Blomdin, Robin; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Harbor, Jonathan M.; Gribenski, Natacha; Caffee, Marc W.; Heyman, Jakob; Rogozhina, Irina; Ivanov, Mikhail N.; Petrakov, Dmitry A.; Walther, Michael; Rudoy, Alexei N.; Zhang, Wei; Alexander, Orkhonselenge; Hättestrand, Clas; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Jansson, Krister N.
Spanning a northern sector of continental Central Asia, the Altai Mountains contains a rich record of glaciation. Still, there are few studies reconstructing the dynamics and timing of former glaciers in the region. We investigated the glacial history of two paleoglaciers, residing on opposite flanks of the Ikh-Turgen Mountains, straddling the border between Russia and Mongolia, using a combination of remote sensing, terrain analysis, field investigations and 10Be surface exposure dating. On the eastern side (Mongolia) of Ikh-Turgen, mean arithmetic exposure ages from a latero-frontal moraine indicate deglaciation during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (45.3±2.7 ka, n=5) and MIS 2 (22.8±3.5 ka, n=4). These age constraints are consistent with other paleoclimate records from the region. Cold and wet conditions during early MIS 2 and MIS 3 likely triggered glacier expansions but the transition to a drier climate resulted in more restricted paleoglacier extents during MIS 2 than during MIS 3. Well-constrained MIS 3 glacier expansions in Central Asia are rare. We therefore speculate whether the climatic and topographic setting of the eastern flank of the Ikh-Turgen Mountains has allowed for a better preservation potential of these moraines, making them more suitable for surface exposure dating than other regions of Central Asia, or whether MIS 3 moraines occur more widespread but await to be robustly dated. Corresponding surface exposure ages, from the western side (Russia) of Ikh-Turgen, indicate a more complex story with large scatter ( 14-53 ka, n=8) making paleoclimate inference and comparison to other proxies difficult. Owing to their proximity, the paleoglaciers of Ikh-Turgen, should have responded similarly to climate forcing, yet they exhibited distinctly different behaviours. We discuss the connection between paleoglacier dynamics and style of moraine deposition and propose that differences in glacier dynamics caused differences in ice-marginal depositional
Otaegui, Dorleta; Masdeu, Carme; Aldaba, Eneko; Vara, Yosu; Zubia, Aizpea; San Sebastian, Eider; Alcalá, Maria; Villafruela, Sergio; Cossío, Fernando P; Rodriguez-Gascón, Alicia
IKH12 is a novel histone deacetylase 6 selective inhibitor. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of IKH12 in rat plasma and tissue with kendine 91 as internal standard (IS). The samples were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether. The chromatographic separation was accomplished by using a Zorbax Extend C18 4.6 × 150 mm, 5 µm column, with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.1% formic acid (75:25 v/v). Multiple reaction monitoring, using electrospray ionization in positive ion mode, was employed to quantitatively detect IKH12 and IS. The monitored transitions were set at m/z 418 → 252 and 444 → 169 for IKH12 and kendine 91, respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 2-1000 ng mL(-1) . The intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy of the quality controls and the limit of quantification were satisfactory in all cases (according to European Medicines Agency guidelines). Stability studies showed that plasma samples were stable in the chromatography rack for 24 h and at -80°C for 2 months and also after three freeze-thaw cycles. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of IKH12 in rat. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
especially of organic and ammonium nitrogen phosphorus, carbohydrates and aminoacids than coniferous ones (pine). The data obtained can be used when predicting the conditions of new and existing water basins. (Author)
Zhuravel', A. V.
The overwhelming majority of Old-Russian dates are Julian, and this fact seems to prove that the Julian calendar gained a foothold after the baptism of Rus'. However, there are also about 10 lunar datings (mainly from the XV c.) in Russian chronicles. This fact corresponds to the words of Kirik (the Novgorod mathematician of the XII c.) who distinguished "heavenly" months from "literary" ones. The research shows that Kirik's words are true for the entire Medieval period of Russian history: the Julian calendar was really the "literary" one and people continued to count days by the Moon in their day-to-day life. Thus, lunar dating came up in Russian chronicles again and again. That is why attempts of recalculation into the Julian manner generated many mistakes (variant readings). If we take into account these "traces", we can reconstruct the initial lunar dating and determine more precisely the course of historical events.
