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Sample records for il-15 confer sterile

  1. Sterilization: A Conference and a Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, Brint

    1978-01-01

    This article continues a series on Native American sterilization, based on a conference of the National Council of Churches' Interreligious Foundation for Community Organization (IFCO). Also included are an article and a report by the American Civil Liberties Union. (Author/RTS)

  2. Soluble interleukin-15 receptor alpha (IL-15R alpha)-sushi as a selective and potent agonist of IL-15 action through IL-15R beta/gamma. Hyperagonist IL-15 x IL-15R alpha fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Erwan; Quéméner, Agnès; Vusio, Patricia; Lorenzen, Inken; Boublik, Yvan; Grötzinger, Joachim; Plet, Ariane; Jacques, Yannick

    2006-01-20

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is crucial for the generation of multiple lymphocyte subsets (natural killer (NK), NK-T cells, and memory CD8 T cells), and transpresentation of IL-15 by monocytes and dendritic cells has been suggested to be the dominant activating process of these lymphocytes. We have previously shown that a natural soluble form of IL-15R alpha chain corresponding to the entire extracellular domain of IL-15R alpha behaves as a high affinity IL-15 antagonist. In sharp contrast with this finding, we demonstrate in this report that a recombinant, soluble sushi domain of IL-15R alpha, which bears most of the binding affinity for IL-15, behaves as a potent IL-15 agonist by enhancing its binding and biological effects (proliferation and protection from apoptosis) through the IL-15R beta/gamma heterodimer, whereas it does not affect IL-15 binding and function of the tripartite IL-15R alpha/beta/gamma membrane receptor. Our results suggest that, if naturally produced, such soluble sushi domains might be involved in the IL-15 transpresentation mechanism. Fusion proteins (RLI and ILR), in which IL-15 and IL-15R alpha-sushi are attached by a flexible linker, are even more potent than the combination of IL-15 plus sIL-15R alpha-sushi. After binding to IL-15R beta/gamma, RLI is internalized and induces a biological response very similar to the IL-15 high affinity response. Such hyper-IL-15 fusion proteins appear to constitute potent adjuvants for the expansion of lymphocyte subsets.

  3. Regulation of IL-15 secretion via the leader peptide of two IL-15 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Onu, A; Pohl, T; Krause, H; Bulfone-Paus, S

    1997-01-01

    The secretion of IL-15, a potent modulator of T, B, and NK lymphocyte functions, is likely to be tightly controlled. Here, we show that human T lymphoblasts transcribe the IL-15 gene and generate an alternative splicing product that codes for the same amino acid composition as the mature IL-15 protein, but produces an IL-15 precursor protein with a shorter signal peptide. Both alternative splicing products are transcribed by non-IL-15-secreting lymphocytes, suggesting that IL-15 secretion is not primarily controlled at the level of transcription. We generated an in vitro system for correlating the expression, translation, and secretion of IL-15 or IL-15-IgG1 fusion protein. This revealed that the two isoforms of IL-15 or a truncated IL-15 variant, both alone and fused to human IgG1, are all transcribed and translated, but not efficiently secreted. After replacing the IL-15 leader peptide with a foreign one, translation and secretion clearly increase. These results suggest that IL-15 is mainly controlled at the level of translation and secretion.

  4. Homeostasis of IL-15 dependent lymphocyte subsets in the liver.

    PubMed

    Cepero-Donates, Yuneivy; Rakotoarivelo, Volatiana; Mayhue, Marian; Ma, Averil; Chen, Yi-Guang; Ramanathan, Sheela

    2016-06-01

    IL-15 is a member of the gamma chain family of cytokines (γc - CD132). The IL-15 receptor (IL-15R) complex consists of 3 subunits: the ligand-binding IL-15Rα chain (CD215), the β chain (CD122; also used by IL-2), and the common γ chain. The biological activities of IL-15 are mostly mediated by the IL-15:IL-15Rα complex, produced by the same cell and 'trans-presented' to responder cells expressing the IL-15Rβγc. The peculiar and almost unique requirement for IL-15 to be trans-presented by IL-15Rα suggests that the biological effects of IL-15 signaling are tightly regulated even at the level of availability of IL-15. Tissue-specific deletion of IL-15Rα has shown macrophage-and dendritic cell-derived IL-15Rα mediate the homeostasis of different CD8(+) T cell subsets. Here we show that hepatocyte and macrophage- specific expression of IL-15Rα is required to maintain the homeostasis of NK and NKT cells in the liver. Thus, homeostasis of IL-15-dependent lymphocyte subsets is also regulated by trans-presentation of IL-15 by non-hematopoietic cells in the tissue environment. PMID:26778709

  5. IL-15/IL-15 receptor biology: a guided tour through an expanding universe.

    PubMed

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2006-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) has a key role in promoting survival, proliferation and activation of natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. Despite its functional similarities to IL-2, IL-15 affects a wider range of target cell populations and utilizes different mechanisms of signaling. Here, we review recent advances in the IL-15-mediated signaling, and in the functional properties on cells besides T lymphocytes and NK cells. These are discussed in the context of their potential clinical and therapeutic relevance.

  6. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-15 receptor α from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin-Sol; Shim, Sang Hee; Hwang, Seong Don; Kim, Ju-Won; Park, Dae-Won; Park, Chan-Il

    2013-10-01

    Mammalian interleukin (IL)-15 plays an important role in the activation of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells along with its receptor α (IL-15Rα). To understand the potential roles of IL-15 and IL-15Rα in fish, we identified IL-15 and IL-15Rα cDNA from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and investigated their gene expression profiles after bacterial and viral infection. Coding regions of rock bream (Rb) IL-15 and RbIL-15Rα cDNAs were 534 and 402 bp encoding 177 and 133 amino acid residues, respectively. The sushi domain of IL-15Rα was highly conserved between rock bream and other species. Unlike other IL-15Rαs, RbIL-15Rα does not have a transmembrane region. Gene expression of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα was widely expressed in different tissues of healthy fish, especially immune-related tissues. RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα were highly induced in the kidney and spleen after infection with Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae and red seabream iridovirus. Gene expression patterns of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα were similar in the kidney and spleen after pathogen infection. However, these genes were differentially induced in the liver after pathogen infection. These results suggest that the different responses of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα to pathogen infection may be induced by different tissues or cell types. PMID:23911652

  7. Autocrine role of vascular IL-15 in intimal thickening

    SciTech Connect

    Cercek, Miha . E-mail: DimayugaP@cshs.org

    2006-01-13

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that modulates T cell recruitment and activation, independent of antigen. It has been detected in human atherosclerotic plaques and atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-/- mice. IL-15 regulates fractalkine (FKN)-CX3CR1 chemokine signaling which is involved in atherogenesis and promotes SMC proliferation. We investigated the role of IL-15 in intimal thickening after arterial injury. Treatment of serum-stimulated SMC with IL-15 in vitro attenuated proliferation and suppressed CX3CR1 and FKN mRNA expression. The role of endogenous IL-15 in vivo was investigated in injured carotid arteries of mice. Periadventitial arterial injury resulted in increased IL-15 expression in the media and neointima, paralleled by increased IL-15 receptor {alpha} expression. Blockade of endogenous IL-15 increased intimal thickening. FKN and CX3CR1 expression increased after injury and were further augmented after IL-15 blockade. These data suggest that endogenous IL-15 attenuated intimal thickening after arterial injury. The potential mechanism of action is suppression of CX3CR1 signaling.

  8. Configuration-dependent Presentation of Multivalent IL-15:IL-15Rα Enhances the Antigen-specific T Cell Response and Anti-tumor Immunity.

    PubMed

    Hong, Enping; Usiskin, Ilana M; Bergamaschi, Cristina; Hanlon, Douglas J; Edelson, Richard L; Justesen, Sune; Pavlakis, George N; Flavell, Richard A; Fahmy, Tarek M

    2016-04-22

    Here we report a "configuration-dependent" mechanism of action for IL-15:IL-15Rα (heterodimeric IL-15 or hetIL-15) where the manner by which IL-15:IL-15Rα molecules are presented to target cells significantly affects its function as a vaccine adjuvant. Although the cellular mechanism of IL-15 trans-presentation via IL-15Rα and its importance for IL-15 function have been described, the full effect of the IL-15:IL-15Rα configuration on responding cells is not yet known. We found that trans-presenting IL-15:IL-15Rα in a multivalent fashion on the surface of antigen-encapsulating nanoparticles enhanced the ability of nanoparticle-treated dendritic cells (DCs) to stimulate antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. Localization of multivalent IL-15:IL-15Rα and encapsulated antigen to the same DC led to maximal T cell responses. Strikingly, DCs incubated with IL-15:IL-15Rα-coated nanoparticles displayed higher levels of functional IL-15 on the cell surface, implicating a mechanism for nanoparticle-mediated transfer of IL-15 to the DC surface. Using artificial antigen-presenting cells to highlight the effect of IL-15 configuration on DCs, we showed that artificial antigen-presenting cells presenting IL-15:IL-15Rα increased the sensitivity and magnitude of the T cell response, whereas IL-2 enhanced the T cell response only when delivered in a paracrine fashion. Therefore, the mode of cytokine presentation (configuration) is important for optimal immune responses. We tested the effect of configuration dependence in an aggressive model of murine melanoma and demonstrated significantly delayed tumor progression induced by IL-15:IL-15Rα-coated nanoparticles in comparison with monovalent IL-15:IL-15Rα. The novel mechanism of IL-15 transfer to the surface of antigen-processing DCs may explain the enhanced potency of IL-15:IL-15Rα-coated nanoparticles for antigen delivery. PMID:26719339

  9. Myxoma Virus Expressing a Fusion Protein of Interleukin-15 (IL15) and IL15 Receptor Alpha Has Enhanced Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tosic, Vesna; Thomas, Diana L.; Kranz, David M.; Liu, Jia; McFadden, Grant; Shisler, Joanna L.; MacNeill, Amy L.; Roy, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Myxoma virus, a rabbit poxvirus, can efficiently infect various types of mouse and human cancer cells. It is a strict rabbit-specific pathogen, and is thought to be safe as a therapeutic agent in all non-rabbit hosts tested including mice and humans. Interleukin-15 (IL15) is an immuno-modulatory cytokine with significant potential for stimulating anti-tumor T lymphocytes and NK cells. Co-expression of IL15 with the α subunit of IL15 receptor (IL15Rα) greatly enhances IL15 stability and bioavailability. Therefore, we engineered a new recombinant myxoma virus (vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr), which expresses an IL15Rα-IL15 fusion protein plus tdTomato red fluorescent reporter protein. Permissive rabbit kidney epithelial (RK-13) cells infected with vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr expressed and secreted the IL15Rα-IL15 fusion protein. Functional activity was confirmed by demonstrating that the secreted fusion protein stimulated proliferation of cytokine-dependent CTLL-2 cells. Multi-step growth curves showed that murine melanoma (B16-F10 and B16.SIY) cell lines were permissive to vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr infection. In vivo experiments in RAG1-/- mice showed that subcutaneous B16-F10 tumors treated with vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr exhibited attenuated tumor growth and a significant survival benefit for the treated group compared to the PBS control and the control viruses (vMyx-IL15-tdTr and vMyx-tdTr). Immunohistological analysis of the subcutaneous tumors showed dramatically increased infiltration of NK cells in vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr treated tumors compared to the controls. In vivo experiments with immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice revealed a strong infiltrate of both NK cells and CD8+ T cells in response to vMyx-IL15Rα-tdTr, and prolonged survival. We conclude that delivery of IL15Rα-IL15 in a myxoma virus vector stimulates both innate and adaptive components of the immune system. PMID:25329832

  10. BAFF suppresses IL-15 expression in B cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Xing, Chen; Xiao, He; He, Youdi; Han, Gencheng; Chen, Guojiang; Hou, Chunmei; Marrero, Bernadette; Wang, Yujuan; Zhang, Shengquan; Shen, Beifen; Li, Yan; Wang, Renxi

    2014-05-01

    Clinical trials have shown that BAFF inhibitors do not reduce memory B cell levels but can reduce the number of mature B cells. It remains uncertain whether BAFF affects memory-maintaining cytokines such as IL-15. We found that BAFF suppressed IL-15 expression in B cells from lupus-like or experimental allergic encephalomyelitis mice. When BAFF was blocked with atacicept-IgG, IL-15 expression was upregulated in lupus-like or experimental allergic encephalomyelitis mice. Finally, we showed that BAFF suppressed IL-15 expression in transitional 2 B cells by reducing Foxo1 expression and inducing Foxo1 phosphorylation. This study suggests that BAFF suppresses IL-15 expression in autoimmune diseases, and this opens up the possible opportunity for the clinical application of BAFF- and IL-15-specific therapeutic agents.

  11. IRF-1 promotes liver transplant ischemia/reperfusion injury via hepatocyte IL-15/IL-15Rα production

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Osamu; Dou, Lei; Spadaro, Anthony V.; Isse, Kumiko; Ross, Mark A.; Stolz, Donna B.; Kimura, Shoko; Du, Qiang; Demetris, Anthony J.; Thomson, Angus W.; Geller, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury following liver transplantation (LTx) is an important problem that significantly impacts clinical outcomes. Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a nuclear transcription factor that plays a critical role in liver injury. Our objective was to determine the immunomodulatory role of IRF-1 during I/R injury following allogeneic LTx. IRF-1 was induced in liver grafts immediately after reperfusion in both human and mouse LTx. IRF-1 contributed significantly to I/R injury as IRF-1 KO grafts displayed much less damage assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and histology. In vitro, IRF-1 regulated both constitutive and induced expression of IL-15, as well as IL-15Rα mRNA expression in murine hepatocytes and liver dendritic cells (DC). Specific knockdown of IRF-1 in human primary hepatocytes gave similar results. In addition, we identified hepatocytes as the major producer of soluble IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes in the liver. IRF-1 KO livers had significantly reduced NK, NKT and CD8+T cell numbers, while rIL-15/IL-15Rα restored these immune cells, augmented cytotoxic effector molecules, promoted systemic inflammatory responses, and exacerbated liver injury in IRF-1 KO graft recipients. These results indicate that IRF-1 promotes LTx I/R injury via hepatocyte IL-15/IL-15Rα production and suggest that targeting IRF-1 and IL-15/IL-15Rα may be effective in reducing I/R injury associated with LTx. PMID:25964490

  12. Epistasis among Drosophila persimilis factors conferring hybrid male sterility with D. pseudoobscura bogotana.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey S; Bennett, Sarah M; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-10-27

    The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model posits that hybrid incompatibilities result from genetic changes that accumulate during population divergence. Indeed, much effort in recent years has been devoted to identifying genes associated with hybrid incompatibilities, often with limited success, suggesting that hybrid sterility and inviability are frequently caused by complex interactions between multiple loci and not by single or a small number of gene pairs. Our previous study showed that the nature of epistasis between sterility-conferring QTL in the Drosophila persimilis-D. pseudoobscura bogotana species pair is highly specific. Here, we further dissect one of the three QTL underlying hybrid male sterility between these species and provide evidence for multiple factors within this QTL. This result indicates that the number of loci thought to contribute to hybrid dysfunction may have been underestimated, and we discuss how linkage and complex epistasis may be characteristic of the genetics of hybrid incompatibilities. We further pinpoint the location of one locus that confers hybrid male sterility when homozygous, dubbed "mule-like", to roughly 250 kilobases.

  13. Sterilization.

    PubMed

    Rioux, M H

    1979-05-01

    The history of sterilization in North America has included enactment of laws in 37 U. S. states and 2 Canadian provinces allowing the procedure to be performed to eliminate undesirable, genetically-transmitted traits. These eugenic laws applied to any of the following categories of persons: mentally regarded, mentally ill, epileptic, criminal, alcoholic, or poor people. Pressure from geneticists, lawyers, and others concerned with the implications of such laws, led to their repeal in many places. Noneugenic and nontherapeutic sterilization is today a recognized medical practice. Legally, such procedures must meet the following criteria: 1) informed consent; 2) individual benefit; and 3) performance with reasonable care and skill. If these criteria are met, doctors are protected from legal liability. The most legal, social, and ethical ambiguities arise in cases where nontherapeutic sterilization is performed on individuals unable to give consent, e.g., minors or mentally handicapped persons.

  14. The Sushi domain of soluble IL-15 receptor alpha is essential for binding IL-15 and inhibiting inflammatory and allogenic responses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wei Xq; Orchardson, M; Gracie, J A; Leung, B P; Gao Bm; Guan, H; Niedbala, W; Paterson, G K; McInnes, I B; Liew, F Y

    2001-07-01

    IL-15 is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. It is associated with a range of immunopathology, including rheumatoid arthritis and allograft rejection. IL-15 functions through the trimeric IL-15R complex, which consists of a high affinity binding alpha-chain and the common IL-2R beta- and gamma-chains. Characterization of IL-15/IL-15R interactions may facilitate the development of improved IL-15 antagonists for therapeutic interventions. We previously constructed soluble murine IL-15Ralpha (sIL-15Ralpha) by deleting the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains. To localize the functional domain of IL-15Ralpha, we have now constructed various truncated versions of sIL-15Ralpha. The shortest region retaining IL-15 binding activity is a 65-aa sequence spanning the Sushi domain of IL-15Ralpha. Sushi domains, common motifs in protein-protein interactions, contain four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds in a 1-3 and 2-4 pattern. Amino acid substitution of the first or fourth cysteine in sIL-15Ralpha completely abolished its IL-15 binding activity. This also abrogated the ability of sIL-15Ralpha to neutralize IL-15-induced proinflammatory cytokine production and anti-apoptotic response in vitro. Furthermore, the mutant sIL-15Ralpha lost its ability to inhibit carrageenan-induced local inflammation and allogenic cell-induced T cell proliferation and cytokine production in vivo. Thus, the Sushi domain is critical for the functional activity of sIL-15Ralpha.

  15. Transcriptional IL-15-Directed in vivo DC Targeting DNA Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Tian, S; Liu, Z; Donahue, C; Noh, HS; Falo, LD; You, Z

    2009-01-01

    DC engineered in vitro by DNA encoding OVAhsp70 and IL-15 up-regulated their expressions of CD80, CD86, CCR7 and IL-15Rα and promoted their productions of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α. Transcriptional IL-15-directed in vivo DC targeting DNA vaccine encoding OVAhsp70 elicited long-lasting Th1 and CTL responses and anti-B16OVA activity. CD8 T cell-mediated primary tumor protection was abrogated by DC or CD4 T cell depletion during the induction phase of immune responses. However, CD4 T cell depletion during immunization did not impair CD8 T cell-dependent long-lasting tumor protection. Furthermore, in vivo DC-derived IL-15 exerted the enhancements of cellular and humoral immune responses and antitumor immunity elicited by OVAhsp70 DNA vaccine. Importantly, the potency of this novel DNA vaccine strategy was proven using a self/tumor Ag (TRP2) in a clinically relevant B16 melanoma model. These findings have implications for developing next generation DNA vaccines against cancers and infectious diseases in both healthy and CD4 deficient individuals. PMID:19727134

  16. Transpresentation of interleukin-15 by IL-15/IL-15Rα mRNA-engineered human dendritic cells boosts antitumoral natural killer cell activity

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bergh, Johan; Willemen, Yannick; Lion, Eva; Van Acker, Heleen; De Reu, Hans; Anguille, Sébastien; Goossens, Herman; Berneman, Zwi

    2015-01-01

    In cancer immunotherapy, the use of dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination strategies can improve overall survival, but until now durable clinical responses remain scarce. To date, DC vaccines are designed primarily to induce effective T-cell responses, ignoring the antitumor activity potential of natural killer (NK) cells. Aiming to further improve current DC vaccination outcome, we engineered monocyte-derived DC to produce interleukin (IL)-15 and/or IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα) using mRNA electroporation. The addition of IL-15Rα to the protocol, enabling IL-15 transpresentation to neighboring NK cells, resulted in significantly better NK-cell activation compared to IL-15 alone. Next to upregulation of NK-cell membrane activation markers, IL-15 transpresentation resulted in increased NK-cell secretion of IFN-γ, granzyme B and perforin. Moreover, IL-15-transpresenting DC/NK cell cocultures from both healthy donors and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients in remission showed markedly enhanced cytotoxic activity against NK cell sensitive and resistant tumor cells. Blocking IL-15 transpresentation abrogated NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor cells, pointing to a pivotal role of IL-15 transpresentation by IL-15Rα to exert its NK cell-activating effects. In conclusion, we report an attractive approach to improve antitumoral NK-cell activity in DC-based vaccine strategies through the use of IL-15/IL-15Rα mRNA-engineered designer DC. PMID:26675759

  17. Mechanistic Model of Natural Killer Cell Proliferative Response to IL-15 Receptor Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yun M.; French, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that provide early host defense against intracellular pathogens, such as viruses. Although NK cell development, homeostasis, and proliferation are regulated by IL-15, the influence of IL-15 receptor (IL-15R)-mediated signaling at the cellular level has not been quantitatively characterized. We developed a mathematical model to analyze the kinetic interactions that control the formation and localization of IL-15/IL-15R complexes. Our computational results demonstrated that IL-15/IL-15R complexes on the cell surface were a key determinant of the magnitude of the IL-15 proliferative signal and that IL-15R occupancy functioned as an effective surrogate measure of receptor signaling. Ligand binding and receptor internalization modulated IL-15R occupancy. Our work supports the hypothesis that the total number and duration of IL-15/IL-15R complexes on the cell surface crosses a quantitative threshold prior to the initiation of NK cell division. Furthermore, our model predicted that the upregulation of IL-15Rα on NK cells substantially increased IL-15R complex formation and accelerated the expansion of dividing NK cells with the greatest impact at low IL-15 concentrations. Model predictions of the threshold requirement for NK cell recruitment to the cell cycle and the subsequent exponential proliferation correlated well with experimental data. In summary, our modeling analysis provides quantitative insight into the regulation of NK cell proliferation at the receptor level and provides a framework for the development of IL-15 based immunotherapies to modulate NK cell proliferation. PMID:24068905

  18. IL-15 Superagonist–Mediated Immunotoxicity: Role of NK Cells and IFN-γ

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yin; Luan, Liming; Rabacal, Whitney; Bohannon, Julia K.; Fensterheim, Benjamin A.; Hernandez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    IL-15 is currently undergoing clinical trials to assess its efficacy for treatment of advanced cancers. The combination of IL-15 with soluble IL-15Rα generates a complex termed IL-15 superagonist (IL-15 SA) that possesses greater biological activity than IL-15 alone. IL-15 SA is considered an attractive antitumor and antiviral agent because of its ability to selectively expand NK and memory CD8+ T (mCD8+ T) lymphocytes. However, the adverse consequences of IL-15 SA treatment have not been defined. In this study, the effect of IL-15 SA on physiologic and immunologic functions of mice was evaluated. IL-15 SA caused dose- and time-dependent hypothermia, weight loss, liver injury, and mortality. NK (especially the proinflammatory NK subset), NKT, and mCD8+ T cells were preferentially expanded in spleen and liver upon IL-15 SA treatment. IL-15 SA caused NK cell activation as indicated by increased CD69 expression and IFN-γ, perforin, and granzyme B production, whereas NKT and mCD8+ T cells showed minimal, if any, activation. Cell depletion and adoptive transfer studies showed that the systemic toxicity of IL-15 SA was mediated by hyperproliferation of activated NK cells. Production of the proinflammatory cytokine IFN-γ, but not TNF-α or perforin, was essential to IL-15 SA–induced immunotoxicity. The toxicity and immunological alterations shown in this study are comparable to those reported in recent clinical trials of IL-15 in patients with refractory cancers and advance current knowledge by providing mechanistic insights into IL-15 SA–mediated immunotoxicity. PMID:26216888

  19. IL-15 concentrations in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean and obese humans: local effects of IL-15 on adipose tissue lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Joseph R.; Maples, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Animal/cell investigations indicate that there is a decreased adipose tissue mass resulting from skeletal muscle (SkM) IL-15 secretion (e.g., SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis). IL-15 could regulate fat mass accumulation in obesity via lipolysis, although this has not been investigated in humans. Therefore, the purpose was to examine whether SkM and/or subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) IL-15 concentrations were correlated with SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese humans and determine whether IL-15 perfusion could induce lipolysis in human SCAT. Local SkM and abdominal SCAT IL-15 (microdialysis) and circulating IL-15 (blood) were sampled in lean (BMI: 23.1 ± 1.9 kg/m2; n = 10) and obese (BMI: 34.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2; n = 10) subjects at rest/during 1-h cycling exercise. Lipolysis (SCAT interstitial glycerol concentration) was compared against local/systemic IL-15. An additional probe in SCAT was perfused with IL-15 to assess direct lipolytic responses. SkM IL-15 was not different between lean and obese subjects (P = 0.45), whereas SCAT IL-15 was higher in obese vs. lean subjects (P = 0.02) and was correlated with SCAT lipolysis (r = 0.45, P = 0.05). Exercise increased SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese (P < 0.01), but exercise-induced SCAT lipolysis changes were not correlated with exercise-induced SCAT IL-15 changes. Microdialysis perfusion resulting in physiological IL-15 concentrations in the adipose tissue interstitium increased lipolysis in lean (P = 0.04) but suppressed lipolysis in obese (P < 0.01). Although we found no support for a human IL-15 SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis, IL-15 may be produced in/act on the abdominal SCAT depot. The extent to which this autocrine/paracrine IL-15 action regulates human body composition remains unknown. PMID:25921578

  20. Interleukin-15 affects serotonin system and exerts antidepressive effects through IL15Rα receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaojun; Hsuchou, Hung; Kastin, Abba J.; He, Yi; Khan, Reas S.; Stone, Kirsten P.; Cash, Michael S.; Pan, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    Summary Contrary to the reduction of depressive-like behavior observed in several strains of cytokine receptor knockout mice, mice lacking the specific receptor for interleukin (IL)-15 showed increased immobility in tail suspension and modified forced swimming tests. There was also a reduction in social interactions. The hippocampus of the IL15Rα knockout mice had decreased mRNA for 5-HT1A, increased mRNA for 5-HT2C, and region-specific changes of serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) immunoreactivity. Fluoxetine (the classic antidepressant Prozac, which inhibits 5-HT2C and SERT) reduced the immobility of the IL15Rα knockout mice in comparison with their pretreatment baseline. Together with the unchanged performance of the IL15Rα knockout mice on the rotarod, this response to fluoxetine indicates that the immobility reflects depression. Wildtype mice responded to IL15 treatment with improvement of immobility induced by forced swimming, whereas the knockout mice failed to respond. Thus, the cognate IL15 receptor is necessary for the antidepressive activity of IL15. In ex-vivo studies, IL15 decreased synaptosomal uptake of 5-HT, and modulated the expression of 5-HT2C and SERT in cultured neurons in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Thus, the effect of IL15 on serotonin transmission may underlie the depressive-like behavior of IL15Rα knockout mice. We speculate that IL15 is essential to maintain neurochemical homeostasis and thereby plays a role in preventing neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:20724079

  1. IL-15 promotes the survival of naive and memory phenotype CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Berard, Marion; Brandt, Katja; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia; Tough, David F

    2003-05-15

    IL-15 stimulates the proliferation of memory phenotype CD44(high)CD8(+) T cells and is thought to play a key role in regulating the turnover of these cells in vivo. We have investigated whether IL-15 also has the capacity to affect the life span of naive phenotype (CD44(low)) CD8(+) T cells. We report that IL-15 promotes the survival of both CD44(low) and CD44(high) CD8(+) T cells, doing so at much lower concentrations than required to induce proliferation of CD44(high) cells. Rescue from apoptosis was associated with the up-regulation of Bcl-2 in both cell types, whereas elevated expression of Bcl-x(L) was observed among CD44(high) but not CD44(low) CD8(+) cells. An investigation into the role of IL-15R subunits in mediating the effects of IL-15 revealed distinct contributions of the alpha- and beta- and gamma-chains. Most strikingly, IL-15R alpha was not essential for either induction of proliferation or promotion of survival by IL-15, but did greatly enhance the sensitivity of cells to low concentrations of IL-15. By contrast, the beta- and gamma-chains of the IL-15R were absolutely required for the proliferative and pro-survival effects of IL-15, although it was not necessary for CD44(high)CD8(+) cells to express higher levels of IL-15R beta than CD44(low) cells to proliferate in response to IL-15. These results show that IL-15 has multiple effects on CD8 T cells and possesses the potential to regulate the life span of naive as well as memory CD8(+) T cells. PMID:12734346

  2. IL-15 superagonist/IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion complex (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) markedly enhances specific subpopulations of NK and memory CD8+ T cells, and mediates potent anti-tumor activity against murine breast and colon carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter S.; Kwilas, Anna R.; Xu, Wenxin; Alter, Sarah; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing C.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15-N72D superagonist-complexed with IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion protein (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) has been reported to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity in murine myeloma, rat bladder cancer, and murine glioblastoma models. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc in tumor-free and highly metastatic tumor-bearing mice. Here, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly expanded natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. In examining NK cell subsets, the greatest significant increase was in highly cytotoxic and migrating (CD11b+, CD27hi; high effector) NK cells, leading to enhanced function on a per-cell basis. CD8+ T cell subset analysis determined that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly increased IL-15 responding memory (CD122+, CD44+) CD8+ T cells, in particular those having the innate (NKG2D+, PD1−) phenotype. In 4T1 breast tumor–bearing mice, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc induced significant anti-tumor activity against spontaneous pulmonary metastases, depending on CD8+ T and NK cells, and resulting in prolonged survival. Similar anti-tumor activity was seen in the experimental pulmonary metastasis model of CT26 colon carcinoma cells, particularly when IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc was combined with a cocktail of checkpoint inhibitors, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-L1. Altogether, these studies showed for the first time that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc (1) promoted the development of high effector NK cells and CD8+ T cell responders of the innate phenotype, (2) enhanced function of NK cells, and (3) played a vital role in reducing tumor metastasis and ultimately survival, especially in combination with checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26910920

  3. Differential regulation of human T lymphoblast functions by IL-2 and IL-15.

    PubMed

    Bulfone-Paus, S; Dürkop, H; Paus, R; Krause, H; Pohl, T; Onu, A

    1997-07-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) shares many functional properties with interleukin 2 (IL-2), although both cytokines probably also exert distinct functions. In order to screen for functional differences between IL-2 and IL-15 with respect to the control of T cell functions, we have stimulated human T lymphoblasts (hTBl) with IL-2 and/or IL-15 and have assessed the resulting changes in the following parameters: T cell proliferation; expression of various relevant surface markers; cytokine and receptor (alpha-chain) transcription; and IL-2 and IL-15 activity. Both cytokines equally upregulate standard activation markers such as CD25 and CD95 and downregulate CD27. However, IL-2 upregulates CD30, TNF receptor type II and CD40L expression significantly stronger than IL-15. IL-15 potentiates Con A-induced IL-2 secretion. Even though hTBl transcribe the IL-15 gene, they do not secrete IL-15 activity. These observations suggest that both cytokines can differentially regulate T cells, e.g. T cell functions relevant to the control of cell cycle progression and apoptosis, and/or that they can stimulate different T cell subsets. Moreover, IL-15 may potentiate IL-2-driven T cell responses.

  4. Molecular Programming of Tumor-Infiltrating CD8+ T Cells and IL15 Resistance.

    PubMed

    Doedens, Andrew L; Rubinstein, Mark P; Gross, Emilie T; Best, J Adam; Craig, David H; Baker, Megan K; Cole, David J; Bui, Jack D; Goldrath, Ananda W

    2016-09-01

    Despite clinical potential and recent advances, durable immunotherapeutic ablation of solid tumors is not routinely achieved. IL15 expands natural killer cell (NK), natural killer T cell (NKT) and CD8(+) T-cell numbers and engages the cytotoxic program, and thus is under evaluation for potentiation of cancer immunotherapy. We found that short-term therapy with IL15 bound to soluble IL15 receptor α-Fc (IL15cx; a form of IL15 with increased half-life and activity) was ineffective in the treatment of autochthonous PyMT murine mammary tumors, despite abundant CD8(+) T-cell infiltration. Probing of this poor responsiveness revealed that IL15cx only weakly activated intratumoral CD8(+) T cells, even though cells in the lung and spleen were activated and dramatically expanded. Tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells exhibited cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic resistance to IL15. Our data showed that in the case of persistent viral or tumor antigen, single-agent systemic IL15cx treatment primarily expanded antigen-irrelevant or extratumoral CD8(+) T cells. We identified exhaustion, tissue-resident memory, and tumor-specific molecules expressed in tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells, which may allow therapeutic targeting or programming of specific subsets to evade loss of function and cytokine resistance, and, in turn, increase the efficacy of IL2/15 adjuvant cytokine therapy. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(9); 799-811. ©2016 AACR.

  5. IL-15 deficient tax mice reveal a role for IL-1α in tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Daniel A; Harding, John C; Ratner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    IL-15 is recognized as a promising candidate for tumor immunotherapy and has been described as both a promoter of cancer and a promoter of anti-cancer immunity. IL-15 was discovered in cells transformed by HTLV-1, the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and the human retrovirus that carries the Tax oncogene. We have developed the TAX-LUC mouse model of ATL in which Tax expression drives both malignant transformation and luciferase expression, enabling non-invasive imaging of tumorigenesis in real time. To identify the role of IL-15 in spontaneous development of lymphoma in vivo, an IL-15(-/-) TAX-LUC strain was developed and examined. The absence of IL-15 resulted in aggressive tumor growth and accelerated mortality and demonstrated that IL-15 was not required for Tax-mediated lymphoma but was essential for anti-tumor immunity. Further analysis revealed a unique transcriptional profile in tumor cells that arise in the absence of IL-15 that included a significant increase in the expression of IL-1α and IL-1α-regulated cytokines. Moreover, anti-IL-1α antibodies and an IL-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra) were used to interrogate the potential of IL-1α targeted therapies in this model. Taken together, these findings identify IL-15 and IL-1α as therapeutic targets in lymphoma.

  6. Dendritic cells drive memory CD8 T-cell homeostasis via IL-15 transpresentation

    PubMed Central

    Stonier, Spencer W.; Ma, Lisa J.; Castillo, Eliseo F.

    2008-01-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is crucial for the development of naive and memory CD8 T cells and is delivered through a mechanism called transpresentation. Previous studies showed that memory CD8 T cells require IL-15 transpresentation by an as yet unknown cell of hematopoietic origin. We hypothesized that dendritic cells (DCs) transpresent IL-15 to CD8 T cells, and we examined this by developing a transgenic model that limits IL-15 transpresentation to DCs. In this study, IL-15 transpresentation by DCs had little effect on restoring naive CD8 T cells but contributed to the development of memory-phenotype CD8 T cells. The generation of virus-specific, memory CD8 T cells was partially supported by IL-15Rα+ DCs through the preferential enhancement of a subset of KLRG-1+CD27− CD8 T cells. In contrast, these DCs were largely sufficient in driving normal homeostatic proliferation of established memory CD8 T cells, suggesting that memory CD8 T cells grow more dependent on IL-15 transpresentation by DCs. Overall, our study clearly supports a role for DCs in memory CD8 T-cell homeostasis but also provides evidence that other hematopoietic cells are involved in this function. The identification of DCs fulfilling this role will enable future studies to better focus on mechanisms regulating T-cell homeostasis. PMID:18812469

  7. Comparison of the Superagonist Complex, ALT-803, to IL15 as Cancer Immunotherapeutics in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Peter R; Egan, Jack O; Xu, Wenxin; Hong, Hao; Webb, Gabriela M; Chen, Xiaoyue; Liu, Bai; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Wen, Jinghai; You, Lijing; Kong, Lin; Edwards, Ana C; Han, Kaiping; Shi, Sixiang; Alter, Sarah; Sacha, Jonah B; Jeng, Emily K; Cai, Weibo; Wong, Hing C

    2016-01-01

    IL15, a potent stimulant of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, is a promising cancer immunotherapeutic. ALT-803 is a complex of an IL15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL15 receptor αSu/Fc fusion protein that was found to exhibit enhanced biologic activity in vivo, with a substantially longer serum half-life than recombinant IL15. A single intravenous dose of ALT-803, but not IL15, eliminated well-established tumors and prolonged survival of mice bearing multiple myeloma. In this study, we extended these findings to demonstrate the superior antitumor activity of ALT-803 over IL15 in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors and CT26 colon carcinoma metastases. Tissue biodistribution studies in mice also showed much greater retention of ALT-803 in the lymphoid organs compared with IL15, consistent with its highly potent immunostimulatory and antitumor activities in vivo. Weekly dosing with 1 mg/kg ALT-803 in C57BL/6 mice was well tolerated, yet capable of increasing peripheral blood lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts by >8-fold. ALT-803 dose-dependent stimulation of immune cell infiltration into the lymphoid organs was also observed. Similarly, cynomolgus monkeys treated weekly with ALT-803 showed dose-dependent increases of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, including NK, CD4(+), and CD8(+) memory T-cell subsets. In vitro studies demonstrated ALT-803-mediated stimulation of mouse and human immune cell proliferation and IFNγ production without inducing a broad-based release of other proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., cytokine storm). Based on these results, a weekly dosing regimen of ALT-803 has been implemented in multiple clinical studies to evaluate the dose required for effective immune cell stimulation in humans. PMID:26511282

  8. Comparison of the Superagonist Complex, ALT-803, to IL15 as Cancer Immunotherapeutics in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Peter R; Egan, Jack O; Xu, Wenxin; Hong, Hao; Webb, Gabriela M; Chen, Xiaoyue; Liu, Bai; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Wen, Jinghai; You, Lijing; Kong, Lin; Edwards, Ana C; Han, Kaiping; Shi, Sixiang; Alter, Sarah; Sacha, Jonah B; Jeng, Emily K; Cai, Weibo; Wong, Hing C

    2016-01-01

    IL15, a potent stimulant of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, is a promising cancer immunotherapeutic. ALT-803 is a complex of an IL15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL15 receptor αSu/Fc fusion protein that was found to exhibit enhanced biologic activity in vivo, with a substantially longer serum half-life than recombinant IL15. A single intravenous dose of ALT-803, but not IL15, eliminated well-established tumors and prolonged survival of mice bearing multiple myeloma. In this study, we extended these findings to demonstrate the superior antitumor activity of ALT-803 over IL15 in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors and CT26 colon carcinoma metastases. Tissue biodistribution studies in mice also showed much greater retention of ALT-803 in the lymphoid organs compared with IL15, consistent with its highly potent immunostimulatory and antitumor activities in vivo. Weekly dosing with 1 mg/kg ALT-803 in C57BL/6 mice was well tolerated, yet capable of increasing peripheral blood lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts by >8-fold. ALT-803 dose-dependent stimulation of immune cell infiltration into the lymphoid organs was also observed. Similarly, cynomolgus monkeys treated weekly with ALT-803 showed dose-dependent increases of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, including NK, CD4(+), and CD8(+) memory T-cell subsets. In vitro studies demonstrated ALT-803-mediated stimulation of mouse and human immune cell proliferation and IFNγ production without inducing a broad-based release of other proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., cytokine storm). Based on these results, a weekly dosing regimen of ALT-803 has been implemented in multiple clinical studies to evaluate the dose required for effective immune cell stimulation in humans.

  9. IL-15 induces CD4+ effector memory T cell production and tissue emigration in nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Picker, Louis J.; Reed-Inderbitzin, Edward F.; Hagen, Shoko I.; Edgar, John B.; Hansen, Scott G.; Legasse, Alfred; Planer, Shannon; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Maino, Vernon C.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Villinger, Francois

    2006-01-01

    HIV infection selectively targets CD4+ effector memory T (TEM) cells, resulting in dramatic depletion of CD4+ T cells in mucosal effector sites in early infection. Regeneration of the TEM cell compartment is slow and incomplete, even when viral replication is controlled by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here, we demonstrate that IL-15 dramatically increases in vivo proliferation of rhesus macaque (RM) CD4+ and CD8+ TEM cells with little effect on the naive or central memory T (TCM) cell subsets, a response pattern that is quite distinct from that of either IL-2 or IL-7. TEM cells produced in response to IL-15 did not accumulate in blood. Rather, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling studies suggest that many of these cells rapidly disperse to extralymphoid effector sites, where they manifest (slow) decay kinetics indistinguishable from that of untreated controls. In RMs with uncontrolled SIV infection and highly activated immune systems, IL-15 did not significantly increase CD4+ TEM cell proliferation, but with virologic control and concomitant reduction in immune activation by ART, IL-15 responsiveness was again observed. These data suggest that therapeutic use of IL-15 in the setting of ART might facilitate specific restoration of the CD4+ T cell compartment that is the primary target of HIV with less risk of exhausting precursor T cell compartments or generating potentially deleterious regulatory subsets. PMID:16691294

  10. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhances IL-15-induced natural killer cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jiwon; Lee, Suk Hyung; Shin, Nara; Jeong, Mira; Kim, Mi Sun; Kim, Mi Jeong; Yoon, Suk Ran; Chung, Jin Woong; Kim, Tae-Don; Choi, Inpyo

    2009-09-04

    The differentiation of natural killer (NK) cells is regulated by various factors including soluble growth factors and transcription factors. Here, we have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) is a positive regulator of NK cell differentiation. TNF-{alpha} augmented the IL-15-induced expression of NK1.1 and CD122 in mature NK cells, and TNF-{alpha} alone also induced NK cell maturation as well as IL-15. TNF-{alpha} also increased IFN-{gamma} production in NK cells in the presence of IL-15. Meanwhile, mRNA expression of several transcription factors, including T-bet and GATA-3, was increased by the addition of TNF-{alpha} and IL-15. In addition, TNF-{alpha} increased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity in NK cells and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B impeded TNF-{alpha}-enhanced NK cell maturation. Overall, these data suggest that TNF-{alpha} significantly increased IL-15-driven NK cell differentiation by increasing the expression of transcription factors that play crucial roles in NK cell maturation and inducing the NF-{kappa}B activity.

  11. The unconventional expression of IL-15 and its role in NK cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Nicholas D

    2014-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are the founding members of the innate lymphoid cell family and contribute to the rapid production of inflammatory mediators upon pathogen detection. The evolution of receptors for self major histocompatibility complex-I and stress-induced ligands also bestows upon NK cells an important effector role in the clearance of virus-infected and transformed cells. NK cells are dependent on the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin (IL)-15 for their development, differentiation and optimal function. Here I review the regulation of IL-15 in vivo, its role in driving NK cell differentiation and discuss the function of NK cell diversification with regard to innate immunity.

  12. IL-15 Mediates Mitochondrial Activity through a PPARδ-Dependent-PPARα-Independent Mechanism in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mediators of metabolic processes, to increase energy expenditure, have become a focus for therapies of obesity. The discovery of cytokines secreted from the skeletal muscle (SKM), termed “myokines,” has garnered attention due to their positive effects on metabolic processes. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a myokine that has numerous positive metabolic effects and is linked to the PPAR family of mitochondrial regulators. Here, we aimed to determine the importance of PPARα and/or PPARδ as targets of IL-15 signaling. C2C12 SKM cells were differentiated for 6 days and treated every other day with IL-15 (100 ng/mL), a PPARα inhibitor (GW-6471), a PPARδ inhibitor (GSK-3787), or both IL-15 and the inhibitors. IL-15 increased mitochondrial activity and induced PPARα, PPARδ, PGC1α, PGC1β, UCP2, and Nrf1 expression. There was no effect of inhibiting PPARα, in combination with IL-15, on the aforementioned mRNA levels except for PGC1β and Nrf1. However, with PPARδ inhibition, IL-15 failed to induce the expression levels of PGC1α, PGC1β, UCP2, and Nrf1. Further, inhibition of PPARδ abolished IL-15 induced increases in citrate synthase activity, ATP production, and overall mitochondrial activity. IL-15 had no effects on mitochondrial biogenesis. Our data indicates that PPARδ activity is required for the beneficial metabolic effects of IL-15 signaling in SKM. PMID:27738421

  13. IL-15 promotes activation and expansion of CD8+ T cells in HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Souheil-Antoine; Freeman, Michael L.; Mudd, Joseph C.; Shive, Carey L.; Reynaldi, Arnold; Estes, Jacob D.; Deleage, Claire; Lucero, Carissa; Anderson, Jodi; Schacker, Timothy W.; Davenport, Miles P.; McCune, Joseph M.; Hunt, Peter W.; Lee, Sulggi A.; Debernardo, Robert L.; Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Canaday, David H.; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Sieg, Scott F.; Lederman, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    In HIV-1–infected patients, increased numbers of circulating CD8+ T cells are linked to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Here, we identified a bystander mechanism that promotes CD8 T cell activation and expansion in untreated HIV-1–infected patients. Compared with healthy controls, untreated HIV-1–infected patients have an increased population of proliferating, granzyme B+, CD8+ T cells in circulation. Vβ expression and deep sequencing of CDR3 revealed that in untreated HIV-1 infection, cycling memory CD8 T cells possess a broad T cell repertoire that reflects the repertoire of the resting population. This suggests that cycling is driven by bystander activation, rather than specific antigen exposure. Treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with IL-15 induced a cycling, granzyme B+ phenotype in CD8+ T cells. Moreover, elevated IL-15 expression in the lymph nodes of untreated HIV-1–infected patients correlated with circulating CD8+ T cell counts and was normalized in these patients following antiretroviral therapy. Together, these results suggest that IL-15 drives bystander activation of CD8+ T cells, which predicts disease progression in untreated HIV-1–infected patients and suggests that elevated IL-15 may also drive CD8+ T cell expansion that is linked to increased morbidity and mortality in treated patients. PMID:27322062

  14. IL-15-dependent balance between Foxp3 and RORγt expression impacts inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Tosiek, Milena J.; Fiette, Laurence; El Daker, Sary; Eberl, Gérard; Freitas, Antonio A.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of CD4+ T cells to change their phenotype and to specialize into different functional subsets may enhance the risk of autoimmune diseases. Here we investigate how a pleiotropic cytokine interleukin (IL)-15 may modify the functional commitment of CD4+ T cells expressing the lineage-associated transcription factors: forkhead box P3 (Foxp3; Treg) and RORγt (Th17) in the context of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We demonstrate in mice that impaired delivery of IL-15 to CD4+ T cells in the colon downmodulates Foxp3 expression (diminishing STAT5 phosphorylation) and enhances RORγt expression (by upregulating the expression of Runx1). In consequence, CD4+ T cells deprived of IL-15 rapidly trigger IBD characterized by enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, IL-6) and accumulation of Th1/Th17 cells. Overall, our findings indicate a potentially beneficial role of IL-15 in IBD by fine-tuning the balance between Treg and Th17 cells and controlling intestinal inflammation. PMID:26964669

  15. Trans-presentation of IL-15 by intestinal epithelial cells drives development of CD8alphaalpha IELs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lisa J; Acero, Luis F; Zal, Tomasz; Schluns, Kimberly S

    2009-07-15

    IL-15 is crucial for the development of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) and delivery is mediated by a unique mechanism known as trans-presentation. Parenchymal cells have a major role in the trans-presentation of IL-15 to IELs, but the specific identity of this cell type is unknown. To investigate whether the intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are the parenchymal cell type involved, a mouse model that expresses IL-15Ralpha exclusively by the IECs (Villin/IL-15Ralpha Tg) was generated. Exclusive expression of IL-15Ralpha by the IECs restored all the deficiencies in the CD8alphaalpha(+)TCRalphabeta(+)and CD8alphaalpha(+)TCRgammadelta(+) subsets that exist in the absence of IL-15Ralpha. Interestingly, most of the IEL recovery was due to the preferential increase in Thy1(low) IELs, which compose a majority of the IEL population. The differentiation of Thy1(high)CD4(-)CD8(-) thymocytes into Thy1(-)CD8alphaalpha IELs was found to require IL-15Ralpha expression specifically by IECs and thus, provides evidence that differentiation of Thy1(low) IELs is one function of trans-presentation of IL-15 in the intestines. In addition to effects in IEL differentiation, trans-presentation of IL-15 by IECs also resulted in an increase in IEL numbers that was accompanied by increases in Bcl-2, but not proliferation. Collectively, this study demonstrates that trans-presentation of IL-15 by IECs alone is completely sufficient to direct the IL-15-mediated development of CD8alphaalpha(+) T cell populations within the IEL compartment, which now includes a newly identified role of IL-15 in the differentiation of Thy1(low) IELs.

  16. Trans-presentation of IL-15 by intestinal epithelial cells drives development of CD8αα IELs1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lisa J.; Acero, Luis F.; Zal, Tomasz; Schluns, Kimberly S.

    2009-01-01

    IL-15 is crucial for the development of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) and delivery is mediated by a unique mechanism known as trans-presentation. Parenchymal cells have a major role in the trans-presentation of IL-15 to IELs, but the specific identity of this cell type is unknown. To investigate whether the intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are the parenchymal cell type involved, a mouse model that expresses IL-15Rα exclusively by the IECs (Villin/IL-15Rα Tg) was generated. Exclusive expression of IL-15Rα by the IECs restored all the deficiencies in the CD8αα+TCRαβ+and CD8αα+TCRγδ+ subsets that exist in the absence of IL-15Rα. Interestingly, most of the IEL recovery was due to the preferential increase in Thy1lo IELs, which compose a majority of the IEL population. The differentiation of Thy1hiCD4−CD8− thymocytes into Thy1−CD8αα IELs was found to require IL-15Rα expression specifically by IECs and thus, provides evidence that differentiation of Thy1lo IELs is one function of trans-presentation of IL-15 in the intestines. In addition to effects in IEL differentiation, trans-presentation of IL-15 by IECs also resulted in an increase in IEL numbers that was accompanied by increases in Bcl-2, but not proliferation. Collectively, this study demonstrates that trans-presentation of IL-15 by IECs alone is completely sufficient to direct the IL-15-mediated development of CD8αα+ T cell populations within the IEL compartment, which now includes a newly identified role of IL-15 in the differentiation of Thy1lo IELs. PMID:19553528

  17. Effect of IL-7 and IL-15 on T cell phenotype in myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wen; Ding, Tingting; Wu, Lei; Ren, Xiubao; Epling-Burnette, P.K.; Yang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant T cell phenotype is one of the characteristics of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In this study, we detected an increased concentration of IL-15 in the plasma of MDS patients (n = 20) compared with that in the plasma of healthy controls (n = 20). In MDS patients, reduced naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells [16.11 ± 6.56 vs. 24.11 ± 7.18 for CD4+ T cells (p < 0.001) and 13.15 ± 5.67 vs. 23.51 ± 6.25 for CD8+ T cells (p < 0.001)] were observed. The reduced naïve and increased effector memory T cells were significantly correlated with IL-15 plasma level. Then, the effect of IL-15 and IL-7 was tested in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from MDS were treated for 15 days with IL-15. This treatment significantly decreased naïve CD4+ (p < 0.001) and CD8+ (p < 0.001) T cells and correspondingly increased terminal memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (p < 0.001). Treatment with IL-7 increased naïve CD4+ (p < 0.05) and CD8+ (p < 0.001) T cells. Our results indicated that exposure to high levels of IL-15 may be involved in the T cell phenotype conversion observed in MDS. IL-7 may be one of the promising therapeutic candidates for recovering the effector immune compartment in MDS patients. PMID:27036031

  18. Effect of IL-7 and IL-15 on T cell phenotype in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen; Ding, Tingting; Wu, Lei; Ren, Xiubao; Epling-Burnette, P K; Yang, Lili

    2016-05-10

    Aberrant T cell phenotype is one of the characteristics of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In this study, we detected an increased concentration of IL-15 in the plasma of MDS patients (n = 20) compared with that in the plasma of healthy controls (n = 20). In MDS patients, reduced naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells [16.11 ± 6.56 vs. 24.11 ± 7.18 for CD4+ T cells (p < 0.001) and 13.15 ± 5.67 vs. 23.51 ± 6.25 for CD8+ T cells (p < 0.001)] were observed. The reduced naïve and increased effector memory T cells were significantly correlated with IL-15 plasma level. Then, the effect of IL-15 and IL-7 was tested in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from MDS were treated for 15 days with IL-15. This treatment significantly decreased naïve CD4+ (p < 0.001) and CD8+ (p < 0.001) T cells and correspondingly increased terminal memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (p < 0.001). Treatment with IL-7 increased naïve CD4+ (p < 0.05) and CD8+ (p < 0.001) T cells. Our results indicated that exposure to high levels of IL-15 may be involved in the T cell phenotype conversion observed in MDS. IL-7 may be one of the promising therapeutic candidates for recovering the effector immune compartment in MDS patients.

