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Sample records for ilc reference design

  1. ILC Reference Design Report: Accelerator Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Phinney, Nan; /SLAC

    2007-12-14

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a 200-500 GeV center-of-mass high-luminosity linear electron-positron collider, based on 1.3 GHz superconducting radiofrequency (SCRF) accelerating cavities. The use of the SCRF technology was recommended by the International Technology Recommendation Panel (ITRP) in August 2004 [1], and shortly thereafter endorsed by the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). In an unprecedented milestone in high-energy physics, the many institutes around the world involved in linear collider R&D united in a common effort to produce a global design for the ILC. In November 2004, the 1st International Linear Collider Workshop was held at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan. The workshop was attended by some 200 accelerator physicists from around the world, and paved the way for the 2nd ILC Workshop in August 2005, held at Snowmass, Colorado, USA, where the ILC Global Design Effort (GDE) was officially formed. The GDE membership reflects the global nature of the collaboration, with accelerator experts from all three regions (Americas, Asia and Europe). The first major goal of the GDE was to define the basic parameters and layout of the machine--the Baseline Configuration. This was achieved at the first GDE meeting held at INFN, Frascati, Italy in December 2005 with the creation of the Baseline Configuration Document (BCD). During the next 14 months, the BCD was used as the basis for the detailed design work and value estimate (as described in section 1.6) culminating in the completion of the second major milestone, the publication of the draft ILC Reference Design Report (RDR). The technical design and cost estimate for the ILC is based on two decades of world-wide Linear Collider R&D, beginning with the construction and operation of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The SLC is acknowledged as a proof-of-principle machine for the linear collider concept. The ILC SCRF linac technology was pioneered by the TESLA collaboration*, culminating in

  2. International Linear Collider Reference Design Report Volume 2: Physics at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya; Ahn, Jung-Keun; Aihara, Hiroaki; Akemoto, Mitsuo; del Carmen Alabau, Maria; Albert, Justin; Albrecht, Hartwig; Albrecht, Michael; Alesini, David; Alexander, Gideon; Alexander, Jim; Allison, Wade; /SLAC /Tokyo U. /Victoria U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Tel Aviv U. /Birmingham U. /Annecy, LAPP /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /DESY /Royal Holloway, U. of London /CERN /Pusan Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Notre Dame U. /Frascati /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /Oxford U. /Hefei, CUST /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /Fermilab

    2011-11-14

    The triumph of 20th century particle physics was the development of the Standard Model and the confirmation of many of its aspects. Experiments determined the particle constituents of ordinary matter, and identified four forces that hold matter together and transform it from one form to another. Particle interactions were found to obey precise laws of relativity and quantum theory. Remarkable features of quantum physics were observed, including the real effects of 'virtual' particles on the visible world. Building on this success, particle physicists are now able to address questions that are even more fundamental, and explore some of the deepest mysteries in science. The scope of these questions is illustrated by this summary from the report Quantum Universe: (1) Are there undiscovered principles of nature; (2) How can we solve the mystery of dark energy; (3) Are there extra dimensions of space; (4) Do all the forces become one; (5) Why are there so many particles; (6) What is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory; (7) What are neutrinos telling us; (8) How did the universe begin; and (9) What happened to the antimatter? A worldwide program of particle physics investigations, using multiple approaches, is already underway to explore this compelling scientific landscape. As emphasized in many scientific studies, the International Linear Collider is expected to play a central role in what is likely to be an era of revolutionary advances. Discoveries from the ILC could have breakthrough impact on many of these fundamental questions. Many of the scientific opportunities for the ILC involve the Higgs particle and related new phenomena at Terascale energies. The Standard Model boldly hypothesizes a new form of Terascale energy, called the Higgs field, that permeates the entire universe. Elementary particles acquire mass by interacting with this field. The Higgs field also breaks a fundamental electroweak force into two forces, the electromagnetic and weak

  3. Design of the ILC Crab Cavity System

    SciTech Connect

    Adolphsen, C.; Beard, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Burt, G.; Carter, R.; Chase, B.; Church, M.; Dexter, A.; Dykes, M.; Edwards, H.; Goudket, P; Jenkins, R.; Jones, R.M.; Kalinin, A.; Khabiboulline, T.; Ko, K.; Latina, A.; Li, Z.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Ng, C.; /SLAC /Daresbury /Fermilab /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /CERN

    2007-08-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) has a 14 mrad crossing angle in order to aid extraction of spent bunches. As a result of the bunch shape at the interaction point, this crossing angle at the collision causes a large luminosity loss which can be recovered by rotating the bunches prior to collision using a crab cavity. The ILC baseline crab cavity is a 9-cell superconducting dipole cavity operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz. In this paper the design of the ILC crab cavity and its phase control system, as selected for the RDR in February 2007 is described in fuller detail.

  4. Silicon Tracker Design for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.; /SLAC

    2005-07-27

    The task of tracking charged particles in energy frontier collider experiments has been largely taken over by solid-state detectors. While silicon microstrip trackers offer many advantages in this environment, large silicon trackers are generally much more massive than their gaseous counterparts. Because of the properties of the machine itself, much of the material that comprises a typical silicon microstrip tracker can be eliminated from a design for the ILC. This realization is the inspiration for a tracker design using lightweight, short, mass-producible modules to tile closed, nested cylinders with silicon microstrips. This design relies upon a few key technologies to provide excellent performance with low cost and complexity. The details of this concept are discussed, along with the performance and status of the design effort.

  5. The ILC engineering design phase: Towards the production of an engineering design report

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Marc; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    In August 2007, the International Linear Collider-Global Design Effort (ILC-GDE) published the ILC Reference Design Report (RDR) which contains a description of the design of the linear collider and a ''value'' cost estimate. The RDR was developed over a 2 year period starting in August 2005 with the creation of the GDE at the Second ILC workshop, held at Snowmass, Colorado. The design described in the RDR and its associated estimate allow the GDE to plan and prioritize the next phase of the ILC, the creation of an Engineering Design and the production, by mid 2010, of an Engineering Design Report (EDR). The EDR will contain, in addition to a more mature design and an updated value estimate, a plan for executing the ILC Project. The purpose of the EDR is to facilitate formal international negotiations at government level on siting, funding, organization and execution of the ILC project with a timescale consistent with the start of construction in 2012. The creation of the ILC Engineering Design will include: (1) Basic R&D to demonstrate that all components can be engineered; (2) R&D into alternative solutions to mitigate remaining risk; (3) An overall design to allow machine construction to start within 3 years following its completion; (4) selection between high tech options to allow industrialization efforts; (5) A comprehensive value-engineering exercise; (6) A complete value cost estimate for the machine, including a funding profile consistent with the project schedule; (7) A project execution plan including a realistic schedule; (8) Designs for facilities shared between different ''area systems'', and for site-specific infrastructure. The designs must include the level of detail needed for regions to estimate the cost to host; and (9) All necessary information must be provided to regions to evaluate project technical and financial risks in support of a bid to host. With the completion of the EDR, the ILC-GDE leadership will be able to seek approval of the ILC

  6. Design of the ILC RTML extraction lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window.

  7. Interim report on the Global Design Effort Global International Linear Collider (ILC) R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, M.

    2011-04-30

    The International Linear Collider: A Technical Progress Report marks the halfway point towards the Global Design Effort fulfilling its mandate to follow up the ILC Reference Design Report with a more optimised Technical Design Report (TDR) by the end of 2012. The TDR will be based on much of the work reported here and will contain all the elements needed to propose the ILC to collaborating governments, including a technical design and implementation plan that are realistic and have been better optimised for performance, cost and risk. We are on track to develop detailed plans for the ILC, such that once results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN establish the main science goals and parameters of the next machine, we will be in good position to make a strong proposal for this new major global project in particle physics. The two overriding issues for the ILC R&D programme are to demonstrate that the technical requirements for the accelerator are achievable with practical technologies, and that the ambitious physics goals can be addressed by realistic ILC detectors. This GDE interim report documents the impressive progress on the accelerator technologies that can make the ILC a reality. It highlights results of the technological demonstrations that are giving the community increased confidence that we will be ready to proceed with an ILC project following the TDR. The companion detector and physics report document likewise demonstrates how detector designs can meet the ambitious and detailed physics goals set out by the ILC Steering Committee. LHC results will likely affect the requirements for the machine design and the detectors, and we are monitoring that very closely, intending to adapt our design as those results become available.

  8. Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-10-17

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.

  9. ILC Polarized Electron Source Design and R&D Program

    SciTech Connect

    Brachmann, A.; Sheppard, J.; Zhou, F.; Poelker, M.; /SLAC

    2012-04-06

    The R and D program for the ILC electron focuses on three areas. These are the source drive laser system, the electron gun and photo cathodes necessary to produce a highly polarized electron beam. Currently, the laser system and photo cathode development take place at SLAC's 'ILC Injector Test facility', which is an integrated lab (laser and gun) that allows the production of the electron beam and is equipped with a set of diagnostics, necessary to characterize the source performance. Development of the ILC electron gun takes place at Jefferson Lab, where advanced concepts and technologies for HV DC electron guns for polarized beams are being developed. The goal is to combine both efforts at one facility to demonstrate an electron beam with ILC specifications, which are electron beam charge and polarization as well as the cathode's lifetime. The source parameters are summarized in Table 1. The current schematic design of the ILC central complex is depicted in Figure 1. The electron and positron sources are located and laid out approximately symmetric on either side of the damping rings.

  10. Design of the Second-Generation ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2010-09-14

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) has initiated a program to design and build a Marx-topology modulator to produce a relatively compact, low-cost, high availability klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Building upon the success of the P1 Marx, the SLAC P2 Marx is a second-generation modulator whose design further emphasizes the qualities of modularity and high-availability. This paper outlines highlights of this design and presents single-cell performance data obtained during the proof-of-concept phase of the project.

  11. Conceptual Design of ILC Damping Ring Wiggler Straight VacuumSystem

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Kennedy, K.; Plate, D.; Schlueter, R.D.; Zisman, M.

    2007-06-22

    The positron and electron damping rings for the International Linear Collider will contain long straight sections consisting of twenty wiggler/quadrupole pairs. The wigglers will be based upon the CESR superconducting design. There are a number of challenges associated with the design of the wiggler straight vacuum system, in particular, the absorption of photon power generated by the wigglers. This paper will present the overall conceptual design of the wiggler straight vacuum system developed for the ILC Reference Design Report. Particular emphasis will be placed on photon power load calculations and the absorber design.

  12. DESIGN OF ILC EXTRACTION LINE FOR 20 MRAD CROSSING ANGLE

    SciTech Connect

    Nosochkov, Y.; Moffeit, K.; Seryi, A.; Woods, M.; Arnold, R.; Oliver, W.; Parker, B.; Torrence, E.; /Oregon U.

    2005-05-16

    One of the two ILC Interaction Regions will have a large horizontal crossing angle which would allow to extract the spent beams in a separate beam line. In this paper, the extraction line design for 20 mrad crossing angle is presented. This beam line transports the primary e{sup +}/e{sup -} and beamstrahlung photon beams from the IP to a common dump, and includes diagnostic section for energy and polarization measurements. The optics is designed for a large energy acceptance to minimize losses in the low energy tail of the disrupted beam. The extraction optics, diagnostic instrumentation and particle tracking simulations are described.

  13. Some Beam Dynamics and Related Studies of Possible Changes to the ILC Baseline Design

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, Ewan; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    Since the completion of the ILC Reference Design Report (RDR) in 2007, global R and D has continued on all ILC systems in a coordinated program titled Technical Design Phase 1. This program, which is planned and coordinated by the Program Managers and the Technical Area Group Leaders, will transition to a Phase 2 in 2010 which has the goal of producing a more complete Technical Design Report in 2012. In this transition there will be a re-baseline process which will update and or modify the RDR baseline design taking into account progress with systems design and progress with various technologies coming from the continuing R and D programs. The RDR design was considered by some to be a conservative one and many of the topics being studied for inclusion in a new baseline are directed towards more optimum cost versus risk designs. Some of these are engineering systems design modifications, both technical and civil, while others are accelerator parameters, technical system designs and beam dynamics optimizations. A few of the latter are described here.

  14. The ILC control system.

    SciTech Connect

    Carwardine, J.; Saunders, C.; Arnold, N.; Lenkszus, F.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.; Banerjee, b.; Chase, B.; Gottschalk, E.; Joireman, P.; Kasley, P.; Lackey, S.; McBride, P.; Pavlicek, V.; Patrick, J.; Votava, M.; Wolbers, S.; Furukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Larson, R.S.; Downing, R.; DESY; FNAL; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    Since the last ICALEPCS, a small multi-region team has developed a reference design model for a control system for the International Linear Collider as part of the ILC Global Design Effort. The scale and performance parameters of the ILC accelerator require new thinking in regards to control system design. Technical challenges include the large number of accelerator systems to be controlled, the large scale of the accelerator facility, the high degree of automation needed during accelerator operations, and control system equipment requiring 'Five Nines' availability. The R&D path for high availability touches the control system hardware, software, and overall architecture, and extends beyond traditional interfaces into the technical systems. Software considerations for HA include fault detection through exhaustive out-of-band monitoring and automatic state migration to redundant systems, while the telecom industry's emerging ATCA standard - conceived, specified, and designed for High Availability - is being evaluated for suitability for ILC front-end electronics.

  15. Optimization of Helium Vessel Design for ILC Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Fratangelo, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    The ILC (International Linear Collider) is a proposed new major particle accelerator. It consists of two 20 km long linear accelerators colliding electrons and positrons at an energy exceeding 500 GeV, Achieving this collision energy while keeping reasonable accelerator dimensions requires the use of high electric field superconducting cavities as the main acceleration element. These cavities are operated at l.3 GHz inside an appropriate container (He vessel) at temperatures as low as 1.4 K using superfluid Helium as the refrigerating medium. The purpose of this thesis, in the context of the ILC R&D activities currently in progress at Fermilab (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory), is the mechanical study of an ILC superconducting cavity and Helium vessel prototype. The main goals of these studies are the determination of the limiting working conditions of the whole He vessel assembly, the simulation of the manufacturing process of the cavity end-caps and the assessment of the Helium vessel's efficiency. In addition this thesis studies the requirements to certify the compliance with the ASME Code of the whole cavity/vessel assembly. Several Finite Elements Analyses were performed by the candidate himself in order to perform the studies listed above and described in detail in Chapters 4 through 8. ln particular the candidate has developed an improved procedure to obtain more accurate results with lower computational times. These procedures will be accurately described in the following chapters. After an introduction that briefly describes the Fennilab and in particular the Technical Division (where all the activities concerning with this thesis were developed), the first part of this thesis (Chapters 2 and 3) explains some of the main aspects of modem particle accelerators. Moreover it describes the most important particle accelerators working at the moment and the basic features of the ILC project. Chapter 4 describes all the activities that were done to certify

  16. Towards a PEBB-Based Design Approach for a Marx-Topology ILC Klystron Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Macken, K

    2009-10-17

    Introduced by the U.S. Navy more than a decade ago, the concept of Power Electronic Building Blocks (PEBBs) has been successfully applied in various applications. It is well accepted within the power electronics arena that this concept offers the potential to achieve increased levels of modularity and compactness. This approach is thus ideally suited for applications where easy serviceability and high availability are key, such as the ILC. This paper presents a building block approach for designing a Marx-topology ILC klystron modulator.

  17. The ILC global control system.

    SciTech Connect

    Carwardine, J.; Arnold, N.; Lenkszus, F.; Saunders, C.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.; Banerjee, B.; Chase, B.; Gottschalk, E.; Joireman, P.; Kasley, P.; Lackey, S.; McBride, P.; Pavlicek, V.; Patrick, J.; Votava, M.; Wolbers, S.; Furukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Larsen , R .S.; Downing, R.; FNAL; DESY; KEK; SLAC

    2008-01-01

    The scale and performance parameters of the ILC require new thinking in regards to control system design. This design work has begun quite early in comparison to most accelerator projects, with the goal of uniquely high overall accelerator availability. Among the design challenges are high control system availability, precision timing and rf phase reference distribution, standardizing of interfaces, operability, and maintainability. We present the current state of the design and take a prospective look at ongoing research and development projects.

  18. Design study of an optical cavity for a future photon collider at ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemz, G.; Mönig, K.; Will, I.

    2006-08-01

    Hard photons well above 100 GeV have to be generated in a future photon collider which essentially will be based on the infrastructure of the planned International Linear Collider (ILC). The energy of near-infrared laser photons will be boosted by Compton backscattering against a high-energy relativistic electron beam. For high effectiveness, a very powerful laser system is required that exceeds today's state-of-the-art capabilities. In this paper a design of an auxiliary passive cavity is discussed that resonantly enhances the peak-power of the laser. The properties and prospects of such a cavity are addressed on the basis of the specifications for the European TeV Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator (TESLA) proposal. Those of the ILC are expected to be similar.

  19. Beam Dynamics Challenges for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Kiyoshi; Seryi, Andrei; Walker, Nicholas; Wolski, Andy; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.

    2008-02-13

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposal for 500 GeV center-of-mass electron-positron collider, with a possible upgrade to {approx}1 TeV center-of-mass. At the heart of the ILC are the two {approx}12 km 1.3 GHz superconducting RF (SCRF) linacs which will accelerate the electron and positron beams to an initial maximum energy of 250 GeV each. The Global Design Effort (GDE)--responsible for the world-wide coordination of this uniquely international project--published the ILC Reference Design Report in August of 2007 [1]. The ILC outlined in the RDR design stands on a legacy of over fifteen-years of R&D. The GDE is currently beginning the next step in this ambitious project, namely an Engineering Design phase, which will culminate with the publication of an Engineering Design Report (EDR) in mid-2010. Throughout the history of linear collider development, beam dynamics has played an essential role. In particular, the need for complex computer simulations to predict the performance of the machine has always been crucial, not least because the parameters of the ILC represent in general a large extrapolation from where current machines operate today; many of the critical beam-dynamics features planned for the ILC can ultimately only be truly tested once the ILC has been constructed. It is for this reason that beam dynamics activities will continue to be crucial during the Engineering Design phase, as the available computer power and software techniques allow ever-more complex and realistic models of the machine to be developed. Complementary to the computer simulation efforts are the need for well-designed experiments at beam-test facilities, which--while not necessarily producing a direct demonstration of the ILC-like parameters for the reasons mentioned above--can provide important input and benchmarking for the computer models.