Electromagnetic Brake (I.Kh. Khayrullin , D.I. Batyrgareyev, et al.; MASHINOSTROITEL, No 5, May 86) 1 Suspension of Machine Tool To Dampen Vibrations Tested...Technical Sciences I.Kh. Khayrullin , D.I. Batyrgareyev and Candidate of Technical Sciences F.R. Ismagilov, under the "It Can Be Used at Your
CERTAIN GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL FACTS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION IN RELATION TO THE EARTH’S CRUSTAL COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE (NEKOTORYE GEOLOGICHESKIE I GEOFIZICHESKIE FAKTY I IKH INTERPRETATSIYA V OTNOSHENII SOSTAVA I STROENIYA ZEMNOI KORY),
STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY, LITHOSPHERE), (*ROCK, ELASTIC PROPERTIES), MOHOROVICIC DISCONTINUITY, PETROGRAPHY, GRAVITY, ANOMALIES, OCEAN BOTTOM SAMPLING, FELDSPAR, METAMORPHIC ROCK, BASALT, SEISMIC WAVES, USSR
Mi, Yan-Xia; Li, Yun-Chun; Long, Ya-Hong
To study the biodistribution and imaging of I/I-labeled KH901, a tumor-specific oncolytic recombinant adenovirus, in nude mice bearing human hepatocarcinoma. KH901 was labeled with I/I according to the N-bromosuccinimide labeling method. The activity of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After I-KH901 was injected into the tumor, the label was followed in different organs and tumor tissues in nude mice with hepatocellular carcinoma. I-KH901 was injected directly into the tumor of nude mice bearing hepatocellular carcinoma, and their concentrations were detected at different times on radionuclide images. The radiochemical purity of I/I-KH901 was over 95%. I-KH901 stimulated massive expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in tumor cells. Twenty-four hours after the addition of I-KH901, the concentrations of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor were 183.27+/-6.90 and 20.44+/-0.77 pg/ml in tumor and normal cells, respectively. I-KH901 was mainly distributed in the tumor and had a longer retention time, which was 14.93%ID/g at 24 h. Radionuclide imaging showed that the radioactive retention of I-KH901 in the tumor was significant. The tumor was shown clearly in the whole-body scan at 2 h after injection. I or I-KH901 concentrates specifically at the tumor site, which makes it a novel drug (combination of oncolytic adenovirus and radionuclide therapies) for the treatment of cancer.
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Ekernas, L Stefan; Sarmento, Wesley M; Davie, Hannah S; Reading, Richard P; Murdoch, James; Wingard, Ganchimeg J; Amgalanbaatar, Sukh; Berger, Joel
In arid regions of the developing world, pastoralists and livestock commonly inhabit protected areas, resulting in human-wildlife conflict. Conflict is inextricably linked to the ecological processes shaping relationships between pastoralists and native herbivores and carnivores. To elucidate relationships underpinning human-wildlife conflict, we synthesized 15 years of ecological and ethnographic data from Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in Mongolia's Gobi steppe. The density of argali (Ovis ammon), the world's largest wild sheep, at Ikh Nart was among the highest in Mongolia, yet livestock were >90% of ungulate biomass and dogs >90% of large-carnivore biomass. For argali, pastoral activities decreased food availability, increased mortality from dog predation, and potentially increased disease risk. Isotope analyses indicated that livestock accounted for >50% of the diet of the majority of gray wolves (Canis lupus) and up to 90% of diet in 25% of sampled wolves (n = 8). Livestock composed at least 96% of ungulate prey in the single wolf pack for which we collected species-specific prey data. Interviews with pastoralists indicated that wolves annually killed 1-4% of Ikh Nart's livestock, and pastoralists killed wolves in retribution. Pastoralists reduced wolf survival by killing them, but their livestock were an abundant food source for wolves. Consequently, wolf density appeared to be largely decoupled from argali density, and pastoralists had indirect effects on argali that could be negative if pastoralists increased wolf density (apparent competition) or positive if pastoralists decreased wolf predation (apparent facilitation). Ikh Nart's argali population was stable despite these threats, but livestock are increasingly dominant numerically and functionally relative to argali. To support both native wildlife and pastoral livelihoods, we suggest training dogs to not kill argali, community insurance against livestock losses to wolves, reintroducing key native prey species