  19. The natural killer cell dysfunction of aged mice is due to the bone marrow stroma and is not restored by IL-15/IL-15Rα treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Savita; Fang, Min; Sigal, Luis J

    2015-01-01

    Immune dysfunctions in the elderly result in increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Natural killer (NK) cells are bone marrow-derived lymphocytes crucial for host defense against several infections and cancer. We have previously shown that compared to young, aged C57BL/6 mice have decreased numbers of mature NK cells in the blood, spleen, and bone marrow, resulting in susceptibility to mousepox, a lethal disease caused by ectromelia virus. Here, we describe further age-related defects in NK cells including reduced proliferation in vivo, additional signs of immaturity, and dysregulated expression of activating and inhibitory receptors. Aging also alters the expression of collagen-binding integrins in conventional NK cells and the frequency and phenotype of liver tissue-resident NK cells. We additionally show that the defect in NK maturation is the consequence of deficient maturational cues provided by bone marrow stromal cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that in aged mice, treatment with complexes of the cytokine IL-15 and IL-15Rα induce massive expansion of the NK cells, but most of these NK cells remain immature and are unable to restore resistance to mousepox. The use of rodent model to understand immunosenescence may help the development of treatments to improve the immune fitness of the aged. Our work with NK cells should contribute toward this goal. PMID:25399821

  20. The natural killer cell dysfunction of aged mice is due to the bone marrow stroma and is not restored by IL-15/IL-15Rα treatment.

    PubMed

    Nair, Savita; Fang, Min; Sigal, Luis J

    2015-04-01

    Immune dysfunctions in the elderly result in increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Natural killer (NK) cells are bone marrow-derived lymphocytes crucial for host defense against several infections and cancer. We have previously shown that compared to young, aged C57BL/6 mice have decreased numbers of mature NK cells in the blood, spleen, and bone marrow, resulting in susceptibility to mousepox, a lethal disease caused by ectromelia virus. Here, we describe further age-related defects in NK cells including reduced proliferation in vivo, additional signs of immaturity, and dysregulated expression of activating and inhibitory receptors. Aging also alters the expression of collagen-binding integrins in conventional NK cells and the frequency and phenotype of liver tissue-resident NK cells. We additionally show that the defect in NK maturation is the consequence of deficient maturational cues provided by bone marrow stromal cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that in aged mice, treatment with complexes of the cytokine IL-15 and IL-15Rα induce massive expansion of the NK cells, but most of these NK cells remain immature and are unable to restore resistance to mousepox. The use of rodent model to understand immunosenescence may help the development of treatments to improve the immune fitness of the aged. Our work with NK cells should contribute toward this goal.

  1. B Cell-Derived IL-15 Enhances CD8 T Cell Cytotoxicity and Is Increased in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Raphael; Mohebiany, Alma Nazlie; Ifergan, Igal; Beauseigle, Diane; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Arbour, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that CD8 T cells contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the sources and involvement of cytokines such as IL-15 in activating these cells is still unresolved. To investigate the role of IL-15 in enhancing the activation of CD8 T cells in the context of MS, we determined cell types expressing the bioactive surface IL-15 in the peripheral blood of patients and evaluated the impact of this cytokine on CD8 T cell cytotoxicity and migration. Flow cytometric analysis showed a significantly greater proportion of B cells and monocytes from MS patients expressing IL-15 relative to controls. We established that CD40L activation of B cells from healthy donors increased their IL-15 levels, reaching those of MS patients. We also demonstrated an enhanced cytotoxic profile in CD8 T cells from MS patients upon stimulation with IL-15. Furthermore, we showed that IL-15 expressed by B cells and monocytes is sufficient and functional, enhancing granzyme B production by CD8 T cells upon coculture. Exposure of CD8 T cells to this cytokine enhanced their ability to kill glial cells as well as to migrate across an in vitro inflamed human blood–brain barrier. The elevated levels of IL-15 in patients relative to controls, the greater susceptibility of CD8 T cells from patients to IL-15, in addition to the enhanced cytotoxic responses by IL-15–exposed CD8 T cells, stresses the potential of therapeutic strategies to reduce peripheral sources of IL-15 in MS. PMID:21911607

  2. Thymic and peripheral microenvironments differentially mediate development and maturation of iNKT cells by IL-15 transpresentation.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Eliseo F; Acero, Luis F; Stonier, Spencer W; Zhou, Dapeng; Schluns, Kimberly S

    2010-10-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are an innate type of T cells, which respond rapidly on activation. iNKT cells acquire these innate-like abilities during development; however, the signals driving development and functional maturation remain only partially understood. Because interleukin-15 (IL-15) is crucial for iNKT development and is delivered by transpresentation, we set out to identify the cell types providing IL-15 to developing iNKT cells and determine their role at the various states of development and maturation. We report here that transpresentation of IL-15 by parenchymal cells was crucial for generating normal number of iNKTs in the thymus, whereas both hematopoietic and parenchymal cells regulated iNKT cell numbers in the periphery, particularly in the liver. Specifically, dendritic cells contributed to peripheral iNKT cell numbers by up-regulating Bcl-2 expression and promoting extrathymic iNKT cell ex-pansion and their homeostatic proliferation. Whether IL-15 affects functional maturation of iNKT cells was also examined. In IL-15Rα(-/-) mice, CD44(High)NK1.1(+) iNKT cells displayed decreased T-bet expression and in response to α-galactosylceramide, had deficient interferon-γ expression. Such defects could be reversed by exogenous IL-15 signals. Overall, these studies identify stage-specific functions of IL-15, which are determined by the tissue microenvironment and elucidate the importance of IL-15 in functional maturation.

  3. Thymic and peripheral microenvironments differentially mediate development and maturation of iNKT cells by IL-15 transpresentation

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Eliseo F.; Acero, Luis F.; Stonier, Spencer W.; Zhou, Dapeng

    2010-01-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are an innate type of T cells, which respond rapidly on activation. iNKT cells acquire these innate-like abilities during development; however, the signals driving development and functional maturation remain only partially understood. Because interleukin-15 (IL-15) is crucial for iNKT development and is delivered by transpresentation, we set out to identify the cell types providing IL-15 to developing iNKT cells and determine their role at the various states of development and maturation. We report here that transpresentation of IL-15 by parenchymal cells was crucial for generating normal number of iNKTs in the thymus, whereas both hematopoietic and parenchymal cells regulated iNKT cell numbers in the periphery, particularly in the liver. Specifically, dendritic cells contributed to peripheral iNKT cell numbers by up-regulating Bcl-2 expression and promoting extrathymic iNKT cell ex-pansion and their homeostatic proliferation. Whether IL-15 affects functional maturation of iNKT cells was also examined. In IL-15Rα−/− mice, CD44HighNK1.1+ iNKT cells displayed decreased T-bet expression and in response to α-galactosylceramide, had deficient interferon-γ expression. Such defects could be reversed by exogenous IL-15 signals. Overall, these studies identify stage-specific functions of IL-15, which are determined by the tissue microenvironment and elucidate the importance of IL-15 in functional maturation. PMID:20581314

  4. IL-15 protects NKT cells from inhibition by tumor-associated macrophages and enhances antimetastatic activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Daofeng; Song, Liping; Wei, Jie; Courtney, Amy N; Gao, Xiuhua; Marinova, Ekaterina; Guo, Linjie; Heczey, Andras; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Kim, Eugene; Dotti, Gianpietro; Metelitsa, Leonid S

    2012-06-01

    Vα24-invariant NKT cells inhibit tumor growth by targeting tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Tumor progression therefore requires that TAMs evade NKT cell activity through yet-unknown mechanisms. Here we report that a subset of cells in neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines and primary tumors expresses membrane-bound TNF-α (mbTNF-α). These proinflammatory tumor cells induced production of the chemokine CCL20 from TAMs via activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, an effect that was amplified in hypoxia. Flow cytometry analyses of human primary NB tumors revealed selective accumulation of CCL20 in TAMs. Neutralization of the chemokine inhibited in vitro migration of NKT cells toward tumor-conditioned hypoxic monocytes and localization of NKT cells to NB grafts in mice. We also found that hypoxia impaired NKT cell viability and function. Thus, CCL20-producing TAMs served as a hypoxic trap for tumor-infiltrating NKT cells. IL-15 protected antigen-activated NKT cells from hypoxia, and transgenic expression of IL-15 in adoptively transferred NKT cells dramatically enhanced their antimetastatic activity in mice. Thus, tumor-induced chemokine production in hypoxic TAMs and consequent chemoattraction and inhibition of NKT cells represents a mechanism of immune escape that can be reversed by adoptive immunotherapy with IL-15-transduced NKT cells.

  5. Inflammatory IL-15 is required for optimal memory T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Richer, Martin J.; Pewe, Lecia L.; Hancox, Lisa S.; Hartwig, Stacey M.; Varga, Steven M.; Harty, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their ability to rapidly proliferate and produce effector cytokines, memory CD8+ T cells increase protection following reexposure to a pathogen. However, low inflammatory immunizations do not provide memory CD8+ T cells with a proliferation advantage over naive CD8+ T cells, suggesting that cell-extrinsic factors enhance memory CD8+ T cell proliferation in vivo. Herein, we demonstrate that inflammatory signals are critical for the rapid proliferation of memory CD8+ T cells following infection. Using murine models of viral infection and antigen exposure, we found that type I IFN–driven expression of IL-15 in response to viral infection prepares memory CD8+ T cells for rapid division independently of antigen reexposure by transiently inducing cell-cycle progression via a pathway dependent on mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1). Moreover, exposure to IL-15 allowed more rapid division of memory CD8+ T cells following antigen encounter and enhanced their protective capacity against viral infection. Together, these data reveal that inflammatory IL-15 promotes optimal responses by memory CD8+ T cells. PMID:26241055

  6. Bim controls IL-15 availability and limits engagement of multiple BH3-only proteins.

    PubMed

    Kurtulus, S; Sholl, A; Toe, J; Tripathi, P; Raynor, J; Li, K-P; Pellegrini, M; Hildeman, D A

    2015-01-01

    During the effector CD8+ T-cell response, transcriptional differentiation programs are engaged that promote effector T cells with varying memory potential. Although these differentiation programs have been used to explain which cells die as effectors and which cells survive and become memory cells, it is unclear if the lack of cell death enhances memory. Here, we investigated effector CD8+ T-cell fate in mice whose death program has been largely disabled because of the loss of Bim. Interestingly, the absence of Bim resulted in a significant enhancement of effector CD8+ T cells with more memory potential. Bim-driven control of memory T-cell development required T-cell-specific, but not dendritic cell-specific, expression of Bim. Both total and T-cell-specific loss of Bim promoted skewing toward memory precursors, by enhancing the survival of memory precursors, and limiting the availability of IL-15. Decreased IL-15 availability in Bim-deficient mice facilitated the elimination of cells with less memory potential via the additional pro-apoptotic molecules Noxa and Puma. Combined, these data show that Bim controls memory development by limiting the survival of pre-memory effector cells. Further, by preventing the consumption of IL-15, Bim limits the role of Noxa and Puma in causing the death of effector cells with less memory potential.

  7. Permeation of blood-borne IL15 across the blood-brain barrier and the effect of LPS.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weihong; Hsuchou, Hung; Yu, Chuanhui; Kastin, Abba J

    2008-07-01

    Interleukin15 (IL 15) is a proinflammatory cytokine with elevated concentrations in autoimmune diseases involving the periphery (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis) and CNS (e.g. multiple sclerosis). Its interactions with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were studied in normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. (125)I-IL15 remained intact for at least 10 min after i.v. injection and reached CNS parenchyma with regional differences between brain and spinal cord. Both in vivo and in situ brain perfusion of (125)I-IL15 showed that its permeation of the BBB was non-saturable. LPS induced a significant increase of IL15 uptake by the brain and spinal cord, partly related to a higher general permeability of the BBB. The results suggest that the BBB is an interface for blood-borne IL15 to interact with the CNS in the basal state and during inflammation.

  8. Surgery, sterilization and sterility.

    PubMed

    Green, V W

    1993-03-01

    The history of sterilization was not linked from the first with surgery. Surgery came first, fully 600 years before the principles of asepsis and anesthesia were even introduced in the middle of the 1800s. Also in the 1800s, the beginnings of thermal sterilization were being developed in the food industry. The basic principles of antisepsis and prevention of wound suppuration, including the destruction of germs on instruments, dressings, the hands of the surgeon and his assistants, and everything else in contact with the wound were clearly elucidated by Lister in the 1870s and remain the inviolate principles of surgical asepsis today. In general, the marriage between the surgeons and the sterilizers was a successful one; the major handicap to eternal bliss and harmony, however, was an incompatibility between the partners. As in many marriages, the partners made unwarranted demands upon each other, and became frustrated when these demands were unfulfilled. The field of surgical sterilization and surgical safety is less confused by technical inconsistencies than it is by semantic nightmares, such that we will never reach a universal definition of sterility. However, we do not really need a universal definition of sterility. Rather we should learn how to translate sterility tests in terms of the real world infections hazards.

  9. Hyper-IL-15 suppresses metastatic and autochthonous liver cancer by promoting tumour-specific CD8+ T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liang; Du, Xuexiang; Wang, Zheng; Ju, Jianqi; Jia, Mingming; Huang, Qibin; Xing, Qiao; Xu, Meng; Tan, Yi; Liu, Mingyue; Du, Peishuang; Su, Lishan; Wang, Shengdian

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver cancer has a very dismal prognosis due to lack of effective therapy. Here, we studied the therapeutic effects of hyper-interleukin15 (hyper-IL-15), which is composed of IL-15 and the sushi domain of the IL-15 receptor α chain, on metastatic and autochthonous liver cancers. Methods Liver metastatic tumour models were established by intraportally injecting syngeneic mice with murine CT26 colon carcinoma cells or B16-OVA melanoma cells. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). A hydrodynamics-based gene delivery method was used to achieve sustained hyper-IL-15 expression in the liver. Results Liver gene delivery of hyper-IL-15 robustly expanded CD8+ T and NK cells, leading to a long-term (more than 40 days) accumulation of CD8+ T cells in vivo, especially in the liver. Hyper-IL-15 treatment exerted remarkable therapeutic effects on well-established liver metastatic tumours and even on DEN-induced autochthonous HCC, and these effects were abolished by depletion of CD8+ T cells but not NK cells. Hyper-IL-15 triggered IL-12 and interferon-γ production and reduced the expression of co-inhibitory molecules on dendritic cells in the liver. Adoptive transfer of T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic OT-1 cells showed that hyper-IL-15 preferentially expanded tumour-specific CD8+ T cells and promoted their interferon-γ synthesis and cytotoxicity. Conclusions Liver delivery of hyper-IL-15 provides an effective therapy against well-established metastatic and autochthonous liver cancers in mouse models by preferentially expanding tumour-specific CD8+ T cells and promoting their anti-tumour effects. PMID:25016226

  10. New Approach for Producing and Purifying IL-15 Heterodimers That Have Potent Immune Effect | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Cytokines are proteins that play a crucial role in the human immune system by delivering messages that trigger the activation of immune cells to fight off attacks from viruses or other invaders. Cristina Bergamaschi, Ph.D., NCI Center for Cancer Research, has been studying the mechanism of expression and function of a cytokine known as interleukin-15 (IL-15) for the last five years, in collaboration with Elena Chertova, Ph.D., and other researchers in the Retroviral Protein Chemistry Core (RPCC) of the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP), Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research.

  11. IL-15 that a regulator of TNF-α in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Jiménez, Roberto; Alvarado-Vásquez, Noé

    2013-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), obesity, and the metabolic syndrome are considered that a low-grade chronic inflammatory condition. Although synthesis of different pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines has been implicated in this process, this low-grade inflammatory condition is characterized especially by an increase in Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), a cytokine that has been associated to the development of insulin resistance and muscle wasting in the diabetic patients. In consequence, mechanisms implicated in attenuating the deleterious effects of TNF-α are activated. One of these mechanisms may involve interleukin 15 (IL-15), which has proven effect on intermediate metabolisms, regulating blood glucose and lipid levels, and diminishing proteolysis in striated muscle. This suggests that the induction of endogenous IL-15 production by a simple event as physical activity may aid in decreasing or even inhibiting the negative effects of TNF-α in patient with DM2 or obesity, in which a low grade chronic inflammatory condition is present.

  12. Virtual memory T cells develop and mediate bystander protective immunity in an IL-15-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    White, Jason T.; Cross, Eric W.; Burchill, Matthew A.; Danhorn, Thomas; McCarter, Martin D.; Rosen, Hugo R.; O'Connor, Brian; Kedl, Ross M.

    2016-01-01

    Virtual memory cells (VM) are an antigen-specific, memory phenotype CD8 T-cell subset found in lymphoreplete, unchallenged mice. Previous studies indicated that VM cells were the result of homeostatic proliferation (HP) resembling the proliferation observed in a lymphopenic environment. Here we demonstrate that HP is ongoing in lymphoreplete mice, the degree of which is dictated by the number of naive CD8 T cells with a sufficiently high affinity for self-antigen interacting with peripheral IL-15. VM cell transcriptional profiles suggest a capacity to mediate protective immunity via antigen non-specific bystander killing, a function we show is dependent on IL-15. Finally, we show a VM-like population of human cells that accumulate with age and traffic to the liver, displaying phenotypic and functional attributes consistent with the bystander protective functions of VM cells identified in the mouse. These data identify developmental and functional attributes of VM cells, including their likely role in protective immunity. PMID:27097762

  13. Virtual memory T cells develop and mediate bystander protective immunity in an IL-15-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    White, Jason T; Cross, Eric W; Burchill, Matthew A; Danhorn, Thomas; McCarter, Martin D; Rosen, Hugo R; O'Connor, Brian; Kedl, Ross M

    2016-01-01

    Virtual memory cells (VM) are an antigen-specific, memory phenotype CD8 T-cell subset found in lymphoreplete, unchallenged mice. Previous studies indicated that VM cells were the result of homeostatic proliferation (HP) resembling the proliferation observed in a lymphopenic environment. Here we demonstrate that HP is ongoing in lymphoreplete mice, the degree of which is dictated by the number of naive CD8 T cells with a sufficiently high affinity for self-antigen interacting with peripheral IL-15. VM cell transcriptional profiles suggest a capacity to mediate protective immunity via antigen non-specific bystander killing, a function we show is dependent on IL-15. Finally, we show a VM-like population of human cells that accumulate with age and traffic to the liver, displaying phenotypic and functional attributes consistent with the bystander protective functions of VM cells identified in the mouse. These data identify developmental and functional attributes of VM cells, including their likely role in protective immunity. PMID:27097762

  14. Postpartum Sterilization

    MedlinePlus

    ... sterilization. In tubal sterilization, the fallopian tubes are closed off or removed. Tubal sterilization prevents the egg ... through the incision. The tubes are cut and closed with special thread or removed completely. The incision ...

  15. Delivery of human NKG2D-IL-15 fusion gene by chitosan nanoparticles to enhance antitumor immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Chen; Jie, Leng; Yongqi, Wang; Weiming, Xiao; Juqun, Xi; Yanbing, Ding; Li, Qian; Xingyuan, Pan; Mingchun, Ji; Weijuan, Gong

    2015-07-31

    Nanoparticles are becoming promising carriers for gene delivery because of their high capacity in gene loading and low cell cytotoxicity. In this study, a chitosan-based nanoparticle encapsulated within a recombinant pcDNA3.1-dsNKG2D-IL-15 plasmid was generated. The fused dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene fragment consisted of double extracellular domains of NKG2D with IL-15 gene at downstream. The average diameter of the gene nanoparticles ranged from 200 nm to 400 nm, with mean zeta potential value of 53.8 ± 6.56 mV. The nanoparticles which were loaded with the dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene were uptaken by tumor cells with low cytotoxicity. Tumor cells pre-transfected by gene nanopartilces stimulated NK and T cells in vitro. Intramuscular injection of gene nanoparticles suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice through activation of NK and CD8{sup +} T cells. Thus, chitosan-based nanoparticle delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene vaccine can be potentially used for tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Generation of a nanoparticle for delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene. • Characterization of the gene nanoparticle. • Antitumor activity mediated by the gene nanoparticle.

  16. High dose of plasmid IL-15 inhibits immune responses in an influenza non-human primates immunogenicity model

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Jiangmei; Dai Anlan; Laddy, Dominick J.; Yan Jian; Arango, Tatiana; Khan, Amir S.; Lewis, Mark G.; Andersen, Hanne; Kutzler, Michele A.; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra; Weiner, David B.; Boyer, Jean D.

    2009-10-10

    Interleukin (IL)-15, is a cytokine that is important for the maintenance of long-lasting, high-avidity T cell response to invading pathogens and has, therefore, been used in vaccine and therapeutic platforms as an adjuvant. In addition to pure protein delivery, plasmids encoding the IL-15 gene have been utilized. However, it is critical to determine the appropriate dose to maximize the adjuvanting effects. We immunized rhesus macaques with different doses of IL-15 expressing plasmid in an influenza non-human primate immunogenicity model. We found that co-immunization of rhesus macaques with a Flu DNA-based vaccine and low doses of plasmid encoding macaque IL-15 enhanced the production of IFN-gamma (0.5 mg) and the proliferation of CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells, as well as T{sub CM} levels in proliferating CD8{sup +} T cells (0.25 mg). Whereas, high doses of IL-15 (4 mg) decrease the production of IFN-gamma and the proliferation of CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells and T{sub CM} levels in the proliferating CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells. In addition, the data of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer suggest that although not significantly different, there appears to be a slight increase in antibodies at lower doses of IL-15. Importantly, however, the higher doses of IL-15 decrease the antibody levels significantly. This study demonstrates the importance of optimizing DNA-based cytokine adjuvants.

  17. Spacecraft sterilization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    Spacecraft sterilization is a vital factor in projects for the successful biological exploration of other planets. The microorganisms of major concern are the fungi and bacteria. Sterilization procedures are oriented toward the destruction of bacterial spores. Gaseous sterilants are examined, giving attention to formaldehyde, beta-propiolactone, ethylene oxide, and the chemistry of the bactericidal action of sterilants. Radiation has been seriously considered as another method for spacecraft sterilization. Dry heat sterilization is discussed together with the effects of ethylene oxide decontamination and dry heat sterilization on materials.

  18. IL-15 functions as a danger signal to regulate tissue-resident T cells and tissue destruction

    PubMed Central

    Jabri, Bana; Abadie, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    In this Opinion article, we discuss the function of tissues as a crucial checkpoint for the regulation of effector T cell responses, and the notion that interleukin-15 (IL-15) functions as a danger molecule that communicates to the immune system that the tissue is under attack and poises it to mediate tissue destruction. More specifically, we propose that expression of IL-15 in tissues promotes T helper 1 cell-mediated immunity and provides co-stimulatory signals to effector cytotoxic T cells to exert their effector functions and drive tissue destruction. Therefore, we think that IL-15 contributes to tissue protection by promoting the elimination of infected cells but that when its expression is chronically dysregulated, it can promote the development of complex T cell-mediated disorders associated with tissue destruction, such as coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes. PMID:26567920

  19. IL-15 induces strong but short-lived tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cell responses through the regulation of Tim-3 in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Heon, Elise K.; Wulan, Hasi; Macdonald, Loch P.; Malek, Adel O.; Braunstein, Glenn H.; Eaves, Connie G.; Schattner, Mark D.; Allen, Peter M.; Alexander, Michael O.; Hawkins, Cynthia A.; McGovern, Dermot W.; Freeman, Richard L.; Amir, Eitan P.; Huse, Jason D.; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S.; Kauff, Noah P.; Meyers, Paul G.; Gleason, Michelle H.; Overholtzer, Michael G.; Wiseman, Sam S.; and others

    2015-08-14

    IL-15 has pivotal roles in the control of CD8{sup +} memory T cells and has been investigated as a therapeutic option in cancer therapy. Although IL-15 and IL-2 share many functions together, including the stimulation of CD8 T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production, the different in vivo roles of IL-15 and IL-2 have been increasingly recognized. Here, we explored the different effects of IL-15 and IL-2 on tumor-infiltrating (TI) T cells from resected breast tumors. We found that neither IL-2 nor IL-15 induced intratumoral CD8 T cell proliferation by itself, but after CD3/CD28-stimulation, IL-15 induced significantly higher proliferation than IL-2 during early time points, at day 2, day 3 and day 6. However, the IL-15-induced proliferation leveled off at day 9 and day 12, whereas IL-2 induced lower but progressive proliferation at each time point. Furthermore, IL-15 caused an early and robust increase of IFN-γ in the supernatant of TI cell cultures, which diminished at later time points, while the IL-2-induced IFN-γ production remained constant over time. In addition, the IL-15-costimulated CD8 T cells presented higher frequencies of apoptotic cells. The diminishing IL-15-induced response was possibly due to regulatory and/or exhaustion mechanisms. We did not observe increased IL-10 or PD-1 upregulation, but we have found an increase of Tim-3 upregulation on IL-15-, but not IL-2-stimulated cells. Blocking Tim-3 function using anti-Tim-3 antibodies resulted in increased IL-15-induced proliferation and IFN-γ production for a prolonged period of time, whereas adding Tim-3 ligand galectin 9 led to reduced proliferation and IFN-γ production. Our results suggest that IL-15 in combination of Tim-3 blocking antibodies could potentially act as an IL-2 alternative in tumor CD8 T cell expansion in vitro, a crucial step in adoptive T cell therapy. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of IL-15 and IL-2 on tumor-infiltrating (TI) T cells of breast cancer. • IL-15

  20. Muscle-specific deletion of exons 2 and 3 of the IL15RA gene in mice: effects on contractile properties of fast and slow muscles.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Grant; Guo, Ge; Stricker, Janelle; Quinn, LeBris S; Ma, Averil; Pistilli, Emidio E

    2015-02-15

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a putative myokine hypothesized to induce an oxidative skeletal muscle phenotype. The specific IL-15 receptor alpha subunit (IL-15Rα) has also been implicated in specifying this contractile phenotype. The purposes of this study were to determine the muscle-specific effects of IL-15Rα functional deficiency on skeletal muscle isometric contractile properties, fatigue characteristics, spontaneous cage activity, and circulating IL-15 levels in male and female mice. Muscle creatine kinase (MCK)-driven IL-15Rα knockout mice (mIl15ra(fl/fl)/Cre(+)) were generated using the Cre-loxP system. We tested the hypothesis that IL-15Rα functional deficiency in skeletal muscle would increase resistance to contraction-induced fatigue, cage activity, and circulating IL-15 levels. There was a significant effect of genotype on the fatigue curves obtained in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from female mIl15ra(fl/fl)/Cre(+) mice, such that force output was greater during the repeated contraction protocol compared with mIl15ra(fl/fl)/Cre(-) control mice. Muscles from female mIl15ra(fl/fl)/Cre(+) mice also had a twofold greater amount of the mitochondrial genome-specific COXII gene compared with muscles from mIl15ra(fl/fl)/Cre(-) control mice, indicating a greater mitochondrial density in these skeletal muscles. There was a significant effect of genotype on the twitch:tetanus ratio in EDL and soleus muscles from mIl15ra(fl/fl)/Cre(+) mice, such that the ratio was lower in these muscles compared with mIl15ra(fl/fl)/Cre(-) control mice, indicating a pro-oxidative shift in muscle phenotype. However, spontaneous cage activity was not different and IL-15 protein levels were lower in male and female mIl15ra(fl/fl)/Cre(+) mice compared with control. Collectively, these data support a direct effect of muscle IL-15Rα deficiency in altering contractile properties and fatigue characteristics in skeletal muscles.

  1. High dose CD11c-driven IL15 is sufficient to drive NK cell maturation and anti-tumor activity in a trans-presentation independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Polansky, Julia K.; Bahri, Rajia; Divivier, Mylene; Duitman, Erwin H.; Vock, Christina; Goyeneche-Patino, Diego A.; Orinska, Zane; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The common gamma (γc)-chain cytokine interleukin 15 (IL15) is a multifunctional immune-modulator which impacts the generation, maturation and activity of many cell types of the innate, as well as the adaptive immune system, including natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. Using a new series of transgenic mice, we analyzed the in vivo potential of IL15 as an immune-regulator when available at different concentrations or delivery modes, i.e. soluble monomer or complexed to its specific receptor α (Rα)-chain. We have identified distinct effects on selected IL15-responsive populations. While CD8+ T cells required complexed forms of IL15/IL15Rα for full functionality, mature NK populations were rescued in an IL15/IL15Rα-deficient environment by high levels of CD11c-restricted IL15. These IL15-conditions were sufficient to limit tumor formation in a lung metastasis model indicating that the NK cell populations were fully functional. These data underline the potential of “free” IL15 in the absence of Rα-complex as a powerful and specific immuno-modulator, which may be beneficial where selective immune-activation is desired. PMID:26822794

  2. Monocytes and T cells cooperate to favor normal and follicular lymphoma B-cell growth: role of IL-15 and CD40L signaling.

    PubMed

    Epron, G; Ame-Thomas, P; Le Priol, J; Pangault, C; Dulong, J; Lamy, T; Fest, T; Tarte, K

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) has been extensively studied for its role in the survival and proliferation of NK and T cells through a unique mechanism of trans-presentation by producer cells. Conversely, whereas activated B cells have been described as IL-15-responding cells, the cellular and molecular context sustaining this effect remains unexplored. In this study, we found that, whereas human B cells could not respond to soluble IL-15, monocytes and lymphoid tissue-derived macrophages but not stromal cells efficiently trans-present IL-15 to normal B cells and cooperate with T-cell-derived CD40L to promote IL-15-dependent B-cell proliferation. Furthermore, CD40L signaling triggers a Src-independent upregulation of STAT5 expression and favors a Src-dependent phosphorylation of STAT5 in response to IL-15. In follicular lymphoma (FL), immunohistochemical studies reported a strong relationship between malignant B cells, infiltrating macrophages and T cells. We show here an overexpression of IL-15 in purified tumor-associated macrophages, and STAT5A in purified tumor B cells. Moreover, FL B cells respond to IL-15 trans-presented by monocytes/macrophages, in particular, in the presence of CD40L-mediated signaling. This cooperation between IL-15 and CD40L reinforces the importance of tumor microenvironment and unravels a mechanism of FL growth that should be considered if using IL-15 as a drug in this disease.

  3. Whole Tumor Cell Vaccine Adjuvants: Comparing IL-12 to IL-2 and IL-15.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Abdolkarim; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Kokhaei, Parviz; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Cancer immunotherapy (passive or active) involves treatments which promote the ability of the immune system to fight tumor cells. Several types of immunotherapeutic agents, such as monoclonal antibodies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, non-specific immunomodulatory agents, and cancer vaccines are currently under intensive investigation in preclinical and clinical trials. Cancer vaccines induce permanent activation of the immune system and may be considered the most promising method for cancer treatment, especially in combination with other agents of passive immunotherapy. Among various approaches to cancer vaccines, whole tumor cell vaccines have been attracting attention for several years. Despite their low to moderate clinical effects, these vaccines have numerous advantages. Their ability to generate immune responses against tumor-associated antigens reduces the possibility for tumor cells to escape and facilitates the development of "off-the-shelf" allogeneic tumor vaccines. Understanding the reciprocal interactions between tumor cells and leukocytes is a key to harness the full potential of whole cell vaccination. Cytokines are considered as potent immunomodulatory molecules which behave as adjuvants in whole tumor cell vaccines. Improved mechanistic understanding of key cytokines in tumor immunity will serve as a resource for rational design of whole cell cancer vaccines. Although there are several reports about the use of different immunostimulatory cytokines as adjuvants, interleukin (IL)-12 appears to have superior effects compared to other cytokines. This review describes the effects of IL-12 compared to other immunomodulatory cytokines, such as IL-2 and IL-15, and highlights its application in whole cell tumor vaccination. PMID:27671507

  4. Reversible Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  5. Tumor targeting of the IL-15 superagonist RLI by an anti-GD2 antibody strongly enhances its antitumor potency.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Marie; Bessard, Anne; Cochonneau, Denis; Teppaz, Géraldine; Solé, Véronique; Maillasson, Mike; Birklé, Stéphane; Garrigue-Antar, Laure; Quéméner, Agnès; Jacques, Yannick

    2013-08-01

    Immunocytokines (ICKs) targeting cytokines to the tumor environment using antibodies directed against a tumor-associated antigen often have a higher therapeutic index than the corresponding unconjugated cytokines. Various ICKs displaying significant antitumoral effects in several murine tumor models have already been developed, and some of them, in particular interleukin (IL)-2-based ICKs, are in Phase II clinical trials. Although sharing common biological activities with IL-2 in vitro, IL-15 is now considered as having a better potential in antitumor immunotherapeutical strategies and has been shown to be less toxic than IL-2 in preclinical studies. We previously developed the fusion protein RLI, linking a soluble form of human IL-15Rα-sushi+ domain to human IL-15. RLI showed better biological activities than IL-15 in vitro as well as higher antitumoral effects in vivo in murine and human cancer models. Here, we investigated, in the context of an ICK, the effect of associating RLI with an antibody targeting the GD2 ganglioside, a validated tumoral target expressed on many neurectodermal tumors. Anti-GD2-RLI fully retained the cytokine potential of RLI and the antibody effector functions (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity). It displayed strong antitumor activities in two syngeneic cancer models in immunocompetent mice (subcutaneous EL4 and metastatic NXS2). Its therapeutic potency was higher than those of RLI and anti-GD2 alone or in combination. We suggest that this is related to its bifunctional (cytokine and antibody) nature.

  6. NK cell development requires Tsc1-dependent negative regulation of IL-15-triggered mTORC1 activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meixiang; Chen, Shasha; Du, Juan; He, Junming; Wang, Yuande; Li, Zehua; Liu, Guangao; Peng, Wanwen; Zeng, Xiaokang; Li, Dan; Xu, Panglian; Guo, Wei; Chang, Zai; Wang, Song; Tian, Zhigang; Dong, Zhongjun

    2016-01-01

    Activation of metabolic signalling by IL-15 is required for natural killer (NK) cell development. Here we show that Tsc1, a repressor of mTOR, is dispensable for the terminal maturation, survival and function of NK cells but is critical to restrict exhaustive proliferation of immature NK cells and activation downstream of IL-15 during NK cell development. Tsc1 is expressed in immature NK cells and is upregulated by IL-15. Haematopoietic-specific deletion of Tsc1 causes a marked decrease in the number of NK cells and compromises rejection of 'missing-self' haematopoietic tumours and allogeneic bone marrow. The residual Tsc1-null NK cells display activated, pro-apoptotic phenotype and elevated mTORC1 activity. Deletion of Raptor, a component of mTORC1, largely reverses these defects. Tsc1-deficient NK cells express increased levels of T-bet and downregulate Eomes and CD122, a subunit of IL-15 receptor. These results reveal a role for Tsc1-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 activation during immature NK cell development. PMID:27601261

  7. NK cell development requires Tsc1-dependent negative regulation of IL-15-triggered mTORC1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meixiang; Chen, Shasha; Du, Juan; He, Junming; Wang, Yuande; Li, Zehua; Liu, Guangao; Peng, Wanwen; Zeng, Xiaokang; Li, Dan; Xu, Panglian; Guo, Wei; Chang, Zai; Wang, Song; Tian, Zhigang; Dong, Zhongjun

    2016-01-01

    Activation of metabolic signalling by IL-15 is required for natural killer (NK) cell development. Here we show that Tsc1, a repressor of mTOR, is dispensable for the terminal maturation, survival and function of NK cells but is critical to restrict exhaustive proliferation of immature NK cells and activation downstream of IL-15 during NK cell development. Tsc1 is expressed in immature NK cells and is upregulated by IL-15. Haematopoietic-specific deletion of Tsc1 causes a marked decrease in the number of NK cells and compromises rejection of ‘missing-self' haematopoietic tumours and allogeneic bone marrow. The residual Tsc1-null NK cells display activated, pro-apoptotic phenotype and elevated mTORC1 activity. Deletion of Raptor, a component of mTORC1, largely reverses these defects. Tsc1-deficient NK cells express increased levels of T-bet and downregulate Eomes and CD122, a subunit of IL-15 receptor. These results reveal a role for Tsc1-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 activation during immature NK cell development. PMID:27601261

  8. Oncolytic virus expressing RANTES and IL-15 enhances function of CAR-modified T cells in solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Nobuhiro; Dotti, Gianpietro

    2015-01-01

    We improved the migration and survival of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells in solid tumors by combining CAR-T cells with an armed oncolytic virus. Local delivery of the chemokine RANTES and the cytokine IL-15 by the oncolytic virus enhanced the trafficking and persistence of the CAR-T cells, resulting in improved antitumor effects. PMID:25949885

  9. TLR2-Dependent Signaling for IL-15 Production Is Essential for the Homeostasis of Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yuan; Pu, Aimin; Liu, Minqiang; Chen, Weigang; Wang, Wensheng

    2016-01-01

    TLR2 signaling is related to colitis and involved in regulation of innate immunity in the intestinal tract, but the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate how TLR2 affects differentiation of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and regulates the susceptibility of colitis. IELs were isolated from the small intestine and colon of mice, respectively. The IEL phenotype, activation, and apoptosis were examined using flow cytometry and RT-PCR. IL-15 expression and IEL location were detected through immunohistochemistry. The experimental colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). We found that the numbers of CD8αα+, CD8αβ+, and TCRγδ+ IELs were significantly decreased in TLR2-deficient mice and the residual IELs displayed reduced activation and proliferation and increased apoptosis, accompanied with impaired IL-15 expression by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Further study showed that TLR2 signaling maintained the expression of IL-15 in IEC via NF-κB activation. Moreover, TLR2-deficient mice were found to be more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis as shown by the increased severity of colitis. Our results demonstrate that IECs contribute to the maintenance of IELs at least partly via TLR2-dependent IL-15 production, which provides a clue that may link IECs to innate immune protection of the host via IELs. PMID:27563173

  10. TLR2-Dependent Signaling for IL-15 Production Is Essential for the Homeostasis of Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuan; Pu, Aimin; Zheng, Hong; Liu, Minqiang; Chen, Weigang; Wang, Wensheng; Xiao, Weidong; Yang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    TLR2 signaling is related to colitis and involved in regulation of innate immunity in the intestinal tract, but the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate how TLR2 affects differentiation of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and regulates the susceptibility of colitis. IELs were isolated from the small intestine and colon of mice, respectively. The IEL phenotype, activation, and apoptosis were examined using flow cytometry and RT-PCR. IL-15 expression and IEL location were detected through immunohistochemistry. The experimental colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). We found that the numbers of CD8αα (+), CD8αβ (+), and TCRγδ (+) IELs were significantly decreased in TLR2-deficient mice and the residual IELs displayed reduced activation and proliferation and increased apoptosis, accompanied with impaired IL-15 expression by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Further study showed that TLR2 signaling maintained the expression of IL-15 in IEC via NF-κB activation. Moreover, TLR2-deficient mice were found to be more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis as shown by the increased severity of colitis. Our results demonstrate that IECs contribute to the maintenance of IELs at least partly via TLR2-dependent IL-15 production, which provides a clue that may link IECs to innate immune protection of the host via IELs. PMID:27563173

  11. IL-15 Trans-Signaling with the Superagonist RLI Promotes Effector/Memory CD8+ T Cell Responses and Enhances Antitumor Activity of PD-1 Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Desbois, Mélanie; Le Vu, Pauline; Coutzac, Clélia; Marcheteau, Elie; Béal, Coralie; Terme, Magali; Gey, Alain; Morisseau, Sébastien; Teppaz, Géraldine; Boselli, Lisa; Jacques, Yannick; Béchard, David; Tartour, Eric; Cassard, Lydie; Chaput, Nathalie

    2016-07-01

    Tumors with the help of the surrounding environment facilitate the immune suppression in patients, and immunotherapy can counteract this inhibition. Among immunotherapeutic strategies, the immunostimulatory cytokine IL-15 could represent a serious candidate for the reactivation of antitumor immunity. However, exogenous IL-15 may have a limited impact on patients with cancer due to its dependency on IL-15Rα frequently downregulated in cancer patients. In this work, we studied the antitumor activity of the IL-15 superagonist receptor-linker-IL-15 (RLI), designed to bypass the need of endogenous IL-15Rα. RLI consists of human IL-15 covalently linked to the human IL-15Rα sushi(+) domain. In a mouse model of colorectal carcinoma, RLI as a stand-alone treatment could limit tumor outgrowth only when initiated at an early time of tumor development. At a later time, RLI was not effective, coinciding with the strong accumulation of terminally exhausted programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)(high) T cell Ig mucin-3(+) CD8(+) T cells, suggesting that RLI was not able to reactivate terminally exhausted CD8(+) T cells. Combination with PD-1 blocking Ab showed synergistic activity with RLI, but not with IL-15. RLI could induce a greater accumulation of memory CD8(+) T cells and a stronger effector function in comparison with IL-15. Ex vivo stimulation of tumor-infiltrated lymphocytes from 16 patients with renal cell carcinoma demonstrated 56% of a strong tumor-infiltrated lymphocyte reactivation with the combination anti-PD-1/RLI compared with 43 and 6% with RLI or anti-PD-1, respectively. Altogether, this work provides evidence that the sushi-IL-15Rα/IL-15 fusion protein RLI enhances antitumor activity of anti-PD-1 treatment and is a promising approach to stimulate host immunity.

  12. IL-15 Trans-Signaling with the Superagonist RLI Promotes Effector/Memory CD8+ T Cell Responses and Enhances Antitumor Activity of PD-1 Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Desbois, Mélanie; Le Vu, Pauline; Coutzac, Clélia; Marcheteau, Elie; Béal, Coralie; Terme, Magali; Gey, Alain; Morisseau, Sébastien; Teppaz, Géraldine; Boselli, Lisa; Jacques, Yannick; Béchard, David; Tartour, Eric; Cassard, Lydie; Chaput, Nathalie

    2016-07-01

    Tumors with the help of the surrounding environment facilitate the immune suppression in patients, and immunotherapy can counteract this inhibition. Among immunotherapeutic strategies, the immunostimulatory cytokine IL-15 could represent a serious candidate for the reactivation of antitumor immunity. However, exogenous IL-15 may have a limited impact on patients with cancer due to its dependency on IL-15Rα frequently downregulated in cancer patients. In this work, we studied the antitumor activity of the IL-15 superagonist receptor-linker-IL-15 (RLI), designed to bypass the need of endogenous IL-15Rα. RLI consists of human IL-15 covalently linked to the human IL-15Rα sushi(+) domain. In a mouse model of colorectal carcinoma, RLI as a stand-alone treatment could limit tumor outgrowth only when initiated at an early time of tumor development. At a later time, RLI was not effective, coinciding with the strong accumulation of terminally exhausted programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)(high) T cell Ig mucin-3(+) CD8(+) T cells, suggesting that RLI was not able to reactivate terminally exhausted CD8(+) T cells. Combination with PD-1 blocking Ab showed synergistic activity with RLI, but not with IL-15. RLI could induce a greater accumulation of memory CD8(+) T cells and a stronger effector function in comparison with IL-15. Ex vivo stimulation of tumor-infiltrated lymphocytes from 16 patients with renal cell carcinoma demonstrated 56% of a strong tumor-infiltrated lymphocyte reactivation with the combination anti-PD-1/RLI compared with 43 and 6% with RLI or anti-PD-1, respectively. Altogether, this work provides evidence that the sushi-IL-15Rα/IL-15 fusion protein RLI enhances antitumor activity of anti-PD-1 treatment and is a promising approach to stimulate host immunity. PMID:27217584

  13. TLR-9 and IL-15 Synergy Promotes the In Vitro Clonal Expansion of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rashmi; Boyle, Erin; Nieto, Jennifer; Lee, Hyunjoo; Stein, Joanna; Bandovic, Jela; Stankovic, Tatjana; Barrientos, Jacqueline; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Allen, Steven L.; Rai, Kanti; Chu, Charles C.; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Clinical progression of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) reflects the clone’s Ag receptor (BCR) and involves stroma-dependent B-CLL growth within lymphoid tissue. Uniformly elevated expression of TLR-9, occasional MYD88 mutations, and BCR specificity for DNA or Ags physically linked to DNA together suggest that TLR-9 signaling is important in driving B-CLL growth in patients. Nevertheless, reports of apoptosis after B-CLL exposure to CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) raised questions about a central role for TLR-9. Because normal memory B cells proliferate vigorously to ODN+IL-15, a cytokine found in stromal cells of bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen, we examined whether this was true for B-CLL cells. Through a CFSE-based assay for quantitatively monitoring in vitro clonal proliferation/survival, we show that IL-15 precludes TLR-9–induced apoptosis and permits significant B-CLL clonal expansion regardless of the clone’s BCR mutation status. A robust response to ODN+IL-15 was positively linked to presence of chromosomal anomalies (trisomy-12 or ataxia telangiectasia mutated anomaly + del13q14) and negatively linked to a very high proportion of CD38+ cells within the blood-derived B-CLL population. Furthermore, a clone’s intrinsic potential for in vitro growth correlated directly with doubling time in blood, in the case of B-CLL with Ig H chain V region–unmutated BCR and <30% CD38+ cells in blood. Finally, in vitro high-proliferator status was statistically linked to diminished patient survival. These findings, together with immunohistochemical evidence of apoptotic cells and IL-15–producing cells proximal to B-CLL pseudofollicles in patient spleens, suggest that collaborative ODN and IL-15 signaling may promote in vivo B-CLL growth. PMID:26136429

  14. Sterilization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  15. IL-15 is expressed by dendritic cells in response to type I IFN, double-stranded RNA, or lipopolysaccharide and promotes dendritic cell activation.

    PubMed

    Mattei, F; Schiavoni, G; Belardelli, F; Tough, D F

    2001-08-01

    Cytokines that are induced by infection may contribute to the initiation of immune responses through their ability to stimulate dendritic cells (DCs). In this paper, we have addressed the role of IL-15 in DC activation, investigating its expression by DCs in response to three different signals of infection and examining its ability to stimulate DCs. We report that the expression of both IL-15 and the IL-15 receptor alpha-chain are increased in splenic DCs from mice inoculated with dsRNA (poly(I:C)), LPS, or IFN-alphabeta, and in purified murine splenic DCs treated with IFN-alphabeta in vitro. Furthermore, IL-15 itself was able to activate DCs, as in vivo or in vitro exposure of splenic DCs to IL-15 resulted in an up-regulation of costimulatory molecules, markedly increased production of IFN-gamma by DC and an enhanced ability of DCs to stimulate Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell proliferation. The magnitude of all of the IL-15-induced changes in DCs was reduced in mice deficient for the IFN-alphabeta receptor, suggesting a role for IFN-alphabeta in the stimulation of DCs by IL-15. These results identify IL-15 as a stimulatory cytokine for DCs with the potential for autocrine activity and link its effects to expression of IFN-alphabeta. PMID:11466332

  16. The NKG2D-IL-15 signaling pathway contributes to T-cell mediated pathology in inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Ruck, Tobias; Bittner, Stefan; Afzali, Ali Maisam; Göbel, Kerstin; Glumm, Sarah; Kraft, Peter; Sommer, Claudia; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Preuße, Corinna; Stenzel, Werner; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G

    2015-12-22

    NKG2D is an activating receptor on T cells, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. T cells are critically involved in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and have been proposed as specific therapeutic targets. However, the mechanisms underlying T cell-mediated progressive muscle destruction in IIM remain to be elucidated. We here determined the involvement of the NKG2D - IL-15 signaling pathway. Primary human myoblasts expressed NKG2D ligands, which were further upregulated upon inflammatory stimuli. In parallel, shedding of the soluble NKG2D ligand MICA (sMICA) decreased upon inflammation potentially diminishing inhibition of NKG2D signaling. Membrane-related expression of IL-15 by myoblasts induced differentiation of naïve CD8+ T cells into highly activated, cytotoxic CD8+NKG2Dhigh T cells demonstrating NKG2D-dependent lysis of myoblasts in vitro. CD8+NKG2Dhigh T cell frequencies were increased in the peripheral blood of polymyositis (PM) patients and correlated with serum creatinine kinase concentrations, while serum sMICA levels were not significantly changed. In muscle biopsy specimens from PM patients expression of the NKG2D ligand MICA/B was upregulated, IL-15 was expressed by muscle cells, CD68+ macrophages as well as CD4+ T cells, and CD8+NKG2D+ cells were frequently detected within inflammatory infiltrates arguing for a local signaling circuit in the inflammatory muscle milieu. In conclusion, the NKG2D - IL-15 signaling pathway contributes to progressive muscle destruction in IIM potentially opening new therapeutic avenues. PMID:26646698

  17. The NKG2D – IL-15 signaling pathway contributes to T-cell mediated pathology in inflammatory myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Ruck, Tobias; Bittner, Stefan; Afzali, Ali Maisam; Göbel, Kerstin; Glumm, Sarah; Kraft, Peter; Sommer, Claudia; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Preuβe, Corinna; Stenzel, Werner

    2015-01-01

    NKG2D is an activating receptor on T cells, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. T cells are critically involved in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and have been proposed as specific therapeutic targets. However, the mechanisms underlying T cell-mediated progressive muscle destruction in IIM remain to be elucidated. We here determined the involvement of the NKG2D – IL-15 signaling pathway. Primary human myoblasts expressed NKG2D ligands, which were further upregulated upon inflammatory stimuli. In parallel, shedding of the soluble NKG2D ligand MICA (sMICA) decreased upon inflammation potentially diminishing inhibition of NKG2D signaling. Membrane-related expression of IL-15 by myoblasts induced differentiation of naïve CD8+ T cells into highly activated, cytotoxic CD8+NKG2Dhigh T cells demonstrating NKG2D-dependent lysis of myoblasts in vitro. CD8+NKG2Dhigh T cell frequencies were increased in the peripheral blood of polymyositis (PM) patients and correlated with serum creatinine kinase concentrations, while serum sMICA levels were not significantly changed. In muscle biopsy specimens from PM patients expression of the NKG2D ligand MICA/B was upregulated, IL-15 was expressed by muscle cells, CD68+ macrophages as well as CD4+ T cells, and CD8+NKG2D+ cells were frequently detected within inflammatory infiltrates arguing for a local signaling circuit in the inflammatory muscle milieu. In conclusion, the NKG2D – IL-15 signaling pathway contributes to progressive muscle destruction in IIM potentially opening new therapeutic avenues. PMID:26646698

  18. IL-2 and IL-15 regulate CD8+ memory T-cell differentiation but are dispensable for protective recall responses.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Cédric; Beltra, Jean-Christophe; Charpentier, Tania; Bourbonnais, Sara; Di Santo, James P; Lamarre, Alain; Decaluwe, Hélène

    2015-12-01

    The ability to mount effective secondary responses is a cardinal feature of memory CD8(+) T cells. An understanding of the factors that regulate the generation and recall capacities of memory T cells remains to be ascertained. Several cues indicate that two highly related cytokines, IL-2 and IL-15, share redundant functions in this process. To establish their combined roles in memory CD8(+) T-cell development, maintenance, and secondary responses, we compared the outcome of adoptively transferred IL2Rβ(+/-) or IL2Rβ(-/-) CD8(+) T cells after an acute viral infection in mice. Our results demonstrate that both IL-2 and IL-15 signals condition the differentiation of primary and secondary short-lived effector cells by altering the transcriptional network governing lineage choices. These two cytokines also regulate the homeostasis of the memory T-cell pool, with effector memory CD8(+) T cells being the most sensitive to these two interleukins. Noticeably, the inability to respond to both cytokines limits the proliferation and survival of primary and secondary effectors cells, whereas it does not preclude potent cytotoxic functions and viral control either initially or upon rechallenge. Globally, these results indicate that lack of IL-2 and IL-15 signaling modulates the CD8(+) T-cell differentiation program but does not impede adequate effector functions.

