line. The induced drag coefficient for a given lift coefficient, on the other hand, is obviously much smaller than it would be according to the theory. A mall change in the theory of the lifting line will cover these deviations.

  19. The Nichols Wing Cutting Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, James B

    1923-01-01

    Described here is wing cutting equipment for the economical production of metal wings for wind tunnel models. The machine will make any size of constant-section wing or strut up to one-sixth inch chord by 36-inch span and up to a thickness of one and one-quarter inches. It cuts a smooth, true model that is accurate to within two-thousandths of an inch on any ordinate. The holding jaws are so designed as to leave the model free of chip marks, and the only hand finishing necessary after the cutting is a rub with amunite to remove burrs. The actual change on ordinate in this finishing rub is less than .0002 inches.

  20. Modelling butterfly wing eyespot patterns.

    PubMed

    Dilão, Rui; Sainhas, Joaquim

    2004-08-01

    Eyespots are concentric motifs with contrasting colours on butterfly wings. Eyespots have intra- and interspecific visual signalling functions with adaptive and selective roles. We propose a reaction-diffusion model that accounts for eyespot development. The model considers two diffusive morphogens and three non-diffusive pigment precursors. The first morphogen is produced in the focus and determines the differentiation of the first eyespot ring. A second morphogen is then produced, modifying the chromatic properties of the wing background pigment precursor, inducing the differentiation of a second ring. The model simulates the general structural organization of eyespots, their phenotypic plasticity and seasonal variability, and predicts effects from microsurgical manipulations on pupal wings as reported in the literature. PMID:15306301

  1. Modelling butterfly wing eyespot patterns.

    PubMed

    Dilão, Rui; Sainhas, Joaquim

    2004-08-01

    Eyespots are concentric motifs with contrasting colours on butterfly wings. Eyespots have intra- and interspecific visual signalling functions with adaptive and selective roles. We propose a reaction-diffusion model that accounts for eyespot development. The model considers two diffusive morphogens and three non-diffusive pigment precursors. The first morphogen is produced in the focus and determines the differentiation of the first eyespot ring. A second morphogen is then produced, modifying the chromatic properties of the wing background pigment precursor, inducing the differentiation of a second ring. The model simulates the general structural organization of eyespots, their phenotypic plasticity and seasonal variability, and predicts effects from microsurgical manipulations on pupal wings as reported in the literature.

  2. Schooling of flapping wings: Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud, Hassan; Becker, Alexander; Ristroph, Leif; Shelley, Michael

    2014-11-01

    We examine the locomotion of an infinite array of wings that heave vertically with a prescribed sinusoidal motion and are free to translate in the horizontal direction. To do this, we simulate the motion of a freely translating flapping airfoil in a domain with periodic horizontal boundary conditions. These simulations indicate that the wings can ``take advantage'' of their collectively generated wake flows. In agreement with our experiments in a rotational geometry, we find ranges of flapping frequency over which there are multiple stable states of locomotion, with one of these swimming states having both higher speeds and efficiencies than an isolated flapping and locomoting wing. A simple mathematical model, which emphasizes the importance of history dependence in vortical flows, explains this multi-stability. These results may be important to understanding the role of hydrodynamic interactions in fish schooling and bird flocking.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and theoretical calculations of (1,2-diaminocyclohexane)(1,3-diaminopropane)gold(III) chloride complexes: in vitro cytotoxic evaluations against human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaroudi, Said S; Altaf, Muhammad; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Kawde, Abdel-Nasser; Altuwaijri, Saleh; Ahmad, Saeed; Isab, Anvarhusein A

    2015-10-01

    The gold(III) complexes of the type (1,2-diaminocyclohexane)(1,3-diaminopropane)gold(III) chloride, [(DACH)Au(pn)]Cl3, [where DACH = cis-, trans-1,2- and S,S-1,2-diaminocyclohexane and pn = 1,3-diaminopropane] have been synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic and analytical techniques including elemental analysis, UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy; solution as well as solid-state NMR measurements. The solid-state (13)C NMR shows that 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (1,2-DACH) and 1,3-diaminopropane (pn) are strongly bound to the gold(III) center via N donor atoms. The stability of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) was checked by UV-Vis spectroscopy and NMR measurements. The molecular structure of compound 1 (containing cis-1,2-DACH) was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure of 1 consists of [(cis-DACH)Au(pn)](3+) complex ion and chloride counter ions. Each gold atom in the complex ion adopts a distorted square-planar geometry. The structural details and relative stabilities of the four possible isomers of the complexes were also estimated at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theoretical calculations. The computational study demonstrates that trans- conformations are slightly more stable than the cis- conformations. The antiproliferative effects and cytotoxic properties of the mixed ligand gold(III) complexes were evaluated in vitro on human gastric SGC7901 and prostate PC3 cancer cells using MTT assay. The antiproliferative study of the gold(III) complexes on PC3 and SGC7901 cells indicate that complex 3 (containing 1S,2S-(+)-1,2-(DACH)) is the most effective antiproliferative agent. The IC50 data reveal that the in vitro cytotoxicity of complex 3 against SGC7901 cancer cells manifested similar and very pronounced cytotoxic effects with respect to cisplatin. Moreover, the electrochemical behavior, and the interaction of complex 3 with two well-known model proteins, namely, hen egg white lysozyme and bovine serum albumin is also reported. PMID

  4. Synthesis, characterization and theoretical calculations of (1,2-diaminocyclohexane)(1,3-diaminopropane)gold(III) chloride complexes: in vitro cytotoxic evaluations against human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaroudi, Said S; Altaf, Muhammad; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Kawde, Abdel-Nasser; Altuwaijri, Saleh; Ahmad, Saeed; Isab, Anvarhusein A

    2015-10-01

    The gold(III) complexes of the type (1,2-diaminocyclohexane)(1,3-diaminopropane)gold(III) chloride, [(DACH)Au(pn)]Cl3, [where DACH = cis-, trans-1,2- and S,S-1,2-diaminocyclohexane and pn = 1,3-diaminopropane] have been synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic and analytical techniques including elemental analysis, UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy; solution as well as solid-state NMR measurements. The solid-state (13)C NMR shows that 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (1,2-DACH) and 1,3-diaminopropane (pn) are strongly bound to the gold(III) center via N donor atoms. The stability of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) was checked by UV-Vis spectroscopy and NMR measurements. The molecular structure of compound 1 (containing cis-1,2-DACH) was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure of 1 consists of [(cis-DACH)Au(pn)](3+) complex ion and chloride counter ions. Each gold atom in the complex ion adopts a distorted square-planar geometry. The structural details and relative stabilities of the four possible isomers of the complexes were also estimated at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theoretical calculations. The computational study demonstrates that trans- conformations are slightly more stable than the cis- conformations. The antiproliferative effects and cytotoxic properties of the mixed ligand gold(III) complexes were evaluated in vitro on human gastric SGC7901 and prostate PC3 cancer cells using MTT assay. The antiproliferative study of the gold(III) complexes on PC3 and SGC7901 cells indicate that complex 3 (containing 1S,2S-(+)-1,2-(DACH)) is the most effective antiproliferative agent. The IC50 data reveal that the in vitro cytotoxicity of complex 3 against SGC7901 cancer cells manifested similar and very pronounced cytotoxic effects with respect to cisplatin. Moreover, the electrochemical behavior, and the interaction of complex 3 with two well-known model proteins, namely, hen egg white lysozyme and bovine serum albumin is also reported.

  5. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  6. Flexible-Wing-Based Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifju, Peter G.; Jenkins, David A.; Ettinger, Scott; Lian, Yong-Sheng; Shyy, Wei; Waszak, Martin R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper documents the development and evaluation of an original flexible-wing-based Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) technology that reduces adverse effects of gusty wind conditions and unsteady aerodynamics, exhibits desirable flight stability, and enhances structural durability. The flexible wing concept has been demonstrated on aircraft with wingspans ranging from 18 inches to 5 inches. Salient features of the flexible-wing-based MAV, including the vehicle concept, flexible wing design, novel fabrication methods, aerodynamic assessment, and flight data analysis are presented.

  7. Aerodynamics of dynamic wing flexion in translating wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Cheng, Bo; Sane, Sanjay P.; Deng, Xinyan

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a systematic experimental study to investigate the aerodynamic effects of active trailing-edge flexion on a high-aspect-ratio wing translating from rest at a high angle of attack. We varied the timing and speed of the trailing-edge flexion and measured the resulting aerodynamic effects using a combination of direct force measurements and two-dimensional PIV flow measurements. The results indicated that the force and flow characteristics depend strongly on the timing of flexion, but relatively weakly on its speed. This is because the force and vortical flow structure are more sensitive to the timing of flexion relative to the shedding of starting vortex and leading-edge vortex. When the trailing-edge flexion occurred slightly before the starting vortex was shed, the lift production was greatly improved with the instantaneous peak lift increased by 54 % and averaged lift increased by 21 % compared with the pre-flexed case where the trailing-edge flexed before wing translation. However, when the trailing-edge flexed during or slightly after the leading-edge vortex shedding, the lift was significantly reduced by the disturbed development of leading-edge vortex. The force measurement results also imply that the trailing-edge flexion prior to wing translation does not augment lift but increases drag, thus resulting in a lower lift-drag ratio as compared to the case of flat wing.

  8. X-Wing Research Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    One of the most unusual experimental flight vehicles appearing at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center) in the 1980s was the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) X-Wing aircraft, seen here on the ramp. The craft was developed originally and then modified by Sikorsky Aircraft for a joint NASA-Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) program and was rolled out 19 August 1986. Taxi tests and initial low-altitude flight tests without the main rotor attached were carried out at Dryden before the program was terminated in 1988. The unusual aircraft that resulted from the Ames Research Center/Army X-Wing Project was flown at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, beginning in the spring of 1984, with a follow-on program beginning in 1986. The program, was conceived to provide an efficient combination of the vertical lift characteristic of conventional helicopters and the high cruise speed of fixed-wing aircraft. It consisted of a hybrid vehicle called the NASA/Army Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA), which was equipped with advanced X-wing rotor systems. The program began in the early 1970s to investigate ways to increase the speed of rotor aircraft, as well as their performance, reliability, and safety . It also sought to reduce the noise, vibration, and maintenance costs of helicopters. Sikorsky Aircraft Division of United Technologies Laboratories built two RSRA aircraft. NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, did some initial testing and transferred the program to Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, for an extensive flight research program conducted by Ames and the Army. The purpose of the 1984 tests was to demonstrate the fixed-wing capability of the helicopter/airplane hybrid research vehicle and explore its flight envelope and flying qualities. These tests, flown by Ames pilot G. Warren Hall and Army Maj (soon

  9. The optical depth of the 158 micrometer (C-12 II) line: Detection of the F=1 yields 0 (C-13 III) hyperfine-structure component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, G. J.; Townes, C. H.; Poglitsch, A.; Madden, S. C.; Jackson, J. M.; Herrmann, F.; Genzel, R.; Geis, N.

    1991-01-01

    The first detection of the F = 1 yields 0 hyperfine component of the 158 micrometer (C-13 II) fine structure line in the interstellar medium is reported. A twelve point intensity map was obtained of the (C-13 II) distribution over the inner 190 inch (right ascension) by 190 inch (declination) regions of the Orion nebula using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer. The (C-12 II)/(C-13 II) line intensity ratio varied significantly over the region mapped. It is highest (86 plus or minus 9) in the core of the Orion H II region and significantly lower (62 plus or minus 7) in the outer regions of the map, reflecting higher optical depth in the (C-12 II) line here. It is suggested that this enhanced optical depth is the result of limb brightening of the optically thin (C-13 II) line at the edges of the bowl-shaped H II region blister. If the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio is 43, the (C-12 II) line in the inner regions of the Orion nebula, has a low optical depth: tau sub 12 approximately = 0.75 plus or minus 0.25. The optical depth together with the large brightness temperature of the (C-12 II) line (approximately 160 K) requires that the excitation temperature of the P-2 sub 3/2 level be approximately 310 K, in very good agreement with the previous analysis of the physical conditions of the Orion interface region based on fine structure line intensity ratios and photodissociation region models. If the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio is 67, the line optical depth is somewhat larger (tau sub 12 approximately = 1.85), and the transition excitation temperature is somewhat smaller (approximately 190 K) than that predicted by these models. The present results therefore support values approximately = 43 for the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio in the Orion nebula.

  10. Late Pleistocene deposits at Wing, Rutland.

    PubMed

    Hall, A R

    1980-05-01

    The context, lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of a series of Pleistocene deposits from Wing, Rutland, in the East Midlands of England are described. The sequence of till, lake clays, compressed wood and moss peats and peaty silts is shown to occupy a small, closed basin cut deeply into the Jurassic bedrock. The basin appears to have been excavated by ice responsible for the deposition of Chalky Jurassic Till in the area, and this till lines the floor and sides of the basin. Pollen and plant macrofossil analyses have provided a long and continuous record of vegetational and environmental history at the site and the deposits have been dated by pollen analysis to the Last (Ipswichian) Interglacial and early Devensian Glacial stages (pollen zones Ip IIb to e De). With certain reservations, the sequence is compared and correlated with other interglacial deposits in Britain.

  11. Winged bean in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kadam, S S; Salunkhe, D K

    1984-01-01

    Protein calorie malnutrition is prevalent in many developing countries of the tropics and subtropics. Improvement of protein supply to meet the demand of a growing population necessitates utilization of unconventional protein sources. Winged bean, a high protein crop, is one of the important underexploited legumes of the tropics. All the plant parts, viz., seeds, immature pods, leaves, flowers and tubers are edible. Mature seeds contain 29 to 37% proteins and 15 to 18% oil. It has fairly good amounts of phosphorus, iron, and vitamin B. Essential amino acid composition of winged bean is very similar to that of soybean. The fatty acid composition is very much comparable to groundnut. It contains relatively high amounts of behenic acid and parinaric acid. The trypsin inhibitor in winged bean has been shown to be heat resistant. Other toxic factors such as hemagglutinins and cyanide have also been reported. Winged bean seeds are hard to cook. Soaking of seeds in the Rockland's soak solution containing sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, and sodium pyrophosphate reduces cooking time significantly. The potential uses of this important crop in human nutrition and future research needs are discussed.

  12. The Wings for Angels Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Liberty; McMillan, Ellen; Ayers, Ann

    2012-01-01

    How can the spirits of critically ill children be raised? Alexis Weisel (co-president of the Monarch High School National Art Honor Society, 2010-2011) had this question in mind when she initiated and developed the Wings for Angels Project after hearing about the Believe in Tomorrow (BIT) organization through her art teacher, Ellen McMillan. The…

  13. [Winged scapula in lyme borreliosis].

    PubMed

    Rausch, V; Königshausen, M; Gessmann, J; Schildhauer, T A; Seybold, D

    2016-06-01

    Here we present the case of a young patient with one-sided winged scapula and lyme borreliosis. This disease can be very delimitating in daily life. If non-operative treatment fails, dynamic or static stabilization of the scapula can be a therapeutic option.

  14. On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millson, David

    2000-01-01

    The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

  15. Rotary wing aerodynamically generated noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. J.; Morse, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The history and methodology of aerodynamic noise reduction in rotary wing aircraft are presented. Thickness noise during hover tests and blade vortex interaction noise are determined and predicted through the use of a variety of computer codes. The use of test facilities and scale models for data acquisition are discussed.

  16. Effects of line shifts and the ion quadrupole contribution of spectral line asymmetries.

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, M. A.; Delamater, N. D.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Haynes, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Line asymmetries and the corresponding shift of spectral lines due to the electron penetration of the radiator orbitals and the ion quadrupole contribution become more significant with increasing principal quantum number and increasing electron density. The mean field static shift due to electron penetration of the orbitals gives rise to an overall shift of the line to lower energy and a significant asymmetry near line center, but does not generate much redhlue far wing asymmetry. The ion quadrupole contribution results in a small blue shift of the spectral line and a small change in asymmetry near line center, but it gives rise to a significant redhlue wing asymmetry in the far wings of the line. Experimental data fiom recent spherical implosion experiments on OMEGA shows evidence of the mean field static shift and may also show the effects of level interactions between the Ar Lyman -{gamma}, -{delta}, -{var_epsilon} lines and also the Ar He -{gamma}, -{delta} lines.

  17. Broad Halpha Wing Formation in the Planetary Nebula IC 4997.

    PubMed

    Lee; Hyung

    2000-02-10

    The young and compact planetary nebula IC 4997 is known to exhibit very broad wings with a width exceeding 5000 km s-1 around Halpha. We propose that the broad wings are formed through Rayleigh-Raman scattering that involves atomic hydrogen, by which Lybeta photons with a velocity width of a few 102 km s-1 are converted to optical photons and fill the Halpha broad wing region. The conversion efficiency reaches 0.6 near the line center, where the scattering optical depth is much larger than 1, and rapidly decreases in the far wings. Assuming that close to the central star there exists an unresolved inner compact core of high density, nH approximately 109-1010 cm-3, we use the photoionization code "CLOUDY" to show that sufficient Lybeta photons for scattering are produced. Using a top-hat-incident profile for the Lybeta flux and a scattering region with a H i column density NHi=2x1020 cm-2 and a substantial covering factor, we perform a profile-fitting analysis in order to obtain a satisfactory fit to the observed flux. We briefly discuss the astrophysical implications of the Rayleigh-Raman processes in planetary nebulae and other emission objects. PMID:10642203

  18. F-8 oblique wing structural feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koltko, E.; Katz, A.; Bell, M. A.; Smith, W. D.; Lauridia, R.; Overstreet, C. T.; Klapprott, C.; Orr, T. F.; Jobe, C. L.; Wyatt, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of fitting a rotating oblique wing on an F-8 aircraft to produce a full scale manned prototype capable of operating in the transonic and supersonic speed range was investigated. The strength, aeroelasticity, and fatigue life of such a prototype are analyzed. Concepts are developed for a new wing, a pivot, a skewing mechanism, control systems that operate through the pivot, and a wing support assembly that attaches in the F-8 wing cavity. The modification of the two-place NTF-8A aircraft to the oblique wing configuration is discussed.

  19. Protodioscin isolated from fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) induces cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptosis in leukemic cell line H-60, but not in gastric cancer cell line KATO III.

    PubMed

    Hibasami, Hiroshige; Moteki, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kengo; Katsuzaki, Hirotaka; Imai, Kunio; Yoshioka, Kazumi; Ishii, Yaeko; Komiya, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Protodioscin (PD) was purified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) and identified by Mass, and 1H- and 13C-NMR. The effects of PD on cell viability in human leukemia HL-60 and human stomach cancer KATO III cells were investigated. PD displayed strong growth inhibitory effect against HL-60 cells, but weak growth inhibitory effect on KATO III cells. Morphological change showing apoptotic bodies was observed in the HL-60 cells treated with PD, but not in KATO III cells treated with PD. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the hypodiploid nuclei of HL-60 cells were increased to 75.2, 96.3, and 100% after a 3-day treatment with 2.5, 5, and 10 microM PD, respectively. The fragmentation by PD of DNA to oligonucleosomal-sized fragments, that is a characteristic of apoptosis, was observed to be both concentration- and time-dependent in the HL-60 cells. These findings suggest that growth inhibition by PD of HL-60 cells results from the induction of apoptosis by this compound in HL-60 cells. PMID:12469212

  20. Protodioscin isolated from fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) induces cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptosis in leukemic cell line H-60, but not in gastric cancer cell line KATO III.

    PubMed

    Hibasami, Hiroshige; Moteki, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kengo; Katsuzaki, Hirotaka; Imai, Kunio; Yoshioka, Kazumi; Ishii, Yaeko; Komiya, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Protodioscin (PD) was purified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) and identified by Mass, and 1H- and 13C-NMR. The effects of PD on cell viability in human leukemia HL-60 and human stomach cancer KATO III cells were investigated. PD displayed strong growth inhibitory effect against HL-60 cells, but weak growth inhibitory effect on KATO III cells. Morphological change showing apoptotic bodies was observed in the HL-60 cells treated with PD, but not in KATO III cells treated with PD. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the hypodiploid nuclei of HL-60 cells were increased to 75.2, 96.3, and 100% after a 3-day treatment with 2.5, 5, and 10 microM PD, respectively. The fragmentation by PD of DNA to oligonucleosomal-sized fragments, that is a characteristic of apoptosis, was observed to be both concentration- and time-dependent in the HL-60 cells. These findings suggest that growth inhibition by PD of HL-60 cells results from the induction of apoptosis by this compound in HL-60 cells.

  1. Rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felker, F. F.; Light, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover is described. The experimental investigation consisted of both a large-scale and small-scale test. A 0.658-scale, V-22 rotor and wing was used in the large-scale test. Wind download, wing surface pressure, rotor performance, and rotor downwash data from the large-scale test are presented. A small-scale experiment was conducted to determine how changes in the rotor/wing geometry affected the aerodynamic interactions. These geometry variations included the distance between the rotor and wing, wing incidence angle, and configurations both with the rotor axis at the tip of the wing (tilt rotor configuration) and with the rotor axis at the center of the wing (compound helicopter configuration). A wing with boundary-layer control was also tested to evaluate the effect of leading and trailing edge upper surface blowing on the wing download. A computationally efficient, semi-empirical theory was developed to predict the download on the wing. Finally, correlations between the theoretical predictions and test data are presented.

  2. Piezoelectrically actuated insect scale flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sujoy; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2010-04-01

    An energy method is used in order to derive the non-linear equations of motion of a smart flapping wing. Flapping wing is actuated from the root by a PZT unimorph in the piezofan configuration. Dynamic characteristics of the wing, having the same size as dragonfly Aeshna Multicolor, are analyzed using numerical simulations. It is shown that flapping angle variations of the smart flapping wing are similar to the actual dragonfly wing for a specific feasible voltage. An unsteady aerodynamic model based on modified strip theory is used to obtain the aerodynamic forces. It is found that the smart wing generates sufficient lift to support its own weight and carry a small payload. It is therefore a potential candidate for flapping wing of micro air vehicles.

  3. 0714 - 2914 (M4-1) - Another Seyfert galaxy with aligned radio continuum and optical emission-line morphologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. S.; Baldwin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Direct imaging and long-slit spectroscopic mapping of the emission-line gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy 0714 - 2914 (M4-1, MCG - 5-18-2) are reported. The nuclear regions contain an extended (1 kpc size), high-excitation nebulosity that is well aligned with the jet-like nonthermal radio source. The profiles of Forbidden O III 5007A are asymmetric, with extended red wings to the north and west of the nucleus and extended blue wings to the south and east. This switch in the sense of asymmetry is accounted for in terms of a combination of normal rotational motions in the galaxy disk and high-velocity outflow or infall associated with the Seyfert activity.

  4. Wing spar stress charts and wing truss proportions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1926-01-01

    In order to simplify the calculation of beams continuous over three supports, a series of charts have been calculated giving the bending moments at all the critical points and the reactions at all supports for such members. Using these charts as a basis, calculations of equivalent bending moments, representing the total stresses acting in two bay-wing trusses of proportions varying over a wide range, have been determined, both with and without allowance for column effect. This leads finally to the determination of the best proportions for any particular truss or the best strut locations in any particular airplane. The ideal proportions are found to vary with the thickness of the wing section used, the aspect ratio, and the ratio of gap to chord.

  5. Effects of Wing Platform on the Aerodynamic Performance of Finite-Span Flapping Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Meilin; Wang, Z. J.; Hu, Hui

    2010-11-01

    A numerical study is conducted to investigate the effects of wing platform on the aerodynamics performance of finite-span flapping wings. A three-dimensional high-order Navier-Stokes compressible flow solver was developed using the spectral difference method and dynamic grids. An AUSM^+-up Riemann solver was implemented to simulate the unsteady low Mach number flows over finite-span flapping wings with explicit third order Runge-Kutta time integration. The studied finite-span flapping wings, which include a rectangular flapping wing, an elliptic flapping wing and a bio-inspired flapping wing, have the same wing span, aspect ratio of the platform and the characteristics of the flapping motion (i.e., sinusoidal trajectory of the flapping wing tip, Strouhal number and reduced frequency). In the present study, the Strouhul number (Str) of the finite-span flapping wings was selected to be well within the optimal range usually used by flying insects and birds and swimming fishes (i.e., 0.2 < Str < 0.4). The effects of the wing platform on the aerodynamics performance of the finite-span flapping wings were elucidated in the terms of the evolutions and dynamic interaction between the leading edge vortices (LEV) and the wing tip vortices as well as the resultant aerodynamic forces (both lift and thrust) generated by the flapping wings.

  6. Probing the Physics of Narrow-line Regions in Active Galaxies. III. Accretion and Cocoon Shocks in the LINER NGC 1052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Ho, I.-Ting; Dressel, Linda L.; Sutherland, Ralph; Kewley, Lisa; Davies, Rebecca; Hampton, Elise; Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S.; Scharwächter, Julia; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stéphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2015-03-01

    We present Wide Field Spectrograph integral field spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph spectroscopy for the low-ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) galaxy NGC 1052. We infer the presence of a turbulent accretion flow forming a small-scale accretion disk. We find a large-scale outflow and ionization cone along the minor axis of the galaxy. Part of this outflow region is photoionized by the active galactic nucleus and shares properties with the extended narrow-line region of Seyfert galaxies, but the inner (R≲ 1.0″) accretion disk and the region around the radio jet appear shock excited. The emission-line properties can be modeled by a “double-shock” model in which the accretion flow first passes through an accretion shock in the presence of a hard X-ray radiation, and the accretion disk is then processed through a cocoon shock driven by the overpressure of the radio jets. This model explains the observation of two distinct densities (˜104 and ˜106 cm-3) and provides a good fit to the observed emission-line spectrum. We derive estimates for the velocities of the two shock components and their mixing fractions, the black hole mass, and the accretion rate needed to sustain the LINER emission and derive an estimate for the jet power. Our emission-line model is remarkably robust against variation of input parameters and hence offers a generic explanation for the excitation of LINER galaxies, including those of spiral type such as NGC 3031 (M81).

  7. SAGE III

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-15

    SAGE III Data and Information The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas ... on the spacecraft. SAGE III produced L1 and L2 scientific data from 5/07/2002 until 12/31/2005. The flight of the second instrument is as ... Guide Documents:  Project Guide Data Products User's Guide  (PDF) Relevant Documents:  ...

  8. The aerodynamics of revolving wings I. Model hawkmoth wings.

    PubMed

    Usherwood, James R; Ellington, Charles P

    2002-06-01

    Recent work on flapping hawkmoth models has demonstrated the importance of a spiral 'leading-edge vortex' created by dynamic stall, and maintained by some aspect of spanwise flow, for creating the lift required during flight. This study uses propeller models to investigate further the forces acting on model hawkmoth wings in 'propeller-like' rotation ('revolution'). Steadily revolving model hawkmoth wings produce high vertical ( approximately lift) and horizontal ( approximately profile drag) force coefficients because of the presence of a leading-edge vortex. Both horizontal and vertical forces, at relevant angles of attack, are dominated by the pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces; separation at the leading edge prevents 'leading-edge suction'. This allows a simple geometric relationship between vertical and horizontal forces and the geometric angle of attack to be derived for thin, flat wings. Force coefficients are remarkably unaffected by considerable variations in leading-edge detail, twist and camber. Traditional accounts of the adaptive functions of twist and camber are based on conventional attached-flow aerodynamics and are not supported. Attempts to derive conventional profile drag and lift coefficients from 'steady' propeller coefficients are relatively successful for angles of incidence up to 50 degrees and, hence, for the angles normally applicable to insect flight.