  20. Superconducting magnet needs for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, J.C.; Kashikhin, Vl.; Parker, B.; Palmer, M.A. /; Clarke, J.A.; /Daresbury

    2007-06-01

    The ILC Reference Design Report was completed early in February 2007. The Magnet Systems Group was formed to translate magnetic field requirements into magnet designs and cost estimates for the Reference Design. As presently configured, the ILC will have more than 13,000 magnetic elements of which more than 2300 will be based on superconducting technology. This paper will describe the major superconducting magnet needs for the ILC as presently determined by the Area Systems Groups, responsible for beam line design, working with the Magnet Systems Group. The superconducting magnet components include Main Linac quadrupoles, Positron Source undulators, Damping Ring wigglers, a complex array of Final Focus superconducting elements in the Beam Delivery System, and large superconducting solenoids in the e{sup +} and e{sup -} Sources, and the Ring to Main Linac lines.

  1. Design Considerations for a PEBB-Based Marx-Topology ILC Klystron Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Macken, K.; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Kemp, M.A.; Nguyen, M.N.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    The concept of Power Electronic Building Blocks (PEBBs) has its origin in the U.S. Navy during the last decade of the past century. As compared to a more conventional or classical design approach, a PEBB-oriented design approach combines various potential advantages such as increased modularity, high availability and simplified serviceability. This relatively new design paradigm for power conversion has progressively matured since then and its underlying philosophy has been clearly and successfully demonstrated in a number of real-world applications. Therefore, this approach has been adopted here to design a Marx-topology modulator for an International Linear Collider (ILC) environment where easy serviceability and high availability are crucial. This paper describes various aspects relating to the design of a 32-cell Marx-topology ILC klystron modulator. The concept of nested droop correction is introduced and illustrated. Several design considerations including cosmic ray withstand, power cycling capability, fault tolerance, etc., are discussed. Details of the design of a Marx cell PEBB are included.

  2. International linear collider reference design report

    SciTech Connect

    Aarons, G.

    2007-06-22

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R&D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade.

  3. To study the emittance dilution in Superconducting Linear Accelerator Design for International Linear Collider (ILC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Kirti; Solyak, Nikolay; Tenenbaum, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Recently the particle physics community has chosen a single technology for the new accelerator, opening the way for the world community to unite and concentrate resources on the design of an International Linear collider (ILC) using superconducting technology. One of the key operational issues in the design of the ILC will be the preservation of the small beam emittances during passage through the main linear accelerator (linac). Sources of emittance dilution include incoherent misalignments of the quadrupole magnets and rf-structure misalignments. In this work, the study of emittance dilution for the 500-GeV center of mass energy main linac of the Superconducting Linear Accelerator design, based on adaptation of the TESLA TDR design is performed using LIAR simulation program. Based on the tolerances of the present design, effect of two important Beam-Based steering algorithms, Flat Steering and Dispersion Free Steering, are compared with respect to the emittance dilution in the main linac. We also investigated the effect of various misalignments on the emittance dilution for these two steering algorithms.

  4. Design of a Pulsed Flux Concentrator for the ILC Positron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J; Abbott, R; Brown, C; Javedani, J; Piggott, W T; Clarke, J

    2010-05-17

    The Positron Source for the International Linear Collider requires an optical matching device after the target to increase the capture efficiency for positrons. Pulsed flux concentrators have been used by previous machines to improve the capture efficiency but the ILC has a 1 ms long pulse train which is too long for a standard flux concentrator. A pulsed flux concentrator with a 40 ms flat top was created for a hyperon experiment in 1965 which used liquid nitrogen cooling to reduce the resistance of the concentrating plates and extend the lifetime of the pulse. We report on a design for a 1 ms device based on this concept.

  5. FINAL DESIGN OF ILC RTML EXTRACTION LINE FOR SINGLE STAGE BUNCH COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Solyak, N.

    2011-03-28

    The use of single stage bunch compressor (BC) in the International Linear Collider (ILC) Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) requires new design for the extraction line (EL). The EL located downstream of the BC will be used for both an emergency abort dumping of the beam and the tune-up continuous train-by-train extraction. It must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spread of 3.54% and 0.15% respectively. In this paper we report the final design that allowed minimizing the length of such extraction line while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by 5m distance required for acceptable radiation level in the service tunnel. Proposed extraction line can accommodate beams with different energy spreads at the same time providing the beam size suitable for the aluminum ball dump window. We described the final design of the ILC RTML extraction line located downstream of the new single-stage bunch compressor. The extraction line is only 24m long and is capable of accepting and transmitting 220kW of beam power. The EL can be used for both fast intra-train and continual extraction, and is capable of accepting both 0.15% and 3.54% energy spread beams at 5MeV and 4.37MeV respectively.

  6. RECENT PROGRESS DESIGNING COMPACT SUPERCONDUCTING FINAL FOCUS MAGNETS FOR THE ILC.

    SciTech Connect

    PARKER, B.

    2005-10-17

    QDO, the final focus (FF) magnet closest to the interaction point (P) for the ILC 20 mr crossing angle layout, must provide strong focusing yet be adjustable to accommodate collision energy changes for energy scans and low energy calibration ruling. But it must be compact to allow disrupted beam and Beamstrahlung coming from the IP to pass outside into an independent instrumented beam line to a high-power beam absorber. The QDO design builds upon BNL experience making direct wind superconducting magnets. We present test results for a QDO magnetic test prototype and introduce a new shielded magnet design, to replace the previous side-by-side design concept, that greatly simplifies the field correction scheme and holds promise of working for crossing angles as small as 14 mr.

  7. Design and evaluation of a low-level RF control system analog/digital receiver for the ILC main Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Mavric, Uros; Vidmar, Matjaz; Chase, Brian; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    The proposed RF distribution scheme for the two 15 km long ILC LINACs, uses one klystron to feed 26 superconducting RF cavities operating at 1.3 GHz. For a precise control of the vector sum of the signals coming from the SC cavities, the control system needs a high performance, low cost, reliable and modular multichannel receiver. At Fermilab we developed a 96 channel, 1.3 GHz analog/digital receiver for the ILC LINAC LLRF control system. In the paper we present a balanced design approach to the specifications of each receiver section, the design choices made to fulfill the goals and a description of the prototyped system. The design is tested by measuring standard performance parameters, such as noise figure, linearity and temperature sensitivity. Measurements show that the design meets the specifications and it is comparable to other similar systems developed at other laboratories, in terms of performance.

  8. THE SUPERCONDUCTION MAGNETS OF THE ILC BEAM DELIVERY SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    PARKER,B.; ANEREELA, M.; ESCALLIE, J.; HE, P.; JAIN, A.; MARONE, A.; NOSOCHKOV, Y.; SERYI, A.

    2007-06-25

    The ILC Reference Design Report was completed early in February 2007. The Magnet Systems Group was formed to translate magnetic field requirements into magnet designs and cost estimates for the Reference Design. As presently configured, the ILC will have more than 13,000 magnetic elements of which more than 2300 will be based on superconducting technology. This paper will describe the major superconducting magnet needs for the ILC as presently determined by the Area Systems Groups, responsible for beam line design, working with the Magnet Systems Group. The superconducting magnet components include Main Linac quadrupoles, Positron Source undulators, Damping Ring wigglers, a complex array of Final Focus superconducting elements in the Beam Delivery System, and large superconducting solenoids in the e{sup +} and e{sup -} Sources, and the Ring to Main Linac lines.

  9. The ILC Polarized Electron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Brachmann, A.

    2005-04-15

    The SLC polarized electron source (PES) can meet the expected requirements of the International Linear Collider (ILC) for polarization, charge and lifetime. However, experience with newer and successful PES designs at JLAB, Mainz, Nagoya and elsewhere can be incorporated into a first-generation ILC source that will emphasize reliability and stability without compromising the photocathode performance. The long pulse train for the ILC may introduce new challenges for the PES, and in addition more reliable and stable operation of the PES may be achievable if appropriate R&D is carried out for higher voltage operation and for a simpler load-lock system. The outline of the R&D program currently taking shape at SLAC and elsewhere is discussed. The principal components of the proposed ILC PES, including the laser system necessary for operational tests, are described.

  10. Design of An 18 MW Beam Dump for 500 GeV Electron/Positron Beams at An ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Amann, John; Arnold, Ray; Seryi, Andrei; Walz, Dieter; Kulkarni, Kiran; Rai, Pravin; Satyamurthy, Polepalle; Tiwari, Vikar; Vincke, Heinz; /CERN

    2012-07-05

    This article presents a report on the progress made in designing 18 MW water based Beam Dumps for electrons or positrons for an International Linear Collider (ILC). Multi-dimensional technology issues have to be addressed for the successful design of the Beam Dump. They include calculations of power deposition by the high energy electron/positron beam bunch trains, computational fluid dynamic analysis of turbulent water flow, mechanical design, process flow analysis, hydrogen/oxygen recombiners, handling of radioactive 7Be and 3H, design of auxiliary equipment, provisions for accident scenarios, remote window exchanger, radiation shielding, etc. The progress made to date is summarized, the current status, and also the issues still to be addressed.

  11. Polarimeters and Energy Spectrometers for the ILC Beam Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Boogert, S.; Hildreth, M.; Kafer, D.; List, J.; Monig, K.; Moffeit, K.C.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Riemann, S.; Schreiber, H.J.; Schuler, P.; Torrence, E.; Woods, M.; /SLAC

    2009-02-24

    This article gives an overview of current plans and issues for polarimeters and energy spectrometers in the Beam Delivery System of the ILC. It is meant to serve as a useful reference for the Detector Letter of Intent documents currently being prepared. Concepts for high precision polarization and energy measurements exist. These concepts have resulted in detailed system layouts that are included in the RDR description for the Beam Delivery System. The RDR includes both upstream and downstream polarimeters and energy spectrometers for both beams. This provides needed complementarity and redundancy for achieving the precision required, with adequate control and demonstration of systematic errors. The BDS polarimeters and energy spectrometers need to be a joint effort of the ILC BDS team and the Detector collaborations, with collaboration members responsible for the performance and accuracy of the measurements. Details for this collaboration and assigning of responsibilities remain to be worked out. There is also a demonstrated need for Detector physicists to play an active role in the design and evaluation of accelerator components that impact beam polarization and beam energy capabilities, including the polarized source and spin rotator systems. A workshop was held in 2008 on ILC Polarization and Energy measurements, which resulted in a set of recommendations for the ILC design and operation. Additional input and action is needed on these from the Detector collaborations, the Research Director and the GDE. Work is continuing during the ILC engineering design phase to further optimize the polarimeter and energy spectrometer concepts and fully implement them in the ILC. This includes consideration for alternative methods, detailed design and cost estimates, and prototype and test beam activities.

  12. Design of an Interaction Region with Head-On Collisions for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, R.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jackson, F.; Alabau-Pons, M .; Bambade, P.; Brossard, J.; Dadoun, O.; Rimbault, C.; Keller, L.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seryi, A.; Payet, J.; Napoly, O.; Rippon, C.; Uriot, D.; /DAPNIA, Saclay

    2006-07-12

    An interaction region (IR) with head-on collisions is considered as an alternative to the baseline configuration of the International Linear Collider (ILC) which includes two IRs with finite crossing-angles (2 and 20 mrad). Although more challenging for the beam extraction, the head-on scheme is favored by the experiments because it allows a more convenient detector configuration, particularly in the forward region. The optics of the head-on extraction is revisited by separating the e+ and e- beams horizontally, first by electrostatic separators operated at their LEP nominal field and then using a defocusing quadrupole of the final focus beam line. In this way the septum magnet is protected from the beamstrahlung power. Newly optimized final focus and extraction optics are presented, including a first look at post-collision diagnostics. The influence of parasitic collisions is shown to lead to a region of stable collision parameters. Disrupted beam and beamstrahlung photon losses are calculated along the extraction elements.

  13. Availability and Reliability Issues for ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Himel, T.; Nelson, J.; Phinney, N.; Ross, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-27

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will be the largest most complicated accelerator ever built. For this reason extensive work is being done early in the design phase to ensure that it will be reliable enough. This includes gathering failure mode data from existing accelerators and simulating the failures and repair times of the ILC. This simulation has been written in a general fashion using MATLAB and could be used for other accelerators. Results from the simulation tool have been used in making some of the major ILC design decisions and an unavailability budget has been developed.

  14. TESLA & ILC Cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T. J.; Weisend, II, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The TESLA collaboration developed a unique variant of SRF cryomodule designs, the chief feature being use of the large, low pressure helium vapor return pipe as the structural support backbone of the cryomodule. Additional innovative features include all cryogenic piping within the cryomodule (no parallel external cryogenic transfer line), long strings of RF cavities within a single cryomodule, and cryomodules connected in series. Several projects, including FLASH and XFEL at DESY, LCLS-II at SLAC, and the ILC technical design have adopted this general design concept. Advantages include saving space by eliminating the external transfer line, relatively tight packing of RF cavities along the beamline due to fewer warm-cold transitions, and potentially lower costs. However, a primary disadvantage is the relative lack of independence for warm-up, replacement, and cool-down of individual cryomodules.

  15. Design of the ILC Prototype FONT4 Digital Intra-Train Beam-Based Feedback System

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.; Christian, G.B.; Hartin, A.F.; Dabiri Khah, H.; White, G.R.; Clarke, C.C.; Perry, C.; Kalinin, A.; McCormick, D.J.; Molloy, S.; Ross, M.C.; /SLAC

    2007-04-16

    We present the design of the FONT4 digital intra-train beam position feedback system prototype and preliminary results of initial beam tests at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK. The feedback system incorporates a fast analogue beam position monitor (BPM) front-end signal processor, a digital feedback board, and a kicker driver amplifier. The short bunchtrain, comprising 3 electron bunches separated by c. 150ns, in the ATF extraction line was used to test components of the prototype feedback system.

  16. Executive Summary of the Workshop on Polarization and Beam Energy Measurements at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Aurand, B.; Bailey, I.; Bartels, C.; Blair, G.; Brachmann, A.; Clarke, J.; Deacon, L.; Duginov, V.; Ghalumyan, A.; Hartin, A.; Hauptman, J.; Helebrant, C.; Hesselbach, S.; Kafer, D.; List, J.; Lorenzon, W.; Lyapin, A.; Marchesini, I.; Melikian, R.; Monig, K.; Moeit, K.C.; /Bonn U. /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Royal Holloway, U. of London /SLAC /Daresbury /Dubna, JINR /Yerevan Phys. Inst /Oxford U., JAI /Iowa State U. /Durham U., IPPP /Michigan U. /University Coll. London /Novosibirsk, IYF /Minsk, Inst. Phys. /Oregon U.

    2008-07-25

    This note summarizes the results of the 'Workshop on Polarization and Beam Energy Measurements at the ILC', held at DESY (Zeuthen) April 9-11 2008. The topics for the workshop included (1) physics requirements, (2) polarized sources and low energy polarimetry, (3) BDS polarimeters, (4) BDS energy spectrometers, and (5) physics-based measurements of beam polarization and beam energy from collider data. Discussions focused on the current ILC baseline program as described in the Reference Design Report (RDR), which includes physics runs at beam energies between 100 and 250 GeV, as well as calibration runs on the Z-pole. Electron polarization of P{sub e{sup -}} {approx}> 80% and positron polarization of P{sub e{sup +}} {approx}> 30% are part of the baseline configuration of the machine. Energy and polarization measurements for ILC options beyond the baseline, including Z-pole running and the 1 TeV energy upgrade, were also discussed.

  17. Modular design for narrow scintillating cells with MRS photodiodes in strong magnetic field for ILC detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Dyshkant, A.; Rykalin, V.; Schellpffer, J.; Zutshi, V.

    2006-08-01

    The experimental results for the narrow scintillating elements with effective area about 20 cm 2 are reported. The elements were formed from the single piece of scintillator and were read out via wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers with the Metal/Resistor/Semiconductor (MRS) photodiodes on both ends of each fiber. The count rates were obtained using radioactive source 90Sr, with threshold at about three photoelectrons in each channel and quad coincidences (double coincidences between sensors on each fiber and double coincidences between two neighboring fibers). The formation of the cells from the piece of scintillator by using grooves is discussed, and their performances were tested using the radioactive source by measuring the photomutiplier current using the same WLS fiber. Because effective cell area can be readily enlarged or reduced, this module may be used as an active element for calorimeter or muon system for the design of the future electron-positron linear collider detector. Experimental verification of the performance of the MRS photodiode in a strong magnetic field of 9 T, and the impact a magnet quench at 9.5 T are reported. The measurement method used is described. The results confirm the expectations that the MRS photodiode is insensitive to a strong magnetic field and therefore applicable to calorimetry in the presence of magnetic field. The overall result is of high importance for large multi-channel systems.

  18. Gathering Design References from Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debs, Luciana; Kelley, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teaching design to middle and high school students can be challenging. One of the first procedures in teaching design is to help students gather information that will be useful in the design phase. An early stage of engineering design as described by Lewis (2005), calls for the designer to establish the state of the art of the problem. During this…

  19. Injection and Extraction Lines for the ILC Damping Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Reichel, Ina

    2007-06-20

    The current design for the injection and extraction linesintoand out of the ILC Damping Rings is presented as well as the designfor the abort line. Due to changes of the geometric boundary conditionsby other subsystems of the ILC, a modular approach has been used to beable to respond to recurring layout changes whilereusing previouslydesigned parts.

  20. ILC Beam delivery WG summary: Optics, collimation and background

    SciTech Connect

    Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jackson, F.; Mokhov, N.V.; Kuroda, S.; Seryi, A.A.; /SLAC

    2006-07-01

    The paper summarizes the work of the Beam Delivery working group (WG4) at Snowmass 2005 workshop, focusing on status of optics, layout, collimation and detector background. The strawman layout with two interaction regions was recommended at the first ILC workshop at KEK in November 2004. Two crossing-angle designs were included in this layout. The design of the ILC BDS has evolved since the first ILC workshop. The progress on the BDS design including the collimation system, and extraction line design have been reviewed and the design issues were discussed during the WG4 sessions at the Snowmass, and are described in this paper.