  19. Host genetic variants of ABCB1 and IL15 influence treatment outcome in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y; Kham, S K Y; Ariffin, H; Oei, A M I; Lin, H P; Tan, A M; Quah, T C; Yeoh, A E J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Host germline variations and their potential prognostic importance is an emerging area of interest in paediatric ALL. Methods: We investigated the associations between 20 germline variations and various clinical end points in 463 children with ALL. Results: After adjusting for known prognostic factors, variants in two genes were found to be independently associated with poorer EFS: ABCB1 T/T at either 2677 (rs2032582) or 3435 (rs1045642) position (P=0.003) and IL15 67276493G/G (rs17015014; P=0.022). These variants showed a strong additive effect affecting outcome (P<0.001), whereby patients with both risk genotypes had the worst EFS (P=0.001), even after adjusting for MRD levels at the end of remission induction. The adverse effect of ABCB1 T/T genotypes was most pronounced in patients with favourable cytogenetics (P=0.011) while the IL15 67276493G/G genotype mainly affected patients without common chromosomal abnormalities (P=0.022). In both cytogenetic subgroups, increasing number of such risk genotypes still predicted worsening outcome (P<0.001 and=0.009, respectively). Conclusion: These results point to the prognostic importance of host genetic variants, although the specific mechanisms remain unclarified. Inclusion of ABCB1 and IL15 variants may help improve risk assignment strategies in paediatric ALL. PMID:24434428

  20. Sterilization and "de facto" sterilization.

    PubMed

    Ross, L

    1994-01-01

    Many women of color have been sexually sterilized in the US over the past 70 years. A eugenics movement was created in the 1870s by Malthusianists and White nativist Protestants which led to the adoption of eugenics laws as part of national and state policy. 45,000 Americans were sterilized over the period 1907-45 under these laws. For example, Indiana and 30 other states legislated the compulsory sterilization of those deemed to be mentally deficient, those with certain types of mental illnesses, epileptics, sexual perverts, and criminals. The US Supreme Court in 1927 upheld the constitutionality of forced sterilization for the "feeble-minded", after which 25,000 such sterilization operations took place during the 1930s. Other abuses of the surgical sterilization of women dating through the late 1980s are described and are associated with threats of losing one's welfare benefits,m out-of-compliance consent forms for sterilization, and federal government financial support for sterilizations and not abortion. The unwritten policy in most major teaching hospitals in New York city to perform elective hysterectomies on poor Black and Puerto Rican women with minimal indications in order to train residents; use of the Dalkon Shield IUD in the US before it was eventually banned; Depo-Provera and its link to cancer; and the potentially misused Norplant are also described as practices and phenomena which have subjected many women of color to de facto sterilization.

  1. IL-15 induces strong but short-lived tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cell responses through the regulation of Tim-3 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Heon, Elise K; Wulan, Hasi; Macdonald, Loch P; Malek, Adel O; Braunstein, Glenn H; Eaves, Connie G; Schattner, Mark D; Allen, Peter M; Alexander, Michael O; Hawkins, Cynthia A; McGovern, Dermot W; Freeman, Richard L; Amir, Eitan P; Huse, Jason D; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S; Kauff, Noah P; Meyers, Paul G; Gleason, Michelle H; Overholtzer, Michael G; Wiseman, Sam S; Streutker, Catherine D; Asa, Sylvia W; McAlindon, Timothy P; Newcomb, Polly O; Sorensen, Poul M; Press, Oliver A

    2015-08-14

    IL-15 has pivotal roles in the control of CD8(+) memory T cells and has been investigated as a therapeutic option in cancer therapy. Although IL-15 and IL-2 share many functions together, including the stimulation of CD8 T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production, the different in vivo roles of IL-15 and IL-2 have been increasingly recognized. Here, we explored the different effects of IL-15 and IL-2 on tumor-infiltrating (TI) T cells from resected breast tumors. We found that neither IL-2 nor IL-15 induced intratumoral CD8 T cell proliferation by itself, but after CD3/CD28-stimulation, IL-15 induced significantly higher proliferation than IL-2 during early time points, at day 2, day 3 and day 6. However, the IL-15-induced proliferation leveled off at day 9 and day 12, whereas IL-2 induced lower but progressive proliferation at each time point. Furthermore, IL-15 caused an early and robust increase of IFN-γ in the supernatant of TI cell cultures, which diminished at later time points, while the IL-2-induced IFN-γ production remained constant over time. In addition, the IL-15-costimulated CD8 T cells presented higher frequencies of apoptotic cells. The diminishing IL-15-induced response was possibly due to regulatory and/or exhaustion mechanisms. We did not observe increased IL-10 or PD-1 upregulation, but we have found an increase of Tim-3 upregulation on IL-15-, but not IL-2-stimulated cells. Blocking Tim-3 function using anti-Tim-3 antibodies resulted in increased IL-15-induced proliferation and IFN-γ production for a prolonged period of time, whereas adding Tim-3 ligand galectin 9 led to reduced proliferation and IFN-γ production. Our results suggest that IL-15 in combination of Tim-3 blocking antibodies could potentially act as an IL-2 alternative in tumor CD8 T cell expansion in vitro, a crucial step in adoptive T cell therapy.

  2. Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Several anomalies recorded in short-baseline neutrino experiments suggest the possibility that the standard 3-flavor framework may be incomplete and point towards a manifestation of new physics. Light sterile neutrinos provide a credible solution to these puzzling results. Here, we present a concise review of the status of the neutrino oscillations within the 3+1 scheme, the minimal extension of the standard 3-flavor framework endowed with one sterile neutrino species. We emphasize the potential role of LBL experiments in the searches of CP violation related to sterile neutrinos and their complementarity with the SBL experiments.

  3. Coimmunization with an optimized IL-15 plasmid results in enhanced function and longevity of CD8 T cells that are partially independent of CD4 T cell help.

    PubMed

    Kutzler, Michele A; Robinson, Tara M; Chattergoon, Michael A; Choo, Daniel K; Choo, Andrew Y; Choe, Philip Y; Ramanathan, Mathura P; Parkinson, Rose; Kudchodkar, Sagar; Tamura, Yutaka; Sidhu, Maninder; Roopchand, Vidia; Kim, J Joseph; Pavlakis, George N; Felber, Barbara K; Waldmann, Thomas A; Boyer, Jean D; Weiner, David B

    2005-07-01

    DNA vaccines are a promising technology for the induction of Ag-specific immune responses, and much recent attention has gone into improving their immune potency. In this study we test the feasibility of delivering a plasmid encoding IL-15 as a DNA vaccine adjuvant for the induction of improved Ag-specific CD8(+) T cellular immune responses. Because native IL-15 is poorly expressed, we used PCR-based strategies to develop an optimized construct that expresses 80-fold higher than the native IL-15 construct. Using a DNA vaccination model, we determined that immunization with optimized IL-15 in combination with HIV-1gag DNA constructs resulted in a significant enhancement of Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion, and strong induction of long-lived CD8(+) T cell responses. In an influenza DNA vaccine model, coimmunization with plasmid expressing influenza A PR8/34 hemagglutinin with the optimized IL-15 plasmid generated improved long term CD8(+) T cellular immunity and protected the mice against a lethal mucosal challenge with influenza virus. Because we observed that IL-15 appeared to mostly adjuvant CD8(+) T cell function, we show that in the partial, but not total, absence of CD4(+) T cell help, plasmid-delivered IL-15 could restore CD8 secondary immune responses to an antigenic DNA plasmid, supporting the idea that the effects of IL-15 on CD8(+) T cell expansion require the presence of low levels of CD4 T cells. These data suggest a role for enhanced plasmid IL-15 as a candidate adjuvant for vaccine or immunotherapeutic studies. PMID:15972637

  4. Transmembrane-Bound IL-15-Promoted Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Renal Cancer Cells Requires the Src-Dependent Akt/GSK-3β/β-Catenin Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huaqin; Meng, Xiaoxin; Guo, Wenjie; Cai, Peifen; Li, Wanshuai; Li, Qian; Wang, Weicheng; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang; Gu, Yanhong

    2015-05-01

    Intrarenal interleukin-15 (IL-15) plays a major role controlling epithelial survival and polarization both in physiological and pathologic conditions. Herein, we confirmed that human renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) express a membrane-bound IL-15 isoform displaying an unusual molecular weight of 27 kDa. Its stimulation with soluble IL-15 receptor α chain (s-IL-15Rα) triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process as shown by the down-regulation of E-cadherin and zona occludens 1 and the up-regulation of vimentin and N-cadherin and promotes the migratory and invasive properties of RCC. S-IL-15Rα treatment triggered the Src/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and promoted β-catenin nuclei translocation. Deactivation of this pathway by using Src-specific inhibitor PP2, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and AKT inhibitor MK2206 hampered β-catenin nuclei translocation and suppressed EMT, migration, and invasion of RCC. S-IL-15Rα treatment also enhanced Src-dependent phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2). FAK knockdown significantly decreased the migration and invasion of RCC, which suggest that Src-FAK signaling was involved in s-IL-15Rα-favored migration and invasion of RCC. At the same time, inhibitors of Erk1/2 also significantly decreased the migration and invasion of RCC but could not reverse s-IL-15Rα-induced EMT. Taken together, our results reveal that Src-dependent PI3K/Akt/GSK3b/β-catenin pathway is required for s-IL-15Ra-dependent induction of EMT in RCC, while Src-FAK and Src-Erk1/2 signaling were involved in s-IL-15Rα-promoted migration and invasion properties of RCC. Our study provides a better understanding of IL-15 signaling in RCC tumor progression, which may lead to novel targeted therapies and provide some suggestions when using IL-15 in clinic. PMID:26025664

  5. Sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, J.; Machado, P. A. N.; Maltoni, M.; Schwetz, T.

    2016-06-01

    We characterize statistically the indications of a presence of one or more light sterile neutrinos from MiniBooNE and LSND data, together with the reactor and gallium anomalies, in the global context. The compatibility of the aforementioned signals with null results from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator experiments is evaluated. We conclude that a severe tension is present in the global fit, and therefore the addition of eV-scale sterile neutrinos does not satisfactorily explain the anomalies.

  6. Hysteroscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Sciarra, J J; Keith, L

    1995-09-01

    Despite the numerous painstaking evaluative trials that were conducted for more than two decades, hysteroscopic sterilization techniques remain more of a concept than a reality. However, it is likely that transcervical methods will continue to attract the investigator who is interested in simple, inexpensive outpatient office or female sterilization procedures in the clinic. Regardless, the cost of clinical trials, required follow-up, and preclinical toxicologic evaluations may continue to inhibit further research in this area.

  7. SILAC-based quantification of changes in protein tyrosine phosphorylation induced by Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-15 in T-lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Osinalde, Nerea; Sánchez-Quiles, Virginia; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Blagoev, Blagoy; Kratchmarova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This data article presents the first large-scale quantitative phosphoproteomics dataset generated to decipher the signaling networks initiated by IL-2 and IL-15 in T-lymphocytes. Data was collected by combining immunoprecipitation of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins and TiO2-based phosphopeptide enrichment with SILAC-based quantitative mass spectrometry. We report all the proteins and phosphotyrosine-containing peptides identified and quantified in IL-2- and IL-15-stimulated T-lymphocytes. The gene ontology analysis of IL-2 and IL-15 effector proteins detected in the present work is also included. The data supplied in this article is related to the research work entitled “Simultaneous dissection and comparison of IL-2 and IL-15 signaling pathways by global quantitative phosphoproteomics” [1]. All mass spectrometry data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD001129. PMID:26425665

  8. IL-15 inhibits pre-B cell proliferation by selectively expanding Mac-1{sup +}B220{sup +} NK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Shinsuke; Hida, Shigeaki; Taki, Shinsuke

    2008-05-16

    Natural killer (NK) cells are the cells critical for inhibition of repopulation of allogenic bone marrow cells. However, it is not well known if NK cells affect autologous lymphopoiesis. Here, we observed that NK cells could inhibit pre-B cell proliferation in vitro driven by interleukin (IL)-7 in a manner dependent on IL-15. Interestingly, the great majority of expanding NK cells were Mac-1{sup +}B220{sup +}, a recently identified potent interferon (IFN)-{gamma} producer. Indeed, IFN-{gamma} was produced in those cultures, and pre-B cells lacking IFN-{gamma} receptors, but not those lacking type I IFN receptors, were resistant to such an inhibition. Furthermore, even NK cells from mice lacking {beta}2-microglobulin, which were known to be functionally dampened, inhibited pre-B cell proliferation as well. Thus, activated NK cells, which were expanded selectively by IL-15, could potentially regulate B lymphopoiesis through IFN-{gamma} beyond the selection imposed upon self-recognition.

  9. IL-15 activates mTOR and primes stress-activated gene expression leading to prolonged antitumor capacity of NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yumeng; van Hoef, Vincent; Zhang, Xiaonan; Wennerberg, Erik; Lorent, Julie; Witt, Kristina; Masvidal, Laia; Liang, Shuo; Murray, Shannon; Larsson, Ola; Kiessling, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of hematological malignancies by adoptive transfer of activated natural killer (NK) cells is limited by poor postinfusion persistence. We compared the ability of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-15 to sustain human NK-cell functions following cytokine withdrawal to model postinfusion performance. In contrast to IL-2, IL-15 mediated stronger signaling through the IL-2/15 receptor complex and provided cell function advantages. Genome-wide analysis of cytosolic and polysome-associated messenger RNA (mRNA) revealed not only cytokine-dependent differential mRNA levels and translation during cytokine activation but also that most gene expression differences were primed by IL-15 and only manifested after cytokine withdrawal. IL-15 augmented mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which correlated with increased expression of genes related to cell metabolism and respiration. Consistently, mTOR inhibition abrogated IL-15–induced cell function advantages. Moreover, mTOR-independent STAT-5 signaling contributed to improved NK-cell function during cytokine activation but not following cytokine withdrawal. The superior performance of IL-15–stimulated NK cells was also observed using a clinically applicable protocol for NK-cell expansion in vitro and in vivo. Finally, expression of IL-15 correlated with cytolytic immune functions in patients with B-cell lymphoma and favorable clinical outcome. These findings highlight the importance of mTOR-regulated metabolic processes for immune cell functions and argue for implementation of IL-15 in adoptive NK-cell cancer therapy. PMID:27465917

  10. IL-15–PI3K–AKT–mTOR: A Critical Pathway in the Life Journey of Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Alaa Kassim; Nandagopal, Neethi; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Among numerous cytokines modulating natural killer (NK) cell function, interleukin 15 (IL-15) exerts a broad range of effect from development and homeostasis, to activation of mature NK cells during infection. Its significance is further highlighted by clinical trials in which IL-15 is being used to boost the proliferation and anti-tumor response of NK cells. Among the signal transduction pathways triggered by the engagement of IL-15 receptor with its ligand, the PI3K–AKT–mTOR pathway seems to be critical for the IL-15-mediated activation of NK cells, therefore being responsible for efficient anti-viral and anti-tumor responses. This review provides an overview of the role of IL-15 at multiple stages of NK cell life journey. Understanding the pathway by which IL-15 conveys critical signals for the generation of NK cells with efficient effector functions, in combination with established protocols for NK cell expansion ex vivo, will undoubtedly open new avenues for therapeutic applications for immunomodulation against infections and cancers. PMID:26257729

  11. Qualitatively Different T Cell Phenotypic Responses to IL-2 versus IL-15 are Unified by Identical Dependences on Receptor Signal Strength and Duration

    PubMed Central

    Arneja, Abhinav; Johnson, Hannah; Gabrovsek, Laura; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; White, Forest M.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) and Interleukin 15 (IL-15) are common γ-chain family cytokines involved in regulation of T cell differentiation and homeostasis. Despite signaling through the same receptors, IL-2 and IL-15 have non-redundant roles in T cell biology, both physiologically and at the cellular level. The mechanisms by which IL-2 and IL-15 trigger distinct phenotypes in T cells remain elusive. To elucidate these mechanisms, we performed a quantitative comparison of the phosphotyrosine signaling network and resulting phenotypes triggered by IL-2 and IL-15. This study revealed that the signaling networks activated by IL-2 or IL-15 are highly similar and that T cell proliferation and metabolism are controlled in a quantitatively distinct manner through IL-2/15 receptor signal strength independent of the cytokine identity. Distinct phenotypes associated with IL-2 or IL-15 stimulation therefore arise through differential regulation of IL-2/15R signal strength and duration due to differences in cytokine-receptor binding affinity, receptor expression levels, physiological cytokine levels, and cytokine-receptor intracellular trafficking kinetics. These results provide important insights into the function of other shared cytokine and growth factor receptors, quantitative regulation of cell proliferation and metabolism through signal transduction, and improved design of cytokine based clinical immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:24298013

  12. Hysteroscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J M

    1992-06-01

    After a brief history of sterilization, this article is devoted to hysteroscopic techniques and instrumentation, and a presentation of hysteroscopic sterilization techniques: electrocoagulation techniques, hysteroscopic injection of chemicals, and hysteroscopically directed placement of intratubal mechanical devices (ceramic plugs, polyethylene plugs, preformed silicone plugs, nylon intratubal plugs, and formed-in-place silicone rubber plugs. Problems are identified that are common to all hysteroscopic sterilization techniques. There are also practical considerations which limit the development of hysteroscopic sterilization techniques, and these considerations are presented. Various means have been used historically to block the tubal ostia, including the insertion of nitric acid in 1984, but it was not until 1927 that the hysteroscope was used for sterilization. Hysteroscopy itself was discovered in 1869 for diagnosis of intrauterine diseases. Even with the hysteroscope and the 1934 procedure of using an electric current in the tubal ostia, hysteroscopic sterilization was little used. In 1973 a convention was convened to discuss the use of the procedure and the ramifications. Currently, the hysteroscope is a modified cytoscope with a 4 mm wide telescope with a fore-oblique lens, a 7 mm wide metallic sheath, a fiberoptic bundle for transmission of light, and additional instruments for intrauterine manipulation or surgical intervention. Under local anesthesia, sterilization is effected by 1) destruction of the interstitial portion of the oviduct by thermal energy, 2) injection techniques for the delivery of sclerosing substances or tissue adhesives, or 3) mechanical occlusive devices or plugs to block the oviduct. Recent uterine, cervical, or adnexal infections and pregnancy prevent the performance of sterilization, because infections are exacerbated by the procedure. Uterine perforation is a complication. Other complications involve allergic reactions to the

  13. Anticancer Cytokines: Biology and Clinical Effects of IFN-α2, IL-2, IL-15, IL-21, and IL-12

    PubMed Central

    Floros, Theofanis; Tarhini, Ahmad A.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts over nearly four decades have focused on ways to use cytokines to manipulate the host immune response towards cancer cell recognition and eradication. Significant advances were achieved with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-α (IFN-α), primarily in the treatment of patients with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. However, the utility of other cytokines showing promise in the preclinical setting has not been established largely because of toxicity, the complex functionality of each cytokine and the difficulty mimicking in preclinical models the human environment. In this paper we will review the basic biology and the clinical experiences with IFN-α, IL-2, IL-15, IL-21 and IL-12. We will also review ongoing clinical trials and discuss future directions including potential use of cytokines in combination with other effective immunotherapy approaches which have come of age in recent years. PMID:26320059

  14. Expression in yeast of the T-urf13 protein from Texas male-sterile maize mitochondria confers sensitivity to methomyl and to Texas-cytoplasm-specific fungal toxins.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Lee, S H; Lin, C; Medici, R; Hack, E; Myers, A M

    1990-02-01

    The mitochondrial gene T-urf13 from maize (Zea mays L.) with Texas male-sterile (T) cytoplasm codes for a unique 13 kd polypeptide, T-URF13, which is implicated in cytoplasmic male sterility and sensitivity to the insecticide methomyl and to host-specific fungal toxins produced by Helminthosporium maydis race T (HmT toxin) and Phyllosticta maydis (Pm toxin). A chimeric gene coding for T-URF13 fused to the mitochondrial targeting peptide from the Neurospora crassa ATP synthase subunit 9 precursor was constructed. Expression of this gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae yielded a polypeptide that was translocated into the membrane fraction of mitochondria and processed to give a protein the same size as maize T-URF13. Methomyl, HmT toxin and Pm toxin inhibited growth of yeast cells expressing the gene fusion on medium containing glycerol as sole carbon source and stimulated respiration with NADH as substrate by isolated mitochondria from these cells. These effects were not observed in yeast cells expressing T-URF13 without a targeting peptide. The results show that T-URF13 is sufficient to confer sensitivity to methomyl and the fungal toxins in a heterologous eukaryotic system, and suggest that mitochondrial localization of T-URF13 is critical for these functions.

  15. The Critical Role of IL-15–PI3K–mTOR Pathway in Natural Killer Cell Effector Functions

    PubMed Central

    Nandagopal, Neethi; Ali, Alaa Kassim; Komal, Amandeep Kaur; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells were so named for their uniqueness in killing certain tumor and virus-infected cells without prior sensitization. Their functions are modulated in vivo by several soluble immune mediators; interleukin-15 (IL-15) being the most potent among them in enabling NK cell homeostasis, maturation, and activation. During microbial infections, NK cells stimulated with IL-15 display enhanced cytokine responses. This priming effect has previously been shown with respect to increased IFN-γ production in NK cells upon IL-12 and IL-15/IL-2 co-stimulation. In this study, we explored if this effect of IL-15 priming can be extended to various other cytokines and observed enhanced NK cell responses to stimulation with IL-4, IL-21, IFN-α, and IL-2 in addition to IL-12. Notably, we also observed elevated IFN-γ production in primed NK cells upon stimulation through the Ly49H activation receptor. Currently, the fundamental processes required for priming and whether these signaling pathways work collaboratively or independently for NK cell functions are poorly understood. To identify the key signaling events for NK cell priming, we examined IL-15 effects on NK cells in which the pathways emanating from IL-15 receptor activation were blocked with specific inhibitors. Our results demonstrate that the PI3K–AKT–mTOR pathway is critical for cytokine responses in IL-15 primed NK cells. Furthermore, this pathway is also implicated in a broad range of IL-15-induced NK cell effector functions such as proliferation and cytotoxicity. Likewise, NK cells from mice treated with rapamycin to block the mTOR pathway displayed defects in proliferation, and IFN-γ and granzyme B productions resulting in elevated viral burdens upon murine cytomegalovirus infection. Taken together, our data demonstrate the requirement of PI3K–mTOR pathway for enhanced NK cell functions by IL-15, thereby coupling the metabolic sensor mTOR to NK cell anti-viral responses. PMID:24795729

  16. IL-15Rα deficiency in skeletal muscle alters respiratory function and the proteome of mitochondrial subpopulations independent of changes to the mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Grant C; Nichols, Cody; Guo, Ge; Croston, Tara L; Thapa, Dharendra; Hollander, John M; Pistilli, Emidio E

    2015-11-01

    Interleukin-15 receptor alpha knockout (IL15RαKO) mice exhibit a greater skeletal muscle mitochondrial density with an altered mitochondrial morphology. However, the mechanism and functional impact of these changes have not been determined. In this study, we characterized the functional, proteomic, and genomic alterations in mitochondrial subpopulations isolated from the skeletal muscles of IL15RαKO mice and B6129 background control mice. State 3 respiration was greater in interfibrillar mitochondria and whole muscle ATP levels were greater in IL15RαKO mice supporting the increases in respiration rate. However, the state 3/state 4 ratio was lower, suggesting some degree of respiratory uncoupling. Proteomic analyses identified several markers independently in mitochondrial subpopulations that are associated with these functional alterations. Next Generation Sequencing of mtDNA revealed a high degree of similarity between the mitochondrial genomes of IL15RαKO mice and controls in terms of copy number, consensus coding and the presence of minor alleles, suggesting that the functional and proteomic alterations we observed occurred independent of alterations to the mitochondrial genome. These data provide additional evidence to implicate IL-15Rα as a regulator of skeletal muscle phenotypes through effects on the mitochondrion, and suggest these effects are driven by alterations to the mitochondrial proteome.

  17. Combination of TACI-IgG and anti-IL-15 treats murine lupus by reducing mature and memory B cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Xiao, He; Marrero, Bernadette; Xing, Chen; Wang, Xiaoqian; Zheng, Mingke; Han, Gencheng; Chen, Guojiang; Hou, Chunmei; Shen, Beifen; Li, Yan; Wang, Renxi; Jiang, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials suggest that BAFF inhibitors such as atacicept (TACI-IgG) and belimumab (anti-BAFF antibody) could not reduce memory B-cell numbers, although they reduced the numbers of CD20(+) naïve B cells and activated B cells. In the present study, we explored the way to reduce memory B-cell numbers. First, we used TACI-IgG to treat murine lupus. We found that TACI-IgG was effective in reducing mature B cell numbers. Accordingly it controlled the level of the anti-dsDNA antibody in lupus-like mice. In addition, TACI-IgG up-regulated memory B cells in murine lupus. Furthermore, we found that TACI-IgG up-regulated IL-15 expression in lupus-like mice. Thus, the combination of TACI-IgG and anti-IL-15 antibodies was explored to understand their effects on the treatment of murine lupus. Compared to treatments with TACI-IgG or anti-IL-15 alone, the combination of TACI-IgG and anti-IL-15 antibodies efficiently ameliorated murine lupus phenotypes. The study provides hints for the clinical application of BAFF- and IL-15-specific therapeutic agents.

  18. PIAS1 and STAT-3 impair the tumoricidal potential of IFN-γ-stimulated mouse dendritic cells generated with IL-15

    PubMed Central

    Larmonier, Claire B.; Alizadeh, Darya; Trad, Malika; Janikashvili, Nona; Bonnotte, Bernard; Katsanis, Emmanuel; Larmonier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Primarily defined by their antigen-presenting property, dendritic cells (DCs) are being implemented as cancer vaccines in immunotherapeutic interventions. DCs can also function as direct tumor cell killers. How DC cytotoxic activity can be efficiently harnessed and the mechanisms controlling this non-conventional property are not fully understood. We report here that the tumoricidal potential of mouse DCs generated from myeloid precursors with GM-CSF and IL-15 (IL-15 DCs) can be triggered with the Toll-like receptor 4 ligand lipopolysaccharide to a similar extent compared with that of their counterparts, conventionally generated with IL-4 (IL-4 DCs). The mechanism of tumor cell killing depends on the induction of iNOS expression by DCs. In contrast, interferon (IFN)-γ induces the cytotoxic activity of IL-4 but not IL-15 DCs. Although the IFN-γ-STAT1 signaling pathway is overall functional in IL-15 DCs, IFN-γ fails to induce iNOS expression in these cells. iNOS expression is negatively controlled in IFN-γ-stimulated IL-15 DCs by the cooperation between the E3 SUMO ligase PIAS1 and STAT-3, and can be partially restored with PIAS1 siRNA and STAT-3 inhibitors. PMID:24777831

  19. Effects of Eccentric and Concentric Emphasized Resistance Exercise on IL-15 Serum Levels and Its Relation to Inflammatory Markers in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bazgir, Behzad; Salesi, Mohsen; Koushki, Maryam; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytokines play an important role in modulating the muscle’s metabolic and immunological responses to exercise. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated changes in the serum levels of Interleukin (IL)-15 as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as markers of inflammation, in athlete and non-athlete young men following eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) emphasized resistance exercise (RE). Patients and Methods: This study recruited 28 young males, 14 athletes and 14 non-athletes. Subjects completed two bouts of ECC and CON emphasized RE five days apart. Each bout included seven exercises that emphasized all major muscle groups with weight loads of 70% - 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM) for CON RE and 90% - 100% of 1RM for ECC RE. We analyzed subjects’ blood samples before and immediately after each bout of exercise to determine cytokine and hs-CRP serum levels according to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between IL-15 serum levels before and after ECC and CON RE in non-athletes (P = 0.03). In athletes, IL-15 serum level only increased after ECC RE (P = 0.01), which was noted to be the highest degree of change in IL-15 levels in all subjects. For athletes, the hs-CRP levels significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The serum levels of both TNF-α and hs-CRP were also significantly down-regulated after ECC RE in non-athletes. Conclusions: These results indicated that fitness level and RE could modulate circulating levels of IL-15 and suggest the potential anti-inflammatory effects of IL-15 during RE. PMID:26448857

  20. Allogeneic Mature Human Dendritic Cells Generate Superior Alloreactive Regulatory T Cells in the Presence of IL-15.

    PubMed

    Litjens, Nicolle H R; Boer, Karin; Zuijderwijk, Joke M; Klepper, Mariska; Peeters, Annemiek M A; Prens, Errol P; Verschoor, Wenda; Kraaijeveld, Rens; Ozgur, Zeliha; van den Hout-van Vroonhoven, Mirjam C; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Baan, Carla C; Betjes, Michiel G H

    2015-06-01

    Expansion of Ag-specific naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs) is required to obtain sufficient numbers of cells for cellular immunotherapy. In this study, different allogeneic stimuli were studied for their capacity to generate functional alloantigen-specific nTregs. A highly enriched nTreg fraction (CD4(+)CD25(bright)CD127(-) T cells) was alloantigen-specific expanded using HLA-mismatched immature, mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), or PBMCs. The allogeneic mature moDC-expanded nTregs were fully characterized by analysis of the demethylation status within the Treg-specific demethylation region of the FOXP3 gene and the expression of both protein and mRNA of FOXP3, HELIOS, CTLA4, and cytokines. In addition, the Ag-specific suppressive capacity of these expanded nTregs was tested. Allogeneic mature moDCs and skin-derived DCs were superior in inducing nTreg expansion compared with immature moDCs or PBMCs in an HLA-DR- and CD80/CD86-dependent way. Remarkably, the presence of exogenous IL-15 without IL-2 could facilitate optimal mature moDC-induced nTreg expansion. Allogeneic mature moDC-expanded nTregs were at low ratios (<1:320), potent suppressors of alloantigen-induced proliferation without significant suppression of completely HLA-mismatched, Ag-induced proliferation. Mature moDC-expanded nTregs were highly demethylated at the Treg-specific demethylation region within the FOXP3 gene and highly expressed of FOXP3, HELIOS, and CTLA4. A minority of the expanded nTregs produced IL-10, IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, but few IL-17-producing nTregs were found. Next-generation sequencing of mRNA of moDC-expanded nTregs revealed a strong induction of Treg-associated mRNAs. Human allogeneic mature moDCs are highly efficient stimulator cells, in the presence of exogenous IL-15, for expansion of stable alloantigen-specific nTregs with superior suppressive function. PMID:25917092

  1. IL-15 Superagonist Expands mCD8+ T, NK and NKT Cells after Burn Injury but Fails to Improve Outcome during Burn Wound Infection

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Naeem K.; Luan, Liming; Bohannon, Julia K.; Guo, Yin; Hernandez, Antonio; Fensterheim, Benjamin; Sherwood, Edward R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Severely burned patients are highly susceptible to opportunistic infections and sepsis, owing to the loss of the protective skin barrier and immunological dysfunction. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) belongs to the IL-2 family of common gamma chain cytokines and stimulates the proliferation and activation of T (specifically memory CD8), NK and NKT cells. It has been shown to preserve T cell function and improve survival during cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of IL-15 or IL-15 superagonist (SA) during infection after burn injury has not been evaluated. Moreover, very few, if any, studies have examined, in detail, the effect of burn injury and infection on the adaptive immune system. Thus, we examined the effect of burn and sepsis on adaptive immune cell populations and the effect of IL-15 SA treatment on the host response to infection. Methods Mice were subjected to a 35% total body surface area burn, followed by wound infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In some experiments, IL-15 SA was administered after burn injury, but before infection. Leukocytes in spleen, liver and peritoneal cavity were characterized using flow cytometry. Bacterial clearance, organ injury and survival were also assessed. Results Burn wound infection led to a significant decline in total white blood cell and lymphocyte counts and induced organ injury and sepsis. Burn injury caused decline in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen, which was worsened by infection. IL-15 treatment inhibited this decline and significantly increased cell numbers and activation, as determined by CD69 expression, of CD4+, CD8+, B, NK and NKT cells in the spleen and liver after burn injury. However, IL-15 SA treatment failed to prevent burn wound sepsis-induced loss of CD4+, CD8+, B, NK and NKT cells and failed to improve bacterial clearance and survival. Conclusion Cutaneous burn injury and infection cause significant adaptive immune dysfunction. IL-15

  2. Hair follicle-derived IL-7 and IL-15 mediate skin-resident memory T cell homeostasis and lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Takeya; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Sugihara, Eiji; Yamada, Taketo; Ikuta, Koichi; Pittaluga, Stefania; Saya, Hideyuki; Amagai, Masayuki; Nagao, Keisuke

    2015-11-01

    The skin harbors a variety of resident leukocyte subsets that must be tightly regulated to maintain immune homeostasis. Hair follicles are unique structures in the skin that contribute to skin dendritic cell homeostasis through chemokine production. We demonstrate that CD4(+) and CD8(+) skin-resident memory T cells (TRM cells), which are responsible for long-term skin immunity, reside predominantly within the hair follicle epithelium of the unperturbed epidermis. TRM cell tropism for the epidermis and follicles is herein termed epidermotropism. Hair follicle expression of IL-15 was required for CD8(+) TRM cells, and IL-7 for CD8(+) and CD4(+) TRM cells, to exert epidermotropism. A lack of either cytokine in the skin led to impaired hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity responses. In a model of cutaneous T cell lymphoma, epidermotropic CD4(+) TRM lymphoma cell localization depended on the presence of hair follicle-derived IL-7. These findings implicate hair follicle-derived cytokines as regulators of malignant and non-malignant TRM cell tissue residence, and they suggest that the cytokines may be targeted therapeutically in inflammatory skin diseases and lymphoma.

  3. Hair follicle-derived IL-7 and IL-15 mediate skin-resident memory T cell homeostasis and lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Takeya; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Sugihara, Eiji; Yamada, Taketo; Ikuta, Koichi; Pittaluga, Stefania; Saya, Hideyuki; Amagai, Masayuki; Nagao, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    The skin harbors a variety of resident leukocyte subsets that must be tightly regulated to maintain immune homeostasis. Hair follicles are unique structures in the skin that contribute to skin dendritic cell homeostasis via chemokine production. We demonstrate that CD4+ and CD8+ skin resident memory T cells (TRM), responsible for long-term skin immunity, resided predominantly within the hair follicle epithelium of unperturbed epidermis. TRM tropism for the epidermis and follicles was herein termed epidermotropism. Hair follicle-derived IL-15 was required for CD8+ TRM, and IL-7 for CD8+ and CD4+ TRM, to exert epidermotropism. The lack of either cytokine impaired hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity responses. In a model of cutaneous T cell lymphoma, epidermotropic CD4+ TRM lymphoma cell localization depended on hair follicle-derived IL-7. These findings implicate hair follicle-derived cytokines as regulators of malignant and non-malignant TRM cell tissue residence and suggest they may be targeted therapeutically in inflammatory skin disease and lymphoma. PMID:26479922

  4. IL-18, but not IL-15, contributes to the IL-12-dependent induction of NK-cell effector functions by Leishmania infantum in vivo.

    PubMed

    Haeberlein, Simone; Sebald, Heidi; Bogdan, Christian; Schleicher, Ulrike

    2010-06-01

    Activation of NK cells is a hallmark of infections with intracellular pathogens. We previously showed that the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum triggered a rapid NK-cell response in mice that required TLR9-positive myeloid DC and IL-12, but no IFN-alpha/beta. Here, we investigated whether IL-15 or IL-18 mediate the activity of IL-12 or function as independent activators of NK cells. In contrast to earlier studies that described IL-15 as crucial for NK-cell priming in response to TLR ligands, the expression of IFN-gamma, FasL, perforin and granzyme B by NK cells in L. infantum-infected mice was completely preserved in the absence of IL-15, whereas the proliferative capacity of NK cells was lower than in WT mice. IFN-gamma secretion, cytotoxicity and FasL expression of NK cells from infected IL-18(-/-) mice were significantly reduced compared with controls, but, unlike IL-12, IL-18 was not essential for NK-cell effector functions. Part of the NK-cell-stimulatory effect of IL-12 was dependent on IL-18. We conclude that IL-15 is not functioning as a universal NK-cell priming signal and that IL-18 contributes to the NK-cell response in visceral leishmaniasis. The cytokine requirements for NK-cell activation appear to differ contingent upon the infectious pathogen.

  5. IL-15 improves the cytotoxicity of cytokine-induced killer cells against leukemia cells by upregulating CD3+CD56+ cells and downregulating regulatory T cells as well as IL-35.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qianshan; Chen, Tianping; Tao, Lili; Wang, Huiping; Pan, Ying; Xiong, Shudao; Zhai, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are usually generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells with the stimulation of IL-2 in vitro. Unlike the conventional IL-2-stimulated CIK cells (IL-2-CIK cells), we investigated the characteristics and potential mechanism of IL-15-stimulated CIK cells (IL-15-CIK cells) in this study. Compared with IL-2-CIK cells, the percentage of CD3CD56 cells was significantly increased in IL-15-CIK cells, but the expression of regulatory T (Treg) cells and IL-35 was significantly decreased in IL-15-CIK cells. Meanwhile, the in vitro cytotoxicity against human myeloid leukemia cells K562 of IL-15-CIK cells was significantly augmented compared with IL-2-CIK cells. These data suggest that IL-15 may improve the cytotoxicity of CIK cells against leukemia cells by upregulating CD3CD56 cells and downregulating Treg cells and IL-35.

  6. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  7. Antibody and T cell responses induced in chickens immunized with avian influenza virus N1 and NP DNA vaccine with chicken IL-15 and IL-18.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kian-Lam; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2013-12-01

    We had examined the immunogenicity of a series of plasmid DNAs which include neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from avian influenza virus (AIV). The interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) as genetic adjuvants were used for immunization in combination with the N1 and NP AIV genes. In the first trial, 8 groups of chickens were established with 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens per group while, in the second trial 7 SPF chickens per group were used. The overall N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer in chickens immunized with the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to the chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 and this suggesting that chicken IL-15 could play a role in enhancing the humoral immune response. Besides that, the chickens that were immunized at 14-day-old (Trial 2) showed a higher N1 antibody titer compared to the chickens that were immunized at 1-day-old (Trial 1). Despite the delayed in NP antibody responses, the chickens co-administrated with IL-15 were able to induce earlier and higher antibody response compared to the pDis/NP and pDis/NP+pDis/IL-18 inoculated groups. The pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 inoculated chickens also induced higher CD8+ T cells increase than the pDis/N1 group in both trials (P<0.05). The flow cytometry results from both trials demonstrated that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-18 groups were able to induce CD4+ T cells higher than the pDis/N1 group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, pDis/N1+pDis/IL-18 group was able to induce CD8+ T cells higher than the pDis/N1 group (P<0.05) in Trial 2 only. In the present study, pDis/NP was not significant (P>0.05) in inducing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when co-administered with the pDis/IL-18 in both trials in comparison to the pDis/NP. Our data suggest that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 combination has the potential to be used as a DNA vaccine against AIV in chickens.

  8. Cytokine-independent growth and clonal expansion of a primary human CD8+ T-cell clone following retroviral transduction with the IL-15 gene.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cary; Jones, Stephanie A; Cohen, Cyrille J; Zheng, Zhili; Kerstann, Keith; Zhou, Juhua; Robbins, Paul F; Peng, Peter D; Shen, Xinglei; Gomes, Theotonius J; Dunbar, Cynthia E; Munroe, David J; Stewart, Claudia; Cornetta, Kenneth; Wangsa, Danny; Ried, Thomas; Rosenberg, Steven A; Morgan, Richard A

    2007-06-15

    Malignancies arising from retrovirally transduced hematopoietic stem cells have been reported in animal models and human gene therapy trials. Whether mature lymphocytes are susceptible to insertional mutagenesis is unknown. We have characterized a primary human CD8(+) T-cell clone, which exhibited logarithmic ex vivo growth in the absence of exogenous cytokine support for more than 1 year after transduction with a murine leukemia virus-based vector encoding the T-cell growth factor IL-15. Phenotypically, the clone was CD28(-), CD45RA(-), CD45RO(+), and CD62L(-), a profile consistent with effector memory T lymphocytes. After gene transfer with tumor-antigen-specific T-cell receptors, the clone secreted IFN-gamma upon encountering tumor targets, providing further evidence that they derived from mature lymphocytes. Gene-expression analyses revealed no evidence of insertional activation of genes flanking the retroviral insertion sites. The clone exhibited constitutive telomerase activity, and the presence of autocrine loop was suggested by impaired cell proliferation following knockdown of IL-15R alpha expression. The generation of this cell line suggests that nonphysiologic expression of IL-15 can result in the long-term in vitro growth of mature human T lymphocytes. The cytokine-independent growth of this line was a rare event that has not been observed in other IL-15 vector transduction experiments or with any other integrating vector system. It does not appear that the retroviral vector integration sites played a role in the continuous growth of this cell clone, but this remains under investigation.

  9. Acute GVHD in patients receiving IL-15/4-1BBL activated NK cells following T-cell-depleted stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nirali N; Baird, Kristin; Delbrook, Cynthia P; Fleisher, Thomas A; Kohler, Mark E; Rampertaap, Shakuntala; Lemberg, Kimberly; Hurley, Carolyn K; Kleiner, David E; Merchant, Melinda S; Pittaluga, Stefania; Sabatino, Marianna; Stroncek, David F; Wayne, Alan S; Zhang, Hua; Fry, Terry J; Mackall, Crystal L

    2015-01-29

    Natural killer (NK) cells can enhance engraftment and mediate graft-versus-leukemia following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but the potency of graft-versus-leukemia mediated by naturally reconstituting NK cells following HSCT is limited. Preclinical studies demonstrate that activation of NK cells using interleukin-15 (IL-15) plus 4-1BBL upregulates activating receptor expression and augments killing capacity. In an effort to amplify the beneficial effects of NK cells post-HSCT, we conducted a first-in-human trial of adoptive transfer of donor-derived IL-15/4-1BBL-activated NK cells (aNK-DLI) following HLA-matched, T-cell-depleted (1-2 × 10(4) T cells/kg) nonmyeloablative peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in children and young adults with ultra-high-risk solid tumors. aNK-DLI were CD3(+)-depleted, CD56(+)-selected lymphocytes, cultured for 9 to 11 days with recombinant human IL-15 plus 4-1BBL(+)IL-15Rα(+) artificial antigen-presenting cells. aNK-DLI demonstrated potent killing capacity and displayed high levels of activating receptor expression. Five of 9 transplant recipients experienced acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following aNK-DLI, with grade 4 GVHD observed in 3 subjects. GVHD was more common in matched unrelated donor vs matched sibling donor recipients and was associated with higher donor CD3 chimerism. Given that the T-cell dose was below the threshold required for GVHD in this setting, we conclude that aNK-DLI contributed to the acute GVHD observed, likely by augmenting underlying T-cell alloreactivity. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01287104. PMID:25452614

  10. Acute GVHD in patients receiving IL-15/4-1BBL activated NK cells following T-cell–depleted stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nirali N.; Baird, Kristin; Delbrook, Cynthia P.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Kohler, Mark E.; Rampertaap, Shakuntala; Lemberg, Kimberly; Hurley, Carolyn K.; Kleiner, David E.; Merchant, Melinda S.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Sabatino, Marianna; Stroncek, David F.; Wayne, Alan S.; Zhang, Hua; Fry, Terry J.

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells can enhance engraftment and mediate graft-versus-leukemia following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but the potency of graft-versus-leukemia mediated by naturally reconstituting NK cells following HSCT is limited. Preclinical studies demonstrate that activation of NK cells using interleukin-15 (IL-15) plus 4-1BBL upregulates activating receptor expression and augments killing capacity. In an effort to amplify the beneficial effects of NK cells post-HSCT, we conducted a first-in-human trial of adoptive transfer of donor-derived IL-15/4-1BBL–activated NK cells (aNK-DLI) following HLA-matched, T-cell–depleted (1-2 × 104 T cells/kg) nonmyeloablative peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in children and young adults with ultra-high-risk solid tumors. aNK-DLI were CD3+-depleted, CD56+-selected lymphocytes, cultured for 9 to 11 days with recombinant human IL-15 plus 4-1BBL+IL-15Rα+ artificial antigen-presenting cells. aNK-DLI demonstrated potent killing capacity and displayed high levels of activating receptor expression. Five of 9 transplant recipients experienced acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following aNK-DLI, with grade 4 GVHD observed in 3 subjects. GVHD was more common in matched unrelated donor vs matched sibling donor recipients and was associated with higher donor CD3 chimerism. Given that the T-cell dose was below the threshold required for GVHD in this setting, we conclude that aNK-DLI contributed to the acute GVHD observed, likely by augmenting underlying T-cell alloreactivity. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01287104. PMID:25452614

  11. Acute GVHD in patients receiving IL-15/4-1BBL activated NK cells following T-cell-depleted stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nirali N; Baird, Kristin; Delbrook, Cynthia P; Fleisher, Thomas A; Kohler, Mark E; Rampertaap, Shakuntala; Lemberg, Kimberly; Hurley, Carolyn K; Kleiner, David E; Merchant, Melinda S; Pittaluga, Stefania; Sabatino, Marianna; Stroncek, David F; Wayne, Alan S; Zhang, Hua; Fry, Terry J; Mackall, Crystal L

    2015-01-29

    Natural killer (NK) cells can enhance engraftment and mediate graft-versus-leukemia following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but the potency of graft-versus-leukemia mediated by naturally reconstituting NK cells following HSCT is limited. Preclinical studies demonstrate that activation of NK cells using interleukin-15 (IL-15) plus 4-1BBL upregulates activating receptor expression and augments killing capacity. In an effort to amplify the beneficial effects of NK cells post-HSCT, we conducted a first-in-human trial of adoptive transfer of donor-derived IL-15/4-1BBL-activated NK cells (aNK-DLI) following HLA-matched, T-cell-depleted (1-2 × 10(4) T cells/kg) nonmyeloablative peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in children and young adults with ultra-high-risk solid tumors. aNK-DLI were CD3(+)-depleted, CD56(+)-selected lymphocytes, cultured for 9 to 11 days with recombinant human IL-15 plus 4-1BBL(+)IL-15Rα(+) artificial antigen-presenting cells. aNK-DLI demonstrated potent killing capacity and displayed high levels of activating receptor expression. Five of 9 transplant recipients experienced acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following aNK-DLI, with grade 4 GVHD observed in 3 subjects. GVHD was more common in matched unrelated donor vs matched sibling donor recipients and was associated with higher donor CD3 chimerism. Given that the T-cell dose was below the threshold required for GVHD in this setting, we conclude that aNK-DLI contributed to the acute GVHD observed, likely by augmenting underlying T-cell alloreactivity. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01287104.

  12. Exaggerated IL-15 and Altered Expression of foxp3+ Cell-Derived Cytokines Contribute to Enhanced Colitis in Nlrp3−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tulk, Sarah E.; Becker, Helen M.; Potentier, Mireille S.; Li, Yan; Ghosh, Subrata; MacDonald, Justin A.; Beck, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) involves defects in the innate immune system, impairing responses to microbes. Studies have revealed that mutations NLRP3 are associated with CD. We reported previously that Nlrp3−/− mice were more susceptible to colitis and exhibited reduced colonic IL-10 expression. In the current study, we sought to determine how the loss of NLRP3 might be altering the function of regulatory T cells, a major source of IL-10. Colitis was induced in wild-type (WT) and Nlrp3−/− mice by treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Lamina propria (LP) cells were assessed by flow cytometry and cytokine expression was assessed. DSS-treated Nlrp3−/− mice exhibited increased numbers of colonic foxp3+ T cells that expressed significantly lower levels of IL-10 but increased IL-17. This was associated with increased expression of colonic IL-15 and increased surface expression of IL-15 on LP dendritic cells. Neutralizing IL-15 in Nlrp3−/− mice attenuated the severity of colitis, decreased the number of colonic foxp3+ cells, and reduced the colonic expression of IL-12p40 and IL-17. These data suggest that the NLRP3 inflammasome can regulate intestinal inflammation through noncanonical mechanisms, providing additional insight as to how NLRP3 variants may contribute to the pathogenesis of CD.

  13. Exaggerated IL-15 and Altered Expression of foxp3+ Cell-Derived Cytokines Contribute to Enhanced Colitis in Nlrp3-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Simon A; Ueno, Aito; Tulk, Sarah E; Becker, Helen M; Schenck, L Patrick; Potentier, Mireille S; Li, Yan; Ghosh, Subrata; Muruve, Daniel A; MacDonald, Justin A; Beck, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) involves defects in the innate immune system, impairing responses to microbes. Studies have revealed that mutations NLRP3 are associated with CD. We reported previously that Nlrp3-/- mice were more susceptible to colitis and exhibited reduced colonic IL-10 expression. In the current study, we sought to determine how the loss of NLRP3 might be altering the function of regulatory T cells, a major source of IL-10. Colitis was induced in wild-type (WT) and Nlrp3-/- mice by treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Lamina propria (LP) cells were assessed by flow cytometry and cytokine expression was assessed. DSS-treated Nlrp3-/- mice exhibited increased numbers of colonic foxp3+ T cells that expressed significantly lower levels of IL-10 but increased IL-17. This was associated with increased expression of colonic IL-15 and increased surface expression of IL-15 on LP dendritic cells. Neutralizing IL-15 in Nlrp3-/- mice attenuated the severity of colitis, decreased the number of colonic foxp3+ cells, and reduced the colonic expression of IL-12p40 and IL-17. These data suggest that the NLRP3 inflammasome can regulate intestinal inflammation through noncanonical mechanisms, providing additional insight as to how NLRP3 variants may contribute to the pathogenesis of CD. PMID:27610005

  14. Exaggerated IL-15 and Altered Expression of foxp3+ Cell-Derived Cytokines Contribute to Enhanced Colitis in Nlrp3−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tulk, Sarah E.; Becker, Helen M.; Potentier, Mireille S.; Li, Yan; Ghosh, Subrata; MacDonald, Justin A.; Beck, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) involves defects in the innate immune system, impairing responses to microbes. Studies have revealed that mutations NLRP3 are associated with CD. We reported previously that Nlrp3−/− mice were more susceptible to colitis and exhibited reduced colonic IL-10 expression. In the current study, we sought to determine how the loss of NLRP3 might be altering the function of regulatory T cells, a major source of IL-10. Colitis was induced in wild-type (WT) and Nlrp3−/− mice by treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). Lamina propria (LP) cells were assessed by flow cytometry and cytokine expression was assessed. DSS-treated Nlrp3−/− mice exhibited increased numbers of colonic foxp3+ T cells that expressed significantly lower levels of IL-10 but increased IL-17. This was associated with increased expression of colonic IL-15 and increased surface expression of IL-15 on LP dendritic cells. Neutralizing IL-15 in Nlrp3−/− mice attenuated the severity of colitis, decreased the number of colonic foxp3+ cells, and reduced the colonic expression of IL-12p40 and IL-17. These data suggest that the NLRP3 inflammasome can regulate intestinal inflammation through noncanonical mechanisms, providing additional insight as to how NLRP3 variants may contribute to the pathogenesis of CD. PMID:27610005

  15. IL-15 prolongs CD154 expression on human CD4 T cells via STAT5 binding to the CD154 transcriptional promoter

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, RM; Genin, A; Orgun, N; Cron, RQ

    2014-01-01

    Activation induced CD154 expression on CD4 T cells is prolonged in systemic lupus erythematosus but the mechanism(s) for its dysregulation are unknown. The studies reported herein demonstrate that IL-15 is capable of prolonging CD154 expression on PHA activated CD4 T cells. Since IL-15 signals through STAT5, predicted STAT5 binding sites in the human CD154 transcriptional promoter were identified, and STAT5 binding to the proximal CD154 promoter in vitro and in vivo following primary CD4 T cell activation was demonstrated. Moreover, overexpression of wild-type(WT) STAT5 in primary human CD4 T cells augmented CD154 transcription, whereas overexpression of a dominant negative (DN) STAT5 protein inhibited CD154 transcription. Mutation of the most proximal STAT5 binding site in the CD154 promoter resulted in diminished DNA binding and reduced CD154 transcriptional activity. Interestingly, STAT5-specific siRNA inhibited CD154 surface expression at 48 but not 24 hours after T cell activation. Thus, these findings provide some of the first evidence to support a possible mechanistic link to explain how the overexpression of IL-15 observed in lupus patients may be involved in the prolonged expression of CD154 that has also been observed on lupus CD4 T cells. PMID:24500400

  16. Sterilizing the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Sheila M.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that freedom for the middle classes may mean vulnerability for the poor. The enthusiasm for sterilization may be so intense as to deprive the poor of their right not to be sterilized. (Author/AM)

  17. Apparatus Circulates Sterilizing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus circulates sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, circulating it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and circulates gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.