  9. Similitude relations for buffet and wing rock on delta wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabey, D. G.

    1997-08-01

    Vortex flow phenomena at high angles of incidence are of great interest to the designers of advanced combat aircraft. The steady phenomena (such as steady lift and pitching moments) are understood fairly well, whereas the unsteady phenomena are still uncertain. This paper addresses two important unsteady phenomena on delta wings. With regard to the frequency parameter of the quasi-periodic excitation caused by vortex bursting, a new correlation is established covering a range of sweep back from 60 to 75°. With regard to the much lower frequency parameter of limit-cycle rigid-body wing-rock, a new experiment shows conclusively that although the motion is non-linear, the frequency parameter can be predicted by quasi-steady theory. As a consequence, for a given sweep angle, the frequency parameter is inversely proportional to the square root of the inertia in roll. This is an important observation when attempting to extrapolate from model tests in wind tunnels to predict the wing-rock characteristics of aircraft.

  10. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH). III. Far-infrared cooling lines in low-mass young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karska, A.; Herczeg, G. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Wampfler, S. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Visser, R.; Nisini, B.; San José-García, I.; Bruderer, S.; Śniady, P.; Doty, S.; Fedele, D.; Yıldız, U. A.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E.; Caselli, P.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Liseau, R.; Tafalla, M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.

    2013-04-01

    Context. Understanding the physical phenomena involved in the earlierst stages of protostellar evolution requires knowledge of the heating and cooling processes that occur in the surroundings of a young stellar object. Spatially resolved information from its constituent gas and dust provides the necessary constraints to distinguish between different theories of accretion energy dissipation into the envelope. Aims. Our aims are to quantify the far-infrared line emission from low-mass protostars and the contribution of different atomic and molecular species to the gas cooling budget, to determine the spatial extent of the emission, and to investigate the underlying excitation conditions. Analysis of the line cooling will help us characterize the evolution of the relevant physical processes as the protostar ages. Methods. Far-infrared Herschel-PACS spectra of 18 low-mass protostars of various luminosities and evolutionary stages are studied in the context of the WISH key program. For most targets, the spectra include many wavelength intervals selected to cover specific CO, H2O, OH, and atomic lines. For four targets the spectra span the entire 55-200 μm region. The PACS field-of-view covers ~47" with the resolution of 9.4". Results. Most of the protostars in our sample show strong atomic and molecular far-infrared emission. Water is detected in 17 out of 18 objects (except TMC1A), including 5 Class I sources. The high-excitation H2O 818-707 63.3 μm line (Eu/kB = 1071 K) is detected in 7 sources. CO transitions from J = 14-13 up to J = 49 - 48 are found and show two distinct temperature components on Boltzmann diagrams with rotational temperatures of ~350 K and ~700 K. H2O has typical excitation temperatures of ~150 K. Emission from both Class 0 and I sources is usually spatially extended along the outflow direction but with a pattern that depends on the species and the transition. In the extended sources, emission is stronger off source and extended on &≥10,000 AU

  11. Spanwise gradients in flow speed and leading edge vortex attachment on low Reynolds number wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardin, Thierry; David, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    It is now accepted that the aerodynamic performance of low aspect ratio revolving wings, such as insect wings or maple seed membranes, largely relies on sustained leading edge vortex attachment. However, the mechanisms responsible for this sustained attachment are still poorly understood. Here, we compute the Navier-Stokes solution of the flow around a finite wing (i) subjected to a uniform oncoming flow, (ii) subjected to a spanwise varying oncoming flow and (iii) revolving about its root. Therefore, we are able to isolate the mechanisms associated with the spanwise gradient of the local wing speed from those associated with centrifugal and Coriolis effects. We show that over flapping amplitudes typical of insect flight the spanwise gradient of the local wing speed may suffice in maintaining leading edge vortex attachment. We correlate this result with the development of spanwise flow and we evaluate the sensitivity of such a mechanism to the Reynolds number. It is noted, however, that leading edge vortex attachment through the spanwise gradient of the local wing speed does not promote large lift, which ultimately arises from centrifugal and Coriolis effects.

  12. Survival in patients with class III idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension treated with first line oral bosentan compared with an historical cohort of patients started on intravenous epoprostenol

    PubMed Central

    Sitbon, O; McLaughlin, V; Badesch, D; Barst, R; Black, C; Galie, N; Humbert, M; Rainisio, M; Rubin, L; Simonneau, G

    2005-01-01

    Background: The oral dual endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan improves exercise capacity and delays clinical worsening in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, but its use could delay starting intravenous epoprostenol, a life saving treatment. Methods: Survival in patients with functional class III idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) treated with bosentan in clinical trials was compared with historical data from similar patients treated with epoprostenol in the clinic. Statistical methods were used to adjust for possible underlying differences between the two groups. Results: Baseline factors for the 139 patients treated with bosentan and the 346 treated with epoprostenol suggested that the epoprostenol cohort had more severe disease—that is, a lower cardiac index (2.01 v 2.39 l/min/m2) and higher pressures and resistance. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates after 1 and 2 years were 97% and 91%, respectively, in the bosentan cohort and 91% and 84% in the epoprostenol cohort. Cox regression analyses adjusting for differences in baseline factors showed a greater probability of death in the epoprostenol cohort (hazard ratio 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 4.0) in the model adjusted for haemodynamics). Alternative regression analyses and analyses to adjust for different data collection dates gave consistently similar results. When matched cohorts of 83 patients each were selected, survival estimates were similar. In the bosentan cohort 87% and 75% of patients followed for 1 and 2 years, respectively, remained on monotherapy. Conclusions: No evidence was found to suggest that initial treatment with oral bosentan, followed by or with the addition of other treatment if needed, adversely affected the long term outcome compared with initial intravenous epoprostenol in patients with class III idiopathic PAH. PMID:16055621

  13. Line-Shape Transition of Collision Broadened Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, H.; Katzenellenbogen, N.; Grischkowsky, D.

    1995-02-01

    Using the newly developed technique of THz time-domain spectroscopy, we have measured the far-wing absorption line profile of the ensemble of collision broadened ground state rotational lines of methylchloride vapor out to more than 200 linewidths from resonance, corresponding to frequency offsets as much as 5× the resonant frequency. On these far wings the measured absorption is approximately an order of magnitude less than that predicted by the van Vleck-Weisskopf theory. Our observations show that at higher frequencies a transition occurs from the regime of the van Vleck-Weisskopf theory to the regime of the Lorentz theory.

  14. Steps toward determination of the size and structure of the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei. III - Further observations of NGC 5548 at optical wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, B. M.; Alloin, D.; Axon, D.; Balonek, T. J.; Bertram, R.; Boroson, T. A.; Christensen, J. A.; Clements, S. D.; Dietrich, M.; Elvis, M.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the second year of an intensive ground-based spectroscopic and photometric study of variability in the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 are reported in order to study the relationship between continuum and emission-line variability. Relative to the first year of the monitoring program, the nucleus of NGC 5548 was considerably fainter and the continuum variations slower during the second year, but the continuum H-beta cross-correlation results for the two years are nearly identical. The variations in the broad H-beta emission-line lag behind those in the continuum by somewhat less than 20 days, as concluded from the first year's data.

  15. Investigation of Rare-Earth Elements in the Atmosphere of the roAp Star HD 134214: Nd II, Nd III, and Gd II Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhailytskaya, N. G.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution spectra are used to investigate the abundance of rare-earth elements (REE) in the atmosphere of the magnetic, rapidly oscillating, chemically peculiar (roAp) star HD134214. The neodymium abundance is investigated using the lines of neodymium in the first and second ionization states. Disruption of ionization equilibrium REE (mismatch of the contents determined according to the lines of singly and doubly ionized atoms) is found in the atmosphere of the roAp star. Excess abundance of the rare-earth elements (relative to the Sun) is found. The results of an abundance analysis of REE and some other elements are presented. The modulus and the components Br /Bm of the magnetic field are determined.

  16. Line-focus solar central power system, Phase I. Final report, 29 September 1978 to 30 April 1980. Volume III. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, A J

    1980-04-01

    The conceptual design, parametric analysis, cost and performance analysis, and commercial assessment of a 100-MWe line-focus solar central receiver power plant are reported. This volume contains the appendices: (a) methods of determination of molten salt heat-transfer coefficients and tube-wall temperatures, (b) inputs for STEAEC programs, (c) description of system analysis computer program, (d) receiver analysis program, and (e) heliostat production plan and design methodology. (WHK)

  17. Rapid laboratory evolution of adult wing area in Drosophila melanogaster in response to humidity.

    PubMed

    Kennington, W Jason; Killeen, James R; Goldstein, David B; Partridge, Linda

    2003-04-01

    We examined the evolutionary response of wing area (a trait highly correlated with other measures of body size) to relative humidity (RH), temperature, and their interaction in Drosophila melanogaster, using replicated lines that had been allowed to evolve at low or high humidity at 18 degrees C or at 25 degrees C. We found that after 20 weeks of selection (5-10 generations), low RH lines had significantly greater wing areas than high RH lines in both sexes. This evolutionary response may have resulted from selection of larger flies with a smaller surface area for water loss relative to their weight, or as a correlated response to selection on some other unidentified trait. There were no evolutionary effects of temperature on wing area or cell density. This may have been due to the short duration of the selection experiment, and/or counteracting selection pressures on body size at warm temperature.

  18. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P

    2010-03-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small

  19. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ≈ 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic

  20. Aerodynamic-structural study of canard wing, dual wing, and conventional wing systems for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selberg, B. P.; Cronin, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical aerodynamic-structural airplane configuration study was conducted to assess performance gains achievable through advanced design concepts. The mission specification was for 350 mph, range of 1500 st. mi., at altitudes between 30,000 and 40,000 ft. Two payload classes were studied - 1200 lb (6 passengers) and 2400 lb (12 passengers). The configurations analyzed included canard wings, closely coupled dual wings, swept forward - swept rearward wings, joined wings, and conventional wing tail arrangements. The results illustrate substantial performance gains possible with the dual wing configuration. These gains result from weight savings due to predicted structural efficiencies. The need for further studies of structural efficiencies for the various advanced configurations was highlighted.

  1. Loads calibrations of strain gage bridges on the DAST project Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, C. V.

    1986-01-01

    Results from and details of the procedure used to calibrate strain gage bridges for measurements of wing structural loads, shear (V), bending moment (M), and torque (T), at three semispan stations on both the left and right semispans of the ARW-2 wing are presented. The ARW-2 wing has a reference area of 35 square feet, a span of 19 feet, an aspect ratio of 10.3, a midchord line sweepback angle of 25 degrees, and a taper ratio of 0.4. The ARW-2 wing was fabricated using aluminum spars and ribs covered with a fiberglass/honeycomb sandwich skin material. All strain gage bridges are mounted along with an estimate of their accuracy by means of a comparison of computed loads versus actual loads for three simulated flight conditions.

  2. Concerted evolution and developmental integration in modular butterfly wing patterns.

    PubMed

    Beldade, Patrícia; Brakefield, Paul M

    2003-01-01

    Developing organisms are thought to be modular in organization so that traits in different modules evolve independently whereas traits within a module change in a concerted manner. The eyespot pattern in Bicyclus anynana butterflies provides an ideal system where morphological modularity can be dissected and different levels of genetic integration analyzed. Several lines of evidence show that all eyespots in an individual butterfly are genetically integrated, suggesting that the whole pattern, rather than the separate eyespots, should be considered as a single character. However, despite the strong genetic correlations between the two eyespots on the dorsal forewing of B. anynana, there is great potential for independent changes. Here we use laboratory lines selected in different directions for the size of those eyespots to study correlated responses in the whole eyespot pattern. We show clear changes in eyespot size across all wing surfaces, which depend on eyespot position along the anterior-posterior axis. There are also changes in the number of extra eyespots and in eyespot color composition but no changes in eyespot position relative to wing margin. Our analysis of eyespot pattern modularity is discussed in the light of what is known about the cellular and genetic mechanisms of eyespot formation and the great potential for evolutionary diversification in butterfly wing patterns. PMID:12622734

  3. Concerted evolution and developmental integration in modular butterfly wing patterns.

    PubMed

    Beldade, Patrícia; Brakefield, Paul M

    2003-01-01

    Developing organisms are thought to be modular in organization so that traits in different modules evolve independently whereas traits within a module change in a concerted manner. The eyespot pattern in Bicyclus anynana butterflies provides an ideal system where morphological modularity can be dissected and different levels of genetic integration analyzed. Several lines of evidence show that all eyespots in an individual butterfly are genetically integrated, suggesting that the whole pattern, rather than the separate eyespots, should be considered as a single character. However, despite the strong genetic correlations between the two eyespots on the dorsal forewing of B. anynana, there is great potential for independent changes. Here we use laboratory lines selected in different directions for the size of those eyespots to study correlated responses in the whole eyespot pattern. We show clear changes in eyespot size across all wing surfaces, which depend on eyespot position along the anterior-posterior axis. There are also changes in the number of extra eyespots and in eyespot color composition but no changes in eyespot position relative to wing margin. Our analysis of eyespot pattern modularity is discussed in the light of what is known about the cellular and genetic mechanisms of eyespot formation and the great potential for evolutionary diversification in butterfly wing patterns.

  4. Complex flows over simple wings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArthur, John; Spedding, Geoffrey

    2006-11-01

    As the chord Reynolds number (Re) of an airfoil section drops below 10^5, the global, averaged properties such as mean lift and drag, become strongly affected by the presence/absence of separation on portions of the upper surface. Such flows are difficult to measure and difficult to compute. As Re decreases further, the lift:drag polars become increasingly odd in shape and difficult to replicate. At the same time, the amount of reliable literature data drops, so the aerodynamic performance becomes, in many ways, quite unpredictable. Since many practical small-scale flying machines, be they fixed or flapping wing designs, operate in this Re regime, there is a clear need for an improved understanding of the basic performance based on the flow physics. An experimental program is described that characterizes the instantaneous flow fields and aerodynamic forces on two-dimensional and finite wings with various profile shapes. The objective is to provide a foundation for practical wing design at moderate Re, and to provide a basis for rigorous comparisons with emerging computational capabilities.

  5. Wing-wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    Insects are capable of a remarkable diversity of flight techniques. Dragonflies, in particular, are notable for their powerful aerial manoeuvres and endurance during prey catching or territory flights. While most insects such as flies, bees and wasps either reduced their hinds wings or mechanically coupled fore and hind wings, dragonflies have maintained two independent-controlled pairs of wings throughout their evolution. An extraordinary feature of dragonfly wing kinematics is wing phasing, the shift in flapping phase between the fore and hind wing periods. Wing phasing has previously been associated with an increase in thrust production, readiness for manoeuvrability and hunting performance. Recent studies have shown that wing phasing in tandem wings produces a twofold modulation in hind wing lift, but slightly reduces the maximum combined lift of fore and hind wings, compared to two wings flapping in isolation. Despite this disadvantage, however, wing phasing is effective in improving aerodynamic efficiency during flight by the removal of kinetic energy from the wake. Computational analyses demonstrate that this increase in flight efficiency may save up to 22% aerodynamic power expenditure compared to insects flapping only two wings. In terms of engineering, energetic benefits in four-wing flapping are of substantial interest in the field of biomimetic aircraft design, because the performance of man-made air vehicles is often limited by high-power expenditure rather than by lift production. This manuscript provides a summary on power expenditures and aerodynamic efficiency in flapping tandem wings by investigating wing phasing in a dynamically scaled robotic model of a hovering dragonfly.

  6. Wing-wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2009-05-01

    Insects are capable of a remarkable diversity of flight techniques. Dragonflies, in particular, are notable for their powerful aerial manoeuvres and endurance during prey catching or territory flights. While most insects such as flies, bees and wasps either reduced their hinds wings or mechanically coupled fore and hind wings, dragonflies have maintained two independent-controlled pairs of wings throughout their evolution. An extraordinary feature of dragonfly wing kinematics is wing phasing, the shift in flapping phase between the fore and hind wing periods. Wing phasing has previously been associated with an increase in thrust production, readiness for manoeuvrability and hunting performance. Recent studies have shown that wing phasing in tandem wings produces a twofold modulation in hind wing lift, but slightly reduces the maximum combined lift of fore and hind wings, compared to two wings flapping in isolation. Despite this disadvantage, however, wing phasing is effective in improving aerodynamic efficiency during flight by the removal of kinetic energy from the wake. Computational analyses demonstrate that this increase in flight efficiency may save up to 22% aerodynamic power expenditure compared to insects flapping only two wings. In terms of engineering, energetic benefits in four-wing flapping are of substantial interest in the field of biomimetic aircraft design, because the performance of man-made air vehicles is often limited by high-power expenditure rather than by lift production. This manuscript provides a summary on power expenditures and aerodynamic efficiency in flapping tandem wings by investigating wing phasing in a dynamically scaled robotic model of a hovering dragonfly.

  7. Effects of wing deformation on aerodynamic performance of a revolving insect wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Ryusuke; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Flexible wings of insects and bio-inspired micro air vehicles generally deform remarkably during flapping flight owing to aerodynamic and inertial forces, which is of highly nonlinear fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. To elucidate the novel mechanisms associated with flexible wing aerodynamics in the low Reynolds number regime, we have built up a FSI model of a hawkmoth wing undergoing revolving and made an investigation on the effects of flexible wing deformation on aerodynamic performance of the revolving wing model. To take into account the characteristics of flapping wing kinematics we designed a kinematic model for the revolving wing in two-fold: acceleration and steady rotation, which are based on hovering wing kinematics of hawkmoth, Manduca sexta. Our results show that both aerodynamic and inertial forces demonstrate a pronounced increase during acceleration phase, which results in a significant wing deformation. While the aerodynamic force turns to reduce after the wing acceleration terminates due to the burst and detachment of leading-edge vortices (LEVs), the dynamic wing deformation seem to delay the burst of LEVs and hence to augment the aerodynamic force during and even after the acceleration. During the phase of steady rotation, the flexible wing model generates more vertical force at higher angles of attack (40°-60°) but less horizontal force than those of a rigid wing model. This is because the wing twist in spanwise owing to aerodynamic forces results in a reduction in the effective angle of attack at wing tip, which leads to enhancing the aerodynamics performance by increasing the vertical force while reducing the horizontal force. Moreover, our results point out the importance of the fluid-structure interaction in evaluating flexible wing aerodynamics: the wing deformation does play a significant role in enhancing the aerodynamic performances but works differently during acceleration and steady rotation, which is mainly induced by

  8. Flexible Wing Model for Structural Sizing and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Strut-Braced Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gern, Frank H.; Naghshineh, Amir H.; Sulaeman, Erwin; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a structural and aeroelastic model for wing sizing and weight calculation of a strut-braced wing. The wing weight is calculated using a newly developed structural weight analysis module considering the special nature of strut-braced wings. A specially developed aeroelastic model enables one to consider wing flexibility and spanload redistribution during in-flight maneuvers. The structural model uses a hexagonal wing-box featuring skin panels, stringers, and spar caps, whereas the aerodynamics part employs a linearized transonic vortex lattice method. Thus, the wing weight may be calculated from the rigid or flexible wing spanload. The calculations reveal the significant influence of the strut on the bending material weight of the wing. The use of a strut enables one to design a wing with thin airfoils without weight penalty. The strut also influences wing spanload and deformations. Weight savings are not only possible by calculation and iterative resizing of the wing structure according to the actual design loads. Moreover, as an advantage over the cantilever wing, employment of the strut twist moment for further load alleviation leads to increased savings in structural weight.

  9. Reynolds Number, Compressibility, and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on Delta-Wing Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, James M.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of Reynolds number, compressibility, and leading edge bluntness effects is presented for a 65 degree delta wing. The results of this study address both attached and vortex-flow aerodynamics and are based upon a unique data set obtained in the NASA-Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF) for i) Reynolds numbers ranging from conventional wind-tunnel to flight values, ii) Mach numbers ranging from subsonic to transonic speeds, and iii) leading-edge bluntness values that span practical slender wing applications. The data were obtained so as to isolate the subject effects and they present many challenges for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies.

  10. Biotransformation of Two-Line Silica-Ferrihydrite by a Dissimilatory Fe(III)-Reducing Bacterium: Formation of Carbonate Green Rust in the Presence of Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Kennedy, David W.

    2004-07-01

    The reductive biotransformation of two Si-ferrihydrite (0.01 and 0.05 mole% Si) coprecipiates by Shewanella putrefaciens, strain CN32, was investigated in 1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonic acid-buffered media (pH ~7) with lactate as the electron donor. Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (electron shuttle) that stimulates respiration was present in the media. Experiments were performed without and with PO43- (ranging from 1 to 20 mmol/L in media containing 50 mmol/L Fe). Our objectives were to define the combined effects of SiO44- and PO43- on the bioreducibility and biomineralization of ferrihydrites under anoxic conditions. Iron reduction was measured as a function of time, solids were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mossbauer spectroscopy, and aqueous solutions were analyzed for Si, P, Cl- and inorganic carbon. Both of the ferrihydrites were rapidly reduced regardless of the Si content. Si concentration had no effect on the reduction rate or mineralization products. Magnetite was formed in the absence of PO43- whereas carbonate green rust GR(CO32-) ([FeII(6-x)FeIIIx(OH)12]x+(CO32-)0.5x.yH2O) and vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2.8H2O], were formed when PO43- was present. GR(CO32-) dominated as a mineral product in samples with < 4 mmol/L PO43-. The Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio of GR(CO32-) varied with PO43- concentration; it was 2 in the 1 mmol/L PO43- and approached 1 in the 4- and 10-mmol/L PO43- samples. GR appeared to form by solid-state transformation of ferrihydrite. Medium PO43- concentration dictated the mechanism of transformation. In 1 mmol/L PO43- media, an intermediate Fe(II)/Fe(III) phase with structural Fe(II), which we tentatively assigned to a protomagnetite phase, slowly transformed to GR with time. In contrast, in medium with >4 mmol/L PO43-, a residual ferrihydrite with sorbed Fe2+ phase transformed to GR. Despite similar chemistries, PO43- was shown to have a profound effect on ferrihydrite biotransformations while that of SiO44- was minimal.

  11. Biotransformation of two-line silica-ferrihydrite by a dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium: formation of carbonate green rust in the presence of phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, James K.; Kennedy, David W.

    2004-07-01

    The reductive biotransformation of two Si-ferrihydrite coprecipitates (1 and 5 mole % Si) by Shewanella putrefaciens, strain CN32, was investigated in 1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonic acid-buffered media (pH ˜7) with lactate as the electron donor. Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate, an electron shuttle, was present in the media. Experiments were performed without and with PO 43- (P) (1 to 20 mmol/L) in media containing 50 mmol/L Fe. Our objectives were to define the combined effects of SiO 44- (Si) and P on the bioreducibility and biomineralization of ferrihydrites under anoxic conditions. Iron reduction was measured as a function of time, solids were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy, and aqueous solutions were analyzed for Si, P, Cl - and inorganic carbon. Both of the ferrihydrites were rapidly reduced regardless of the Si and P content. Si concentration had no effect on the reduction rate or mineralization products. Magnetite was formed in the absence of P whereas carbonate green rust GR(CO 32-) ([Fe (6-x)IIFe IIIx(OH) 12] x+(CO 32-) 0.5x · yH 2O) and vivianite [Fe 3(PO 4) 2 · 8H 2O], were formed when P was present. GR(CO 32-) dominated as a mineral product in samples with <4 mmol/L P. The Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio of GR(CO 32-) varied with P concentration; the ratio was 2 in 1 mmol/L P and approached 1 with 4- and 10 mmol/L P. Green rust appeared to form by solid-state transformation of ferrihydrite. Media P and Si concentration dictated the mechanism of transformation. In the 1 mole % Si coprecipitate with 1 mmol/L P, an intermediate Fe(II)/Fe(III) phase with structural Fe(II) slowly transformed to GR with time. In contrast, when ferrihydrite contained more Si (5 mole %) and/or contained higher P (4 mmol/L), sorbed Fe(II) and residual ferrihydrite together transformed to GR. Despite similar chemistries, P was shown to have a profound effect on extent of ferrihydrite reduction and biotransformations while that of Si was minimal.

  12. STUDIES OF NGC 6720 WITH CALIBRATED HST/WFC3 EMISSION-LINE FILTER IMAGES. III. TANGENTIAL MOTIONS USING ASTRODRIZZLE IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, C. R.; Ferland, G. J.; Henney, W. J.; Peimbert, M.

    2013-06-01

    We have been able to compare with astrometric precision AstroDrizzle processed images of NGC 6720 (the Ring Nebula) made using two cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope. The time difference of the observations was 12.925 yr. This large time base allowed the determination of tangential velocities of features within this classic planetary nebula. Individual features were measured in [N II] images as were the dark knots seen in silhouette against background nebular [O III] emission. An image magnification and matching technique was also used to test the accuracy of the usual assumption of homologous expansion. We found that homologous expansion does apply, but the rate of expansion is greater along the major axis of the nebula, which is intrinsically larger than the minor axis. We find that the dark knots expand more slowly than the nebular gas, that the distance to the nebula is 720 pc {+-}30%, and that the dynamic age of the Ring Nebula is about 4000 yr. The dynamic age is in agreement with the position of the central star on theoretical curves for stars collapsing from the peak of the asymptotic giant branch to being white dwarfs.

  13. Constraints on the wing morphology of pterosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Colin; Dyke, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Animals that fly must be able to do so over a huge range of aerodynamic conditions, determined by weather, wind speed and the nature of their environment. No single parameter can be used to determine—let alone measure—optimum flight performance as it relates to wing shape. Reconstructing the wings of the extinct pterosaurs has therefore proved especially problematic: these Mesozoic flying reptiles had a soft-tissue membranous flight surface that is rarely preserved in the fossil record. Here, we review basic mechanical and aerodynamic constraints that influenced the wing shape of pterosaurs, and, building on this, present a series of theoretical modelling results. These results allow us to predict the most likely wing shapes that could have been employed by these ancient reptiles, and further show that a combination of anterior sweep and a reflexed proximal wing section provides an aerodynamically balanced and efficient theoretical pterosaur wing shape, with clear benefits for their flight stability. PMID:21957137

  14. Constraints on the wing morphology of pterosaurs.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Colin; Dyke, Gareth

    2012-03-22

    Animals that fly must be able to do so over a huge range of aerodynamic conditions, determined by weather, wind speed and the nature of their environment. No single parameter can be used to determine-let alone measure-optimum flight performance as it relates to wing shape. Reconstructing the wings of the extinct pterosaurs has therefore proved especially problematic: these Mesozoic flying reptiles had a soft-tissue membranous flight surface that is rarely preserved in the fossil record. Here, we review basic mechanical and aerodynamic constraints that influenced the wing shape of pterosaurs, and, building on this, present a series of theoretical modelling results. These results allow us to predict the most likely wing shapes that could have been employed by these ancient reptiles, and further show that a combination of anterior sweep and a reflexed proximal wing section provides an aerodynamically balanced and efficient theoretical pterosaur wing shape, with clear benefits for their flight stability.