Klepko, A V; Motrina, O A; Vatlitsova, O S; Andreichenko, K S; Pchelovska, S A; Andreychenko, S V; Gorban, L V
Meta: vyvchyty vplyv dovgotryvalogo gamma-oprominennia z maloiu potuzhnistiu dozy (13kh10-6sGr/s) na rozvytok laboratornykh shchuriv, ikh statevykh organiv, a takozh na kil'kisni pokaznyky spermoutvorennia i kinetychni kharakterystyky spermatozoidiv.Materialy ta metody: doslidy provodyly na laboratornykh bilykh shchurakh vikom 2,5 misiatsiai. Tvaryn oprominiuvaly na ustanovtsi «Etalon» z gamma-polem So-60 v dozakh 0,1–1,0 Gr. U dekapitovanykh tvaryn vyluchaly testykuly,epidydymisy ta ventral'nu prostatu. Na laboratornykh vagakh vyznachaly seredniu vagu tvaryn ta ikh statevykh organiv dlia kozhnoi ekspozytsiinoi dozy oprominennia. Kil'kist' spermatozoidiv v epidydymisakh ta testykulakh vyznachaly za dopomogoiu fazovo-kontrastnoi mikroskopii pislia provedennia gomogenizatsii tkanyny v fiziologichnomu rozchyni, shcho mistyv takozh Tryton Kh-100 i NaN3. Kinetychni kharakterystyky spermatozoidiv analizuvaly za dopomogoiu fotoziomky pry temperaturi 37 oS.Rezul'taty: vstanovleno, shcho dovgotryvale gamma-oprominennia ne poznachaiet'sia na vazi iak tila tvaryn, tak i ikh epidydymisiv. Odnak pomicheno zmenshennia vagy testykul pry dozakh 0,1; 0,3; 0,6 ta 1,0 Gr, a takozh zbil'shennia vagy prostaty pry dozi 1,0 Gr. U oprominenykh tvaryn zmenshuvalys' zagal'na kil'kist' spermatozoidiv v iaiechkakh i denna produktsiia spermatozoidiv. Vidmicheno zbil'shennia priamoliniinoi ta kryvoliniinoi shvydkosti spermatozoidiv, a takozh chastoty ikh khvostovykh kolyvan'.Vysnovok: dovgotryvale total'ne gamma-oprominennia maloi potuzhnosti lyshe v deiakii miri poznachaiet'sia na rozvytku statevykh organiv laboratornykh shchuriv – testykulakh i prostati, a takozh proiavliaiet'sia v neznachnomu prygnichenni spermoutvorennia i zrostanni kinetychnykh kharakterystyk spermatozoidiv.
Dospinescu, Ciprian; Widmer, Hélène; Rowe, Iain; Wainwright, Cherry; Cruickshank, Stuart F
Hypoxia contracts the pulmonary vein, but the underlying cellular effectors remain unclear. Utilizing contractile studies and whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we report for the first time a hypoxia-sensitive K(+) current in porcine pulmonary vein smooth muscle cells (PVSMC). Hypoxia induced a transient contractile response that was 56 ± 7% of the control response (80 mM KCl). This contraction required extracellular Ca(2+) and was sensitive to Ca(2+) channel blockade. Blockade of K(+) channels by tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) reversibly inhibited the hypoxia-mediated contraction. Single-isolated PVSMC (typically 159.1 ± 2.3 μm long) had mean resting membrane potentials (RMP) of -36 ± 4 mV with a mean membrane capacitance of 108 ± 3.5 pF. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings identified a rapidly activating, partially inactivating K(+) current (I(KH)) that was hypoxia, TEA, and 4-AP sensitive. I(KH) was insensitive to Penitrem A or glyburide in PVSMC and had a time to peak of 14.4 ± 3.3 ms and recovered in 67 ms following inactivation at +80 mV. Peak window current was -32 mV, suggesting that I(KH) may contribute to PVSMC RMP. The molecular identity of the potassium channel is not clear. However, RT-PCR, using porcine pulmonary artery and vein samples, identified Kv(1.5), Kv(2.1), and BK, with all three being more abundant in the PV. Both artery and vein expressed STREX, a highly conserved and hypoxia-sensitive BK channel variant. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that hypoxic inhibition of I(KH) would contribute to hypoxic-induced contraction in PVSMC.