  18. Induction of protective immune responses against NXS2 neuroblastoma challenge in mice by immunotherapy with GD2 mimotope vaccine and IL-15 and IL-21 gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Gil, Margaret; Bambach, Barbara; Kaneko, Yutaro; Rokita, Hanna; Repasky, Elizabeth; Fenstermaker, Robert; Brecher, Martin; Ciesielski, Michael; Kozbor, Danuta

    2007-09-01

    The GD2 ganglioside expressed on neuroectodermal tumor cells is weakly immunogenic in tumor-bearing patients and induces predominantly IgM antibody responses in the immunized host. Using a syngeneic mouse challenge model with GD2-expressing NXS2 neuroblastoma, we investigated novel strategies for augmenting the effector function of GD2-specific antibody responses induced by a mimotope vaccine. We demonstrated that immunization of A/J mice with DNA vaccine expressing the 47-LDA mimotope of GD2 in combination with IL-15 and IL-21 genes enhanced the induction of GD2 cross-reactive IgG2 antibody responses that exhibited cytolytic activity against NXS2 cells. The combined immunization regimen delivered 1 day after tumor challenge inhibited subcutaneous (s.c.) growth of NXS2 neuroblastoma in A/J mice. The vaccine efficacy was reduced after depletion of NK cells as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes suggesting involvement of innate and adaptive immune responses in mediating the antitumor activity in vivo. CD8(+) T cells isolated from the immunized and cured mice were cytotoxic against syngeneic neuroblastoma cells but not against allogeneic EL4 lymphoma, and exhibited antitumor activity after adoptive transfer in NXS2-challenged mice. We also demonstrated that coimmunization of NXS2-challenged mice with the IL-15 and IL-21 gene combination resulted in enhanced CD8(+) T cell function that was partially independent of CD4(+) T cell help in inhibiting tumor growth. This study is the first demonstration that the mimotope vaccine of a weakly immunogenic carbohydrate antigen in combination with plasmid-derived IL-15 and IL-21 cytokines induces both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system leading to the generation of effective protection against neuroblastoma challenge.

  19. The activation of TLR7 regulates the expression of VEGF, TIMP1, MMP2, IL-6, and IL-15 in Hela cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Cheng, Feng-Wei; Wang, Fang; Jia, Bo; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Sheng-Quan

    2014-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important roles in activation of immunoreaction and tumor development. Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), one of the TLRs binding with single-stranded RNA, activates intracellular pathways and stimulates the release of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines. In this study, we investigated the impact of the TLR7-signaling pathway on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 15 (IL-15), which have been testified to refer to the immunomodulating and tumor progression. We confirmed that the TLR7 was expressed by Hela cells, despite the abundance was weak. Gardiquimod, one of the TLR7 ligands, can promote these five genes expression in varying degrees. After stimulating with gardiquimod, the expression of the IL-15V1, 3 increased about 4.5 times on RNA level, the other expression was only up-regulated about 2 times. We also discovered that gardiquimod could activate the MAPK/ERK- and PI3K/AKT-signaling pathways, and the specific inhibitors studies indicate that, the effect of gardiquimod on these genes expression is mainly or partially dependent on the activation of these two signaling pathways. To sum up, the activation of TLR7 signaling pathway may modulate some genes expression in Hela cells and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the cervical cancer.

  20. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of breast tumors combined with intralesional administration of IL-7 and IL-15 augments anti-tumor immune responses and inhibits tumor development and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Mehran; Kmieciak, Maciej; Graham, Laura; Morales, Johanna K; Bear, Harry D; Manjili, Masoud H

    2008-01-01

    Tumor development or recurrence is always a matter of concern following radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) of tumors. To determine whether combining RFA with immunologically active cytokines might induce tumor-specific immune responses against mammary carcinoma and inhibit tumor development or metastasis, we evaluated intralesional injection of IL-7 and IL-15 in RFA-treated murine tumors. We used two different breast carcinoma models: neu-overexpressing mouse mammary carcinoma (MMC) in FVBN202 transgenic mouse and 4T1 tumors in Balb/c mouse. MMC tend to relapse even in the presence of neu-specific immune responses, and 4T1 is a weakly immunogenic, aggressive and highly metastatic transplantable tumor. In vivo growth of both of these tumors is also associated with increased numbers of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). We showed for the first time that unlike RFA alone, RFA combined with the administration of intralesional IL-7 and IL-15 (after RFA), induced immune responses to tumors, inhibited tumor development and lung metastasis, and reduced MDSC. PMID:18425677

  1. Association of germline genetic variants in RFC, IL15 and VDR genes with minimal residual disease in pediatric B-cell precursor ALL

    PubMed Central

    Dawidowska, Małgorzata; Kosmalska, Maria; Sędek, Łukasz; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Twardoch, Magdalena; Sonsala, Alicja; Szarzyńska-Zawadzka, Bronisława; Derwich, Katarzyna; Lejman, Monika; Pawelec, Katarzyna; Obitko-Płudowska, Agnieszka; Pawińska-Wąsikowska, Katarzyna; Kwiecińska, Kinga; Kołtan, Andrzej; Dyla, Agnieszka; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Kowalczyk, Jerzy R.; Szczepański, Tomasz; Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Witt, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) enables reliable assessment of risk in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, little is known on association between MRD status and germline genetic variation. We examined 159 Caucasian (Slavic) patients with pediatric ALL, treated according to ALL-IC-BFM 2002/2009 protocols, in search for association between 23 germline polymorphisms and MRD status at day 15, day 33 and week 12, with adjustment for MRD-associated clinical covariates. Three variants were significantly associated with MRD: rs1544410 in VDR (MRD-day15); rs1051266 in RFC (MRD-day33, MRD-week12), independently and in an additive effect with rs10519613 in IL15 (MRD-day33). The risk alleles for MRD-positivity were: A allele of VDR (OR = 2.37, 95%CI = 1.07–5.21, P = 0.03, MRD-day15); A of RFC (OR = 1.93, 95%CI = 1.05–3.52, P = 0.03, MRD-day33 and MRD-week12, P < 0.01); A of IL15 (OR = 2.30, 95%CI = 1.02–5.18, P = 0.04, MRD-day33). The risk for MRD-day33-positive status was higher in patients with risk alleles in both RFC and IL15 loci than in patients with risk alleles in one locus or no risk alleles: 2 vs. 1 (OR = 3.94, 95% CI = 1.28–12.11, P = 0.024), 2 vs. 0 (OR = 6.75, 95% CI = 1.61–28.39, P = 0.012). Germline variation in genes related to pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of anti-leukemic drugs and to anti-tumor immunity of the host is associated with MRD status and might help improve risk assessment in ALL. PMID:27427275

  2. Association of germline genetic variants in RFC, IL15 and VDR genes with minimal residual disease in pediatric B-cell precursor ALL.

    PubMed

    Dawidowska, Małgorzata; Kosmalska, Maria; Sędek, Łukasz; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Twardoch, Magdalena; Sonsala, Alicja; Szarzyńska-Zawadzka, Bronisława; Derwich, Katarzyna; Lejman, Monika; Pawelec, Katarzyna; Obitko-Płudowska, Agnieszka; Pawińska-Wąsikowska, Katarzyna; Kwiecińska, Kinga; Kołtan, Andrzej; Dyla, Agnieszka; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Kowalczyk, Jerzy R; Szczepański, Tomasz; Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Witt, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) enables reliable assessment of risk in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, little is known on association between MRD status and germline genetic variation. We examined 159 Caucasian (Slavic) patients with pediatric ALL, treated according to ALL-IC-BFM 2002/2009 protocols, in search for association between 23 germline polymorphisms and MRD status at day 15, day 33 and week 12, with adjustment for MRD-associated clinical covariates. Three variants were significantly associated with MRD: rs1544410 in VDR (MRD-day15); rs1051266 in RFC (MRD-day33, MRD-week12), independently and in an additive effect with rs10519613 in IL15 (MRD-day33). The risk alleles for MRD-positivity were: A allele of VDR (OR = 2.37, 95%CI = 1.07-5.21, P = 0.03, MRD-day15); A of RFC (OR = 1.93, 95%CI = 1.05-3.52, P = 0.03, MRD-day33 and MRD-week12, P < 0.01); A of IL15 (OR = 2.30, 95%CI = 1.02-5.18, P = 0.04, MRD-day33). The risk for MRD-day33-positive status was higher in patients with risk alleles in both RFC and IL15 loci than in patients with risk alleles in one locus or no risk alleles: 2 vs. 1 (OR = 3.94, 95% CI = 1.28-12.11, P = 0.024), 2 vs. 0 (OR = 6.75, 95% CI = 1.61-28.39, P = 0.012). Germline variation in genes related to pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of anti-leukemic drugs and to anti-tumor immunity of the host is associated with MRD status and might help improve risk assessment in ALL. PMID:27427275

  3. Sterilization. Disciplined microbial control.

    PubMed

    Miller, C H

    1991-04-01

    The goal of instrument processing is to protect patients by preventing cross-contamination from instruments. The processing involves a series of sequential steps aimed at removing and killing microbes on contaminated instruments and maintaining those instruments in an aseptic state until they are reused. These steps must be conducted carefully to assure success and to reduce chances of disease spread or physical injury to those handling the contaminated instruments. Presoaking begins the cleaning process and facilitates terminal cleaning by ultrasonic or manual scrubbing. If instruments are not properly cleaned, subsequent sterilization may be jeopardized by insulation of blood- or saliva-coated microbes from the sterilizing agent. Items that would be destroyed by heat should be cleaned and sterilized in a properly prepared glutaraldehyde solution. Cleaned instruments must be packaged prior to heat sterilization to protect them from recontamination after sterilization and before reuse. Sterilization of cleaned, packaged instruments in steam, chemical vapor, or dry heat sterilizers must involve proper loading, processing, drying, and cooling. Routine use of spore tests and chemical indicators will provide quality assessment of packaging procedures and operation of the sterilizer, as well as assist in identifying processed packages during distribution. Using the results of sterilization monitoring to adjust procedures as a means of assuring sterilization provides quality assurance to the office staff and to the patients that the instruments have been properly processed. Carefully handling storage and distribution of the sterilized instrument packs or trays reduces the chances for recontamination until the instruments are reused. Instrument processing is a major part of the office infection control program. It must be performed in a controlled manner with proper monitoring to achieve the desired outcome of patient protection. PMID:2032579

  4. Epitope-specific T cell tolerance to phospholipase A2 in bee venom immunotherapy and recovery by IL-2 and IL-15 in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Blesken, T; Wymann, D; Alkan, S S; Müller, U; Blaser, K

    1996-01-01

    Bee venom phospholipase A2 (PLA) is the major allergen in bee sting allergy. It displays three peptide and a glycopeptide T cell epitopes, which are recognized by both allergic and non-allergic bee venom sensitized subjects. In this study PLA- and PLA epitope-specific T cell and cytokine responses in PBMC of bee sting allergic patients were investigated before and after 2 mo of rush immunotherapy with whole bee venom. After successful immunotherapy, PLA and T cell epitope peptide-specific T cell proliferation was suppressed. In addition the PLA- and peptide-induced secretion of type 2 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), as well as type 1 (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) cytokines were abolished, whereas tetanus toxoid-induced cytokine production and proliferation remained unchanged. By culturing PBMC with Ag in the presence of IL-2 or IL-15 the specifically tolerized T cell response could be restored with respect to specific proliferation and secretion of the type 1 T cell cytokines, IL-2 and IFN-gamma. In contrast, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 remained suppressed. Treatment of tolerized T cells with IL-4 only partially restored proliferation and induced formation of distinct type 2 cytokine pattern. In spite of the allergen-specific tolerance in T cells, in vitro produced anti-PLA IgE and IgG4 Ab and their corresponding serum levels slightly increased during immunotherapy, while the PLA-specific IgE/IgG4 ratio changed in favor of IgG4. These findings indicate that bee venom immunotherapy induces a state of peripheral tolerance in allergen-specific T cells, but not in specific B cells. The state of T cell tolerance and cytokine pattern can be in vitro modulated by the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, and IL-15, suggesting the importance of microenvironmental cytokines leading to success or failure in immunotherapy. PMID:8833918

  5. Cooperative therapeutic anti-tumor effect of IL-15 agonist ALT-803 and co-targeting soluble NKG2D ligand sMIC

    PubMed Central

    Basher, Fahmin; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing; Wu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Shedding of the human NKG2D ligand MIC (MHC class I-chain-related molecule) from tumor cell surfaces correlates with progression of many epithelial cancers. Shedding-derived soluble MIC (sMIC) enables tumor immune escape through multiple immune suppressive mechanisms, such as disturbing natural killer (NK) cell homeostatic maintenance, impairing NKG2D expression on NK cells and effector T cells, and facilitating the expansion of arginase I+ myeloid suppressor cells. Our recent study has demonstrated that sMIC is an effective cancer therapeutic target. Whether targeting tumor-derived sMIC would enhance current active immunotherapy is not known. Here, we determined the in vivo therapeutic effect of an antibody co-targeting sMIC with the immunostimulatory IL-15 superagonist complex, ALT-803, using genetically engineered transplantable syngeneic sMIC+ tumor models. We demonstrate that combined therapy of a nonblocking antibody neutralizing sMIC and ALT-803 improved the survival of animals bearing sMIC+ tumors in comparison to monotherapy. We further demonstrate that the enhanced therapeutic effect with combined therapy is through concurrent augmentation of NK and CD8 T cell anti-tumor responses. In particular, expression of activation-induced surface molecules and increased functional potential by cytokine secretion are improved greatly by the administration of combined therapy. Depletion of NK cells abolished the cooperative therapeutic effect. Our findings suggest that administration of the sMIC-neutralizing antibody can enhance the anti-tumor effects of ALT-803. With ALT-803 currently in clinical trials to treat progressive solid tumors, the majority of which are sMIC+, our findings provide a rationale for co-targeting sMIC to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of ALT-803 or other IL-15 agonists. PMID:26625316

  6. Sterilization: who decides?

    PubMed

    Marine, G

    1974-09-01

    22 states permit forced sterilization of anyone the courts may find "mentally defective". The law has been applied to very young minors and to women just because they are collecting welfare. The American Civil Liberties Union has taken some forced sterilization cases, hoping to get general principles established.

  7. Sterilization for Women and Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... are rare. Can sterilization be reversed? Sterilization is permanent birth control and is not meant to be reversible. Before ... that can fertilize a female egg. Sterilization: A permanent method of birth control. Testes: Two male organs that produce sperm and ...

  8. [Sterilization and eugenics].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2011-04-01

    The term "eugenics" was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and was defined as the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding. "Positive eugenics" referred to methods of encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often, while "negative eugenics" was related to ways of discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing by birth control and sterilization. Many western countries adopted eugenics programs including Britain, Canada, Norway, Australia, Switzerland and others. In Sweden more then 62,000 "unfits" were forcibly sterilized. Many states in the U.S.A. had adopted marriage laws with eugenics criteria including forced sterilization. Approximately 64,000 individuals were sterilized. Eugenics considerations also lay behind the adoption of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. The Largest plan on eugenics was adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people, who were viewed as being "unfit", were forcibly sterilized by different methods: Surgical sterilization or castration with severe complications and high mortality rates. X-ray irradiation. The method was suggested by Brack, and tested by Schuman using prisoners in Block No. 10 in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Experiments were also performed by Brack on prisoners using the "window method". "Klauberg method"--injection of irritating materials into the uterus. Experiments were conducted using the plant Caladium Seguinum which was believed to have sterilization and castration properties.

  9. Cytotoxic Capacity of IL-15-Stimulated Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells Against Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Rhabdomyosarcoma in Humanized Preclinical Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Rettinger, Eva; Meyer, Vida; Kreyenberg, Hermann; Volk, Andreas; Kuçi, Selim; Willasch, Andre; Koscielniak, Ewa; Fulda, Simone; Wels, Winfried S.; Boenig, Halvard; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) has become an important treatment modality for patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is also under investigation for soft tissue sarcomas. The therapeutic success is still limited by minimal residual disease (MRD) status ultimately leading to patients’ relapse. Adoptive donor lymphocyte infusions based on MRD status using IL-15-expanded cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells may prevent relapse without causing graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD). To generate preclinical data we developed mouse models to study anti-leukemic- and anti-tumor-potential of CIK cells in vivo. Immunodeficient mice (NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγc−, NSG) were injected intravenously with human leukemic cell lines THP-1, SH-2 and with human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines RH41 and RH30 at minimal doses required for leukemia or tumor engraftment. Mice transplanted with THP-1 or RH41 cells were randomly assigned for analysis of CIK cell treatment. Organs of mice were analyzed by flow cytometry as well as quantitative polymerase chain reaction for engraftment of malignant cells and CIK cells. Potential of CIK cells to induce GvHD was determined by histological analysis. Tissues of the highest degree of THP-1 cell expansion included bone marrow followed by liver, lung, spleen, peripheral blood (PB), and brain. RH30 and RH41 engraftment mainly took place in liver and lung, but was also detectable in spleen and PB. In spite of delayed CIK cell expansion compared with malignant cells, CIK cells injected at equal amounts were sufficient for significant reduction of RH41 cells, whereas against fast-expanding THP-1 cells 250 times more CIK than THP-1 cells were needed to achieve comparable results. Our preclinical in vivo mouse models showed a reliable 100% engraftment of malignant cells which is essential for analysis of anti-cancer therapy. Furthermore our data demonstrated that IL-15-activated CIK cells have potent cytotoxic capacity against AML

  10. Female Sterilization (Tubal Ligation)

    MedlinePlus

    ... when you want to have it done. Some women are sterilized right after they have a baby or an abortion, ... videos on Youtube © 1998-2016 | Center for Young Women's Health, Boston Children's Hospital. All rights reserved.

  11. Sterilization by Laparoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep-like state to prevent pain during surgery. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Hysteroscopic Sterilization: ...

  12. Sterilization of space hardware.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  13. Auditing radiation sterilization facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation_, and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities.

  14. Hysteroscopic Tubal Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopic tubal ligation for women who want permanent contraception. The procedures involves non-surgical placement of permanent microinserts into both fallopian tubes. Patients must use alternative contraception for at least 3 months postprocedure until tubal occlusion is confirmed. Compared to tubal ligation, potential advantages of the hysteroscopic procedure are that it can be performed in 10 minutes in an office setting without the use of general or even local anesthesia. Objective The objective of this analysis was to determine the effectiveness and safety of hysteroscopic tubal sterilization compared with tubal ligation for permanent female sterilization. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2008, until December 11, 2012. Review Methods Observational studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up were examined. Outcomes included failure/pregnancy rates, adverse events, and patient satisfaction. Results No RCTs were identified. Two systematic reviews covered 22 observational studies of hysteroscopic sterilization. Only 1 (N = 93) of these 22 studies compared hysteroscopic sterilization to laparoscopic tubal ligation. Two other noncomparative case series not included in the systematic reviews were also identified. In the absence of comparative studies, data on tubal ligation were derived for this analysis from the CREST study, a large, multicentre, prospective, noncomparative observational study in the United States (GRADE low). Overall, hysteroscopic sterilization is associated with lower pregnancy rates and lower complication rates compared to tubal ligation. No deaths have been reported for hysteroscopic sterilization. Limitations A lack of long-term follow-up for hysteroscopic sterilization and a paucity of studies that directly

  15. Immune responses induced by Pelargonium sidoides extract in serum and nasal mucosa of athletes after exhaustive exercise: modulation of secretory IgA, IL-6 and IL-15.

    PubMed

    Luna, L A; Bachi, A L L; Novaes e Brito, R R; Eid, R G; Suguri, V M; Oliveira, P W; Gregorio, L C; Vaisberg, M

    2011-02-15

    The evidence that exhaustive exercise may compromise the immune response is mainly confirmed by upper respiratory tract infections which are probably related to the decrease in secretory immunoglobulin A in the upper airway mucosa and/or profile changes of systemic cytokines as well as local cytokines of the upper respiratory tract. An extract from Pelargonium sidoides roots is currently used to treat infections in the upper airways. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the action of this herbal medicine on the immune response of athletes submitted to an intense running session by analyzing the production of immunoglobulin A in their saliva and of cytokines both locally and systemically, using a placebo as control. The results show that Pelargonium sidoides extract modulates the production of secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva, both interleukin-15 and interleukin-6 in serum, and interleukin-15 in the nasal mucosa. Secretory immunoglobulin A levels were increased, while levels of IL-15 and IL-6 were decreased. Based on this evidence, we suggest that this herbal medicine can exert a strong modulating influence on the immune response associated with the upper airway mucosa in athletes submitted to intense physical activity.

  16. Phenotypic and Functional Dysregulated Blood NK Cells in Colorectal Cancer Patients Can Be Activated by Cetuximab Plus IL-2 or IL-15

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Yamila Sol; Roberti, María Paula; Juliá, Estefanía Paula; Pampena, María Betina; Bruno, Luisina; Rivero, Sergio; Huertas, Eduardo; Sánchez Loria, Fernando; Pairola, Alejandro; Caignard, Anne; Mordoh, José; Levy, Estrella Mariel

    2016-01-01

    The clinical outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with the immune response; thus, these tumors could be responsive to different immune therapy approaches. Natural killer (NK) cells are key antitumor primary effectors that can eliminate CRC cells without prior immunization. We previously determined that NK cells from the local tumor environment of CRC tumors display a profoundly altered phenotype compared with circulating NK cells from healthy donors (HD). In this study, we evaluated peripheral blood NK cells from untreated patients and their possible role in metastasis progression. We observed profound deregulation in receptor expression even in early stages of disease compared with HD. CRC-NK cells displayed underexpression of CD16, NKG2D, DNAM-1, CD161, NKp46, and NKp30 activating receptors, while inhibitory receptors CD85j and NKG2A were overexpressed. This inhibited phenotype affected cytotoxic functionality against CRC cells and interferon-γ production. We also determined that NKp30 and NKp46 are the key receptors involved in detriment of CRC-NK cells’ antitumor activity. Moreover, NKp46 expression correlated with relapse-free survival of CRC patients with a maximum follow-up of 71 months. CRC-NK cells also exhibited altered antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity function responding poorly to cetuximab. IL-2 and IL-15 in combination with cetuximab stimulated NK cell, improving cytotoxicity. These results show potential strategies to enhance CRC-NK cell activity. PMID:27777574

  17. Human cancer cells with stem cell-like phenotype exhibit enhanced sensitivity to the cytotoxicity of IL-2 and IL-15 activated natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tao; Wang, Guoping; He, Sisi; Liu, Qin; Sun, Jianhong; Wang, Yongsheng

    2016-02-01

    Tumors harbor a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) which can drive tumor progression and therapeutical resistance. Nature killer (NK) cells are best known for their ability to directly recognize and kill malignant cells. However, the susceptibility of cancer stem cells to NK cells is not fully understood. Here we demonstrated that human CD44+CD24- breast CSCs were shown enhanced sensitivity to IL-2 and IL-15 activated NK cells. CD44+CD24- CSCs expressed higher levels of NKG2D ligands ULBP1, ULBP2 and MICA. Blockade assay showed that the sensitivity of CSCs to NK cells-mediated lysis was mainly dependent on NKG2D. Furthermore, redox oxygen species (ROS)-low tumor cells were more sensitive to NK cells. The presence of antioxidant enzymes inhibitor L-S,R-buthionine sulfoximine or H2O2 retarded the cytotoxicity of NK cells to CD44+CD24- CSCs. In addition, NK cells could readily target CD133+ colonal CSCs. Our findings provide novel targets for NK cells-based immunotherapy and are of great importance for translational medicine.

  18. The emergence of load-oriented sterilization.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, R A

    1994-01-01

    Achieving maximum equipment sterilization is critical. Factors that contribute to sterilization efficiency are covered, including sterilization accuracy level, chamber loading and biological indicators. PMID:8031354

  19. Karlson ozone sterilizer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, E.

    1984-05-07

    The authors have a functional sterilization system employing ozone as a sterilization agent. This final report covers the work that led to the first medical sterilizer using ozone as the sterilizing agent. The specifications and the final design were set by hospital operating room personnel and public safety standards. Work on kill tests using bacteria, viruses and fungi determined the necessary time and concentration of ozone necessary for sterilization. These data were used in the Karlson Ozone Sterilizer to determine the length of the steps of the operating cycle and the concentration of ozone to be used. 27 references.

  20. Light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2015-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  1. Light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  2. Stress-activated Dendritic Cells (DC) Induce Dual Interleukin (IL)-15- and IL1β-mediated Pathways, Which May Elicit CD4+ Memory T Cells and Interferon (IFN)-stimulated Genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufei; Lavender, Paul; Watson, Julie; Arno, Matthew; Lehner, Thomas

    2015-06-19

    The prevailing evidence suggests that immunological memory does not require antigenic re-stimulation but is maintained by low level tonic stimulation. We examined the hypothesis that stress agents contribute to tonic cellular activation and maintain immunological memory. Stimulation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) with stress agents elicits reactive oxygen species and HSP70. NFκB is activated, which up-regulates membrane-associated (ma) IL-15, caspase-1 and IL-1β. Co-culture of stress-treated DC with mononuclear cells activates IL-15 and IL-1β receptors on CD4(+) T cells, eliciting CD40L, proliferation, and up-regulation of CD45RO(+) memory T cells. The transcription factors Tbet(high) and RORγt are up-regulated, whereas FoxP3 is down-regulated, resulting in enhanced Th1 and Th17 expression and the corresponding cytokines. The interaction between maIL-15 expressed by DC and IL-15R on CD4(+) T cells results in one pathway and the corresponding cells expressing IL-1β and IL1βR as a second pathway. Importantly, inhibition studies with IL-15 antibodies and IL-1βR inhibitor suggest that both pathways may be required for optimum CD4(+) CD45RO(+) memory T cell expression. Type 1 IFN expression in splenic CD11c DC of stress-treated mice demonstrated a significant increase of IFN-α in CD11c CD317(+) and CD8α(+) DC. Analysis of RNA in human CD4(+) memory T cells showed up-regulation of type 1 IFN-stimulated genes and inhibition with histone methyltransferase inhibitor. We suggest the paradigm that stress-induced tonic stimulation might be responsible for the robust persistence of the immune response in vaccination and that epigenetic changes are involved in maintaining CD4(+) T cell memory.

  3. Stress-activated Dendritic Cells (DC) Induce Dual Interleukin (IL)-15- and IL1β-mediated Pathways, Which May Elicit CD4+ Memory T Cells and Interferon (IFN)-stimulated Genes*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yufei; Lavender, Paul; Watson, Julie; Arno, Matthew; Lehner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing evidence suggests that immunological memory does not require antigenic re-stimulation but is maintained by low level tonic stimulation. We examined the hypothesis that stress agents contribute to tonic cellular activation and maintain immunological memory. Stimulation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) with stress agents elicits reactive oxygen species and HSP70. NFκB is activated, which up-regulates membrane-associated (ma) IL-15, caspase-1 and IL-1β. Co-culture of stress-treated DC with mononuclear cells activates IL-15 and IL-1β receptors on CD4+ T cells, eliciting CD40L, proliferation, and up-regulation of CD45RO+ memory T cells. The transcription factors Tbethigh and RORγt are up-regulated, whereas FoxP3 is down-regulated, resulting in enhanced Th1 and Th17 expression and the corresponding cytokines. The interaction between maIL-15 expressed by DC and IL-15R on CD4+ T cells results in one pathway and the corresponding cells expressing IL-1β and IL1βR as a second pathway. Importantly, inhibition studies with IL-15 antibodies and IL-1βR inhibitor suggest that both pathways may be required for optimum CD4+ CD45RO+ memory T cell expression. Type 1 IFN expression in splenic CD11c DC of stress-treated mice demonstrated a significant increase of IFN-α in CD11c CD317+ and CD8α+ DC. Analysis of RNA in human CD4+ memory T cells showed up-regulation of type 1 IFN-stimulated genes and inhibition with histone methyltransferase inhibitor. We suggest the paradigm that stress-induced tonic stimulation might be responsible for the robust persistence of the immune response in vaccination and that epigenetic changes are involved in maintaining CD4+ T cell memory. PMID:25907558

  4. Memory-Like Antigen-Specific Human NK Cells from TB Pleural Fluids Produced IL-22 in Response to IL-15 or Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiaoying; Yu, Sifei; Yang, Binyan; Lao, Suihua; Li, Baiqing; Wu, Changyou

    2016-01-01

    Our previous result indicated that memory-like human natural killer (NK) cells from TB pleural fluid cells (PFCs) produced large amounts of IFN-γ in response to Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG). Furthermore, recent studies have shown that human lymphoid tissues harbored a unique NK cell subset that specialized in production of interleukin (IL)-22, a proinflammatory cytokine that mediates host defense against pathogens. Yet little information was available with regard to the properties of IL-22 production by memory-like human NK cells. In the present study, we found that cytokines IL-15 induced and IL-12 enhanced the levels of IL-22 by NK cells from TB PFCs. In addition, IL-22 but not IL-17 was produced by NK cells from PFCs in response to BCG and M.tb-related Ags. More importantly, the subset of specific IL-22-producing NK cells were distinct from IFN-γ-producing NK cells in PFCs. CD45RO+ or CD45RO- NK cells were sorted, co-cultured with autologous monocytes and stimulated with BCG for the production of IL-22. The result demonstrated that CD45RO+ but not CD45RO- NK cells produced significantly higher level of IL-22. Anti-IL-12Rβ1 mAbs (2B10) partially inhibit the expression of IL-22 by NK cells under the culture with BCG. Consistently, BCG specific IL-22-producing NK cells from PFCs expressed CD45ROhighNKG2Dhighgranzyme Bhigh. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that memory-like antigen-specific CD45RO+ NK cells might participate in the recall immune response for M. tb infection via producing IL-22, which display a critical role to fight against M. tb. PMID:27031950

  5. Microwave sterilization of enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rosaspina, S; Anzanel, D; Salvatorelli, G

    1993-01-01

    A new method is described which makes it possible to treat metal materials with microwaves. In consequence scalpel blades as well as cover glasses contaminated with four species of bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were sterilized. With this method sterilization can be achieved quite rapidly (1.5-2 min). Scanning electron microscopy revealed a progressive alteration in the morphology of micro-organisms and this proved proportional to the microwave exposure time. Only in Proteus mirabilis were no modifications found, even after long periods of microwave exposure. PMID:8302204

  6. Identification of Coupling and Repulsion Phase DNA Marker Associated With an Allele of a Gene Conferring Host Plant Resistance to Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV) in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.).

    PubMed

    Daspute, Abhijit; Fakrudin, B

    2015-03-01

    Pigeonpea Sterility Mosaic Disease (PSMD) is an important foliar disease caused by Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV) which is transmitted by eriophyid mites (Aceria cajani Channabasavanna). In present study, a F2 mapping population comprising 325 individuals was developed by crossing PSMD susceptible genotype (Gullyal white) and PSMD resistant genotype (BSMR 736). We identified a set of 32 out of 300 short decamer random DNA markers that showed polymorphism between Gullyal white and BSMR 736 parents. Among them, eleven DNA markers showed polymorphism including coupling and repulsion phase type of polymorphism across the parents. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA), revealed that the DNA marker, IABTPPN7, produced a single coupling phase marker (IABTPPN7414) and a repulsion phase marker (IABTPPN7983) co-segregating with PSMD reaction. Screening of 325 F2 population using IABTPPN7 revealed that the repulsion phase marker, IABTPPN7983, was co-segregating with the PSMD responsive SV1 at a distance of 23.9 cM for Bidar PPSMV isolate. On the other hand, the coupling phase marker IABTPPN7414 did not show any linkage with PSMD resistance. Additionally, single marker analysis both IABTPPN7983 (P<0.0001) and IABTPPN 7414 (P<0.0001) recorded a significant association with the PSMD resistance and explained a phenotypic variance of 31 and 36% respectively in F2 population. The repulsion phase marker, IABTPPN7983, could be of use in Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in the PPSMV resistance breeding programmes of pigeonpea. PMID:25774108

  7. Continuous sterilization of plumbing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. J.; Moyers, C. V.; Wright, E. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Continuous sterilization of plumbing, such as in hospitals, clinics, and biological testing laboratories is possible with ethylene oxide/Freon 12 (ETO/F-12) humidifier developed for sterilization of potable water systems.

  8. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    SciTech Connect

    Koskinen, David Jason

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  9. Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Hamitouche, Katia; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Kos, Karmen; Pucić, Irina; Britvić-Budicin, Smiljana; Ražem, Dušan

    2005-06-01

    Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (KP) dry powder was investigated by selected physico-chemical methods. High-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance spectroscopy did not show any significant degradation at sterilization dose 25 kGy. To determine the nature, extent and direction of radiation-induced changes, KP was irradiated to extremely high doses, much higher than necessary to achieve sterility. The irradiated KP did not show any difference of XRD patterns up to 200 kGy; with DSC and IR some changes were detected only above 1000 and 2000 kGy, respectively; HPLC has shown about 5% destruction at 2000 kGy. Acetyl benzophenon (AcBph) was generated by irradiation with G(AcBph)=(1.6±0.1)×10 -8 mol J -1. Ames test has shown no mutagenicity of KP irradiated with 3000 kGy or of the oily mixure of radiolytic products isolated from it. Solid KP has proven to be very stable on irradiation, and irradiation has been found to be a suitable method for its sterilization.

  10. Sterilization of Native Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, Brint

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. State Department's Agency for International Development (AID) is spending more than $143 million this year for population control measures in over 70 nations around the world and it is estimated that as much as $10 million was spent in one year for surgical sterilization procedures. (JC)

  11. Sterility of packaged implant components.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Several implant components in their original glass vial and peel-back packages were subjected to sterility testing to determine whether the contents remained sterile after the expiration date marked on the package had passed. The results from a university microbiology laboratory showed that the contents remained sterile for 6 to 11 years after the expiration dates. PMID:15973959

  12. [Sterilization and legal proceedings].

    PubMed

    Roscam Abbing, H D

    1992-06-01

    According to data of the central bureau of social insurance, during 1983-87 4 out of a total of 197 damage claims were related to sterilization, and in 2 cases payment was made. From 1976 to 1992 there were fewer than 10 verdicts in sterilization cases. What is charged also has to be proven. If damage is involved, the accused party has to prove that it was not caused by its own negligence. For instance, spontaneous recanalization is the case when usual controls did not take place. The onus of proof is on the patient who has to prove the damage (affecting health and physical integrity) and the causative connection between the service and the damage based on the guidelines of the Commission of the European Community. The provider has to show that no error was committed. The responsibility of doctors is larger because of the insight of science into information not in the public domain and higher expectations of them. A recent case seeking damages for a hemophilic patient who was infected with HIV in June 1983 by a blood preparation was rejected, because at that time the connection between a blood preparation and AIDS was not yet firm. If pregnancy occurs after sterilization, the liability of the doctor is not exclusive; the opposite facts also have to be proven, as spontaneous recanalization is possible. The compensation for damages after failed sterilization will only have a chance of succeeding when the failure was the consequence of a shortcoming of the provider of service. If it was provided in conformity with medical-professional standards then the damage is not accountable. A Maastricht court sentenced a doctor to compensation of damages who did not sterilize a woman completely because of insufficient information. Informing the patient about a procedure that went awry can help avoid unnecessary legal procedures. Defensive health care could have negative results for the doctor-patient relationship.

  13. Construction of a high-resolution linkage map of Rfd1, a restorer-of-fertility locus for cytoplasmic male sterility conferred by DCGMS cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using synteny between radish and Arabidopsis genomes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngcho; Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Beom-Seok; Han, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sunggil

    2012-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility caused by Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility (DCGMS) cytoplasm and its nuclear restorer-of-fertility locus (Rfd1) with a linked molecular marker (A137) have been reported in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). To construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus, linked amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were screened using bulked segregant analysis. A 220-bp linked AFLP fragment sequence from radish showed homology with an Arabidopsis coding sequence. Using this Arabidopsis gene sequence, a simple PCR marker (A220) was developed. The A137 and A220 markers flanked the Rfd1 locus. Two homologous Arabidopsis genes with both marker sequences were positioned on Arabidopsis chromosome-3 with an interval of 2.4 Mb. To integrate the Rfd1 locus into a previously reported expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map, the radish EST sequences located in three syntenic blocks within the 2.4-Mb interval were used to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for tagging each block. The SNP marker in linkage group-2 co-segregated with male fertility in an F(2) population. Using radish ESTs positioned in linkage group-2, five intron length polymorphism (ILP) markers and one cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker were developed and used to construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus. Two closely linked markers delimited the Rfd1 locus within a 985-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3. Synteny between the radish and Arabidopsis genomes in the 985-kb interval were used to develop three ILP and three CAPS markers. Two ILP markers further delimited the Rfd1 locus to a 220-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3.

  14. 21 CFR 880.6850 - Sterilization wrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterilization wrap. 880.6850 Section 880.6850 Food... § 880.6850 Sterilization wrap. (a) Identification. A sterilization wrap (pack, sterilization wrapper... sterilized by a health care provider. It is intended to allow sterilization of the enclosed medical...

  15. Outpatient laparoscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Hamid Arshat; Yuliawiratman

    1981-03-01

    This is a report on a pilot study conducted in Malaysia of outpatient sterilization utilizing laparoscopic technique under local anesthesia and sedation. The preliminary report based on 305 patients is presented with emphasis on the advantages and possible weaknesses of such procedure. Sterilization is performed in the Family Planning Specialist Center, Maternity Hospital. Patients are motivated towards sterilization during the immediate postpartum period in the Maternity Hospital and are counseled regarding the actual procedure. The mean age of the 305 patients was 32.08 years; the mean gravidity was 4.92; and the mean parity was 4.57. The majority of the patients came from the lower social strata with low educational attainment and low income. 253 cases of sterilizations were performed by laparoscopic procedures and 43 cases by minilaparotomy. In 9 cases difficulty was encountered with laparoscopy and subsequently the minilaparotomy was used. The majority of cases seemed to tolerate the sedation and local anesthesia fairly well and without much complaint of pain. Only a very small number of patients complained of pain particularly at the time when the Fallope or Lay rings were applied to the fallopian tubes. The overall complication rate was 14 (4.9%) and of these mild wound sepsis accounted for 6 (1.96%). Most of the wound sepsis was very mild and healed very quickly on daily dressing. No cases of pelvic sepsis were reported. There were 3 cases of uterine perforation by the uterine elevator. There were 2 cases where the fallopian tubes were traumatized and some degree of bleeding occurred. The bleeding was easily controlled by applying another Fallope ring. 2 patients had vomiting during the laparoscopic procedure. There were 7 cases of failed sterilization. 6 of the cases were performed by a trainee registrar in obstetrics and gynecology. The last was performed by a specialist gynecologist. Most of the failures were due to wrong application of rings. The cost

  16. [Permanent tubal hysteroscopic sterilization].

    PubMed

    Panel, P; Jost, S; Grosdemouge, I; Friederich, L; Niro, J; Le Tohic, A

    2012-01-01

    Tubal sterilization, of common practice all over the world, has had a quick spread in France since its legalization in 2001 and the income of a new hysteroscopic method. As a matter of fact, France is the second greater country for women having Essure® and the first country where Essure® method forestall surgical tubal ligation. Thus we focus on good practice and update knowledge about Essure® method.

  17. Hysteroscopic Tubal Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopic tubal ligation for women who want permanent contraception. In contrast to the laparoscopic technique, a hysteroscope is used to pass permanent microinserts through the cervix and place them in the fallopian tubes. This procedure does not require local or general anesthesia and can be performed in an office setting. Objectives The objective of this analysis was to determine, based on published literature, the cost-effectiveness of hysteroscopic tubal sterilization (HS) compared with laparoscopic tubal ligation (LS) for permanent female sterilization. Data Sources A systematic literature search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2008, and December 11, 2012. Review Methods Potentially relevant studies were identified based on the title and abstract. Cost-utility analyses (studies that report outcomes in terms of costs and quality-adjusted life-years) were prioritized for inclusion. When not available, cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, and cost-consequence analyses were considered. Costing studies were considered in the absence of all other analyses. Results A total of 33 abstracts were identified. Three cost analyses were included. A retrospective chart review from Canada found that HS was $111 less costly than LS; a prospective activity-based cost management study from Italy reported that it was €337 less costly than LS; and the results of an American decision model showed that HS was $1,178 less costly than LS. Limitations All studies had limited applicability to the Ontario health care system due to differences in setting, resource use, and costs. Conclusions Three cost analyses found that, although the HS procedure was more expensive due to the cost of the microinserts, HS was less costly than LS overall due to the shorter recovery time required. Plain Language Summary Hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to conventional tubal

  18. Effectiveness of dental office instrument sterilization procedures.

    PubMed

    Hastreiter, R J; Molinari, J A; Falken, M C; Roesch, M H; Gleason, M J; Merchant, V A

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate instrument sterilization procedures in Minnesota, biological indicators were used to monitor 406 sterilizers in 381 dental offices. Findings suggest a general improvement in instrument performance over that of a decade ago, but sterilization failure rates are still too high. Sterilizer operator errors are a major cause of sterilization failures. BIs are useful in monitoring sterilization performance only when sterilization procedures are performed consistently and competently by well-trained staff using adequately maintained equipment. PMID:1660501

  19. Sterilization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options. PMID:18701927

  20. Genetics of hybrid male sterility among strains and species in the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2011-07-01

    Taxa in the early stages of speciation may bear intraspecific allelic variation at loci conferring barrier traits in hybrids such as hybrid sterility. Additionally, hybridization may spread alleles that confer barrier traits to other taxa. Historically, few studies examine within- and between-species variation at loci conferring reproductive isolation. Here, we test for allelic variation within Drosophila persimilis and within the Bogota subspecies of D. pseudoobscura at regions previously shown to contribute to hybrid male sterility. We also test whether D. persimilis and the USA subspecies of D. pseudoobscura share an allele conferring hybrid sterility in a D. pseudoobscura bogotana genetic background. All loci conferred similar hybrid sterility effects across all strains studied, although we detected some statistically significant quantitative effect variation among D. persimilis alleles of some hybrid incompatibility QTLs. We also detected allelism between D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA at a second chromosome hybrid sterility QTL. We hypothesize that either the QTL is ancestral in D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura USA and lost in D. pseudoobscura bogotana, or gene flow transferred the QTL from D. persimilis to D. pseudoobscura USA. We discuss our findings in the context of population features that may contribute to variation in hybrid incompatibilities.

  1. New disinfection and sterilization methods.

    PubMed Central

    Rutala, W. A.; Weber, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial agent that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4-hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxide sterilization (Attest), and a hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilizer that has a shorter cycle time and improved efficacy (Sterrad 50). PMID:11294738

  2. Bioequivalent chemical steam sterilization indicators.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, A; Manne, S

    1984-01-01

    Biological indicators used to monitor steam sterilization cycles have two major shortcomings--the incubation period needed to determine if sterilization was accomplished, and the reliance on test packs for gathering information in each load. Chemical indicators do not suffer from these shortcomings. Chemical indicators can respond to time, temperature, and steam parameters to thus parallel the BI reaction. Nine commercially available chemical indicators and four biological indicators were evaluated under the conditions of dry heat, in a biological indicator-evaluator resistometer vessel, and in a hospital sterilizer. The results indicate that wider use of integrated chemical steam sterilization indicators is recommended. PMID:6493101

  3. [Current legal problems of sterilization].

    PubMed

    Eser, A; Koch, H G

    1982-06-01

    Voluntary sterilization has not yet acquired comprehensive legal formulation. Thus there is a legal vacuum which physicians have attempted to fill by relying on their internal professional regulations. These provide for sterilization on an indication; however, an offense against this rule is not punishable in the courts. There is a prohibition, in particular, against so-called "courtesy sterilization," but this is of little significance today when so many social indications for sterilization can be found. But in general these professional regulations provide no useful assistance in deciding when a sterilization is permitted. In criminal law sterilization done by free will is not punishable nor is any indication required. The law deals in detail with the meaning and definition of the "free will" of the person being sterilized. This involves: capacity to have a free will, what to do about persons lacking that capacity (especially minors), and necessity to ensure that that woman understands all the consequences of sterilization. The civil courts have much more to do with sterilization than the criminal ones. One ground for suit is that the sterilization was "contrary to accepted morality," although the courts will generally hold that the woman herself cannot assert this claim. Another ground is lack of consent by the woman. Another ground is improper performance by the physician, i.e., malpractice. Thus the physician has to fear most the charges of no valid consent or malpractice. Questions of insurance law are also pertinent, since an insured person can be compensated for sterilization only if the procedure is legal.

  4. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  5. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  6. Preassembly of interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor subunits on resting Kit 225 K6 T cells and their modulation by IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15: a fluorescence resonance energy transfer study.

    PubMed

    Damjanovich, S; Bene, L; Matkó, J; Alileche, A; Goldman, C K; Sharrow, S; Waldmann, T A

    1997-11-25

    Assembly and mutual proximities of alpha, beta, and gamma(c) subunits of the interleukin 2 receptors (IL-2R) in plasma membranes of Kit 225 K6 T lymphoma cells were investigated by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) using fluorescein isothiocyanate- and Cy3-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that were directed against the IL-2R alpha, IL-2R beta, and gamma(c) subunits of IL-2R. The cell-surface distribution of subunits was analyzed at the nanometer scale (2-10 nm) by FRET on a cell-by-cell basis. The cells were probed in resting phase and after coculture with saturating concentrations of IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15. FRET data from donor- and acceptor-labeled IL-2R beta-alpha, gamma-alpha, and gamma-beta pairs demonstrated close proximity of all subunits to each other in the plasma membrane of resting T cells. These mutual proximities do not appear to represent mAb-induced microaggregation, because FRET measurements with Fab fragments of the mAbs gave similar results. The relative proximities were meaningfully modulated by binding of IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15. Based on FRET analysis the topology of the three subunits at the surface of resting cells can be best described by a "triangular model" in the absence of added interleukins. IL-2 strengthens the bridges between the subunits, making the triangle more compact. IL-7 and IL-15 act in the opposite direction by opening the triangle possibly because they associate their private specific alpha receptors with the beta and/or gamma(c) subunits of the IL-2R complex. These data suggest that IL-2R subunits are already colocalized in resting T cells and do not require cytokine-induced redistribution. This colocalization is significantly modulated by binding of relevant interleukins in a cytokine-specific manner.

  7. Pain Associated With Hysteroscopic Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jenna; Childers, Meredith E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The safety and efficacy of female hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure system has been well documented. Given the marked differences in the execution of hysteroscopic and laparoscopic sterilization, the objective of this study was to assess the experience of pain postprocedure between the 2. Secondary end-points included postoperative pain medication, time to return to normal activities, postprocedure bleeding, and patient satisfaction. Methods: Twenty cases each of laparoscopic sterilization (LS) and hysteroscopic sterilization (HS) were performed. Patients were surveyed regarding their experience of pain immediately postoperatively, 1 week, and 4 weeks post-procedure. Results: The average pain score immediately postprocedure was significantly lower among HS patients than among LS patients (t=−8.17, P<.0001). One-week post-procedure, none of the patients in the HS group reported any pain, while the average pain score among the LS patients was 2.65 (t =−9.67, P<.0001). Four weeks post-procedure, women in the HS group continued to report no pain, 35% of the LS group continued to report some pain (t=−3.04, P=.004). Conclusions: Hysteroscopic sterilization offers a minimally invasive, less painful, equally efficacious modality for sterilization than laparoscopic sterilization and should be available to all women seeking permanent birth control. PMID:17651558

  8. Reproducibility of sterilized rubber impressions.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Khalid M; Hassan, Ahmed M; Hodges, J S

    2004-01-01

    Impressions, dentures and other dental appliances may be contaminated with oral micro-flora or other organisms of varying pathogenicity from patient's saliva and blood. Several approaches have been tried to control the transmission of infectious organisms via dental impressions and because disinfection is less effective and has several drawbacks for impression characterization, several sterilization methods have been suggested. This study evaluated the reproducibility of rubber impressions after sterilization by different methods. Dimensional accuracy and wettability of two rubber impression materials (vinyl polysiloxane and polyether) were evaluated after sterilization by each of three well-known methods (immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde for 10 h, autoclaving and microwave radiation). Non-sterilized impressions served as control. The effect of the tray material on impression accuracy and the effect of topical surfactant on the wettability were also evaluated. One-way ANOVA with Dunnett's method was used for statistical analysis. All sterilizing methods reduced the reproducibility of rubber impressions, although not always significantly. Microwave sterilization had a small effect on both accuracy and wettability. The greater effects of the other methods could usually be overcome by using ceramic trays and by spraying impression surfaces with surfactant before pouring the gypsum mix. There was one exception: glutaraldehyde still degraded dimensional accuracy even with ceramic trays and surfactant. We conclude that a) sterilization of rubber impressions made on acrylic trays was usually associated with a degree of dimensional change; b) microwave energy seems to be a suitable technique for sterilizing rubber impressions; c) topical surfactant application helped restore wettability of sterilized impressions. PMID:15798825

  9. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P

    2015-01-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  10. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs.

    PubMed

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P; Esteves, Pedro J

    2015-11-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  11. Case reports. II. Sterilization litigation.