  15. Rotor/Wing Interactions in Hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Derby, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Hover predictions of tiltrotor aircraft are hampered by the lack of accurate and computationally efficient models for rotor/wing interactional aerodynamics. This paper summarizes the development of an approximate, potential flow solution for the rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This analysis is based on actuator disk and vortex theory and the method of images. The analysis is applicable for out-of-ground-effect predictions. The analysis is particularly suited for aircraft preliminary design studies. Flow field predictions from this simple analytical model are validated against experimental data from previous studies. The paper concludes with an analytical assessment of the influence of rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This assessment examines the effect of rotor-to-wing offset distance, wing sweep, wing span, and flaperon incidence angle on tiltrotor inflow and performance.

  16. Evaluation of installed performance of a wing-tip-mounted pusher turboprop on a semispan wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James C., Jr.; Bartlett, Glynn R.

    1987-01-01

    An exploratory investigation has been conducted at the Langley Research Center to determine the effect of a wing-tip-mounted pusher turboprop on the aerodynamic characteristics of a semispan wing. Tests were conducted on a semispan model with an upswept, untapered wing and an airdriven motor that powered an SR-2 high-speed propeller located on the tip of the wing as a pusher propeller. All tests were conducted at a Mach number of 0.70 over an angle-of-attack range from approximately -2 to 4 deg at a Reynolds number of 3.82 x 10 to the 6th based on the wing reference chord of 13 in. The data indicate that, as a result of locating the propeller behind the wing trailing edge at the wing tip in the crossflow of the wing-tip vortex, it is possible to improve propeller performance and simultaneously reduce the lift-induced drag.

  17. A Discrete-Vortex Method for Studying the Wing Rock of Delta Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gainer, Thomas G.

    2002-01-01

    A discrete-vortex method is developed to investigate the wing rock problem associated with highly swept wings. The method uses two logarithmic vortices placed above the wing to represent the vortex flow field and uses boundary conditions based on conical flow, vortex rate of change of momentum, and other considerations to position the vortices and determine their strengths. A relationship based on the time analogy and conical-flow assumptions is used to determine the hysteretic positions of the vortices during roll oscillations. Static and dynamic vortex positions and wing rock amplitudes and frequencies calculated by using the method are generally in good agreement with available experimental data. The results verify that wing rock is caused by hysteretic deflections of the vortices and indicate that the stabilizing moments that limit wing rock amplitudes are the result of the one primary vortex moving outboard of the wing where it has little influence on the wing.

  18. Elements of the Wing Section Theory and of the Wing Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max M.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented of the theory of wings and of wing sections which are of immediate practical value. They are proven and demonstrated by the use of the simple conceptions of kinetic energy and momentum only.

  19. A search for Low Surface Brightness galaxies in the near-infrared. III. Nançay H I line observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier Ragaigne, D.; van Driel, W.; Schneider, S. E.; Balkowski, C.; Jarrett, T. H.

    2003-09-01

    A total of 334 Low Surface Brightness galaxies detected in the 2MASS all-sky near-infrared survey have been observed in the 21 cm H I line using the Nançay telescope. All have a Ks-band mean central surface brightness, measured within a 5'' radius, fainter than 18 mag arcsec-2 and a Ks-band isophotal radius at the 20 mag arcsec-2 level larger than 20''. We present global H I line parameters for the 171 clearly detected objects and the 23 marginal detections, as well as upper limits for the undetected objects. The 171 clear detections comprise 50 previously uncatalogued objects and 41 objects with a PGC entry only. Tables 3-5 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/465 Figures 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  20. Subtractive Structural Modification of Morpho Butterfly Wings.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qingchen; He, Jiaqing; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Zhou, Lingye; Hu, Hang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Luo, Zhen; Wang, Ge; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-11-11

    Different from studies of butterfly wings through additive modification, this work for the first time studies the property change of butterfly wings through subtractive modification using oxygen plasma etching. The controlled modification of butterfly wings through such subtractive process results in gradual change of the optical properties, and helps the further understanding of structural optimization through natural evolution. The brilliant color of Morpho butterfly wings is originated from the hierarchical nanostructure on the wing scales. Such nanoarchitecture has attracted a lot of research effort, including the study of its optical properties, its potential use in sensing and infrared imaging, and also the use of such structure as template for the fabrication of high-performance photocatalytic materials. The controlled subtractive processes provide a new path to modify such nanoarchitecture and its optical property. Distinct from previous studies on the optical property of the Morpho wing structure, this study provides additional experimental evidence for the origination of the optical property of the natural butterfly wing scales. The study also offers a facile approach to generate new 3D nanostructures using butterfly wings as the templates and may lead to simpler structure models for large-scale man-made structures than those offered by original butterfly wings.

  1. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David

    2012-01-01

    During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m). However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  2. The 21 centimeter line width as an extragalactic distance indicator. III - The correction for velocity dispersion and the B- and H-band Tully-Fisher relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottinelli, L.; Gouguenheim, L.; Paturel, G.; de Vaucouleurs, G.

    1984-05-01

    The curvature of the H-band Tully-Fisher relation reported by Aaronson and Mould (1983) is demonstrated to be wholly a result of neglecting the corrections for bandwidth and turbulent velocities. The application of the correction model of Bottinelli et al. (1980, 1982, 1983) eliminates the curvature and decreases the slope of the linearized H-band relation to the previously determined value of 9.7. The curvature of the H-band relation disappears when the correction for velocity dispersion derived for the B-band is applied to the H-band data. After correction for the effect of bandwidth and velocity dispersion, the slope and zero point of the H-band relation are nearly independent of type. For well observed galaxies, it is shown that the distance moduli derived from the B- and H-band relations, both corrected for line broadening, have mean errors of, respectively, 0.3 and 0.4 mag.

  3. Chemical abundances of planetary nebulae from optical recombination lines - III. The Galactic bulge PN M 1-42 and M 2-36

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.-W.; Luo, S.-G.; Barlow, M. J.; Danziger, I. J.; Storey, P. J.

    2001-10-01

    We present deep, high-resolution optical spectra of two Galactic bulge planetary nebulae (PN), M 1-42 and M 2-36. The spectra show very prominent and rich optical recombination lines (ORLs) from C, N, O and Ne ions. Infrared spectra from [formmu10]2.4-197μm were also obtained using the Short and Long Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS and LWS) on board ISO. The optical and infrared spectra, together with archival IUE spectra, are used to study their density and thermal characteristics and to determine elemental abundances. We determine the optical and UV extinction curve towards these two bulge PN using observed Hi and Heii recombination line fluxes and the radio free-free continuum flux density. In the optical, the reddening curve is found to be consistent with the standard Galactic extinction law, with a total to selective extinction ratio [formmu11]R≡A(V)/E(B-V)=3.1. However, the extinction in the UV is found to be much steeper, consistent with the earlier finding of Walton, Barlow & Clegg. The rich ORL spectra from C, N, O and Ne ions detected from the two nebulae have been used to determine the abundances of these elements relative to hydrogen. In all cases, the resultant ORL abundances are found to be significantly higher than the corresponding values deduced from collisionally excited lines (CELs). In M 2-36, the discrepancies are about a factor of 5 for all four elements studied. In M 1-42, the discrepancies reach a factor of about 20, the largest ever observed in a PN. M 1-42 also has the lowest Balmer jump temperature ever determined for a PN, [formmu12]Te(BJ)=3560K, 5660K lower than its [Oiii] forbidden line temperature. We compare the observed intensities of the strongest Oii ORLs from different electronic configurations, including λ4649 from [formmu13]3s-3p, λ4072 from [formmu14]3p-3d, λ4089 from [formmu15]3d-4f, and λ4590 and λ4190 from the doubly excited [formmu16]3s'-3p' and [formmu17]3p'-3d' configurations, respectively. In all cases, in spite of

  4. Projection Moire Interferometry Measurements of Micro Air Vehicle Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Bartram, Scott M.; Waszak, Martin R.; Jenkins, Luther N.

    2001-01-01

    Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) has been used to measure the structural deformation of micro air vehicle (MAV) wings during a series of wind tunnel tests. The MAV wings had a highly flexible wing structure, generically reminiscent of a bat s wing, which resulted in significant changes in wing shape as a function of MAV angle-of-attack and simulated flight speed. This flow-adaptable wing deformation is thought to provide enhanced vehicle stability and wind gust alleviation compared to rigid wing designs. Investigation of the potential aerodynamic benefits of a flexible MAV wing required measurement of the wing shape under aerodynamic loads. PMI was used to quantify the aerodynamically induced changes in wing shape for three MAV wings having different structural designs and stiffness characteristics. This paper describes the PMI technique, its application to MAV testing, and presents a portion of the PMI data acquired for the three different MAV wings tested.

  5. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling Contributes to Variation for Wing Shape in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Ian; Gibson, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Wing development in Drosophila is a common model system for the dissection of genetic networks and their roles during development. In particular, the RTK and TGF-β regulatory networks appear to be involved with numerous aspects of wing development, including patterning, cell determination, growth, proliferation, and survival in the developing imaginal wing disc. However, little is known as to how subtle changes in the function of these genes may contribute to quantitative variation for wing shape, per se. In this study 50 insertional mutations, representing 43 loci in the RTK, Hedgehog, TGF-β pathways, and their genetically interacting factors were used to study the role of these networks on wing shape. To concurrently examine how genetic background modulates the effects of the mutation, each insertion was introgressed into two wild-type genetic backgrounds. Using geometric morphometric methods, it is shown that the majority of these mutations have profound effects on shape but not size of the wing when measured as heterozygotes. To examine the relationships between how each mutation affects wing shape hierarchical clustering was used. Unlike previous observations of environmental canalization, these mutations did not generally increase within-line variation relative to their wild-type counterparts. These results provide an entry point into the genetics of wing shape and are discussed within the framework of the dissection of complex phenotypes. PMID:16648592

  6. Microlensing of the broad line region in 17 lensed quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluse, D.; Hutsemékers, D.; Courbin, F.; Meylan, G.; Wambsganss, J.

    2012-08-01

    When an image of a strongly lensed quasar is microlensed, the different components of its spectrum are expected to be differentially magnified owing to the different sizes of the corresponding emitting region. Chromatic changes are expected to be observed in the continuum while the emission lines should be deformed as a function of the size, geometry and kinematics of the regions from which they originate. Microlensing of the emission lines has been reported only in a handful of systems so far. In this paper we search for microlensing deformations of the optical spectra of pairs of images in 17 lensed quasars with bolometric luminosities between 1044.7 - 47.4 erg/s and black hole masses 107.6 - 9.8 M⊙. This sample is composed of 13 pairs of previously unpublished spectra and four pairs of spectra from literature. Our analysis is based on a simple spectral decomposition technique which allows us to isolate the microlensed fraction of the flux independently of a detailed modeling of the quasar emission lines. Using this technique, we detect microlensing of the continuum in 85% of the systems. Among them, 80% show microlensing of the broad emission lines. Focusing on the most common emission lines in our spectra (C III] and Mg II) we detect microlensing of either the blue or the red wing, or of both wings with the same amplitude. This observation implies that the broad line region is not in general spherically symmetric. In addition, the frequent detection of microlensing of the blue and red wings independently but not simultaneously with a different amplitude, does not support existing microlensing simulations of a biconical outflow. Our analysis also provides the intrinsic flux ratio between the lensed images and the magnitude of the microlensing affecting the continuum. These two quantities are particularly relevant for the determination of the fraction of matter in clumpy form in galaxies and for the detection of dark matter substructures via the identification

  7. Transonic Aerodynamic Loading Characteristics of a Wing-Body-Tail Combination Having a 52.5 deg. Sweptback Wing of Aspect Ratio 3 With Conical Wing Camber and Body Indentation for a Design Mach Number of Square Root of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassetti, Marlowe D.; Re, Richard J.; Igoe, William B.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the effects of conical wing camber and body indentation according to the supersonic area rule on the aerodynamic wing loading characteristics of a wing-body-tail configuration at transonic speeds. The wing aspect ratio was 3, taper ratio was 0.1, and quarter-chord-line sweepback was 52.5 deg. with 3-percent-thick airfoil sections. The tests were conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 and at angles of attack from 0 deg. to 14 deg., with Reynolds numbers based on mean aerodynamic chord varying from 7 x 10(exp 6) to 8 x 10(exp 6). Conical camber delayed wing-tip stall and reduced the severity of the accompanying longitudinal instability but did not appreciably affect the spanwise load distribution at angles of attack below tip stall. Body indentation reduced the transonic chordwise center-of-pressure travel from about 8 percent to 5 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord.

  8. Spatial differences in patterns of modification: selection on hairy in Drosophila melanogaster wings.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, R B; Thompson, J N

    2000-01-01

    Artificial selection was carried out for over 45 generations to enhance and suppress expression of the mutation hairy on the Drosophila melanogaster wing. Whole chromosome mapping of X-linked and autosomal modifiers of sense organ number displayed regional differences in magnitude and direction of their effects. Regional specificity of modifier effects was also seen in some interchromosomal interactions. Scanning electron microscopy allowed precise measurement of sense organ size and position along the L3 longitudinal wing vein. Sense organ size varied in a predictable fashion along the proximal-distal axis, and the dorsal pattern differed from the ventral pattern. The high and low selection lines differed most in the proximal portion of the L3 vein. Extra sense organs in the High line were often associated with vein fragments at locations predicted from ancestral vein patterns. Thus, regional specificity of polygenic or quantitative trait locus modifier effects was identified in several different parts of the wing.

  9. Surface photometry of WINGS galaxies with GASPHOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onofrio, M.; Bindoni, D.; Fasano, G.; Bettoni, D.; Cava, A.; Fritz, J.; Gullieuszik, M.; Kjærgaard, P.; Moretti, A.; Moles, M.; Omizzolo, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Valentinuzzi, T.; Varela, J.

    2014-12-01

    softwares for common galaxies indicates that the systematic differences are small in general. The only significant deviations are most likely due to the peculiar (and very accurate) image processing adopted by WINGS for large galaxies. The main advantages of GASPHOT with respect to other tools are (i) the automatic finding of the local PSF; (ii) the short CPU execution time; and (iii) the remarkable stability against the choice of the initial-guess parameters. All these characteristics make GASPHOT an ideal tool for blind surface photometry of large galaxy samples in wide-field CCD mosaics. Catalogs are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A87

  10. Theoretical symmetric span loading at subsonic speeds for wings having arbitrary plan form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, John; Harper, Charles W

    1948-01-01

    A method is shown by which the symmetric span loading for a certain class of wings can be simply found. The geometry of these wings is limited only to the extent that they must have symmetry about the root chord, must have a straight quarter-chord line over the semispan, and must have no discontinuities in twist. A procedure is shown for finding the lift-curve slope, pitching moment, center of lift, and induced drag from the span load distribution. A method of accounting for the effects of Mach number and for changes in section lift-curve slope is also given. Charts are presented which give directly the characteristics of many wings. Other charts are presented which reduce the problem of finding the symmetric loading on all wings falling within the prescribed limits to the solution of not more than four simultaneous equations. The loadings and wing characteristics predicted by the theory are compared to those given by other theories and by experiment. It is concluded that the results given by the subject theory are satisfactory. The theory is applied to a number of wings to exhibit the effects of such variables as sweep, aspect ratio, taper, and twist. The results are compared and conclusions drawn as to the relative effects of these variables.

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Comparison of Aerodynamic Characteristics for Flexible Membrane Wings with Cambered Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrist, Andrew; Hubner, James

    2015-11-01

    Flexible membrane wings of the MAV (micro air vehicle) scale can experience improved lift/drag ratios, delays in stall, and decreased time-averaged flow separation when compared to rigid wings. Previous research examined the effect of frame camber on the time-averaged shapes of membrane wings and observed that increasing frame camber results in increased aero-induced membrane camber. This study involves a more in-depth DIC (Digital Image Correlation) analysis of the previous research to increase the understanding of the time-averaged shapes for membrane wings with cambered frames and offers a theoretical comparison to the experimental results. The author performed a theoretical lifting-line analysis based on the time-averaged shape for the membrane wings to calculate lift, induced drag, and circulation. The calculations include the effects of geometric twist, aspect ratio, and effective angle-of-attack. The wings, with an aspect ratio of 2, were fabricated with silicone rubber membranes and 3D printed cambered frames differing in percent camber, maximum camber location, and thickness. The DIC images were acquired in The University of Alabama's MAV wind tunnel as tests were performed at 10 m/s (Re = 50,000). The analysis will be discussed in the presentation. Graduate Research Assistant.

  12. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS. III. THE TRANSITION FROM PRIMORDIAL DISKS TO DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Cieza, Lucas; Koerner, David W.; Case, April; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Chapman, Nicholas; Padgett, Deborah L.; Brooke, Tim; Keller, James R.; MerIn, Bruno; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Sargent, Anneila; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Allen, Lori; Blake, Geoff; Mundy, Lee; Myers, Philip C.

    2010-12-01

    We present 3.6 to 70 {mu}m Spitzer photometry of 154 weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs) in the Chamaeleon, Lupus, Ophiuchus, and Taurus star formation regions, all of which are within 200 pc of the Sun. For a comparative study, we also include 33 classical T Tauri stars which are located in the same star-forming regions. Spitzer sensitivities allow us to robustly detect the photosphere in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8 {mu}m) and the 24 {mu}m MIPS band. In the 70 {mu}m MIPS band, we are able to detect dust emission brighter than roughly 40 times the photosphere. These observations represent the most sensitive WTTSs survey in the mid- to far-infrared to date and reveal the frequency of outer disks (r = 3-50 AU) around WTTSs. The 70 {mu}m photometry for half the c2d WTTSs sample (the on-cloud objects), which were not included in the earlier papers in this series, those of Padgett et al. and Cieza et al., are presented here for the first time. We find a disk frequency of 19% for on-cloud WTTSs, but just 5% for off-cloud WTTSs, similar to the value reported in the earlier works. WTTSs exhibit spectral energy distributions that are quite diverse, spanning the range from optically thick to optically thin disks. Most disks become more tenuous than L{sub disk}/L{sub *} = 2 x 10{sup -3} in 2 Myr and more tenuous than L{sub disk}/L{sub *} = 5 x 10{sup -4} in 4 Myr.

  13. Veins Improve Fracture Toughness of Insect Wings

    PubMed Central

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David

    2012-01-01

    During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect’s flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material’s resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m). However, the cross veins increase the wing’s toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically ‘optimal’ solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial ‘venous’ wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species. PMID:22927966

  14. Biaxial mechanical characterization of bat wing skin.

    PubMed

    Skulborstad, A J; Swartz, S M; Goulbourne, N C

    2015-06-01

    The highly flexible and stretchable wing skin of bats, together with the skeletal structure and musculature, enables large changes in wing shape during flight. Such compliance distinguishes bat wings from those of all other flying animals. Although several studies have investigated the aerodynamics and kinematics of bats, few have examined the complex histology and mechanical response of the wing skin. This work presents the first biaxial characterization of the local deformation, mechanical properties, and fiber kinematics of bat wing skin. Analysis of these data has provided insight into the relationships among the structural morphology, mechanical properties, and functionality of wing skin. Large spatial variations in tissue deformation and non-negligible fiber strains in the cross-fiber direction for both chordwise and spanwise fibers indicate fibers should be modeled as two-dimensional elements. The macroscopic constitutive behavior was anisotropic and nonlinear, with very low spanwise and chordwise stiffness (hundreds of kilopascals) in the toe region of the stress-strain curve. The structural arrangement of the fibers and matrix facilitates a low energy mechanism for wing deployment and extension, and we fabricate examples of skins capturing this mechanism. We propose a comprehensive deformation map for the entire loading regime. The results of this work underscore the importance of biaxial field approaches for soft heterogeneous tissue, and provide a foundation for development of bio-inspired skins to probe the effects of the wing skin properties on aerodynamic performance. PMID:25895436

  15. Wing-Design And -Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, Christine M.; Carlson, Harry W.

    1990-01-01

    WINGDES2 computer program provides wing-design algorithm based on modified linear theory taking into account effects of attainable leading-edge thrust. Features improved numerical accuracy and additional capabilities. Provides analysis as well as design capability and applicable to both subsonic and supersonic flow. Replaces earlier wing-design code designated WINGDES (see LAR-13315). Written in FORTRAN V.

  16. Computer Code Aids Design Of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    AERO2S computer code developed to aid design engineers in selection and evaluation of aerodynamically efficient wing/canard and wing/horizontal-tail configurations that includes simple hinged-flap systems. Code rapidly estimates longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of conceptual airplane lifting-surface arrangements. Developed in FORTRAN V on CDC 6000 computer system, and ported to MS-DOS environment.

  17. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  18. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  19. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  20. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  1. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing flaps. 25.457 Section 25.457 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps....

  2. An aerodynamic model for one and two degree of freedom wing rock of slender delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, John

    1993-01-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic effects due to the separated flow around slender delta wings in motion were analyzed. By combining the unsteady flow field solution with the rigid body Euler equations of motion, self-induced wing rock motion is simulated. The aerodynamic model successfully captures the qualitative characteristics of wing rock observed in experiments. For the one degree of freedom in roll case, the model is used to look into the mechanisms of wing rock and to investigate the effects of various parameters, like angle of attack, yaw angle, displacement of the separation point, and wing inertia. To investigate the roll and yaw coupling for the delta wing, an additional degree of freedom is added. However, no limit cycle was observed in the two degree of freedom case. Nonetheless, the model can be used to apply various control laws to actively control wing rock using, for example, the displacement of the leading edge vortex separation point by inboard span wise blowing.

  3. Test results from large wing and fuselage panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madan, Ram C.; Voldman, Mike

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the first results in an assessment of the strength, stiffness, and damage tolerance of stiffened wing and fuselage subcomponents. Under this NASA funded program, 10 large wing and fuselage panels, variously fabricated by automated tow placement and dry-stitched preform/resin transfer molding, are to be tested. The first test of an automated tow placement six-longeron fuselage panel under shear load was completed successfully. Using NASTRAN finite-element analysis the stiffness of the panel in the linear range prior to buckling was predicted within 3.5 percent. A nonlinear analysis predicted the buckling load within 10 percent and final failure load within 6 percent. The first test of a resin transfer molding six-stringer wing panel under compression was also completed. The panel failed unexpectedly in buckling because of inadequate supporting structure. The average strain was 0.43 percent with a line load of 20.3 kips per inch of width. This strain still exceeds the design allowable strains. Also, the stringers did not debond before failure, which is in contrast to the general behavior of unstitched panels.

  4. Delta Wing Vortex Breakdown Suppression by Vortex Core Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, Charles

    2000-11-01

    The flow over a delta wing is characterized by two counter-rotating vortices that can undergo a sudden radial expansion at high angles of attack known as vortex breakdown. Downstream of this breakdown is a region of organized unsteady flow that can cause tail buffeting and structural fatigue, especially on twin-tailed aircraft. The recent self-induction theory of vortex breakdown points to the "pile-up" of vorticity due to the linear addition of vorticity in the spiraling shear layer that surrounds the vortex core as a principal cause of vortex breakdown (Kurosaka 1998). Based on that theory, this research attempts to relieve vorticity pile-up by altering the straight-line path of the vortex core and preventing the linear addition of vorticity. This is accomplished by applying a combination of periodic blowing and suction with low mass and momentum flux. The blowing and suction are directed normal to the low-pressure surface and supplied from ports under the vortex core which are near the forward tip of the delta wing. This oscillating input causes the vortex core to transition into a spiral formation downstream of the input ports. Initial results indicate that this change in the vortex core path may prevent vortex breakdown over the surface of the delta wing.

  5. Swept wing ice accretion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    1990-01-01

    An effort to develop a three-dimensional modeling method was initiated. This first step towards creation of a complete aircraft icing simulation code builds on previously developed methods for calculating three-dimensional flow fields and particle trajectories combined with a two-dimensional ice accretion calculation along coordinate locations corresponding to streamlines. This work is a demonstration of the types of calculations necessary to predict a three-dimensional ice accretion. Results of calculations using the 3-D method for a MS-317 swept wing geometry are projected onto a 2-D plane normal to the wing leading edge and compared to 2-D results for the same geometry. It is anticipated that many modifications will be made to this approach, however, this effort will lay the groundwork for future modeling efforts. Results indicate that the flow field over the surface and the particle trajectories differed for the two calculations. This led to lower collection efficiencies, convective heat transfer coefficients, freezing fractions, and ultimately ice accumulation for the 3-D calculation.

  6. High speed flow past wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norstrud, H.

    1973-01-01

    The analytical solution to the transonic small perturbation equation which describes steady compressible flow past finite wings at subsonic speeds can be expressed as a nonlinear integral equation with the perturbation velocity potential as the unknown function. This known formulation is substituted by a system of nonlinear algebraic equations to which various methods are applicable for its solution. Due to the presence of mathematical discontinuities in the flow solutions, however, a main computational difficulty was to ensure uniqueness of the solutions when local velocities on the wing exceeded the speed of sound. For continuous solutions this was achieved by embedding the algebraic system in an one-parameter operator homotopy in order to apply the method of parametric differentiation. The solution to the initial system of equations appears then as a solution to a Cauchy problem where the initial condition is related to the accompanying incompressible flow solution. In using this technique, however, a continuous dependence of the solution development on the initial data is lost when the solution reaches the minimum bifurcation point. A steepest descent iteration technique was therefore, added to the computational scheme for the calculation of discontinuous flow solutions. Results for purely subsonic flows and supersonic flows with and without compression shocks are given and compared with other available theoretical solutions.

  7. Strain monitoring of a composite wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strathman, Joseph; Watkins, Steve E.; Kaur, Amardeep; Macke, David C.

    2016-04-01

    An instrumented composite wing is described. The wing is designed to meet the load and ruggedness requirements for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in search-and-rescue applications. The UAV supports educational systems development and has a 2.1-m wingspan. The wing structure consists of a foam core covered by a carbon-fiber, laminate composite shell. To quantify the wing characteristics, a fiber-optic strain sensor was surface mounted to measure distributed strain. This sensor is based on Rayleigh scattering from local index variations and it is capable of high spatial resolution. The use of the Rayleigh-scattering fiber-optic sensors for distributed measurements is discussed.

  8. Spanwise gradients in flow speed help stabilize leading-edge vortices on revolving wings.

    PubMed

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2014-07-01

    While a leading-edge vortex on an infinite translating wing is shed after a short distance of travel, its counterpart on a finite span revolving insect wing or maple seed membrane exhibits robust attachment. The latter explains the aerodynamic lift generated by such biological species. Here we analyze the mechanisms responsible for leading-edge vortex attachment. We compute the Navier-Stokes solution of the flow past a finite span wing (i) embedded in a uniform oncoming flow, (ii) embedded in a spanwise varying oncoming flow, and (iii) revolving about its root. We show that over flapping amplitudes typical of insect flight (ϕ = 120°), the spanwise gradient of the local wing speed may suffice in maintaining leading-edge vortex attachment. We correlate this result with the development of spanwise flow, driven by the spanwise gradient of pressure, and we evaluate the sensitivity of such a mechanism to the Reynolds number. It is noted, however, that leading-edge vortex attachment through the spanwise gradient of the local wing speed does not promote large lift, which ultimately arises from centrifugal and Coriolis effects. PMID:25122373

  9. Spanwise gradients in flow speed help stabilize leading-edge vortices on revolving wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardin, T.; David, L.