  1. Heat Deposition in Positron Sources for ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, V.; Pitthan, R.; Sheppard, J.; Vincke, H.; Wang, J.W.; /SLAC

    2006-03-15

    In the International Linear Collider (ILC) positron source, multi-GeV electrons or multi-MeV photons impinge on a metal target to produce the needed positrons in the resulting electromagnetic showers. The incoming beam power is hundreds of kilowatts. Various computer programs -- such as FLUKA or MARS -- can calculate how the incoming beam showers in the target and can track the particle showers through the positron source system. Most of the incoming energy ends up as heat in the various positron source elements. This paper presents results from such calculations and their impact on the design of a positron source for the ILC.

  2. The Polarized Electron Source for the International Collider (ILC) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brachmann, A.; Clendenin, J. E.; Garwin, E. L.; Ioakeimidi, K.; Kirby, R. E.; Maruyama, T.; Prescott, C. Y.; Sheppard, J.; Turner, J.; Zhou, F.

    2007-06-13

    The ILC project will be the next large high energy physics tool that will use polarized electrons (and positrons). For this machine spin physics will play an important role. The polarized electron source design is based on electron injectors built for the Stanford Linear Collider (polarized) and Tesla Test Facility (un-polarized). The ILC polarized electron source will provide a 5GeV spin polarized electron beam for injection into the ILC damping ring. Although most ILC machine parameters have been achieved by the SLC or TTF source, features of both must be integrated into one design. The bunch train structure presents unique challenges to the source laser drive system. A suitable laser system has not yet been demonstrated and is part of the ongoing R and D program for ILC at SLAC. Furthermore, ILC injector R and D incorporates photocathode development, increasing available polarization, and improving operational properties in gun vacuum systems. Another important area of research and development is advancing the design of DC and RF electron gun technology for polarized sources. This presentation presents the current status of the design and outlines aspects of the relevant R and D program carried out within the ILC community.

  3. The Polarized Electron Source for the International Collider (ILC) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brachmann, A.; Clendenin, J.E.; Garwin, E.L.; Ioakeimidi, K.; Kirby, R.e.; Maruyama, T.; Prescott, C.Y.; Sheppard, J.; Turner, J.; Zhou, F.; /SLAC

    2006-12-01

    ILC project will be the next large high energy physics tool that will use polarized electrons (and positrons). For this machine spin physics will play an important role. The polarized electron source design is based on electron injectors built for the Stanford Linear Collider (polarized) and Tesla Test Facility (un-polarized). The ILC polarized electron source will provide a 5GeV spin polarized electron beam for injection into the ILC damping ring. Although most ILC machine parameters have been achieved by the SLC or TTF source, features of both must be integrated into one design. The bunch train structure presents unique challenges to the source laser drive system. A suitable laser system has not yet been demonstrated and is part of the ongoing R&D program for ILC at SLAC. Furthermore, ILC injector R&D incorporates photocathode development, increasing available polarization, and improving operational properties in gun vacuum systems. Another important area of research and development is advancing the design of DC and RF electron gun technology for polarized sources. This presentation presents the current status of the design and outlines aspects of the relevant R&D program carried out within the ILC community.

  4. Power coupler for the ILC crab cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; Jenkins, R.; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.A.; Bellantoni, Leo; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The ILC crab cavity will require the design of an appropriate power coupler. The beam-loading in dipole mode cavities is considerably more variable than accelerating cavities, hence simulations have been performed to establish the required external Q. Simulations of a suitable coupler were then performed and were verified using a normal conducting prototype with variable coupler tips.

  5. Adaptive ILC algorithms of nonlinear continuous systems with non-parametric uncertainties for non-repetitive trajectory tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Lv, Mang-Mang; Ho, John K. L.

    2016-07-01

    In this article, two adaptive iterative learning control (ILC) algorithms are presented for nonlinear continuous systems with non-parametric uncertainties. Unlike general ILC techniques, the proposed adaptive ILC algorithms allow that both the initial error at each iteration and the reference trajectory are iteration-varying in the ILC process, and can achieve non-repetitive trajectory tracking beyond a small initial time interval. Compared to the neural network or fuzzy system-based adaptive ILC schemes and the classical ILC methods, in which the number of iterative variables is generally larger than or equal to the number of control inputs, the first adaptive ILC algorithm proposed in this paper uses just two iterative variables, while the second even uses a single iterative variable provided that some bound information on system dynamics is known. As a result, the memory space in real-time ILC implementations is greatly reduced.

  6. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abusleme, A.; Afanaciev, K.; Aguilar, J.; Ambalathankandy, P.; Bambade, P.; Bergholz, M.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Castro, E.; Chelkov, G.; Coca, C.; Daniluk, W.; Dragone, A.; Dumitru, L.; Elsener, K.; Emeliantchik, I.; Fiutowski, T.; Gostkin, M.; Grah, C.; Grzelak, G.; Haller, G.; Henschel, H.; Ignatenko, A.; Idzik, M.; Ito, K.; Jovin, T.; Kielar, E.; Kotula, J.; Krumstein, Z.; Kulis, S.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Levy, A.; Moszczynski, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Novgorodova, O.; Ohlerich, M.; Orlandea, M.; Oleinik, G.; Oliwa, K.; Olshevski, A.; Pandurovic, M.; Pawlik, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Sato, Y.; Sadeh, I.; Sailer, A.; Schmidt, R.; Schumm, B.; Schuwalow, S.; Smiljanic, I.; Swientek, K.; Takubo, Y.; Teodorescu, E.; Wierba, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Zawiejski, L.; Zhang, J.

    2010-12-01

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

  7. 20-MW Magnicon for ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2006-11-29

    The 1.3 GHz RF power to drive ILC is now planned to be supplied by 600-1200, 10-MW peak power multi-beam klystrons. In this project, a conceptual design for 1.3 GHz magnicons with 20 MW peak power was developed as an alternative to the klystrons, with the possibility of cutting in half the numbers of high-power tubes and associated components. Design of a conventional magnicon is described, using TM110 modes in all cavities, as well as design of a modified magnicon with a TE111 mode output cavity. The latter has the advantage of much lower surface fields than the TM110 mode, with no loss of output power or electronic efficiency.

  8. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  9. Beam Polarization at the ILC: the Physics Impact and the Accelerator Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Aurand, B.; Bailey, I.; Bartels, C.; Brachmann, A.; Clarke, J.; Hartin, A.; Hauptman, J.; Helebrant, C.; Hesselbach, S.; Kafer, D.; List, J.; Lorenzon, W.; Marchesini, I.; Monig, Klaus; Moffeit, K.C.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Riemann, S.; Schalicke, A.; Schuler, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Ushakov, A.; /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Bonn U. /SLAC

    2011-11-23

    In this contribution accelerator solutions for polarized beams and their impact on physics measurements are discussed. Focus are physics requirements for precision polarimetry near the interaction point and their realization with polarized sources. Based on the ILC baseline programme as described in the Reference Design Report (RDR), recent developments are discussed and evaluated taking into account physics runs at beam energies between 100 GeV and 250 GeV, as well as calibration runs on the Z-pole and options as the 1TeV upgrade and GigaZ. The studies, talks and discussions presented at this conference demonstrated that beam polarization and its measurement are crucial for the physics success of any future linear collider. To achieve the required precision it is absolutely decisive to employ multiple devices for testing and controlling the systematic uncertainties of each polarimeter. The polarimetry methods for the ILC are complementary: with the upstream polarimeter the measurements are performed in a clean environment, they are fast and allow to monitor time-dependent variations of polarization. The polarimeter downstream the IP will measure the disrupted beam resulting in high background and much lower statistics, but it allows access to the depolarization at the IP. Cross checks between the polarimeter results give redundancy and inter-calibration which is essential for high precision measurements. Current plans and issues for polarimeters and also energy spectrometers in the Beam Delivery System of the ILC are summarized in reference [28]. The ILC baseline design allows already from the beginning the operation with polarized electrons and polarized positrons provided the spin rotation and the fast helicity reversal for positrons will be implemented. A reversal of the positron helicity significantly slower than that of electrons is not recommended to not compromise the precision and hence the success of the ILC. Recently to use calibration data at the Z

  10. Direct space-charge effects on the ILC damping rings: Task ForceReport

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, Marco; Oide, Katsunobu

    2006-02-28

    In 2005 a global effort was initiated to conduct studies for a baseline recommendation for the various components of the International Linear Collider (ILC). Work for the damping rings was subdivided in a number of tasks. This Report contains the contribution to this effort by the Authors as Coordinators of the Task Force on space charge. (A slightly reduced version of this document can also be found as part of the ''Configuration Studies and Recommendations for the ILC Damping Rings'', Edts. A. Wolski, et al., LBNL-59449.) The studies documented in this Report were carried out for several of the reference lattices considered for the baseline recommendation. Space charge effects were found to be quite noticeable in the lattices with the longest circumference. Although it does not appear that they could prevent operation of any machine having such lattices they do favor a choice of a ring design with shorter ({approx}6km) circumference at 5 GeV.

  11. ILC Vertex Tracker R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, Marco; Bussat, Jean-Marie; Contarato, Devis; Denes,Peter; Glesener, Lindsay; Greiner, Leo; Hooberman, Benjamin; Shuman,Derek; Tompkins, Lauren; Vu, Chinh; Bisello, Dario; Giubilato, Piero; Pantano, Devis; Costa, Marco; La Rosa, Alessandro; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Children, Isaac

    2007-10-01

    This document summarizes past achievements, current activities and future goals of the R&D program aimed at the design, prototyping and characterization of a full detector module, equipped with monolithic pixel sensors, matching the requirements for the Vertex Tracker at the ILC. We provide a plan of activities to obtain a demonstrator multi-layered vertex tracker equipped with sensors matching the ILC requirements and realistic lightweight ladders in FY11, under the assumption that ILC detector proto-collaborations will be choosing technologies and designs for the Vertex Tracker by that time. The R&D program discussed here started at LBNL in 2004, supported by a Laboratory Directed R&D (LDRD) grant and by funding allocated from the core budget of the LBNL Physics Division and from the Department of Physics at UC Berkeley. Subsequently additional funding has been awarded under the NSF-DOE LCRD program and also personnel have become available through collaborative research with other groups. The aim of the R&D program carried out by our collaboration is to provide a well-integrated, inclusive research effort starting from physics requirements for the ILC Vertex Tracker and addressing Si sensor design and characterization, engineered ladder design, module system issues, tracking and vertex performances and beam test validation. The broad scope of this program is made possible by important synergies with existing know-how and concurrent programs both at LBNL and at the other collaborating institutions. In particular, significant overlaps with LHC detector design, SLHC R&D as well as prototyping for the STAR upgrade have been exploited to optimize the cost per deliverable of our program. This activity is carried out as a collaborative effort together with Accelerator and Fusion Research, the Engineering and the Nuclear Science Divisions at LBNL, INFN and the Department of Physics in Padova, Italy, INFN and the Department of Physics in Torino, Italy and the Department

  12. Automotive Stirling reference engine design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The reference Stirling engine system is described which provides the best possible fuel economy while meeting or exceeding all other program objectives. The system was designed to meet the requirements of a 1984 Pontiac Phoenix (X-body). This design utilizes all new technology that can reasonably be expected to be developed by 1984 and that is judged to provide significant improvement, relative to development risk and cost. Topics covered include: (1) external heat system; (2) hot engine system; (3) cold engine system; (4) engine drive system; (5) power control system and auxiliaries; (6) engine instalation; (7) optimization and vehicle simulation; (8) engine materials; and (9) production cost analysis.

  13. Vacuum systems for the ILC helical undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Malyshev, O. B.; Scott, D. J.; Bailey, I. R.; Barber, D. P.; Baynham, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Brummitt, A.; Carr, S.; Clarke, J. A.; Cooke, P.; Dainton, J. B.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Malysheva, L. I.; Moortgat-Pick, G. A.; Rochford, J.; Department of Physics, University of Liverpool Oxford St. Liverpool L69 7ZE; Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD

    2007-07-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) positron source uses a helical undulator to generate polarized photons of {approx}10 MeV at the first harmonic. Unlike many undulators used in synchrotron radiation sources, the ILC helical undulator vacuum chamber will be bombarded by photons, generated by the undulator, with energies mostly below that of the first harmonic. Achieving the vacuum specification of {approx}100 nTorr in a narrow chamber of 4-6 mm inner diameter, with a long length of 100-200 m, makes the design of the vacuum system challenging. This article describes the vacuum specifications and calculations of the flux and energy of photons irradiating the undulator vacuum chamber and considers possible vacuum system design solutions for two cases: cryogenic and room temperature.

  14. Vertical Arc for ILC Low Emittance Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, P.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2005-06-07

    The design and parameters of a vertical arc for the ILC Low Emittance Transport (LET) are reviewed. A 1 TeV CM ILC which relies upon 30 MV/m accelerating cavities with a packing fraction of 65% will require almost 48 km of main linac, which suggests that the total site length including BDS and bunch compressors will be on the order of 53 km. If built in a laser-straight tunnel with the low-energy ends near the surface, and assuming a perfectly spherical ''cue ball'' planetary surface with radius 6370 km, the collider halls will necessarily be 55 meters below grade, as shown in the top plot of Figure 1. Such depths would demand extensive use of deep tunneling, which would potentially drive up the cost and difficulty of ILC construction. An alternate solution is to use discrete vertical arcs at a few locations to allow a ''piecewise straight'' construction in which the depth of the tunnel below grade does not vary by more than a few meters. This approach is shown schematically in the bottom plot of Figure 1. In this Note we consider the issues for a design with one such vertical arc at the 250 GeV/c point (ie, midway down the linac for 1 TeV CM), and a second arc at the entrance to the BDS (ie, the entire BDS lies in one plane, with vertical arcs at each end).

  15. An Over-moded Fundamental Power Coupler for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Neilson

    2009-05-20

    The current design of fundamental power couplers for the ILC are expensive and require excessively long conditioning times. The goal of this develoment is design of a coupler that requires little rf processing and is significantly less expensive to build than the present ILC coupler. The goal of this program is development of a new technology for power couplers.This new technology is based on the cylindrical TE01 mode and other over-moded technologies developed for the X-band rf distribution system of the NCLTA. During the Phase I program, a TE10 to TE01 mode transducer suitable for use as a part of a power coupler in the ILC will be designed, built and tested. Following a succesful test, prototype designs of the TE01 to cavity coupler and thermal will be produced. A detailed study of the suitability of this overmoded waveguide technology for the ILC power coupler will be provided in the final report. Development of over-moded power couplers for superconducting cavities could find application im many world-wide accelerator projects, such as SNS, Jefferson Lab upgrade, RIA, TESLA in addition to the ILC.

  16. SPIROC: design and performances of a dedicated very front-end electronics for an ILC Analog Hadronic CALorimeter (AHCAL) prototype with SiPM read-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti Di Lorenzo, S.; Callier, S.; Fleury, J.; Dulucq, F.; De la Taille, C.; Chassard, G. Martin; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.

    2013-01-01

    For the future e+ e- International Linear Collider (ILC) the ASIC SPIROC (Silicon Photomultiplier Integrated Read-Out Chip) was designed to read out the Analog Hadronic Calorimeter (AHCAL) equipped with Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM). It is an evolution of the FLC_SiPM chip designed by the OMEGA group in 2005. SPIROC2 [1] was realized in AMS SiGe 0.35 μm technology [2] and developed to match the requirements of large dynamic range, low noise, low consumption, high precision and large number of read-out channels. This ASIC is a very front-end read-out chip that integrates 36 self triggered channels with variable gain to achieve charge and time measurements. The charge measurement must be performed from 1 up to 2000 photo-electrons (p.e.) corresponding to 160 fC up to 320 pC for SiPM gain 106. The time measurement is performed with a coarse 12-bit counter related to the bunch crossing clock (up to 5 MHz) and a fine time ramp based on this clock (down to 200 ns) to achieve a resolution of 1 ns. An analog memory array with a depth of 16 for each channel is used to store the time information and the charge measurement. The analog memory content (time and charge) is digitized thanks to an internal 12-bit Wilkinson ADC. The data is then stored in a 4kbytes RAM. A complex digital part is necessary to manage all these features and to transfer the data to the DAQ. SPIROC2 is the second generation of the SPIROC ASIC family designed in 2008 by the OMEGA group. A very similar version (SPIROC2c) was submitted in February 2012 to improve the noise performance and also to integrate a new TDC (Time to Digital Converter) structure. This paper describes SPIROC2 and SPIROC2c ASICs and illustrates the main characteristics thank to a series of measurements.

  17. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  18. Simulations of the Electron Cloud Builld Up and Instabilities for Various ILC Damping Ring Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, Mauro; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; Wang, Lanfa; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Wanzenberg, Rainer; Wolski, Andrzej; /Liverpool U. /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.

    2007-03-12

    In the beam pipe of the positron damping ring of the International Linear Collider (ILC), an electron cloud may be first produced by photoelectrons and ionization of residual gases and then increased by the secondary emission process. This paper reports the assessment of electron cloud effects in a number of configuration options for the ILC baseline configuration. Careful estimates were made of the secondary electron yield (sometimes in the literature also referred as secondary emission yield SEY or {delta}, with a peak value {delta}{sub max}) threshold for electron cloud build-up, and the related single- and coupled-bunch instabilities, as a function of beam current and surface properties for a variety of optics designs. When the configuration for the ILC damping rings was chosen at the end of 2005, the results from these studies were important considerations. On the basis of the joint theoretical and experimental work, the baseline configuration currently specifies a pair of 6 km damping rings for the positron beam, to mitigate the effects of the electron cloud that could present difficulties in a single 6 km ring. However, since mitigation techniques are now estimated to be sufficiently mature, a reduced single 6-km circumference is presently under consideration so as to reduce costs.

  19. EBT-P proposed reference design report

    SciTech Connect

    Boch, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the proposed reference design for the EBT-P proof-of-principle test device. The device described is a result of broad studies by many participating organizations from industry and from Department of Energy-sponsored fusion research groups, some working together and some in competitive studies, but all with the goal of defining a device at minimum cost and with maximum probability of meeting its goals. This design work is based upon advances in experimental and theoretical understanding of EBT achieved at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The strategy adopted permits an initial test and validation of the key scaling properties of the ELMO Bumpy Torus concept, with a degree of built-in flexibility to extend the performance parameters toward the condition for containing a fusion reactor plasma. This will lead the way, then, to determination of a later power break-even demonstration and an eventual fusion reactor that can exploit the special high power-density and steady-state properties of the EBT concept.