    PubMed

    Soderstrom, R M

    1988-03-01

    Legal questions will continue to increase with this popular operation because sterilization is the second most common procedure performed by gynecologists. Because of patient's expectation, the sterilization patient is particularly vulnerable to suggestions of malpractice after a complication or failure. Careful preoperative preparation of the patient and family; strict attention to equipment, education and outcome statistics; a conscientious concern when complications do occur will help to reduce sterilization legal claims. A thorough knowledge of the proper management after a complication must be part of the education process. Success following legal defense will be measured by a proper preparation, good records, and an impressive, knowledgeable expert witness.

  12. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  13. Sterilization surgery - making a decision

    MedlinePlus

    ... can sometimes be reversed, both must be considered permanent forms of birth control. When deciding if you want to have a ... other options for preventing pregnancy that are not permanent. Talk ... before making the decision to have a sterilization procedure.

  14. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  15. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  16. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  17. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  18. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  19. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  20. Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-10-01

    This work estimates the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5×5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4×4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.

  1. Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-06-01

    This work estimates the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5×5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4×4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.

  2. Characterization of Prdm9 in equids and sterility in mules.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Cynthia C; Ryder, Oliver A

    2013-01-01

    Prdm9 (Meisetz) is the first speciation gene discovered in vertebrates conferring reproductive isolation. This locus encodes a meiosis-specific histone H3 methyltransferase that specifies meiotic recombination hotspots during gametogenesis. Allelic differences in Prdm9, characterized for a variable number of zinc finger (ZF) domains, have been associated with hybrid sterility in male house mice via spermatogenic failure at the pachytene stage. The mule, a classic example of hybrid sterility in mammals also exhibits a similar spermatogenesis breakdown, making Prdm9 an interesting candidate to evaluate in equine hybrids. In this study, we characterized the Prdm9 gene in all species of equids by analyzing sequence variation of the ZF domains and estimating positive selection. We also evaluated the role of Prdm9 in hybrid sterility by assessing allelic differences of ZF domains in equine hybrids. We found remarkable variation in the sequence and number of ZF domains among equid species, ranging from five domains in the Tibetan kiang and Asiatic wild ass, to 14 in the Grevy's zebra. Positive selection was detected in all species at amino acid sites known to be associated with DNA-binding specificity of ZF domains in mice and humans. Equine hybrids, in particular a quartet pedigree composed of a fertile mule showed a mosaic of sequences and number of ZF domains suggesting that Prdm9 variation does not seem by itself to contribute to equine hybrid sterility.

  3. Genomic Networks of Hybrid Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Leslie M.; White, Michael A.; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci (“Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities”). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven ‘hotspots,’ seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL—but not cis eQTL—were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a ‘fertile’ subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  4. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  5. Sterilization in Finland: from eugenics to contraception.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, E; Rasimus, A; Forssas, E

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the transition of sterilization in Finland from an eugenic tool to a contraceptive. Historical data were drawn from earlier reports in Finnish. Numbers of and reasons for sterilizations since 1950 were collected from nationwide sterilization statistics. Prevalence, characteristics of sterilized women, and women's satisfaction with sterilizations were studied from a 1994 nationwide survey (74% response rate). Logistic regression was used for adjustments. In the first half of the 20th century, eugenic ideology had influence in Finland as in other parts of Europe, and the 1935 and 1950 sterilization laws had an eugenic spirit. Regardless of this, the numbers of eugenic sterilizations remained low, and in practice, family planning was the main reason for sterilization. Nonetheless, prior to 1970 not all sterilizations were freely chosen, because sterilizations were sometimes used as a precondition for abortion. Female sterilizations showed remarkable fluctuation over time. Male sterilizations have been rare. The reasons stipulated by the law did not explain the numbers of sterilizations. In a 1994 survey, 9% of Finnish women reported they were using sterilization as their current contraceptive method (n = 189). Compared to women using other contraceptive methods, sterilized women were older, had had more births and pregnancies, and came from lower social classes. Sterilized women were satisfied with their sterilization, but there were women (8.5%) who regretted it. In conclusion, sterilizations have been and are likely to continue to be an important family planning method in Finland. The extreme gender ratio suggests a need for promoting male sterilizations, and women's expressed regrets suggest consideration of a higher age limit.

  6. Cytoplasmic Sterility Factors in VICIA FABA L

    PubMed Central

    Edwardson, J. R.; Bond, D. A.; Christie, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    Tissues of cytoplasmic male sterile, maintainer, restorer, and restored lines, and sterile plants which reverted to fertility in Vicia faba were examined in ultrathin sections. Cytoplasmic spherical bodies (CSB), ca. 70 nm in diameter, were observed in tissues of all sterile plants but not in tissues of maintainer, restorer or restored sterile plants. No CSB were observed in a reverted fertile branch of a tiller-sterile plant, nor in 5 of 6 reverted fertile plants. One reverted fertile plant contained CSB in ovules. It is proposed that the CSB are the sites of, or possibly, products of, sterility factors in Vicia faba. PMID:17248701

  7. Dissecting the genetic architecture of F1 hybrid sterility in house mice.

    PubMed

    Dzur-Gejdosova, Maria; Simecek, Petr; Gregorova, Sona; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Forejt, Jiri

    2012-11-01

    Hybrid sterility as a postzygotic reproductive isolation mechanism has been studied for over 80 years, yet the first identifications of hybrid sterility genes in Drosophila and mouse are quite recent. To study the genetic architecture of F(1) hybrid sterility between young subspecies of house mouse Mus m. domesticus and M. m. musculus, we conducted QTL analysis of a backcross between inbred strains representing these two subspecies and probed the role of individual chromosomes in hybrid sterility using the intersubspecific chromosome substitution strains. We provide direct evidence that the asymmetry in male infertility between reciprocal crosses is conferred by the middle region of M. m. musculus Chr X, thus excluding other potential candidates such as Y, imprinted genes, and mitochondrial DNA. QTL analysis identified strong hybrid sterility loci on Chr 17 and Chr X and predicted a set of interchangeable autosomal loci, a subset of which is sufficient to activate the Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility of the strong loci. Overall, our results indicate the oligogenic nature of F(1) hybrid sterility, which should be amenable to reconstruction by proper combination of chromosome substitution strains. Such a prefabricated model system should help to uncover the gene networks and molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid sterility.

  8. Sterilization of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Thomas E.; Andersen, H. Frank

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the historical, legal, and ethical concerns regarding sterilization for persons with mental retardation and offers guidelines to help counsel individuals with disabilities or their families regarding decision making about sterilization. (DB)

  9. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  10. Microwave powered sterile access port

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor); Dahl, Roger W. (Inventor); Garmon, Frank C. (Inventor); Lunsford, Teddie D. (Inventor); Michalek, William F. (Inventor); Wheeler, Jr., Richard R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A device and method for elimination of contamination during transfer of materials either into or from bioreactors, food containers, or other microbially vulnerable systems. Using microwave power, thermal sterilizations of mating fixtures are achieved simply, reliably, and quickly by the volatilization of small quantities of water to produce superheated steam which contacts all exposed surfaces.

  11. New developments in disinfection and sterilization.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    A review of regulatory clearances for selected new sterilization and disinfection products for the period January 2012-June 2015 indicates continued leverage of established technologies for steam and low-temperature sterilization, and high-level disinfection. New products in these areas were typically modified and improved versions of existing products, with the exception of a new combination hydrogen peroxide/ozone sterilizer. Development of new low-temperature sterilization technologies to address continued evolution of complex medical devices is expected to continue.

  12. Plasma Sterilization Technology for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, S. J.; Olson, R. L.; Leavens, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    The application of plasma gas technology to sterilization and decontamination of spacecraft components is considered. Areas investigated include: effective sterilizing ranges of four separate gases; lethal constituents of a plasma environment; effectiveness of plasma against a diverse group of microorganisms; penetrating efficiency of plasmas for sterilization; and compatibility of spacecraft materials with plasma environments. Results demonstrated that plasma gas, specifically helium plasma, is a highly effective sterilant and is compatible with spacecraft materials.

  13. The limits of sterility assurance

    PubMed Central

    von Woedtke, Thomas; Kramer, Axel

    2008-01-01

    Sterility means the absence of all viable microorganisms including viruses. At present, a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10–6 is generally accepted for pharmacopoeial sterilization procedures, i.e., a probability of not more than one viable microorganism in an amount of one million sterilised items of the final product. By extrapolating the reduction rates following extreme artificial initial contamination, a theoretical overall performance of the procedure of at least 12 lg increments (overkill conditions) is demanded to verify an SAL of 10–6. By comparison, other recommendations for thermal sterilization procedures demand only evidence that the difference between the initial contamination and the number of test organisms at the end of the process amount to more than six orders of magnitude. However, a practical proof of the required level of sterility assurance of 10–6 is not possible. Moreover, the attainability of this condition is fundamentally dubious, at least in non-thermal procedures. Thus, the question is discussed whether the undifferentiated adherence to the concept of sterility assurance on the basis of a single SAL of 10–6 corresponds with the safety requirements in terms of patient or user safety, costs and energy efficiency. Therefore, in terms of practical considerations, a concept of tiered SALs is recommended, analogous to the comparable and well-established categorization into “High-level disinfection”, “Intermediate-level disinfection” and “Low-level disinfection”. The determination of such tiered SALs is geared both to the intended application of the sterilized goods, as well as to the characteristics of the products and the corresponding treatment options. In the case of aseptic preparation, filling and production procedures, a mean contamination probability of 10–3 is assumed. In automated processes, lower contamination rates can be realized. In the case of the production of re-usable medical devices, a reduction of

  14. Reionisation in sterile neutrino cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sownak; Frenk, Carlos S.; Hou, Jun; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lovell, Mark R.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the process of reionisation in a model in which the dark matter is a warm elementary particle such as a sterile neutrino. We focus on models that are consistent with the dark matter decay interpretation of the recently detected line at 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxies and clusters. In warm dark matter models the primordial spectrum of density perturbations has a cut-off on the scale of dwarf galaxies. Structure formation therefore begins later than in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model and very few objects form below the cut-off mass scale. To calculate the number of ionising photons, we use the Durham semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, GALFORM. We find that even the most extreme 7 keV sterile neutrino we consider is able to reionise the Universe early enough to be compatible with the bounds on the epoch of reionisation from Planck. This, perhaps surprising, result arises from the rapid build-up of high redshift galaxies in the sterile neutrino models which is also reflected in a faster evolution of their far-UV luminosity function between 10 > z > 7 than in CDM. The dominant sources of ionising photons are systematically more massive in the sterile neutrino models than in CDM. As a consistency check on the models, we calculate the present-day luminosity function of satellites of Milky Way-like galaxies. When the satellites recently discovered in the DES survey are taken into account, strong constraints are placed on viable sterile neutrino models.

  15. Microwave Sterilization and Depyrogenation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A fully functional, microgravity-compatible microwave sterilization and depyrogenation system (MSDS) prototype was developed that is capable of producing medical-grade water (MGW) without expendable supplies, using NASA potable water that currently is available aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be available for Lunar and planetary missions in the future. The microwave- based, continuous MSDS efficiently couples microwaves to a single-phase, pressurized, flowing water stream that is rapidly heated above 150 C. Under these conditions, water is rapidly sterilized. Endotoxins, significant biological toxins that originate from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and which represent another defining MGW requirement, are also deactivated (i.e., depyrogenated) albeit more slowly, with such deactivation representing a more difficult challenge than sterilization. Several innovations culminated in the successful MSDS prototype design. The most significant is the antenna-directed microwave heating of a water stream flowing through a microwave sterilization chamber (MSC). Novel antenna designs were developed to increase microwave transmission efficiency. These improvements resulted in greater than 95-percent absorption of incident microwaves. In addition, incorporation of recuperative heat exchangers (RHxs) in the design reduced the microwave power required to heat a water stream flowing at 15 mL/min to 170 C to only 50 W. Further improvements in energy efficiency involved the employment of a second antenna to redirect reflected microwaves back into the MSC, eliminating the need for a water load and simplifying MSDS design. A quick connect (QC) is another innovation that can be sterilized and depyrogenated at temperature, and then cooled using a unique flow design, allowing collection of MGW at atmospheric pressure and 80 C. The final innovation was the use of in-line mixers incorporated in the flow path to disrupt laminar flow and increase contact time

  16. Bisexual Hybrid Sterility in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, D. J.; Angus, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    A new type of hybrid sterility was investigated in D. melanogaster . Matings between strain 27 males from Para Wirra, South Australia, and Canton-S females produce 70–80% fully sterile male and female progeny. Strain 27 males produce sterile progeny when crossed to females of other geographic origins, but produce fertile progeny when crossed to a second sympatric strain. The sterility is avoided by lower rearing temperatures. Heat shock and tetracycline produce no improvement in the fertility of the hybrids. Normal flies produce sterile progeny when injected with, or fed, homogenates of sterile flies. A combination of maternal and paternal factors may interact to produce sterile hybrids by inhibiting gonad development. PMID:17248832

  17. Implementing AORN recommended practices for sterilization.

    PubMed

    Graybill-D'Ercole, Patricia

    2013-05-01

    Any hospital or facility in which surgery and other invasive procedures are performed should have accommodations for cleaning, decontaminating, disinfecting, and sterilizing instruments, equipment, and other essential supplies that are used for patient procedures. Sterilization is essential to reducing or preventing the risk of surgical site infections. This is a collaborative process and should include all health care providers who handle these instruments, including perioperative nurses. The revised AORN "Recommended practices for sterilization," which became effective June 15, 2012, includes updates on sterilizing single-use items, inspecting critical items before sterilization, using low-temperature hydrogen peroxide vapor sterilization methods, and immediate use steam sterilization. This RP document is the first AORN document to be evidence rated and accepted for inclusion in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality National Guideline Clearinghouse.

  18. Psychiatric Aspects of Female Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Myre; Emens, J. M.; Jordan, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Follow-up of 151 women who had been sterilized for social or gynaecological reasons one to three years earlier showed that 146 were completely satisfied with the results of the operation on their health and on their sexual relationships with their husbands. The five who were dissatisfied either wished they could still conceive or found the operation had not produced the effect hoped for. On the basis of this study we believe that adverse psychiatric sequelae of sterilization can be kept to a minimum with careful selection of patients. Women should be over 30 or if younger should have had two or more children, and the operation should not be performed at childbirth, in the neonatal period, or during a postabortive depression. PMID:4718839

  19. Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Lawrence J.; Prichard, Lorraine; Fuller, Scott; Atkinson, Leslie

    1974-01-01

    A questionnaire comprising case histories was administered to 27 Protestant and 27 Catholic clergymen in the San Diego area to test their attitudes toward the use of birth control, sterilization and abortion in families with specific genetic problems. The responses indicated: • Catholic and Protestant clergymen do not always follow the official positions of their churches in these matters, although the majority of them do. • Protestant clergymen were more likely to approve of birth control, sterilization, and abortion than Catholic clergymen. • The approval responses of Protestant and Catholic clergymen were not greatly influenced by whether the illness variables involved high Mendelian risk, high psychological cost, high social cost, or poor prognosis. • The approval responses of Protestant and Catholic clergymen were not significantly influenced by the socio-ethnic background of the families. PMID:4813802

  20. Interest for sterilization keeps increasing.

    PubMed

    1987-07-01

    Interest in sterilization continues to increase, as illustrated by the fact that some 50 doctors in Indonesia recently wanted to be trained in sterilization in order to meet the needs of transmigrants requesting this method. 1 objective of the National Family Planning Control Board is to help the younger generation understand the norm of a small, happy, and prosperous family. Another objective is to strengthen the family planning institutionalization process so that program utilization becomes an integral part of community activities. A 3rd objective is to strengthen the mental, spiritual, and psychological institutionalization process. Problems include the need to change attitudes toward contraceptives and to present all difficulties in the family planning program honestly. The role of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) can stay the same, and the experience and capability of IPPA can be used to assist other implementing units and groups in the community in the transfer of their management.

  1. Validation of sterilizing grade filtration.

    PubMed

    Jornitz, M W; Meltzer, T H

    2003-01-01

    Validation consideration of sterilizing grade filters, namely 0.2 micron, changed when FDA voiced concerns about the validity of Bacterial Challenge tests performed in the past. Such validation exercises are nowadays considered to be filter qualification. Filter validation requires more thorough analysis, especially Bacterial Challenge testing with the actual drug product under process conditions. To do so, viability testing is a necessity to determine the Bacterial Challenge test methodology. Additionally to these two compulsory tests, other evaluations like extractable, adsorption and chemical compatibility tests should be considered. PDA Technical Report # 26, Sterilizing Filtration of Liquids, describes all parameters and aspects required for the comprehensive validation of filters. The report is a most helpful tool for validation of liquid filters used in the biopharmaceutical industry. It sets the cornerstones of validation requirements and other filtration considerations. PMID:14620854

  2. Method of sterilization using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Methods of using ozone have been developed which sterilize instruments and medical wastes, oxidize, organics found in wastewater, clean laundry, break down contaminants in soil into a form more readily digested by microbes, kill microorganisms present in food products, and destroy toxins present in food products. The preferred methods for killing microorganism and destroying toxins use pressurized, humidified, and concentrated ozone produced by an electrochemical cell.

  3. Instrument sterilization in orthodontic offices.

    PubMed

    Matlack, R E

    1979-07-01

    1. Three different quaternary ammonium compound solutions remained bactericidal against specific vegetative bacteria in three orthodontic offices over a ten day working period. However, no spore formers or viruses were tested. 2. Bacterial contaminants were cultured on pliers and scalers at the chair at least once in each of three orthodontic offices sampled twice a day for ten working days. 3. Sampled chairside instruments wiped with an alcohol sponge only, between patients, were contaminated an excessive 32.5% of the time, too frequently to be seriously considered for routine disinfection of pliers. 4. Chairside instruments, sampled regardless of other means of disinfection or sterilization used, were contaminated from 3.5 to 15% of the time. Therefore, storage and handling of orthodontic instruments must be evaluated and upgraded to prevent recontamination of previously sterilized instruments. 5. Staff personnel need courses in sterilization and disinfection procedures to prevent cross contamination from patient to patient and to protect themselves. These courses should be related specifically to orthodontic practice procedures.

  4. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Benjamin J.P.

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin224 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini

  5. Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

  6. Conference Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    Since the first IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, March 2002) and the Second Conference (Rio de Janeiro, May 2005), progress has continued in most countries and world regions to attract girls to physics and advance women into leadership roles, and many working groups have formed. The Third Conference (Seoul, October 2008), with 283 attendees from 57 countries, was dedicated to celebrating the physics achievements of women throughout the world, networking toward new international collaborations, building each participant's capacity for career success, and aiding the formation of active regional working groups to advance women in physics. Despite the progress, women remain a small minority of the physics community in most countries.

  7. Comparison of liquid chemical sterilization with peracetic acid and ethylene oxide sterilization for long narrow lumens.

    PubMed

    Alfa, M J; DeGagne, P; Olson, N; Hizon, R

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how well peracetic acid liquid chemical sterilization (LCPAS) killed test organisms in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum and 0.65% salt challenge (RPMI-S) compared with a 100% ethylene oxide (ETO) sterilizer and an ETO hydrochlorofluorocarbon (ETO-HCFC) sterilization method with long (125 cm), narrow (3-mm internal diameter) flexible lumens as the test carrier. The inoculated lumens were dried overnight before processing. The test organisms included Mycobacterium chelonei, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis. For all 3 organisms tested, the LCPAS process resulted in a 6 log10 reduction in bacterial load compared with a 2.5 log10 to 6 log10 reduction for the 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilizers. Sterilization was achieved for 100%, 61%, and 67% of the lumen test carriers for the LCPAS, 100% ETO, and ETO-HCFC sterilizers, respectively. The data indicate that of the sterilization methods evaluated, LCPAS was the most effective for sterilizing narrow flexible lumens in the presence of residual inorganic and organic soil. This effectiveness was achieved through a combination of organism wash-off and peracetic acid sterilant killing of organisms. Salt was the major compounding factor for effective ETO gas sterilization, because carriers inoculated with organisms in 10% fetal bovine serum alone all were sterilized by both 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilization methods. Our data support the critical need to ensure adequate precleaning of narrow flexible lumen endoscopes before any sterilization method. PMID:9795674

  8. Comparison of liquid chemical sterilization with peracetic acid and ethylene oxide sterilization for long narrow lumens.

    PubMed

    Alfa, M J; DeGagne, P; Olson, N; Hizon, R

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how well peracetic acid liquid chemical sterilization (LCPAS) killed test organisms in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum and 0.65% salt challenge (RPMI-S) compared with a 100% ethylene oxide (ETO) sterilizer and an ETO hydrochlorofluorocarbon (ETO-HCFC) sterilization method with long (125 cm), narrow (3-mm internal diameter) flexible lumens as the test carrier. The inoculated lumens were dried overnight before processing. The test organisms included Mycobacterium chelonei, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis. For all 3 organisms tested, the LCPAS process resulted in a 6 log10 reduction in bacterial load compared with a 2.5 log10 to 6 log10 reduction for the 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilizers. Sterilization was achieved for 100%, 61%, and 67% of the lumen test carriers for the LCPAS, 100% ETO, and ETO-HCFC sterilizers, respectively. The data indicate that of the sterilization methods evaluated, LCPAS was the most effective for sterilizing narrow flexible lumens in the presence of residual inorganic and organic soil. This effectiveness was achieved through a combination of organism wash-off and peracetic acid sterilant killing of organisms. Salt was the major compounding factor for effective ETO gas sterilization, because carriers inoculated with organisms in 10% fetal bovine serum alone all were sterilized by both 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilization methods. Our data support the critical need to ensure adequate precleaning of narrow flexible lumen endoscopes before any sterilization method.

  9. Surgical Sterilization, Regret, and Race: Contemporary Patterns*

    PubMed Central

    Shreffler, Karina M.; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; Johnson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that has been disproportionately used by Black, Hispanic, and Native American women in the United States in the past. We use a nationally representative sample of 4,609 women ages 25 to 45 to determine whether sterilization continues to be more common and consequential by race for reproductive-age women. Results indicate that Native American and Black women are more likely to be sterilized than non-Hispanic White women, and Hispanic and Native American women are more likely than non-Hispanic White women to report that their sterilization surgeries prevent them from conceiving children they want. Reasons for sterilization differ significantly by race. These findings suggest that stratified reproduction has not ended in the United States and that the patterns and consequences of sterilization continue to vary by race. PMID:25592919

  10. Radiation sterilization of new drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Abuhanoğlu, Gürhan

    2014-01-01

    Radiation sterilization has now become a commonly used method for sterilization of several active ingredients in drugs or drug delivery systems containing these substances. In this context, many applications have been performed on the human products that are required to be sterile, as well as on pharmaceutical products prepared to be developed. The new drug delivery systems designed to deliver the medication to the target tissue or organ, such as microspheres, nanospheres, microemulsion, and liposomal systems, have been sterilized by gamma (γ) and beta (β) rays, and more recently, by e-beam sterilization. In this review, the sterilization of new drug delivery systems was discussed other than conventional drug delivery systems by γ irradiation. PMID:24936306

  11. Biomedical Conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    As a result of Biomedical Conferences, Vivo Metric Systems Co. has produced cardiac electrodes based on NASA technology. Frequently in science, one highly specialized discipline is unaware of relevant advances made in other areas. In an attempt to familiarize researchers in a variety of disciplines with medical problems and needs, NASA has sponsored conferences that bring together university scientists, practicing physicians and manufacturers of medical instruments.

  12. Hysteroscopic Sterilization: History and Current Methods

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    For many practicing obstetrician-gynecologists, tubal ligation was the gold standard by which female sterilization techniques were measured. Yet gynecologic surgeons have simultaneously sought to occlude the fallopian tubes transcervically to avoid discomfort and complications associated with transabdominal approaches. In this review, the history of transcervical sterilization is discussed. Past, current, and upcoming techniques are reviewed. This article focuses on interval sterilization techniques, thus removing post-vaginal and post-cesarean delivery tubal ligations from the discussion. PMID:19015762

  13. A sterile-female technique proposed for control of Striga hermonthica and other intractable weeds: Advantages, shortcomings, and risk management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds have posed intractable challenges to farmers since the dawn of agriculture. This article describes in detail a proposed control strategy based on the introduction of genes conferring female-sterility into the genomes of intractable target weeds. Spread of these genes through target populations...

  14. Steam quality and effective sterilization.

    PubMed

    Sedlacek, R S; Rose, E F

    1985-01-01

    Faced with using steam from a commercial utility having boilers greater than 5 miles distant and being the last user on the system resulted in ineffective sterilization. A three phase testing program was established utilizing: Direct physical measurements - an Ellison model 915A portable steam calorimeter. Direct microbiology - Autoclaved feed pellets were aseptically placed in fluid thioglycolate medium and incubated at 37 degrees C. Indirect microbiology - Feces from "defined flora" mice fed the autoclaved pelleted feed were tested. Colorimetric measurements verified that the steam sometimes contained greater than 5% entrained water. During periods of wet steam it was impossible to maintain consistent sterility of the mouse pellets even using a cycle of 126 degrees C for 60 minutes. One spore-forming Gram positive rod, Clostridium perfringens type D was the predominant bacterium isolated. Lactating mice, or mice stressed experimentally came down with diarrhea within days of eating pellets treated with wet steam (calorimetric measurements) and a subsequent positive culture. These mice voided stools predominantly showing Clostridium perfringens type D. PMID:2862643

  15. Ramifications of a sterile Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2011-10-01

    The seldom considered ramifications of a sterile Mars are explored. Very much is now known about the environment on Mars. Herein, the individual and collective environmental parameters are examined with particular consideration of those that might be inimical to life as we know it, or as might reasonably be assumed to be so to alien life. It is shown that no single measurement or combination of them precludes the ability of Mars to support even a wide number of terrestrial microbial species, let alone the likely greater tolerance and/or adaptability of possible alien life forms. Some yet unknown factor or combination of factors would have to be responsible for Mars' failure to generate life or to successfully harbor viable forms received from space. Since Mars is so Earth-like, the red planet's sterility could deliver a fatal blow to the growing concept of a cosmic Biologic Imperative, and would raise the daunting prospect that Earth is a unique or a very rare habitat.

  16. Influence of In Vitro IL-2 or IL-15 Alone or in Combination with Hsp 70 Derived 14-Mer Peptide (TKD) on the Expression of NK Cell Activatory and Inhibitory Receptors on Peripheral Blood T Cells, B Cells and NKT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hromadnikova, Ilona; Li, Shuang; Kotlabova, Katerina; Dickinson, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies from Multhoff and colleagues reported that plasma membrane Hsp70 acts as a tumour-specific recognition structure for activated NK cells, and that the incubation of NK cells with Hsp70 and/or a 14-mer peptide derived from the N-terminal sequence of Hsp70 (TKDNNLLGRFELSG, TKD, aa 450–463) plus a low dose of IL-2 triggers NK cell proliferation and migration, and their capacity to kill cancer cells expressing membrane Hsp70. Herein, we have used flow cytometry to determine the influence of in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals with IL-2 or IL-15, either alone or in combination with TKD peptide on the cell surface expression of CD94, NK cell activatory receptors (CD16, NK2D, NKG2C, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKp80, KIR2DL4, DNAM-1 and LAMP1) and NK cell inhibitory receptors (NKG2A, KIR2DL2/L3, LIR1/ILT-2 and NKR-P1A) by CD3+CD56+ (NKT), CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and CD19+ populations. NKG2D, DNAM-1, LAMP1 and NKR-P1A expression was upregulated after the stimulation with IL-2 or IL-15 alone or in combination with TKD in NKT, CD8+ T cells and B cells. CD94 was upregulated in NKT and CD8+ T cells. Concurrently, an increase in a number of CD8+ T cells expressing LIR1/ILT-2 and CD4+ T cells positive for NKR-P1A was observed. The proportion of CD8+ T cells that expressed NKG2D was higher after IL-2/TKD treatment, when compared with IL-2 treatment alone. In comparison with IL-15 alone, IL-15/TKD treatment increased the proportion of NKT cells that were positive for CD94, LAMP1 and NKRP-1A. The more potent effect of IL-15/TKD on cell surface expression of NKG2D, LIR1/ILT-2 and NKRP-1A was observed in B cells compared with IL-15 alone. However, this increase was not of statistical significance. IL-2/TKD induced significant upregulation of LAMP1 in CD8+ T cells compared with IL-2 alone. Besides NK cells, other immunocompetent cells present within the fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were influenced by the treatment

  17. Influence of In Vitro IL-2 or IL-15 Alone or in Combination with Hsp 70 Derived 14-Mer Peptide (TKD) on the Expression of NK Cell Activatory and Inhibitory Receptors on Peripheral Blood T Cells, B Cells and NKT Cells.

    PubMed

    Hromadnikova, Ilona; Li, Shuang; Kotlabova, Katerina; Dickinson, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies from Multhoff and colleagues reported that plasma membrane Hsp70 acts as a tumour-specific recognition structure for activated NK cells, and that the incubation of NK cells with Hsp70 and/or a 14-mer peptide derived from the N-terminal sequence of Hsp70 (TKDNNLLGRFELSG, TKD, aa 450-463) plus a low dose of IL-2 triggers NK cell proliferation and migration, and their capacity to kill cancer cells expressing membrane Hsp70. Herein, we have used flow cytometry to determine the influence of in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals with IL-2 or IL-15, either alone or in combination with TKD peptide on the cell surface expression of CD94, NK cell activatory receptors (CD16, NK2D, NKG2C, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKp80, KIR2DL4, DNAM-1 and LAMP1) and NK cell inhibitory receptors (NKG2A, KIR2DL2/L3, LIR1/ILT-2 and NKR-P1A) by CD3+CD56+ (NKT), CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and CD19+ populations. NKG2D, DNAM-1, LAMP1 and NKR-P1A expression was upregulated after the stimulation with IL-2 or IL-15 alone or in combination with TKD in NKT, CD8+ T cells and B cells. CD94 was upregulated in NKT and CD8+ T cells. Concurrently, an increase in a number of CD8+ T cells expressing LIR1/ILT-2 and CD4+ T cells positive for NKR-P1A was observed. The proportion of CD8+ T cells that expressed NKG2D was higher after IL-2/TKD treatment, when compared with IL-2 treatment alone. In comparison with IL-15 alone, IL-15/TKD treatment increased the proportion of NKT cells that were positive for CD94, LAMP1 and NKRP-1A. The more potent effect of IL-15/TKD on cell surface expression of NKG2D, LIR1/ILT-2 and NKRP-1A was observed in B cells compared with IL-15 alone. However, this increase was not of statistical significance. IL-2/TKD induced significant upregulation of LAMP1 in CD8+ T cells compared with IL-2 alone. Besides NK cells, other immunocompetent cells present within the fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were influenced by the treatment

  18. 21 CFR 610.12 - Sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... statement of any other function critical to the particular sterility test method to ensure consistent and...: (1) This section does not require sterility testing for Whole Blood, Cryoprecipitated Antihemophilic Factor, Platelets, Red Blood Cells, Plasma, Source Plasma, Smallpox Vaccine, Reagent Red Blood...

  19. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Social Services Block Grants § 96.73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR Part 441, Subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42...

  20. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Social Services Block Grants § 96.73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR Part 441, Subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42...

  1. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Social Services Block Grants § 96.73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR Part 441, Subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42...

  2. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Social Services Block Grants § 96.73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR Part 441, Subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42...

  3. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  4. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  5. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups. PMID:26322647

  6. 21 CFR 886.1940 - Tonometer sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tonometer sterilizer. 886.1940 Section 886.1940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1940 Tonometer sterilizer. (a)...

  7. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  8. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  9. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  10. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups.

  11. Review of surface steam sterilization for validation purposes.

    PubMed

    van Doornmalen, Joost; Kopinga, Klaas

    2008-03-01

    Sterilization is an essential step in the process of producing sterile medical devices. To guarantee sterility, the process of sterilization must be validated. Because there is no direct way to measure sterility, the techniques applied to validate the sterilization process are based on statistical principles. Steam sterilization is the most frequently applied sterilization method worldwide and can be validated either by indicators (chemical or biological) or physical measurements. The steam sterilization conditions are described in the literature. Starting from these conditions, criteria for the validation of steam sterilization are derived and can be described in terms of physical parameters. Physical validation of steam sterilization appears to be an adequate and efficient validation method that could be considered as an alternative for indicator validation. Moreover, physical validation can be used for effective troubleshooting in steam sterilizing processes.

  12. Review of surface steam sterilization for validation purposes.

    PubMed

    van Doornmalen, Joost; Kopinga, Klaas

    2008-03-01

    Sterilization is an essential step in the process of producing sterile medical devices. To guarantee sterility, the process of sterilization must be validated. Because there is no direct way to measure sterility, the techniques applied to validate the sterilization process are based on statistical principles. Steam sterilization is the most frequently applied sterilization method worldwide and can be validated either by indicators (chemical or biological) or physical measurements. The steam sterilization conditions are described in the literature. Starting from these conditions, criteria for the validation of steam sterilization are derived and can be described in terms of physical parameters. Physical validation of steam sterilization appears to be an adequate and efficient validation method that could be considered as an alternative for indicator validation. Moreover, physical validation can be used for effective troubleshooting in steam sterilizing processes. PMID:18313509

  13. Disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis: An overview.

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-01

    All invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instrument with a patient's sterile tissue or mucous membranes. The level of disinfection or sterilization is dependent on the intended use of the object: critical (items that contact sterile tissue such as surgical instruments), semicritical (items that contact mucous membrane such as endoscopes), and noncritical (devices that contact only intact skin such as stethoscopes) items require sterilization, high-level disinfection and low-level disinfection, respectively. Cleaning must always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Antiseptics are essential to infection prevention as part of a hand hygiene program as well as several other uses such as surgical hand antisepsis and pre-operative skin preparation.

  14. Federally Funded Sterilization: Time to Rethink Policy?

    PubMed Central

    Zite, Nikki; Creinin, Mitchell D.

    2012-01-01

    In the 1970s, concern about coercive sterilization of low-income and minority women in the United States led the US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to create strict regulations for federally funded sterilization procedures. Although these policies were instituted to secure informed consent and protect women from involuntary sterilization, there are significant data indicating that these policies may not, in fact, ensure that consent is truly informed and, further, may prevent many low-income women from getting a desired sterilization procedure. Given the alarmingly high rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States, especially among low-income populations, we feel that restrictive federal sterilization policies should be reexamined and modified to simultaneously ensure informed decision-making and honor women’s reproductive choices. PMID:22897531

  15. Viking heat sterilization - Progress and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daspit, L. P.; Cortright, E. M.; Stern, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The Viking Mars landers to be launched in 1975 will carry experiments in biology, planetology, and atmospheric physics. A terminal dry-heat sterilization process using an inert gas was chosen to meet planetary quarantine requirements and preclude contamination of the biology experiment by terrestrial organisms. Deep sterilization is performed at the component level and terminal surface sterilization at the system level. Solutions to certain component problems relating to sterilization are discussed, involving the gyroscope, tape recorder, battery, electronic circuitry, and outgassing. Heat treatment placed special requirements on electronic packaging, including fastener preload monitoring and solder joints. Chemical and physical testing of nonmetallic materials was performed to establish data on their behavior in heat-treatment and vacuum environments. A Thermal Effects Test Model and a Proof Test Capsule were used. It is concluded that a space vehicle can be designed and fabricated to withstand heat sterilization requirements.

  16. Vapor Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack

    For interplanetary missions landing on a planet of potential biological interest, United States NASA planetary protection currently requires that the flight system must be assembled, tested and ultimately launched with the intent of minimizing the bioload taken to and deposited on the planet. Currently the only NASA approved microbial reduction method is dry heat sterilization process. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements. The VHP sterilization technology is widely used by the medical industry, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material compatibility. The goal of our study is determine the minimum VHP process conditions for PP acceptable microbial reduction levels. A series of experiments were conducted using Geobacillus stearothermophilus to determine VHP process parameters that provided significant reductions in spore viability while allowing survival of sufficient spores for statistically significant enumeration. In addition to the obvious process parameters -hydrogen peroxide concentration, number of pulses, and exposure duration -the investigation also considered the possible effect of environmental pa-rameters. Temperature, relative humidity, and material substrate effects on lethality were also studied. Based on the results, a most conservative D value was recommended. This recom-mended D value was also validated using VHP "hardy" strains that were isolated from clean-rooms and environmental populations collected from spacecraft relevant areas. The efficiency of VHP at ambient condition as well as VHP material compatibility will also be

  17. Conference Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, James L., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Celebrations and special events were in order this year as the Minority University-Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) Program and NASA's Minority University Research and Education Division (MURED) both reached their 10th anniversaries. In honor of this occasion, the 2000 Annual Users' Conference held at Morris Brown College (MBC) in Atlanta, Georgia, September 11-15, 2000, was the first to be jointly hosted by MU-SPIN and MURED. It was particularly fitting that this anniversary should fall in the year 2000. The start of the new millennium propelled us to push bold new ideas and renew our commitment to minority university participation in all areas of NASA. With the theme 'Celebrating Our Tenth Year With Our Eyes on the Prize,' the conference provided a national forum for showcasing successful MU-SPIN and MURED Program (MUREP) experiences to enhance faculty/student development in areas of scientific and technical research and education. Our NASA-relevant conference agenda resulted in a record-breaking 220 registered attendees. Using feedback from past participants, we designed a track of student activities closely tailored to their interests. The resulting showcase of technical assistance and best practices set a new standard for our conferences in the years to come. This year's poster session was our largest ever, with over 50 presentations from students, faculty, and teachers. Posters covered a broad range of NASA activities from 'A Study of the Spiral Galaxy M101' to 'Network Cabling Characteristics.'

  18. EPR STUDIES OF THERMALLY STERILIZED VASELINUM ALBUM.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used for examination of free radicals in thermally treated vaselinum album (VA). Thermal treatment in hot air as sterilization process was tested. Conditions of thermal sterilization were chosen according to the pharmaceutical norms. Vaselinum album was heated at the following conditions (T--temperature, t--time): T = 160°C and t = 120 min, T = 170°C and t = 60 min and T = 180°C and t = 30 min. The aim of this work was to determine concentration and free radical properties of thermally sterilized VA. EPR analysis for VA was done 15 min after sterilization. EPR measurements were done at room temperature. EPR spectra were recorded in the range of microwave power of 2.2-70 mW. g-Factor, amplitudes (A) and line width (ΔBpp) of the spectra were determined. The shape of the EPR spectra was analyzed. Free radical concentration (N) in the heated samples was determined. EPR spectra were not obtained for the non heated VA. EPR spectra were detected for all thermally sterilized samples. The spectra revealed complex character, their asymmetry depends on microwave power. The lowest free radicals concentration was found for the VA sterilized at 180°C during 30 min. EPR spectroscopy is proposed as the method useful for optimization of sterilization process of drugs. PMID:26647625

  19. Problems in sterilization of unmanned space vehicles.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, L D

    1964-01-01

    The probability of achieving and maintaining sterility of an unmanned spacecraft with varied suggested procedures is examined in detail, as are alternative techniques for avoiding biological contamination of the planets. The required degree of assurance against contamination of Mars, Venus and the Moon with Earth organisms is also considered. For Mars landers and orbiters, sterilization of the spacecraft or capsule by dry heat, with no subsequent access, is found to be desirable. For the present, sterilization of Venus landers still seems desirable. For Mars flybys, and for Venus orbiters and flybys, control of the trajectory to minimize the chance of unintentionally entering the planetary atmosphere appears the method of choice. For the Moon, sterilization seems unnecessary, but microbial counts should be kept low. Sterilization lowers spacecraft and system reliability. It reduces the chance of launching within periods fixed by astronomical constraints and increases costs. The gain which should be achieved through spacecraft sterilization, in return of significant biological information about the planets, must be balanced against these losses. In particular, one should keep in mind the loss in return of biological data occasioned by failure of a spacecraft to fulfill its mission; the probability of such failure is increased by sterilization. PMID:11883447

  20. Characteristics of Surface Sterilization using ECR Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Plasma sterilization techniques have superior characteristics such as a short treatment times, non-toxicity and low thermal damages on the sterilized materials. In plasma sterilization, microorganisms can be sterilized by active radicals, energetic charged particles, and vacuum UV radiation. The influence of each factor depends on the plasma operating parameters. Microwave discharges under the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition produce higher electron temperature and density plasma as compared with other plasma generation techniques. In the present study, characteristics of surface sterilization using ECR plasma have been investigated.The experiment was performed in the vacuum chamber which contains a magnet holder. A pair of rectangular Sm-Co permanent magnets is aligned parallel to each other within the magnet holder. The region of the magnetic field for ECR exists near the magnet holder surface. When the microwave is introduced into the vacuum chamber, a ECR plasma is produced around surface of the magnet holder. High energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed at ECR zone by electric probe method and optical spectroscopic method. Biological indicators (B.I.) having spore of 106 was sterilized in 2min for oxygen discharge. The temperature of the B.I. installation position was about 55°. The sterilization was achieved by the effect of oxygen radicals and high energy electrons.

  1. An investigation of a sterile access technique for the repair and adjustment of sterile spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, F. H.; Fuller, H. V.; Hueschen, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A description is presented of a unique system for the sterilization and sterile repair of spacecraft and the results of a test program designed to assess the biological integrity and engineering reliability of the system. This trailer-mounted system, designated the model assembly sterilizer for testing (MAST), is capable of the dry-heat sterilization of spacecraft and/or components less than 2.3 meters in diameter at temperatures up to 433 K and the steam sterilization of components less than 0.724 meter in diameter. Sterile access to spacecraft is provided by two tunnel suits, called the bioisolator suit systems (BISS), which are contiguous with the walls of the sterilization chambers. The test program was designed primarily to verify the biological and engineering reliability of the MAST system by processing simulated space hardware. Each test cycle simulated the initial sterilization of a spacecraft, sterile repair of a failed component, removal of the spacecraft from the MAST for mating with the bus, and a sterile recycle repair.

  2. Safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization compared with laparoscopic sterilization: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jialin; Pfeifer, Samantha; Schlegel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization with the “Essure” device with laparoscopic sterilization in a large, all-inclusive, state cohort. Design Population based cohort study. Settings Outpatient interventional setting in New York State. Participants Women undergoing interval sterilization procedure, including hysteroscopic sterilization with Essure device and laparoscopic surgery, between 2005 and 2013. Main outcomes measures Safety events within 30 days of procedures; unintended pregnancies and reoperations within one year of procedures. Mixed model accounting for hospital clustering was used to compare 30 day and 1 year outcomes, adjusting for patient characteristics and other confounders. Time to reoperation was evaluated using frailty model for time to event analysis. Results We identified 8048 patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization and 44 278 undergoing laparoscopic sterilization between 2005 and 2013 in New York State. There was a significant increase in the use of hysteroscopic procedures during this period, while use of laparoscopic sterilization decreased. Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization were older than those undergoing laparoscopic sterilization and were more likely to have a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (10.3% v 7.2%, P<0.01), major abdominal surgery (9.4% v 7.9%, P<0.01), and cesarean section (23.2% v 15.4%, P<0.01). At one year after surgery, hysteroscopic sterilization was not associated with a higher risk of unintended pregnancy (odds ratio 0.84 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.12)) but was associated with a substantially increased risk of reoperation (odds ratio 10.16 (7.47 to 13.81)) compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Conclusions Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization have a similar risk of unintended pregnancy but a more than 10-fold higher risk of undergoing reoperation compared with patients undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Benefits and risks of both procedures

  3. Voluntary female sterilization programs in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1976-10-01

    Profamilia, the Colombian planned parenthood association, instituted a female sterilization program in 1973. Under the program, laparoscopies and minilaparotomies are performed. The program has expanded yearly to the point that it is estimated more than 15,000 operations will be performed in 1976. Trained personnel, facilities, and demand are adequate to carry out more than 40,000 tubal ligations in 1977; only funding is lacking. Agency for International Development funds can no longer be used for sterilization programs. Rural mobile units and sterilization training sessions will suffer from funds shortages as well.

  4. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  5. Understanding current steam sterilization recommendations and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Spry, Cynthia

    2008-10-01

    Processing surgical instruments in preparation for surgery is a complex multistep practice. It is impractical to culture each and every item to determine sterility; therefore, the best assurance of a sterile product is careful execution of every step in the process coupled with an ongoing quality control program. Perioperative staff nurses and managers responsible for instrument processing, whether for a single instrument or multiple sets, must be knowledgeable with regard to cleaning; packaging; cycle selection; and the use of physical, chemical, and biological monitors. Nurses also should be able to resolve issues related to loaner sets, flash sterilization, and extended cycles. PMID:18942236

  6. [Cold sterilization of serums with peracetic acid].

    PubMed

    Sprössig, M; Wutzler, P; Schweizer, H; Mücke, H

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of broad antimicrobic effect including also bacterial spores, mycoplasmas and viruses, the peracetic acid suits to sterilize in cold. By means of the final 0,1 to 0.02% concentration of the peracetic acid acting for 30 min. up to 5 days, it succeeded in sterilizing the serum used to prepare culture medium for bacteria, mycoplasmas and tissue cultures. Growth controls shown at least as good results as were those in using filtered sera. Chemical sterilization by means of the peracetic acid leads to significant diminution of neutralization and complementfixation antibodies in serum. PMID:823257

  7. [Positive and negative aspects of Fallopian tube sterilization as viewed by sterilized women

    PubMed

    Minella

    1998-03-30

    The objective of this paper is to point out the positive and negative aspects of female sterilization as seen by two groups of sterilized women in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, based on a sociological discussion of their present health status, evaluating the associations that they generally make with the fact that they have been sterilized. The first group included mostly housewives from a low-income neighborhood, while the second involved upper-middle-class female public employees, students, and university professors, totaling 40 women. Data were obtained through a structured questionnaire with open-ended questions. Information on social, economic, and demographic variables was recorded, along with subjective data associated with women's representations of the post-sterilization period. We concluded that there was no consensus as to the consequences of sterilization, since a number of the women (11/40), mostly sterilized before the age of 30, perceived changes in their health status after surgery.

  8. Tissue sterility in uneviscerated carcasses.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Penney, N; Nottingham, P M

    1978-08-01

    Sheep muscle tissue removed aseptically from control carcasses, from uneviscerated carcasses held at 20 degrees C for 24 h, and from carcasses of sheep subjected to stress before slaughter was examined for the presence of bacteria. All samples from a total of 68 carcasses were sterile. Whole-body autoradiography of mouse carcasses showed that 14C-labeled fixed bacteria injected after death remained in the lumen of the intestine. Live bacteria did not penetrate the mucosal surface until the tissue structure had been disrupted by proteolytic enzymes. Bacteria were unable to penetrate sections of intestine longitudinally until considerable structural breakdown had occurred, indicating that blood and lymph vessels do not normally offer a pathway for microbial invasion from the intestine. Clostridia, which have been reported to be responsible for deep spoilage of meat, reached maximum numbers 24 to 28 h after death in the intestines of guinea pig carcasses stored at 20 degrees C, but did not invade carcass tissues until the stomach ruptured as a result of proteolysis between 2 and 3 days after death.

  9. Sterile post-traumatic immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md Nahidul; Bradley, Benjamin A; Ceredig, Rhodri

    2016-01-01

    After major trauma, the human immune system initiates a series of inflammatory events at the injury site that is later followed by suppression of local inflammation favoring the repair and remodeling of the damaged tissues. This local immune response involves complex interactions between resident cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, soluble mediators such as cytokines and chemokines, and recruited cells such as neutrophils, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells. If of sufficient magnitude, these initial immune responses nevertheless have systemic consequences resulting in a state called post-traumatic immunosuppression (PTI). However, controversy exists regarding the exact immunological changes occurring in systemic compartments triggered by these local immune responses. PTI is one of the leading causes of post-surgical mortality and makes patients vulnerable to hospital-acquired infections, multiple organ failure and many other complications. In addition, hemorrhage, blood transfusion, immunesenescence and immunosuppressant drugs aggravate PTI. PTI has been intensively studied, but published results are frequently cloudy. The purpose of this review is to focus on the contributions made by different responsive modalities to immunosuppression following sterile trauma and to try to integrate these into an overall scheme of PTI. PMID:27195120

  10. Hybrid sterility in plant: stories from rice.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yidan; Liu, Yao-Guang; Zhang, Qifa

    2010-04-01

    Hybrid sterility is the most common form of postzygotic reproductive isolation in plants. The best-known example is perhaps the hybrid sterility between indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Major progress has been reported recently in rice in identifying and cloning hybrid sterility genes at two loci regulating female and male fertility, respectively. Genetic analyses and molecular characterization of these genes, together with the results from other model organisms especially Drosophila, have advanced the understanding of the processes underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. These findings also have significant implications for crop genetic improvement, by providing the feasibility and strategies for overcoming intersubspecific hybrid sterility thus allowing the development of intersubspecific hybrids.

  11. Encapsulation process sterilizes and preserves surgical instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. C.; Morelli, F. A.

    1964-01-01

    Ethylene oxide is blended with an organic polymer to form a sterile material for encapsulating surgical instruments. The material does not bond to metal and can be easily removed when the instruments are needed.

  12. 21 CFR 522.44 - Sterile sodium acetazolamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sterile sodium acetazolamide. 522.44 Section 522....44 Sterile sodium acetazolamide. (a) Specifications. Sterile sodium acetazolamide contains acetazolamide sodium complying with United States Pharmacopeia as a sterile powder with directions...

  13. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  14. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  15. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  16. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  17. Neutrino Oscillations with Three Active and Three Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-07-01

    This is an extension of estimates of the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with one sterile neutrino to three sterile neutrinos, using a 6x6 matrix. Since the mixing angle for only one sterile neutrino has been experimentally determined, we estimate the μ to e neutrino oscillation probability with different mixing angles for two of the sterile neutrinos.

  18. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize...

  3. [Experimental tests of a microwave sterilization system].

    PubMed

    Rosaspina, S; Liguori, G; Anzanel, D; Finzi, G; Salvatorelli, G

    1994-01-01

    Data obtained in our experiments indicate that the microwave sterilization system utilized may be considered as a practical and rapid method for decontaminating steel surgical instruments. For the tested organisms (7 Gram- and 2 Gram+ genera) a 3' exposure time to microwaves provides successful sterilization. Microwave irradiation also had a killing action against Bacillus subtilis spores. A study by SEM of microwave treated spores shows typical morphological alterations of spore surfaces. PMID:8170448

  4. Production of a sterile species: Quantum kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Chiu Man; Boyanovsky, D.; Ho, C.M.

    2007-04-23

    Production of a sterile species is studied within an effective model of active-sterile neutrino mixing in a medium in thermal equilibrium. The quantum kinetic equations for the distribution functions and coherences are obtained from two independent methods: the effective action and the quantum master equation. The decoherence time scale for active-sterile oscillations is tau(dec)=2/Gamma(aa), but the evolution of the distribution functions is determined by the two different time scales associated with the damping rates of the quasiparticle modes in the medium: Gamma(1)=Gamma(aa)cos^2theta(m); Gamma(2)=Gamma(aa)sin^2theta(m) where Gamma(aa) is the interaction rate of the active species in the absence of mixing and theta(m) the mixing angle in the medium. These two time scales are widely different away from Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances and preclude the kinetic description of active-sterile production in terms of a simple rate equation. We give the complete set of quantum kinetic equations for the active and sterile populations and coherences and discuss in detail the various approximations. A generalization of the active-sterile transition probability in a medium is provided via the quantum master equation. We derive explicitly the usual quantum kinetic equations in terms of the"polarization vector" and show their equivalence to those obtained from the quantum master equation and effective action.

  5. Is cosmology compatible with sterile neutrinos?

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Slosar, Anze; /Ljubljana U.