    2014-07-01

    While a leading-edge vortex on an infinite translating wing is shed after a short distance of travel, its counterpart on a finite span revolving insect wing or maple seed membrane exhibits robust attachment. The latter explains the aerodynamic lift generated by such biological species. Here we analyze the mechanisms responsible for leading-edge vortex attachment. We compute the Navier-Stokes solution of the flow past a finite span wing (i) embedded in a uniform oncoming flow, (ii) embedded in a spanwise varying oncoming flow, and (iii) revolving about its root. We show that over flapping amplitudes typical of insect flight (ϕ =120∘), the spanwise gradient of the local wing speed may suffice in maintaining leading-edge vortex attachment. We correlate this result with the development of spanwise flow, driven by the spanwise gradient of pressure, and we evaluate the sensitivity of such a mechanism to the Reynolds number. It is noted, however, that leading-edge vortex attachment through the spanwise gradient of the local wing speed does not promote large lift, which ultimately arises from centrifugal and Coriolis effects.

  10. Encoding properties of the wing hinge stretch receptor in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Frye, M A

    2001-11-01

    To characterize the in vivo responses of the wing hinge stretch receptor of Manduca sexta, I recorded its activity and simultaneously tracked the up-and-down motion of the wing while the hawkmoth flew tethered in a wind tunnel. The stretch receptor fires a high-frequency burst of spikes near each dorsal stroke reversal. The onset of the burst is tightly tuned to a set-point in wing elevation, and the number of spikes contained within the burst encodes the maximal degree of wing elevation during the stroke. In an effort to characterize its mechanical encoding properties, I constructed an actuator that delivered deformations to the wing hinge and simultaneously recorded the resultant stretch and tension and the activity of the stretch receptor. Stimuli included stepwise changes in length as well as more natural dynamic deformation that was measured in vivo. Step changes in length reveal that the stretch receptor encodes the static amplitude of stretch with both phasic and tonic firing dynamics. In vivo sinusoidal deformation revealed (i) that the timing of stretch receptor activity is tightly phase-locked within the oscillation cycle, (ii) that the number of spikes per burst is inversely related to oscillation frequency and (iii) that the instantaneous frequency of the burst increases with oscillation rate. At all oscillation rates tested, the instantaneous frequency of the burst increases with amplitude.

  11. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  12. Spanwise morphing trailing edge on a finite wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankonien, Alexander M.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are prime targets for morphing implementation as they must adapt to large changes in flight conditions associated with locally varying wind or large changes in mass associated with payload delivery. The Spanwise Morphing Trailing Edge concept locally varies the trailing edge camber of a wing or control surface, functioning as a modular replacement for conventional ailerons without altering the spar box. Utilizing alternating active sections of Macro Fiber Composites (MFCs) driving internal compliant mechanisms and inactive sections of elastomeric honeycombs, the SMTE concept eliminates geometric discontinuities associated with shape change, increasing aerodynamic performance. Previous work investigated a representative section of the SMTE concept and investigated the effect of various skin designs on actuation authority. The current work experimentally evaluates the aerodynamic gains for the SMTE concept for a representative finite wing as compared with a conventional, articulated wing. The comparative performance for both wings is evaluated by measuring the drag penalty associated with achieving a design lift coefficient from an off-design angle of attack. To reduce experimental complexity, optimal control configurations are predicted with lifting line theory and experimentally measured control derivatives. Evaluated over a range of off-design flight conditions, this metric captures the comparative capability of both concepts to adapt or "morph" to changes in flight conditions. Even with this simplistic model, the SMTE concept is shown to reduce the drag penalty due to adaptation up to 20% at off-design conditions, justifying the increase in mass and complexity and motivating concepts capable of larger displacement ranges, higher fidelity modelling, and condition-sensing control.

  13. Narrow-line region gas kinematics of 24 264 optically selected AGN: the radio connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullaney, J. R.; Alexander, D. M.; Fine, S.; Goulding, A. D.; Harrison, C. M.; Hickox, R. C.

    2013-07-01

    Using a sample of 24 264 optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the SDSS DR7 data base, we characterize how the profile of the [O III] λ5007 emission line relates to bolometric luminosity (LAGN), Eddington ratio, radio loudness, radio luminosity (L1.4 GHz) and optical class (i.e. broad/narrow-line Seyfert 1, type 2) to determine what drives the kinematics of this kpc-scale line emitting gas. First, we use spectral stacking to characterize how the average [O III] λ5007 profile changes as a function of these five variables. After accounting for the known correlation between LAGN and L1.4 GHz, we report that L1.4 GHz has the strongest influence on the [O III] λ5007 profile, with AGNs of moderate radio luminosity (L1.4 GHz = 1023-1025 W Hz-1) having the broadest [O III] λ5007 profiles. Conversely, we find only a modest change in the [O III] λ5007 profile with increasing radio loudness and find no significant difference between the [O III] λ5007 profiles of broad- and narrow-line Seyfert 1s. When binned according to Eddington ratio, only the AGNs in our highest bin (i.e. >0.3) show any signs of having broadened [O III] λ5007 profiles, although the small numbers of such extreme AGNs in our sample mean we cannot rule out that other processes (e.g. radio jets) are responsible for this broadening. The [O III] λ5007 profiles of type 1 and type 2 AGNs show the same trends in terms of line width, but type 1 AGNs display a much stronger `blue wing', which we interpret as evidence of outflowing ionized gas. We perform multicomponent fitting to the Hβ, [O III] λλ4959, 5007, [N II] λλ6548, 6584 and Hα lines for all the AGNs in our sample to calculate the proportions of AGNs with broad [O III] λ5007 profiles. The individual fits confirm the results from our stacked spectra; AGNs with L1.4 GHz > 1023 W Hz-1 are roughly five times more likely to have extremely broad [O III] λ5007 lines (full width at half-maximum, FWHMAvg > 1000 km s-1) compared to

  14. Straight-line climbing flight aerodynamics of a fruit bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, K.; Nagendra, K.; Cotter, J.; Frauenthal, M.; Tafti, D. K.

    2014-02-01

    From flight data obtained on a fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, a kinematic model for straight-line flapping motion is extracted and analyzed in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to gain insight into the complexity of bat flight. The intricate functional mechanics and architecture of the bat wings set it apart from other vertebrate flight. The extracted kinematic model is simulated for a range of Reynolds numbers, to observe the effect these phenomena have on the unsteady transient mechanisms of the flow produced by the flapping wings. The Strouhal number calculated from the data is high indicating that the oscillatory motion dominates the flow physics. From the obtained data, the bat exhibits fine control of its mechanics by actively varying wing camber, wing area, torsional rotation of the wing, forward and backward translational sweep of the wing, and wing conformation to dictate the fluid dynamics. As is common in flapping flight, the primary force generation is through the attached unsteady vortices on the wing surface. The bat through varying the wing camber and the wing area modulates this force output. The power requirement for the kinematics is analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic performance.

  15. Delta wings with shock-free cross flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sritharan, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    In order to have a high level of maneuverability, supersonic delta wings should have a cross flow that is free of embedded shock waves. The conical cross flow sonic surface differs from that of plane transonic flow in many aspects. Well-known properties such as the monotone law are not true for conical cross flow sonic surfaces. By using a local analysis of the cross flow sonic line, relevant conditions for smooth cross flow are obtained. A technique to artificially construct a smooth sonic surface and an efficient numerical method to calculate the flow field are used to obtain cones with smooth cross flow.

  16. SOUTH WING, TRA661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. MTR WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH WING, TRA-661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. MTR WEST WALL BEYOND ROOF LINE. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-45-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Infrared mergers and infrared quasi-stellar objects with galactic winds - III. Mrk 231: an exploding young quasi-stellar object with composite outflow/broad absorption lines (and multiple expanding superbubbles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lípari, S.; Terlevich, R.; Zheng, W.; Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Sanchez, S. F.; Bergmann, M.

    2005-06-01

    shell with blueshifted velocities (with circular shape and at a radius r~ 5.0 arcsec). This bubble shows a rupture arc - to the south - suggesting that the bubble is in the blowout phase. The axis of this rupture or ejection (at PA ~ 00°) is coincident with the axis of the intermediate and large-scale structures detected at radio wavelengths. (ii) In addition, in the three more external bubbles (S1, S2, S3), the two-dimensional William Herschel Telescope spectra show multiple emission-line components with OF velocities, of S1, S2 and S3 =[-(650 - 420) +/- 30], [-500 +/- 30] and [-230 +/- 30] km s-1. (iii) In the whole circumnuclear region (1.8 < r < 5 arcsec), the [NII]/Hα and [SII]/Hα narrow emission-line ratios show high values (>0.8), which are consistent with low-ionization nuclear emission-line region/OF processes associated with fast velocity shocks. Therefore, we suggest that these giant bubbles are associated with the large-scale nuclear OF component, which is generated - at least in part - by the extreme nuclear starburst: giant supernova/hypernova explosions. The variability of the short-lived BAL-III NaI D system was studied, covering almost all the period in which this system appeared (between ~1984 and 2004). We have found that the BAL-III light curve is clearly asymmetric with a steep increase, a clear maximum and an exponential fall (similar to the shape of a supernova light curve). The origin of this BAL-III system is discussed, mainly in the framework of an extreme explosive event, probably associated with giant supernova/hypernova explosions. Finally, the IR colour diagram and the ultraviolet BAL systems of IR + GW/OF + FeII QSOs are analysed. This study shows two new BAL IR QSOs and suggests/confirms that these objects could be nearby young BAL QSOs, similar to those detected recently at z~ 6.0. We propose that the phase of young QSOs is associated with accretion of a large amount of gas (by the supermassive black hole) + extreme

  18. Integrated technology wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, A. P.; Beck, W. E.; Morita, W. H.; Penrose, B. J.; Skarshaug, R. E.; Wainfan, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    The technology development costs and associated benefits in applying advanced technology associated with the design of a new wing for a new or derivative trijet with a capacity for 350 passengers and maximum range of 8519 km, entering service in 1990 were studied. The areas of technology are: (1) airfoil technology; (2) planform parameters; (3) high lift; (4) pitch active control system; (5) all electric systems; (6) E to 3rd power propulsion; (7) airframe/propulsion integration; (8) graphite/epoxy composites; (9) advanced aluminum alloys; (10) titanium alloys; and (11) silicon carbide/aluminum composites. These technologies were applied to the reference aircraft configuration. Payoffs were determined for block fuel reductions and net value of technology. These technologies are ranked for the ratio of net value of technology (NVT) to technology development costs.

  19. Evaluation of flexible flapping wing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakotomamonjy, Thomas; Le Moing, Thierry; Danet, Brieuc; Gadoullet, Xavier; Osmont, Daniel; Dupont, Marc

    2009-03-01

    ONERA - The French Aerospace Lab - has launched an internal program on biologically-inspired Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs), covering many research topics such as unsteady aerodynamics, actuation, structural dynamics or control. The aim is to better understand the flapping flight performed in nature by insects, and to control state of the art technologies and applications in this field. For that purpose, a flight-dynamics oriented simulation model of a flapping-wing concept has been developed. This model, called OSCAB, features a body and two wings along which the aerodynamics efforts are integrated, so as to determine the global motion of the MAV. The model has been improved by taking into account the flexibility of the wings (flexion of the leading edge and passive torsion of the wings, induced by the flapping motion itself under wing inertia). Thus, it becomes possible to estimate the coupling between flexibility and the aerodynamic forces. Furthermore, the model shows that using elastic properties of the wings allows a diminution of the mechanical energy needed for wings motion, and a reduction of the number of actuators to be implanted into the MAV.

  20. Nanostructured Antireflective and Thermoisolative Cicada Wings.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Junko; Ryu, Meguya; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Balčytis, Armandas; Maximova, Ksenia; Wang, Xuewen; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Ivanova, Elena P; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2016-05-10

    Inter-related mechanical, thermal, and optical macroscopic properties of biomaterials are defined at the nanoscale by their constituent structures and patterns, which underpin complex functions of an entire bio-object. Here, the temperature diffusivity of a cicada (Cyclochila australasiae) wing with nanotextured surfaces was measured using two complementary techniques: a direct contact method and IR imaging. The 4-6-μm-thick wing section was shown to have a thermal diffusivity of α⊥ = (0.71 ± 0.15) × 10(-7) m(2)/s, as measured by the contact temperature wave method along the thickness of the wing; it corresponds to the inherent thermal property of the cuticle. The in-plane thermal diffusivity value of the wing was determined by IR imaging and was considerably larger at α∥ = (3.6 ± 0.2) × 10(-7) m(2)/s as a result of heat transport via air. Optical properties of wings covered with nanospikes were numerically simulated using an accurate 3D model of the wing pattern and showed that light is concentrated between spikes where intensity is enhanced by up to 3- to 4-fold. The closely packed pattern of nanospikes reduces the reflectivity of the wing throughout the visible light spectrum and over a wide range of incident angles, hence acting as an antireflection coating.

  1. Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, Daniel D.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Torre I, Manuel H. de la; Caloca Mendez, Cristian I.

    2008-04-15

    Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392x1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame rate digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement.

  2. Nanostructured Antireflective and Thermoisolative Cicada Wings.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Junko; Ryu, Meguya; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Balčytis, Armandas; Maximova, Ksenia; Wang, Xuewen; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Ivanova, Elena P; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2016-05-10

    Inter-related mechanical, thermal, and optical macroscopic properties of biomaterials are defined at the nanoscale by their constituent structures and patterns, which underpin complex functions of an entire bio-object. Here, the temperature diffusivity of a cicada (Cyclochila australasiae) wing with nanotextured surfaces was measured using two complementary techniques: a direct contact method and IR imaging. The 4-6-μm-thick wing section was shown to have a thermal diffusivity of α⊥ = (0.71 ± 0.15) × 10(-7) m(2)/s, as measured by the contact temperature wave method along the thickness of the wing; it corresponds to the inherent thermal property of the cuticle. The in-plane thermal diffusivity value of the wing was determined by IR imaging and was considerably larger at α∥ = (3.6 ± 0.2) × 10(-7) m(2)/s as a result of heat transport via air. Optical properties of wings covered with nanospikes were numerically simulated using an accurate 3D model of the wing pattern and showed that light is concentrated between spikes where intensity is enhanced by up to 3- to 4-fold. The closely packed pattern of nanospikes reduces the reflectivity of the wing throughout the visible light spectrum and over a wide range of incident angles, hence acting as an antireflection coating. PMID:27101865

  3. Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.

  4. Novel Control Effectors for Truss Braced Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Edward V.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Joshi, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    At cruise flight conditions very high aspect ratio/low sweep truss braced wings (TBW) may be subject to design requirements that distinguish them from more highly swept cantilevered wings. High aspect ratio, short chord length and relative thinness of the airfoil sections all contribute to relatively low wing torsional stiffness. This may lead to aeroelastic issues such as aileron reversal and low flutter margins. In order to counteract these issues, high aspect ratio/low sweep wings may need to carry additional high speed control effectors to operate when outboard ailerons are in reversal and/or must carry additional structural weight to enhance torsional stiffness. The novel control effector evaluated in this study is a variable sweep raked wing tip with an aileron control surface. Forward sweep of the tip allows the aileron to align closely with the torsional axis of the wing and operate in a conventional fashion. Aft sweep of the tip creates a large moment arm from the aileron to the wing torsional axis greatly enhancing aileron reversal. The novelty comes from using this enhanced and controllable aileron reversal effect to provide roll control authority by acting as a servo tab and providing roll control through intentional twist of the wing. In this case the reduced torsional stiffness of the wing becomes an advantage to be exploited. The study results show that the novel control effector concept does provide roll control as described, but only for a restricted class of TBW aircraft configurations. For the configuration studied (long range, dual aisle, Mach 0.85 cruise) the novel control effector provides significant benefits including up to 12% reduction in fuel burn.

  5. Phase III Study Comparing Exemestane With Tamoxifen As First-Line Hormonal Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    PubMed Central

    Paridaens, Robert J.; Dirix, Luc Y.; Beex, Louk V.; Nooij, Marianne; Cameron, David A.; Cufer, Tanja; Piccart, Martine J.; Bogaerts, Jan; Therasse, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This phase III randomized open-label clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the steroidal aromatase inactivator exemestane versus the antiestrogen tamoxifen as first-line treatment for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in postmenopausal women. Patients and Methods The study was conducted at 81 centers and enrolled postmenopausal patients with measurable hormone-sensitive metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer. Prior adjuvant chemotherapy and/or tamoxifen were allowed. One previous chemotherapy regimen and no prior hormone therapy for advanced disease were permitted. Patients were randomly assigned to receive exemestane 25 mg or tamoxifen 20 mg orally once daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. Results A total of 371 patients enrolled at 79 sites (182 exemestane, 189 tamoxifen) were included in the analysis. Both treatments were generally well tolerated without major toxicity. Overall response rate was greater for exemestane than for tamoxifen treatment (46% v 31%; odds ratio = 1.85; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.82; P = .005). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was longer with exemestane (9.9 months; 95% CI, 8.7 to 11.8 months) than with tamoxifen (5.8 months; 95% CI, 5.3 to 8.1 months). However, these early differences (Wilcoxon P = .028) did not translate to a longer-term benefit in PFS, the primary study end point (log-rank P = .121). There was also no difference in survival between both study arms. Conclusion Exemestane is an effective and well-tolerated first-line hormonal treatment for postmenopausal women with MBC and offers significant early improvement in time to tumor progression when compared with tamoxifen. PMID:18794551

  6. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23... General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. The forward structure of a canard or tandem wing configuration must: (a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and subpart D of this part applicable to a wing;...

  7. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23... General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. The forward structure of a canard or tandem wing configuration must: (a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and subpart D of this part applicable to a wing;...

  8. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23... General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. The forward structure of a canard or tandem wing configuration must: (a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and subpart D of this part applicable to a wing;...

  9. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23... General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. The forward structure of a canard or tandem wing configuration must: (a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and subpart D of this part applicable to a wing;...

  10. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23... General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. The forward structure of a canard or tandem wing configuration must: (a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and subpart D of this part applicable to a wing;...

  11. Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Wing-Body Combination having a 52.5 deg Sweptback Wing of Aspect Ratio 3 with Conical Camber and Designed for a Mach Number of the Square Root of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igoe, William B.; Re, Richard J.; Cassetti, Marlowe

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the effects of conical wing camber and supersonic body indentation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-body configuration at transonic speeds. Wing aspect ratio was 3.0, taper ratio was 0.1, and quarter-chord line sweepback was 52.5 deg with airfoil sections of 0.03 thickness ratio. The tests were conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at various Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 at angles of attack from -4 deg to 14 deg. The cambered-wing configuration achieved higher lift-drag ratios than a similar plane-wing configuration. The camber also reduced the effects of wing-tip flow separation on the aerodynamic characteristics. In general, no stability or trim changes below wing-tip flow separation resulted from the use of camber. The use of supersonic body indentation improved the lift-drag ratios at Mach numbers from 0.96 to 1.05.

  12. Static aeroelastic analysis for generic configuration wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, IN; Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, Mladen K.

    1991-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that calculates flexible air loads for generic configuration wings was developed. It was made possible by integrating a finite element structural analysis code (MSC/NASTRAN) and a panel code of aerodynamic analysis based on linear potential flow theory. The framework already built in MSC/NASTRAN was used, and the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix was computed externally and inserted in the NASTRAN by means of a DMAP program. It was shown that deformation and flexible air loads of an oblique wing configuration including asymmetric wings can be calculated reliably by this code both in subsonic and supersonic speeds.

  13. A Miniature Controllable Flapping Wing Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabagi, Veaceslav Gheorghe

    The agility and miniature size of nature's flapping wing fliers has long baffled researchers, inspiring biological studies, aerodynamic simulations, and attempts to engineer their robotic replicas. Flapping wing flight is characterized by complex reciprocating wing kinematics, transient aerodynamic effects, and very small body lengths. These characteristics render robotic flapping wing aerial vehicles ideal for surveillance and defense applications, search and rescue missions, and environment monitoring, where their ability to hover and high maneuverability is immensely beneficial. One of the many difficulties in creating flapping wing based miniature robotic aerial vehicles lies in generating a proper wing trajectory that would result in sufficient lift forces for hovering and maneuvering. Since design of a flapping wing system is a balance between overall weight and the number of actuated inputs, we take the approach of having minimal controlled inputs, allowing passive behavior wherever possible. Hence, we propose a completely passive wing pitch reversal design that relies on wing inertial dynamics, an elastic energy storage mechanism, and low Reynolds number aerodynamic effects. Theoretical models, compiling previous research on piezoelectric actuators, four-bar transmissions, and aerodynamics effects, are developed and used as basis for a complete numerical simulation. Limitations of the model are discussed in comparison to experimental results obtained from a working prototype of the proposed passive pitch reversal flapping wing mechanism. Given that the mechanism is under-actuated, methods to control lift force generation by actively varying system parameters are proposed, discussed, and tested experimentally. A dual wing aerial platform is developed based on the passive pitch reversal wing concept. Design considerations are presented, favoring controllability and structural rigidity of the final platform. Finite element analysis and experimental

  14. Moveable Leading Edge Device for a Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitt, Dale M. (Inventor); Eckstein, Nicholas Stephen (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and apparatus for managing a flight control surface system. A leading edge section on a wing of an aircraft is extended into a deployed position. A deformable section connects the leading edge section to a trailing section. The deformable section changes from a deformed shape to an original shape when the leading edge section is moved into the deployed position. The leading edge section on the wing is moved from the deployed position to an undeployed position. The deformable section changes to the deformed shape inside of the wing.

  15. The plane problem of the flapping wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, Walter

    1954-01-01

    In connection with an earlier report on the lifting vortex sheet which forms the basis of the following investigations this will show how the methods developed there are also suitable for dealing with the air forces for a wing with a circulation variable with time. The theory of a propulsive wing flapping up and down periodically in the manner of a bird's wing is developed. This study shows how the lift and its moment result as a function of the flapping motion, what thrust is attainable, and how high is the degree of efficiency of this flapping propulsion unit if the air friction is disregarded.

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Wing Aeroelastic Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Issac, Jason Cherian

    1995-01-01

    Design for prevention of aeroelastic instability (that is, the critical speeds leading to aeroelastic instability lie outside the operating range) is an integral part of the wing design process. Availability of the sensitivity derivatives of the various critical speeds with respect to shape parameters of the wing could be very useful to a designer in the initial design phase, when several design changes are made and the shape of the final configuration is not yet frozen. These derivatives are also indispensable for a gradient-based optimization with aeroelastic constraints. In this study, flutter characteristic of a typical section in subsonic compressible flow is examined using a state-space unsteady aerodynamic representation. The sensitivity of the flutter speed of the typical section with respect to its mass and stiffness parameters, namely, mass ratio, static unbalance, radius of gyration, bending frequency, and torsional frequency is calculated analytically. A strip theory formulation is newly developed to represent the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a wing. This is coupled with an equivalent plate structural model and solved as an eigenvalue problem to determine the critical speed of the wing. Flutter analysis of the wing is also carried out using a lifting-surface subsonic kernel function aerodynamic theory (FAST) and an equivalent plate structural model. Finite element modeling of the wing is done using NASTRAN so that wing structures made of spars and ribs and top and bottom wing skins could be analyzed. The free vibration modes of the wing obtained from NASTRAN are input into FAST to compute the flutter speed. An equivalent plate model which incorporates first-order shear deformation theory is then examined so it can be used to model thick wings, where shear deformations are important. The sensitivity of natural frequencies to changes in shape parameters is obtained using ADIFOR. A simple optimization effort is made towards obtaining a minimum weight

  17. Wing design with attainable thrust considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.; Shrout, B. L.; Darden, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A CAD process that includes leading-edge thrust considerations for wings with high aerodynamic efficiencies is outlined. Rectangular grids are used for evaluation of both subsonic and supersonic pressure loadings. Account is taken of the Mach number, Re, the wing planform, the presence of camber, the airfoil geometry and the locations and forces induced by shed vortices. Optimization techniques are applied to the candidate surfaces in order to consider the attainable thrust. Inclusion of the optimization techniques permits analyses of mission-adaptive wings and various flap systems and the elimination of singularities in the flight envelope.

  18. Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

  19. Aerodynamic interaction between propellers and wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, David; Lee, Alex K. H.; Sullivan, John P.

    1988-01-01

    A combined computational/experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the time-averaged interactive performance of a propeller and wing in tractor configuration at Mach 0.1 and Re=470,000, based on a wind tunnel model wing chord of 8 in. Wing angle-of-attack was varied from 0 to +13 deg, and propeller advance ratio ranged from 2.4 (windmilling) to 1.1 (maximum power). Both a semiempirical model and a vortex lattice simulation were used in the computational analysis. Good agreement has been obtained between theory and experiment.

  20. The effect of asymmetric vortex wake characteristics on a slender delta wing undergoing wing rock motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arena, A. S., Jr.; Nelson, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation into the fluid mechanisms responsible for wing rock on a slender delta wing with 80 deg leading edge sweep has been conducted. Time history and flow visualization data are presented for a wide angle-of-attack range. The use of an air bearing spindle has allowed the motion of the wing to be free from bearing friction or mechanical hysteresis. A bistable static condition has been found in vortex breakdown at an angle of attack of 40 deg which causes an overshoot of the steady state rocking amplitude. Flow visualization experiments also reveal a difference in static and dynamic breakdown locations on the wing. A hysteresis loop in dynamic breakdown location similar to that seen on pitching delta wings was observed as the wing was undergoing the limit cycle oscillation.

  1. The effect of over-the-wing nacelles on wing-body aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reubush, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to further study benefits in climb and cruise performance due to blowing the jet over the wing for a transport-type wing-body configuration. In this investigation a wing-body model/powered-nacelle test rig combination was tested at Mach numbers of 0.5 and 0.8 at angles of attack from -2 to 4 deg and jet total-pressure ratios from jet off to 3 or 4 (depending on Mach number) for a variety of nacelle locations relative to the wing. Results from this investigation show that positioning of the nacelles can have very large effects on the wing-body drag (nacelles were nonmetric). Some positions yielded much higher drag than the baseline wing-body while others yielded drag which was somewhat lower than the baseline.

  2. Aerodynamic shape optimization of wing and wing-body configurations using control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for wing and wing-body design. In previous studies it was shown that control theory could be used to devise an effective optimization procedure for airfoils and wings in which the shape and the surrounding body-fitted mesh are both generated analytically, and the control is the mapping function. Recently, the method has been implemented for both potential flows and flows governed by the Euler equations using an alternative formulation which employs numerically generated grids, so that it can more easily be extended to treat general configurations. Here results are presented both for the optimization of a swept wing using an analytic mapping, and for the optimization of wing and wing-body configurations using a general mesh.