  20. Magnet reliability in the Fermilab Main Injector and implications for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Tartaglia, M.A.; Blowers, J.; Capista, D.; Harding, D.J.; Kiemschies, O.; Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh, S.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2007-08-01

    The International Linear Collider reference design requires over 13000 magnets, of approximately 135 styles, which must operate with very high reliability. The Fermilab Main Injector represents a modern machine with many conventional magnet styles, each of significant quantity, that has now accumulated many hundreds of magnet-years of operation. We review here the performance of the magnets built for this machine, assess their reliability and categorize the failure modes, and discuss implications for reliability of similar magnet styles expected to be used at the ILC.

  1. Precision Measurements at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.K.; /SLAC

    2006-12-06

    With relatively low backgrounds and a well-determined initial state, the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) would provide a precision complement to the LHC experiments at the energy frontier. Completely and precisely exploring the discoveries of the LHC with such a machine will be critical in understanding the nature of those discoveries and what, if any, new physics they represent. The unique ability to form a complete picture of the Higgs sector is a prime example of the probative power of the ILC and represents a new era in precision physics.

  2. Present Status of the ILC Project and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.; Walker, N.; Yamamoto, A.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-09-01

    The Technical Design of the International Linear Collider (ILC) Project will be finished in late 2012. The Technical Design Report (TDR) will include a description of the updated design, with a cost estimate and a project plan, and the results of research and development (R & D) done in support of the ILC. Results from directed ILC R & D are used to reduce the cost and risk associated with the ILC design. We present a summary of key challenges and show how the global R & D effort has addressed them. The most important activity has been in pursuit of very high gradient superconducting RF linac technology. There has been excellent progress toward the goal of practical industrial production of niobium sheet-metal cavities with gradient performance in excess of 35 MV/m. In addition, three purpose-built beam test facilities have been constructed and used to study and demonstrate high current linac performance, electron-cloud beam dynamics and precision beam control. The report also includes a summary of component design studies and conventional facilities cost optimization design studies.

  3. H∞ approach to monotonically convergent ILC for uncertain time-varying delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Deyuan; Jia, Yingmin; Du, Junping

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with iterative learning control (ILC) design for uncertain time-delay systems. Monotonic convergence of the resulting ILC process is studied, and a sufficient condition within an H∞-based framework is developed. It is shown that under this framework, delay-dependent conditions can be obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), together with formulas for gain matrices design. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the robust H∞-based approach to ILC designed via LMIs.

  4. Connecting LHC, ILC, and quintessence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Everett, Lisa L.; Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.

    2007-10-01

    If the cold dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), anticipated measurements of the WIMP properties at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the International Linear Collider (ILC) will provide an unprecedented experimental probe of cosmology at temperatures of order 1 GeV. It is worth emphasizing that the expected outcome of these tests may or may not be consistent with the picture of standard cosmology. For example, in kination-dominated quintessence models of dark energy, the dark matter relic abundance can be significantly enhanced compared to that obtained from freeze out in a radiation-dominated universe. Collider measurements then will simultaneously probe both dark matter and dark energy. In this article, we investigate the precision to which the LHC and ILC can determine the dark matter and dark energy parameters under those circumstances. We use an illustrative set of four benchmark points in minimal supergravity in analogy with the four LCC benchmark points. The precision achievable together at the LHC and ILC is sufficient to discover kination-dominated quintessence, under the assumption that the WIMPs are the only dark matter component. The LHC and ILC can thus play important roles as alternative probes of both dark matter and dark energy.

  5. ILC: Thoughts, Issues and R&D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, R.

    The ILC is intended to perform precise measurements of new particles produced with the low cross sections characteristic of high energy e+ e- collisions. Figure 1 shows cross sections and event yields for a 500-1 f b data sample for various established and hypothetical processes. Cross sections are low, typical event yields for supersymmetric particles are a few thousand per channel. The angular distributions due to s-channel spin 1 exchange are forward peaked, putting a premium on good coverage of the forward direction. Although the range of new physics to be studied at the ILC is not yet clear, there are a few flagship measurements which can drive detector design. One example is the set of measurements of Higgs couplings to quarks and bosons. These measurements, which will span more than two orders of magnitude in mass and coupling strength, require excellent separation of b, c, and light quark vertices. A related measurement is the self-coupling of the Higgs. Here the signal reaction, e+ e- - Z 0 H 0 H 0 - qqbbbb with four b-jets must be separated from backgrounds like tt - bbcscs, ZZZ, and ZZH. This physics requires efficient B tagging and excellent b/c separation in complex events. Different constraints on the vertex detector come from measurements like heavy quark forward-backward asymmetry. Here the emphasis is on forward tracking with flavor tagging and determination of the charge of the parent b quark. Whether the ultimate focus is on Higgs, supersymmetry, or other new physics phenomena, it is likely that precise measurements of heavy quark jets and their decay vertices will play a crucial role [1] in ILC physics.

  6. ILC Marx Modulator Development Program Status

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, C.; Beukers, T.; Larsen, R.; Macken, K.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2009-03-04

    Development of a first generation prototype (P1) Marx-topology klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider is nearing completion at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is envisioned as a smaller, lower cost, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, 'Baseline Conceptual Design'. The Marx presents several advantages over conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at ILC parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. The P1-Marx employs all solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the cells. A general overview of the modulator design and the program status are presented.

  7. Simulation of the ILC Collimation System using BDSIM, MARS15 and STRUCT

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.; Agapov, I.; Blair, G.A.; Deacon, L.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Mokhov, N.V.; Nosochkov, Y.M.; Seryi, A.A.; /SLAC

    2006-07-12

    The simulation codes BDSIM, MARS15 and STRUCT are used to simulate in detail the collimation section of the International Linear Collider (ILC). A comparative study of the collimation system performance for the 250 x 250 GeV machine is conducted, and the key radiation loads are calculated. Results for the latest ILC designs are presented together with their implications for future design iterations.

  8. Bilinear parity violation at the ILC: neutrino physics at colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vormwald, Benedikt; List, Jenny

    2014-02-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) with bilinearly broken parity (bRPV) offers an attractive possibility to explain the origin of neutrino masses and mixings. In such scenarios, the study of neutralino decays at colliders gives access to neutrino sector parameters. The ILC offers a very clean environment to study the neutralino properties as well as its subsequent decays, which typically involve a or boson and a lepton. This study is based on ILC beam parameters according to the Technical Design Report for a center of mass energy of . A full detector simulation of the International Large Detector (ILD) has been performed for all Standard Model backgrounds and for neutralino pair production within a simplified model. The bRPV parameters are fixed according to current neutrino data. In this scenario, the mass can be reconstructed with an uncertainty of for an integrated luminosity of from direct pair production, thus, to a large extent independently of the rest of the SUSY spectrum. The achievable precision on the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle from measuring the neutralino branching fractions BR() and BR() at the ILC is in the same range than current uncertainties from neutrino experiments. Thus, the ILC could have the opportunity to unveil the mechanism of neutrino mass generation.

  9. Richards Barrier LA Reference Design Feature Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Kramer

    1999-11-17

    The Richards Barrier is one of the design features of the repository to be considered for the License Application (LA), Richards was a soil scientist who first described the diversion of moisture between two materials with different hydrologic properties. In this report, a Richards Barrier is a special type of backfill with a fine-grained material (such as sand) overlaying a coarse-grained material (such as gravel). Water that enters an emplacement drift will first encounter the fine-grained material and be transported around the coarse-grained material covering the waste package, thus protecting the waste package from contact with most of the groundwater. The objective of this report is to discuss the benefits and liabilities to the repository by the inclusion of a Richards Barrier type backfill in emplacement drifts. The Richards Barrier can act as a barrier to water flow, can reduce the waste package material dissolution rate, limit mobilization of the radionuclides, and can provide structural protection for the waste package. The scope of this report is to: (1) Analyze the behavior of barrier materials following the intrusion of groundwater for influxes of 1 to 300 mm per year. The report will demonstrate diversion of groundwater intrusions into the barrier over an extended time period when seismic activity and consolidation may cause the potential for liquefaction and settlement of the Richards Barrier. (2) Review the thermal effects of the Richards Barrier on material behavior. (3) Analyze the effect of rockfall on the performance of the Richards Barrier and the depth of the barrier required to protect waste packages under the barrier. (4) Review radiological and heating conditions on placement of multiple layers of the barrier. Subsurface Nuclear Safety personnel will perform calculations to determine the radiation reduction-time relationship and shielding capacity of the barrier. (5) Evaluate the effects of ventilation on cooling of emplacement drifts and

  10. ILC RF System R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC

    2012-07-03

    The Linac Group at SLAC is actively pursuing a broad range of R&D to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of the L-band (1.3 GHz) rf system proposed for the ILC linacs. Current activities include the long-term evaluation of a 120 kV Marx Modulator driving a 10 MW Multi-Beam Klystron, design of a second-generation Marx Modulator, testing of a sheet-beam gun and beam transport system for a klystron, construction of an rf distribution system with remotely-adjustable power tapoffs, and development of a system to combine the power from many klystrons in low-loss circular waveguide where it would be tapped-off periodically to power groups of cavities. This paper surveys progress during the past few years.

  11. High Availability Instrumentation Packaging Standards for the ILC and Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, R.W.; Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-11-30

    ILC designers are exploring new packaging standards for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation, particularly high-speed serial interconnect systems for intelligent instruments versus the existing parallel backplanes of VME, VXI and CAMAC. The High Availability Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) system is a new industrial open standard designed to withstand single-point hardware or software failures. The standard crate, controller, applications module and sub-modules are being investigated. All modules and sub-modules are hot-swappable. A single crate is designed for a data throughput in communications applications of 2 Tb/s and an Availability of 0.99999, which translates into a downtime of five minutes per year. The ILC is planning to develop HA architectures for controls, beam instrumentation and detector systems.

  12. The ILC Marx Modulator Development Program at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Leyh, G.E.; /SLAC

    2005-06-07

    The International Linear Collider [ILC] baseline design requires 576 L-band klystron stations, each supplying 10MW peak RF power to the accelerating structures. Each klystron requires a modulator capable of delivering 120kV, 140A 1.6ms pulses, at 5Hz. Solid-state Marx modulator topologies are rapidly becoming feasible with the advent of PC-board-level 4500V IGBTs, fast single junction HV diodes, high density capacitors, and sophisticated modeling software. Making full use of recent technology advances, the ILC Marx Modulator program at SLAC plans to pursue a 120kV solid-state Marx design, which appears to offer significantly higher efficiency, availability, and cost savings than existing modulator options.

  13. Prototyping of the ILC Baseline Positron Target

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J; Brooksby, C; Piggott, T; Abbott, R; Javedani, J; Cook, E

    2012-02-29

    The ILC positron system uses novel helical undulators to create a powerful photon beam from the main electron beam. This beam is passed through a titanium target to convert it into electron-positron pairs. The target is constructed as a 1 m diameter wheel spinning at 2000 RPM to smear the 1 ms ILC pulse train over 10 cm. A pulsed flux concentrating magnet is used to increase the positron capture efficiency. It is cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures to maximize the flatness of the magnetic field over the 1 ms ILC pulse train. We report on prototyping effort on this system.

  14. Waste package reference conceptual designs for a repository in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    This report provides the reference conceptual waste package designs for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to baseline these designs, thereby establishing the configuration and interface controls necessary, within the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, formerly the National Waste Terminal Storage Program, to proceed in an orderly manner with preliminary design. Included are designs for the current reference defense high-level waste form from the Savannah River Plant, an optimized commercial high-level waste form, and spent fuel which has been disassembled and compacted into a circular bundle containing either 12 pressurized-water reactor or 30 boiling-water reactor assemblies. For compacted spent fuel, it appears economically attractive to standardize the waste package diameter for all fuel types. The reference waste packages consist of the containerized waste form, a low carbon steel overpack, and, after emplacement, a cover of salt. The overpack is a hollow cylinder with a flat head welded to each end. Its design thickness is the sum of the structural thickness required to resist the 15.4-MPa lithostatic pressure plus the corrosion allowance necessary to assure the required structural thickness will exist through the 1000-year containment period. Based on available data and completed analyses, the reference concepts described in this report satisfy all requirements of the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with reasonable assurance. In addition, sufficient design maturity exists to form a basis for preliminary design; these concepts can be brought under configuration control to serve as reference package designs. Development programs are identified that will be required to support these designs during the licensing process. 19 refs., 37 figs., 31 tabs.

  15. Design Reference Missions for Deep-Space Optical Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidenthal, J.; Abraham, D.

    2016-05-01

    We examined the potential, but uncertain, NASA mission portfolio out to a time horizon of 20 years, to identify mission concepts that potentially could benefit from optical communication, considering their communications needs, the environments in which they would operate, and their notional size, weight, and power constraints. A set of 12 design reference missions was selected to represent the full range of potential missions. These design reference missions span the space of potential customer requirements, and encompass the wide range of applications that an optical ground segment might eventually be called upon to serve. The design reference missions encompass a range of orbit types, terminal sizes, and positions in the solar system that reveal the chief system performance variables of an optical ground segment, and may be used to enable assessments of the ability of alternative systems to meet various types of customer needs.

  16. P1-Marx Modulator for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Kemp, M.; Larsen, R.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    A first generation prototype, P1, Marx-topology klystron modulator has been developed at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for the International Linear Collider (ILC) project. It is envisioned as a lower cost, smaller footprint, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, baseline design. The application requires 120 kV (+/-0.5%), 140 A, 1.6 ms pulses at a rate of 5 Hz. The Marx constructs the high voltage pulse by combining, in series, a number of lower voltage cells. The Marx employs solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the cells. Active compensation of the output is used to achieve the voltage regulation while minimizing the stored energy. The P1-Marx has been integrated into a test stand with a 10 MW L-band klystron, where each is undergoing life testing. A review of the P1-Marx design and its operational history in the L-band test stand are presented.

  17. Development Status of The ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    The ILC Marx Modulator is under development as a lower cost alternative to the 'Baseline Conceptual Design' (BCD) klystron modulator. Construction of a prototype Marx is complete and testing is underway at SLAC. The Marx employs solid state elements, IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the modules. The prototype is based on a stack of sixteen modules, each initially charged to {approx}11 kV, which are arranged in a Marx topology. Initially, eleven modules combine to produce the 120 kV output pulse. The remaining modules are switched in after appropriate delays to compensate for the voltage droop that results from the discharge of the energy storage capacitors. Additional elements will further regulate the output voltage to {+-}0.5%. The Marx presents several advantages over the conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at these parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. This paper outlines the current developmental status of the prototype Marx. It presents a detailed electrical and mechanical description of the modulator and operational test results. It will discuss electrical efficiency measurements, fault testing, and output voltage regulation.

  18. Development Status of the ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2008-06-16

    The ILC Marx Modulator is under development as a lower cost alternative to the 'Baseline Conceptual Design' (BCD) klystron modulator. Construction of a prototype Marx is complete and testing is underway at SLAC. The Marx employs solid state elements, IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the modules. The prototype is based on a stack of sixteen modules, each initially charged to {approx}11 kV, which are arranged in a Marx topology. Initially, eleven modules combine to produce the 120 kV output pulse. The remaining modules are switched in after appropriate delays to compensate for the voltage droop that results from the discharge of the energy storage capacitors. Additional elements will further regulate the output voltage to {+-} 0.5%. The Marx presents several advantages over the conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at these parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. This paper outlines the current developmental status of the prototype Marx. It presents a detailed electrical and mechanical description of the modulator and operational test results. It will discuss electrical efficiency measurements, fault testing, and output voltage regulation.

  19. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA 5.0), which is the latest in a series of NASA Mars reference missions. It provides a vision of one potential approach to human Mars exploration. The reference architecture provides a common framework for future planning of systems concepts, technology development, and operational testing as well as Mars robotic missions, research that is conducted on the International Space Station, and future lunar exploration missions. This summary the Mars DRA 5.0 provides an overview of the overall mission approach, surface strategy and exploration goals, as well as the key systems and challenges for the first three human missions to Mars.

  20. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Hoffman, Stephen J.; Beaty, David W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the 2007 Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA 5.0), which is the latest in a series of NASA Mars reference missions. It provides a vision of one potential approach to human Mars exploration including how Constellation systems can be used. The reference architecture provides a common framework for future planning of systems concepts, technology development, and operational testing as well as Mars robotic missions, research that is conducted on the International Space Station, and future lunar exploration missions. This summary the Mars DRA 5.0 provides an overview of the overall mission approach, surface strategy and exploration goals, as well as the key systems and challenges for the first three human missions to Mars.

  1. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Reference Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Rioux, Norman; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  2. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  3. ILC MARX MODULATOR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM STATUS

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, Craig; Benwell, Andrew; Beukers, Tony; Kemp, Mark; Larsen, Raymond; MacNair, David; Nguyen, Minh; Olsen, Jeff; Tang, Tao; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A Marx-topology klystron modulator is under development for the International Linear Collider (ILC) project. It is envisioned as a lower cost, smaller footprint, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, baseline design. The application requires 120 kV (+/-0.5%), 140 A, 1.6 ms pulses at a rate of 5 Hz. The Marx constructs the high voltage pulse by combining, in series, a number of lower voltage cells. The Marx employs solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and disolation of the cells. Active compensation of the output is used to achieve the voltage regulation while minimizing the stored energy. The developmental testing of a first generation prototype, P1, has been completed. This modulator has been integrated into a test stand with a 10 MW L-band klystron, where each is undergoing life testing. Development of a second generation prototype, P2, is underway. The P2 is based on the P1 topology but incorporates an alternative cell configuration to increase redundancy and improve availability. Status updates for both prototypes are presented.