Carta, F. O.
An oscillating SC1095 airfoil model was tested for its aerodynamic stability in a rigid body with a single degree of freedom pitch about its quarter chord, and also in a rigid body with single degree of freedom plunge. The ability of pitching data to model plunging motions was evaluated. A one to one correspondence was established between pairs of pitching and plunging motions according to the potential flow transformation formula alpha=ikh. The imposed variables of the experiment were mean incidence angle, amplitude of motion, free stream velocity, and oscillatory frequency. Results indicate that significant differences exist between the aerodynamic responses to the motions, particularly at high load conditions. At high load conditions, the normal force for equivalent pitch is significantly greater than that for true pitch at the geometric incidence angle.
Haugen, I K
Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent disease that can lead to substantial pain and physical disability. Currently, no disease-modifying drugs exist for the treatment of OA. Most OA research has been conducted on knee OA and we have limited knowledge about disease mechanisms in hand OA. During her research career, Ida K Haugen (IKH) has focused on the epidemiology of hand OA and imaging techniques. She has established a large international network, providing the opportunity to study the epidemiology of hand OA in large international OA cohorts. In the Framingham study, she found that symptomatic hand OA was present in 16% of women and 8% of men aged between 40 and 84 years. In her PhD thesis, IKH studied the reliability and validity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in hand OA. In collaboration with OMERACT (Outcome Measures in Rheumatology), an MRI scoring system for hand OA was developed. MRI is more sensitive than radiographs for detecting structural abnormalities. Synovitis, as detected by both MRI and ultrasound, is associated with pain and predicts future disease progression. Hence, synovitis may represent a treatment target in hand OA. Her future research plans include the observational Nor-Hand study and a placebo-controlled randomized trial on methotrexate (MTX) in hand OA. The data collection of 300 patients in the Nor-Hand study is ongoing, and focuses on causes of pain and novel imaging techniques to assess inflammation in hand OA. In a future clinical trial, patients with moderate to severe long-lasting pain and inflammation will be treated with MTX and the effect on pain and inflammation will be explored.
Zeitler, P. K.; Thumma, J. K.
Far-field influences of the India-Asia collision have often been cited as a general cause for the still-active transpressional deformation evident in the Gobi Altai range of south-central Mongolia as well as elsewhere in the region. The timing of initiation for deformation is a potentially important component in understanding the broader geodynamic evolution of Central Asia. However, it has been difficult to determine this timing in detail, with past studies suggesting a latest Miocene or younger age. We report apatite U-Th/He data from the Gobi Altai's Ikh Bogd block, showing a clear systematic relationship of age with depth below a range-capping low-relief erosion surface. Older higher-elevation ages are more dispersed and consistent with very slow Mesozoic to earlier Cenozoic cooling, whereas the lowest samples give ages of 25 to 35 Ma showing much lower internal dispersion. Additional work on other ranges as well as pending 4He/3He data will help confirm this result but we currently interpret this age-elevation pattern as a partial retention zone that began to be exhumed at about 30 Ma. This earlier timing for initial exhumation is a better fit to available geological evidence and is more consistent with the timing of events within the India-Asia collision and Central Asia.