  3. Thin tailored composite wing for civil tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1994-01-01

    The tiltrotor aircraft is a flight vehicle which combines the efficient low speed (i.e., take-off, landing, and hover) characteristics of a helicopter with the efficient cruise speed of a turboprop airplane. A well-known example of such vehicle is the Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey. The high cruise speed and range constraints placed on the civil tiltrotor require a relatively thin wing to increase the drag-divergence Mach number which translates into lower compressibility drag. It is required to reduce the wing maximum thickness-to-chord ratio t/c from 23% (i.e., V-22 wing) to 18%. While a reduction in wing thickness results in improved aerodynamic efficiency, it has an adverse effect on the wing structure and it tends to reduce structural stiffness. If ignored, the reduction in wing stiffness leads to susceptibility to aeroelastic and dynamic instabilities which may consequently cause a catastrophic failure. By taking advantage of the directional stiffness characteristics of composite materials the wing structure may be tailored to have the necessary stiffness, at a lower thickness, while keeping the weight low. The goal of this study is to design a wing structure for minimum weight subject to structural, dynamic and aeroelastic constraints. The structural constraints are in terms of strength and buckling allowables. The dynamic constraints are in terms of wing natural frequencies in vertical and horizontal bending and torsion. The aeroelastic constraints are in terms of frequency placement of the wing structure relative to those of the rotor system. The wing-rotor-pylon aeroelastic and dynamic interactions are limited in this design study by holding the cruise speed, rotor-pylon system, and wing geometric attributes fixed. To assure that the wing-rotor stability margins are maintained a more rigorous analysis based on a detailed model of the rotor system will need to ensue following the design study. The skin-stringer-rib type architecture is used for the wing

  4. First-Line XELOX Plus Bevacizumab Followed by XELOX Plus Bevacizumab or Single-Agent Bevacizumab as Maintenance Therapy in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: The Phase III MACRO TTD Study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-España, Auxiliadora; Massutí, Bartomeu; Sastre, Javier; Abad, Albert; Valladares, Manuel; Rivera, Fernando; Safont, Maria J.; Martínez de Prado, Purificación; Gallén, Manuel; González, Encarnación; Marcuello, Eugenio; Benavides, Manuel; Fernández-Martos, Carlos; Losa, Ferrán; Escudero, Pilar; Arrivi, Antonio; Cervantes, Andrés; Dueñas, Rosario; López-Ladrón, Amelia; Lacasta, Adelaida; Llanos, Marta; Tabernero, Jose M.; Antón, Antonio; Aranda, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this phase III trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab alone with those of bevacizumab and capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) as maintenance treatment following induction chemotherapy with XELOX plus bevacizumab in the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Patients and Methods. Patients were randomly assigned to receive six cycles of bevacizumab, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin every 3 weeks followed by XELOX plus bevacizumab or bevacizumab alone until progression. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival (PFS) interval; secondary endpoints were the overall survival (OS) time, objective response rate (RR), time to response, duration of response, and safety. Results. The intent-to-treat population comprised 480 patients (XELOX plus bevacizumab, n = 239; bevacizumab, n = 241); there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. The median follow-up was 29.0 months (range, 0–53.2 months). There were no statistically significant differences in the median PFS or OS times or in the RR between the two arms. The most common grade 3 or 4 toxicities in the XELOX plus bevacizumab versus bevacizumab arms were diarrhea, hand–foot syndrome, and neuropathy. Conclusion. Although the noninferiority of bevacizumab versus XELOX plus bevacizumab cannot be confirmed, we can reliably exclude a median PFS detriment >3 weeks. This study suggests that maintenance therapy with single-agent bevacizumab may be an appropriate option following induction XELOX plus bevacizumab in mCRC patients. PMID:22234633

  5. Biological activity and redistribution of nucleolar proteins of two different cell lines treated with cis-dichloro-1,2-propylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetato ruthenium (III) (RAP).

    PubMed

    Delmani, Fatima Azzahra; Torreblanca, José; Moreno, Javier; García-Herdugo, Gregorio; Vilaplana, Rosario; González-Víltchez, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    The interaction of a newly synthesized antitumor complex cis-dichloro-1,2-propylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetato ruthenium (III) (RAP) with DNA was investigated in vitro through a number of techniques including comet assay, immunoprecipitation, and immunolocalization of certain nucleolar proteins (the upstream binding factor (UBF) and fibrillarin) involved in DNA transcription, rRNA processing, and ribosomal assembly. The results showed that RAP binds to the DNA of two cell lines (H4 and Hs-683) causing a delay in cell proliferation rate leading to a number of cellular modifications. These modifications include DNA-damage assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis method (comet assay) and variation in the expression of nucleolar proteins; UBF was more abundant in RAP treated cells, this was explained by the high affinity of this protein to DNA modified by RAP. On the other hand, fibrillarin was found in less quantities in RAP treated cells which was explained by a de-regulation of the ribosomal machinery caused by RAP.

  6. Evaluation of on-line desalter-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry system for determination of Cr(III), Cr(VI), and total chromium concentrations in natural water and urine samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. C.; Lin, C. Y.; Wu, S. F.; Chung, Y. T.

    2006-02-01

    We have developed a simple and convenient method for the determination of Cr(III), Cr(VI), and the total chromium concentrations in natural water and urine samples that use a flow injection on-line desalter-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry system. When using aqueous ammonium chloride (pH 8) as the stripping solution, the severe interference from sodium in the matrix can be eliminated prior to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry measurement, and the Cr(VI) level can be determined directly. To determine the total concentration of Cr in natural water and urine samples, we used H 2O 2 or HNO 3 to decompose the organic matter and convert all chromium species into the Cr(VI) oxidation state. To overcome the spectral interference caused by the matrix chloride ion in the resulting solutions, we employed cool plasma to successfully suppress chloride-based molecular ion interference during the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry measurement. By significantly eliminating interference from the cationic and anionic components in the matrices prior to the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry measurement, we found that the detection limit reached 0.18 μg L - 1 (based on 3 sigma). We validated this method through the analysis of the total chromium content in two reference materials (NIST 1643c and 2670E) and through measuring the recovery in spiked samples.

  7. The Strength of Shell and Tubular Spar Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebner, H

    1940-01-01

    The report is a survey of the strength problems arising on shell and tubular spar wings. The treatment of the shell wing strength is primarily confined to those questions which concern the shell wing only; those pertaining to both shell wing and shell body together have already been treated in TM 838. The discussion of stress condition and compressive strength of shell wings and tubular spar wings is prefaced by several considerations concerning the spar and shell design of metal wings from the point of view of strength.

  8. Low aspect ratio wings at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, R. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is made of experimental data compiled to date for the flowfields and aerodynamic forces that occur at high angles of attack for low aspect ratio wings with delta, rectangular, clipped delta, and strake/wing planform geometries. Attention is given to wing leading edge-generated vortex breakdown, aspect ratio and compressibility effects, and strake vortex effects on main wing areas. Although the nonlinear effects created by a wing-body combination significantly alter wing-alone aerodynamics, the wing-alone data presented are vital to the development of prediction methodologies for large angle of attack aerodynamics.

  9. Active Dihedral Control System for a Torisionally Flexible Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor); Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Morgan, Walter R. (Inventor); Griecci, John A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A span-loaded, highly flexible flying wing, having horizontal control surfaces mounted aft of the wing on extended beams to form local pitch-control devices. Each of five spanwise wing segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other wing segments, to minimize inter-segment loads. Wing dihedral is controlled by separately controlling the local pitch-control devices consisting of a control surface on a boom, such that inboard and outboard wing segment pitch changes relative to each other, and thus relative inboard and outboard lift is varied.

  10. Experimental and numerical analysis of the wing rock characteristics of a 'wing-body-tail' configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Smith, Brooke C.; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1993-01-01

    Free-to-roll wind tunnel tests were conducted and a computer simulation exercise was performed in an effort to investigate in detail the mechanism of wing rock on a configuration that consisted of a highly-slender forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. In the wind tunnel test, the roll angle and wing surface pressures were measured during the wing rock motion. A limit cycle oscillation was observed for angles of attack between 22 deg and 30 deg. In general, the wind tunnel test confirmed that the main flow phenomena responsible for the wing-body-tail wing rock are the interactions between the forebody and the wing vortices. The variation of roll acceleration (determined from the second derivative of the roll angle time history) with roll angle clearly showed the energy balance necessary to sustain the limit cycle oscillation. Pressure measurements on the wing revealed the hysteresis of the wing rock process. First, second and nth order models for the aerodynamic damping were developed and examined with a one degree of freedom computer simulation. Very good agreement with the observed behavior from the wind tunnel was obtained.

  11. Numerical study of wingtip shed vorticity reduction by wing Boundary Layer Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posada, Jose Alejandro

    computed pressure coefficient values compare very well (Figure 90). The present simulations were also validated by comparison with wake survey and balance type experimental measurements done by Chometon and Laurent on a NACA 643-018 wing. Lift, induced drag, and profile drag coefficients agree very well with Chometon and Laurent data. More than one hundred simulations were performed with different BLC suction slot geometries. Suction slots were used in the chord-wise and span-wise locations near the wing tip region. Blowing slots were evaluated at the wing center line, the wing tip upper surface, and span-wise outside of the wing tip. For an elliptically loaded wing, 50% of the bound vorticity is shed at the wing tips over a length of 7% of the wing span. The turbulent boundary layer thickness for a Cessna 206 aircraft at cruise is estimated as 0.09 ft. Theoretically the power required to remove by suction all the upper and lower surface boundary layer over the tip region for this aircraft at take-off is 2.6 HP, which would be very small compared to the 70 HP induced drag power saved. This would only be true if 100% wingtip vortex elimination could be obtained.

  12. Measurements of Supersonic Wing Tip Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Michael K.; Kalkhoran, Iraj M.; Benston, James

    1994-01-01

    An experimental survey of supersonic wing tip vortices has been conducted at Mach 2.5 using small performed 2.25 chords down-stream of a semi-span rectangular wing at angle of attack of 5 and 10 degrees. The main objective of the experiments was to determine the Mach number, flow angularity and total pressure distribution in the core region of supersonic wing tip vortices. A secondary aim was to demonstrate the feasibility of using cone probes calibrated with a numerical flow solver to measure flow characteristics at supersonic speeds. Results showed that the numerically generated calibration curves can be used for 4-hole cone probes, but were not sufficiently accurate for conventional 5-hole probes due to nose bluntness effects. Combination of 4-hole cone probe measurements with independent pitot pressure measurements indicated a significant Mach number and total pressure deficit in the core regions of supersonic wing tip vortices, combined with an asymmetric 'Burger like' swirl distribution.

  13. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings.

    PubMed

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects. PMID:25871040

  14. Mallard age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carney, S.M.; Geis, A.D.

    1960-01-01

    This paper describes characters on the wing plumage of the mallard that indicate age and sex. A key outlines a logical order in which to check age and sex characters on wings. This method was tested and found to be more than 95 percent reliable, although it was found that considerable practice and training with known-age specimens was required to achieve this level of accuracy....The implications of this technique and the sampling procedure it permits are discussed. Wing collections could provide information on production, and, if coupled with a banding program could permit seasonal population estimates to be calculated. In addition, representative samples of wings would provide data to check the reliability of several other waterfowl surveys.

  15. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  16. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the minimum induced drag of wings. The topics include: 1) The History of Spanload Development of the optimum spanload Winglets and their implications; 2) Horten Sailplanes; and 3) Flight Mechanics & Adverse yaw.

  17. Bat wing sensors support flight control.

    PubMed

    Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne; Chadha, Mohit; Chiu, Chen; Falk, Ben; Xian, Wei; Barcelo, Janna; Zook, John M; Moss, Cynthia F

    2011-07-01

    Bats are the only mammals capable of powered flight, and they perform impressive aerial maneuvers like tight turns, hovering, and perching upside down. The bat wing contains five digits, and its specialized membrane is covered with stiff, microscopically small, domed hairs. We provide here unique empirical evidence that the tactile receptors associated with these hairs are involved in sensorimotor flight control by providing aerodynamic feedback. We found that neurons in bat primary somatosensory cortex respond with directional sensitivity to stimulation of the wing hairs with low-speed airflow. Wing hairs mostly preferred reversed airflow, which occurs under flight conditions when the airflow separates and vortices form. This finding suggests that the hairs act as an array of sensors to monitor flight speed and/or airflow conditions that indicate stall. Depilation of different functional regions of the bats' wing membrane altered the flight behavior in obstacle avoidance tasks by reducing aerial maneuverability, as indicated by decreased turning angles and increased flight speed.

  18. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings.

    PubMed

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  19. Territoriality in the Red-winged Blackbird

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Chris

    1977-01-01

    Reports findings on research in Red-winged Blackbird territoriality and describes the educational potential of use of similar studies in the classroom. Territorial mapping and observational techniques are explained. (CS)

  20. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardin, T.; David, L.

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  1. Butterfly wing patterns: how good a determining mechanism is the simple diffusion of a single morphogen?

    PubMed

    Bard, J B; French, V

    1984-12-01

    The formation of the wing pigmentation patterns of three species of butterflies has been modelled using a mechanism based on a tripod of assumptions. First, that there may be morphogen sources in the foci of eyespots and morphogen sinks at some parts of the wing margin, all other cells being passive. Second, that the morphogen has a finite half life and diffuses simply and freely away from the sources throughout a wing of hexagonally packed cells. Third, that the overt pattern derives from cells interpreting the local morphogen concentration with respect to thresholds which determine scale colours. The final pattern thus follows lines of constant morphogen concentration and may, depending on the distribution of sources, comprise rings, curves or bands. With such a model, we have been able to compute stable patterns having the essential topology of the compound spots of Tenaris domitilla, the large rings of Diaethria marchalii and the pattern of eyespots, rings and asymmetric bands of Ragadia minoa. Quantitative analysis of the pattern-forming process shows that, with a biologically realistic diffusion constant (approximately 5.10(-7) cm2 sec-1) and a morphogen half life less than 6h, the patterns form within approximately 12h over a wing of approximately 1000 cells in length. The limitations of the model are that the exact morphology of the eyespots and bands do not match precisely those of the original wings, that there are edge distortions and that optimal patterns may be critically dependent on the exact positions of sources and sinks. An explanation for part of the discrepancy is that we have assumed an adult wing shape and foci coordinates in modelling a process that took place earlier in development. Nevertheless, the limitations of the model argue against a mechanism based on a single morphogen operating in vivo. However, as the model can generate many features of butterfly wing patterns, it may be considered as a degenerate case of that mechanism. PMID

  2. Butterfly wing patterns: how good a determining mechanism is the simple diffusion of a single morphogen?

    PubMed

    Bard, J B; French, V

    1984-12-01

    The formation of the wing pigmentation patterns of three species of butterflies has been modelled using a mechanism based on a tripod of assumptions. First, that there may be morphogen sources in the foci of eyespots and morphogen sinks at some parts of the wing margin, all other cells being passive. Second, that the morphogen has a finite half life and diffuses simply and freely away from the sources throughout a wing of hexagonally packed cells. Third, that the overt pattern derives from cells interpreting the local morphogen concentration with respect to thresholds which determine scale colours. The final pattern thus follows lines of constant morphogen concentration and may, depending on the distribution of sources, comprise rings, curves or bands. With such a model, we have been able to compute stable patterns having the essential topology of the compound spots of Tenaris domitilla, the large rings of Diaethria marchalii and the pattern of eyespots, rings and asymmetric bands of Ragadia minoa. Quantitative analysis of the pattern-forming process shows that, with a biologically realistic diffusion constant (approximately 5.10(-7) cm2 sec-1) and a morphogen half life less than 6h, the patterns form within approximately 12h over a wing of approximately 1000 cells in length. The limitations of the model are that the exact morphology of the eyespots and bands do not match precisely those of the original wings, that there are edge distortions and that optimal patterns may be critically dependent on the exact positions of sources and sinks. An explanation for part of the discrepancy is that we have assumed an adult wing shape and foci coordinates in modelling a process that took place earlier in development. Nevertheless, the limitations of the model argue against a mechanism based on a single morphogen operating in vivo. However, as the model can generate many features of butterfly wing patterns, it may be considered as a degenerate case of that mechanism.

  3. Theoretical stability and control characteristics of wings with various amounts of taper and twist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, H. A.; Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    Stability derivatives have been computed for twisted wings of different planforms that include variations in both the wing taper and the aspect ratio. Taper ratios of 1.0, 0.50, and 0.25 are considered for each of three aspect ratios: 6, 10, and 16. The specific derivatives for which results are given are the rolling moment and the yawing moment derivatives with respect to rolling velocity, yawing velocity, and angle of sideslip. In addition to the stability derivatives, results are included for determining the theoretical rolling moment due to aileron deflection and a series of influence lines is given by which the loading across the span may be determined for any angle-of-attack distribution that may occur on the wing planforms considered.

  4. An experimental study of pressures on 60 deg Delta wings with leading edge vortex flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchman, J. F., III; Terry, J. E.; Donatelli, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in the Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel to determine surface pressures over a 60 deg sweep delta wing with three vortex flap designs. Extensive pressure data was collected to provide a base data set for comparison with computational design codes and to allow a better understanding of the flow over vortex flaps. The results indicated that vortex flaps can be designed which will contain the leading edge vortex with no spillage onto the wing upper surface. However, the tests also showed that flaps designed without accounting for flap thickness will not be optimum and the result can be oversized flaps, early flap vortex reattachment and a second separation and vortex at the wing/flap hinge line.

  5. Numerical simulation of swept-wing flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Helen L.

    1991-01-01

    The transition process characteristics of flows over swept wings were computationally modelled. The crossflow instability and crossflow/T-S wave interaction are analyzed through the numerical solution of the full three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations including unsteadiness, curvature, and sweep. The leading-edge region of a swept wing is considered in a three-dimensional spatial simulation with random disturbances as the initial conditions.

  6. Calculations Of Transonic Flow About A Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Gundy, Karen L.; Flores, Jolen; Chaderjian, Neal; Kaynak, Univer; Thomas, Scott D.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes calculations of transonic airflows about wing in wind tunnel. Basic equations of flow used in study are Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations in strong conservation-law form. Equations of flow incorporated into finite-difference computer code called TNS (Transonic Navier-Stokes). Computational grid generated by solution of partial differential equations yielding smooth meshes conforming to surfaces of wing and wind tunnel.

  7. Integrated technology wing study (oral presentation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The design of a plan for a commercial transport manufacturer to integrate advanced technology into a new wing for a derivative and/or new aircraft that could enter service in the late 1980s to early 1990s time period is proposed. The development of a new wing for a derivative or a new long range commercial aircraft and the incorporation of cost effective technologies are studied. The decision provides guidelines for the best allocation of research funds.

  8. Pathfinder aircraft being assembled - wing assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Technicians easily lift a 20-foot-long wing section during assembly of the Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. A number of upgrades were made to the unique aircraft prior to its successful checkout flight Nov. 19, 1996, among them the installation of stronger ultra-light wing ribs made of composite materials on two of the five wing panels. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  9. Aircraft noise propagation. [sound diffraction by wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, W. J.; Pierce, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    Sound diffraction experiments conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to study the acoustical implications of the engine over wing configuration (noise-shielding by wing) and to provide a data base for assessing various theoretical approaches to the problem of aircraft noise reduction are described. Topics explored include the theory of sound diffraction around screens and wedges; the scattering of spherical waves by rectangular patches; plane wave diffraction by a wedge with finite impedence; and the effects of ambient flow and distribution sources.

  10. Butterfly wing color: A photonic crystal demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proietti Zaccaria, Remo

    2016-01-01

    We have theoretically modeled the optical behavior of a natural occurring photonic crystal, as defined by the geometrical characteristics of the Teinopalpus Imperialis butterfly. In particular, following a genetic algorithm approach, we demonstrate how its wings follow a triclinic crystal geometry with a tetrahedron unit base. By performing both photonic band analysis and transmission/reflection simulations, we are able to explain the characteristic colors emerging by the butterfly wings, thus confirming their crystal form.

  11. Modal control of an oblique wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A linear modal control algorithm is applied to the NASA Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The control law is evaluated using a detailed nonlinear flight simulation. It is shown that the modal control law attenuates the coupling and nonlinear aerodynamics of the oblique wing and remains stable during control saturation caused by large command inputs or large external disturbances. The technique controls each natural mode independently allowing single-input/single-output techniques to be applied to multiple-input/multiple-output systems.

  12. Kinematics and dynamics of sphenisciform wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noca, Flavio; Crisinel, Fabien; Munier, Pierre

    2011-11-01

    Three-dimensional scans of three different species of taxidermied penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus, Pygoscelis papua, and Spheniscus magellanicus) have been performed. A three-dimensional reproduction of an African penguin (Sphenicus demersus) wing was manufactured and tested in a hydrodynamic channel. A six-degree-of-freedom robot was programmed to perform the three dimensional kinematics, obtained from actual footage. A six-component force balance was used to retrieve the dynamics of the wing motion. Results will be presented and discussed.

  13. Pressure Loads Produced on a Flat-Plate Wing By Rocket Jets Exhausting in a Spanwise Direction Below the Wing and Perpendicular to a Free-Stream Flow of Mach Number 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falanga, Ralph A.; Janos, Joseph J.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation at a Reynolds number per foot of 14.4 x 10(exp 6) was made to determine the pressure loads produced on a flat-plate wing by rocket jets exhausting in a spanwise direction beneath the wing and perpendicular to a free-stream flow of Mach number 2.0. The ranges of the variables involved were (1) nozzle types - one sonic (jet Mach number of 1.00), two supersonic (jet Mach numbers of 1.74 and 3.04),. and one two-dimensional supersonic (jet Mach number of 1.71); (2) vertical nozzle positions beneath the wing of 4, 8 and 12 nozzle-throat diameters; and (3) ratios of rocket-chamber total pressure to free- stream static pressure from 0 to 130. The incremental normal force due to jet interference on the wing varied from one to two times the rocket thrust and generally decreased as the pressure ratio increased. The chordwise coordinate of the incremental-normal-force center of pressure remained upstream of the nozzle center line for the nozzle positions and pressure ratios of the investigation. The chordwise coordinate approached zero as the jet vertical distance beneath the wing increased. In the spanwise direction there was little change due to varying rocket-jet position and pressure ratio. Some boundary-layer flow separation on the wing was observed for the rocket jets close to the wing and at the higher pressure ratios. The magnitude of the chordwise and spanwise pressure distributions due to jet interference was greatest for rocket jets close to the wing and decreased as the jet was displaced farther from the wing. The design procedure for the rockets used is given in the appendix.

  14. Topology of vortex-wing interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, C.; Rockwell, D.

    2016-10-01

    A trailing vortex incident upon a wing can generate different modes of vortex-wing interaction. These modes, which may involve either enhancement or suppression of the vortex generated at the tip of the wing, are classified on the basis of the present experiments together with computations at the Air Force Research Laboratory. Occurrence of a given mode of interaction is predominantly determined by the dimensionless location of the incident vortex relative to the tip of the wing and is relatively insensitive to the Reynolds number and dimensionless circulation of the incident vortex. The genesis of the basic interaction modes is clarified using streamline topology with associated critical points that show compatibility between complex streamline patterns in the vicinity of the tip of the wing. Whereas formation of an enhanced tip vortex involves a region of large upwash in conjunction with localized flow separation, complete suppression of the tip vortex is associated with a small-scale separation-reattachment bubble bounded by downwash at the wing tip.

  15. An asymptotic theory for the interference of large aspect ratio swept wings and multiple propeller slipstreams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, R. K.; Liu, C. H.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an asymptotic method for the analysis of the interference of multiple tractor propeller slipstream with large aspect ratio swept wings. It is assumed that the height of the slipstream is of the order of the wing chord and its spanwise extent is of the order of the wing span. Three different flow regions are identified by employing different stretching transformations. Asymptotic expansions are made in each of the three regions, using the chord to span ratio as the small expansion parameter. The details of the nonuniform flow in the slipstream enter into the wing sectional analysis. In the outer limit, the wing shrinks to a swept lifting line, and the slipstream reduces to a thin sheet of jet carrying the momentum gain from the propeller. The curvature of this jet sheet results in a pressure difference which is represented by a vortex sheet. The governing equations are solved by discretization. Several examples are considered for which experimental data are available. Comparison of the present results with the experimental data as well as other numerical solutions showed generally good agreement.

  16. An Iterative Decambering Approach for Post-Stall Prediction of Wing Characteristics using known Section Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, Rinku; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Kim, Sung Wan

    2003-01-01

    An iterative decambering approach for the post stall prediction of wings using known section data as inputs is presented. The method can currently be used for incompressible .ow and can be extended to compressible subsonic .ow using Mach number correction schemes. A detailed discussion of past work on this topic is presented first. Next, an overview of the decambering approach is presented and is illustrated by applying the approach to the prediction of the two-dimensional C(sub l) and C(sub m) curves for an airfoil. The implementation of the approach for iterative decambering of wing sections is then discussed. A novel feature of the current e.ort is the use of a multidimensional Newton iteration for taking into consideration the coupling between the di.erent sections of the wing. The approach lends itself to implementation in a variety of finite-wing analysis methods such as lifting-line theory, discrete-vortex Weissinger's method, and vortex lattice codes. Results are presented for a rectangular wing for a from 0 to 25 deg. The results are compared for both increasing and decreasing directions of a, and they show that a hysteresis loop can be predicted for post-stall angles of attack.

  17. Numerical study of the trailing vortex of a wing with wing-tip blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Hock-Bin

    1994-01-01

    Trailing vortices generated by lifting surfaces such as helicopter rotor blades, ship propellers, fixed wings, and canard control surfaces are known to be the source of noise, vibration, cavitation, degradation of performance, and other hazardous problems. Controlling these vortices is, therefore, of practical interest. The formation and behavior of the trailing vortices are studied in the present research. In addition, wing-tip blowing concepts employing axial blowing and spanwise blowing are studied to determine their effectiveness in controlling these vortices and their effects on the performance of the wing. The 3D, unsteady, thin-layer compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a time-accurate, implicit, finite difference scheme that employs LU-ADI factorization. The wing-tip blowing is simulated using the actuator plane concept, thereby, not requiring resolution of the jet slot geometry. Furthermore, the solution blanking feature of the chimera scheme is used to simplify the parametric study procedure for the wing-tip blowing. Computed results are shown to compare favorably with experimental measurements. It is found that axial wing-tip blowing, although delaying the rolling-up of the trailing vortices and the near-field behavior of the flowfield, does not dissipate the circulation strength of the trailing vortex farther downstream. Spanwise wing-tip blowing has the effect of displacing the trailing vortices outboard and upward. The increased 'wing-span' due to the spanwise wing-tip blowing has the effect of lift augmentation on the wing and the strengthening of the trailing vortices. Secondary trailing vortices are created at high spanwise wing-tip blowing intensities.

  18. AMELIA CESTOL Test: Acoustic Characteristics of Circulation Control Wing with Leading- and Trailing-Edge Slot Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, William C.; Burnside, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    The AMELIA Cruise-Efficient Short Take-off and Landing (CESTOL) configuration concept was developed to meet future requirements of reduced field length, noise, and fuel burn by researchers at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo and Georgia Tech Research Institute under sponsorship by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The novel configuration includes leading- and trailing-edge circulation control wing (CCW), over-wing podded turbine propulsion simulation (TPS). Extensive aerodynamic measurements of forces, surfaces pressures, and wing surface skin friction measurements were recently measured over a wide range of test conditions in the Arnold Engineering Development Center(AEDC) National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Ft Wind Tunnel. Acoustic measurements of the model were also acquired for each configuration with 7 fixed microphones on a line under the left wing, and with a 48-element, 40-inch diameter phased microphone array under the right wing. This presentation will discuss acoustic characteristics of the CCW system for a variety of tunnel speeds (0 to 120 kts), model configurations (leading edge(LE) and/or trailing-edge(TE) slot blowing, and orientations (incidence and yaw) based on acoustic measurements acquired concurrently with the aerodynamic measurements. The flow coefficient, Cmu= mVSLOT/qSW varied from 0 to 0.88 at 40 kts, and from 0 to 0.15 at 120 kts. Here m is the slot mass flow rate, VSLOT is the slot exit velocity, q is dynamic pressure, and SW is wing surface area. Directivities at selected 1/3 octave bands will be compared with comparable measurements of a 2-D wing at GTRI, as will as microphone array near-field measurements of the right wing at maximum flow rate. The presentation will include discussion of acoustic sensor calibrations as well as characterization of the wind tunnel background noise environment.