  4. Thermal Analysis of the ILC Superconductin Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Ian; /Rose-Hulman Inst., Terre Haute /SLAC

    2006-09-13

    Critical to a particle accelerator's functioning, superconducting magnets serve to focus and aim the particle beam. The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has received a prototype superconducting quadrupole designed and built by the Centro de Investigaciones Energ{acute e}ticas, Medioambientales y Tecnol{acute o}gicas (CIEMAT) to be evaluated for the International Linear Collider (ILC) project. To ensure proper functioning of the magnet, the device must be maintained at cryogenic temperatures by use of a cooling system containing liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. The cool down period of a low temperature cryostat is critical to the success of an experiment, especially a prototype setup such as this one. The magnet and the dewar each contain unique heat leaks and material properties. These differences can lead to tremendous thermal stresses. The system was analyzed mathematically, leading to ideal liquid helium and liquid nitrogen flow rates during the magnet's cool-down to 4.2 K, along with a reasonable estimate of how long this cool-down will take. With a flow rate of ten gaseous liters of liquid nitrogen per minute, the nitrogen shield will take approximately five hours to cool down to 77 K. With a gaseous helium flow rate of sixty liters per minute, the magnet will take at least nineteen hours to cool down to a temperature of 4.2 K.

  5. Mooring Design for the Floating Oscillating Water Column Reference Model

    SciTech Connect

    Brefort, Dorian; Bull, Diana L.

    2014-09-01

    To reduce the price of the reference Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB), a study was done analyzing the effects of reducing the mooring line length, and a new mooring design was developed. It was found that the overall length of the mooring lines could be reduced by 1290 meters, allowing a significant price reduction of the system. In this paper, we will first give a description of the model and the storm environment it will be subject to. We will then give a recommendation for the new mooring system, followed by a discussion of the severe weather simulation results, and an analysis of the conservative and aggressive aspects of the design.

  6. Advanced neutron source final preconceptual reference core design

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, G.L.; Gambill, W.R.; Harrington, R.M.; Johnson, J.A.; Peretz, F.J.; Reutler, H.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Selby, D.L.; West, C.D.; Yoder, G.L.

    1989-08-01

    The preconceptual design phase of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project ended with the selection of a reference reactor core that will be used to begin conceptual design work. The new reference core consists of two involute fuel elements, of different diameters, aligned axially with a small axial gap between them. The use of different element diameters permits a separate flow of coolant to be provided for each one, thus enhancing the heat removal capability and increasing the thermal-hydraulic margins. The improved cooling allows the elements to be relatively long and thin, so self-shielding is reduced and an acceptable core life can be achieved with a relatively small loading of highly enriched uranium silicide fuel clad in aluminium. The new reference design has a fueled volume 67.4 L, each element having a heated length of 474 mm and a radial fuel thickness of 66 mm. The end-of-cycle peak thermal flux in the large heavy-water reflector tank around the core is estimated to be in the range of 0.8 to 1.0 /times/ 10/sup 20/ m/sup /minus/2/ /center dot/ s/sup /minus/1/. 7 refs., 23 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Reference Model 2: %22Rev 0%22 Rotor Design.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew F.; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Griffith, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    The preliminary design for a three-bladed cross-flow rotor for a reference marine hydrokinetic turbine is presented. A rotor performance design code is described, along with modifications to the code to allow prediction of blade support strut drag as well as interference between two counter-rotating rotors. The rotor is designed to operate in a reference site corresponding to a riverine environment. Basic rotor performance and rigid-body loads calculations are performed to size the rotor elements and select the operating speed range. The preliminary design is verified with a simple finite element model that provides estimates of bending stresses during operation. A concept for joining the blades and support struts is developed and analyzed with a separate finite element analysis. Rotor mass, production costs, and annual energy capture are estimated in order to allow calculations of system cost-of-energy. Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd

  8. Muon ID at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Milstene, C.; Fisk, G.; Para, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes a new way to reconstruct and identify muons with high efficiency and high pion rejection. Since muons at the ILC are often produced with or in jets, for many of the physics channels of interest [1], an efficient algorithm to deal with the identification and separation of particles within jets is important. The algorithm at the core of the method accounts for the effects of the magnetic field and for the loss of energy by charged particles due to ionization in the detector. We have chosen to develop the analysis within the setup of one of the Linear Collider Concept Detectors adopted by the US. Within b-pair production jets, particles cover a wide range in momenta; however {approx}80% of the particles have a momentum below 30 GeV[2]. Our study, focused on bbar-b jets, is preceded by a careful analysis of single energy particles between 2 and 50 GeV. As medium energy particles are a substantial component of the jets, many of the particles lose part of their energy in the calorimeters and the solenoid coil before reaching the muon detector where they may have energy below 2 GeV. To deal with this problem we have implemented a Runge-Kutta correction of the calculated trajectory to better handle these lower energy particles. The multiple scattering and other stochastic processes, more important at lower energy, is addressed by a Kalman-filter integrated into the reconstruction algorithm. The algorithm provides a unique and powerful separation of muons from pions. The 5 Tesla magnetic field from a solenoid surrounds the hadron calorimeter and allows the reconstruction and precision.

  9. HOM/LOM Coupler Study for the ILC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, L.; Li, Z.; Ko, K.; /SLAC

    2007-04-16

    The FNAL 9-cell 3.9GHz deflecting mode cavity designed for the CKM experiment was chosen as the baseline design for the ILC BDS crab cavity. The full 9-cell CKM cavity including the coupler end-groups was simulated using the parallel eigensolver Omega3P and scattering parameter solver S3P. It was found that both the notch filters for the HOM/LOM couplers are very sensitive to the notch gap, which is about 1.6MHz/micron and is more than 10 times more sensitive than the TTF cavity. It was also found in the simulation that the unwanted vertical {pi}-mode (SOM) is strongly coupled to the horizontal 7{pi}/9 mode which causes x-y coupling and reduces the effectiveness of the SOM damping. To meet the ILC requirements, the HOM/LOM couplers are redesigned to address these issues. With the new designs, the damping of the HOM/LOM modes is improved. The sensitivity of the notch filter for the HOM coupler is reduced by one order of magnitude. The notch filter for the LOM coupler is eliminated in the new design which significantly simplifies the geometry. In this paper, we will present the simulation results of the original CKM cavity and the progresses on the HOM/LOM coupler re-design and optimization.

  10. The Superconducting Magnets of the ILC Beam Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; He, P.; Jain, A.; Marone, A.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2007-09-28

    The ILC Beam Delivery System (BDS) uses a variety of superconducting magnets to maximize luminosity and minimize background. Compact final focus quadrupoles with multifunction correction coils focus incoming beams to few nanometer spot sizes while focusing outgoing disrupted beams into a separate extraction beam line. Anti-solenoids mitigate effects from overlapping focusing and the detector solenoid field. Far from the interaction point (IP) strong octupoles help minimize IP backgrounds. A low-field but very large aperture dipole is integrated with the detector solenoid to reduce backgrounds from beamstrahlung pairs generated at the IP. Physics requirements and magnetic design solutions for the BDS superconducting magnets are reviewed in this paper.

  11. Tracking Studies to Determine the Required Wiggler Aperture forthe ILC Damping Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Reichel, I.; Wolski, A.

    2006-06-21

    The injection efficiency of an ILC damping ring is closely tied to its acceptance. To maximize both, one wants a physical aperture as large as possible in the wiggler magnets, as these are likely to be the limiting physical apertures in the ring. On the other hand, a small aperture in the wiggler magnets is needed to achieve the required field profile, a high magnetic field that is very linear over the whole physical aperture of the magnet. Tracking studies were done for all proposed ILC damping ring lattices to determine their required physical apertures. Although a half-aperture of 8 or 10mm had been proposed, our studies showed that, for most lattices, a 16mm half-aperture is required. For some lattices a 12mm half aperture might suffice. We present here the results of our studies, which led to adopting a 16mm half-aperture in the current ILC damping ring baseline design.

  12. Effects of Magnet Errors in the ILC 14 mrad Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Toprek, Dragan; Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC

    2009-05-08

    The ILC baseline extraction line is designed for 14 mrad horizontal crossing angle between e{sup +} and e{sup -} colliding beams at Interaction Point (IP). The extraction optics in the Interaction Region (IR) includes a detector integrated dipole field (anti-DID) to reduce orbit perturbation caused by the detector solenoid and minimize detector background. This paper presents a study of random field and alignment errors in the extraction magnets, compensation of the induced orbit perturbation, and effects of errors on extraction beam power loss. The results are obtained for the baseline ILC energy of 500 GeV center-of-mass and three options of beam parameters.

  13. Report of the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory convened the ILC Citizens' Task Force to provide guidance and advice to the laboratory to ensure that community concerns and ideas are included in all public aspects of planning and design for a proposed future accelerator, the International Linear Collider. In this report, the members of the Task Force describe the process they used to gather and analyze information on all aspects of the proposed accelerator and its potential location at Fermilab in northern Illinois. They present the conclusions and recommendations they reached as a result of the learning process and their subsequent discussions and deliberations. While the Task Force was charged to provide guidance on the ILC, it became clear during the process that the high cost of the proposed accelerator made a near-term start for the project at Fermilab unlikely. Nevertheless, based on a year of extensive learning and dialogue, the Task Force developed a series of recommendations for Fermilab to consider as the laboratory develops all successor projects to the Tevatron. The Task Force recognizes that bringing a next-generation particle physics project to Fermilab will require both a large international effort and the support of the local community. While the Task Force developed its recommendations in response to the parameters of a future ILC, the principles they set forth apply directly to any large project that may be conceived at Fermilab, or at other laboratories, in the future. With this report, the Task Force fulfills its task of guiding Fermilab from the perspective of the local community on how to move forward with a large-scale project while building positive relationships with surrounding communities. The report summarizes the benefits, concerns and potential impacts of bringing a large-scale scientific project to northern Illinois.

  14. Reference Design for a Simple, Durable and Refuelable Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, B. S.; Tolley, A. M.

    This article describes a reference design for interplanetary vessels, composed mostly of water, that utilize simplified RF engines for low thrust, long duration propulsion, and hydrogen peroxide for short duration, high thrust burns. The electrothermal engines are designed to heat a wide range of liquid materials, possibly also milled solids or surface dusts. The system emphasizes simple components and processes based on older technologies, many well known since the 1960s, that are understandable, can process a variety of materials, and are easily serviced in flight. The goal is to radically simplify systems and their inter-dependencies, to a point where a reasonably skilled person can learn to operate these vessels, not unlike a sailboat, and to eliminate many design and testing bottlenecks in their construction. The use of water, or hydrogen peroxide generated in situ from that water, is multiply advantageous because it can be used for structure, consumption, irrigation, radiation and debris shielding, and thermal regulation, and thus greatly reduce dead weight by creating an almost fully consumable ship. This also enables the ship to utilize a wide range of in situ materials, and eventually obtain reaction mass from lower gravity sites. The ability to switch between low thrust, constant power and high thrust, short duration maneuvers will enable these ships to travel freely and reach many interesting destinations throughout the solar system. One can think of them as “spacecoaches”, not unlike the prairie schooners of the Old West, which were rugged, serviceable by tradesmen, and easily maintained.

  15. Radioisotope Power Systems Reference Book for Mission Designers and Planners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young; Bairstow, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The RPS Program's Program Planning and Assessment (PPA) Office commissioned the Mission Analysis team to develop the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Reference Book for Mission Planners and Designers to define a baseline of RPS technology capabilities with specific emphasis on performance parameters and technology readiness. The main objective of this book is to provide RPS technology information that could be utilized by future mission concept studies and concurrent engineering practices. A progress summary from the major branches of RPS technology research provides mission analysis teams with a vital tool for assessing the RPS trade space, and provides concurrent engineering centers with a consistent set of guidelines for RPS performance characteristics. This book will be iterated when substantial new information becomes available to ensure continued relevance, serving as one of the cornerstone products of the RPS PPA Office. This book updates the original 2011 internal document, using data from the relevant publicly released RPS technology references and consultations with RPS technologists. Each performance parameter and RPS product subsection has been reviewed and cleared by at least one subject matter representative. A virtual workshop was held to reach consensus on the scope and contents of the book, and the definitions and assumptions that should be used. The subject matter experts then reviewed and updated the appropriate sections of the book. The RPS Mission Analysis Team then performed further updates and crosschecked the book for consistency. Finally, a second virtual workshop was held to ensure all subject matter experts and stakeholders concurred on the contents.

  16. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2009-01-01

    This document reviews the Design Reference Architecture (DRA) for human exploration of Mars. The DRA represents the current best strategy for human missions. The DRA is not a formal plan, but provides a vision and context to tie current systems and technology developments to potential missions to Mars, and it also serves as a benchmark against which alternative architectures can be measured. The document also reviews the objectives and products of the 2007 study that was to update NASA's human Mars mission reference architecture, assess strategic linkages between lunar and Mars strategies, develop an understanding of methods for reducing cost/risk of human missions through investment in research, technology development and synergy with other exploration plans. There is also a review of the process by which the DRA will continue to be refined. The unique capacities of human exploration is reviewed. The possible goals and objectives of the first three human missions are presented, along with the recommendation that the mission involve a long stay visiting multiple sites.The deployment strategy is outlined and diagrammed including the pre-deployment of the many of the material requirements, and a six crew travel to Mars on a six month trajectory. The predeployment and the Orion crew vehicle are shown. The ground operations requirements are also explained. Also the use of resources found on the surface of Mars is postulated. The Mars surface exploration strategy is reviewed, including the planetary protection processes that are planned. Finally a listing of the key decisions and tenets is posed.

  17. Coaxial Coupling Scheme for TESLA/ILC-type Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Sekutowicz, P. Kneisel

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports about our efforts to develop a flangeable coaxial coupler for both HOM and fundamental coupling for 9-cell TESLA/ILC-type cavities. The cavities were designed in early 90‘s for pulsed operation with a low duty factor, less than 1 %. The proposed design of the coupler has been done in a way, that the magnetic flux B at the flange connection is minimized and only a field of <5 mT would be present at the accelerating field Eacc of ~ 36 MV/m (B =150 mT in the cavity). Even though we achieved reasonably high Q-values at low field, the cavity/coupler combination was limited in the cw mode to only ~ 7 MV/m, where a thermally initiated degradation occurred. We have improved the cooling conditions by initially drilling radial channels every 30 degrees, then every 15 degrees into the shorting plate. The modified prototype performed well up to 9 MV/m in cw mode. This paper reports about our experiences with the further modified coaxial coupler and about test results in cw and low duty cycle pulsed mode, similar to the TESLA/ILC operation conditions.

  18. Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 Study: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 Study seeks to update its long term goals and objective for human exploration missions; flight and surface systems for human missions and supporting infrastructure; operational concept for human and robotic exploration of Mars; key challenges including risk and cost drivers; and, its development schedule options. It additionally seeks to assess strategic linkages between lunar and Mars strategies and develop and understanding of methods for reducing the cost/risk of human Mars missions through investment in research, technology development, and synergy with other exploration plans. Recommendations are made regarding conjunction class (long-stay) missions which are seen as providing the best balance of cost, risk, and performance. Additionally, this study reviews entry, descent, and landing challenges; in-space transportation systems; launch vehicle and Orion assessments; risk and risk mitigation; key driving requirements and challenges; and, lunar linkages.

  19. A Vernier Regulator for ILC Marx Droop Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Tao

    2009-10-30

    A two-part compensation scheme, Vernier Regulation, has been applied to offset the voltage droop (40% without correction) in a Marx-topology klystron modulator developed for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Coarse regulation, {+-}5%, is achieved by turning on additional Main Marx cells (Delayed Cells) sequentially as the droop reaches the cell voltage (11 kV). Further regulation to {+-}0.5% is achieved by adding a small Marx in series with the Main Marx. This Vernier Marx is composed of sixteen, 1.2 kV cells that are assembled as a seventeenth cell in the Main Marx. These Vernier Cells are turned on sequentially to generate a series of discrete corrections to the droop in the Main Marx cells with a step size {le}1% of the output voltage. As the required correction reaches 11 kV, all Vernier Cells are turned off synchronously with the turn on of a Delayed Cell. There are up to five Delayed Cells and six Vernier Marx cycles during each ILC Marx output pulse. The Vernier Marx has a local control system that will detect and respond to over-voltage and over-current errors. In this paper, a detailed description of the design, implementation and testing of the Vernier Marx is presented.

  20. Particle Flow Calorimetry at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, M. A.

    2007-03-19

    One of the most important requirements for a detector at the ILC is good jet energy resolution. It is widely believed that the particle flow approach to calorimetry is the key to achieving the goal of 0.3/{radical}(E(GeV)). In contrast to the traditional approach to calorimetry, potentially the performance of particle flow calorimetry is sensitive to the detailed structure of hadronic showers. This paper describes the current performance of the PANDORAPFA particle flow algorithm. For 45 GeV jets in the Tesla TDR detector concept, the ILC jet energy resolution goal is reached. First detector optimisation studies are presented and the aspects of hadronic showers which are most likely to impact particle flow performance are discussed.

  1. NASA'S RPS Design Reference Mission Set for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Strategic Roadmap identified a set of proposed large Flagship, medium New Frontiers and small Discovery class missions, addressing key exploration objectives. These objectives respond to the recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC), reported in the SSE Decadal Survey. The SSE Roadmap is down-selected from an over-subscribed set of missions, called the SSE Design Reference Mission (DRM) set Missions in the Flagship and New Frontiers classes can consider Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs), while small Discovery class missions are not permitted to use them, due to cost constraints. In line with the SSE DRM set and the SSE Roadmap missions, the RPS DRM set represents a set of missions, which can be enabled or enhanced by RPS technologies. At present, NASA has proposed the development of two new types of RPSs. These are the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), with static power conversion; and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG), with dynamic conversion. Advanced RPSs, under consideration for possible development, aim to increase specific power levels. In effect, this would either increase electric power generation for the same amount of fuel, or reduce fuel requirements for the same power output, compared to the proposed MMRTG or SRG. Operating environments could also influence the design, such that an RPS on the proposed Titan Explorer would use smaller fins to minimize heat rejection in the extreme cold environment; while the Venus Mobile Explorer long-lived in-situ mission would require the development of a new RPS, in order to tolerate the extreme hot environment, and to simultaneously provide active cooling to the payload and other electric components. This paper discusses NASA's SSE RPS DRM set, in line with the SSE DRM set. It gives a qualitative assessment regarding the impact of various RPS technology and configuration options on potential mission architectures, which could

  2. Detailed cost estimate of reference residential photovoltaic designs

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.S.; Penasa, D.A.; Thomas, M.G.