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Sushko, V O; Nezgovorova, G A; Degtjarova, L V; Kolosynska, O O; Gromadska, V M
Meta doslidzhennia: vyznachennia morfologichnykh osoblyvostei urazhen' slyzovoi obolonky (SO) shlunka ta dvanadtsiatypaloi kyshky (DPK) u personalu, iakyi pratsiuie v radiatsiino nebezpechnykh umovakh na ob’iekti «Ukryttia» Chornobyl's'koi AES (OU) shliakhom endoskopichnogo monitoryngu iz vziattiam biopsiinogo materialu z gastroduodenal'noi zony na etapakh pervynnogo (vkhidnogo) VkhK ta spetsial'nogo medychnogo kontroliu (SpK).Materialy ta metody: provedeno kompleksne klinichne-endoskopichne ta morfologichnogo doslidzhennia z biopsiieiu SO shlunka ta DPK u 126 robitnykiv OU.Rezul'taty: U personalu pidriadnykh pidpryiemstv OU vstanovleni riznoskerovani patomorfologichni zmin SO pry VkhK ta zbil'shennia chastoty ikh vyiavlennia pry obstezhenni pid chas SpK, shcho zagalom vidpovidaly khronichnomu H.pylori-asotsiiovanogo pangastrytu z porushenniam mikrotsyrkuliatsii i trofiky, dysregeneratsiinymy zminamy epitelial'noi vystilky.Vysnovky: dlia personalu pidriadnykh organizatsii, iakyi pryimaie uchast' v radiatsiino-nebezpechnykh robotakh na OU ie kharakternym naiavnist' khronichnogo H.pylori-asotsiiovanogo pangastrytu z zrostanniam chastoty atrofichnykh zmin SO (nemetaplastychnogo chy metaplastychnogo typu) ta rozvytkom erozyvno-vyrazkovykh urazhen' gastroduodenal'noi zony.V robitnykiv, iaki maly poperednii vplyv ionizuiuchogo oprominennia vstanovleno bil'shu chastotu dysregeneratsiinykh (giperplazii / kyshkovoi metaplazii) zmin epiteliiu, shcho vidpovidno pidvyshchuie ryzyk neoplastychnykh transformatsii.Provedennia EGDFS (za neobkhidnosti z biopsiieiu SO) pry VkhK ta nastupnykh etapakh medychnogo kontroliu u personalu, iakyi vykonuie radiatsiino-nebezpechni roboty na OU ie vysokoinformatyvnym dokazovym i neobkhidnym metodom doslidzhennia dlia vyznachennia formy ta stupeniu patologichnykh zmin verkhnikh viddiliv shlunkovo-kyshkovogo traktu dlia poperedzhennia progresuvannia zakhvoriuvannia ta rozvytku uskladnen', zberezhennia zdorov’ia i pratsezdatnosti robitnykiv.
Zhirnov, V V; Iakovenko, I N; Voitsitskiy, V M; Khyzhnyak, S V; Zubrikova-Chugainova, O G; Gorobetz, V A
Tsel' raboty. Izuchenie reaktsii dzeta potentsiala (DP) membran éritrotsitov cheloveka pri modifikatsii aktivatorami i blokatorami funktsional'nogo sostoianiia Ca2+-zavisimykh kalievykh kanalov v pole radioizotopnogo izlucheniia 90Sr/90Y maloi moshchnosti.Materialy i metody. Éritrotsity poluchali iz donorskoi krovi. DP vychisliali po poluchennomu znacheniiu élektroforeticheskoi podvizhnosti kletok. V kletochnye suspenzii predvaritel'no vnosili issleduemye veshchestva, a zatem alikvoty rastvora 90Sr(NO3)2, chtoby poluchit' konechnuiu kontsentratsiiu 44,4⋅kBk⋅l-1.Rezul'taty. Radioizotopnoe izluchenie 90Sr/90Y (RI, 15 mkGr/ch) povyshaet absoliutnoe znachenie DP (DPab) membran éritrotsitov i ego deistvie iavliaetsia obratimym. Éto ukazyvaet na to, chto éffekt oposreduetsia neioniziruiushchei komponentoi RI. Dibutiril-tsAMF v diapazone kontsentratsii 1–100 mkM dozonezavisimo povyshaet DPab membran éritrotsitov, no RI ne usilivaet ego éffekt. Anaprilin v kontsentratsiiakh 10 i 100 mkM dozonezavisimo povyshaet DPab. Éffekt maksimal'noi kontsentratsii anaprilina (100 mkM) – snizhaetsia RI. Klotrimazol v diapazone kontsentratsii 0,1–10 mkM povyshaet DPab membran éritrotsitov otnositel'no kontrolia, togda kak ego maksimal'naia kontsentratsiia – snizhet, a minimal'naia – dostoverno ne vliiaet na étot pokazatel'. Deistvie klotrimazola na DP pri kontsentratsiiakh 10–100 mkM otmeniaetsia RI, no ne izmeniaetsia pri 0,1–1 mkM. Nitrendipin vo vsem diapazone kontsentratsii dozonezavisimo povyshaet DPab membran éritrotsitov, a RI usilivaet ego deistvie. Vyvody. 1. Dlia ioniziruiushchei komponenty radionuklidnogo izlucheniia sushchestvuet porog biologicheskogo deistviia na kletki, opredeliaemyi éffektivnost'iu ikh antioksidantnoi sistemy.2. Pri moshchnosti doz nizhe porogovoi deistvie radioizotopnogo izlucheniia oposreduetsia ego neioniziruiushchei komponentoi i iavliaetsia obratimym, a poétomu opredeliaetsia tol'ko v pole izlucheniia.