  19. Drag Prediction for the DLR-F6 Wing/Body and DPW Wing using CFL3D and OVERFLOW Overset Mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sclanfani, Anthony J.; Vassberg, John C.; Harrison, Neal A.; DeHaan, Mark A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Rivers, S. Melissa; Morrison, Joseph H.

    2007-01-01

    A series of overset grids was generated in response to the 3rd AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-III) which preceded the 25th Applied Aerodynamics Conference in June 2006. DPW-III focused on accurate drag prediction for wing/body and wing-alone configurations. The grid series built for each configuration consists of a coarse, medium, fine, and extra-fine mesh. The medium mesh is first constructed using the current state of best practices for overset grid generation. The medium mesh is then coarsened and enhanced by applying a factor of 1.5 to each (I,J,K) dimension. The resulting set of parametrically equivalent grids increase in size by a factor of roughly 3.5 from one level to the next denser level. CFD simulations were performed on the overset grids using two different RANS flow solvers: CFL3D and OVERFLOW. The results were post-processed using Richardson extrapolation to approximate grid converged values of lift, drag, pitching moment, and angle-of-attack at the design condition. This technique appears to work well if the solution does not contain large regions of separated flow (similar to that seen n the DLR-F6 results) and appropriate grid densities are selected. The extra-fine grid data helped to establish asymptotic grid convergence for both the OVERFLOW FX2B wing/body results and the OVERFLOW DPW-W1/W2 wing-alone results. More CFL3D data is needed to establish grid convergence trends. The medium grid was utilized beyond the grid convergence study by running each configuration at several angles-of-attack so drag polars and lift/pitching moment curves could be evaluated. The alpha sweep results are used to compare data across configurations as well as across flow solvers. With the exception of the wing/body drag polar, the two codes compare well qualitatively showing consistent incremental trends and similar wing pressure comparisons.

  20. Composite transport wing technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madan, Ram C.

    1988-01-01

    The design, fabrication, testing, and analysis of stiffened wing cover panels to assess damage tolerance criteria are discussed. The damage tolerance improvements were demonstrated in a test program using full-sized cover panel subcomponents. The panels utilized a hard skin concept with identical laminates of 44-percent 0-degree, 44-percent plus or minus 45-degree, and 12-percent 90-degree plies in the skins and stiffeners. The panel skins were impacted at midbay between the stiffeners, directly over the stiffener, and over the stiffener flange edge. The stiffener blades were impacted laterally. Impact energy levels of 100 ft-lb and 200 ft-lb were used. NASTRAN finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the nonvisible damage that was detected in the panels by nondestructive inspection. A closed-form solution for generalized loading was developed to evaluate the peel stresses in the bonded structure. Two-dimensional delamination growth analysis was developed using the principle of minimum potential energy in terms of closed-form solution for critical strain. An analysis was conducted to determine the residual compressive stress in the panels after impact damage, and the analytical predictions were verified by compression testing of the damaged panels.

  1. Non-LTE models for synthetic spectra of type Ia supernovae. III. An accelerated lambda-iteration procedure for the mutual interaction of strong spectral lines in SN Ia models with and without energy deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Hoffmann, T. L.; Hultzsch, P. J. N.

    2014-09-01

    . Thus, hydrodynamic explosion models and realistic model atmospheres that take into account the strong deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) are necessary for the synthesis and analysis of the spectra. In this regard one of the biggest challenges we have found in modeling the radiative transfer in SN Ia is the fact that the radiative energy in the UV has to be transferred only via spectral lines into the optical regime to be able to leave the ejecta. However, convergence of the model toward a state where this is possible is impaired when using the standard procedures. We report on improvements in our approach of computing synthetic spectra for SN Ia with respect to (i) an improved and sophisticated treatment of many thousands of strong lines that interact intricately with the "pseudo-continuum" formed entirely by Doppler-shifted spectral lines; (ii) an improved and expanded atomic database; and (iii) the inclusion of energy deposition within the ejecta arising from the radioactive decay of mostly 56Ni and 56Co. Results: We show that an ALI procedure we have developed for the mutual interaction of strong spectral lines appearing in the atmospheres of SNe Ia solves the long-standing problem of transferring the radiative energy from the UV into the optical regime. Our new method thus constitutes a foundation for more refined models, such as those including energy deposition. In this regard we furthermore show synthetic spectra obtained with various methods adopted for the released energy and compare them with observations. We discuss in detail applications of the diagnostic technique by example of a standard type Ia supernova, where the comparison of calculated and observed spectra revealed that in the early phases the consideration of the energy deposition within the spectrum-forming regions of the ejecta does not qualitatively alter the shape of the emergent spectra. Conclusions: The results of our investigation lead to an improved understanding of how the

  2. Factors Affecting the Incidence of Angel Wing in White Roman Geese: Stocking Density and Genetic Selection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, M. J.; Chang, S. C.; Lin, T. Y.; Cheng, Y. S.; Lee, Y. P.; Fan, Y. K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated stocking density and genetic lines, factors that may alter the severity and incidence of angel wing (AW), in White Roman geese. Geese (n = 384) from two genetically selected lines (normal- winged line, NL, and angel-winged line, AL, respectively) and one commercial line (CL) were raised in four pens. Following common commercial practice, low-stocking-density (LD), medium-stocking-density, and high-stocking-density treatments were respectively administered to 24, 32, and 40 geese per pen at 0 to 3 weeks (1.92 m2/pen) and 4 to 6 weeks (13.2 m2/pen) of age and to 24, 30, and 36 geese at 7 to 14 weeks (20.0 m2/pen) of age. The results revealed that stocking density mainly affected body weight gain in geese younger than 4 weeks, and that geese subjected to LD had a high body weight at 2 weeks of age. However, the effect of stocking density on the severity score of AW (SSAW) and incidence of AW (IAW) did not differ significantly among the treatments. Differences were observed among the genetic stocks; that is, SSAW and IAW were significantly higher in AL than in NL and CL. Genetic selection generally aggravates AW, complicating its elimination. To effectively reduce IAW, stocking density, a suspected causal factor, should be lower than that presently applied commercially. PMID:26954185

  3. Factors Affecting the Incidence of Angel Wing in White Roman Geese: Stocking Density and Genetic Selection.

    PubMed

    Lin, M J; Chang, S C; Lin, T Y; Cheng, Y S; Lee, Y P; Fan, Y K

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated stocking density and genetic lines, factors that may alter the severity and incidence of angel wing (AW), in White Roman geese. Geese (n = 384) from two genetically selected lines (normal- winged line, NL, and angel-winged line, AL, respectively) and one commercial line (CL) were raised in four pens. Following common commercial practice, low-stocking-density (LD), medium-stocking-density, and high-stocking-density treatments were respectively administered to 24, 32, and 40 geese per pen at 0 to 3 weeks (1.92 m(2)/pen) and 4 to 6 weeks (13.2 m(2)/pen) of age and to 24, 30, and 36 geese at 7 to 14 weeks (20.0 m(2)/pen) of age. The results revealed that stocking density mainly affected body weight gain in geese younger than 4 weeks, and that geese subjected to LD had a high body weight at 2 weeks of age. However, the effect of stocking density on the severity score of AW (SSAW) and incidence of AW (IAW) did not differ significantly among the treatments. Differences were observed among the genetic stocks; that is, SSAW and IAW were significantly higher in AL than in NL and CL. Genetic selection generally aggravates AW, complicating its elimination. To effectively reduce IAW, stocking density, a suspected causal factor, should be lower than that presently applied commercially.

  4. Wing compliance in self-propelled flapping flyers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramananarivo, Sophie; Thiria, Benjamin; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro

    2010-11-01

    Wing flexibility governs the flying performance of flapping wing flyers. Here we use the self-propelled flapping-wing model mounted on a "merry-go-round" described by Thiria and Godoy-Diana (Phys. Rev. E 82, 015303, 2010) to investigate the effect of chord-wise wing compliance on the propulsive performance of the system. The bending of the wings, which is driven mainly by wing inertia in the present experiments, redistributes the aerodynamic forces engendered by the flapping motion and improves the efficiency of the system for a wide range of wing flexibilities and flapping frequencies. A detailed analysis of the phase dynamics between the leading and trailing edges of the wings allows us to pinpoint the mechanisms that limit the beneficial effect of wing compliance.

  5. Nonlinear Aerodynamics and the Design of Wing Tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroo, Ilan

    1991-01-01

    The analysis and design of wing tips for fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft still remains part art, part science. Although the design of airfoil sections and basic planform geometry is well developed, the tip regions require more detailed consideration. This is important because of the strong impact of wing tip flow on wing drag; although the tip region constitutes a small portion of the wing, its effect on the drag can be significant. The induced drag of a wing is, for a given lift and speed, inversely proportional to the square of the wing span. Concepts are proposed as a means of reducing drag. Modern computational methods provide a tool for studying these issues in greater detail. The purpose of the current research program is to improve the understanding of the fundamental issues involved in the design of wing tips and to develop the range of computational and experimental tools needed for further study of these ideas.

  6. Functional Gustatory Role of Chemoreceptors in Drosophila Wings.

    PubMed

    Raad, Hussein; Ferveur, Jean-François; Ledger, Neil; Capovilla, Maria; Robichon, Alain

    2016-05-17

    Neuroanatomical evidence argues for the presence of taste sensilla in Drosophila wings; however, the taste physiology of insect wings remains hypothetical, and a comprehensive link to mechanical functions, such as flight, wing flapping, and grooming, is lacking. Our data show that the sensilla of the Drosophila anterior wing margin respond to both sweet and bitter molecules through an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Conversely, genetically modified flies presenting a wing-specific reduction in chemosensory cells show severe defects in both wing taste signaling and the exploratory guidance associated with chemodetection. In Drosophila, the chemodetection machinery includes mechanical grooming, which facilitates the contact between tastants and wing chemoreceptors, and the vibrations of flapping wings that nebulize volatile molecules as carboxylic acids. Together, these data demonstrate that the Drosophila wing chemosensory sensilla are a functional taste organ and that they may have a role in the exploration of ecological niches.

  7. Imaging and Laser Spectroscopy Investigation of Insect Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiver, Tegan; Lawhead, Carlos; Anderson, Josiah; Cooper, Nathan; Ujj, Laszlo; Pall Life Sciences Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Measuring the surface morphology and chemical composition of insect wings is important to understand the extreme mechanical properties and the biophysical functionalities of the wings. We have measured the image of the membrane of the cicada (genus Tibicen) wing with the help of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results confirm the existing periodic structure of the wing measured previously. The SEM imaging can be used to measure the surface morphology of any insect species wings. The physical surface structure of the cicada wing is an example of a new class of biomaterials that can kill bacteria on contact. In order to identify the chemical composition of the wing, we have measured the vibrational spectra of the wing's membrane (Raman and CARS). The measured spectra are consistent with the original assumption that the wing membrane is composed of protein, wax, and chitin. The results of these studies can be used to make artificial materials in the future.

  8. Flow visualization study of close-coupled canard wing and strake wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, D. D.; Gloss, B. B.

    1975-01-01

    The Langley 1/8-scale V/STOL model tunnel was used to qualitatively determine the flow fields associated with semi-span close coupled canard wing and strake wing models. Small helium filled bubbles were injected upstream of the models to make the flow visible. Photographs were taken over the angle-of-attack ranges of -10 deg to 40 deg.

  9. 3. N elevation, E wing; 3/4 view of W wing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. N elevation, E wing; 3/4 view of W wing showing E and N elevations; N elevation of Building 69, Plating and Tinning Shop; looking SW. (Ceronie) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 66, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. Randomized, Phase III Trial of First-Line Figitumumab in Combination With Paclitaxel and Carboplatin Versus Paclitaxel and Carboplatin Alone in Patients With Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Corey J.; Novello, Silvia; Park, Keunchil; Krzakowski, Maciej; Karp, Daniel D.; Mok, Tony; Benner, Rebecca J.; Scranton, Judith R.; Olszanski, Anthony J.; Jassem, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Figitumumab (CP-751,871), a fully human immunoglobulin G2 monoclonal antibody, inhibits the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). Our multicenter, randomized, phase III study compared figitumumab plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone as first-line treatment in patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods Patients with stage IIIB/IV or recurrent NSCLC disease with nonadenocarcinoma histology received open-label figitumumab (20 mg/kg) plus paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) and carboplatin (area under the concentration-time curve, 6 mg · min/mL) or paclitaxel and carboplatin alone once every 3 weeks for up to six cycles. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Results Of 681 randomly assigned patients, 671 received treatment. The study was closed early by an independent Data Safety Monitoring Committee because of futility and an increased incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs) and treatment-related deaths with figitumumab. Median OS was 8.6 months for figitumumab plus chemotherapy and 9.8 months for chemotherapy alone (hazard ratio [HR], 1.18; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.40; P = .06); median progression-free survival was 4.7 months (95% CI, 4.2 to 5.4) and 4.6 months (95% CI, 4.2 to 5.4), respectively (HR, 1.10; P = .27); the objective response rates were 33% and 35%, respectively. The respective rates of all-causality SAEs were 66% and 51%; P < .01). Treatment-related grade 5 adverse events were also more common with figitumumab (5% v 1%; P < .01). Conclusion Adding figitumumab to standard chemotherapy failed to increase OS in patients with advanced nonadenocarcinoma NSCLC. Further clinical development of figitumumab is not being pursued. PMID:24888810

  11. Effects of Horizontal-Control Planform and Wing-Leading-Edge Modification on Low-Speed Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Canard Airplane Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Bernard, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation at low subsonic speeds has been conducted in the Langley 300-MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel. The basic wing had a trapezoidal planform, an aspect ratio of 3.0., a taper ratio of 0.143, and an unswept 80-percent-chord line. Modifications to the basic wing included deflectable full-span and partial-span leading-edge chord-extensions. A trapezoidal horizontal control similar in planform to the basic wing and a 60 deg sweptback delta horizontal control were tested in conjunction with the wing. The total planform area of each horizontal control was 16 percent of the total basic-wing area. Modifications to these horizontal controls included addition of a full-span chord-extension to the trapezoidal planform and a fence to the delta planform.

  12. Static and Vibration Analyses of General Wing Structures Using Equivalent Plate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.; Liu, Youhua

    1999-01-01

    An efficient method, using equivalent plate model, is developed for studying the static and vibration analyses of general built-up wing structures composed of skins, spars, and ribs. The model includes the transverse shear effects by treating the built-up wing as a plate following the Reissner-Mindlin theory, the so-called First-order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT). The Ritz method is used with the Legendre polynomials being employed as the trial functions. This is in contrast to previous equivalent plate model methods which have used simple polynomials, known to be prone to numerical ill-conditioning, as the trial functions. The present developments are evaluated by comparing the results with those obtained using MSC/NASTRAN, for a set of examples. These examples are: (i) free-vibration analysis of a clamped trapezoidal plate with (a) uniform thickness, and (b) non-uniform thickness varying as an airfoil, (ii) free-vibration and static analyses (including skin stress distribution) of a general built-up wing, and (iii) free-vibration and static analyses of a swept-back box wing. The results obtained by the present equivalent plate model are in good agreement with those obtained by the finite element method.

  13. Experimental investigation of a flapping wing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Tropea, Cameron

    The main objective of this research study was to investigate the aerodynamic forces of an avian flapping wing model system. The model size and the flow conditions were chosen to approximate the flight of a goose. Direct force measurements, using a three-component balance, and PIV flow field measurements parallel and perpendicular to the oncoming flow, were performed in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers between 28,000 and 141,000 (3-15 m/s), throughout a range of reduced frequencies between 0.04 and 0.20. The appropriateness of quasi-steady assumptions used to compare 2D, time-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in the wake with direct force measurements was evaluated. The vertical force coefficient for flapping wings was typically significantly higher than the maximum coefficient of the fixed wing, implying the influence of unsteady effects, such as delayed stall, even at low reduced frequencies. This puts the validity of the quasi-steady assumption into question. The (local) change in circulation over the wing beat cycle and the circulation distribution along the wingspan were obtained from the measurements in the tip and transverse vortex planes. Flow separation could be observed in the distribution of the circulation, and while the circulation derived from the wake measurements failed to agree exactly with the absolute value of the circulation, the change in circulation over the wing beat cycle was in excellent agreement for low and moderate reduced frequencies. The comparison between the PIV measurements in the two perpendicular planes and the direct force balance measurements, show that within certain limitations the wake visualization is a powerful tool to gain insight into force generation and the flow behavior on flapping wings over the wing beat cycle.

  14. Experimental investigation of a flapping wing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Tropea, Cameron

    2009-05-01

    The main objective of this research study was to investigate the aerodynamic forces of an avian flapping wing model system. The model size and the flow conditions were chosen to approximate the flight of a goose. Direct force measurements, using a three-component balance, and PIV flow field measurements parallel and perpendicular to the oncoming flow, were performed in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers between 28,000 and 141,000 (3-15 m/s), throughout a range of reduced frequencies between 0.04 and 0.20. The appropriateness of quasi-steady assumptions used to compare 2D, time-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in the wake with direct force measurements was evaluated. The vertical force coefficient for flapping wings was typically significantly higher than the maximum coefficient of the fixed wing, implying the influence of unsteady effects, such as delayed stall, even at low reduced frequencies. This puts the validity of the quasi-steady assumption into question. The (local) change in circulation over the wing beat cycle and the circulation distribution along the wingspan were obtained from the measurements in the tip and transverse vortex planes. Flow separation could be observed in the distribution of the circulation, and while the circulation derived from the wake measurements failed to agree exactly with the absolute value of the circulation, the change in circulation over the wing beat cycle was in excellent agreement for low and moderate reduced frequencies. The comparison between the PIV measurements in the two perpendicular planes and the direct force balance measurements, show that within certain limitations the wake visualization is a powerful tool to gain insight into force generation and the flow behavior on flapping wings over the wing beat cycle.

  15. Wing Torsional Stiffness Tests of the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William A.; Olney, Candida D.; Crawford, Natalie D.; Stauf, Rick; Reichenbach, Eric Y.

    2002-01-01

    The left wing of the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) F/A-18 airplane has been ground-load-tested to quantify its torsional stiffness. The test has been performed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in November 1996, and again in April 2001 after a wing skin modification was performed. The primary objectives of these tests were to characterize the wing behavior before the first flight, and provide a before-and-after measurement of the torsional stiffness. Two streamwise load couples have been applied. The wing skin modification is shown to have more torsional flexibility than the original configuration has. Additionally, structural hysteresis is shown to be reduced by the skin modification. Data comparisons show good repeatability between the tests.

  16. A Fundamental Study for Aerodynamic Characteristics of Supersonic Biplane Wing and Wing-Body Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Yusuke; Kusunose, Kazuhiro

    In order to develop a quiet supersonic transport, it is necessary to reduce shock waves around the transport. Shock waves, in general, are the cause of the airplane's sonic boom. Authors have been studying an aerodynamic feasibility of supersonic biplanes based on the concept of the Busemann biplane. In this paper, the three dimensional effect of wing geometries on their wave drags, including wing tip effects and the interference effects between the wing and a body (Wing-Body configurations) are investigated, using CFD code in Euler (inviscid) mode. As a result, we can conclude that the supersonic biplane wings at their design Mach number (M∞=1.7) are still capable of reducing wave drag significantly similar to that of the 2-D supersonic biplane.

  17. Discovery of a Be/X-ray pulsar binary and associated supernova remnant in the Wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénault-Brunet, V.; Oskinova, L. M.; Guerrero, M. A.; Sun, W.; Chu, Y.-H.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gruendl, R. A.; Reyes-Iturbide, J.

    2012-02-01

    We report on a new Be/X-ray pulsar binary located in the Wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The strong pulsed X-ray source was discovered with the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. The X-ray pulse period of 1062 s is consistently determined from both Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, revealing one of the slowest rotating X-ray pulsars known in the SMC. The optical counterpart of the X-ray source is the emission-line star 2dFS 3831. Its B0-0.5(III)e+ spectral type is determined from VLT-FLAMES and 2dF optical spectroscopy, establishing the system as a Be/X-ray binary (Be-XRB). The hard X-ray spectrum is well fitted by a power law with additional thermal and blackbody components, the latter reminiscent of persistent Be-XRBs. This system is the first evidence of a recent supernova in the low-density surroundings of NGC 602. We detect a shell nebula around 2dFS 3831 in Hα and [O III] images and conclude that it is most likely a supernova remnant. If it is linked to the supernova explosion that created this new X-ray pulsar, its kinematic age of (2-4) × 104 yr provides a constraint on the age of the pulsar.

  18. Applications of Ko Displacement Theory to the Deformed Shape Predictions of the Doubly-Tapered Ikhana Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Richards, W. Lance; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2009-01-01

    The Ko displacement theory, formulated for weak nonuniform (slowly changing cross sections) cantilever beams, was applied to the deformed shape analysis of the doubly-tapered wings of the Ikhana unmanned aircraft. The two-line strain-sensing system (along the wingspan) was used for sensing the bending strains needed for the wing-deformed shapes (deflections and cross-sectional twist) analysis. The deflection equation for each strain-sensing line was expressed in terms of the bending strains evaluated at multiple numbers of strain-sensing stations equally spaced along the strain-sensing line. For the preflight shape analysis of the Ikhana wing, the strain data needed for input to the displacement equations for the shape analysis were obtained from the nodal-stress output of the finite-element analysis. The wing deflections and cross-sectional twist angles calculated from the displacement equations were then compared with those computed from the finite-element computer program. The Ko displacement theory formulated for weak nonlinear cantilever beams was found to be highly accurate in the deformed shape predictions of the doubly-tapered Ikhana wing.

  19. Effect of canard position and wing leading-edge flap deflection on wing buffet at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloss, B. B.; Henderson, W. P.; Huffman, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    A generalized wind-tunnel model, with canard and wing planform typical of highly maneuverable aircraft, was tested. The addition of a canard above the wing chord plane, for the configuration with leading-edge flaps undeflected, produced substantially higher total configuration lift coefficients before buffet onset than the configuration with the canard off and leading-edge flaps undeflected. The wing buffet intensity was substantially lower for the canard-wing configuration than the wing-alone configuration. The low-canard configuration generally displayed the poorest buffet characteristics. Deflecting the wing leading-edge flaps substantially improved the wing buffet characteristics for canard-off configurations. The addition of the high canard did not appear to substantially improve the wing buffet characteristics of the wing with leading-edge flaps deflected.

  20. Core and Wing Densities of Asymmetric Coronal Spectral Profiles: Implications for the Mass Supply of the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patsourakos, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Young, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent solar spectroscopic observations have shown that coronal spectral lines can exhibit asymmetric profiles, with enhanced emissions at their blue wings. These asymmetries correspond to rapidly upflowing plasmas at speeds exceeding approximately equal to 50 km per sec. Here, we perform a study of the density of the rapidly upflowing material and compare it with that of the line core that corresponds to the bulk of the plasma. For this task, we use spectroscopic observations of several active regions taken by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer of the Hinode mission. The density sensitive ratio of the Fe(sub XIV) lines at 264.78 and 274.20 Angstroms is used to determine wing and core densities.We compute the ratio of the blue wing density to the core density and find that most values are of order unity. This is consistent with the predictions for coronal nanoflares if most of the observed coronal mass is supplied by chromospheric evaporation driven by the nanoflares. However, much larger blue wing-to-core density ratios are predicted if most of the coronal mass is supplied by heated material ejected with type II spicules. Our measurements do not rule out a spicule origin for the blue wing emission, but they argue against spicules being a primary source of the hot plasma in the corona. We note that only about 40% of the pixels where line blends could be safely ignored have blue wing asymmetries in both Fe(sub XIV) lines. Anticipated sub-arcsecond spatial resolution spectroscopic observations in future missions could shed more light on the origin of blue, red, and mixed asymmetries.

  1. Core and wing densities of asymmetric coronal spectral profiles: Implications for the mass supply of the solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Patsourakos, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Young, P. R. E-mail: james.a.klimchuk@nasa.gov

    2014-02-01

    Recent solar spectroscopic observations have shown that coronal spectral lines can exhibit asymmetric profiles, with enhanced emissions at their blue wings. These asymmetries correspond to rapidly upflowing plasmas at speeds exceeding ≈50 km s{sup –1}. Here, we perform a study of the density of the rapidly upflowing material and compare it with that of the line core that corresponds to the bulk of the plasma. For this task, we use spectroscopic observations of several active regions taken by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer of the Hinode mission. The density sensitive ratio of the Fe XIV lines at 264.78 and 274.20 Å is used to determine wing and core densities. We compute the ratio of the blue wing density to the core density and find that most values are of order unity. This is consistent with the predictions for coronal nanoflares if most of the observed coronal mass is supplied by chromospheric evaporation driven by the nanoflares. However, much larger blue wing-to-core density ratios are predicted if most of the coronal mass is supplied by heated material ejected with type II spicules. Our measurements do not rule out a spicule origin for the blue wing emission, but they argue against spicules being a primary source of the hot plasma in the corona. We note that only about 40% of the pixels where line blends could be safely ignored have blue wing asymmetries in both Fe XIV lines. Anticipated sub-arcsecond spatial resolution spectroscopic observations in future missions could shed more light on the origin of blue, red, and mixed asymmetries.