    2005-11-01

    By combining data from cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments (including the recent BOOMERANG-2K2 results), large scale structure (LSS) and Lyman-{alpha} forest observations, we constrain the hypothesis of a fourth, sterile, massive neutrino. For the 3 massless + 1 massive neutrino case we bound the mass of the sterile neutrino to m{sub s} < 0.55eV at 95% c.l.. These results exclude at high significance the sterile neutrino hypothesis as an explanation of the LSND anomaly. We then generalize the analysis to account for active neutrino masses (which tightens the limit to m{sub s} < 0.51eV) and the possibility that the sterile abundance is not thermal. In the latter case, the constraints in the (mass, density) plane are non-trivial. For a mass of > 1eV or < 0.05eV the cosmological energy density in sterile neutrinos is always constrained to be {omega}{sub {nu}} < 0.005 at 95% c.l.. However, for a sterile neutrino mass of {approx} 0.25 eV, {omega}{sub {nu}} can be as large as 0.015.

  6. Multiple gamma radiation sterilization of polyester fibres.

    PubMed

    Nair, P D; Sreenivasan, K; Jayabalan, M

    1988-07-01

    Gamma radiation with a dose of 2.5 Mrad has been found to be suitable to sterilize polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bulk materials intended for biomedical applications. The radiation stability of PET bulk materials and fibre may not however be taken as identical due to the changes in the polymer structure during the processing of bulk materials for fibre. The chemical changes occurring in PET fibres during single and multiple (prolonged) sterilization in air were investigated. It was found that single sterilization (2.5 Mrad) itself affected the PET yarn and fibre. This was exhibited by the increase of crystallinity from 30.5 to 37% in the case of yarn and from 40 to 44% in the case of fibre. The breaking load of the yarn also increased from 441 g to 451 g. These changes were attributed to the degradation of PET in the amorphous region and the recombination of degraded aliphatic segments. Sterilization at higher doses affected the crystalline region which decreased the crystallinity, breaking load and molecular weight. For samples irradiated at 2.5 Mrad, the breaking load increased, though the dispersity increased. This was attributed to cross-linking by recombination. The increase in crystallinity also enhanced the breaking load of the samples. Higher doses of sterilization led to drastic microstructural and macrostructural changes as seen from the molecular weight. It was inferred that the changes in crystallinity and microstructure that occurred during multiple sterilization might affect the biocompatibility of the material. PMID:2975186

  7. Barriers to completion of desired postpartum sterilization.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Lori A; DeSimone, Michael; Allen, Rebecca H

    2013-02-01

    Tubal sterilization is a highly effective, permanent, and safe method of contraception. Many women who desire postpartum sterilization do not obtain the procedure due to barriers. We performed a retrospective cohort study examining patients from a single obstetrics practice who delivered between 1/1/07 and 6/30/07 at Women and Infants Hospital in Providence, RI. During the study period, 626 women in the practice delivered. Of these subjects, 87 (14%) desired postpartum sterilization. Of these 87, 45 (51.7%) underwent sterilization as planned. In multivariable analysis controlling for age, BMI, delivery mode and marital status, older age (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.12, 4.12, p=0.02) and cesarean delivery (OR 19.65, 95% CI 3.75, 103.1, p < 0.001) were associated with completion of postpartum sterilization and being married (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.02, 0.56, p=0.009) and having a higher BMI (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39, 0.91, p=0.02) were associated with incompletion. Only half of women who request postpartum sterilization antenatally end up obtaining the procedure.

  8. Health technology assessment: Off-site sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Dehnavieh, Reza; Mirshekari, Nadia; Ghasemi, Sara; Goudarzi, Reza; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossain; Moshkani, Zahra; Noori Hekmat, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year millions of dollars are expended to equip and maintain the hospital sterilization centers, and our country is not an exception of this matter. According to this, it is important to use more effective technologies and methods in health system in order to reach more effectiveness and saving in costs. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the technology of regional sterilization centers. Methods: This study was done in four steps. At the first step, safety and effectiveness of technology was studied via systematic study of evidence. The next step was done to evaluate the economical aspect of off-site sterilization technology using gathered data from systematic review of the texts which were related to the technology and costs of off-site and in-site hospital sterilization. Third step was conducted to collect experiences of using technology in some selected hospitals around the world. And in the last step different aspects of acceptance and use of this technology in Iran were evaluated. Results: Review of the selected articles indicated that efficacy and effectiveness of this technology is Confirmed. The results also showed that using this method is not economical in Iran. Conclusion: According to the revealed evidences and also cost analysis, due to shortage of necessary substructures and economical aspect, installing the off-site sterilization health technology in hospitals is not possible currently. But this method can be used to provide sterilization services for clinics and outpatients centers. PMID:27390714

  9. Sterilization of products contaminated with Pyronema domesticum.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Carol M; Hansen, Joyce M; Rymer, Therese M; Sargent, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Product recalls due to non-sterility occurred between 1993 and 1994 among manufacturers that were sterilizing cotton products sourced from China using ethylene oxide (EO). The primary contaminant was identified as a pyrophilous mold from the class Discomycetes, Pyronema domesticum. Multiple references suggest this organism has special needs for reproducing and maintaining the two assumed resistant stages of this organism (ascospores and sclerotia). Sterilization resistance studies were performed using a China-sourced cotton product that was naturally contaminated with P. domesticum. These studies showed the organisms to have: 1) a low resistance to moist heat sterilization at 250 degrees F (121 degrees C); a resistance to radiation no greater than that predicted by the bioburden-based resistance model (i.e., Population C) used for dose determination Method 1 described in ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11137-2:2006--Sterilization of health care products--Radiation--Part 2: Establishing the sterilization dose; and 3) a high resistance to EO processing. PMID:20041540

  10. Sterilization techniques for biodegradable scaffolds in tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zheng; Ronholm, Jennifer; Tian, Yiping; Sethi, Benu; Cao, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable scaffolds have been extensively studied due to their wide applications in biomaterials and tissue engineering. However, infections associated with in vivo use of these scaffolds by different microbiological contaminants remain to be a significant challenge. This review focuses on different sterilization techniques including heat, chemical, irradiation, and other novel sterilization techniques for various biodegradable scaffolds. Comparisons of these techniques, including their sterilization mechanisms, post-sterilization effects, and sterilization efficiencies, are discussed. PMID:27247758

  11. Next conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hexemer, Alexander; Toney, Michael F.

    2010-11-01

    After the successful conference on Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science (SRPS) in Rolduc Abbey (the Netherlands), we are now looking forward to the next meeting in this topical series started in 1995 by H G Zachmann, one of the pioneers of the use of synchrotron radiation techniques in polymer science. Earlier meetings were held in Hamburg (1995), Sheffield (2002), Kyoto (2006), and Rolduc (2009). In September of 2012 the Synchrotron Radiation and Polymer Science V conferences will be organized in a joint effort by the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory Advanced Light Source at LBL Advanced Light Source at LBL The conference will be organised in the heart of beautiful San Francisco. The program will consist of invited and contributed lectures divided in sessions on the use of synchrotron SAXS/WAXD, imaging and tomography, soft x-rays, x-ray spectroscopy, GISAXS and reflectivity, micro-beams and hyphenated techniques in polymer science. Poster contributions are more than welcome and will be highlighted during the poster sessions. Visits to both SLAC as well as LBL will be organised. San Francisco can easily be reached. It is served by two major international airports San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport. Both are being served by most major airlines with easy connections to Europe and Asia as well as national destinations. Both also boast excellent connections to San Francisco city centre. We are looking forward to seeing you in the vibrant city by the Bay in September 2012. Golden gate bridge Alexander Hexemer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Michael F Toney Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Pk, CA 94025, USA E-mail: ahexemer@lbl.gov, mftoney@slac.stanford.edu

  12. Conference Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, R. S.

    2008-10-01

    This first Subaru international conference has highlighted the remarkably diverse and significant contributions made using the 8.2m Subaru telescope by both Japanese astronomers and the international community. As such, it serves as a satisfying tribute to the pioneering efforts of Professors Keiichi Kodaira and Sadanori Okamura whose insight and dedication is richly rewarded. Here I try to summarize the recent impact of wide field science in extragalactic astronomy and cosmology and take a look forward to the key questions we will address in the near future.

  13. Conferences revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radcliffe, Jonathan

    2008-08-01

    Way back in the mid-1990s, as a young PhD student, I wrote a Lateral Thoughts article about my first experience of an academic conference (Physics World 1994 October p80). It was a peach of a trip - most of the lab decamped to Grenoble for a week of great weather, beautiful scenery and, of course, the physics. A whole new community was there for me to see in action, and the internationality of it all helped us to forget about England's non-appearance in the 1994 World Cup finals.

  14. Using high-temperature formaldehyde sterilization as a model for studying gaseous sterilization.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Gregg A

    2008-01-01

    This study uses the high-temperature formaldehyde sterilization system provided by the Harvey Chemiclave, manufactured by Barnstead Thermolyne Corporation (Dubuque, IA), as a model to investigate certain phenomena associated with gaseous chemical sterilization systems. Although formaldehyde sterilization presents some unique and complex system attributes, the current studies provide helpful insights into general sterilization methods by chemicals in the gaseous state. Both population recovery and fraction negative (FN) techniques were used to assay surviving populations from biological indicators of the organism Geobacillus stearothermophilus following exposure to incremental Chemiclave cycles. Models 5500 and 6000 of the Barnstead/Thermolyne Chemiclave were used in the study. Reusable instruments such as scalers, explorers, and various hinged pieces were tested in minimum versus maximum load studies. Population recovery study results demonstrated that lethality rates increase with time throughout the Chemiclave sterilization process and that there are significant variations in lethality according to load location. The population recovery data in conjunction with the FN studies and temperature data confirm that one-half the full-cycle time is not a good estimator of one-half the full-cycle lethality because lethality curves are concave downward and lethality varies by load location. This conclusion can also be applied to other types of gaseous, chemical sterilization such as ethylene oxide. The work outlined in this study was a result of investigations into the parameters affecting formaldehyde chemical vapor sterilization with the Harvey Chemiclave sterilizer. During these studies, it became apparent that results clearly depicted the effects of continued acceleration of the rate of microbial lethality, as well as variations in delivered lethality as a function of position in the sterilizer load. This publication focuses on these observations because they are

  15. Electroporation System for Sterilizing Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype of an electroporation system for sterilizing wastewater or drinking water has been developed. In electroporation, applied electric fields cause transient and/or permanent changes in the porosities of living cells. Electroporation at lower field strengths can be exploited to increase the efficiency of chemical disinfection (as in chlorination). Electroporation at higher field strengths is capable of inactivating and even killing bacteria and other pathogens, without use of chemicals. Hence, electroporation is at least a partial alternative to chlorination. The transient changes that occur in micro-organisms at lower electric-field strengths include significantly increased uptake of ions and molecules. Such increased uptake makes it possible to achieve disinfection at lower doses of chemicals (e.g., chlorine or ozone) than would otherwise be needed. Lower doses translate to lower costs and reduced concentrations of such carcinogenic chemical byproducts as trichloromethane. Higher electric fields cause cell membranes to lose semipermeability and thereby become unable to function as selective osmotic barriers between the cells and the environment. This loss of function is the cause of the cell death at higher electric-field intensities. Experimental evidence does not indicate cell lysis but, rather, combined leaking of cell proteins out of the cells as well as invasion of foreign chemical compounds into the cells. The concept of electroporation is not new: it has been applied in molecular biology and genetic engineering for decades. However, the laboratory-scale electroporators used heretofore have been built around small (400-microliter) cuvettes, partly because the smallness facilitates the generation of electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause electroporation. Moreover, most laboratory- scale electroporators have been designed for testing static water. In contrast, the treatment cell in the present system is much larger and features a flow

  16. Sterilization Performance and Material Compatibility of Sterilizer for Dental Instruments using RF Oxygen Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Liu, Zhen; Hayashi, Nobuya; Goto, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    The sterilization performance and material compatibility of low-pressure RF plasma sterilization method for dental instruments were investigated. RF electrode used in this experiment has been optimized for sterilization of dental instruments. The vial-type biological indicator (BI) simulating tiny space of dental instrument was used for evaluation of the sterilization performance. The pressure in the stainless chamber was fixed at 60 Pa. Sterilization of BI was achieved in shortest time 40 min at 80 W, and the sterilization effect was confirmed using three BIs. Light emission spectra of oxygen plasma indicated that production of atomic oxygen and excited oxygen molecule are maximum at pressure of 20 Pa and 200 Pa, respectively. Sterilization results of BIs indicated that successful rate increases with the oxygen pressure towards 200 Pa. Therefore, the excited oxygen molecule is deduced to be a major factor of the sterilization of BI. Surface morphology of dental instruments such as diamond bar was evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The deterioration of fine crystals of diamond bar has not observed after the plasma irradiation for 120 min with RF input power was 60W and pressure was 200 Pa.

  17. Experiences of coercion to sterilize and forced sterilization among women living with HIV in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Tamil; Albert, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Forced and coerced sterilization is an internationally recognized human rights violation reported by women living with HIV (WLHIV) around the globe. Forced sterilization occurs when a person is sterilized without her knowledge or informed consent. Coerced sterilization occurs when misinformation, intimidation tactics, financial incentives or access to health services or employment are used to compel individuals to accept the procedure. Methods Drawing on community-based research with 285 WLHIV from four Latin American countries (El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua), we conduct thematic qualitative analysis of reports of how and when healthcare providers pressured women to sterilize and multivariate logistic regression to assess whether social and economic characteristics and fertility history were associated with pressure to sterilize. Results A quarter (23%) of the participant WLHIV experienced pressure to sterilize post-diagnosis. WLHIV who had a pregnancy during which they (and their healthcare providers) knew their HIV diagnosis were almost six times more likely to experience coercive or forced sterilization than WLHIV who did not have a pregnancy with a known diagnosis (OR 5.66 CI 95% 2.35–13.58 p≤0.001). WLHIV reported that healthcare providers told them that living with HIV annulled their right to choose the number and spacing of their children and their contraceptive method, employed misinformation about the consequences of a subsequent pregnancy for women's and children's health, and denied medical services needed to prevent vertical (mother-to-child) HIV transmission to coerce women into accepting sterilization. Forced sterilization was practiced during caesarean delivery. Conclusions The experiences of WLHIV indicate that HIV-related stigma and discrimination by healthcare providers is a primary driver of coercive and forced sterilization. WLHIV are particularly vulnerable when seeking maternal health services. Health worker

  18. Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Aaron C.; Fernández Martínez, Enrique; Hernández, Pilar; Mena, Olga; Lattanzi, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter RCMB and the sound horizon rs from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the coupled sterile neutrino and standard model sectors in an MCMC, showing that if decay occurs after BBN, the sterile neutrino is essentially bounded by the constraint sin2θ lesssim 0.026 (ms/eV)-2.

  19. Mercury release during autoclave sterilization of amalgam.

    PubMed

    Parsell, D E; Karns, L; Buchanan, W T; Johnson, R B

    1996-05-01

    Natural teeth are an invaluable teaching tool for preclinical instruction in operative dentistry and endodontic techniques. Cavity preparation in teeth containing amalgam restorations is a realistic simulation of an often experienced clinical situation. As various pathogens are contained in saliva, teeth must be disinfected before use by students. The purpose of this study is to indirectly evaluate whether mercury vapor is released from amalgam restorations in such teeth during steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor detection, sample mass changes and x-ray fluorescence data were collected from experimental steam autoclave sterilization of amalgam samples sealed in autoclave bags. All of the data showed evidence of mercury vapor generation coincident to steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor levels within the room where amalgam was exposed to steam autoclave sterilization reached levels that constitute an unnecessary health risk to dental personnel. The volume of amalgam tested simulated that contained in 175 amalgam restored teeth. Initial venting of the autoclave chamber produced mercury vapor concentrations significantly in excess of OSHA vapor concentration ceiling levels. Thus, the use of a steam autoclave for sterilization of amalgam containing teeth for use in preclinical laboratory exercises may be harmful to personnel involved.

  20. Vaporized hydrogen peroxide sterilization of freeze dryers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J W; Arnold, J F; Nail, S L; Renzi, E

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of using vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to steam sterilization has been examined using a pilot plant freeze dryer equipped with a prototype vapor generator. Specific objectives of the study discussed in this presentation were to: 1. Identify critical process variables affecting the lethality of VHP to Bacillus stearothermophilus spores, particularly within dead legs in the system. 2. Measure the efficacy of system degassing after sterilization. 3. Determine the effect of repeated sterilization cycles on the integrity of elastomeric components of the freeze dryer. Penetration of adequate concentrations of hydrogen peroxide vapor into small diameter piping, such as tubing connected to pressure gauges, is the most challenging aspect of VHP sterilization of freeze dryers. Prior to equipment modifications, spore strips placed within such dead legs remained positive irrespective of the number of gas/degas pulses and system pressure. Equipment modifications necessary to effect complete kill of biological indicators placed in system dead legs is discussed. Results of this study support the conclusion that vaporized hydrogen peroxide shows promise as an alternative sterilization method for freeze dryers. PMID:1474433

  1. Correction of chlorophyll-defective male-sterile winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) through organelle exchange: molecular analysis of the cytoplasm of parental lines and corrected progeny.

    PubMed

    Jarl, C I; van Grinsven, M Q; van den Mark, F

    1989-01-01

    Cytoplasmic differences between male-fertile and male-sterile Brassica napus as well as Raphanus sativus were investigated. Plastids of the male-fertile B. napus were found to differ from those of male-sterile B. napus and R. sativus with respect to DNA restriction enzyme patterns. Differences between male-fertile and male-sterile B. napus mitochondria were detected not only in the restriction fragment patterns of their DNA, but also at the level of expression by in organello translation of mitochondrial polypeptides.The chlorophyll deficiency obtained upon transferral of the male-sterility-conferring radish cytoplasm to a winter variety of B. napus had been corrected earlier through protoplast fusion. The cytoplasmic composition of the corrected lines was analysed using DNA restriction analysis and in organello translation. The stability of the recombined cytoplasm in the corrected lines was confirmed by analysis of the subsequent seed-derived generation. PMID:24232486

  2. Light sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2014-06-24

    Cosmological and terrestrial data suggests the number of light neutrinos may be greater than 3, motivating a careful reexamination of cosmological bounds on extra light species. Big bang nucleosynthesis constrains the number of relativistic neutrino species present during nucleosynthesis, N{sub eff}{sup BBN}, while measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular power spectrum constrain the effective energy density in relativistic neutrinos at the time of matter-radiation equality, N{sub eff}{sup CMB}. We review a scenario with two sterile neutrinos and explore whether partial thermalization of the sterile states can ease the tension between cosmological constraints on N{sub eff}{sup BBN} and terrestrial data. We conclude that, still, two additional light sterile neutrinos species cannot fit all the data at the 95% confidence level.

  3. Radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: A review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Antaryami

    2016-01-01

    Tissue substitutes are required in a number of clinical conditions for treatment of injured and diseased tissues. Tissues like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and soft tissues obtained from human donor can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Allograft tissues from human donor provide an excellent alternative to autografts. However, major concern with the use of allografts is the risk of infectious disease transmission. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Gamma radiation has several advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. This review summarizes the use of gamma irradiation technology as an effective method for sterilization of biological tissues and ensuring safety of tissue allografts. PMID:27158422

  4. The effect of the radio-protective agents ethanol, trimethylglycine, and beer on survival of X-ray-sterilized male Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been successfully implemented to control, and in some cases, eradicate, dipteran insect populations. SIT has great potential as a mosquito control method. Different sterilization methods have been used on mosquitoes ranging from chemosterilization to genetically modified sterile male mosquito strains; however, sterilization with ionizing radiation is the method of choice for effective sterilization of male insects for most species. The lack of gentle radiation methods has resulted in significant complications when SIT has been applied to mosquitoes. Several studies report that irradiating mosquitoes resulted in a decrease in longevity and mating success compared to unirradiated males. The present study explored new protocols for mosquito sterilization with ionizing radiation that minimized detrimental effects on the longevity of irradiated males. Methods We tested three compounds that have been shown to act as radioprotectors in the mouse model system - ethanol, trimethylglycine, and beer. Male Aedes aegypti were treated with one of three chosen potential radioprotectors and were subsequently irradiated with identical doses of long-wavelength X-rays. We evaluated the effect of these radioprotectors on the longevity of male mosquito after irradiation. Results We found that X-ray irradiation with an absorbed dose of 1.17 gy confers complete sterility. Irradiation with this dose significantly shortened the lifespan of male mosquitoes and all three radioprotectors tested significantly enhanced the lifespan of irradiated mosquito males. Conclusion Our results suggest that treatment with ethanol, beer, or trimethylglycine before irradiation can be used to enhance longevity in mosquitoes. PMID:23866939

  5. Biological Sterilization of Returned Mars Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Albert, F. G.; Combie, J.; Bodnar, R. J.; Hamilton, V. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Kuebler, K.; Wang, A.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Morris, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Martian rock and soil, collected by robotic spacecraft, will be returned to terrestrial laboratories early in the next century. Current plans call for the samples to be immediately placed into biological containment and tested for signs of present or past life and biological hazards. It is recommended that "Controlled distribution of unsterilized materials from Mars should occur only if rigorous analyses determine that the materials do not constitute a biological hazard. If any portion of the sample is removed from containment prior to completion of these analyses it should first be sterilized." While sterilization of Mars samples may not be required, an acceptable method must be available before the samples are returned to Earth. The sterilization method should be capable of destroying a wide range of organisms with minimal effects on the geologic samples. A variety of biological sterilization techniques and materials are currently in use, including dry heat, high pressure steam, gases, plasmas and ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation is routinely used to inactivate viruses and destroy bacteria in medical research. Many commercial sterilizers use Co-60 , which emits gamma photons of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV. Absorbed doses of approximately 1 Mrad (10(exp 8) ergs/g) destroy most bacteria. This study investigates the effects of lethal doses of Co-60 gamma radiation on materials similar to those anticipated to be returned from Mars. The goals are to determine the gamma dose required to kill microorganisms in rock and soil samples and to determine the effects of gamma sterilization on the samples' isotopic, chemical and physical properties. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Effectiveness of two methods of denture sterilization.

    PubMed

    Webb, B C; Thomas, C J; Harty, D W; Willcox, M D

    1998-06-01

    Species of Candida and in particular Candida albicans may be involved in the aetiology of denture stomatitis. Studies have shown that Candida and other oral micro-organisms including Streptococcus gordonii are associated with denture plaque; hence denture hygiene is an important factor in the prevention and treatment of the disease. The aim of this investigation was to test in vitro the efficacy of two methods of denture sterilization: (1) microwave irradiation and (2) sodium hypochlorite soak. Twenty upper acrylic dentures were prepared for microbiological assay; 10 were inoculated with C. albicans H1 and 10 with S. gordonii LGR2. Within each group, five dentures were tested in a domestic microwave oven for optimal exposure time and temperature to ensure sterilization; the five control dentures were not microwaved. Microbiological analyses showed that the inoculated dentures became sterile after six min of irradiation at medium setting (2450 MHz, 350 W). Damage to the microorganisms after microwave irradiation was clearly visible by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Following the same protocol as above, experimental dentures were soaked for 8 h in either 0.02%, or 0.0125% sodium hypochlorite solution and control dentures soaked in distilled water. Microbiological analyses showed that the experimental dentures inoculated with C. albicans H1 became sterile. By contrast, those inoculated with S. gordonii LGR2 did not become sterile, and the SEM procedures confirmed these findings. The results of this study indicate that microwaving may be a more effective method of denture sterilization than denture soaking in sodium hypochlorite. However, compared with microwaving, hypochlorite reduces the levels of residual non-viable micro-organisms attached to the denture surface. PMID:9687113

  7. Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Engler, Daniel E.

    2007-09-18

    Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

  8. [Sterilization and disinfection in clinical orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Uzel, I; Haydar, B

    1989-11-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been devoted to the spread of hepatitis b and aids viruses and the high risk of contamination of these viruses during the dental operations has made orthodontists more aware of the necessity of sterilization and disinfection. This article discusses the methods of sterilization and disinfection. Avoidance of corrosion of instruments and the use of a ultrasonic cleaner to avoid contamination has been explained. In the conclusion the measures that the orthodontist has to take in order to protect himself is discussed.

  9. STERILIZED in the Name of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Alexandra Minna

    2005-01-01

    In exploring the history of involuntary sterilization in California, I connect the approximately 20 000 operations performed on patients in state institutions between 1909 and 1979 to the federally funded procedures carried out at a Los Angeles County hospital in the early 1970s. Highlighting the confluence of factors that facilitated widespread sterilization abuse in the early 1970s, I trace prosterilization arguments predicated on the protection of public health. This historical overview raises important questions about the legacy of eugenics in contemporary California and relates the past to recent developments in health care delivery and genetic screening. PMID:15983269

  10. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by the release of sterile males or sterile females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The suppressive effects of trapping adult sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and releasing sterile males (SMRT) or females (SFRT) into a closed system were expressed in deterministic models. Suppression was modeled as a function of the proportion of the population removed by trapping, the number of sterile animals released, the reproductive rate and sex ratio of the population, and (for the SFRT) the rate of polygyny. Releasing sterile males reduced populations more quickly than did the release of sterile females. For a population in which 30% are trapped, sterile animals are initially released at ratio of 10 sterile to 1 fertile animal, 5 adult progeny are produced per fertile mating, 60% are male, and males mate with an average of 1.65 females, the initial population is reduced 87% by SMRT and 68% by SFRT in one generation. The extent of suppression achieved is most sensitive to changes in the initial sterile release ratio. Given the current status of sea lamprey populations and trapping operations in the Great Lakes, the sterile-male-release technique has the best chance for success on a lake-wide basis if implemented in Lake Michigan. The effectiveness of the sterile-female-release technique should be investigated in a controlled study. Advancing trapping technology should be a high priority in the near term, and artificial rearing of sea lampreys to the adult stage should be a high priority in the long term. The diligent pursuit of sea lamprey suppression over a period of several decades can be expected to yield great benefits.

  11. Biological monitoring of sterilizers and sterilization failures in Norwegian dental offices in 1985 and 1996.

    PubMed

    Skaug, N; Lingaas, E; Nielsen, O; Palenik, C J

    1999-08-01

    It is essential that dental office sterilizers be regularly challenged with biological indicators (BIs) in order to prove that the test spores are being killed during sterilization. The aims of the study were to biologically monitor Norwegian dental office sterilizers and to identify factors contributing to sterilization failure. In 1985, participants received a packet containing: (i) 4 BI units; (ii) a set of instructions; (iii) a questionnaire concerning operation (including biological monitoring) of the office sterilizer(s), and (iv) a return-address envelope. In 1996, offices were sent (i) a survey which included demographic questions and inquiries concerning instrument sterilization processes; (ii) 2 sets of 3 BI units with instructions for their use on 2 different days; (iii) 1 control BI unit that was not to be processed, and (iv) a return-address envelope. Both private and public offices participated. Response rate to the 1996 study was 60%, which was 9.1% of all dental offices in Norway. Testing results indicated a 6.3% overall sterilization failure rate. Three out of 163 steam autoclaves (SAs) (1.8% of total) and 14 out of 109 dry heat (DH) ovens (12.8% of total) failed. DH ovens were over 7 times more likely to fail BI testing than were SAs (chi2, P < 0.01). Demographic or hygiene procedural factors could not be correlated to sterilization performance (chi2, P > 0.05). The failure rate for SAs (n = 216) in 1985 was almost 5 times greater than in 1996 (8.8% vs 1.8%). Improvement in sterilizer performance during the decade may be related to issuance in 1986 of Norway's 1st infection control guidelines for dentistry and greater awareness of infection control practices and/or to increases over the previous 10 years in the number of postgraduate courses offered in infection control. The current Norwegian guidelines on infection control practices in public health services, including dentistry, recommend regular biological monitoring of sterilizers without

  12. Conference summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolo, R.

    ``Brown dwarfs come of age" was a stimulating conference attended by a large number of very active researchers, including many young students and post-docs who were largely responsible for the lively atmosphere that we enjoyed during the full meeting. Major theoretical and observational challenges currently faced in the study of brown dwarfs were reviewed. Key spectroscopic work is being conducted to determine atmospheric temperatures, surface gravities and metallicities, essential to understand the evolution of substellar objects. Research on ultracool atmospheres is extended down to temperatures typical of the atmosphere of the Earth. Characterisation of brown dwarfs at all wavelengths from X-ray to radio is ongoing and investigation of time domain phenomena reveal interesting new processes in cool atmospheres. In addition to talks on these topics, a large number of presentations addressed the formation and evolution of brown dwarfs, the lower end of the Initial Mass Function, the properties of substellar binaries, the angular momentum and disk evolution in very low-mass systems, results of large scale surveys aimed to find the lowest luminosity and coolest brown dwarfs, searches in star clusters delineating the evolution with age of the properties of brown dwarfs, binary searches and subsequent follow-up work enabling dynamical mass determinations. The excellent level of the review talks, oral and poster presentations and the work of the enthusiastic researchers that attended the meeting ensure a brilliant future for substellar research 18 years after the discovery of the first brown dwarfs.

  13. System for sterilizing objects. [cleaning space vehicle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. J.; Wright, E. E., Jr.; Moyers, C. V. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system for producing a stream of humidified sterilizing gas for sterilizing objects such as the water systems of space vehicles and the like includes a source of sterilant gas which is fed to a mixing chamber which has inlet and outlet ports. The level of the water only partially fills the mixing chamber so as to provide an empty space adjacent the top of the chamber. A heater is provided for heating the water in the chamber so as to produce a humidified atmosphere. The sterilant gas is fed through an arcuate shaped tubular member connected to the inlet port of the mixing chamber for producing a vortex type of flow of sterilant gas into the chamber for humidification. A tubular member extends from the mixing chamber for supplying the humidified sterilant gas to the object for being sterilized. Scrubbers are provided for removing the sterilant gas after use.

  14. Proper monitoring of sterilization procedures used in oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Skaug, N

    1983-06-01

    The sterilization procedures used by oral surgeons in Norway have been surveyed. In 22 of the 25 oral surgical clinics controlled, instruments were sterilized by saturated steam at 121 degrees C or 134 degrees C; 3 used a dry heat oven sterilizer; dry heat and/or gas sterilization procedures supplemented steam sterilization in 17 clinics. When these sterilization procedures were monitored with biological indicators, 5 autoclaves (challenged with B. stearothermophilus spores), 2 dry heat sterilizers (B. subtilis spores), and all the Harvey Chemiclaves tested (B. subtilis spores) did not inactivate the bacterial spores. A biological monitoring system that fulfills the valid requirements for sterilization procedures given by the national health authorities and that is reliable, convenient, economical and self-contained should be used routinely in oral surgery clinics. PMID:6411637

  15. Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The ultimate aims of the project are to understand the molecular mechanism of the disruption in pollen development which occurs in cytoplasmic male sterile plants and to understand the control of respiratory energy flow in the higher plant cell. A mitochondrial locus termed S-pcf segregates with sterility and with an alteration in respiration in Petunia. This cloned locus contains three genes, an abnormal fused gene termed pcf, a gene for a subunit of an NADH dehydrogenase complex, and a small ribosomal subunit protein. The pcf gene is comprised of partial sequences of ATPase subunit 9, cytochrome oxidase subunit II, and an unidentified reading frame. Components of the S-Pcf locus will be introduced into the nuclear of a fertile genotype under the control of appropriate regulatory signals, and polypeptide products of introduced genes will be directed to the mitochondrion with a transit peptide. By examining transgenic plants, we can determine what elements of the locus are critical for altered respiration or sterility. Such knowledge could explain how mitochondrial DNA affects pollen development in the large number of plant species which exhibit the agronomically important trait of male sterility. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Light sterile neutrinos after BICEP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen; Fornengo, Nicolao; Gariazzo, Stefano; Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it E-mail: giunti@to.infn.it E-mail: marco.laveder@pd.infn.it

    2014-06-01

    The recent discovery of B-modes in the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background by the BICEP2 experiment has important implications for neutrino physics. We revisit cosmological bounds on light sterile neutrinos and show that they are compatible with all current cosmological data provided that the mass is relatively low. Using CMB data, including BICEP-2, we find an upper bound of m{sub s} < 0.85 eV (2σ Confidence Level). This bound is strengthened to 0.48 eV when HST measurements of H{sub 0} are included. However, the inclusion of SZ cluster data from the Planck mission and weak gravitational measurements from the CFHTLenS project favours a non-zero sterile neutrino mass of 0.44{sup +0.11}{sub −0.16} eV. Short baseline neutrino oscillations, on the other hand, indicate a new mass state around 1.2 eV. This mass is highly incompatible with cosmological data if the sterile neutrino is fully thermalised (Δχ{sup 2} > 10). However, if the sterile neutrino only partly thermalises it can be compatible with all current data, both cosmological and terrestrial.

  17. Male sterility and hybrid seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual reproduction in angiosperms is a complex process that includes a portion of the vegetative generation and all of the sexual generation. Coordination of both female and male reproduction ontogenies must occur. An abnormality anywhere in this process may lead to sterility. Genetic (nuclear) and...

  18. Advances in Sterilization and Decontamination: a Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Recent technical advances made in the field of sterilization and decontamination and their applicability to private and commercial interests are discussed. Government-sponsored programs by NASA produced the bulk of material presented in this survey. The summary of past and current research discussed is detailed to enhance an effective transfer of technology from NASA to potential users.

  19. Light sterile neutrinos: Status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    The indications in favor of the existence of light sterile neutrinos at the eV scale found in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments is reviewed. The future perspectives of short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and the connections with β-decay measurements of the neutrino masses and with neutrinoless double-β decay experiments are discussed.

  20. The Decision for Male versus Female Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The increasing popularity of sterilization underscores the need for knowledge about couples choosing male and female procedures. This research delineates four sets of variables that may be important for the decision and examines their relationship with the choice of male or female procedure among a sample of married couples. (Author)

  1. SPAN - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on tape.

  2. SPAN C - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN-C, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on cards.

  3. Steam sterilization of air turbine dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Edwardsson, S; Svensäter, G; Birkhed, D

    1983-12-01

    The efficacy of autoclaving high-speed dental handpieces was tested in two types of downward displacement steam sterilizers (instrument autoclaves), commonly used in the dentist's office. Eight series of experiments were performed with various sterilization schedules. Lubrication oils with or without antimicrobial agent were used in four of the series. Each handpiece was inoculated with 1 ml of a suspension containing equal amounts of saliva and spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus (approx. 10(6) spores/ml). Neither sterilization at 120-124 degrees C for 20 min nor at 134-136 degrees C for 10 min resulted in complete inactivation of the spores in series in which the instruments were tested without oil or with oil containing no antimicrobial agent. However, when the handpieces were lubricated with oil containing isopropanol and formaldehyde and the schedule 134-136 degrees C/10 min was used, no growth was observed. The results indicate that instrument autoclaves with built-in programs of 120-124 degrees C/20 min and 134-136 degrees C/10 min could have insufficient capacity to sterilize lubricated or unlubricated dental handpieces. The use of oils containing an antimicrobial agent can overcome this problem. PMID:6362319

  4. Root Cause Analysis, Part 2: STERILE COMPOUNDING.

    PubMed

    Cabaleiro, Joe; Jackson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    When an adverse event or near miss occurs in a pharmacy, eliminating the root cause to prevent recurrence is critically important. Addressing the root cause of the problem reduces the recurrence of putting patients and the pharmacy at risk. This article proposes a method for performing Root Cause Analysis applicable to sterile compounding. PMID:27323421

  5. 21 CFR 610.12 - Sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... microorganisms. (3) The sterility test and test components must be verified to demonstrate that the test method... contaminating microorganisms. (2) The method of sampling, including the number, volume, and size of articles to... contaminating microorganisms. (e) Verification. (1) For culture-based test methods, studies must be conducted...

  6. [Anesthesia for laparoscopy in sterile patients].

    PubMed

    Schönrath, B; Borgwardt, D; Langanke, D; Alexander, H; Baier, D; Haake, K W

    1990-01-01

    During 5 years 382 laparoscopies were carried through in female patients with sterility in different kinds of anaesthesia (Intubation anaesthesia, spinal anaesthesia, and i.v. anaesthesia). We found the most advantageous results in the cases of i.v. anaesthesia with Ketamin and Diazepam.

  7. Basics of sterile compounding: aseptic processing.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses factors that affect the assurance of sterility of an aseptic process operation and balances what is required/practiced in the pharmaceutical industry via the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European aseptic processing guidelines and what is required/practiced in compounding pharmacies via the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) General Chapter <797>. PMID:25902628

  8. Perspectives: Eugenics and Sterilization in the Heartland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Noting the Governor of Virginia's recent apology for his state's participation in eugenics, this article reviews the history of the sterilization of people with epilepsy and mental retardation in several states, and the importance of the Buck v. Bell (1927) Supreme Court decision in the promotion of eugenics. (Contains references.) (CR)

  9. Status of radiation sterilization of healthcare products in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Nankang; Wang, Chunlei; Teng, Weifang

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the status of 60Co radiation facilities both in service and under construction in China and examines the future market for radiation sterilization of healthcare products. Policies for developing the industry of radiation sterilization are also put forward; these include implementation of appropriate quality systems, scale-up and merging of existing radiation facilities, development of electron beam radiation for sterilization purposes and increasing awareness of the technology of radiation sterilization.

  10. Gas plasma sterilization--application of space-age technology.

    PubMed

    Crow, S; Smith, J H

    1995-08-01

    Gas plasma sterilization is new to the healthcare field. The first such sterilizer has been manufactured by Advanced Sterilization Products (J&J, Irvine, CA). The system uses hydrogen peroxide as the substrate gas and radio frequency emissions to generate plasma. This system is a low-temperature, quick-acting process with no toxic residues. It appears that this sterilizer system holds promise in the healthcare field and could help to reduce the use of ethylene oxide.

  11. Trends in sterilization and disinfection procedures in orthodontic offices.

    PubMed

    Cash, R G

    1990-10-01

    The present survey is a repetition of a 1987 survey examining the sterilization/disinfection procedures of Georgia's orthodontists. The purpose of this study is to examine the trends in orthodontic sterilization/disinfection procedures. Orthodontists in Georgia have dramatically changed their sterilization and disinfection procedures. The major changes represented are greater use of protective barrier wear by doctor and staff members; increased heat sterilization methods for instruments, pliers, and handpieces; and increased disinfection of alginate impressions.

  12. Gas plasma sterilization--application of space-age technology.

    PubMed

    Crow, S; Smith, J H

    1995-08-01

    Gas plasma sterilization is new to the healthcare field. The first such sterilizer has been manufactured by Advanced Sterilization Products (J&J, Irvine, CA). The system uses hydrogen peroxide as the substrate gas and radio frequency emissions to generate plasma. This system is a low-temperature, quick-acting process with no toxic residues. It appears that this sterilizer system holds promise in the healthcare field and could help to reduce the use of ethylene oxide. PMID:7594394

  13. Sterilization Efficiency of Spore forming Bacteria in Powdery Food by Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas Sterilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Masashi; Kikuchi, Yusuke

    2015-09-01

    To provide food sterilization method capable of killing highly heat resistant spore forming bacteria, we have studied effects of plasma treatment method at atmospheric pressure in order to develop a new high speed plasma sterilization apparatus with a low cost and a high efficiency. It is also difficult even for the plasma treatment to sterilize powdery food including spices such as soybean, basil and turmeric. This paper describes that an introduction of mechanical rotation of a treatment space increases the efficiency so that perfect inactivation of spore forming bacteria in these materials by a short treatment time has been demonstrated in our experiments. We also will discuss the sterilization mechanism by dielectric barrier discharge.

  14. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  17. Sterilization in the Philippines: the score after half a decade.

    PubMed

    1978-06-01

    Since the initial use of sterilization in the Philippines in 1973 as a family planning method, it has become more and more widespread. A bar graph, giving yearly percentages of acceptors for 5 family planning methods, for the years 1974 -- 1977, shows sterilization increasing steadily in popularity, from 3% in 1974, to 12.7% in 1977. Objections to sterilization generally stem from sociocultural and religious considerations as well as misconceptions and fear. People have feared that sterilization is a form of mutilation and castration. Due perhaps to the male fears of castration, female sterilization acceptors account for 90.6% of sterilizations in the Philippines. In 1974, the Philippine government's Commission on Population set guidelines for the training of physicians and the setting up of sterilization centers. The guidelines also stipulated that the procedure would be undertaken on a voluntary basis, would not include abortion, and that clients would be informed of all medical implications, particularly the irreversibility of sterilization. Programs for sterilization in the Philippines have different requirements for acceptors; most stipulate parity of 2 to 4. Difficulties have also arisen from the uneven distribution of sterilization providers throughout the country as well as a lack of physicians trained in both male and female sterilization methods. The need to create effective linkages among the various agencies engaged in sterilization work is noted.

  18. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  20. Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipling. E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

  1. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50... GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.207 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform...

  2. Committee opinion no. 530: access to postpartum sterilization.

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    Postpartum tubal sterilization is one of the safest and most effective methods of contraception. Women who desire this type of sterilization typically undergo thorough counseling and informed consent during prenatal care and reiterate their desire for postpartum sterilization at the time of their hospital admission. Not all women who desire postpartum sterilization actually undergo the surgical procedure, and women with unfulfilled requests for postpartum sterilization have a high rate of repeat pregnancy (approaching 50%) within the following year. Potentially correctable barriers to obtaining postpartum sterilization include patient and health care provider factors, as well as hospital and health care system issues. Given the consequences of a missed procedure and the limited time frame in which it may be performed, postpartum sterilization should be considered an urgent surgical procedure. In addition, women with government insurance face barriers to sterilization procedures based on cumbersome consent requirements. The differences in the requirements surrounding consent for sterilization procedures based on the type of insurance a patient has must be addressed in order to establish fair and equitable access to sterilization procedures for all women. Policies and procedures that remove barriers to and increase efficiency in performing postpartum sterilization could reduce cancellations of the procedure. Improving consistency in accomplishing desired postpartum sterilization is an important strategy to reduce high rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States.

  3. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  4. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  5. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  6. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  7. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  8. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  9. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  10. [Efficacy of the glass bead sterilizer on endodontic instruments].

    PubMed

    Canalda-Sahli, C; Pumarola-Suñe, J; Espias-Gomez, A; Jimenez-Polancos, P

    1989-12-01

    The time taken to achieve the sterilization of K files impregnated in a Bacillus subtilis culture was evaluated, placing the files in a glass bead sterilizer. The minimum time needed was 20 seconds at 240 degrees C and the previous cleaning of the file with a sterile wipe impregnated by alcohol reduced this time to 15 seconds.

  11. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  12. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  13. Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

  14. Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Yezdani, Arif; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize. Materials and Methods: The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged), molar bands and mouth mirrorsused in the patient 's mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups – Group I with oral rinse-set A (0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate) and set B (0.025% betadine) and Group II (included sets C and D without oral rinse). The instruments of set A, B and C were microwaved at 2,450 MHz, 800 W for 5 min, whereas, set D was microwaved for 10 min at the same above mentioned specifications. The efficacy of sterilization was assessed by stab inoculation of the instruments onto trypticase soya agar plates. The plates were checked for bacterial growth following incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. For sterility control,Geobacillus stearothermophilus (MTCC 1518) was included. Results: No growth was observed in the plates that were inoculated with the microwaved orthodontic instruments of sets A, B and D, whereas scanty bacterial growth was observed in the plates inoculatedwith the microwaved set C instruments. Conclusion: Effective sterilization was achieved when the orthodontic instruments and molar bands were immersed in distilled water without oral rinse and microwaved for 10 min as also for those that were immersed in distilled water with oral rinse and microwaved for 5 min. PMID:26015686

  15. A male sterile pepper (C. annuum L.) mutant.

    PubMed

    Daskaloff, S

    1968-08-01

    1. After treatment of dry seeds of red pepperCapsicum annuum L. with X-rays a male-sterile mutant was discovered in the M2. 2. The male-sterile mutant segregates in a ratio of 3.28:1 (χ(2)=3.148, probability 0.07). 3. After an alternative cultivation of male-sterile plants and of a variety with good combining ability relatively good fruit-setting and seed production was obtained. 4. Grafting of male-sterile scions to normal stocks does not affect the male-sterile phenotype.

  16. Demographic trends in tubal sterilization: United States, 1970-1978.

    PubMed

    DeStefano, F; Greenspan, J R; Ory, H W; Peterson, H B; Maze, J M; Smith, J C

    1982-05-01

    In the period 1970-1977, an estimated 4,236,000 women 15-44 years of age had tubal sterilization operations in United States hospitals. Both the number and the rate of tubal sterilizations increased each year from 1970-1977, but in 1978 both declined. Tubal sterilization rates for Black women were higher than for White women. Black women also tended to be younger at the time of tubal sterilization. For the nation as a whole, the mean age at the time of tubal sterilization remained constant at about 30 with the youngest age group having the highest proportion of never-married women.

  17. Epistasis modifies the dominance of loci causing hybrid male sterility in the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-01-01

    Speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation between populations, serves as the driving force for generating biodiversity. Postzygotic barriers to gene flow, such as F(1) hybrid sterility and inviability, play important roles in the establishment and maintenance of biological species. F(1) hybrid incompatibilities in taxa that obey Haldane's rule, the observation that the heterogametic sex suffers greater hybrid fitness problems than the homogametic sex, are thought to often result from interactions between recessive-acting X-linked loci and dominant-acting autosomal loci. Because they play such prominent roles in producing hybrid incompatibilities, we examine the dominance and nature of epistasis between alleles derived from Drosophila persimilis that confer hybrid male sterility in the genetic background of its sister species, D. pseudoobscura bogotana. We show that epistasis elevates the apparent dominance of individually recessive-acting QTL such that they can contribute to F(1) hybrid sterility. These results have important implications for assumptions underlying theoretical models of hybrid incompatibilities and may offer a possible explanation for why, to date, identification of dominant-acting autosomal "speciation genes" has been challenging.

  18. Study on the role of active radicals on plasma sterilization inside small diameter flexible polymeric tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mstsuura, Hiroto; Fujiyama, Takatomo; Okuno, Yasuki; Furuta, Masakazu; Okuda, Shuichi; Takemura, Yuichiro

    2015-09-01

    Recently, atmospheric pressure discharge plasma has gathered attention in various fields. Among them, plasma sterilization with many types of plasma source has studied for decades and its mechanism is still an open question. If active radicals produced in plasma has main contribution of killing bacterias, direct contact of the so-called plasma flame might not be necessary. To confirm this, sterilization inside small diameter flexible polymeric tubes is studied in present work. DBD type plasma jet is produce by flowing helium gas in a glass tube. A long polymeric tube is connected and plasma jet is introduced into it. Plasma flame length depends on helium gas flow rate, but limited to about 10 cm in our experimental condition. E.colis set at the exit plasma source is easily killed during 10 min irradiation. At the tube end (about 20 cm away from plasma source exit), sterilization is possible with 30 min operation. This result shows that active radical is produced with helium plasma and mist contained in sample, and it can be transferred more than 20 cm during it life time. More plasma diagnostic data will also be shown at the conference. This work was partially supported by the ''ZE Research Program, IAE(ZE27B-4).

  19. Genetic complexity underlying hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Kyoichi; Roote, John; Wu, Chung-I; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2004-02-01

    Recent genetic analyses of closely related species of Drosophila have indicated that hybrid male sterility is the consequence of highly complex synergistic effects among multiple genes, both conspecific and heterospecific. On the contrary, much evidence suggests the presence of major genes causing hybrid female sterility and inviability in the less-related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Does this contrast reflect the genetic distance between species? Or, generally, is the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility more complex than that of hybrid female sterility and inviability? To clarify this point, the D. simulans introgression of the cytological region 34D-36A to the D. melanogaster genome, which causes recessive male sterility, was dissected by recombination, deficiency, and complementation mapping. The 450-kb region between two genes, Suppressor of Hairless and snail, exhibited a strong effect on the sterility. Males are (semi-)sterile if this region of the introgression is made homozygous or hemizygous. But no genes in the region singly cause the sterility; this region has at least two genes, which in combination result in male sterility. Further, the males are less fertile when heterozygous with a larger introgression, which suggests that dominant modifiers enhance the effects of recessive genes of male sterility. Such an epistatic view, even in the less-related species, suggests that the genetic complexity is special to hybrid male sterility.

  20. Sterilization of dental instruments and devices: an update.

    PubMed

    Goodman, H S; Carpenter, R D; Cox, M R

    1994-04-01

    Dental sterilization techniques have become a focus of attention as a result of disclosure of occupational HIV transmission from an infected dentist to a cluster of patients. Although there has never been a confirmed report of a patient acquiring an infectious blood-borne disease from a dental instrument or device, recommendations for universal sterilization of dental handpieces and other devices have recently been implemented. Because of the higher rate of hepatitis B virus transmissability in the dental health care environment, an upgrade in sterilization protocols may be warranted. Stringent sterilization standards are especially necessary in higher-risk institutional dental care settings. However, a high rate of dental sterilization errors has been reported and traced to operator error. Recent institutional dental sterilization policy changes have been developed to reduce the chance of sterilization error, further diminishing the risk of cross contamination. PMID:8060010

  1. Molecular mapping of five soybean genes involved in male-sterility, female-sterility.

    PubMed

    Speth, Benjamin; Rogers, Joshua P; Boonyoo, Napatsakorn; VanMeter, A J; Baumbach, Jordan; Ott, Alina; Moore, Jerott; Cina, Tyler; Palmer, Reid; Sandhu, Devinder

    2015-04-01

    In soybean, asynaptic and desynaptic mutants lead to abnormal meiosis and fertility reduction. Several male-sterile, female-sterile mutants have been identified and studied in soybean, however, some of these mutants have not been mapped to locations on soybean chromosomes. The objectives of this study were to molecularly map five male-sterile, female-sterile genes (st2, st4, st5, st6, and st7) in soybean and compare the map locations of these genes with already mapped sterility genes. Microsatellite markers were used in bulked segregant analyses to locate all five male-sterile, female-sterile genes to soybean chromosomes, and markers from the corresponding chromosomes were used on F2 populations to generate genetic linkage maps. The st2, st4, st5, st6, and st7 genes were located on molecular linkage group (MLG) B1 (chromosome 11), MLG D1a (chromosome 01), MLG F (chromosome 13), MLG B2 (chromosome 14), and D1b (chromosome 02), respectively. The st2, st4, st5, st6, and st7 genes were flanked to 10.3 (∼ 399 kb), 6.3 (∼ 164 kb), 3.9 (∼ 11.8 Mb), 11.0 (∼ 409 kb), and 5.3 cM (∼ 224 kb), and the flanked regions contained 57, 17, 362, 52, and 17 predicted genes, respectively. Future characterization of candidate genes should facilitate identification of the male- and female-fertility genes, which may provide vital insights on structure and function of genes involved in the reproductive pathway in soybean.

  2. A Sterile Robotic Mars Soil Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.; Miller, Joseph D.; Straat, Patricia Ann; Hoover, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1976 Viking Mission to Mars, follow-on efforts to resolve its controversial life detection results have been thwarted by two heretofore insurmountable difficulties: the huge expense of sterilizing the entire spacecraft to protect the integrity of life detection experiments; and the lack of a practical robotic life detection package that could produce results acceptable as unambiguous by the scientific community. We here present a method that assures sterility and the complete integrity of robotic life detection experiments, all at a negligible cost. Second, we propose a candidate set of integrated, highly sensitive experiments that we believe could produce results acceptable to the vast majority of scientists. In addition to the biology-chemistry issue, the extensively debated oxidative state of the Martian surface and other chemical and physical characteristics of the Martian soil would be determined. We present our concept for a miniaturized instrument that could carry out a number of candidate experiments to achieve the objective.