Dimitriou, Christopher J; McKinley, Gareth H
Guided by a series of discriminating rheometric tests, we develop a new constitutive model that can quantitatively predict the key rheological features of waxy crude oils. We first develop a series of model crude oils, which are characterized by a complex thixotropic and yielding behavior that strongly depends on the shear history of the sample. We then outline the development of an appropriate preparation protocol for carrying out rheological measurements, to ensure consistent and reproducible initial conditions. We use RheoPIV measurements of the local kinematics within the fluid under imposed deformations in order to validate the selection of a particular protocol. Velocimetric measurements are also used to document the presence of material instabilities within the model crude oil under conditions of imposed steady shearing. These instabilities are a result of the underlying non-monotonic steady flow curve of the material. Three distinct deformation histories are then used to probe the material's constitutive response. These deformations are steady shear, transient response to startup of steady shear with different aging times, and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS). The material response to these three different flows is used to motivate the development of an appropriate constitutive model. This model (termed the IKH model) is based on a framework adopted from plasticity theory and implements an additive strain decomposition into characteristic reversible (elastic) and irreversible (plastic) contributions, coupled with the physical processes of isotropic and kinematic hardening. Comparisons of experimental to simulated response for all three flows show good quantitative agreement, validating the chosen approach for developing constitutive models for this class of materials.
Stepanova, Ye I; Kolpakov, Ye; Zyhalo, V M; Lytvynets, O M; Kondrashova, V H; Vdovenko, V Yu; Skvarska, O O; Leonovych, O S
asotsiyovani z naiavnistiu u genotypi aleliu 4a, oznak endo telial'noI dysfunktsiI ta rivnem inkorporovanogo 137Cs.Vysnovky. Bil'sh vyrazni zminy endoteliyzalezhnoI reaktsiI sudyn na okliuziiu ta virogidne znyzhennia rivnia nitry tu v syrovattsi krovi u nosiIv aleliu 4a, osoblyvo u ditey, iaki prozhyvaiut' u nespryiatlyvykh ekologichnykh umovakh, nadaie pidstavy vidnesty Ikh do grupy ryzyku z rozvytku endotelial'noI dysfunktsiI, a porushennia funktsiI legeniv rozgliadaty iak odyn z II proiaviv.
khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa
- K-Ar age for Mesozoic volcanic rocks from Eastern Mongolia and Ikh Khyangan dated in range from 160 to 110Ma (Shuvalov, 1987; Makhbadar et al., 1995; Zhou et al., 2006; Bat-Ulzii, 2014). 2. Rift controlling fault - Delgerekh, Modon Ovoo and Matad faults to north-east direction are interpreted and presented in EMP (Khasin, 1973; Tikhonov, 1974; Byamba, 2009). 3. Basin and Range topography - we are interpreting that Nukhet davaa mountain range, Tamsag basin, Matad uplift or range and Choibalsan basin were developed in that time. Hills with 40-150 m height at a present day are interpreted that they developed from the Late Cretaceous period. In post- rift or Late Cretaceous period, lakes disappeared and whole area of Eastern Mongolia became a dry land, dominating by exogenic process. Denudation planation surface at EMP are kept in high and low level. High or old planation surface is proposed by age of the Miocene - Lower Pliocene and low or young planation surface - Late Pliocene. Just a current topography of EMP is formed in Late Neogene - Lower Quaternary period as a peneplain.