  2. Design of flapping wings for application to single active degree of freedom micro air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kelvin Thomas

    This dissertation covers an experimental program to understand how wing compliance influences the performance of flapping micro air vehicle wings. The focus is the design of a membraned flapping wing for a single active degree of freedom mechanism, looking to maximize thrust performance in hover conditions. The optimization approach is unique in that experiments were the chosen engine as opposed to a computation model; this is because of the complexity involved in hover-mode flapping aerodynamics. The flapping mechanism and manufacturing process for fabricating the wings were carefully developed. The uncertainty in the thrust measurement was identified and reduced by implementing precision machining and repeatable techniques for fabrication. This resulted in a reduction of the manufacturing coefficient of variation from 16.8% to 2.6%. Optimization was then conducted for a single objective (Maximize thrust), using a three parameter design space, finding the highest thrust performance in wings with high aspect ratio; then, a multi-objective optimization was conducted with two objectives (Thrust and Power) and a four parameter space. The research then shifted focus to identifying the stiffness and deformation characteristics of high performance wing designs. Static stiffness measurements with a simple line load suggested that high chordwise stiffness or lower spanwise stiffness would be favorable for aerodynamic performance. To explore more components of the deformation, a full-field imaging technique was used and a uniform load was substituted to engage with the membrane. It was found that there is a range of torsional compliance where the wing is most efficient especially at higher flapping frequencies. The final component of the study was the dynamic deformation measurement. The two system, four camera digital image correlation setup uses stroboscopic measurement to capture the wing deformation. The phase shift between the twist and stroke, and the tip deflection

  3. Flow field of flexible flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallstrom, Erik

    The agility and maneuverability of natural fliers would be desirable to incorporate into engineered micro air vehicles (MAVs). However, there is still much for engineers to learn about flapping flight in order to understand how such vehicles can be built for efficient flying. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for capturing high quality flow field data around flexible flapping wings in a hover environment and to interpret it to gain a better understanding of how aerodynamic forces are generated. The flow field data was captured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and required that measurements be taken around a repeatable flapping motion to obtain phase-averaged data that could be studied throughout the flapping cycle. Therefore, the study includes the development of flapping devices with a simple repeatable single degree of freedom flapping motion. The acquired flow field data has been examined qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate the mechanisms behind force production in hovering flight and to relate it to observations in previous research. Specifically, the flow fields have been investigated around a rigid wing and several carbon fiber reinforced flexible membrane wings. Throughout the whole study the wings were actuated with either a sinusoidal or a semi-linear flapping motion. The semi-linear flapping motion holds the commanded angular velocity nearly constant through half of each half-stroke while the sinusoidal motion is always either accelerating or decelerating. The flow fields were investigated by examining vorticity and vortex structures, using the Q criterion as the definition for the latter, in two and three dimensions. The measurements were combined with wing deflection measurements to demonstrate some of the key links in how the fluid-structure interactions generated aerodynamic forces. The flow fields were also used to calculate the forces generated by the flapping wings using momentum balance methods which yielded

  4. A wing concept for supersonic maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental program in which a wing concept for supersonic maneuvering was developed and then demonstrated experimentally in a series of wind tunnel tests is described. For the typical fighter wing, the problem of obtaining efficient lift at supersonic maneuvering C sub 's occurs due to development of a strong crossflow shock, and boundary layer separation. A natural means of achieving efficient supersonic maneuvering is based on controlling the non-linear inviscid crossflow on the wing in a manner analogous to the supercritical aerodynamic methods developed for transonic speeds. The application of supercritical aerodynamics to supersonic speeds is carried out using Supercritical Conical Camber (SC3). This report provides an aerodynamic analysis of the effort, with emphasis on wing design using non-linear aerodynamics. The substantial experimental data base is described in three separate wind tunnel reports, while two of the computer programs used in the work are also described in a separate report. Based on the development program it appears that a controlled supercritical crossflow can be obtained reliably on fighter-type wing planforms, with an associated drag due to lift reduction of about 20% projected using this concept.

  5. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. PMID:27030773

  6. BMI Sandwich Wing Box Analysis and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Tod; Mahler, Mary; Shah, Chandu; Rouse, Marshall; Bush, Harold; Wu, Chauncey; Small, William J.

    2000-01-01

    A composite sandwich single bay wing box test article was developed by Northrop Grumman and tested recently at NASA Langley Research Center. The objectives for the wing box development effort were to provide a demonstration article for manufacturing scale up of structural concepts related to a high speed transport wing, and to validate the structural performance of the design. The box concept consisted of highly loaded composite sandwich wing skins, with moderately loaded composite sandwich spars. The dimensions of the box were chosen to represent a single bay of the main wing box, with a spar spacing of 30 inches, height of 20 inches constant depth, and length of 64 inches. The bismaleimide facesheet laminates and titanium honeycomb core chosen for this task are high temperature materials able to sustain a 300F service temperature. The completed test article is shown in Figure 1. The tests at NASA Langley demonstrated the structures ability to sustain axial tension and compression loads in excess of 20,000 lb/in, and to maintain integrity in the thermal environment. Test procedures, analysis failure predictions, and test results are presented.

  7. Ring Wing for an underwater missile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    August, Henry; Carapezza, Edward

    Hughes Aircraft has performed exploratory wind tunnel studies of compressed carriage missile designs having extendable Ring Wing and wrap-around tail control surfaces. These force and moment data indicate that significant improvements in a missile's lift and aerodynamic efficiency can be realized. Low speed test results of these data were used to estimate potential underwater improved hydrodynamic characteristics that a Ring Wing and wrap-around tails can bring to an advanced torpedo design. Estimates of improved underwater flight performance of a heavyweight torpedo (4000 lbs.) having an extendable Ring Wing and wrap-around tails were made. The compressed volume design of this underwater missile is consistent with tube-launch constraints and techniques. Study results of this novel Ring Wing torpedo design include extended flight performance in range and endurance due to lowered speeds capable of sustaining underwater level flight. Correspondingly, reduced radiated noise for enhanced stealth qualities is projected. At high speeds, greater maneuverability and aimpoint selection can be realized by a Ring Wing underwater missile.

  8. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight.

  9. Principle of bio-inspired insect wing rotational hinge design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Fan

    A principle for designing and fabricating bio-inspired miniature artificial insect flapping wing using flexure rotational hinge design is presented. A systematic approach of selecting rotational hinge stiffness value is proposed. Based on the understanding of flapping wing aerodynamics, a dynamic simulation is constructed using the established quasi-steady model and the wing design. Simulations were performed to gain insight on how different parameters affect the wing rotational response. Based on system resonance a model to predict the optimal rotational hinge stiffness based on given wing parameter and flapping wing kinematic is proposed. By varying different wing parameters, the proposed method is shown to be applicable to a wide range of wing designs with different sizes and shapes. With the selected hinge stiffness value, aspects of the rotational joint design is discussed and an integrated wing-hinge structure design using laminated carbon fiber and polymer film is presented. Manufacturing process of such composite structure is developed to achieve high accuracy and repeatability. The yielded hinge stiffness is verified by measurements. To validate the proposed model, flapping wing experiments were conducted. A flapping actuation set up is built using DC motor and a controller is implemented on a microcontroller to track desired wing stroke kinematic. Wing stroke and rotation kinematic were extracted using a high speed camera and the lift generation is evaluated. A total of 49 flapping experiments were presented, experimental data shows good correlation with the model's prediction. With the wing rotational hinge stiffness designed so that the rotational resonant frequency is twice as the stroke frequency, the resulting wing rotation generates near optimal lift. With further simulation, the proposed model shows low sensitivity to wing parameter variation. As a result, giving a design parameter of a flapping wing robot platform, the proposed principle can

  10. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    PubMed

    Lentink, David; de Kat, Roeland

    2014-01-01

    Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13%) of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation) before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance. PMID:24964089

  11. Gliding Swifts Attain Laminar Flow over Rough Wings

    PubMed Central

    Lentink, David; de Kat, Roeland

    2014-01-01

    Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1–2% of chord length on the upper surface—10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13%) of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration—similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation) before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance. PMID:24964089

  12. Lift on Flexible and Rigid Cambered Wings at High Incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anya; Mancini, Peter; Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The effects of camber and camber change due to elastic deflection of a membrane wing were investigated for wings in rectilinear translation with parameter variations in wing incidence and acceleration. Direct force and moment measurements were performed on a rigid flat plate wing, rigid cambered wings, and a membrane wing. Features in the force histories were further examined via flow visualization by planar laser illumination of fluorescent dye. Below 10 degrees of incidence, Wagner's approximation accurately predicts the time-evolution of lift for the rigid wings. At higher incidence, flow separation results in force transients, and the effect of wing camber is no longer additive. Both the rigid flat plate and rigid cambered wings reach peak lift at a 35 degree angle of attack, whereas the flexible wing experiences stall delay and reaches peak lift at 50 degrees. Due to the aeroelasticity of the flexible membrane, flow over the suction surface remains attached for much higher incidence angles than for the rigid wings. For incidence angles less than 30 degrees, the peak lift of the flexible wing is lower than that of its rigid counterparts. Beyond 30 degrees, the flexible wing experiences an aeroelastically induced stall delay that allows lift to exceed the rigid analogs. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory under the Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology (MAST) program.

  13. Airframe Noise from a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Plassman, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    A high fidelity aeroacoustic test was conducted in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to establish a detailed database of component noise for a 5.8% scale HWB aircraft configuration. The model has a modular design, which includes a drooped and a stowed wing leading edge, deflectable elevons, twin verticals, and a landing gear system with geometrically scaled wheel-wells. The model is mounted inverted in the test section and noise measurements are acquired at different streamwise stations from an overhead microphone phased array and from overhead and sideline microphones. Noise source distribution maps and component noise spectra are presented for airframe configurations representing two different approach flight conditions. Array measurements performed along the aircraft flyover line show the main landing gear to be the dominant contributor to the total airframe noise, followed by the nose gear, the inboard side-edges of the LE droop, the wing tip/LE droop outboard side-edges, and the side-edges of deployed elevons. Velocity dependence and flyover directivity are presented for the main noise components. Decorrelation effects from turbulence scattering on spectral levels measured with the microphone phased array are discussed. Finally, noise directivity maps obtained from the overhead and sideline microphone measurements for the landing gear system are provided for a broad range of observer locations.

  14. Physical Mechanisms of Glaze Ice Scallop Formations on Swept Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Reshotko, Eli

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to understand the physical mechanisms that lead to the formation of scallops on swept wings. Icing runs were performed on a NACA 0012 swept wing tip at 45 deg, 30 deg, and 15 deg sweep angles. A baseline case was chosen and direct measurements of scallop height and spacing, castings, video data and close-up photographic data were obtained. The results showed the scallops are made of glaze ice feathers that grow from roughness elements that have reached a minimum height and are located beyond a given distance from the attachment line. This distance depends on tunnel conditions and sweep angle, and is the critical parameter in the formation of scallops. It determines if complete scallops, incomplete scallops or no scallops are going to be formed. The mechanisms of growth for complete and incomplete scallops were identified. The effect of velocity, temperature and LWC on scallop formation was studied. The possibility that cross flow instability may be the physical mechanism that triggers the growth of roughness elements into glaze ice feathers is examined.

  15. Proteome-wide association studies identify biochemical modules associated with a wing-size phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hirokazu; Ebhardt, H Alexander; Vonesch, Sibylle Chantal; Aebersold, Ruedi; Hafen, Ernst

    2016-09-01

    The manner by which genetic diversity within a population generates individual phenotypes is a fundamental question of biology. To advance the understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationships towards the level of biochemical processes, we perform a proteome-wide association study (PWAS) of a complex quantitative phenotype. We quantify the variation of wing imaginal disc proteomes in Drosophila genetic reference panel (DGRP) lines using SWATH mass spectrometry. In spite of the very large genetic variation (1/36 bp) between the lines, proteome variability is surprisingly small, indicating strong molecular resilience of protein expression patterns. Proteins associated with adult wing size form tight co-variation clusters that are enriched in fundamental biochemical processes. Wing size correlates with some basic metabolic functions, positively with glucose metabolism but negatively with mitochondrial respiration and not with ribosome biogenesis. Our study highlights the power of PWAS to filter functional variants from the large genetic variability in natural populations.

  16. Proteome-wide association studies identify biochemical modules associated with a wing-size phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Hirokazu; Ebhardt, H. Alexander; Vonesch, Sibylle Chantal; Aebersold, Ruedi; Hafen, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    The manner by which genetic diversity within a population generates individual phenotypes is a fundamental question of biology. To advance the understanding of the genotype–phenotype relationships towards the level of biochemical processes, we perform a proteome-wide association study (PWAS) of a complex quantitative phenotype. We quantify the variation of wing imaginal disc proteomes in Drosophila genetic reference panel (DGRP) lines using SWATH mass spectrometry. In spite of the very large genetic variation (1/36 bp) between the lines, proteome variability is surprisingly small, indicating strong molecular resilience of protein expression patterns. Proteins associated with adult wing size form tight co-variation clusters that are enriched in fundamental biochemical processes. Wing size correlates with some basic metabolic functions, positively with glucose metabolism but negatively with mitochondrial respiration and not with ribosome biogenesis. Our study highlights the power of PWAS to filter functional variants from the large genetic variability in natural populations. PMID:27582081

  17. Proteome-wide association studies identify biochemical modules associated with a wing-size phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hirokazu; Ebhardt, H Alexander; Vonesch, Sibylle Chantal; Aebersold, Ruedi; Hafen, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    The manner by which genetic diversity within a population generates individual phenotypes is a fundamental question of biology. To advance the understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationships towards the level of biochemical processes, we perform a proteome-wide association study (PWAS) of a complex quantitative phenotype. We quantify the variation of wing imaginal disc proteomes in Drosophila genetic reference panel (DGRP) lines using SWATH mass spectrometry. In spite of the very large genetic variation (1/36 bp) between the lines, proteome variability is surprisingly small, indicating strong molecular resilience of protein expression patterns. Proteins associated with adult wing size form tight co-variation clusters that are enriched in fundamental biochemical processes. Wing size correlates with some basic metabolic functions, positively with glucose metabolism but negatively with mitochondrial respiration and not with ribosome biogenesis. Our study highlights the power of PWAS to filter functional variants from the large genetic variability in natural populations. PMID:27582081

  18. Wing venation and Distal-less expression in Heliconius butterfly wing pattern development.

    PubMed

    Reed, Robert D; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2004-12-01

    Here we show that major color pattern elements of Heliconius butterfly wings develop independently of wing venation. We recovered a hybrid Heliconius displaying a mutant phenotype with a severe vein deficiency. Although this butterfly lacked most of its wing veins, the large, melanic banding patterns typical of the genus were conserved across the entire wing. The only obvious correlation between vein reduction and pigment patterns was a loss of vein-associated melanin stripes near the distal margin of the wings. We examined the expression of the eyespot-associated transcription factor Distal-less in a banded and a spotted species of Heliconius and found no obvious relationship between protein expression and the band or spot patterns typical of the genus. Together, our results suggest that the melanic bands and spots in Heliconius are unlikely to be derived from an eyespot determination system. We propose that major elements of Heliconius wing pattern formation are based primarily on a complex, whole-wing proximodistal axis system.

  19. Investigating the Force Production of Functionally-Graded Flexible Wings in Flapping Wing Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudbhari, Durlav; Erdogan, Malcolm; He, Kai; Bateman, Daniel; Lipkis, Rory; Moored, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Birds, insects and bats oscillate their wings to propel themselves over long distances and to maneuver with unprecedented agility. A key element to achieve their impressive aerodynamic performance is the flexibility of their wings. Numerous studies have shown that homogeneously flexible wings can enhance force production, propulsive efficiency and lift efficiency. Yet, animal wings are not homogenously flexible, but instead have varying material properties. The aim of this study is to characterize the force production and energetics of functionally-graded flexible wings. A partially-flexible wing composed of a rigid section and a flexible section is used as a first-order model of functionally-graded materials. The flexion occurs in the spanwise direction and it is affected by the spanwise flexion ratio, that is, the ratio of the length of the rigid section compared to the total span length. By varying the flexion ratio as well as the material properties of the flexible section, the study aims to examine the force production and energetics of flapping flight with functionally-graded flexible wings. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI grant number N00014-14-1-0533.

  20. Wing folding and the functional morphology of the wing base in Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Haas, F; Beutel, R G

    2001-01-01

    The wing unfolding of Pachnoda marginata was examined using digital video (50 half-fps) and high speed video sequences (1000 fps), and the skeleto-muscular apparatus of the metathorax was described. Left and right hind wing are able to promote independently of each other. The hind wings do not unfold instantly when the elytra are lifted and may also reach the flight position (and beat) while still folded. Wing promotion is exhaustible and the time needed for unfolding varies considerably. These observations strongly suggest a muscular control. Wing unfolding is probably triggered by contraction of M. pleura alaris and a resulting proximad movement of the 3rd axillary sclerite, pulling the Media posterior backwards, while the Radius anterior is held by the basalar muscle as the antagonist. Our findings are in clear contrast to the earlier assumption that the hind wings of Coleoptera either unfold or fold due to intrinsic elasticity. The specific wing folding and unfolding mechanisms are autapomorphic character states of Coleoptera. They were maintained during evolution even though considerable variations of skeletal thoracic structures, musculature and venation occurred. (Additional material is available from the Zoology web page: http://www.urbanfischer.de/journals/zoology).

  1. Wing-Body Aeroelasticity on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; Byun, Chansup

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a procedure for computing the aeroelasticity of wing-body configurations on multiple-instruction, multiple-data parallel computers. In this procedure, fluids are modeled using Euler equations discretized by a finite difference method, and structures are modeled using finite element equations. The procedure is designed in such a way that each discipline can be developed and maintained independently by using a domain decomposition approach. A parallel integration scheme is used to compute aeroelastic responses by solving the coupled fluid and structural equations concurrently while keeping modularity of each discipline. The present procedure is validated by computing the aeroelastic response of a wing and comparing with experiment. Aeroelastic computations are illustrated for a high speed civil transport type wing-body configuration.

  2. Aeroelastic Analysis of Modern Complex Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.; Bhardwaj, Manoj K.; Reichenbach, Eric; Guruswamy, Guru P.

    1996-01-01

    A process is presented by which aeroelastic analysis is performed by using an advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code coupled with an advanced computational structural dynamics (CSD) code. The process is demonstrated on an F/A-18 Stabilator using NASTD (an in-house McDonnell Douglas Aerospace East CFD code) coupled with NASTRAN. The process is also demonstrated on an aeroelastic research wing (ARW-2) using ENSAERO (an in-house NASA Ames Research Center CFD code) coupled with a finite element wing-box structures code. Good results have been obtained for the F/A-18 Stabilator while results for the ARW-2 supercritical wing are still being obtained.

  3. General Potential Theory of Arbitrary Wing Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, T.; Garrick, I. E.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of determining the two dimensional potential flow around wing sections of any shape is examined. The problem is condensed into the compact form of an integral equation capable of yielding numerical solutions by a direct process. An attempt is made to analyze and coordinate the results of earlier studies relating to properties of wing sections. The existing approximate theory of thin wing sections and the Joukowski theory with its numerous generalizations are reduced to special cases of the general theory of arbitrary sections, permitting a clearer perspective of the entire field. The method which permits the determination of the velocity at any point of an arbitrary section and the associated lift and moments is described. The method is also discussed in terms for developing new shapes of preassigned aerodynamical properties.

  4. Passive control of wing/store flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H., III; Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Foughner, J. T., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for a passive flutter suppression approach known as the decoupler pylon. The decoupler pylon dynamically isolates the wing from store pitch inertia effects by means of soft spring/damper elements assisted by a low frequency feedback control system which minimizes static pitch deflections of the store because of maneuvers and changing flight conditions. Wind tunnel tests and analyses show that this relatively simple pylon suspension system provides substantial increases in flutter speed and reduces the sensitivity of flutter to changes in store inertia and center of gravity. Flutter characteristics of F-16 and YF-17 flutter models equipped with decoupler pylon mounted stores are presented and compared with results obtained on the same model configuration with active flutter suppression systems. These studies show both passive and active concepts to be effective in suppressing wing/store flutter. Also presented are data showing the influence of pylon stiffness nonlinearities on wing/store flutter.

  5. Oblique wing transonic transport configuration development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Studies of transport aircraft designed for boom-free supersonic flight show the variable sweep oblique wing to be the most efficient configuration for flight at low supersonic speeds. Use of this concept leads to a configuration that is lighter, quieter, and more fuel efficient than symmetric aircraft designed for the same mission. Aerodynamic structural, weight, aeroelastic and flight control studies show the oblique wing concept to be technically feasible. Investigations are reported for wing planform and thickness, pivot design and weight estimation, engine cycle (bypass ratio), and climb, descent and reserve fuel. Results are incorporated into a final configuration. Performance, weight, and balance characteristics are evaluated. Flight control requirements are reviewed, and areas in which further research is needed are identified.

  6. Automated Kinematic Extraction of Wing and Body Motions of Free Flying Diptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostreski, Nicholas I.

    In the quest to understand the forces generated by micro aerial systems powered by oscillating appendages, it is necessary to study the kinematics that generate those forces. Automated and manual tracking techniques were developed to extract the complex wing and body motions of dipteran insects, ideal micro aerial systems, in free flight. Video sequences were captured by three high speed cameras (7500 fps) oriented orthogonally around a clear flight test chamber. Synchronization and image-based triggering were made possible by an automated triggering circuit. A multi-camera calibration was implemented using image-based tracking techniques. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the insect were generated from the 2-D images by shape from silhouette (SFS) methods. An intensity based segmentation of the wings and body was performed using a mixture of Gaussians. In addition to geometric and cost based filtering, spectral clustering was also used to refine the reconstruction and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to find the body roll axis and wing-span axes. The unobservable roll state of the cylindrically shaped body was successfully estimated by combining observations of the wing kinematics with a wing symmetry assumption. Wing pitch was determined by a ray tracing technique to compute and minimize a point-to-line cost function. Linear estimation with assumed motion models was accomplished by discrete Kalman filtering the measured body states. Generative models were developed for different species of diptera for model based tracking, simulation, and extraction of inertial properties. Manual and automated tracking results were analyzed and insect flight simulation videos were developed to quantify ground truth errors for an assumed model. The results demonstrated the automated tracker to have comparable performance to a human digitizer, though manual techniques displayed superiority during aggressive maneuvers and image blur. Both techniques demonstrated

  7. Smithornis broadbills produce loud wing song by aeroelastic flutter of medial primary wing feathers.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher J; Kirschel, Alexander N G; Hadjioannou, Louis; Prum, Richard O

    2016-04-01

    Broadbills in the genus Smithornis produce a loud brreeeeet during a distinctive flight display. It has been posited that this klaxon-like sound is generated non-vocally with the outer wing feathers (P9, P10), but no scientific studies have previously addressed this hypothesis. Although most birds that make non-vocal communication sounds have feathers with a shape distinctively modified for sound production, Smithornis broadbills do not. We investigated whether this song is produced vocally or with the wings in rufous-sided broadbill (S. rufolateralis) and African broad bill (S. capensis). In support of the wing song hypothesis, synchronized high-speed video and sound recordings of displays demonstrated that sound pulses were produced during the downstroke, subtle gaps sometimes appeared between the outer primary feathers P6-P10, and wing tip speed reached 16 m s(-1) Tests of a spread wing in a wind tunnel demonstrated that at a specific orientation, P6 and P7 flutter and produce sound. Wind tunnel tests on individual feathers P5-P10 from a male of each species revealed that while all of these feathers can produce sound via aeroelastic flutter, P6 and P7 produce the loudest sounds, which are similar in frequency to the wing song, at airspeeds achievable by the wing tip during display flight. Consistent with the wind tunnel experiments, field manipulations of P6, P7 and P8 changed the timbre of the wing song, and reduced its tonality, demonstrating that P6 and P7 are together the sound source, and not P9 or P10. The resultant wing song appears to have functionally replaced vocal song.

  8. Hybrid Wing Body Configuration System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.; McCullers, Arnie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a hybrid wing body (HWB) sizing and analysis capability, apply that capability to estimate the fuel burn potential for an HWB concept, and identify associated technology requirements. An advanced tube with wings concept was also developed for comparison purposes. NASA s Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) conceptual aircraft sizing and synthesis software was modified to enable the sizing and analysis of HWB concepts. The noncircular pressurized centerbody of the HWB concept was modeled, and several options were created for defining the outboard wing sections. Weight and drag estimation routines were modified to accommodate the unique aspects of an HWB configuration. The resulting capability was then utilized to model a proprietary Boeing blended wing body (BWB) concept for comparison purposes. FLOPS predicted approximately a 15 percent greater drag, mainly caused by differences in compressibility drag estimation, and approximately a 5 percent greater takeoff gross weight, mainly caused by the additional fuel required, as compared with the Boeing data. Next, a 777-like reference vehicle was modeled in FLOPS and calibrated to published Boeing performance data; the same mission definition was used to size an HWB in FLOPS. Advanced airframe and propulsion technology assumptions were applied to the HWB to develop an estimate for potential fuel burn savings from such a concept. The same technology assumptions, where applicable, were then applied to an advanced tube-with-wings concept. The HWB concept had a 39 percent lower block fuel burn than the reference vehicle and a 12 percent lower block fuel burn than the advanced tube-with-wings configuration. However, this fuel burn advantage is partially derived from assuming the high-risk technology of embedded engines with boundary-layer-ingesting inlets. The HWB concept does have the potential for significantly reduced noise as a result of the shielding advantages that are inherent

  9. The unsteady lift of a wing of finite aspect ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert T

    1940-01-01

    Unsteady-lift functions for wings of finite aspect ratio have been calculated by correcting the aerodynamic inertia and the angle of attack of the infinite wing. The calculations are based on the operational method.

  10. Wing flexibility enhances load-lifting capacity in bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Mountcastle, Andrew M; Combes, Stacey A

    2013-05-22

    The effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic force production has emerged as a central question in insect flight research. However, physical and computational models have yielded conflicting results regarding whether wing deformations enhance or diminish flight forces. By experimentally stiffening the wings of live bumblebees, we demonstrate that wing flexibility affects aerodynamic force production in a natural behavioural context. Bumblebee wings were artificially stiffened in vivo by applying a micro-splint to a single flexible vein joint, and the bees were subjected to load-lifting tests. Bees with stiffened wings showed an 8.6 per cent reduction in maximum vertical aerodynamic force production, which cannot be accounted for by changes in gross wing kinematics, as stroke amplitude and flapping frequency were unchanged. Our results reveal that flexible wing design and the resulting passive deformations enhance vertical force production and load-lifting capacity in bumblebees, locomotory traits with important ecological implications. PMID:23536604

  11. 6. DETAIL OF MASONRY ON SOUTHWEST WING WALL. MASONRY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF MASONRY ON SOUTHWEST WING WALL. MASONRY ON WING WALLS IS LAID IN A RANDOM RUBBLE PATTERN. - Core Creek County Bridge, Spanning Core Creek, approximately 1 mile South of State Route 332 (Newtown Bypass), Newtown, Bucks County, PA

  12. 10. INTERIOR, 'CENTRAL NORTH WING' PORTION OF SHOP AREA, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR, 'CENTRAL NORTH WING' PORTION OF SHOP AREA, FROM STAIRCASE ON NORTH SIDE OF 'WING', LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Lumber Storage & Box Factory, East of Fifth Street, between H & I Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. Wing flexibility enhances load-lifting capacity in bumblebees

    PubMed Central

    Mountcastle, Andrew M.; Combes, Stacey A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic force production has emerged as a central question in insect flight research. However, physical and computational models have yielded conflicting results regarding whether wing deformations enhance or diminish flight forces. By experimentally stiffening the wings of live bumblebees, we demonstrate that wing flexibility affects aerodynamic force production in a natural behavioural context. Bumblebee wings were artificially stiffened in vivo by applying a micro-splint to a single flexible vein joint, and the bees were subjected to load-lifting tests. Bees with stiffened wings showed an 8.6 per cent reduction in maximum vertical aerodynamic force production, which cannot be accounted for by changes in gross wing kinematics, as stroke amplitude and flapping frequency were unchanged. Our results reveal that flexible wing design and the resulting passive deformations enhance vertical force production and load-lifting capacity in bumblebees, locomotory traits with important ecological implications. PMID:23536604

  14. Lock 5 View west of wing walls and chamber ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 5 - View west of wing walls and chamber with gate pockets visible. Note two small notches in brick at lower portion of wing walls - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  15. An Experimental Investigation on Flapping Flexible Membrane Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Abate, Gregg; Albertani, Roberto

    2008-11-01

    Thin and flexible membrane wings are unique to flying and gliding mammals, such as bats, flying squirrels and sugar gliders. These animals exhibit extraordinary flight capabilities with respect to maneuvering and agility that are not observed in other species of comparable size. In this study, comprehensive wind tunnel experiments are conducted to assess the effects of membrane flexibility (rigidity) on the aerodynamic performance of the flapping flexible membrane wings to quantify the benefits of using flexible membrane wings compared with conventional rigid wings for flapping-wing Micro-Air-Vehicle (MAV) applications. The present study is conducted from the viewpoint of aerospace engineers to try to leverage the unique feature of flexible membrane airfoils/wings found in bats and other flying/gliding mammals as an effective aerodynamic control method to explore the potential applications of such non-traditional, bio-inspired flexible membrane wings to flapping-wing MAVs to improve their flight agility and maneuverability.