    1983-04-01

    This report presents estimated installation costs for four reference residential photovoltaic designs. Installation cost estimates ranged from $1.28 to $2.12/W/sub p/ for arrays installed by union labor (4.1 to 6.07 kW/sub p/-systems), and from $1.22 to $1.83 W/sub p/ for non-union installations. Standoff mounting was found to increase costs from $1.63/W/sub p/ to $2.12/W/sub p/ for a representative case, whereas 25 kWh of battery storage capacity increased installation costs from $1.44/W/sub p/ to $2.08/W/sub p/. Overall system costs (union-based were $6000 to $7000 for a 4.1 kW array in the northeast, to approx. $9000 for a 6.07 kW/sub p/ array in the southwest. This range of installation costs, approx. $1 to $2/W/sub p/ (in 1980 dollars), is representative of current installation costs for residential PV systems. Any future cost reductions are likely to be small and can be accomplished only by optimization of mounting techniques, module efficiencies, and module reliability in toto.

  3. Wake potentials of the ILC Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC

    2011-08-16

    The vacuum chamber of the ILC Interaction Region (IR) is optimized for best detector performance. It has special shaping to minimize additional backgrounds due to the metal part of the chamber. Also, for the same reason this thin vacuum chamber does not have water cooling. Therefore, small amounts of power, which may be deposited in the chamber, can be enough to raise the chamber to a high temperature. One of the sources of 'heating' power is the electromagnetic field of the beam. This field diffracts by non-regularities of the beam pipe and excites free-propagating fields, which are then absorbed by the pipe wall. In addition we have a heating power of the image currents due to finite conductivity of the metallic wall. We will discuss these effects as updating the previous results. The conclusions of this report are: (1) The amount of the beam energy loss in IR is almost equal to the energy loss in one ILC (TESLA) accelerating cryo-module; (2) Addition energy spread at IR is very small; (3) Spectrum of the wake fields is limited 300 GHz; (4) Average power of the wake fields excited in IR is 30 W for nominal ILC parameters; and (5) Pulse power in this case is 6 kilowatts.

  4. Engineering challenges for detectors at the ILC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Oriunno, Marco

    2016-05-31

    Over the last years two proposals for experiments at the ILC have been developed, ILD and SID. Extensive R&D has been carried out around the world to develop the needed technologies. Furthermore a first round of engineering studies was made as part of the ILC TDR to understand the integration of these different sub-systems into coherent and integrated detector concepts. Among the key challenges for the sub detectors are the extreme low mass/low power requirements or the extreme channel densities needed in particle flow based detectors. Throughout these studies special care was taken to ensure that the engineering models andmore » the simulation models, used in studies of the physics capabilities of the detectors, stay synchronized. In the near future, the models will need to be evolved to take the special requirements of the potential ILC site in Japan into account. Furthermore, the state of the integration of the detectors, and the future directions, will be discussed.« less

  5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist attenuates ILC2-dependent airway hyperreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Galle-Treger, Lauriane; Suzuki, Yuzo; Patel, Nisheel; Sankaranarayanan, Ishwarya; Aron, Jennifer L.; Maazi, Hadi; Chen, Lin; Akbari, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a complex and chronic inflammatory disorder that is associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and driven by Th2 cytokine secretion. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines and contribute to the development of AHR. Here, we show that ILC2s express the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), which is thought to have an anti-inflammatory role in several inflammatory diseases. We show that engagement of a specific agonist with α7nAChR on ILC2s reduces ILC2 effector function and represses ILC2-dependent AHR, while decreasing expression of ILC2 key transcription factor GATA-3 and critical inflammatory modulator NF-κB, and reducing phosphorylation of upstream kinase IKKα/β. Additionally, the specific α7nAChR agonist reduces cytokine production and AHR in a humanized ILC2 mouse model. Collectively, our data suggest that α7nAChR expressed by ILC2s is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ILC2-mediated asthma. PMID:27752043

  6. Measuring the Magnetic Center Behavior of an ILC Superconducting Quadrupole Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Cherrill M.; Adolphsen, Chris; Berndt, Martin; Jensen, David R.; Rogers, Ron; Sheppard, John C.; Lorant, Steve St; Weber, Thomas B.; Weisend, John, II; Brueck, Heinrich; Toral, Fernando; /Madrid, CIEMAT

    2011-02-07

    The main linacs of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) consist of superconducting cavities operated at 2K. The accelerating cavities are contained in a contiguous series of cryogenic modules that also house the main linac quadrupoles, thus the quadrupoles also need to be superconducting. In an early ILC design, these magnets are about 0.6 m long, have cos (2{theta}) coils, and operate at constant field gradients up to 60 T/m. In order to preserve the small beam emittances in the ILC linacs, the e+ and e- beams need to traverse the quadrupoles near their magnetic centers. A quadrupole shunting technique is used to measure the quadrupole alignment with the beams; this process requires the magnetic centers move by no more than about 5 micrometers when their strength is changed. To determine if such tight stability is achievable in a superconducting quadrupole, we at SLAC measured the magnetic center motions in a prototype ILC quadrupole built at CIEMAT in Spain. A rotating coil technique was used with a better than 0.1 micrometer precision in the relative field center position, and less than a 2 micrometer systematic error over 30 minutes. This paper describes the warm-bore cryomodule that houses the quadrupole in its Helium vessel, the magnetic center measurement system, the measured center data and strength and harmonics magnetic data.

  7. Non-simplified SUSY: widetilde{τ }-coannihilation at LHC and ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berggren, M.; Cakir, A.; Krücker, D.; List, J.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Samani, B. Safarzadeh; Seitz, C.; Wayand, S.

    2016-04-01

    If new phenomena beyond the Standard Model will be discovered at the LHC, the properties of the new particles could be determined with data from the High-Luminosity LHC and from a future linear collider like the ILC. We discuss the possible interplay between measurements at the two accelerators in a concrete example, namely a full SUSY model which features a small widetilde{τ }_1-LSP mass difference. Various channels have been studied using the Snowmass 2013 combined LHC detector implementation in the Delphes simulation package, as well as simulations of the ILD detector concept from the Technical Design Report. We investigate both the LHC and the ILC capabilities for discovery, separation and identification of various parts of the spectrum. While some parts would be discovered at the LHC, there is substantial room for further discoveries at the ILC. We finally highlight examples where the precise knowledge about the lower part of the mass spectrum which could be acquired at the ILC would enable a more in-depth analysis of the LHC data with respect to the heavier states.

  8. ILC Extraction Line for 14 mrad Crossing Angle

    SciTech Connect

    Nosochkov, Y.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; Seryi, A.; Parker, B.; /Brookhaven

    2005-12-08

    The earlier studies of the ILC extraction line for 20 mrad and 2 mrad crossing angle options [1]-[5] showed that the 20 mrad design has an advantage of a simpler beamline and lower extraction beam loss because of the independent incoming and extraction optics. However, the large 20 mrad crossing angle requires the use of a crab cavity correction, increases synchrotron radiation emittance growth in the solenoid, and increases photon backscattering from the forward calorimeter of the detector. To reduce these effects, an attempt has been made to minimize the crossing angle while keeping the extraction and incoming lines separate. A new quadrupole scheme near the interaction point has been proposed which allows a reduction of the crossing angle to 14 mrad [6]. The optics design and results of tracking and background simulations for the 14 mrad extraction line are presented.

  9. Staffing by Design: A Methodology for Staffing Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, David; Phetteplace, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The growth in number and kind of online reference services has resulted in both new users consulting library research services as well as new patterns of service use. Staffing in-person and virtual reference services desks adequately requires a systematic analysis of patterns of use across service points in order to successfully meet fluctuating…

  10. 40 CFR 53.8 - Designation of reference and equivalent methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designation of reference and equivalent... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS General Provisions § 53.8 Designation of reference and equivalent methods. (a) A candidate method determined by the Administrator...

  11. 40 CFR 53.8 - Designation of reference and equivalent methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designation of reference and equivalent... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS General Provisions § 53.8 Designation of reference and equivalent methods. (a) A candidate method determined by the Administrator...

  12. 40 CFR 53.8 - Designation of reference and equivalent methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designation of reference and equivalent... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS General Provisions § 53.8 Designation of reference and equivalent methods. (a) A candidate method determined by the Administrator...

  13. A Study of Emittance Measurement at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, G.A.; Agapov, I.V.; Carter, J.; Deacon, L.; Angal-Kalinin, D.A.K.; Jenner, L.J.; Ross, M.C.; Seryi, A.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2007-04-16

    The measurement of the International Linear Collider (ILC) emittance in the ILC beam delivery system (BDS) is simulated. Estimates of statistical and machine-related errors are discussed and the implications for related diagnostics R&D are inferred. A simulation of the extraction of the laser-wire Compton signal is also presented.

  14. ILC3s and the Willow Tree of Voices.

    PubMed

    Bogunovic, Milena

    2016-08-16

    Type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) and enteric glia, an essential structural component of gut innervation, are well-known regulators of intestinal homeostasis. Ibiza et al. (2016) uncover a new link between commensal bacteria, enteric glial cells, and ILC3s that is required for intestinal homeostasis and defense. PMID:27533011

  15. Status of the ILC Crab Cavity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.; Bellantoni, L.; Grimm, T.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2011-10-20

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will require two dipole cavities to 'crab' the electron and positron bunches prior to their collision. It is proposed to use two 9 cell SCRF dipole cavities operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz, with a transverse gradient of 3.8MV/m in order to provide the required transverse kick. Extensive numerical modelling of this cavity and its couplers has been performed. Aluminium prototypes have been manufactured and tested to measure the RF properties of the cavity and couplers. In addition single cell niobium prototypes have been manufactured and tested in a vertical cryostat. The International Collider (ILC) [1] collides bunches of electrons and positrons at a crossing angle of 14 mrad. The angle between these bunches causes a loss in luminosity due to geometric effects [2]. The luminosity lost from this geometric effect can be recovered by rotating the bunches into alignment prior to collision. One possible method of rotating the bunches is to use a crab cavity [3]. A crab cavity is a transverse defecting cavity, where the phase of the cavity is such that the head and tail of the bunch receive equal and opposite kicks. As the bunches are only 500 nm wide in the horizontal plane, the cavity phase must be strictly controlled to avoid the bunch centre being deflected too much. In order to keep the phase stability within the required limits it is required that the cavity be superconducting to avoid thermal effects in both the cavity and its RF source. At the location of the crab cavity in the ILC there is only 23 cm separation between the centre of the cavity and the extraction line, hence the cavity must be small enough to fit in this space. This, along with the difficulty of making high frequency SRF components, set the frequency of the cavity to 3.9 GHz.

  16. Photoproduction of heavy quarkonium at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gu; Wu, Xing-Gang; Fu, Hai-Bing; Han, Hua-Yong; Sun, Zhan

    2014-08-01

    We study the photoproduction of the heavy quarkonium at the future International Linear Collider (ILC) within the nonrelativistic QCD theory. We focus on the production channel via the subprocess γγ→|[Q1(n)⟩+Q'+Q¯, where Q and Q' stand for the heavy c or b quark, respectively. |[Q Q1(n)⟩ stands for the color-singlet S-wave quarkonium, i.e., ηc(|[c1(S10)⟩), J/ψ(|[cc¯]1(S31)⟩), Bc(|[c1(S10)⟩), Bc*(|[cb¯]1(S31)⟩), ηb(|[b1(1S0)⟩), and Υ(|[bb¯]1(S31)⟩), respectively. To improve the calculation efficiency, we adopt the improved helicity amplitude approach to deal with the difficulty of calculating the expressions for the yields when the quark masses cannot be neglected. Total and differential photoproduction cross sections, together with their uncertainties, have been presented. It is noted that a sizable number of |cc¯⟩-charmonium and |cb¯⟩-quarkonium events can be generated at the ILC. More specifically, we predict (2.4-0.6+0.8)×106 ηc, (4.7-1.1+1.6)×106 J/ψ, (8.6-1.9+2.3)×103 Bc, (4.6-0.9+1.3)×104 Bc*, (6.6±1.2)×103 ηb, and (1.2±0.2)×103 ϒ events to be generated in one operation year at the ILC under the condition of √S =500 GeV and L ≃1036 cm-2s-1.

  17. Low Emittance Guns for the ILC Polarized Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, J.E.; Brachmann, A.; Ioakeimidi, K.; Kirby, R.E.; Maruyama, T.; Miller, R.H.; Wang, J.W.; Zhou, F.; /SLAC

    2006-12-01

    Polarized electron beams generated by DC guns are routinely available at several accelerators including JLAB, Mainz and SLAC. These guns operate with a cathode bias on the order of -100 kV. To minimize space charge effects, relatively long bunches are generated at the gun and then compressed longitudinally external to the gun just before and during initial acceleration. For linear colliders, this compression is accomplished using a combination of rf bunchers. For the basic design of the International Linear Collider (ILC), a 120 kV DC photocathode gun is used to produce a series of nanosecond bunches that are each compressed by two sub-harmonic bunchers (SHBs) followed by an L-band buncher and capture section. The longitudinal bunching process results in a significantly higher emittance than produced by the gun alone. While high-energy experiments using polarized beams are not generally sensitive to the source emittance, there are several benefits to a lower source emittance including a simpler more efficient injector system and a lower radiation load during transport especially at bends as at the damping ring. For the ILC, the SHBs could be eliminated if the voltage of the gun is raised sufficiently. Simulations using the General Particle Tracer (GPT) package indicate that a cathode bias voltage of {ge}200 kV should allow both SHBs to be operated at 433 or even 650 MHz, while {ge}500 kV would be required to eliminate the SHBs altogether. Simulations can be used to determine the minimum emittance possible if the injector is designed for a given increased voltage. A possible alternative to the DC gun is an rf gun. Emittance compensation, routinely used with rf guns, is discussed for higher-voltage DC guns.

  18. Low Emittance Guns for the ILC Polarized Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, J. E.; Brachmann, A.; Ioakeimidi, K.; Kirby, R. E.; Maruyama, T.; Miller, R. H.; Wang, J. W.; Zhou, F.

    2007-06-13

    Polarized electron beams generated by DC guns are routinely available at several accelerators including JLAB, Mainz and SLAC. These guns operate with a cathode bias on the order of -100 kV. To minimize space charge effects, relatively long bunches are generated at the gun and then compressed longitudinally external to the gun just before and during initial acceleration. For linear colliders, this compression is accomplished using a combination of rf bunchers. For the basic design of the International Linear Collider (ILC), a 120 kV DC photocathode gun is used to produce a series of nanosecond bunches that are each compressed by two sub-harmonic bunchers (SHBs) followed by an L-band buncher and capture section. The longitudinal bunching process results in a significantly higher emittance than produced by the gun alone. While high-energy experiments using polarized beams are not generally sensitive to the source emittance, there are several benefits to a lower source emittance including a simpler more efficient injector system and a lower radiation load during transport especially at bends as at the damping ring. For the ILC, the SHBs could be eliminated if the voltage of the gun is raised sufficiently. Simulations using the General Particle Tracer (GPT) package indicate that a cathode bias voltage of {>=}200 kV should allow both SHBs to be operated at 433 or even 650 MHz, while {>=}500 kV would be required to eliminate the SHBs altogether. Simulations can be used to determine the minimum emittance possible if the injector is designed for a given increased voltage. A possible alternative to the DC gun is an rf gun. Emittance compensation, routinely used with rf guns, is discussed for higher-voltage DC guns.

  19. Content Analysis of Virtual Reference Data: Reshaping Library Website Design.

    PubMed

    Fan, Suhua Caroline; Welch, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    An academic health sciences library wanted to redesign its website to provide better access to health information in the community. Virtual reference data were used to provide information about user searching behavior. This study analyzed three years (2012-2014) of virtual reference data, including e-mail questions, text messaging, and live chat transcripts, to evaluate the library website for redesigning, especially in areas such as the home page, patrons' terminology, and issues prompting patrons to ask for help. A coding system based on information links in the current library website was created to analyze the data. PMID:27391180

  20. Content Analysis of Virtual Reference Data: Reshaping Library Website Design.

    PubMed

    Fan, Suhua Caroline; Welch, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    An academic health sciences library wanted to redesign its website to provide better access to health information in the community. Virtual reference data were used to provide information about user searching behavior. This study analyzed three years (2012-2014) of virtual reference data, including e-mail questions, text messaging, and live chat transcripts, to evaluate the library website for redesigning, especially in areas such as the home page, patrons' terminology, and issues prompting patrons to ask for help. A coding system based on information links in the current library website was created to analyze the data.

  1. An Earth-Moon System Trajectory Design Reference Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bosanac, Natasha; Guzzetti, Davide; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    As demonstrated by ongoing concept designs and the recent ARTEMIS mission, there is, currently, significant interest in exploiting three-body dynamics in the design of trajectories for both robotic and human missions within the Earth-Moon system. The concept of an interactive and 'dynamic' catalog of potential solutions in the Earth-Moon system is explored within this paper and analyzed as a framework to guide trajectory design. Characterizing and compiling periodic and quasi-periodic solutions that exist in the circular restricted three-body problem may offer faster and more efficient strategies for orbit design, while also delivering innovative mission design parameters for further examination.

  2. Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Design Reference Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Anderson, Molly K.; Ewert, Mike S.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.

    2007-01-01

    In preparation for the contract award of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) produced two design reference missions for the vehicle. The design references used teams of engineers across the agency to come up with two configurations. This process helped NASA understand the conflicts and limitations in the CEV design, and investigate options to solve them.

  3. Optics of the ILC Extraction Line for 2mrad Crossing Angle

    SciTech Connect

    Nosochkov, Y.; Moffeit, K.; Seryi, A.; Spencer, C.; Woods, M.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Appleby, R.; Parker, B.; /Brookhaven

    2006-01-05

    The ILC extraction line for 2 mrad crossing angle is under development by the SLAC-BNL-UK-France task force collaboration. This report describes the progress in the 2 mrad optics design which includes the changes to the final focus doublet, the complete optics for the extraction diagnostics, and the changes to the sextupole and collimation systems. The results of disrupted beam tracking simulations are presented.

  4. 7 CFR 801.12 - Design requirements incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 801.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.12 Design requirements...

  5. 7 CFR 801.12 - Design requirements incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 801.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.12 Design requirements...

  6. 7 CFR 801.12 - Design requirements incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 801.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.12 Design requirements...

  7. 7 CFR 801.12 - Design requirements incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 801.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.12 Design requirements...

  8. 7 CFR 801.12 - Design requirements incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 801.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.12 Design requirements...