Tugjamba, Navchaa; Sereeter, Erdenetuul; Gonchigjav, Sarantuya
Developing the ecosystem based adaptation strategies to maintain water security in critical water catchments in Mongolia would be very significant. It will be base by reducing the vulnerability. "Ecosystem Based adaptation" is quite a new term in Mongolia and the ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. To strengthen equitable economic development, food security, climate resilience and protection of the environment, the implementation of sustainable river basin management in critical water catchments is challenging in Mongolia. The Ulz river basin is considered one of the critical water catchments due to the temperature has increased by in average 1.30Ñ over the period 1976 to 2011. It is more intense than the global warming rate (0.740C/100 years) and a bit higher than the warming rate over whole Mongolia as well. From long-term observations and measurements it is clear that Ulz River has low water in a period of 1970-1980 and since the end of 1980s and middle of 1990s there were dominated years of the flood. However, under the influence of the global warming, climate changes of Mongolia and continuation of drought years with low water since the end of 1990s until today river water was sharply fallen and dried up. For the last ten years rivers are dried up and annual mean run-off is less by 3-5 times from long term mean value. The Ulz is the transboundary river basin and taking its origin from Ikh and Baga Burd springs on territory of Norovlin soum of Khentii province that flows through Khentii and Dornod provinces to the northeast, crossing the state border it flows in Baruun Tari located in Tari Lake concavity in Russia. Based on the integrative baseline study on the 'The Ulz River Basin Environmental and Socioeconomic condition', ecosystem based river basin management was planned. 'Water demand Calculator 3' (WDC) software was used to
Borodavko, P. S.
cane sedges and horsetails dominant. The benthic fauna is poor, and only single pecimens of molluscs and amphipods are met. The ichtyofauna is represented by Oreoleuciscus Pewzowi. Previous and modern investigations of these lakes, their morphologies and deposits, allow to specify periods of extension of the lakes and palaeogeographical conditions. Two clear extension periods can be determined in the Mongolian Great Lakes Basin, corresponding to Mid-and Late Pleistocene transgressions. During the Mid-Pleistocene transgression the current Lakes Har-Us Nur, Dorgon Nur, Hara Nur, Airag Nur and Hyargas were integrated to a united lake, with a maximal level at 1265 m. and total water area about 23 158 km2 . The maximal thickness of Mid-Pleistocene lake deposits is 70 m. Late Pleistocene lake sediments are investigated in sections near Dzabhan River and Hyargas Nuur shorelines. They consist of laminated sand, clay and gravel with cryogenic structures at the base and upper part of sections. The mean thickness of Late Pleistocene lake deposits is 20-35 m. The main characteristics of Late Pleistocene lake features are represented by a very bright "lake relief" — obvious steps of shorelines, gravel bands, bars and spits. The specific structure of Late Pleistocene lake cross-sections allows to separate two transgressions within this period. In the first half of the Holocene a minor regression of several meters occurred. Elements of the modern time aeolian relief were still inundated on the north shore of Lake Har-Us Nur. Researches funded by RFBR (Grant 08-05-00037-a) References 1. Geomorfologiya Mongol'skoi Narodnoi Respubliki (Geomorphology of the Mongolian People Republic). M.: Nauka, pp. 135-148. 2. Ozera MNR i ikh mineral'nye resursy (Lakes of MPR and their mineral resources), 1991. Moscow, Nauka, 136 p. 3. Sevastyanov, D.V., Shuvalov, V.F. and Neustrueva, I. Yu. (Eds.), 1994. Limnologiya i paleolimnologiya Mongolii (Limnology and Palaeolimnology of Mongolia). St