  3. A search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Osiecki, Thomas Henry

    2007-01-01

    MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment uses a neutrino beam, which is measured 1 km downstream from its origin in the Near detector at Fermilab and then 735 km later in the Far detector at the Soudan mine. By comparing these two measurements, MINOS can attain a very high precision for parameters in the atmospheric sector of neutrino oscillations. In addition to precisely determining Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and θ23 through the disappearance of vμ, MINOS is able to measure vμ → vsterile by looking for a deficit in the number of neutral current interactions seen in the Far detector. In this thesis, we present the results of a search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS.

  4. Can sterile neutrinos be the dark matter?

    PubMed

    Seljak, Uros; Makarov, Alexey; McDonald, Patrick; Trac, Hy

    2006-11-10

    We use the Ly-alpha forest power spectrum measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and high-resolution spectroscopy observations in combination with cosmic microwave background and galaxy clustering constraints to place limits on a sterile neutrino as a dark matter candidate in the warm dark matter scenario. Such a neutrino would be created in the early Universe through mixing with an active neutrino and would suppress structure on scales smaller than its free-streaming scale. We ran a series of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations with varying neutrino masses to describe the effect of a sterile neutrino on the Ly-alpha forest power spectrum. We find that the mass limit is m(s) >13 keV at 95% C.L. (9 keV at 99.9%), which is above the upper limit allowed by x-ray constraints, excluding this candidate from being all of the dark matter in this model. PMID:17155611

  5. Microwave sterilization of femoral head allograft.

    PubMed

    Dunsmuir, Robert A; Gallacher, Grace

    2003-10-01

    The potential shortage of allograft bone has led to the need to investigate other sources of bone for allografts. Some allograft bone donated from primary total hip arthroplasty recipients must be discarded or treated to become usable as a result of bacterial contamination. Femoral head allografts were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. A domestic microwave oven was used. The contaminated bone was exposed to microwave irradiation for different time periods. The samples were then cultured to attempt to grow the two bacterial species. The contaminated bone samples failed to grow any organisms after 2 min of exposure to microwave irradiation. This study shows that sterilization of femoral head allografts contaminated with S. aureus and B. subtilis can be achieved with microwave irradiation in a domestic microwave oven. This method of sterilization of bone allografts is cheap, easily used, and an effective way to process contaminated bone. PMID:14532216

  6. Gas dynamics of ethylene oxide during sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Matthews, I. P.; Wang, C.

    1999-07-01

    This article reports a case study of the dynamics of ethylene oxide gas during sterilization using a microwave spectrometer. A diffusion equation is used to describe the processes of gas penetration, gas sorption, and chemical reactions. The three processes, although mathematically related, may be solved separately under simplified assumptions. This permits the prediction of gas penetration and sorption as well as the effect of chemical reactions upon the gas concentration for loads of differing dimensions and densities.

  7. Sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Malaney, R.A. ); Fuller, G.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-14

    We discuss the role played by right-handed sterile neutrinos in the early universe. We show how well known {sup 4}He constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom at early times limits the equilibration of the right handed neutrino sea with the background plasma. We discuss how this allows interesting constraints to be placed on neutrino properties. In particular, a new limit on the Dirac mass of the neutrino is presented. 12 refs.

  8. Sterilization: new method options, failure rate info.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses new sterilization methods for tubal ligation, failure rates, and risks for ectopic pregnancy in the US. The Filshie clip, which was developed by Femcare, Ltd. in Nottingham, England, and is distributed by Avalon Medical Corp of Vermont, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in September 1996. The company has provided training sessions at major universities nationwide and exhibited at national professional association meetings. A training video and two more films will be available in 1998. The new clip is considered a more modern approach to a tubal occlusion method, which relies on newer materials and solves prior problems. Physicians usually used Falope rings, which had better failure rates than the Hulka clip and bipolar coagulation methods. There is a need for more long-term and large scale information exchange about the new Filshie clip. Some physicians still use the Falope ring because it is cost effective and well-studied. Physicians are warned to continue to advise women about the potential failure rates up to 10 years after sterilization and the 1 in 3 risk of ectopic pregnancy. Counseling about failure rates and the risk of ectopic pregnancy should target women under 30 years old, who have the highest failure rates, and women 30-34 years old. All sterilized women should be advised to seek a provider immediately if they have pregnancy symptoms following sterilization. Counseling should include the issue of "regrets," since it is a permanent method. All women should know about nonpermanent methods and experience a basic informed consent process. Young women and newly divorced women are particularly vulnerable to the "regrets" syndrome.

  9. Sterile neutrinos as subdominant warm dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Palazzo, A.; Cumberbatch, D.; Slosar, A.; Silk, J.

    2007-11-15

    In light of recent findings which seem to disfavor a scenario with (warm) dark matter entirely constituted of sterile neutrinos produced via the Dodelson-Widrow mechanism, we investigate the constraints attainable for this mechanism by relaxing the usual hypothesis that the relic neutrino abundance must necessarily account for all of the dark matter. We first study how to reinterpret the limits attainable from x-ray nondetection and Lyman-{alpha} forest measurements in the case that sterile neutrinos constitute only a fraction f{sub s} of the total amount of dark matter. Then, assuming that sterile neutrinos are generated in the early universe solely through the Dodelson-Widrow mechanism, we show how the x-ray and Lyman-{alpha} results jointly constrain the mass-mixing parameters governing their production. Furthermore, we show how the same data allow us to set a robust upper limit f{sub s} < or approx. 0.7 at the 2{sigma} level, rejecting the case of dominant dark matter (f{sub s}=1) at the {approx}3{sigma} level.

  10. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    PubMed Central

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  11. Surgical sterilization: an underutilized procedure for evaluating the merits of induced sterility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennelly, James J.; Converse, Kathryn A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite more than 4 decades of effort, development of effective wildlife damage control programs based on sterilization of target species has met with limited success. This is partly due to the fact that investigators have assumed, rather than empirically tested, whether the reproductive strategies of the target populations were vulnerable to the planned treatment. Equally important, methods selected to include sterility usually involve a chemical agent that can affect sociosexual behaviors of the nuisance population. In this report, we illustrate how surgically induced sterility circumvents both problems--how the concept without the potentially confounding secondary effects of a chemical. We assessed the merits of initiating research to develop a male chemosterilant for Norway rats, red-winged blackbirds, beaver, and Canada geese by inducing sterility surgically. The infidelity of many red-winged females to their polygynous territorial male was surprising and argued against searching for a male sterilant. On the other hand, beaver and Canada goose studies confirmed previous reports that both form par-bonds and are monogamous. Both should be vulnerable to a male chemosterilant approach, and research toward this goal is justified.

  12. gammac gene transfer in the presence of stem cell factor, FLT-3L, interleukin-7 (IL-7), IL-1, and IL-15 cytokines restores T-cell differentiation from gammac(-) X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency hematopoietic progenitor cells in murine fetal thymic organ cultures.

    PubMed

    Hacein-Bey, S; Basile, G D; Lemerle, J; Fischer, A; Cavazzana-Calvo, M

    1998-12-01

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-Xl) is a rare human inherited disorder in which early T and natural killer (NK) lymphocyte development is blocked. The genetic disorder results from mutations in the common gammac chain that participates in several cytokine receptors including the interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15 receptors. We have shown in a previous report that gammac gene transfer into SCID-Xl bone marrow (BM) cells restores efficient NK cell differentiation. In this study, we have focused on the introduction of the gammac gene into SCID-Xl hematopoietic stem cells with the goal of obtaining differentiation into mature T cells. For this purpose, we used the in vitro hybrid fetal thymic organ culture (FTOC) system in which a combination of cytokines consisting of stem cell factor (SCF), Flt-3L, IL-7, IL-1, and IL-15 is added concomitantly. In this culture system, CD34(+) marrow cells from two SCID-Xl patients were able to mature into double positive CD4(+) CD8(+) cells and to a lesser degree into CD4(+) TCRbeta+ single positive cells after retroviral-mediated gammac gene transfer. In addition, examination of the output cell population at the TCR DJbeta1 locus exhibited multiple rearrangements. These results indicate that restoration of the gammac/JAK/STAT signaling pathway during the early developmental stages of thymocytes can correct the T-cell differentiation block in SCID-Xl hematopoietic progenitor cells and therefore establishes a basis for further clinical gammac gene transfer studies.

  13. Working conditions and health effects of ethylene oxide exposure at hospital sterilization sites.

    PubMed

    Sobaszek, A; Hache, J C; Frimat, P; Akakpo, V; Victoire, G; Furon, D

    1999-06-01

    Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (permissible exposure limit: 1 ppm 8-hour TWA in air; excursion limit: 5 ppm 15-minute TWA in air), and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health standard (recommended exposure limits: 0.1 ppm 8-hour TWA in air; 5 ppm 10-minute TWA in air). The faults in the work processes, such as interruption of the sterilization cycle and disregard for the use of protective devices, were very common. PMID:10390701

  14. Degradation of chitosan-based materials after different sterilization treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Juan, A.; Montembault, A.; Gillet, D.; Say, J. P.; Rouif, S.; Bouet, T.; Royaud, I.; David, L.

    2012-02-01

    Biopolymers have received in recent years an increasing interest for their potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. Among the natural polymers that have been experimented, chitosan is probably the most promising in view of its exceptional biological properties. Several techniques may be employed to sterilize chitosan-based materials. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of common sterilization treatments on the degradation of chitosan-based materials in various physical states: solutions, hydrogels and solid flakes. Four sterilization methods were compared: gamma irradiation, beta irradiation, exposure to ethylene oxide and saturated water steam sterilization (autoclaving). Exposure to gamma or beta irradiation was shown to induce an important degradation of chitosan, regardless of its physical state. The chemical structure of chitosan flakes was preserved after ethylene oxide sterilization, but this technique has a limited use for materials in the dry state. Saturated water steam sterilization of chitosan solutions led to an important depolymerization. Nevertheless, steam sterilization of chitosan flakes bagged or dispersed in water was found to preserve better the molecular weight of the polymer. Hence, the sterilization of chitosan flakes dispersed in water would represent an alternative step for the preparation of sterilized chitosan solutions. Alternatively, autoclaving chitosan physical hydrogels did not significantly modify the macromolecular structure of the polymer. Thus, this method is one of the most convenient procedures for the sterilization of physical chitosan hydrogels after their preparation.

  15. The General Conference Mennonites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    General Conference Mennonites and Old Order Amish are compared and contrasted in the areas of physical appearance, religious beliefs, formal education, methods of farming, and home settings. General Conference Mennonites and Amish differ in physical appearance and especially in dress. The General Conference Mennonite men and women dress the same…

  16. Parent Conferences. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Roslyn; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents six workshop sessions on parent conferences: (1) "Parents' Perspectives on Conferencing" (R. Duffy); (2) "Three Way Conferences" (G. Zeller); (3) "Conferencing with Parents of Infants" (K. Albrecht); (4) "Conferencing with Parents of School-Agers" (L. G. Miller); (5) "Cross Cultural Conferences" (J. Gonzalez-Mena); and (6) "Working with…

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: 1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; 2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA. PMID:26656530

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    PubMed

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    PubMed

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA. PMID:26656530

  20. Considerations for implementing United States pharmacopeia chapter 797 pharmaceutical compounding-sterile preparations, part 5: verification of accuracy, sterility, and sterilization of compounded preparations.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V; Okeke, Claudia C

    2008-01-01

    United States Pharmacopeia Chapter 797 Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations pertains to all preadministration manipulations and procedures involved in the preparation of sterile compounds for application, implantation, infusion, inhalation, injection, insertion, instillation, or irrigation, including preparation, storage, and transportation. The chapter does not pertain to actual clinical administation of compounded sterile preparations to patients. The intent of Chapter 797 is simply to prevent patient harm and fatalitites that may result from nosterility, excessive endotoxin load, large content errors in strength of correct ingredients, or the presence of incorrect ingredients. Because the achievement of sterility requires that facilities meet minimum cleanliness standards, that personnel be trained adequately and undergo periodic testing and training in sterilization techniques, and that appropriate principles and practices be applied to sustain solution stablity, compliance with Chapter 797 should be the goal of any facility where sterile preparations are compounded. Many pharmacies have already achieved compliance with Chapter 797, and those that have already met the new standards seem to support them strongly. This article discusses procedures for verification of the accuracy, sterility, and sterilization of compounded preparations. The importance of United States Pharmacopeia Chapter 71, 1035, and 1211, all of which contain vital information, is also discussed.

  1. Sterilizing immunity to influenza virus infection requires local antigen-specific T cell response in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Avijit; Huang, Ching-Tai; Lin, Chun-Yen; Chen, Tse-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chang, Chia-Shiang; He, Yueh-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Sterilizing immunity is a unique immune status, which prevents effective virus infection into the host. It is different from the immunity that allows infection but with subsequent successful eradication of the virus. Pre-infection induces sterilizing immunity to homologous influenza virus challenge in ferret. In our antigen-specific experimental system, mice pre-infected with PR8 influenza virus through nasal route are likewise resistant to reinfection of the same strain of virus. The virus is cleared before establishment of effective infection. Intramuscular influenza virus injection confers protection against re-infection with facilitated virus clearance but not sterilizing immunity. Pre-infection and intramuscular injection generates comparable innate immunity and antibody response, but only pre-infection induces virus receptor reduction and efficient antigen-specific T cell response in the lungs. Pre-infection with nH1N1 influenza virus induces virus receptor reduction but not PR8-specific T cell immune response in the lungs and cannot prevent infection of PR8 influenza virus. Pre-infection with PR8 virus induced PR8-specific T cell response in the lungs but cannot prevent infection of nH1N1 virus either. These results reveal that antigen-specific T cell immunity is required for sterilizing immunity. PMID:27596047

  2. Sterilizing immunity to influenza virus infection requires local antigen-specific T cell response in the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Avijit; Huang, Ching-Tai; Lin, Chun-Yen; Chen, Tse-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chang, Chia-Shiang; He, Yueh-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Sterilizing immunity is a unique immune status, which prevents effective virus infection into the host. It is different from the immunity that allows infection but with subsequent successful eradication of the virus. Pre-infection induces sterilizing immunity to homologous influenza virus challenge in ferret. In our antigen-specific experimental system, mice pre-infected with PR8 influenza virus through nasal route are likewise resistant to reinfection of the same strain of virus. The virus is cleared before establishment of effective infection. Intramuscular influenza virus injection confers protection against re-infection with facilitated virus clearance but not sterilizing immunity. Pre-infection and intramuscular injection generates comparable innate immunity and antibody response, but only pre-infection induces virus receptor reduction and efficient antigen-specific T cell response in the lungs. Pre-infection with nH1N1 influenza virus induces virus receptor reduction but not PR8-specific T cell immune response in the lungs and cannot prevent infection of PR8 influenza virus. Pre-infection with PR8 virus induced PR8-specific T cell response in the lungs but cannot prevent infection of nH1N1 virus either. These results reveal that antigen-specific T cell immunity is required for sterilizing immunity. PMID:27596047

  3. Sterilizing immunity to influenza virus infection requires local antigen-specific T cell response in the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Avijit; Huang, Ching-Tai; Lin, Chun-Yen; Chen, Tse-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chang, Chia-Shiang; He, Yueh-Chia

    2016-09-01

    Sterilizing immunity is a unique immune status, which prevents effective virus infection into the host. It is different from the immunity that allows infection but with subsequent successful eradication of the virus. Pre-infection induces sterilizing immunity to homologous influenza virus challenge in ferret. In our antigen-specific experimental system, mice pre-infected with PR8 influenza virus through nasal route are likewise resistant to reinfection of the same strain of virus. The virus is cleared before establishment of effective infection. Intramuscular influenza virus injection confers protection against re-infection with facilitated virus clearance but not sterilizing immunity. Pre-infection and intramuscular injection generates comparable innate immunity and antibody response, but only pre-infection induces virus receptor reduction and efficient antigen-specific T cell response in the lungs. Pre-infection with nH1N1 influenza virus induces virus receptor reduction but not PR8-specific T cell immune response in the lungs and cannot prevent infection of PR8 influenza virus. Pre-infection with PR8 virus induced PR8-specific T cell response in the lungs but cannot prevent infection of nH1N1 virus either. These results reveal that antigen-specific T cell immunity is required for sterilizing immunity.

  4. Sterilization among currently married men in the United States, 1991.

    PubMed

    Forste, R; Tanfer, K; Tedrow, L

    1995-01-01

    Data from the 1991 National Survey of Men indicate that about 12% of married men aged 20-39 have had a vasectomy and about 13% are married to a woman who is sterilized. Multivariate analyses indicate that the likelihood of sterilization rises with husband's age, wife's age, duration of marriage and number of children. Black couples are significantly less likely than white couples to rely on sterilization, and interracial couples are less likely than same-race couples to be sterilized. The likelihood of reliance on vasectomy rather than tubal ligation also rises with husband's age, while black men are significantly less likely than white men to elect male over female sterilization. Use of male sterilization is strongly associated with having had a recent contraceptive failure while using a male method.

  5. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gavrin, Vladimir; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to the interference of an ˜1 eV sterile neutrino. The Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST), specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly, starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in search of a sterile neutrino mixed with an electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST), we find the region in the model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle) which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  6. Eugenic Sterilization: Medico-Legal and Sociological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Felipe C.; Robinson, Shirley W.; Williams, Loretta J.

    1979-01-01

    The court-ordered sterilization of a normal 18-year-old black female in North Carolina focused attention on the unfortunate impact of eugenic statutes that allow sterilization as a method of social control. The existence of these laws in many states allows misapplication and abuse of authority which, not infrequently, is directed liberally to blacks and other minority groups. Eugenic sterilization is, at this time, a legally accepted form of “medical treatment.” The justification of such sterilization is the vague concept that the presumed “mentally deficient” individual is probably a potential parent of socially inadequate offspring who would likewise be socially inadequate. Since there never has been factual substantiation of whether the sterilization of these individuals will diminish the incidence of mental retardation, it is necessary to focus attention on the concept of eugenic sterilization and point out its many fallacies. PMID:480398

  7. [Sterilization with ozone in health care: an integrative literature review].

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cristina Silva; Torres, Lilian Machado; Azevedo, Marcela Padilha Facetto; de Camargo, Tamara Carolina; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this integrative literature review was to find evidence to support using ozone as a sterilizing agent for health products. The search was performed on the following bases: MEDLINE, SCOPUS, COCHRANE, COMPENDEX, INSPEC and ENGINEERING RESEARCH DATABASE; using ozone and sterilization as descriptors. Five articles were found between 1990 and 2008, which tested ozone as a sterilizer. All studies used the same type of investigation (experimental laboratory study) and achieved sterilization with ozone, but with different scopes and products, besides using different methodological procedures. Considering the ever-growing technology for new products, with the vast range of forms and materials, the findings point at ozone sterilization as a promising method, but still in an initial phase of investigation. Further experimental studies are needed to provide broader evidence regarding the possibilities and limitations of ozone sterilization.

  8. Continuous-sterilization system that uses photosemiconductor powders.

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, T; Tomoda, R; Nakajima, T; Nakamura, N; Komine, T

    1988-01-01

    We report a novel photochemical sterilization system in which Escherichia coli cells were sterilized with photosemiconductor powders (titanium oxide). For sterilization that could be used in practice, it was necessary to separate the TiO2 powders from the cell suspension. Therefore, semiconductor powders were immobilized on acetylcellulose membranes. We constructed a continuous-sterilization system consisting of a TiO2-immobilized acetylcellulose membrane reactor, a mercury lamp, and a masterflex pump. As a result, under the various sterilization conditions examined, E. coli (10(2) cells per ml) was sterilized to less than 1% survival when the cell suspension flowed in this system at a mean residence time of 16.0 min under irradiation (1,800 microeinsteins/m2 per s). We found that this system was reusable. PMID:3046487

  9. Assessment of performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria.

    PubMed

    Joshi, P V

    2002-02-01

    Paper presents a technique for performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria. Patterns of decay of room air bacteria concentration during sterilization and build-up there after as a function of time is studied. Decay process seems to follow exponential pattern. Half-lives during decay are estimated. For single sterilizer unit with a dose of 16 W the decay half-life is around 8.6 min. For the dose of 32 W (2 sterilizers), half-life is estimated to be 6.18 min. The removal rates of room air bacteria due to sterilizer are compared with the natural decay of aerosols at steady state. The importance of decay half-life in the assessment has been stated. The bacteria concentration buildup process after putting off the sterilizers seems to be sigmoidal in nature. The buildup half-life is estimated to be around 53 min for present experimental conditions.

  10. [Sterilization as a reversible method: utopia or reality? (Author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Aguillaume, C J; Aubert, J M

    1981-02-01

    Recent technological improvements in the field of microsurgery have made reversibility of sexual sterilization possible in a great number of cases. It appears that female sterilization can be reversed in almost 60% of cases, while male sterilization can be reversed in 70% of cases. Certainly the results are good, but it would be a mistake to be too optimistic. Success rates are not the same for every surgical team, and few patients know that reverse sterilization greatly depends on the technique used for sterilization. In conclusion, sterilization should be advised and performed only when both partners are absolutely sure not to desire any more children, and must still be considered as a permanent contraceptive method.

  11. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 458: Hysterosalpingography after tubal sterilization.

    PubMed

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved two devices for hysteroscopic tubal sterilization. To minimize the failure rates of these effective methods, it is important for health care providers to understand the important role hysterosalpingography (HSG) plays in any hysteroscopic tubal sterilization procedure. The purpose of this Committee Opinion is to emphasize the necessity of performing HSG 3 months after hysteroscopic tubal sterilization and to identify factors that may interfere with performance of an adequate HSG assessment.

  12. Microwave sterilization of Candida on underwear fabric. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, E G; Phillips, L E

    1988-05-01

    Candida-contaminated underwear might not be sterilized by ordinary laundering. The effectiveness of microwaving against Candida albicans on fabric was therefore determined. Swatches of Candida-impregnated cotton underpants fabric were subjected to domestic microwaving at the high setting for up to 30 minutes. If the fabric was microwaved dry, the Candida organisms survived. If the fabric was moistened, sterilization occurred within five minutes. Microwaving wet, freshly laundered cotton underpants should sterilize residual Candida and reduce the risk of reinfection. PMID:3290474

  13. Plant's sterilization rule for fertile women cited.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    The American Cyanamid Corporation has been cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for violating federal law by requiring female employees of childbearing age to be sterilized in order to continue working in areas of the plant where they would be exposed to high levels of airborne lead. High levels of airborne lead can cause damage to workers' reproductive systems and be responsible for birth defects in fetuses. The OSHA charged that American Cyanamid's policy constituted a "willful violation" of the 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act. The Act requires employers to provide employment that is free from recognized hazards likely to cause death or physical harm. According to OSHA, the Act does not allow an employer to eliminate the hazard by compelling employees to choose between losing their jobs and undergoing sterilization. The reproductive health of workers is considered a valid part of OSHA's regulatory concern. The citation, which carries a $10,000 fine, grew out of a complaint that was filed by the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Union on behalf of 5 female workers working in the lead pigment division of the company's Willow Island, West Virginia plant. The 5 employees alleged that they had themselves sterilized to avoid being transferred to other and possibly lower paying janitorial jobs or losing thier jobs completely. The company is appealing the citation. The union has also filed a complaint with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission charging American Cyanamid with sex discrimination, since only the women workers are at risk of being transferred to lower paying jobs.

  14. Possibility of heat sterilization of liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, H; Carlsson, A; Yachi, K; Hirota, S

    1991-04-01

    Several kinds of liposomes were sterilized at 121 degrees C for 20 min. They tended to aggregate after heat sterilization (HS) in saline, while no aggregation was observed in an isotonized sugar or polyol solution. The dispersions containing egg phosphatidylcholine (EggPC) with a high peroxide value (POV) turned slightly yellowish after HS. This color change was prevented by using EggPC with a low POV, hydrogenated EggPC (H-EggPC) or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). Nitrogen gas bubbling at neutral pH also prevented the color change, but vitamin E did not. The particle size of the EggPC liposomes extruded through a 0.4 micron membrane filter did not change significantly after HS, whereas the H-EggPC or DPPC liposomes extruded through a 0.8 micron membrane filter tended to be reduced in size. On this change the type of medium had a considerable influence. The anionic 6-carboxyfluorescein leaked from the negatively charged liposomes (EggPC/cholesterol (Chol)/egg phosphatidylglycerol) during HS, while no leakage was observed from the positively charged liposomes (EggPC/Chol/stearylamine) not only during HS but also during a long period of storage. It was suggested that sterilization of liposomes by heating was practicable as well as that by filtration, if the liposomes were prepared as follows: the charged liposomes made of lipids with low POV's were dispersed in a sugar or polyol solution adjusted to nearly pH 6.5, where the amount of dissolved oxygen was minimized. An ionic water-soluble drug had to be encapsulated in the oppositely charged liposomes.

  15. Possibilities of sterilization by track membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudoyarov, M. F.; Vishnevskii, B. I.; Manicheva, O. A.; Myakotina, E. N.; Mukhin, S. A.; Patrova, M. Ya.; Vedmetskii, Yu. V.

    2011-09-01

    The possibility of using track membranes for the dimensional separation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) species from liquid media has been studied. A set of track membranes with various pore diameters was prepared at the accelerator complex of the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (St. Petersburg) and all samples were tested for their ability to separate MBT species of 13 strains from solutions. The results showed high ability of the track membranes with pore diameters from 180 to 300 nm to sterilize liquid media and confirmed the hypothesis concerning relatively high rigidity of these bacteria.

  16. Urinary mycobacterium avium presenting as sterile pyuria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Samplaski, Mary; Mazzulli, Tony; Lo, Kirk; Grober, Ethan; Jarvi, Keith Allen

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old healthy woman presented with persistent, asymptomatic sterile pyuria detected by her family physician. While she did not have symptoms, the patient recounts that she has had cloudy urine for years. Cultures of the urine for bacteria showed no growth and no fungi were identified. First-morning urine samples were sent for both tuberculosis and nontuberculosis mycobacterium species testing. The culture grew genotypically identified Mycobaterium avium complex (MAC). Mantoux skin testing was positive. No urological abnormalities were detected by ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) imaging of the urinary tract.

  17. Mitochondria and cytoplasmic male sterility in plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Huang, Wenchao; Huang, Qi; Qin, Xiaojian; Yu, Changchun; Wang, Lili; Li, Shaoqing; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles in cells not only because they supply over 90% of the cell's energy but also because their dysfunction is associated with disease. Owing to the importance of mitochondria, there are many questions about mitochondria that must be answered. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a mysterious natural phenomenon, and the mechanism of the origin of CMS is unknown. Despite successful utilization of CMS and restoration of fertility (Rf) in practice, the underlying mechanisms of these processes remain elusive. This review summarizes the genes involved in CMS and Rf, with a special focus on recent studies reporting the mechanisms of the CMS and Rf pathways, and concludes with potential working models.

  18. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Before administration of the sterile pralidoxime chloride, atropine is administered intravenously at a... milligram of atropine per pound of body weight administered intramuscularly. Then the appropriate dosage...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Before administration of the sterile pralidoxime chloride, atropine is administered intravenously at a... milligram of atropine per pound of body weight administered intramuscularly. Then the appropriate dosage...

  20. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), photoperiod-sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility, and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein, and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male-sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  1. System and method of applying energetic ions for sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, John A.

    2003-12-23

    A method of sterilization of a container is provided whereby a cold plasma is caused to be disposed near a surface to be sterilized, and the cold plasma is then subjected to a pulsed voltage differential for producing energized ions in the plasma. Those energized ions then operate to achieve spore destruction on the surface to be sterilized. Further, a system for sterilization of a container which includes a conductive or non-conductive container, a cold plasma in proximity to the container, and a high voltage source for delivering a pulsed voltage differential between an electrode and the container and across the cold plasma, is provided.

  2. Are there sterile neutrinos at the eV scale?

    PubMed

    Kopp, Joachim; Maltoni, Michele; Schwetz, Thomas

    2011-08-26

    New predictions for the antineutrino flux from nuclear reactors suggest that reactor experiments may have measured a deficit in this flux, which can be interpreted in terms of oscillations between the known active neutrinos and new sterile states. We perform a reanalysis of global short-baseline neutrino oscillation data in a framework with one or two sterile neutrinos. While one sterile neutrino is still not sufficient to reconcile the signals suggested by reactor experiments and by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments with null results from other searches, we find that, with the new reactor flux prediction, the global fit improves considerably when two sterile neutrinos are introduced.

  3. End-preparation assessments and tests for compounded sterile preparations.

    PubMed

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing has become a necessity to obtain sterile products that are currently on backorder. Because of the expense of outsourcing sterile compounding, pharmacy leadership in health systems are now considering the option of insourcing and batch preparing compounded sterile preparations, which can be a viable option for a health system. It can significantly decrease drug-spending costs, and the pharmacy has a complete record of the compounding process. The key to preparing high-quality, safe, sterile preparations and meeting United States Pharmacopeia standards is end-preparation assessments and tests.

  4. Self-interacting dark matter and sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    We discuss some possible astrophysical and cosmological connections between dark matter and sterile neutrinos. Both the controversies at small scales for traditional cold dark matter (CDM) and anomalies in neutrino experiments seem to suggest that there might be new self-interactions for dark matter and sterile neutrinos. Surprisingly, if the new interaction also mediates between dark matter and sterile neutrinos, “missing satellite problem” in CDM paradigm can also be solved. On the other hand, light sterile neutrinos with self-interacting can also satisfy the cosmological bounds.

  5. Exploiting novel sterilization techniques for porous polyurethane scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Serena; Farè, Silvia; Haugen, Håvard Jostein; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Porous polyurethane (PU) structures raise increasing interest as scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. Understanding the effects of sterilization on their properties is mandatory to assess their potential use in the clinical practice. The aim of this work is the evaluation of the effects of two innovative sterilization techniques (i.e. plasma, Sterrad(®) system, and ozone) on the morphological, chemico-physical and mechanical properties of a PU foam synthesized by gas foaming, using water as expanding agent. In addition, possible toxic effects of the sterilization were evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Plasma sterilization did not affect the morphological and mechanical properties of the PU foam, but caused at some extent degradative phenomena, as detected by infrared spectroscopy. Ozone sterilization had a major effect on foam morphology, causing the formation of new small pores, and stronger degradation and oxidation on the structure of the material. These modifications affected the mechanical properties of the sterilized PU foam too. Even though, no cytotoxic effects were observed after both plasma and ozone sterilization, as confirmed by the good values of cell viability assessed by Alamar Blue assay. The results here obtained can help in understanding the effects of sterilization procedures on porous polymeric scaffolds, and how the scaffold morphology, in particular porosity, can influence the effects of sterilization, and viceversa. PMID:25893387

  6. Voluntary and involuntary sterilization: medical, ethical, legal and religious aspects.

    PubMed

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    1999-08-01

    Surgical voluntary sterilization has become one of the most widely used methods of contraception, with vasectomy and tubal sterilization being the most commonly employed techniques, associated with a low failure, morbidity, mortality, and long-term sequelae rate. As sterilization is related with the elimination of the possibility for procreation, a number of ethical, legal and religious issues have arisen, leading often to personal misjudgements, legal disputes, and failures in applying family planning. Involuntary sterilization is currently not practiced, except in cases of severely mentally retarded people, who are unable to appreciate the consequences of their acts or care for their children and who may have a high likelihood of propagating hereditary disease.

  7. Recent developments in the radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Geoffrey P.; Wills, Pamela A.

    Recent developments appear to have contributed to the increased interest in sterilization of pharmaceuticals by gamma irradiation. The choice of a sterilizing radiation dose is no longer fixed at 25 kGray (2.5 Mrad) but rather based on the initial microbial load (bioburden) coupled with the desired sterility assurance level. Our own efforts have focused on the irradiation of beta lactam antibiotics powders, most of which are radiation stable at commonly employed sterilization doses. In parallel, efforts have been directed at minimising radiolysis in aqueous solutions by the choice of appropriate irradiation conditions. A brief review of the literature on the irradiation of pharmaceuticals is given.

  8. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R.; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16–60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species. PMID:27767174

  9. Sterilization of skin allografts by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Bourroul, Selma Cecília; Herson, Marisa Roma; Pino, Eddy; Matho, Monica Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    The skin has a fundamental role in the viability of human body. In the case of extensive wounds, skin allografts provide an alternative to cover temporarily the damaged areas. After donor screening and preservation in glycerol 85%, the skin can be stored in a Skin Bank. Glycerol at this concentration has a bacteriostatic effect after certain time of preservation. On the other hand, skin sterilization by ionizing radiation may reduce the quarentine period for transplantation in patients. The objective of this work was to evaluate allograft sterilization using two sources of ionizing radiation. Through the analysis of stress-strain, it was intended to verify possible effects of the radiation on the structure of preserved grafts. Three groups of skin samples were selected. The first group was maintained in the initial conditions, not irradiated. The second was exposed to cobalt-60, while the third one was irradiated using an Dynamitron Accelerator JOB188 electron beam. The irradiation dose was 25 kGy for both tests. Both irradiation sources, and the Instron Universal Machine used for biomechanical experiments, are installed at the Centro de Tecnologia das Radiações/Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (São Paulo, Brazil). According to the preliminary results, biomechanical characteristics of the samples irradiated seem to be maintained with regard to the non irradiated group.

  10. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R

    2014-05-01

    Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted. PMID:24987289

  11. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted. PMID:24987289

  12. Glucose stabilizes collagen sterilized with gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ohan, Mark P; Dunn, Michael G

    2003-12-15

    Gamma irradiation sterilization (gamma-irradiation) fragments and denatures collagen, drastically decreasing critical physical properties. Our goal was to maintain strength and stability of gamma-irradiated collagen by adding glucose, which in theory can initiate crosslink formation in collagen during exposure to gamma-irradiation. Collagen films prepared with and without glucose were gamma-irradiated with a standard dose of 2.5 Mrad. Relative amounts of crosslinking and denaturation were approximated based on solubility and the mechanical properties of the films after hydration, heat denaturation, or incubation in enzymes (collagenase and trypsin). After exposure to gamma-irradiation, collagen films containing glucose had significantly higher mechanical properties, greater resistance to enzymatic degradation, and decreased solubility compared with control films. The entire experiment was repeated with a second set of films that were exposed first to ultraviolet irradiation (254 nm) to provide higher initial strength and then gamma-irradiated. Again, films containing glucose had significantly greater mechanical properties and resistance to enzymatic degradation compared with controls. Gel electrophoresis showed that glucose did not prevent peptide fragmentation; therefore, the higher strength and stability in glucose-incorporated films may be due to glucose-derived crosslinks. The results of this study suggest that glucose may be a useful additive to stabilize collagenous materials or tissues sterilized by gamma-irradiation.

  13. Daughters mimic sterile neutrinos (almost!) perfectly

    SciTech Connect

    Hasenkamp, Jasper

    2014-09-01

    Since only recently, cosmological observations are sensitive to hot dark matter (HDM) admixtures with sub-eV mass, m{sub hdm}{sup eff} < eV, that are not fully-thermalised, Δ N{sub eff} < 1. We argue that their almost automatic interpretation as a sterile neutrino species is neither from theoretical nor practical parsimony principles preferred over HDM formed by decay products (daughters) of an out-of-equilibrium particle decay. While daughters mimic sterile neutrinos in N{sub eff} and m{sub hdm}{sup eff}, there are opportunities to assess this possibility in likelihood analyses. Connecting cosmological parameters and moments of momentum distribution functions, we show that—also in the case of mass-degenerate daughters with indistinguishable main physical effects—the mimicry breaks down when the next moment, the skewness, is considered. Predicted differences of order one in the root-mean-squares of absolute momenta are too small for current sensitivities.

  14. The Role of Packaging Size on Contamination Rates during Simulated Presentation to a Sterile Field

    PubMed Central

    Trier, Tony; Bello, Nora; Bush, Tamara Reid; Bix, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the impact of package size on the contact between medical devices and non-sterile surfaces (i.e. the hands of the practitioner and the outside of the package) during aseptic presentation to a simulated sterile field. Rationale for this objective stems from the decades-long problem of hospital-acquired infections. This work approaches the problem from a unique perspective, namely packaging size. Design Randomized complete block design with subsampling. Setting Research study conducted at professional conferences for surgical technologists and nursing professionals. Participants Ninety-seven healthcare providers, primarily surgical technologists and nurses. Methods Participants were gloved and asked to present the contents of six pouches of three different sizes to a simulated sterile field. The exterior of pouches and gloves of participants were coated with a simulated contaminant prior to each opening trial. After presentation to the simulated sterile field, the presence of the contaminant on package contents was recorded as indicative of contact with non-sterile surfaces and analyzed in a binary fashion using a generalized linear mixed model. Results Recruited subjects were 26–64 years of age (81 females, 16 males), with 2.5–44 years of professional experience. Results indicated a significant main effect of pouch size on contact rate of package contents (P = 0.0108), whereby larger pouches induced greater rates of contact than smaller pouches (estimates±SEM: 14.7±2.9% vs. 6.0±1.7%, respectively). Discussion and Conclusion This study utilized novel methodologies which simulate contamination in aseptic presentation. Results of this work indicate that increased contamination rates are associated with larger pouches when compared to smaller pouches. The results add to a growing body of research which investigate packaging's role in serving as a pathway for product contamination during aseptic presentation

  15. A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus.

    PubMed

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1-hms2 incompatibility.

  16. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section 880.6860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas...

  17. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section 880.6860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas...

  18. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section 880.6860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas...

  19. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by a... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of known... growth or failure of the microorganisms to grow under suitable conditions indicates the adequacy...

  20. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by a... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of known... growth or failure of the microorganisms to grow under suitable conditions indicates the adequacy...

  1. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by a... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of known... growth or failure of the microorganisms to grow under suitable conditions indicates the adequacy...

  2. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by a... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of known... growth or failure of the microorganisms to grow under suitable conditions indicates the adequacy...

  3. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by a... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of known... growth or failure of the microorganisms to grow under suitable conditions indicates the adequacy...

  4. Efficacy in Microbial Sterilization of Pulsed Magnetic Field Treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sterilization effects of the pulsed magnetic field with a maximum intensity of 11.37 Tesla were investigated on Escherichia coli AS 1.129, Staphylococcus aureus AS 1.89, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATTC 7552 and Bacillus subtilis AS 1.921. The well-regulated fluctuations of sterilization effects with m...

  5. Future short-baseline sterile neutrino searches with accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, J.

    2015-07-15

    A number of experimental anomalies in neutrino oscillation physics point to the existence of at least one light sterile neutrino. This hypothesis can be precisely tested using neutrinos from reactors, radioactive isotopes, and particle accelerators. The focus of these proceedings is on future dedicated short-baseline sterile neutrino searches using accelerators.

  6. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  7. Parents' Attitudes toward Sterilization of Their Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lucille; Zarfas, Donald E.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred fifty-seven parents' attitudes toward sterilization and the sexuality of their retarded offspring were identified. Parent and child characteristics associated with these attitudes were investigated. Findings indicated that parents substantially concurred with the principle of sterilization (71 percent for involuntary, 67 percent for…

  8. Alternative methods of terminal sterilization for biologically active macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Yaman, A

    2001-11-01

    The traditional perception within the pharmaceutical industry of the manufacture of injectable drug products is that active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) that are peptides, proteins or biopolymers, such as poly(DL-lactide) (PLA) and poly(DL-lactideco-glycolide) (PLGA), cannot be terminally sterilized. This perception exists largely because terminal sterilization is assumed by many to be only carried out by steam sterilization in a standard autoclave. Thus, it is understood that these API candidates must be manufactured by aseptic techniques. With the current technological advances in the area of protein and peptide sterilization, which has largely come from the food industry and has in recent years been developed for pharmaceutical use, techniques have been developed for the terminal sterilization of thermally sensitive APIs and biopolymers. In this review, the focus will be on the four major types of sterilization that are presented in the literature: (i) gamma-irradiation; (ii) e-Beam; (iii) natural light; and (iv) microwave. Each of these sterilization techniques present advantages and disadvantages for use in large-scale terminal sterilization of bioactive macromolecules. PMID:11899616

  9. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contact lens solutions; sterility. 800.10 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... ophthalmic use, including contact lens solutions, should be sterile. It is further evident that...

  10. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contact lens solutions; sterility. 800.10 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... ophthalmic use, including contact lens solutions, should be sterile. It is further evident that...

  11. Review of neutrino oscillations with sterile and active neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-08-01

    Recently neutrino oscillation experiments have shown that it is very likely that there are one or two sterile neutrinos. In this review neutrino oscillations with one, two, three sterile and three active neutrinos, and parameters that are consistent with experiments, are reviewed.

  12. Long-term sterility of orthodontic-surgical appliances.

    PubMed

    Brusca, María I; Nastri, Natalia; Mosca, Christian O; Nastri, María L; Rosa, Alcira C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term sterility of new dental appliances according to the non rigid wrapping employed and assess the effectiveness of sterilization in a steam autoclave at 134 degrees for 20 minutes using physical, chemical, and biological indicators. All the experimental (E) samples and the control samples (C) were assigned to one of three groups according to the type of packaging: paper bag (E1), paper/plastic pouch (E2), nylon tubing bag (E3). Each bag contained standardized orthodontic wires and brackets and sterility indicators. The samples were evaluated at the following experimental times: immediately, and 6, 12, 24 and 30 months post-sterilization. The samples were analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in keeping with the protocol currently in use at the Department of Microbiology, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires. The group of control, non-sterilized samples (C1, C2, C3) were analyzed prior to the onset of the study, and were found to be contaminated. None of the sterilized samples in any of the three experimental groups evidenced contamination at any of the experimental times. The results showed that, under the present conditions, the packages and orthodontic appliances remained sterile for 30 months. These results show the importance of controlling sterility and the storage conditions over time for all the orthodontic/surgical appliances used in invasive treatments. PMID:15584258

  13. Low-temperature sterilization alternatives in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, P. . Surgical Div.)

    1994-01-01

    Vapor phase hydrogen peroxide, gas plasma, ozone, and peracetic acids have been commercialized as alternative technologies for low-temperature sterilization. None are viewed as a total replacement for ethylene oxide for on-site sterilization of reusable, heat-sensitive medical materials in healthcare facilities.

  14. 21 CFR 522.2150 - Stanozolol sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stanozolol sterile suspension. 522.2150 Section 522.2150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2150 Stanozolol sterile suspension....

  15. 21 CFR 522.1155 - Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder. 522.1155 Section 522.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.1155 Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder. (a) Specifications. Imidocarb dipropionate powder...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1155 - Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder. 522.1155 Section 522.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.1155 Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder. (a) Specifications. Imidocarb dipropionate powder...

  17. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India. PMID:25487194

  18. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, C.E.

    1999-02-09

    A method is described for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process. 2 figs.

  19. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.

    1999-02-09

    A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  20. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, C.E.

    1991-03-20

    This invention is comprised of a method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  1. 76 FR 64083 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, November...

  2. Sterile working in ultrasonography: the use of dedicated ultrasound covers and sterile ultrasound gel.

    PubMed

    Marhofer, Peter; Fritsch, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is currently an important tool for diagnostic and interventional procedures. Ultrasound imaging provides significant advantages as compared to other imaging methods. The widespread use of ultrasound also carries the risk of drawbacks such as cross-infections. A large body of literature reports this possibly life-threatening side effect and specific patient populations are particularly at risk (e.g., neonates). Various methods of ultrasound probe disinfection are described; however, none of the mechanical or chemical probe disinfection procedures is optimal and, in particular, disinfection with high concentration of alcohol might be associated with ultrasound probe damage. The preparation of ultrasound probes with dedicated probe covers is a useful alternative for sterile working conditions. One ultrasound probe cover discussed in this paper is directly glued on to the ultrasound probe without the use of ultrasound coupling gel. By the use of sterile ultrasound coupling gel at the outer surface, additional effects on aseptic working conditions can be obtained.

  3. Sterilization effects of atmospheric cold plasma brush

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Q.S.; Huang, C.; Hsieh, F.-H.; Huff, H.; Duan Yixiang

    2006-01-02

    This study investigated the sterilization effects of a brush-shaped plasma created at one atmospheric pressure. A population of 1.0x10{sup 4}-1.0x10{sup 5} Escherichia coli or Micrococcus luteus bacteria was seeded in filter paper media and then subjected to Ar and/or Ar+O{sub 2} plasmas. A complete kill of the Micrococcus luteus required about 3 min argon plasma exposures. With oxygen addition into the argon plasma gas streams, a complete kill of the bacteria needed only less than 1 min plasma exposure for Micrococcus luteus and about 2 min exposure for Escherichia coli. The plasma treatment effects on the different bacteria cell structures were examined using scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Radiation treatment for sterilization of packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Sampa, Maria Helena O.; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-08-01

    Treatment with gamma and electron radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in the aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. The effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packaging engineering to understand the effects of these new treatments. Packaging material may be irradiated either prior to or after filling. The irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Radiation effects on packaging material properties still need further investigation. This paper summarizes the work done by different groups and discusses recent developments in regulations and testing procedures in the field of packaging technology.

  5. Methane potential of sterilized solid slaughterhouse wastes.

    PubMed

    Pitk, Peep; Kaparaju, Prasad; Vilu, Raivo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine chemical composition and methane potential of Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes rendering products (SSHWRP) viz. melt, decanter sludge, meat and bone meal (MBM), technical fat and flotation sludge from wastewater treatment. Chemical analyses showed that SSHWRP were high in protein and lipids with total solids (TS) content of 96-99%. Methane yields of the SSHWRP were between 390 and 978 m(3) CH(4)/t volatile solids (VS)(added). Based on batch experiments, anaerobic digestion of SSHWRP from the dry rendering process could recover 4.6 times more primary energy than the energy required for the rendering process. Estonia has technological capacity to sterilize all the produced Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes (SSHW) and if separated from Category 1 animal by-products (ABP), it could be further utilized as energy rich input material for anaerobic digestion.

  6. A stochastic bioburden model for spacecraft sterilization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roark, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a stochastic model of the probability distribution for the random variable representing the number of microorganisms on a surface as a function of time. The first basic principle associated with bioburden estimation is that viable particles are removed from surfaces. The second notion important to the analysis is that microorganisms in environments and on surfaces occur in clumps. The last basic principle relating to bioburden modeling is that viable particles are deposited on a surface. The bioburden on a spacecraft is determined by the amount and kind of control exercised on the spacecraft assembly location, the shedding characteristics of the individuals in the vicinity of the spacecraft, its orientation, the geographical location in which the assembly takes place, and the steps in the assembly procedure. The model presented has many of the features which are desirable for its use in the spacecraft sterilization programs currently being planned by NASA.

  7. Sterile neutrino fits to short baseline data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, G. H.; Argüelles, C. A.; Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    Neutrino oscillation models involving extra mass eigenstates beyond the standard three (3 + N) are fit to global short baseline experimental data. We find that 3 + 1 has a best fit of Δ m412 = 1.75 eV2 with a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 52.34 (3). The 3 + 2 fit has a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 56.99 (7). For the first time, we show Bayesian credible intervals for a 3 + 1 model. These are found to be in agreement with frequentist intervals. The results of these new fits favor a higher Δm2 value than previous studies, which may have an impact on future sterile neutrino searches such as the Fermilab SBN program.

  8. Pressure-assisted thermal sterilization of soup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibeshi, Kidane; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2010-12-01

    The overall efficiency of an existing scale-up pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) unit was investigated with regards to inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores suspended in pumpkin soup. The PATS unit is a double pipe heat exchanger in which the soup is pumped into its inner high pressure tube and constrained by two high pressure valves, while steam is continuously passed through the annular region to heat the content. The technology is based on pressure generation by thermal expansion of the liquid in an enclosure. In this work, the addition of an air line to push the treated liquid food out of the existing PATS unit has improved the overall quality of the treated samples, as evidenced by achieving higher log reduction of the spores. Compared with thermal processing, the application of PATS shows the potential for lowering the thermal treatment temperature, offering improved food quality.

  9. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ražem, Dus̆an

    2004-09-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m 3 kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m 3 kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made.

  10. Microwave sterilization of hydrophilic contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, M D; Terry, M A; Bulard, R A; Graves, D C; Taylor, E M

    1986-01-15

    We used standard 2,450-MHz microwave irradiation to achieve sterilization of hydrophilic contact lenses contaminated with a variety of bacterial, fungal, and viral corneal pathogens. A three-dimensional rotisserie was used to overcome the problem of "cold spots" within the microwave oven. The contact lenses became dehydrated in approximately two minutes. Rehydration with normal saline restored their shape and appearance. The time necessary to prohibit all growth of the bacterial and fungal organisms studied ranged from 45 seconds to eight minutes. All viral contaminants were completely inactivated after four minutes of microwave exposure. Refractive properties were unaffected after 101 exposures to microwaves for ten minutes. Slit-lamp examination and scanning electron microscopy disclosed minute particles on the surface of these contact lenses but no damage to the lens matrix from irradiation. PMID:3942177

  11. New sterilization techniques accent ease, speed.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    New techniques are being developed for permanent male and female sterilization. The new methods are cheaper, easier to use, and effective. Vassoclude, a device under development by the Population Council, is used in the no-scalpel vasectomy technique. A pin hole created by the Vassoclude opens the way to apply a staple-like mechanism to place clips on the vas deferens. The method requires less manual dexterity than other tools, and there is no puncture hole. A new female method uses quinacrine hydrochloride pellets, which are inserted into the uterus with an IUD inserter. Permanent scarring of the fallopian tubes prevents pregnancy. The method is cheap, safe, and easy to use. The disadvantage is that multiple visits are required before the fallopian tubes are blocked. About 500,000 women currently use quinacrine worldwide. There have been few clinical trials. Most of the women live in Vietnam and Pakistan. Toxicological tests conducted by the US Food and Drug Administration and the World Health Organization have shown the product not to be safe. The Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception reports that there are 140 million couples relying on female sterilization worldwide, while only 42 million men undergo vasectomies. In the US, reports are that 23% of American couples rely on tubal ligations, compared to 13% relying on vasectomy. 500,000 men underwent vasectomies in the US in 1991. Neither quinacrine nor the Vassoclude was available in the US in 1993. There is little interest in producing and marketing vasectomy tools, and studies continue to examine vasectomy's side effects or links with cancer, which discourages the choice of vasectomy as a contraceptive method.

  12. Sterile insect technique: A model for dose optimisation for improved sterile insect quality

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, A.

    2007-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly pest control technique with application in the area-wide integrated control of key pests, including the suppression or elimination of introduced populations and the exclusion of new introductions. Reproductive sterility is normally induced by ionizing radiation, a convenient and consistent method that maintains a reasonable degree of competitiveness in the released insects. The cost and effectiveness of a control program integrating the SIT depend on the balance between sterility and competitiveness, but it appears that current operational programs with an SIT component are not achieving an appropriate balance. In this paper we discuss optimization of the sterilization process and present a simple model and procedure for determining the optimum dose. (author) [Spanish] La tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) es una tecnologia de control de plagas favorable para el medio ambiente con una aplicacion de un control integrado de plagas claves para toda la area, incluyendo la supresion o eliminacion de poblaciones introducidas y la exclusion de nuevas introducciones. La esterilidad reproductiva es normalmente inducida por radiacion ionizada, un metodo conveniente y consistente que mantiene un grado razonable para la capacidad de competencia en insectos liberados. El costo y la eficacia de un programa de control que incluye TIE dependen en tener un balance entre la esterilidad y la capacidad para competir, pero parece que los programas operacionales corrientes con TIS como un componente no estan logrando el tener un balance apropiado. En esta publicacion, nosotros discutimos la optimizacion del proceso de esterilizacion y presentamos un modelo y procedimiento sencillos para determinar la dosis optima. (author)

  13. District Leadership Conference Planner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

    This manual provides usable guidelines and planning forms and materials for planning district leadership conferences, which were designed and initiated in Washington State to meet the problems in student enrollment and, consequently, Distributive Education Clubs of America membership. The conferences have become a useful means to increase…

  14. [Conference Time Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Public Relations Association, Washington, DC.