  9. Optimization of the Low Loss SRF Cavity for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Sekutowicz, J.S.; Kneisel, P.; Higo, T.; Morozumi, Y.; Saito, K.; Ge, L.; Ko, Yong-kyu; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.K.; Schussman, G.L.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2008-01-18

    The Low-Loss shape cavity design has been proposed as a possible alternative to the baseline TESLA cavity design for the ILC main linacs. The advantages of this design over the TESLA cavity are its lower cryogenic loss, and higher achievable gradient due to lower surface fields. High gradient prototypes for such designs have been tested at KEK (ICHIRO) and TJNAF (LL). However, issues related to HOM damping and multipacting still need to be addressed. Preliminary numerical studies of the prototype cavities have shown unacceptable damping factors for some higher-order dipole modes if the typical TESLA HOM couplers are directly adapted to the design. The resulting wakefield will dilute the beam emittance thus reducing the machine luminosity. Furthermore, high gradient tests on a 9-cell prototype at KEK have experienced multipacting barriers although a single LL cell had achieved a high gradient. From simulations, multipacting activities are found to occur in the end-groups of the cavity. In this paper, we will present the optimization results of the end-groups for the Low-Loss designs for effective HOM damping and alleviation of multipacting.

  10. SUSY at the ILC and Solving the LHC Inverse Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gainer, James S.; /SLAC

    2008-05-28

    Recently a large scale study of points in the MSSM parameter space which are problematic at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been performed. This work was carried out in part to determine whether the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) could be used to solve the LHC inverse problem. The results suggest that while the ILC will be a valuable tool, an energy upgrade may be crucial to its success, and that, in general, precision studies of the MSSM are more difficult at the ILC than has generally been believed.

  11. Design of Low Complexity Model Reference Adaptive Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Johnson, Marcus; Nguyen, Nhan

    2012-01-01

    Flight research experiments have demonstrated that adaptive flight controls can be an effective technology for improving aircraft safety in the event of failures or damage. However, the nonlinear, timevarying nature of adaptive algorithms continues to challenge traditional methods for the verification and validation testing of safety-critical flight control systems. Increasingly complex adaptive control theories and designs are emerging, but only make testing challenges more difficult. A potential first step toward the acceptance of adaptive flight controllers by aircraft manufacturers, operators, and certification authorities is a very simple design that operates as an augmentation to a non-adaptive baseline controller. Three such controllers were developed as part of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration flight research experiment to determine the appropriate level of complexity required to restore acceptable handling qualities to an aircraft that has suffered failures or damage. The controllers consist of the same basic design, but incorporate incrementally-increasing levels of complexity. Derivations of the controllers and their adaptive parameter update laws are presented along with details of the controllers implementations.

  12. Radiation calculations for the ILC cryomodule

    SciTech Connect

    Nakao, N.; Mokhov, N.V.; Klebaner, A.; /Fermilab

    2007-04-01

    The MARS15 radiation simulations were performed for the ILC cryomodule. The model assumes a uniform beam loss intensity of 1 W/m of 750-MeV and 250-GeV electron along the inner surface of the beam pipe and the cavity iris of the 12-m cryomodule. Two-dimensional distributions of radiation dose in the module were obtained. Absorbed dose rate and energy spectra of electrons, photons, neutrons and protons were also obtained at the three cryogenic thermometers locations by filling with silicon material in the appropriate locations, and radiation hardness of the thermometers was discussed. From the obtained results, maximum absorbed dose of thermometers at the cooling pipe is 0.85mGy/sec (85 mRad/sec), that is 0.31 MGy (31 MRad) for 20 years.

  13. Design of an ultra-compact reference ULE cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didier, Alexandre; Millo, Jacques; Lacroûte, Clément; Ouisse, Morvan; Delporte, Jérôme; Giordano, Vincent; Rubiola, Enrico; Kersalé, Yann

    2016-06-01

    This article presents the design and the conception of an ultra-compact Fabry-Pérot cavity which will be used to develop an ultra-stable laser. The proposed cavity is composed of a 25 mm long ULE spacer with fused silica mirrors. It leads to an expected fractional frequency stability of 1.5 x 10-15 limited by the thermal noise. The chosen geometry leads to an acceleration relative sensitivity below 10-12 /(m/s2) for all directions.

  14. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers to Reference Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ivezic, Z.; Axelrod, T.; Brandt, W.N.; Burke, D.L.; Claver, C.F.; Connolly, A.; Cook, K.H.; Gee, P.; Gilmore, D.K.; Jacoby, S.H.; Jones, R.L.; Kahn, S.M.; Kantor, J.P.; Krabbendam, V.; Lupton, R.H.; Monet, D.G.; Pinto, P.A.; Saha, A.; Schalk, T.L.; Schneider, D.P.; Strauss, Michael A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /LSST Corp. /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NOAO, Tucson /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept. /Naval Observ., Flagstaff /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /UC, Santa Cruz /Harvard U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Illinois U., Urbana

    2011-10-14

    In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious survey currently planned in the visible band, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: constraining dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. It will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain multiple images covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4 m (6.5 m effective) primary mirror, a 9.6 deg{sup 2} field of view, and a 3,200 Megapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be covered using pairs of 15-second exposures in two photometric bands every three nights on average. The system is designed to yield high image quality, as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 deg{sup 2} with {delta} < +34.5{sup o}, and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, ugrizy, covering the wavelength range 320-1050 nm. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times in the six bands during the anticipated 10 years of operation. These data will result in databases including 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars, and will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10% of the observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We describe how the

  15. Evolutionary design of bone scaffolds with reference to material selection.

    PubMed

    Heljak, M K; Swięszkowski, W; Lam, C X F; Hutmacher, D W; Kurzydłowski, K J

    2012-01-01

    The favourable scaffold for bone tissue engineering should have desired characteristic features, such as adequate mechanical strength and three-dimensional open porosity, which guarantee a suitable environment for tissue regeneration. In fact, the design of such complex structures like bone scaffolds is a challenge for investigators. One of the aims is to achieve the best possible mechanical strength-degradation rate ratio. In this paper we attempt to use numerical modelling to evaluate material properties for designing bone tissue engineering scaffold fabricated via the fused deposition modelling technique. For our studies the standard genetic algorithm was used, which is an efficient method of discrete optimization. For the fused deposition modelling scaffold, each individual strut is scrutinized for its role in the architecture and structural support it provides for the scaffold, and its contribution to the overall scaffold was studied. The goal of the study was to create a numerical tool that could help to acquire the desired behaviour of tissue engineered scaffolds and our results showed that this could be achieved efficiently by using different materials for individual struts. To represent a great number of ways in which scaffold mechanical function loss could proceed, the exemplary set of different desirable scaffold stiffness loss function was chosen.

  16. Simulation of Wakefield Effect in ILC IR Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, S; Seryi, A.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; /SLAC

    2008-06-26

    To achieve super high luminosity, high current beams with very short bunch length are needed, which carry high intensity EM fields. For ILC, two bunch trains with bunch length of 300 {micro}m and bunch charge of 3.2nC are needed to collide at the IR to achieve the ILC luminosity goals. When the 300 {micro}m bunches pass through the IR chamber, wakefields will be excited, which will cause HOM power flowing through the IR chamber beam pipe to the final doublets due to the high frequency characteristic of the induced wakefields. Since superconducting technology is adopted for the final doublets of ILC BDS, whose operation stability might be affected by the HOM power produced at the IR chamber, quench might happen. In this paper, we did some analytical estimation and numerical simulation on the wakefield effects in ILC IR chamber.

  17. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s): Origin, differentiation, and plasticity in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Montaldo, Elisa; Juelke, Kerstin; Romagnani, Chiara

    2015-08-01

    Since their discovery, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been the subject of intense research. As their name implies, ILCs are innate cells of lymphoid origin, and can be grouped into subsets based on their cytotoxic activity, cytokine profile, and the transcriptional requirements during ILC differentiation. The main ILC groups are "killer" ILCs, comprising NK cells, and "helper-like" ILCs (including ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s). This review examines the origin, differentiation stages, and plasticity of murine and human ILC3s. ILC3s express the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) related orphan receptor RORγt and the signature cytokines IL-22 and IL-17. Fetal ILC3s or lymphoid tissue inducer cells are required for lymphoid organogenesis, while postnatally developing ILC3s are important for the generation of intestinal cryptopatches and isolated lymphoid follicles as well as for the defence against pathogens and epithelial homeostasis. Here, we discuss the transcription factors and exogenous signals (including cytokines, nutrients and cell-to-cell interaction) that drive ILC3 lineage commitment and acquisition of their distinctive effector program.

  18. HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

    2009-05-12

    This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by

  19. Architectural design proposal for a Martian base to continue NASA Mars Design Reference Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Janek

    The issue of extraterrestrial bases has recently been a very vivid one. There are orbital stations currently existing and humans will travel to Mars around 2030. They will need stations established there, which will provide them the proper living conditions. Firstly, it might be a small module brought from Earth (e.g. NASA Mars Design Reference Mission module (DRM)), in later stages equivalents of Earth houses may be built from local resources. The goal of this paper is to propose an architectural design for an intermediate stage — for a larger habitable unit transported from Earth. It is inspired by terrestrial portable architecture ideas. A pneumatic structure requires small volume during transportation. However, it provides large habitable space after deployment. It is designed for transport by DRM transportation module and its deployment is considerable easy and brief. An architectural solution analogous to a terrestrial house with a studio and a workshop was assumed. Its form was a result of technical and environmental limitations, and the need for an ergonomic interior. The spatial placement of following zones was carefully considered: residential, agricultural and science, as well as a garage with a workshop, transportation routes, and a control and communication center. The issues of Life Support System, energy, food, water and waste recycling were also discussed. This Martian base was designed to be crewed by a team of eight people to stay on Mars for at least 1.5 year. An Open Plan architectural solution was assumed in pneumatic modules, with a high level of modularity. Walls of standardized sizes with zip-fasteners allow free rearrangement of the interior to adapt to a new situation (e.g. damage of one of the pneumatic modules or a psychological ,,need of a change"). The architectural design focuses on ergonomic and psychological aspects of longer stay in hostile Martian environment. This solution provides Martian crew with a comfortable habitable

  20. Time domain and frequency domain design techniques for model reference adaptive control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, J. S., III

    1971-01-01

    Some problems associated with the design of model-reference adaptive control systems are considered and solutions to these problems are advanced. The stability of the adapted system is a primary consideration in the development of both the time-domain and the frequency-domain design techniques. Consequentially, the use of Liapunov's direct method forms an integral part of the derivation of the design procedures. The application of sensitivity coefficients to the design of model-reference adaptive control systems is considered. An application of the design techniques is also presented.

  1. Klystron Cluster Scheme for ILC High Power RF Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Nantista, Christopher; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC

    2009-07-06

    We present a concept for powering the main linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) by delivering high power RF from the surface via overmoded, low-loss waveguides at widely spaced intervals. The baseline design employs a two-tunnel layout, with klystrons and modulators evenly distributed along a service tunnel running parallel to the accelerator tunnel. This new idea eliminates the need for the service tunnel. It also brings most of the warm heat load to the surface, dramatically reducing the tunnel water cooling and HVAC requirements. In the envisioned configuration, groups of 70 klystrons and modulators are clustered in surface buildings every 2.5 km. Their outputs are combined into two half-meter diameter circular TE{sub 01} mode evacuated waveguides. These are directed via special bends through a deep shaft and along the tunnel, one upstream and one downstream. Each feeds approximately 1.25 km of linac with power tapped off in 10 MW portions at 38 m intervals. The power is extracted through a novel coaxial tap-off (CTO), after which the local distribution is as it would be from a klystron. The tap-off design is also employed in reverse for the initial combining.

  2. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.; Gromada, R.J.; McCarville, T.J.; Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Bandini, B.R.; Fulton, F.J.; Wong, C.P.C.; Maya, I.; Hoot, C.G.; Schultz, K.R.; Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.; Harris, B.L.; Westman, R.A.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Orient, G.; Wolfer, M.; DeVan, J.H.; Torterelli, P.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future.

  3. Cryogenic Infrastructure for Fermilab's Ilc Vertical Cavity Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcagno, R.; Ginsburg, C.; Huang, Y.; Norris, B.; Ozelis, J.; Peterson, T.; Poloubotko, V.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Wong, M.

    2008-03-01

    Fermilab is building a Vertical Cavity Test Facility (VCTF) to provide for R&D and pre-production testing of bare 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC) program. This facility is located in the existing Industrial Building 1 (IB1) where the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) also resides. Helium and nitrogen cryogenics are shared between the VCTF and MTF including the existing 1500-W at 4.5-K helium refrigerator with vacuum pumping for super-fluid operation (125-W capacity at 2-K). The VCTF is being constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is scheduled for completion in mid 2007, and includes modifications to the IB1 cryogenic infrastructure to allow helium cooling to be directed to either the VCTF or MTF as scheduling demands require. At this stage, the VCTF consists of one Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostat for the testing of one cavity in a 2-K helium bath. Planning is underway to provide a total of three Vertical Test Stands at VCTF, each capable of accommodating two cavities. Cryogenic infrastructure improvements necessary to support these additional VCTF test stands include a dedicated ambient temperature vacuum pump, a new helium purification skid, and the addition of helium gas storage. This paper describes the system design and initial cryogenic operation results for the first VCTF phase, and outlines future cryogenic infrastructure upgrade plans for expanding to three Vertical Test Stands.

  4. CRYOGENIC INFRASTRUCTURE FOR FERMILAB'S ILC VERTICAL CAVITY TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Carcagno, R.; Ginsburg, C.; Huang, Y.; Norris, B.; Ozelis, J.; Peterson, T.; Poloubotko, V.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Wong, M.

    2008-03-16

    Fermilab is building a Vertical Cavity Test Facility (VCTF) to provide for R and D and pre-production testing of bare 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC) program. This facility is located in the existing Industrial Building 1 (IB1) where the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) also resides. Helium and nitrogen cryogenics are shared between the VCTF and MTF including the existing 1500-W at 4.5-K helium refrigerator with vacuum pumping for super-fluid operation (125-W capacity at 2-K). The VCTF is being constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is scheduled for completion in mid 2007, and includes modifications to the IB1 cryogenic infrastructure to allow helium cooling to be directed to either the VCTF or MTF as scheduling demands require. At this stage, the VCTF consists of one Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostat for the testing of one cavity in a 2-K helium bath. Planning is underway to provide a total of three Vertical Test Stands at VCTF, each capable of accommodating two cavities. Cryogenic infrastructure improvements necessary to support these additional VCTF test stands include a dedicated ambient temperature vacuum pump, a new helium purification skid, and the addition of helium gas storage. This paper describes the system design and initial cryogenic operation results for the first VCTF phase, and outlines future cryogenic infrastructure upgrade plans for expanding to three Vertical Test Stands.

  5. Cryogenic infrastructure for Fermilab's ILC vertical cavity test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Carcagno, R.; Ginsburg, C.; Huang, Y.; Norris, B.; Ozelis, J.; Peterson, T.; Poloubotko, V.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Wong, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Fermilab is building a Vertical Cavity Test Facility (VCTF) to provide for R&D and pre-production testing of bare 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC) program. This facility is located in the existing Industrial Building 1 (IB1) where the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) also resides. Helium and nitrogen cryogenics are shared between the VCTF and MTF including the existing 1500-W at 4.5-K helium refrigerator with vacuum pumping for super-fluid operation (125-W capacity at 2-K). The VCTF is being constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is scheduled for completion in mid 2007, and includes modifications to the IB1 cryogenic infrastructure to allow helium cooling to be directed to either the VCTF or MTF as scheduling demands require. At this stage, the VCTF consists of one Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostat for the testing of one cavity in a 2-K helium bath. Planning is underway to provide a total of three Vertical Test Stands at VCTF, each capable of accommodating two cavities. Cryogenic infrastructure improvements necessary to support these additional VCTF test stands include a dedicated ambient temperature vacuum pump, a new helium purification skid, and the addition of helium gas storage. This paper describes the system design and initial cryogenic operation results for the first VCTF phase, and outlines future cryogenic infrastructure upgrade plans for expanding to three Vertical Test Stands.

  6. Scaffolding Students' Development of Creative Design Skills: A Curriculum Reference Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chien-Sing; Kolodner, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for promoting creative design capabilities in the context of achieving community goals pertaining to sustainable development among high school students. The framework can be used as a reference model to design formal or out-of-school curriculum units in any geographical region. This theme is chosen due to its…

  7. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... March 6, 2009. The monitors are commercially available from the applicant, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Air... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent... of the designation of five new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY:...

  8. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... made under the provisions of 40 CFR part 53, as ] amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of a new equivalent method...

  9. Reference Beam Pattern Design for Frequency Invariant Beamforming Based on Fast Fourier Transform.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wang; Su, Tao

    2016-09-22

    In the field of fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based frequency invariant beamforming (FIB), there is still an unsolved problem. That is the selection of the reference beam to make the designed wideband pattern frequency invariant (FI) over a given frequency range. This problem is studied in this paper. The research shows that for a given array, the selection of the reference beam pattern is determined by the number of sensors and the ratio of the highest frequency to the lowest frequency of the signal (RHL). The length of the weight vector corresponding to a given reference beam pattern depends on the reference frequency. In addition, the upper bound of the weight length to ensure the FI property over the whole frequency band of interest is also given. When the constraints are added to the reference beam, it does not affect the FI property of the designed wideband beam as long as the symmetry of the reference beam is ensured. Based on this conclusion, a scheme for reference beam design is proposed.

  10. CXCR6 Expression Is Important for Retention and Circulation of ILC Precursors.

    PubMed

    Chea, Sylvestre; Possot, Cécilie; Perchet, Thibaut; Petit, Maxime; Cumano, Ana; Golub, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells are present at mucosal sites and represent the first immune barrier against infections, but what contributes to their circulation and homing is still unclear. Using Rag2(-/-) Cxcr6(Gfp/+) reporter mice, we assessed the expression and role of CXCR6 in the circulation of ILC precursors and their progeny. We identify CXCR6 expressing ILC precursors in the bone marrow and characterize their significant increase in CXCR6-deficient mice at steady state, indicating their partial retention in the bone marrow after CXCR6 ablation. Circulation was also impaired during embryonic life as fetal liver from CXCR6-deficient embryos displayed decreased numbers of ILC3 precursors. When injected, fetal CXCR6-deficient ILC3 precursors also fail to home and reconstitute ILC compartments in vivo. We show that adult intestinal ILC subsets have heterogeneous expression pattern of CXCR6, integrin α 4 β 7, CD62L, CD69, and CD44, with ILC1 and ILC3 being more likely tissue resident lymphocytes. Intestinal ILC subsets were unchanged in percentages and numbers in both mice. We demonstrate that the ILC frequency is maintained due to a significant increase of ILC peripheral proliferation, as well as an increased proliferation of the in situ ILC precursors to compensate their retention in the bone marrow.