  16. 11. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SOUTH WING OF TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SOUTH WING OF TECHWOOD DORMITORY. WEST FRONT OF SOUTH WING OBSCURED BY DEEP SHADE. - Techwood Homes, McDaniel Dormitory, 581-587 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  17. View of intersection with west wall of north wing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of intersection with west wall of north wing and north wall of west wing; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. Climate and Dispersal: Black-Winged Stilts Disperse Further in Dry Springs

    PubMed Central

    Figuerola, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    Climate affects the abundance and distribution of many species of wildlife. Nevertheless, the potential effects of climate on dispersive behaviour remain unstudied. Here, I combine data from (i) a long-term Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) monitoring program, (ii) a capture-recapture marking program in Doñana, and (iii) reports from the Rare Birds Committee in the United Kingdom to analyse at different geographical scales the relationship between climate, survival, philopatry, and dispersive behaviour. Black-winged Stilt populations varied in size in consonance with changes in both the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and local rainfall during the breeding season. Changes in population size are related to changes in philopatry and increases in dispersal beyond the traditional range of the species. The results indicate that climatic conditions influence the dispersive behaviour of individual birds, explaining rapid changes in the local population of this species breeding in unstable Mediterranean wetlands. PMID:17579713

  19. Effect of Taper Ratio on the Low-speed Rolling Stability Derivatives of Swept and Unswept Wings of Aspect Ratio 2.61

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jack D; Fisher, Lewis R

    1951-01-01

    Results of tests conducted in the 6-foot-diameter rolling-flow test section of the Langley stability tunnel to determine the effects of varying taper ratio on the rolling and static stability characteristics of a swept wing are presented; results are also given for the effects of varying taper ratio on an unswept wing and for the effects of sweep on a tapered wing. All the models were of aspect ratio 2.61 and had NACA 0012 sections normal to the quarter-chord line. Taper ratios of 1.00, 0.50, and 0.25 and sweep angles of 0 degrees and 45 degrees were investigated.

  20. The NYU inverse swept wing code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Garabedian, P.; Mcfadden, G.

    1983-01-01

    An inverse swept wing code is described that is based on the widely used transonic flow program FLO22. The new code incorporates a free boundary algorithm permitting the pressure distribution to be prescribed over a portion of the wing surface. A special routine is included to calculate the wave drag, which can be minimized in its dependence on the pressure distribution. An alternate formulation of the boundary condition at infinity was introduced to enhance the speed and accuracy of the code. A FORTRAN listing of the code and a listing of a sample run are presented. There is also a user's manual as well as glossaries of input and output parameters.

  1. Dynamic response of a piezoelectric flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Alok; Khandwekar, Gaurang; Venkatesh, S.; Mahapatra, D. R.; Dutta, S.

    2015-03-01

    Piezo-composite membranes have advantages over motorized flapping where frequencies are high and certain coupling between bending and twisting is useful to generate lift and forward flight. We draw examples of fruit fly and bumble bee. Wings with Piezo ceramic PZT coating are realized. The passive mechanical response of the wing is characterized experimentally and validated using finite element simulation. Piezoelectric actuation with uniform electrode coating is characterized and optimal frequencies for flapping are identified. The experimental data are used in an empirical model and advanced ratio for a flapping insect like condition for various angular orientations is estimated.

  2. Three-dimensional flow about penguin wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noca, Flavio; Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel

    2012-11-01

    Penguins, contrary to airborne birds, do not need to compensate for gravity. Yet, the kinematics of their wings is highly three-dimensional and seems exceedingly complex for plain swimming. Is such kinematics the result of an evolutionary optimization or is it just a forced adaptation of an airborne flying apparatus to underwater swimming? Some answers will be provided based on flow dynamics around robotic penguin wings. Updates will also be presented on the development of a novel robotic arm intended to simulate penguin swimming and enable novel propulsion devices.

  3. Enhanced flight characteristics by heterogeneous autorotating wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Lionel; Zheng, Min; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    We investigate experimentally the effect of mass distribution and flexibility on the descent motion of thin rectangular auto-rotating wings. We vary the wing thickness and material density under carefully controlled initial conditions. We focus in particular on the flight characteristics and how it affects the dispersion properties, namely, the flight duration, descent angle, and flight range. We found that altering the mass distribution along the auto-rotation axis generally leads to a diminution of aerodynamic characteristics, in agreement with previous studies. On the other hand, changing the mass distribution width-wise can lead to enhanced flight characteristics, from beneficial aerodynamic effects.

  4. Wing Leading Edge Concepts for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Pitera, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of wing leading edge concepts for noise reduction during high-lift operations, without compromising landing stall speeds, stall characteristics or cruise performance. High-lift geometries, which can be obtained by conventional mechanical systems or morphing structures have been considered. A systematic aerodynamic analysis procedure was used to arrive at several promising configurations. The aerodynamic design of new wing leading edge shapes is obtained from a robust Computational Fluid Dynamics procedure. Acoustic benefits are qualitatively established through the evaluation of the computed flow fields.

  5. Flutter analysis of low aspect ratio wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Several very low aspect ratio flat plate wing configurations are analyzed for their aerodynamic instability (flutter) characteristics. All of the wings investigated are delta planforms with clipped tips, made of aluminum alloy plate and cantilevered from the supporting vehicle body. Results of both subsonic and supersonic NASTRAN aeroelastic analyses as well as those from another version of the program implementing the supersonic linearized aerodynamic theory are presented. Results are selectively compared with the experimental data; however, supersonic predictions of the Mach Box method in NASTRAN are found to be erratic and erroneous, requiring the use of a separate program.

  6. Strain Gage Loads Calibration Testing with Airbag Support for the Gulfstream III SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William; Miller, Eric; Hudson, Larry; Holguin, Andrew; Neufeld, David; Haraguchi, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and conduct of the strain gage load calibration ground test of the SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed, Gulfstream III aircraft, and the subsequent data analysis and its results. The goal of this effort was to create and validate multi-gage load equations for shear force, bending moment, and torque for two wing measurement stations. For some of the testing the aircraft was supported by three air bags in order to isolate the wing structure from extraneous load inputs through the main landing gear. Thirty-two strain gage bridges were installed on the left wing. Hydraulic loads were applied to the wing lower surface through a total of 16 load zones. Some dead weight load cases were applied to the upper wing surface using shot bags. Maximum applied loads reached 54,000 pounds.

  7. Kinematic compensation for wing loss in flying damselflies.

    PubMed

    Kassner, Ziv; Dafni, Eyal; Ribak, Gal

    2016-02-01

    Flying insects can tolerate substantial wing wear before their ability to fly is entirely compromised. In order to keep flying with damaged wings, the entire flight apparatus needs to adjust its action to compensate for the reduced aerodynamic force and to balance the asymmetries in area and shape of the damaged wings. While several studies have shown that damaged wings change their flapping kinematics in response to partial loss of wing area, it is unclear how, in insects with four separate wings, the remaining three wings compensate for the loss of a fourth wing. We used high-speed video of flying blue-tailed damselflies (Ischnura elegans) to identify the wingbeat kinematics of the two wing pairs and compared it to the flapping kinematics after one of the hindwings was artificially removed. The insects remained capable of flying and precise maneuvering using only three wings. To compensate for the reduction in lift, they increased flapping frequency by 18±15.4% on average. To achieve steady straight flight, the remaining intact hindwing reduced its flapping amplitude while the forewings changed their stroke plane angle so that the forewing of the manipulated side flapped at a shallower stroke plane angle. In addition, the angular position of the stroke reversal points became asymmetrical. When the wingbeat amplitude and frequency of the three wings were used as input in a simple aerodynamic model, the estimation of total aerodynamic force was not significantly different (paired t-test, p=0.73) from the force produced by the four wings during normal flight. Thus, the removal of one wing resulted in adjustments of the motions of the remaining three wings, exemplifying the precision and plasticity of coordination between the operational wings. Such coordination is vital for precise maneuvering during normal flight but it also provides the means to maintain flight when some of the wings are severely damaged. PMID:26598807

  8. Nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atta, E. H.; Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings in an incompressible flow are calculated by using an unsteady vortex-lattice model. Examples include flows past fixed wings in unsteady uniform streams and flows past wings undergoing unsteady motions. The unsteadiness may be due to gusty winds or pitching oscillations. The present technique establishes a reliable approach which can be utilized in the analysis of problems associated with the dynamics and aeroelasticity of wings within a wide range of angles of attack.

  9. Spanwise transition section for blended wing-body aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A blended wing-body aircraft includes a central body, a wing, and a transition section which interconnects the body and the wing on each side of the aircraft. The two transition sections are identical, and each has a variable chord length and thickness which varies in proportion to the chord length. This enables the transition section to connect the thin wing to the thicker body. Each transition section has a negative sweep angle.

  10. Line Narrowing Parameter Measurement by Modulation Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharamsi, Amin N.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate Characterization of Oxygen A-Band Line Parameters by Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with tunable diode lasers is an ongoing research at Old Dominion University, under sponsorship from NASA Langley research Center. The work proposed here will be undertaken under the guidance of Dr. William Chu and Dr. Lamont Poole of the Aerosol Research Branch at NASA Langley-Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The research was started about two years ago and utilizes wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with higher harmonic detection, a technique that we developed at Old Dominion University, to obtain the absorption line characteristics of the Oxygen A-band rovibronic lines. Accurate characterization of this absorption band is needed for processing of data that will be obtained in experiments such as the NASA Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) as part of the US Mission to Planet Earth. The research work for Summer Fellowship undertook a measurement of the Dicke line-narrowing parameters of the Oxygen A-Band lines by using wavelength modulation spectroscopy. Our previous theoretical results had indicated that such a measurement could be done sensitively and in a convenient fashion by using this type of spectroscopy. In particular, theoretical results had indicated that the signal magnitude would depend on pressure in a manner that was very sensitive to the narrowing parameter. One of the major tasks undertaken during the summer of 1998 was to establish experimentally that these theoretical predictions were correct. This was done successfully and the results of the work are being prepared for publication. Experimental Results were obtained in which the magnitude of the signal was measured as a function of pressure, for various harmonic detection orders (N = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). A comparison with theoretical results was made, and it was shown that the agreement between theory and experiment was very good. More importantly, however, it was shown

  11. LEFT WING AND FUSELAGE FROM THIRD LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEFT WING AND FUSELAGE FROM THIRD LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND. THE WING IS PREPARED FOR BASIC LUBRICATION WITH E SPOILER BOARDS UP AND ALL SAFETY LOCKS IN PLACE TO PROTECT MECHANICS FROM INJURY. ON THE WING AN INSPECTOR CHECKS THE ACTUATORS. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  12. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  13. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing... ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint of ice accumulation....

  15. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing... ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint of ice accumulation....

  17. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  18. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  19. 14 CFR 23.201 - Wings level stall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wings level stall. 23.201 Section 23.201... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 23.201 Wings level... airplane stalls. (b) The wings level stall characteristics must be demonstrated in flight as...

  20. 14 CFR 23.201 - Wings level stall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wings level stall. 23.201 Section 23.201... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 23.201 Wings level... airplane stalls. (b) The wings level stall characteristics must be demonstrated in flight as...

  1. 14 CFR 23.201 - Wings level stall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wings level stall. 23.201 Section 23.201... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 23.201 Wings level... airplane stalls. (b) The wings level stall characteristics must be demonstrated in flight as...

  2. New investigation of short wings with lateral jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carafoli, E.; Camarasescu, N.

    1983-01-01

    The lift of short wings by means of lateral fluid jets fired in the plane of the wing in the direction of the span is described. After some theoretical considerations, the experimental results obtained in a wind tunnel on a series of wings of various lengths are presented.

  3. X-Wing Research Vehicle in Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    One of the most unusual experimental flight vehicles appearing at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center) in the 1980s was the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) X-Wing aircraft, seen here on the ramp. The craft was developed originally and then modified by Sikorsky Aircraft for a joint NASA-Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) program and was rolled out 19 August 1986. Taxi tests and initial low-altitude flight tests without the main rotor attached were carried out at Dryden before the program was terminated in 1988. The unusual aircraft that resulted from the Ames Research Center/Army X-Wing Project was flown at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, beginning in the spring of 1984, with a follow-on program beginning in 1986. The program, was conceived to provide an efficient combination of the vertical lift characteristic of conventional helicopters and the high cruise speed of fixed-wing aircraft. It consisted of a hybrid vehicle called the NASA/Army Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA), which was equipped with advanced X-wing rotor systems. The program began in the early 1970s to investigate ways to increase the speed of rotor aircraft, as well as their performance, reliability, and safety . It also sought to reduce the noise, vibration, and maintenance costs of helicopters. Sikorsky Aircraft Division of United Technologies Laboratories built two RSRA aircraft. NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, did some initial testing and transferred the program to Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, for an extensive flight research program conducted by Ames and the Army. The purpose of the 1984 tests was to demonstrate the fixed-wing capability of the helicopter/airplane hybrid research vehicle and explore its flight envelope and flying qualities. These tests, flown by Ames pilot G. Warren Hall and Army Maj (soon

  4. Tables for the Rapid Estimation of Downwash and Sidewash Behind Wings Performing Various Motions at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobbitt, Percy J.

    1959-01-01

    Equations for the downwash and sidewash due to supersonic yawed and unswept horseshoe vortices have been utilized in formulating tables and charts to permit a rapid estimation of the flow velocities behind wings performing various steady motions. Tabulations are presented of the downwash and sidewash in the wing vertical plane of symmetry due to a unit-strength yawed horseshoe vortex located at 20 equally spaced spanwise positions along lifting lines of various sweeps. (The bound portion of the yawed vortex is coincident with the lifting line.) Charts are presented for the purpose of estimating the spanwise variations of the flow-field velocities and give longitudinal variations of the downwash and sidewash at a nuMber of vertical and spanwise locations due to a unit-strength unswept horseshoe vortex. Use of the tables and charts to calculate wing downwash or sidewash requires a knowledge of the wing spanwise distribution of circulation. Sample computations for the rolling sidewash and angle-of-attack downwash behind a typical swept wing are presented to demonstrate the use of the tables and charts.

  5. Some applications of the NASTRAN level 16 subsonic flutter analysis capability. [to transport wing and arrow wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Cunningham, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Level 16 flutter analysis capability was applied to an aspect-ratio-6.8 subsonic transport type wing, an aspect-ratio-1.7 arrow wing, and an aspect-ratio-1.3 all movable horizontal tail with a geared elevator. The transport wing and arrow wing results are compared with experimental results obtained in the Langley transonic dynamic tunnel and with other calculated results obtained using subsonic lifting surface (kernel function) unsteady aerodynamic theory.

  6. Partially Coherent Scattering in Stellar Chromospheres. Part 4; Analytic Wing Approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayley, K. G.

    1993-01-01

    Simple analytic expressions are derived to understand resonance-line wings in stellar chromospheres and similar astrophysical plasmas. The results are approximate, but compare well with accurate numerical simulations. The redistribution is modeled using an extension of the partially coherent scattering approximation (PCS) which we term the comoving-frame partially coherent scattering approximation (CPCS). The distinction is made here because Doppler diffusion is included in the coherent/noncoherent decomposition, in a form slightly improved from the earlier papers in this series.

  7. Reconfiguration control system for an aircraft wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakayama, Sean R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Independently deflectable control surfaces are located on the trailing edge of the wing of a blended wing-body aircraft. The reconfiguration control system of the present invention controls the deflection of each control surface to optimize the spanwise lift distribution across the wing for each of several flight conditions, e.g., cruise, pitch maneuver, and high lift at low speed. The control surfaces are deflected and reconfigured to their predetermined optimal positions when the aircraft is in each of the aforementioned flight conditions. With respect to cruise, the reconfiguration control system will maximize the lift to drag ratio and keep the aircraft trimmed at a stable angle of attack. In a pitch maneuver, the control surfaces are deflected to pitch the aircraft and increase lift. Moreover, this increased lift has its spanwise center of pressure shifted inboard relative to its location for cruise. This inboard shifting reduces the increased bending moment about the aircraft's x-axis occasioned by the increased pitch force acting normal to the wing. To optimize high lift at low speed, during take-off and landing for example, the control surfaces are reconfigured to increase the local maximum coefficient of lift at stall-critical spanwise locations while providing pitch trim with control surfaces that are not stall critical.

  8. The Right-Wing Attack on Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Walda Katz

    A personal evaluation is expressed on the changing role of women in the United States as a result of current social attitudes and of recent legislation regarding medical, economic, and educational matters. It is hypothesized that the United States is currently experiencing an extreme and growing right-wing political movement whose targets include…

  9. ``Schooling'' of wing pairs in flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramananarivo, Sophie; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif; AML, Courant Collaboration; Physics NYU Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The experimental setup implements two independent flapping wings swimming in tandem. Both are driven with the same prescribed vertical heaving motion, but the horizontal motion is free, which means that the swimmers can take up any relative position and forward speed. Experiments show however clearly coordinated motions, where the pair of wings `crystallize' into specific stable arrangements. The follower wing locks into the path of the leader, adopting its speed, and with a separation distance that takes on one of several discrete values. By systematically varying the kinematics and wing size, we show that the set of stable spacings is dictated by the wavelength of the periodic wake structure. The forces maintaining the pair cohesion are characterized by applying an external force to the follower to perturb it away from the `stable wells'. These results show that hydrodynamics alone is sufficient to induce cohesive and coordinated collective locomotion through a fluid, and we discuss the hypothesis that fish schools and bird flocks also represent stable modes of motion.

  10. Bat wing sensors support flight control

    PubMed Central

    Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne; Chadha, Mohit; Chiu, Chen; Falk, Ben; Xian, Wei; Barcelo, Janna; Zook, John M.; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2011-01-01

    Bats are the only mammals capable of powered flight, and they perform impressive aerial maneuvers like tight turns, hovering, and perching upside down. The bat wing contains five digits, and its specialized membrane is covered with stiff, microscopically small, domed hairs. We provide here unique empirical evidence that the tactile receptors associated with these hairs are involved in sensorimotor flight control by providing aerodynamic feedback. We found that neurons in bat primary somatosensory cortex respond with directional sensitivity to stimulation of the wing hairs with low-speed airflow. Wing hairs mostly preferred reversed airflow, which occurs under flight conditions when the airflow separates and vortices form. This finding suggests that the hairs act as an array of sensors to monitor flight speed and/or airflow conditions that indicate stall. Depilation of different functional regions of the bats’ wing membrane altered the flight behavior in obstacle avoidance tasks by reducing aerial maneuverability, as indicated by decreased turning angles and increased flight speed. PMID:21690408

  11. Hybrid Wing Body Configuration Scaling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2012-01-01

    The Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration is a subsonic transport aircraft concept with the potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions compared to conventional concepts. Initial studies focused on very large applications with capacities for up to 800 passengers. More recent studies have focused on the large, twin-aisle class with passenger capacities in the 300-450 range. Efficiently scaling this concept down to the single aisle or smaller size is challenging due to geometric constraints, potentially reducing the desirability of this concept for applications in the 100-200 passenger capacity range or less. In order to quantify this scaling challenge, five advanced conventional (tube-and-wing layout) concepts were developed, along with equivalent (payload/range/technology) HWB concepts, and their fuel burn performance compared. The comparison showed that the HWB concepts have fuel burn advantages over advanced tube-and-wing concepts in the larger payload/range classes (roughly 767-sized and larger). Although noise performance was not quantified in this study, the HWB concept has distinct noise advantages over the conventional tube-and-wing configuration due to the inherent noise shielding features of the HWB. NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project will continue to investigate advanced configurations, such as the HWB, due to their potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions.

  12. General Potential Theory of Arbitrary Wing Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, T; Garrick, I E

    1934-01-01

    This report gives the exact treatment of the problem of determining the 2-dimensional potential flow around wing sections of any type. The treatment is based directly on the solution of this problem as advanced by Theodorsen in NACA-TR-411. The problem condenses into the compact form of an integral equation capable of yielding numerical solutions by a direct process.

  13. Fiber-optically sensorized composite wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Joannes M.; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Oblea, Levy; Patel, Rona; Sotoudeh, Vahid; Abouzeida, Essam; Quinones, Vladimir; Gowayed, Yasser; Soobramaney, Paul; Flowers, George

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and light-weight, fiber-optic sensor based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) will find increasing application in aerospace structures ranging from aircraft wings to jet engine vanes. Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) has been developing multi-functional fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor systems including parallel processing FBG interrogators combined with advanced signal processing for SHM, structural state sensing and load monitoring applications. This paper reports work with Auburn University on embedding and testing FBG sensor arrays in a quarter scale model of a T38 composite wing. The wing was designed and manufactured using fabric reinforced polymer matrix composites. FBG sensors were embedded under the top layer of the composite. Their positions were chosen based on strain maps determined by finite element analysis. Static and dynamic testing confirmed expected response from the FBGs. The demonstrated technology has the potential to be further developed into an autonomous onboard system to perform load monitoring, SHM and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of composite aerospace structures (wings and rotorcraft blades). This platform technology could also be applied to flight testing of morphing and aero-elastic control surfaces.

  14. Permian insect wing from antarctic sentinel mountains.

    PubMed

    Tasch, P; Riek, E F

    1969-06-27

    A homopterous insect wing was found in micaceous graywacke from the Polarstar Formation, Sentinel Mountains. The unusual venation is reminiscent of family Stenoviciidae known from the Permian and Triassic of Eastern Australia and elsewhere. This first documented account of Paleozoic insects in Antarctica bears on drift questions. PMID:17748532

  15. Elements of the Wing Section Theory and of the Wing Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max M

    1925-01-01

    This report contains those results of the theory of wings and of wing sections which are of immediate practical value. They are proved and demonstrated by the use of the simple conceptions of "kinetic energy" and "momentum" only, familiar to every engineer; and not by introducing "isogonal transformations" and "vortices," which latter mathematical methods are not essential to the theory and better are used only in papers intended for mathematicians and special experts.

  16. Space-time computational analysis of MAV flapping-wing aerodynamics with wing clapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Buscher, Austin

    2015-06-01

    Computational analysis of flapping-wing aerodynamics with wing clapping was one of the classes of computations targeted in introducing the space-time (ST) interface-tracking method with topology change (ST-TC). The ST-TC method is a new version of the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized ST (DSD/SST) method, enhanced with a master-slave system that maintains the connectivity of the "parent" fluid mechanics mesh when there is contact between the moving interfaces. With that enhancement and because of its ST nature, the ST-TC method can deal with an actual contact between solid surfaces in flow problems with moving interfaces. It accomplishes that while still possessing the desirable features of interface-tracking (moving-mesh) methods, such as better resolution of the boundary layers. Earlier versions of the DSD/SST method, with effective mesh update, were already able to handle moving-interface problems when the solid surfaces are in near contact or create near TC. Flapping-wing aerodynamics of an actual locust, with the forewings and hindwings crossing each other very close and creating near TC, is an example of successfully computed problems. Flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle (MAV) with the wings of an actual locust is another example. Here we show how the ST-TC method enables 3D computational analysis of flapping-wing aerodynamics of an MAV with wing clapping. In the analysis, the wings are brought into an actual contact when they clap. We present results for a model dragonfly MAV.

  17. Simulation of transonic viscous wing and wing-fuselage flows using zonal methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Jolen

    1987-01-01

    The thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are coupled with a zonal scheme (or domain-decomposition method) to develop the Transonic Navier-Stokes (TNS) wing-alone code. The TNS has a total of 4 zones and is extended to a total of 16 zones for the wing-fuselage version of the code. Results are compared on the Cray X-MP-48 and compared with experimental data.

  18. MULTI-EPOCH OBSERVATIONS OF THE RED WING EXCESS IN THE SPECTRUM OF 3C 279

    SciTech Connect

    Punsly, Brian E-mail: brian.punsly@comdev-usa.com

    2013-01-10

    It has been previously determined that there is a highly significant correlation between the spectral index from 10 GHz to 1350 A and the amount of excess luminosity in the red wing of quasar C IV {lambda}1549 broad emission lines (BELs). Ostensibly, the prominence of the red excess is associated with the radio jet emission mechanism and is most pronounced for lines of sight close to the jet axis. Studying the scant significant differences in the UV spectra of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars might provide vital clues to the origin of the unknown process that creates powerful relativistic jets that appear in only about 10% of quasars. In this study, the phenomenon is explored with multi-epoch observations of the Mg II {lambda}2798 broad line in 3C 279 which has one of the largest known red wing excesses in a quasar spectrum. The amount of excess that is detected appears to be independent of all directly observed optical continuum, radio, or submillimeter properties (fluxes or polarizations). The only trend that occurs in this sparse data is: the stronger the BEL, the larger the fraction of flux that resides in the red wing. It is concluded that more monitoring is needed and spectropolarimetry with a large telescope is essential during low states to understand more.

  19. Flutter analysis of swept-wing subsonic aircraft with parameter studies of composite wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, J. M.; Stein, M.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program is presented for the flutter analysis, including the effects of rigid-body roll, pitch, and plunge of swept-wing subsonic aircraft with a flexible fuselage and engines mounted on flexible pylons. The program utilizes a direct flutter solution in which the flutter determinant is derived by using finite differences, and the root locus branches of the determinant are searched for the lowest flutter speed. In addition, a preprocessing subroutine is included which evaluates the variable bending and twisting stiffness properties of the wing by using a laminated, balanced ply, filamentary composite plate theory. The program has been substantiated by comparisons with existing flutter solutions. The program has been applied to parameter studies which examine the effect of filament orientation upon the flutter behavior of wings belonging to the following three classes: wings having different angles of sweep, wings having different mass ratios, and wings having variable skin thicknesses. These studies demonstrated that the program can perform a complete parameter study in one computer run. The program is designed to detect abrupt changes in the lowest flutter speed and mode shape as the parameters are varied.

  20. Forebody vortex control for suppressing wing rock on a highly-swept wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Kramer, Brian R.; Ayers, Bert; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1992-01-01

    Free-to-roll tests were conducted in a wind tunnel with a configuration that consisted of a highly-slender forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. A limit cycle oscillation was observed for angles of attack between 22 and 30 deg. In general, the main flow phenomena responsible for the wing-body-tail wing rock are the interactions between the forebody and the wing vortices. Various blowing techniques were evaluated as means of wing rock suppression. Blowing tangentially aft from leeward side nozzles near the forebody tip can damp the roll motion at low blowing rates and stop it completely at higher blowing rates. At the high rates, significant vortex asymmetries are created, causing the model to stop at a non-zero roll angle. Forward blowing and alternating right/left pulsed blowing appear to be more efficient techniques for suppressing wing rock. The oscillations can be damped almost completely at lower blowing coefficients, and, apparently, no major vortex asymmetries are induced. Good agreement is observed between this study and previous water tunnel tests on the same configuration.