    This multimedia kit, for use with and by teachers from kindergarten through the upper elementary grades, consists of four components: 1) a filmstrip for teachers; 2) the 1970 edition of a handbook, "Conference Time for Teachers and Parents"; 3) a filmstrip for parents; 4) a supporting parent information leaflet "How To Confer Successfully with…

  15. [Kweichow planned parenthood conference].

    PubMed

    1978-12-15

    On December 5th the Kweichow Provincial Planned Parenthood Leadership Group held its 1st conference to discuss the problems of planned parenthood in the province. Miao Chun-ting, deputy secretary of the provincial CCP committee and head of the provincial planned parenthood leadership group, presided over the conference.

  16. From Conference to Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Robert; Tenenberg, Josh

    2008-01-01

    Revising and extending conference articles for journal publication benefits both authors and readers. The new articles are more complete, and benefit from peer review, feedback from conference presentation, and greater editorial consistency. For those articles that are appropriate, we encourage authors to do this, and present two examples of such…

  17. The Conference in Retrospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1982-01-01

    Presents an overview of the 6th International Conference on Chemical Education held at the University of Maryland (August 9-14, 1981), focusing on such organizational activities as roster building, people activating, innovative publishing, resolution and recommendation drafting, conference infrastructure and managerial mode, hospitality center,…

  18. The Learning Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravn, Ib

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to call attention to the fact that conferences for professionals rely on massive one-way communication and hence produce little learning for delegates--and to introduce an alternative, the "learning conference", that involves delegates in fun and productive learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  19. ASE Annual Conference 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Roger

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the ASE Annual Conference 2010 which was held at Nottingham after a gap of 22 years. As always, the main conference was preceded by International Day, an important event for science educators from across the world. There were two strands to the programme: (1) "What works for me?"--sharing new ideas and tried…

  20. Lyndon Johnson's Press Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Stephen

    Because President Lyndon Johnson understood well the publicity value of the American news media, he sought to exploit them. He saw reporters as "torch bearers" for his programs and policies and used the presidential press conference chiefly for promotional purposes. Although he met with reporters often, his press conferences were usually…

  1. Atomic ionization by sterile-to-active neutrino conversion and constraints on dark matter sterile neutrinos with germanium detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Chi, Hsin-Chang; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, C.-P.; Singh, Lakhwinder; Wong, Henry T.; Wu, Chih-Liang; Wu, Chih-Pan

    2016-05-01

    The transition magnetic moment of a sterile neutrino can give rise to its conversion to an active neutrino through radiative decay or nonstandard interaction (NSI) with matter. For sterile neutrinos of keV-mass as dark matter candidates, their decay signals are actively searched for in cosmic x-ray spectra. In this work, we consider the NSI that leads to atomic ionization, which can be detected by direct dark matter experiments. It is found that this inelastic scattering process for a nonrelativistic sterile neutrino has a pronounced enhancement in the differential cross section at energy transfer about half of its mass, manifesting experimentally as peaks in the measurable energy spectra. The enhancement effects gradually smear out as the sterile neutrino becomes relativistic. Using data taken with low-threshold low-background germanium detectors, constraints on sterile neutrino mass and its transition magnetic moment are derived and compared with those from astrophysical observations.

  2. ICCK Conference Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Green, William H.

    2013-05-28

    The 7th International Conference on Chemical Kinetics (ICCK) was held July 10-14, 2011, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in Cambridge, MA, hosted by Prof. William H. Green of MIT's Chemical Engineering department. This cross-disciplinary meeting highlighted the importance of fundamental understanding of elementary reactions to the full range of chemical investigations. The specific conference focus was on elementary-step kinetics in both the gas phase and in condensed phase. The meeting provided a unique opportunity to discuss how the same reactive species and reaction motifs manifest under very different reaction conditions (e.g. atmospheric, aqueous, combustion, plasma, in nonaqueous solvents, on surfaces.). The conference featured special sessions on new/improved experimental techniques, improved models and data analysis for interpreting complicated kinetics, computational kinetics (especially rate estimates for large kinetic models), and a panel discussion on how the community should document/archive kinetic data. In the past, this conference had been limited to homogeneous gas-phase and liquid-phase systems. This conference included studies of heterogeneous kinetics which provide rate constants for, or insight into, elementary reaction steps. This Grant from DOE BES covered about half of the subsidies we provided to students and postdocs who attended the conference, by charging them reduced-rate registration fees. The complete list of subsidies provided are listed in Table 1 below. This DOE funding was essential to making the conference affordable to graduate students, and indeed the attendance at this conference was higher than at previous conferences in this series. Donations made by companies provided additional subsidies, leveraging the DOE funding. The conference was very effective in educating graduate students and important in fostering scientific interactions, particularly between scientists studying gas phase and liquid phase kinetics

  3. A detrimental mitochondrial-nuclear interaction causes cytoplasmic male sterility in rice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dangping; Xu, Hong; Liu, Zhenlan; Guo, Jingxin; Li, Heying; Chen, Letian; Fang, Ce; Zhang, Qunyu; Bai, Mei; Yao, Nan; Wu, Hong; Wu, Hao; Ji, Chonghui; Zheng, Huiqi; Chen, Yuanling; Ye, Shan; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xiucai; Li, Riqing; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2013-05-01

    Plant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) results from incompatibilities between the organellar and nuclear genomes and prevents self pollination, enabling hybrid crop breeding to increase yields. The Wild Abortive CMS (CMS-WA) has been exploited in the majority of 'three-line' hybrid rice production since the 1970s, but the molecular basis of this trait remains unknown. Here we report that a new mitochondrial gene, WA352, which originated recently in wild rice, confers CMS-WA because the protein it encodes interacts with the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein COX11. In CMS-WA lines, WA352 accumulates preferentially in the anther tapetum, thereby inhibiting COX11 function in peroxide metabolism and triggering premature tapetal programmed cell death and consequent pollen abortion. WA352-induced sterility can be suppressed by two restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes, suggesting the existence of different mechanisms to counteract deleterious cytoplasmic factors. Thus, CMS-related cytoplasmic-nuclear incompatibility is driven by a detrimental interaction between a newly evolved mitochondrial gene and a conserved, essential nuclear gene.

  4. Organization by Gordon Research Conferences of the 2012 Plasma Processing Science Conference 22-27 July 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jane

    2012-07-27

    The 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Plasma Processing Science will feature a comprehensive program that will highlight the most cutting edge scientific advances in plasma science and technology as well as explore the applications of this nonequilibrium medium in possible approaches relative to many grand societal challenges. Fundamental science sessions will focus on plasma kinetics and chemistry, plasma surface interactions, and recent trends in plasma generation and multi-phase plasmas. Application sessions will explore the impact of plasma technology in renewable energy, the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks and carbon dioxide neutral solar fuels (from carbon dioxide and water), and plasma-enabled medicine and sterilization.

  5. Influence of various sterilization procedures on TiO2 nanotubes used for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Junkar, Ita; Kulkarni, Mukta; Drašler, Barbara; Rugelj, Neža; Mazare, Anca; Flašker, Ajda; Drobne, Damjana; Humpolíček, Petr; Resnik, Matic; Schmuki, Patrik; Mozetič, Miran; Iglič, Aleš

    2016-06-01

    Sterilization is the final surface treatment procedure of all implantable devices and is one of the key factors which have to be considered before implementation. Since different sterilization procedures for all implantable devices influence mechanical properties as well as biological response, the influence of different sterilization techniques on titanium nanotubes was studied. Commonly used sterilization techniques such as autoclaving, ultra-violet light sterilization, hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization as well as the not so frequently used gaseous oxygen plasma sterilization were used. Three different nanotube diameters; 15 nm, 50 nm and 100 nm were employed to study the effects of various sterilization techniques. It was observed that autoclave sterilization resulted in destruction of nanotubular features on all three studied nanotube diameters, while UV-light and both kinds of plasma sterilization did not cause any significant morphological changes on the surfaces. Differences between the sterilization techniques employed influenced cytocompatibility, especially in the case of nanotubes with 100 nm diameter.

  6. CONFERENCE NOTE: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-01-01

    The next Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), will be held from 9 to 12 June 1992 at the Centre des Nouvelles Industries et Technologies (CNIT), La Défense, Paris, France. This conference, which is held every two years and whose importance and high level, confirmed by thirty years' experience, are recognized throughout the world, can be considered as a forum in which scientists, metrologists and professionals will have the opportunity to present and compare their research results on fundamental constants, standards and new techniques of precision measurement in the electromagnetic domain. Topics The following topics are regarded as the most appropriate for this conference: realization of units and fundamental constants d.c. a.c. and high voltage time and frequency radio-frequency and microwaves dielectrics, antennas, fields lasers, fibre optics advanced instrumentation, cryoelectronics. There will also be a session on international cooperation. Conference Language The conference language will be English. No translation will be provided. Organizers Société des Electriciens et des Electroniciens (SEE). Bureau National de Métrologie (BNM) Sponsors Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Instrumentation & Measurement Society Union Radio Scientifique Internationale United States National Institute of Standards and Technology Centre National d'Etudes des Télécommunications Mouvement Français pour la Qualité, Section Métrologie Comité National Français de Radioélectricité Scientifique Contact Jean Zara, CPEM 92 publicity, Bureau National de Métrologie, 22, rue Monge, 75005 Paris Tel.: (33) 1 46 34 48 16, Fax: (33) 1 46 34 48 63

  7. Ethylene oxide sterilization: how hospitals can adapt to the changes.

    PubMed

    1994-12-01

    Ethylene oxide (EtO) gas sterilizers have been used by hospitals for over 40 years to sterilize surgical equipment and supplies that are heat sensitive or that cannot tolerate excessive moisture. However, in recent decades, EtO has been recognized as a potential mutagenic, reproductive, neurologic, and fire and explosion hazard to workers, and one agency has reportedly voted to classify EtO as carcinogenic to humans. Strict regulations concerning EtO exposure have been imposed by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the use of EtO, along with other toxic pollutants, is also being monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act. In addition, the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as EtO diluents has focused attention on the EtO-CFC mixtures used in many sterilizers because CFCs have been linked to destruction of the ozone layer. Concerns about restrictive regulations related to these issues have prompted many hospitals to examine their use of EtO sterilization and propagated the misinformation that EtO sterilization is being phased out. In this article, we address some commonly asked questions regarding the use and regulation of EtO mixtures, as well as alternative sterilization agents and methods; provide two case studies illustrating how hospitals can evaluate various sterilization options; and summarize our conclusions and recommendations for hospitals facing decisions about sterilization techniques. For related topics, also see our Evaluation Update on endoscope reprocessors and our Hazard Report on improperly connected EtO-CFC cylinders to EtO sterilizers in this issue.

  8. Low reheating temperature and the visible sterile neutrino.

    PubMed

    Gelmini, Graciela; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Pascoli, Silvia

    2004-08-20

    We present here a scenario, based on a low reheating temperature T(R)<100 MeV at the end of (the last episode of) inflation, in which the coupling of sterile neutrinos to active neutrinos can be as large as experimental bounds permit (thus making this neutrino "visible" in future experiments). In previous models this coupling was forced to be very small to prevent a cosmological overabundance of sterile neutrinos. Here the abundance depends on how low the reheating temperature is. For example, the sterile neutrino required by the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector result may not have any cosmological problem within our scenario.

  9. Macroscopic and microscopic studies of fallopian tube after laparoscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Donnez, J; Casanas-Roux, F; Ferin, J

    1979-11-01

    Histological study was carried out on human fallopian tubes one hour and one month after various methods of laparoscopic sterilization. Ciliated cells were counted and histological lesions were observed. Deciliation is proved at a distance from the site of sterilization. Taking into account these two data, it has been possible to display the substance loss provoked by each of the usual sterilization methods (unipolar electro-coagulation, bipolar electrocoagulation, silicone ring and Hulka-Clements clip) which have to be taken into consideration in case of surgical re-anastomosis. PMID:160861

  10. Sterile neutrinos as the origin of dark and baryonic matter.

    PubMed

    Canetti, Laurent; Drewes, Marco; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that three sterile neutrinos alone can simultaneously explain neutrino oscillations, the observed dark matter, and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe without new physics above the Fermi scale. The key new point of our analysis is leptogenesis after sphaleron freeze-out, which leads to resonant dark matter production, evading thus the constraints on sterile neutrino dark matter from structure formation and x-ray searches. We identify the range of sterile neutrino properties that is consistent with all known constraints. We find a domain of parameters where the new particles can be found with present day experimental techniques, using upgrades to existing experimental facilities.

  11. Deviations in tribimaximal mixing from sterile neutrino sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, S.; Raj, Desh; Gautam, Radha Raman

    2016-10-01

    We explore the possibility of generating a non-zero Ue3 element of the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal neutrino mixing by adding a light sterile neutrino to the active neutrinos. Small active-sterile mixing can provide the necessary deviation from tribimaximal mixing to generate a non-zero θ13 and atmospheric mixing θ23 different from maximal. Assuming no CP-violation, we study the phenomenological impact of sterile neutrinos in the context of current neutrino oscillation data. The tribimaximal pattern is broken in such a manner that the second column of tribimaximal mixing remains intact in the neutrino mixing matrix.

  12. Macroscopic and microscopic studies of fallopian tube after laparoscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Donnez, J; Casanas-Roux, F; Ferin, J

    1979-11-01

    Histological study was carried out on human fallopian tubes one hour and one month after various methods of laparoscopic sterilization. Ciliated cells were counted and histological lesions were observed. Deciliation is proved at a distance from the site of sterilization. Taking into account these two data, it has been possible to display the substance loss provoked by each of the usual sterilization methods (unipolar electro-coagulation, bipolar electrocoagulation, silicone ring and Hulka-Clements clip) which have to be taken into consideration in case of surgical re-anastomosis.

  13. Nonthermal plasma sterilization of living and nonliving surfaces.

    PubMed

    De Geyter, N; Morent, R

    2012-01-01

    The recent tremendous progress in understanding physical plasma phenomena, together with the development of new plasma sources, has put a growing focus on the application of nonthermal plasmas in the biomedical domain. Among several novel applications, the inactivation of bacteria by nonthermal plasmas (so-called plasma sterilization) is particularly interesting. This introductory review provides a summary of the current status of this emerging research field. In addition to the inactivation of bacteria on nonliving surfaces, this review also focuses on the sterilization of living surfaces, such as animal and human tissues. Clearly, nonthermal plasmas have undoubtedly great potential as a novel method for low-temperature sterilization. PMID:22559318

  14. Resonant Production of Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Lauren; Grohs, Evan; Fuller, George M.

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the cosmological impacts of a light resonantly produced sterile neutrino in the early universe. Such a neutrino could be produced through lepton number-driven Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion of active neutrinos around big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), resulting in a non-thermal spectrum of both sterile and electron neutrinos. During BBN, the neutron-proton ratio depends sensitively on the electron neutrino flux. If electron neutrinos are being converted to sterile neutrinos, this makes the n/p ratio a probe of possible new physics. We use observations of primordial Yp and D/H to place limits on this process.

  15. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  16. [Serum sterilization in the cold with peracetic acid].

    PubMed

    Sprössig, M; Wutzler, P; Schweizer, H; Mücke, H

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of broad antimicrobic effect including also bacterial spores, mycoplasmas and viruses, the peracetic acid suits to sterilize in cold. By means of the final 0,1 to 0.02% concentration of the peracetic acid acting for 30 min. up to 5 days, it succeeded in sterilizing the serum used to prepare culture medium for bacteria, mycoplasmas and tissue cultures. Growth controls shown at least as good results as were those in using filtered sera. Chemical sterilization by means of the peracetic acid leads to significant diminution of neutralization and complementfixation antibodies in serum. PMID:987107

  17. Considerations for implementing United States pharmacopeia chapter 797 pharmaceutical compounding-sterile preparations, part 9: immediate use compounded sterile preparations.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V; Okeke, Claudia C

    2008-01-01

    United States Pharmacopeia Chapter 797 Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations pertains to all preadministration manipulations and procedures involved in the preparation of sterile compounds of application, implantations, infusion, inhalation, injection, insertion, instillation, or irrigation, including preparation, storage, and transportation. The chapter does not pertain to actual clinical administration of compounded sterile preparations to patient. The intent of Chapter 797 is simply to prevent patient harm and fatalities that may result from nonsterility, excessive endotoxin load, large content errors in strength of correct ingredients, or the presence of incorrect ingredients. Because the achievement of sterility requires that facilities meet the minimum cleanliness standards, that personnel be trained adequately and undergo periodic testing and training in sterilization techniques, and that appropriate principles and practices be applied to sustain solution stability, compliance with Chapter 797, and those that have already met the new standards seem to support them strongly. Chapter 797 sets standards for all compounded sterile preparations, including those for immediate use. This article discusses the techniques and standards used when immediate-use compounded sterile preparations are needed.

  18. Neutron-based sterilization of anthrax contamination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Qingfei

    2006-05-01

    With the anthrax threat becoming a reality, it is very important to have an effective way to sterilize areas contaminated by anthrax. Anthrax spores are the dormant form of the anthrax bacteria. They can germinate in tissues, producing new bacteria that release lethal toxins. Neutrons can be a powerful tool in our defense against anthrax contamination. Neutrons are elementary particles that have no charge, which allows them to be very penetrating, killing the anthrax spores on the surface and inside the containers. So neutrons have an advantage over other forms of radiation if deep penetration is required to kill biological organisms. A Cf neutron source allows for a low cost method of decontamination. It emits most neutrons in the 100 keV to 2 MeV energy regions, and a neutron in this energy region is 20 times more deadly than electrons or gamma rays in killing anthrax spores. If we just consider the first neutron collision with anthrax spores and that all the anthrax spores will not survive at the dose level above 2.0 x 10 Gy, our calculations show that a 0.5-g Cf neutron source within 20 min can generate 1.11 x 10 m fluence neutrons, which is good enough to kill the anthrax spores on the sample. An experimental confirmation of the above results may prove that to achieve 1.11 x 10 m fluence neutrons on the anthrax spore sample, the neutron irradiation time may be reduced dramatically or the Cf neutron source reduced to 0.1 g level or even less. The aim of this paper is to evaluate a feasible way to sterilize the anthrax contamination by using a Cf neutron source. Presently, we are mainly concentrating on the theoretical estimation of neutron fluence to see if the Cf neutron source can deliver enough neutron irradiation dose to kill the anthrax spores. Our future work will focus on experimental confirmation and Monte Carlo simulation by using Geant4 or MCNP codes. At that time, we will consider the effects of the real experimental setup, the shielding materials

  19. Neutron-based sterilization of anthrax contamination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Qingfei

    2006-05-01

    With the anthrax threat becoming a reality, it is very important to have an effective way to sterilize areas contaminated by anthrax. Anthrax spores are the dormant form of the anthrax bacteria. They can germinate in tissues, producing new bacteria that release lethal toxins. Neutrons can be a powerful tool in our defense against anthrax contamination. Neutrons are elementary particles that have no charge, which allows them to be very penetrating, killing the anthrax spores on the surface and inside the containers. So neutrons have an advantage over other forms of radiation if deep penetration is required to kill biological organisms. A Cf neutron source allows for a low cost method of decontamination. It emits most neutrons in the 100 keV to 2 MeV energy regions, and a neutron in this energy region is 20 times more deadly than electrons or gamma rays in killing anthrax spores. If we just consider the first neutron collision with anthrax spores and that all the anthrax spores will not survive at the dose level above 2.0 x 10 Gy, our calculations show that a 0.5-g Cf neutron source within 20 min can generate 1.11 x 10 m fluence neutrons, which is good enough to kill the anthrax spores on the sample. An experimental confirmation of the above results may prove that to achieve 1.11 x 10 m fluence neutrons on the anthrax spore sample, the neutron irradiation time may be reduced dramatically or the Cf neutron source reduced to 0.1 g level or even less. The aim of this paper is to evaluate a feasible way to sterilize the anthrax contamination by using a Cf neutron source. Presently, we are mainly concentrating on the theoretical estimation of neutron fluence to see if the Cf neutron source can deliver enough neutron irradiation dose to kill the anthrax spores. Our future work will focus on experimental confirmation and Monte Carlo simulation by using Geant4 or MCNP codes. At that time, we will consider the effects of the real experimental setup, the shielding materials

  20. 47 CFR 1.248 - Prehearing conferences; hearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prehearing conferences; hearing conferences. 1.248 Section 1.248 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearing Proceedings Prehearing Procedures § 1.248 Prehearing conferences; hearing conferences. (a)...

  1. The Sterile Insect Technique for Controlling Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: Mating Vigour of Sterilized Males

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Clelia F.; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Boyer, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5∶1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population’s fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

  2. Persistence of Ebola Virus in Sterilized Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the ongoing 2014/2015 Ebola virus outbreak, significant questions regarding the appropriate handling of Ebola virus-contaminated liquid waste remain, including the persistence of Ebola virus in wastewater. To address these uncertainties, we evaluated the persistence of Ebola virus spiked in sterilized domestic sewage. The viral titer decreased approximately 99% within the first test day from an initial viral titer of 106 TCID50 mL–1; however, it could not be determined if this initial rapid decrease was due to aggregation or inactivation of the viral particles. The subsequent viral titer decrease was less rapid, and infectious Ebola virus particles persisted for all 8 days of the test. The inactivation constant (k) was determined to be −1.08 (2.1 days for a 90% viral titer decrease). Due to experimental conditions, we believe these results to be an upper bound for Ebola virus persistence in wastewater. Wastewater composition is inherently heterogeneous; subsequently, we caution that interpretation of these results should be made within a holistic assessment, including the effects of wastewater composition, dilution, and potential exposure routes within wastewater infrastructure. While it remains unknown if Ebola virus may be transmitted via wastewater, these data demonstrate a potential exposure route to infectious Ebola virus via wastewater and emphasize the value of a precautionary approach to wastewater handling in an epidemic response. PMID:26523283

  3. Upgrading sterilization in the orthodontic practice.

    PubMed

    Mulick, J F

    1986-04-01

    In today's orthodontic practice, disease control must undergo major reevaluation and restructuring. The knowledge of the natural history and treatment of many highly transmissible diseases to which orthodontic personnel are at high risk is changing rapidly. Among these diseases are acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis B virus, and the herpesvirus complex (currently five types). If barrier techniques are not in place, it is possible to cross-infect orthodontic personnel and patients alike. Clinical orthodontics, with its higher volume of patients (on a daily basis) than other dental practices, requires a custom-made sterilization schema tailored to each office. Proper organization of instruments to permit orderly processing, storing, and use is even more important than before. Turnaround time of processing instruments, corrosion control, and minimizing of dulling of cutting edges are critical. Treatment of surfaces and chair/unit facilities with improved disinfection techniques is a necessity. Protection of hands and eyes by appropriate means is discussed with practical guidelines for the use of gloves by chairside personnel. Many fomites (inanimate disease transmitters) lurk in the orthodontic office and must be eliminated. Finally, the most important ingredient to any change--the orthodontic office staff--must be enlightened, trained, and supervised by the orthodontist to effectively and efficiently switch from the old to the new.

  4. [Packaging in the process of radiation sterilization. II. Physicochemical studies].

    PubMed

    Pekala, W; Burczak, K; Czerniawski, E

    1986-01-01

    The penetrability of the ionizing radiation through the matter makes possible the sterilization of the medical devices in the packed form by radiation method. The effect of the radiation should not bring any destructive changes in the material used for the package. In this paper have been discussed the results of the investigations of the one--and multilayer packaging materials from the point of view their utility for the radiation sterilization purposes. The changes of the useful parameters of the investigated materials have been determined in the dependence on the absorbed dose immediately after irradiation and the period of the durable keeping after the sterilization. The results of the mechanical investigations in the correlation to the results of the microbiological effects of the sterilized materials enabled to draw practical conclusions concerned the usability of the particular packages. PMID:3797357

  5. The role of meiotic drive in hybrid male sterility.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-04-27

    Meiotic drive causes the distortion of allelic segregation away from Mendelian expected ratios, often also reducing fecundity and favouring the evolution of drive suppressors. If different species evolve distinct drive-suppressor systems, then hybrid progeny may be sterile as a result of negative interactions of these systems' components. Although the hypothesis that meiotic drive may contribute to hybrid sterility, and thus species formation, fell out of favour early in the 1990s, recent results showing an association between drive and sterility have resurrected this previously controversial idea. Here, we review the different forms of meiotic drive and their possible roles in speciation. We discuss the recent empirical evidence for a link between drive and hybrid male sterility, also suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for this link in the context of chromatin remodelling. Finally, we revisit the population genetics of drive that allow it to contribute to speciation.

  6. 21 CFR 522.1085 - Guaifenesin sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... indicated for intravenous use as a muscle relaxant in horses. (2) A solution is prepared by dissolving the drug in sterile water for injection to make a solution containing 50 milligrams of guaifenesin...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1085 - Guaifenesin sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... indicated for intravenous use as a muscle relaxant in horses. (2) A solution is prepared by dissolving the drug in sterile water for injection to make a solution containing 50 milligrams of guaifenesin...

  8. Tips for maintaining sterilization in your orthodontic work station.

    PubMed

    Batra, Panchali; Jyothikiran, H

    2014-01-01

    Sterilization and disinfection have been a matter of concern amongst dental health care workers since long. Delicate materials, electrical parts, orthodontic pliers, orthodontic wire cutters, are to be treated according to the manufacturer's instructions to safe guard the life of the instrument as well as to claim warranty for any damage incurred. Sterilization procedures used in Orthodontics should be simple but effective and of relatively short duration so that there is a readily available supply of sterile instruments and materials. The procedure should not cause any appreciable damage to dental instruments and other materials. An attempt has been made through this article, to provide information concerning methods and means of disinfection and sterilization of orthodontic clinics, instruments, materials and also waste disposal which can be adopted in private clinics as well as in hospital set ups.

  9. Impact of sterile neutrinos in lepton flavour violating processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Romeri, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    We discuss charged lepton flavour violating processes occurring in minimal extensions of the Standard Model via the addition of sterile fermions. We firstly investigate the possibility of their indirect detection at a future high-luminosity Z-factory (such as FCC-ee). Rare decays such as Z → l 1 ± l 2 ± can indeed be complementary to low-energy (high-intensity) observables of lepton flavour violation. We further consider a sterile neutrino-induced charged lepton flavour violating process occurring in the presence of muonic atoms: their (Coulomb enhanced) decay into a pair of electrons μ¯e¯ → e¯e¯. Our study reveals that, depending on their mass range and on the active-sterile mixing angles, sterile neutrinos can give significant contributions to the above mentioned observables, some of them even lying within present and future sensitivity of dedicated cLFV experiments and of FCC-ee.

  10. Characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma were investigated. High-energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed in the ECR zone using electric probe and optical emission spectroscopic methods. A biological indicator (BI), Geobacillus stearothermophilus, containing 1 × 106 spores was sterilized in 120 s by exposure to oxygen discharges while maintaining a temperature of approximately 55 °C at the BI installation position. Oxygen radicals and high-energy electrons were found to be the sterilizing species in the ECR region. It was demonstrated that the ECR plasma could be produced in narrow tubes with an inner diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, sterilization tests confirmed that the spores present inside the narrow tube were successfully inactivated by ECR plasma irradiation.

  11. Influence of reactive oxygen species on the sterilization of microbes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of reactive oxygen species on living cells, including various microbes, is discussed. A sterilization experiment with bacterial endospores reveals that an argoneoxygen plasma jet very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372), thereby indicating that oxygen radic...

  12. Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Mioara; Ene, Mihaela

    2007-08-01

    In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services—industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006.

  13. Alternative control technology document: Ethylene oxide sterilization/fumigation operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This report presents technical information that State and local agencies can use to develop strategies for reducing VOC (i.e., EO) emissions for sterilization/fumigation facilities. The information in the document will allow planners to identify available control alternatives and evaluate the VOC reduction and cost of implementing controls. The document provides information on sterilization/fumigation processes, EO (ethylene oxide) emissions, and emission reductions, and cost associated with the application of control units. Section 2.0 presents a summary of the findings of the study. Section 3.0 provides a description of sterilization/fumigation facility operations and emission sources. Section 4.0 provides a description of alternative control techniques for the reduction of ethylene oxide emissions. Section 5.0 presents a cost analysis that includes a methodology for computing annualized equipment and operating costs. A list of contacts at various Federal agencies who are knowledgeable about sterilization/fumigation processes is presented in Appendix A.

  14. Compulsory Sterilization: The Change in India's Population Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulhati, Kaval

    1977-01-01

    Reviews India's previous stand regarding family planning which favored the notion that economic development would provide the incentive for fertility control. Recent recommendations, however, include raising minimum marriage age for girls and increasing incentives for acceptance of sterilization. (CS)

  15. 7 CFR 305.23 - Steam sterilization treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...” air until steam vapor escapes). 1 Normal atmospheric pressure. ... Steam sterilization treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Temperature( °F) Pressure Exposure period... packages. Load with adequate spacing. Large commercial steam facilities that operate at pressures up to...

  16. Microbiologic evaluation of a hydrogen peroxide sterilization system.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, D L; Chung, P Y; Tsuchiya, P Y; Wessels, I F; Zuccarelli, A J

    1994-01-01

    The reliability of chemical sterilizers (acetone and/or 30-percent hydrogen peroxide at 25 degrees C and at 60 degrees C) was tested against Bacillus subtilis inoculated onto glass slides, commercial biological indicator discs (Bacillus stearothermophilus and B. subtilis), and B. subtilis spore survival. Acetone alone was not sporicidal. Hydrogen-peroxide-sterilized glass slides were sterile after 5 minutes. The indicator discs required 25 minutes at 25 degrees C, and less than 3 minutes at 60 degrees C (P < .0001). The D value of B. subtilis in 27-percent hydrogen peroxide at 25 degrees C is 2 minutes, with z values of 22 degrees C and 26 degrees C at 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C, respectively. For delicate instruments, a 30-percent peroxide solution followed by an acetone rinse provides an effective alternative to classic heat sterilization.

  17. [Voluntary versus compulsory sterilization in sweden then and now].

    PubMed

    Sjövall, H

    1975-01-22

    On June 27, 1974, the Commission on Sterilization submitted its report entitled "Voluntary Sterilization" to the Ministry of Justice. The present situation in Sweden exists because the original reasons for the law have been found untenable in practice, and the law itself is an obstacle to a sensible application. Consequently, the granting committee is now restricted as a practice which has "to a remarkable degree diverged from the working of the law and the intentions of the legislator" (Report, p. 82). The author illustrates this judgement by reviewing the Board of Health statistics on sterilization between 1935 and 1973, on legal abortion, including sterilizations compulsory for eugenically indicated abortion, and adds some critical comments on the proposals of the Commission. (Author's modified)

  18. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  19. Conference Summary Final Remarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Walter

    2007-05-01

    Finally we come to the last talk. The end of the Conference is near! I try to reflect on an interesting Conference, with many different - diverse - topics and 5 parallel afternoon sessions. How to solve this difficulty? I do it my way and present a selection of what I personally found interesting. I illustrate these topics with the help of slides which are borrowed from various speakers at the conference. There are outstanding problems, which will also find attention and interest if explained to non-nuclear physicists, common people. I will address four such topics which were were discussed at this conference: Heavy-Ion Cancer Therapy Extension of the Periodic Table - Superheavy Elements Nuclear Astrophysics Hot compressed elementary matter - Production - Phases

  20. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cook-Deegan, R.M.; Venter, J.C.; Gilbert, W.; Mulligan, J.; Mansfield, B.K.

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  1. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  2. Stimulation of human T cells by an influenza A vector expressing a CTL epitope from the HER-2/neu protooncogene results in higher numbers of antigen-specific TCRhi cells than stimulation with peptide. Divergent roles of IL-2 and IL-15.

    PubMed

    Efferson, Clay L; Kawano, Kouichiro; Tsuda, Naotake; Palese, Peter; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Ioannides, Constantin G

    2005-01-01

    Development of cancer vaccines requires approaches to induce expansion and functional differentiation of tumor antigen-specific effector and memory cells. The later are particularly relevant for prevention of disease relapse. Efficient induction of memory cells is hindered by the lack of information about the relationship between TCR stimulation and the cytokines required for Ag-specific memory CD8+ cells and proliferation and survival. Since viruses are known to induce memory T cells, an attenuated influenza A/PR8/34 virus with a truncated nonstructural (NS1) gene was generated containing the HER-2 CTL E75 epitope in its neuraminidase protein (KIF-NS virus). Stimulation of PBMC from healthy donors and of tumor-associated lymphocytes (TAL) from ovarian cancer patients with dendritic cells (DC) infected with KIF-NS (KIF-NS-DC), induced higher numbers of immediate memory effector CD8+ CD44hi CD122hi cells, expressing TCR specific for E75 (E75-TCR) than stimulation with peptide E75. Survival of CD44hi CD122hi cells was dependent on the levels of TCR; cells expressing lower levels of E75-TCR (MFI: 10(2)-10(3)) survived better in IL-2 while cells expressing high levels of TCR (MFI: 10(3)-10(4)) survived better in IL-15. This is the first report demonstrating induction of human Ag-specific memory CD8+ cells against a human tumor-antigen using a live attenuated recombinant influenza virus vector. Such vectors may provide a novel approach for preventive immunity in human cancer vaccine development.

  3. [Sterilization--the microbiology between claim and reality].

    PubMed

    Spicher, G

    1993-05-01

    Sterilization means to free an object from all living and viable germs. To fulfill this claim, the microbiology is confronted with some fundamental problems. Under the action of a microbicidal agent the microorganisms do not die at the same time, even if there is a homogeneous population. The destruction of microorganisms follows a special destruction order. The number of dying organisms is always proportional to the number of viable organisms present. On theoretical grounds it is, therefore, impossible to free an object from all living and viable germs; there will ever be left a certain proportion of viable germs, even if this proportion may be very small. The aim of sterilization must be to keep that proportion very small. To reach this goal in a practical time without damaging the objects to be sterilized, microorganisms of high resistance should be excluded, i.e. the objects to be sterilized should not be contaminated by microorganisms of high resistance to the sterilizing agent(s). The assurance level that an object is free from all living and viable germs must be so high that it is practically impossible to proof this by a test for sterility. On the other hand, the absence of microorganisms of high resistance in the objects to be sterilized makes it feasible to use microorganisms of high resistance as test organisms for the manufacture of microbiologic indicators. Such indicators enable to record as an integral the action of all microbicidal parameters of the noxious agent(s) far beyond the region for which the application of a test for sterility is sensible. Nevertheless, bioindicators have a similar status as the physical and physico-chemical controlling instruments. Microbiological indicators make it possible to guarantee the application of a certain (minimal) efficacy of the microbicidal agent(s). Whether this efficacy is sufficient to reach the wanted sterility assurance level depends, last not least, on the microbiological contamination (bioburden) of

  4. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  5. Conference scene: DGVS spring conference 2009.

    PubMed

    Kolligs, Frank Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The 3rd annual DGVS Spring Conference of the German Society for Gastroenterology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten) was held at the Seminaris Campus Hotel in Berlin, Germany, on 8-9 May, 2009. The conference was organized by Roland Schmid and Matthias Ebert from the Technical University of Munich, Germany. The central theme of the meeting was 'translational gastrointestinal oncology: towards personalized medicine and individualized therapy'. The conference covered talks on markers for diagnosis, screening and surveillance of colorectal cancer, targets for molecular therapy, response prediction in clinical oncology, development and integration of molecular imaging in gastrointestinal oncology and translational research in clinical trial design. Owing to the broad array of topics and limitations of space, this article will focus on biomarkers, response prediction and the integration of biomarkers into clinical trials. Presentations mentioned in this summary were given by Matthias Ebert (Technical University of Munich, Germany), Esmeralda Heiden (Epigenomics, Berlin, Germany), Frank Kolligs (University of Munich, Germany), Florian Lordick (University of Heidelberg, Germany), Hans Jorgen Nielsen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Anke Reinacher-Schick (University of Bochum, Germany), Christoph Röcken (University of Berlin, Germany), Wolff Schmiegel (University of Bochum, Germany) and Thomas Seufferlein (University of Halle, Germany).

  6. Sterilization of Lung Matrices by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Liu, Angela; Gard, Ashley L; Huie, Janet; Blatt, Kelly M S; Schwan, Jonas; Zhao, Liping; Broekelmann, Tom J; Mecham, Robert P; Wilcox, Elise C; Niklason, Laura E

    2016-03-01

    Lung engineering is a potential alternative to transplantation for patients with end-stage pulmonary failure. Two challenges critical to the successful development of an engineered lung developed from a decellularized scaffold include (i) the suppression of resident infectious bioburden in the lung matrix, and (ii) the ability to sterilize decellularized tissues while preserving the essential biological and mechanical features intact. To date, the majority of lungs are sterilized using high concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) resulting in extracellular matrix (ECM) depletion. These mechanically altered tissues have little to no storage potential. In this study, we report a sterilizing technique using supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) that can achieve a sterility assurance level 10(-6) in decellularized lung matrix. The effects of ScCO2 treatment on the histological, mechanical, and biochemical properties of the sterile decellularized lung were evaluated and compared with those of freshly decellularized lung matrix and with PAA-treated acellular lung. Exposure of the decellularized tissue to ScCO2 did not significantly alter tissue architecture, ECM content or organization (glycosaminoglycans, elastin, collagen, and laminin), observations of cell engraftment, or mechanical integrity of the tissue. Furthermore, these attributes of lung matrix did not change after 6 months in sterile buffer following sterilization with ScCO2, indicating that ScCO2 produces a matrix that is stable during storage. The current study's results indicate that ScCO2 can be used to sterilize acellular lung tissue while simultaneously preserving key biological components required for the function of the scaffold for regenerative medicine purposes.

  7. An evaluation of Profamilia's female sterilization program in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Williams, T; Ojeda, G; Trías, M

    1990-01-01

    The findings of three surveys and three studies used by Profamilia to evaluate and improve their voluntary female sterilization program are presented. The surveys measured sociodemographic characteristics of users, factors behind the sterilization decision, and user satisfaction with the operation in the short run and over time. The studies explored methodologies for more accurate cost-effectiveness analysis. Results of the projects were used by Profamilia management to identify areas of program strengths and weaknesses and to implement operational changes.

  8. How self-interactions can reconcile sterile neutrinos with cosmology.

    PubMed

    Hannestad, Steen; Hansen, Rasmus Sloth; Tram, Thomas

    2014-01-24

    Short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have shown hints of the existence of additional sterile neutrinos in the eV mass range. However, such neutrinos seem incompatible with cosmology because they have too large of an impact on cosmic structure formation. Here we show that new interactions in the sterile neutrino sector can prevent their production in the early Universe and reconcile short baseline oscillation experiments with cosmology. PMID:24484130

  9. Ethical issues in male sterilization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S A; Naqvi, S A; Hussain, Z

    1995-11-01

    The history of sterilization dates back to the time of Hippocrates, when female sterilization was recommended for preventing hereditary mental diseases. James Blundell introduced surgical sterilization in 1823 for the prevention of high risk pregnancies. Vasectomy was first performed in the US at the end of the 19th century, mainly to prevent hereditary disorders. Male sterilization was a means of genocide during Nazi rule in Germany. Religious beliefs have the most powerful impact on the practice or nonpractice of family planning. In the teachings of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, only sporadic references explicitly prohibit contraception, yet various religious edicts have interpreted these references too broadly by advocating prohibition of most contraceptive methods. Recently, the world community endorsed the basic right of couples to decide the number of children they want and the right to family planning with free informed choice. An integral part of a successful family planning program is voluntarism. In Europe and North America sterilization is legal, except in Italy, France, and Turkey. In Latin America sterilization is illegal in a number of countries; in Burma and Vietnam restrictions are in place; and in Africa fertility regulation is illegal in one-third of the countries. Informed consent before sterilization during counseling by a skilled, unbiased counselor is indispensable. All family planning services should be part of the national health care system including the voluntary contraception services. Incentives may compromise voluntarism. Most programs require a minimum age and a minimum number of children, marital status, and spousal consent. For sterilization, a waiting period of 1-30 days has been recommended. The exclusion of childless and single individuals has been challenged as a violation of human rights. For mentally retarded people parents or guardians provide consent. Major ethical issues in the future could emerge concerning novel

  10. Earth matter effect on active-sterile neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acero, Mario A.; Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis A.; D'Olivo, J. C.

    2011-08-01

    Oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos remain as an open possibility to explain some experimental observations. In a four-neutrino mixing scheme, we use the Magnus expansion of the evolution operator to study the evolution of neutrino flavor amplitudes within the Earth. We apply this formalism to calculate the transition probabilities from active to sterile neutrinos taking into account the matter effect for a varying terrestrial density.

  11. How self-interactions can reconcile sterile neutrinos with cosmology.

    PubMed

    Hannestad, Steen; Hansen, Rasmus Sloth; Tram, Thomas

    2014-01-24

    Short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have shown hints of the existence of additional sterile neutrinos in the eV mass range. However, such neutrinos seem incompatible with cosmology because they have too large of an impact on cosmic structure formation. Here we show that new interactions in the sterile neutrino sector can prevent their production in the early Universe and reconcile short baseline oscillation experiments with cosmology.

  12. Sterilization of air filters for high pre-vacuum autoclaves

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, R. J.

    1963-01-01

    Experiments are described with glass fibre filter paper and complete glass filters as fitted to high pre-vacuum autoclaves to determine whether organisms can grow or penetrate through the filters. A filter consisting of four layers of glass fibre paper fitted inside a sterilizer chamber for a year and used for 96 sterilization cycles was found to have retained its initial efficiency. PMID:16811010

  13. Sterilization of Lung Matrices by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Liu, Angela; Gard, Ashley L; Huie, Janet; Blatt, Kelly M S; Schwan, Jonas; Zhao, Liping; Broekelmann, Tom J; Mecham, Robert P; Wilcox, Elise C; Niklason, Laura E

    2016-03-01

    Lung engineering is a potential alternative to transplantation for patients with end-stage pulmonary failure. Two challenges critical to the successful development of an engineered lung developed from a decellularized scaffold include (i) the suppression of resident infectious bioburden in the lung matrix, and (ii) the ability to sterilize decellularized tissues while preserving the essential biological and mechanical features intact. To date, the majority of lungs are sterilized using high concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) resulting in extracellular matrix (ECM) depletion. These mechanically altered tissues have little to no storage potential. In this study, we report a sterilizing technique using supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) that can achieve a sterility assurance level 10(-6) in decellularized lung matrix. The effects of ScCO2 treatment on the histological, mechanical, and biochemical properties of the sterile decellularized lung were evaluated and compared with those of freshly decellularized lung matrix and with PAA-treated acellular lung. Exposure of the decellularized tissue to ScCO2 did not significantly alter tissue architecture, ECM content or organization (glycosaminoglycans, elastin, collagen, and laminin), observations of cell engraftment, or mechanical integrity of the tissue. Furthermore, these attributes of lung matrix did not change after 6 months in sterile buffer following sterilization with ScCO2, indicating that ScCO2 produces a matrix that is stable during storage. The current study's results indicate that ScCO2 can be used to sterilize acellular lung tissue while simultaneously preserving key biological components required for the function of the scaffold for regenerative medicine purposes. PMID:26697757

  14. Gas plasma sterilization of microorganisms and mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    SHINTANI, HIDEHARU; SAKUDO, AKIKAZU; BURKE, PETER; McDONNELL, GERALD

    2010-01-01

    The use of true gas plasmas for the inactivation of microorganisms is an area of dynamic research. Many types of gases are used as a source of plasma, and different plasma production methods have been applied. The antimicrobial mechanisms of oxygen-based gas plasmas may be due to an etching effect on microbial structures, particularly bacterial endospores resulting in shrinkage. By contrast, the definite mechanisms of actions of other gas plasma sources, such as N2, He, Ne, Ar and Xe gases, have not been clearly defined and indeed may be distinct. The speculated mechanisms of these gas plasmas involve the direct attack of metastable (excited molecular), UV and/or VUV to microbial structures, specifically the inner membrane and DNA in the core of bacterial endospores. According to this speculation, sterilized spore figures would remain unchanged. However, these mechanisms remain to be clarified. Future perspectives on the use of gas plasma for sterilization are of interest, as it is possible that appropriate sterility assurance levels can be obtained in parallel with material and functional compatibility. Traditional sterilization methods are often limited in these requirements. Therefore, gas plasma sterilization may prove to be an appropriate alternative sterilization procedure. PMID:22993596

  15. Sterilizing elastomeric chains without losing mechanical properties. Is it possible?

    PubMed Central

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Ferraz, Caio Souza; Rosa, Francine Cristina Silva; Rosa, Luciano Pereira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different sterilization/disinfection methods on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric chains. METHODS: Segments of elastomeric chains with 5 links each were sent for sterilization by cobalt 60 (Co60) (20 KGy) gamma ray technology. After the procedure, the elastomeric chains were contaminated with clinical samples of Streptococcus mutans. Subsequently, the elastomeric chains were submitted to sterilization/disinfection tests carried out by means of different methods, forming six study groups, as follows: Group 1 (control - without contamination), Group 2 (70°GL alcohol), Group 3 (autoclave), Group 4 (ultraviolet), Group 5 (peracetic acid) and Group 6 (glutaraldehyde). After sterilization/disinfection, the effectiveness of these methods, by Colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL), and the mechanical properties of the material were assessed. Student's t-test was used to assess the number of CFUs while ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to assess elastic strength. RESULTS: Ultraviolet treatment was not completely effective for sterilization. No loss of mechanical properties occurred with the use of the different sterilization methods (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Biological control of elastomeric chains does not affect their mechanical properties. PMID:26154462

  16. The ability of biological indicators to detect sterilization failures.

    PubMed

    Miller, C H; Sheldrake, M A

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a delay in analyzing biological indicators (BI's) after heat-processing prevents detection of sterilization failures. Sets of various types of BI's were processed through sublethal conditions in a steam, chemical vapor or dry heat sterilizer. Portions of each set of BI's were then analyzed for live spores immediately, after a 7-day delay at 27 degrees C, after a 7-day delay at 37 degrees C and in one instance after a 3-day mail delay. Of the 486 BI's exposed for sublethal times in steam at 250 degrees C, 483 (99.4%) exhibited spore growth (sterilization failure) after the 3-7 day delays before analysis. Of the 200 BI's exposed for sublethal times in the chemical vapor sterilizer, 193 (96.5%) exhibited spore growth after 7-day delays before analysis. All of the 120 (100%) BI's exposed for sublethal times in a static air dry heat sterilizer at 320 degrees F showed growth after 7-day delays before analysis. These results indicate that the delays before BI analysis described in this study do not cause any predictable pattern of preventing detection of sterilization failures. PMID:8054194

  17. The effect of sterilization on silk fibroin biomaterial properties.

    PubMed

    Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; DesRochers, Teresa M; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-06-01

    The effects of common sterilization techniques on the physical and biological properties of lyophilized silk fibroin sponges are described. Sterile silk fibroin sponges were cast using a pre-sterilized silk fibroin solution under aseptic conditions or post-sterilized via autoclaving, γ radiation, dry heat, exposure to ethylene oxide, or hydrogen peroxide gas plasma. Low average molecular weight and low concentration silk fibroin solutions could be sterilized via autoclaving or filtration without significant loses of protein. However, autoclaving reduced the molecular weight distribution of the silk fibroin protein solution, and silk fibroin sponges cast from autoclaved silk fibroin were significantly stiffer compared to sponges cast from unsterilized or filtered silk fibroin. When silk fibroin sponges were sterilized post-casting, autoclaving increased scaffold stiffness, while decreasing scaffold degradation rate in vitro. In contrast, γ irradiation accelerated scaffold degradation rate. Exposure to ethylene oxide significantly decreased cell proliferation rate on silk fibroin sponges, which was rescued by leaching ethylene oxide into PBS prior to cell seeding. PMID:25761231

  18. Provision of female sterilization in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Ford, Nicholas John

    2004-01-01

    Forty percent of Brazilian married women from 15 to 49 years of age have undergone surgical sterilization. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution states that all scientifically proven contraceptive methods should be available to all citizens, but it was only in 1997 that specific family planning legislation was approved. This study examines physicians' perceptions and attitudes towards the current provision of female sterilization and its legal implications, as well as women's experience with obtaining and undergoing sterilization. The study design included: (1) an investigation of the hospitals and health professionals and (2) a survey of women sterilized in combination with cesarean delivery in 1998. The survey showed they had a median of 3 living children, 60.0% had been sterilized between 30 and 39 years of age, and 61.0% had paid for the procedure. Many women reported previous method failure and adverse effects with hormonal contraceptives. Women with less schooling and lower socioeconomic status had more children and had begun childbearing and had been sterilized at younger ages than women with more schooling and higher socioeconomic status. Inequalities related to reproduction were strongly associated with teenage pregnancy and inadequate knowledge about contraceptives.

  19. Material Compatibility of Medical Sterilizer Using Oxygen Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya; Hanada, Yasushi; Noda, Minoru; Goto, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    Material compatibility of oxygen plasma sterilizer is investigated comparing with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sterilizers and a gaseous H2O2 sterilizer. Organic materials such as ABS, PE, PP, and PET are used as sample materials, and are irradiated by active oxygen species produced in oxygen plasma. After plasma irradiation, surface of the sample materials is observed using a scanning electron microscope and FTIR spectroscopy. Strengths of the organic materials are evaluated by the tension test. Also, H2O2 plasma sterilizer and a gaseous H2O2 sterilizer those are commercially available are utilized to compare the material compatibility, especially organic compounds. The ABS resin becomes slightly soft after irradiation by both plasmas and gaseous H2O2. Also, PET material becomes soften by each sterilization treatment. Decrease of peak heights of CH around 1200 and 1730 cm-1 and increase of that of OH at 3300 cm-1 in FTIR spectra indicates the oxidation of ABS resin by both plasma and gaseous H2O2. In the case of PET material, treatment by the plasma has not modified chemical composition but changed the crystal structure. The gaseous H2O2 is completely friendly for the PET material.

  20. The effect of sterilization on silk fibroin biomaterial properties

    PubMed Central

    Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; DesRochers, Teresa M; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-01-01

    The effects of common sterilization techniques on the physical and biological properties of lyophilized silk fibroin sponges is described. Sterile silk fibroin sponges were cast using a pre-sterilized silk fibroin solution under aseptic conditions or post-sterilized via autoclaving, gamma radiation, dry heat, exposure to ethylene oxide or hydrogen peroxide gas plasma. Low average molecular weight and low concentration silk fibroin solutions could be sterilized via autoclaving or filtration without significant loses of protein. However, autoclaving reduced the molecular weight distribution of the silk fibroin protein solution and silk fibroin sponges cast from autoclaved silk fibroin were significantly stiffer compared to sponges cast from unsterilized or filtered silk fibroin. When silk fibroin sponges were sterilized post-casting, autoclaving increased scaffold stiffness, while decreasing scaffold degradation rate in vitro. In contrast, gamma irradiation accelerated scaffold degradation rate. Exposure to ethylene oxide significantly decreased cell proliferation rate on silk fibroin sponges, which was rescued by leaching ethylene oxide into PBS prior to cell seeding. PMID:25761231