  11. Design of the beam delivery system for the international linear collider.

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, A.; Amann, J.; Arnold, R.; Asiri, F.; Bane, K.; Carwardine, J.; Saunders, C.; Accelerator Systems Division; SLAC; FNAL

    2008-01-01

    The beam delivery system for the linear collider focuses beams to nanometer sizes at its interaction point, collimates the beam halo to provide acceptable background in the detector and has a provision for state-of-the art beam instrumentation in order to reach the ILCs physics goals. This paper describes the design details and status of the baseline configuration considered for the reference design and also lists alternatives.

  12. The LHC Inverse Problem, Supersymmetry and the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.F.; Gainer, J.S.; Hewett, J.L.; Lillie, B.; Rizzo, T.G.

    2007-11-12

    We address the question whether the ILC can resolve the LHC Inverse Problem within the framework of the MSSM. We examine 242 points in the MSSM parameter space which were generated at random and were found to give indistinguishable signatures at the LHC. After a realistic simulation including full Standard Model backgrounds and a fast detector simulation, we find that roughly only one third of these scenarios lead to visible signatures of some kind with a significance {ge} 5 at the ILC with {radical}s = 500 GeV. Furthermore, we examine these points in parameter space pairwise and find that only one third of the pairs are distinguishable at the ILC at 5{sigma}.

  13. Beam Polarization at the ILC: Physics Case and Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauth, Annika; List, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed e+e‑ collider, focused on precision measurement of the Standard Model and new physics beyond. Polarized beams are a key element of the ILC physics program. The physics studies are accompanied by an extensive R&D program for the creation of the polarized beams and the measurement of their polarization. This contribution will review the advantages of using beam polarization and its technical aspects and realization, such as the creation of polarized beams and the measurement of the polarization.

  14. Probing the Universal Randall-Sundrum Model at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, H.; Lillie, B.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC

    2005-12-14

    The Randall-Sundrum model with all Standard Model (SM) fields in the bulk, including the Higgs, can be probed by precision measurements at the ILC. In particular, the couplings of the Higgs to the gauge bosons of the SM can be determined with high accuracy at the ILC. Here we examine the deviations in these couplings from their SM values within the framework of the Universal Randall-Sundrum Model (URSM) as well as the corresponding couplings of the first Higgs Kaluza-Klein excitation.

  15. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Reference design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    The airplane design process and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design process management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.

  16. RF and data acquisition systems for Fermilab's ILC SRF cavity vertical test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Ozelis, Joseph P.; Nehring, Roger; Grenoble, Christiana; Powers, Thomas J.; /Jefferson Lab

    2007-06-01

    Fermilab is developing a facility for vertical testing of SRF cavities as part of its ILC program. The RF system for this facility is based on the proven production cavity test systems used at Jefferson Lab for CEBAF and SNS cavity testing. The design approach is modular in nature, using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components. This yields a system that can be easily debugged and modified, and with ready availability of spares. Comprehensive data acquisition and control is provided by a PXI-based hardware platform in conjunction with software developed in the LabView programming environment.

  17. Design and operation of a Loran-C time reference station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putkovich, K.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the practical questions that arise when one decides to use Loran-C in a time reference system are explored. An extensive effort is made to provide basic, practical information on establishing and operating a reference station. Four areas were covered: (1) the design, configuration and operational concepts which should be considered prior to establishing and operating a reference station using Loran-C, (2) the options and tradeoffs available regarding capabilities, cost, size, versatility, ease of operation, etc., that are available to the designer, (3) what measurements are made, how they are made and what they mean, and (4) the experience the U.S. Naval Observatory Time Service Division has had in the design and operation of such stations.

  18. Planck-LFI: design and performance of the 4 Kelvin Reference Load Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenziano, L.; Cuttaia, F.; De Rosa, A.; Terenzi, L.; Brighenti, A.; Cazzola, G. P.; Garbesi, A.; Mariotti, S.; Orsi, G.; Pagan, L.; Cavaliere, F.; Biggi, M.; Lapini, R.; Panagin, E.; Battaglia, P.; Butler, R. C.; Bersanelli, M.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Levin, S.; Mandolesi, N.; Mennella, A.; Morgante, G.; Morigi, G.; Sandri, M.; Simonetto, A.; Tomasi, M.; Villa, F.; Frailis, M.; Galeotta, S.; Gregorio, A.; Leonardi, R.; Lowe, S. R.; Maris, M.; Meinhold, P.; Mendes, L.; Stringhetti, L.; Zonca, A.; Zacchei, A.

    2009-12-01

    The LFI radiometers use a pseudo-correlation design where the signal from the sky is continuously compared with a stable reference signal, provided by a cryogenic reference load system. The reference unit is composed by small pyramidal horns, one for each radiometer, 22 in total, facing small absorbing targets, made of a commercial resin ECCOSORB CRTM, cooled to ~ 4.5 K. Horns and targets are separated by a small gap to allow thermal decoupling. Target and horn design is optimized for each of the LFI bands, centered at 70, 44 and 30 GHz. Pyramidal horns are either machined inside the radiometer 20K module or connected via external electro-formed bended waveguides. The requirement of high stability of the reference signal imposed a careful design for the radiometric and thermal properties of the loads. Materials used for the manufacturing have been characterized for thermal, RF and mechanical properties. We describe in this paper the design and the performance of the reference system.

  19. Transverse wake field simulations for the ILC acceleration structure

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, N.; Lunin, A.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    Details of wake potential simulation in the acceleration structure of ILC, including the RF cavities and input/HOM couplers are presented. Transverse wake potential dependence is described versus the bunch length. Beam emittance dilution caused by main and HOM couplers is estimated, followed by a discussion of possible structural modifications allowing a reduction of transverse wake potential.

  20. Fast calculation of the `ILC norm' in iterative learning control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Justin K.; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss and demonstrate a method for the exploitation of matrix structure in computations for iterative learning control (ILC). In Barton, Bristow, and Alleyne [International Journal of Control, 83(2), 1-8 (2010)], a special insight into the structure of the lifted convolution matrices involved in ILC is used along with a modified Lanczos method to achieve very fast computational bounds on the learning convergence, by calculating the 'ILC norm' in ? computational complexity. In this paper, we show how their method is equivalent to a special instance of the sequentially semi-separable (SSS) matrix arithmetic, and thus can be extended to many other computations in ILC, and specialised in some cases to even faster methods. Our SSS-based methodology will be demonstrated on two examples: a linear time-varying example resulting in the same ? complexity as in Barton et al., and a linear time-invariant example where our approach reduces the computational complexity to ?, thus decreasing the computation time, for an example, from the literature by a factor of almost 100. This improvement is achieved by transforming the norm computation via a linear matrix inequality into a check of positive definiteness - which allows us to further exploit the almost-Toeplitz properties of the matrix, and additionally provides explicit upper and lower bounds on the norm of the matrix, instead of the indirect Ritz estimate. These methods are now implemented in a MATLAB toolbox, freely available on the Internet.

  1. Radiation requirements and testing of cryogenic thermometers for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, T.; Filippov, Yu.P.; Mokhov, N.V.; Nakao, N.; Klebaner, A.L.; Korenev, S.A.; Theilacker, J.C. /; Trenikhina, J.; Vaziri, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    Large quantity of cryogenic temperature sensors will be used for operation of the International Linear Collider (ILC). Most of them will be subject to high radiation doses during the accelerator lifetime. Understanding of particle energy spectra, accumulated radiation dose in thermometers and its impact on performance are vital in establishing technical specification of cryogenic thermometry for the ILC. Realistic MARS15 computer simulations were performed to understand the ILC radiation environment. Simulation results were used to establish radiation dose requirements for commercially available cryogenic thermometers. Two types of thermometers, Cernox{reg_sign} and TVO, were calibrated prior to irradiation using different technique. The sensors were subjected then to up to 200 kGy electron beam irradiation with kinetic energy of 5 MeV, a representative of the situation at the ILC operation. A post-irradiation behavior of the sensors was studied. The paper describes the MARS15 model, simulation results, cryogenic test set-up, irradiation tests, and cryogenic test results.

  2. Comparison of Beam-Based Alignment Algorithms for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Gibbons, L.; Patterson, J.R.; Rubin, D.L.; Sagan, D.; Tenenbaum, P.; /SLAC

    2006-03-15

    The main linac of the International Linear Collider (ILC) requires more sophisticated alignment techniques than those provided by survey alone. Various Beam-Based Alignment (BBA) algorithms have been proposed to achieve the desired low emittance preservation. Dispersion Free Steering, Ballistic Alignment and the Kubo method are compared. Alignment algorithms are also tested in the presence of an Earth-like stray field.

  3. The Role of Virtual Reference in Library Web Site Design: A Qualitative Source for Usage Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Amanda Clay; Shedd, Julie; Hill, Clay

    2011-01-01

    Gathering qualitative information about usage behavior of library Web sites is a time-consuming process requiring the active participation of patron communities. Libraries that collect virtual reference transcripts, however, hold valuable data regarding how the library Web site is used that could benefit Web designers. An analysis of virtual…

  4. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  5. Proposed CTV design reference missions in support of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saucillo, Rudy J.; Cirillo, William M.

    1991-01-01

    Use of design reference missions (DRM's) for the cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) in support of Space Station Freedom (SSF) can provide a common baseline for the design and assessment of CTV systems and mission operations. These DRM's may also provide baseline operations scenarios for integrated CTV, Shuttle, and SSF operations. Proposed DRM's for CTV, SSF, and Shuttle operations envisioned during the early post-PMC time frame and continuing through mature, SSF evolutionary operations are described. These proposed DRM's are outlines for detailed mission definition; by treating these DRM's as top-level input for mission design studies, a range of parametric studies for systems/operations may be performed. Shuttle flight design experience, particularly rendezvous flight design, provides an excellent basis for DRM operations studies. To begin analysis of the DRM's, shuttle trajectory design tools were used in single case analysis to define CTV performance requirements. A summary of these results is presented.

  6. Proposed CTV design reference missions in support of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucillo, Rudy J.; Cirillo, William M.

    Use of design reference missions (DRM's) for the cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) in support of Space Station Freedom (SSF) can provide a common baseline for the design and assessment of CTV systems and mission operations. These DRM's may also provide baseline operations scenarios for integrated CTV, Shuttle, and SSF operations. Proposed DRM's for CTV, SSF, and Shuttle operations envisioned during the early post-PMC time frame and continuing through mature, SSF evolutionary operations are described. These proposed DRM's are outlines for detailed mission definition; by treating these DRM's as top-level input for mission design studies, a range of parametric studies for systems/operations may be performed. Shuttle flight design experience, particularly rendezvous flight design, provides an excellent basis for DRM operations studies. To begin analysis of the DRM's, shuttle trajectory design tools were used in single case analysis to define CTV performance requirements. A summary of these results is presented.

  7. A Hierarchical Control Architecture for a PEBB-Based ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Macken, K.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Nguyen, M.N.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-12-15

    The idea of building power conversion systems around Power Electronic Building Blocks (PEBBs) was initiated by the U.S. Office of Naval Research in the mid 1990s. A PEBB-based design approach is advantageous in terms of power density, modularity, reliability, and serviceability. It is obvious that this approach has much appeal for pulsed power conversion including the International Linear Collider (ILC) klystron modulator application. A hierarchical control architecture has the inherent capability to support the integration of PEBBs. This has already been successfully demonstrated in a number of industrial applications in the recent past. This paper outlines the underlying concepts of a hierarchical control architecture for a PEBB-based Marx-topology ILC klystron modulator. The control in PEBB-based power conversion systems can be functionally partitioned into (three) hierarchical layers; system layer, application layer, and PEBB layer. This has been adopted here. Based on such a hierarchical partition, the interfaces are clearly identified and defined and, consequently, are easily characterised. A conceptual design of the hardware manager, executing low-level hardware oriented tasks, is detailed. In addition, the idea of prognostics is briefly discussed.

  8. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  9. Composition of innate lymphoid cell subsets in the human skin: enrichment of NCR(+) ILC3 in lesional skin and blood of psoriasis patients.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Marcel B M; Munneke, J Marius; Bernink, Jochem H; Spuls, Phyllis I; Res, Pieter C M; Te Velde, Anje; Cheuk, Stanley; Brouwer, Marijke W D; Menting, Stef P; Eidsmo, Liv; Spits, Hergen; Hazenberg, Mette D; Mjösberg, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly appreciated as important regulators of tissue homeostasis and inflammation. However, their role in human skin remains obscure. We found that healthy peripheral blood CD117(+) ILC3, lacking the natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) NKp44 (NCR(-) ILC3), CD117(-)NCR(-)CRTH2(-)CD161(+) ILC1, and CRTH2(+) ILC2, express the skin-homing receptor cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA). NCR(+) ILC3 were scarce in peripheral blood. Consistently, we identified in normal skin ILC2 and NCR(-) ILC3, a small proportion of CD161(+) ILC1, and hardly any NCR(+) ILC3, whereas NCR(+) ILC3 were present in cultured dermal explants. The skin ILC2 and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets produced IL-13 and IL-22, respectively, upon cytokine stimulation. Remarkably, dermal NCR(-) ILC3 converted to NCR(+) ILC3 upon culture in IL-1β plus IL-23, cytokines known to be involved in psoriatic inflammation. In line with this observation, significantly increased proportions of NCR(+) ILC3 were present in lesional skin and peripheral blood of psoriasis patients as compared with skin and blood of healthy individuals, respectively, whereas the proportions of ILC2 and CD161(+) ILC1 remained unchanged. NCR(+) ILC3 from skin and blood of psoriasis patients produced IL-22, which is regarded as a key driver of epidermal thickening, suggesting that NCR(+) ILC3 may participate in psoriasis pathology.

  10. A reference model for model-based design of critical infrastructure protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Young Don; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Jae-Chon

    2015-05-01

    Today's war field environment is getting versatile as the activities of unconventional wars such as terrorist attacks and cyber-attacks have noticeably increased lately. The damage caused by such unconventional wars has also turned out to be serious particularly if targets are critical infrastructures that are constructed in support of banking and finance, transportation, power, information and communication, government, and so on. The critical infrastructures are usually interconnected to each other and thus are very vulnerable to attack. As such, to ensure the security of critical infrastructures is very important and thus the concept of critical infrastructure protection (CIP) has come. The program to realize the CIP at national level becomes the form of statute in each country. On the other hand, it is also needed to protect each individual critical infrastructure. The objective of this paper is to study on an effort to do so, which can be called the CIP system (CIPS). There could be a variety of ways to design CIPS's. Instead of considering the design of each individual CIPS, a reference model-based approach is taken in this paper. The reference model represents the design of all the CIPS's that have many design elements in common. In addition, the development of the reference model is also carried out using a variety of model diagrams. The modeling language used therein is the systems modeling language (SysML), which was developed and is managed by Object Management Group (OMG) and a de facto standard. Using SysML, the structure and operational concept of the reference model are designed to fulfil the goal of CIPS's, resulting in the block definition and activity diagrams. As a case study, the operational scenario of the nuclear power plant while being attacked by terrorists is studied using the reference model. The effectiveness of the results is also analyzed using multiple analysis models. It is thus expected that the approach taken here has some merits

  11. Thermal design and test results for SUNLITE ultra-stable reference cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.

    1991-01-01

    SUNLITE (Stanford University-NASA Laser In-Space Technology Experiment) is a space-based experiment which uses a reference cavity to provide a stable frequency reference for a terahertz laser oscillator. Thermal stability of the cavity is a key factor in attaining a stable narrow-linewidth laser beam. The mount which is used to support and align the cavity will provide thermal isolation from the environment. The baseline requirement for thermal stability of the cavity is 0.025 C/min, but the design is directed toward achieving stability well beyond this requirement to improve the science data gained. A prototype of the cavity mount was fabricated and tested to characterize the thermal performance. The thermal vacuum test involved stable high-resolution temperature measurements and stable baseplate temperature control over long durations. Based on test data, the cavity mount design satisfies the severe requirement for the cavity thermal stability.

  12. Cryogenic performance of a conduction-cooling splittable quadrupole magnet for ILC cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, N.; Yamamoto, A.; Andreev, N.; Kashikhin, V. S.; Tartaglia, M. A.; Kerby, J.; Takahashi, M.; Tosaka, T.

    2014-01-29

    A conduction-cooled splittable superconducting quadrupole magnet was designed and fabricated at Fermilab for use in cryomodules of the International Linear Collider (ILC) type, in which the magnet was to be assembled around the beam tube to avoid contaminating the ultraclean superconducting radio frequency cavity volume. This quadrupole was first tested in a liquid helium bath environment at Fermilab, where its quench and magnetic properties were characterized. Because the device is to be cooled by conduction when installed in cryomodules, a separate test with a conduction-cooled configuration was planned at KEK and Fermilab. The magnet was converted to a conduction-cooled configuration by adding conduction-cooling passages made of high-purity aluminum. Efforts to convert and refabricate the magnet into a cryostat equipped with a double-stage pulse-tube-type cryocooler began in 2011, and a thermal performance test, including a magnet excitation test of up to 30 A, was conducted at KEK. In this test, the magnet with the conduction-cooled configuration was successfully cooled to 4 K within 190 h, with an acceptable heat load of less than 1 W at 4 K. It was also confirmed that the conduction-cooled splittable superconducting quadrupole magnet was practical for use in ILC-type cryomodules.

  13. Recommendation for Mitigations of the Electron Cloud Instability in the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.T.F.; Wang, L.; Demma, T.; Guiducci, S.; Suetsugu, Y.; Shibata, K.; Ohmi, K.; Dugan, G.; Palmer, M.; Crittenden, J.A.; Harkay, K.; Boon, L.; Furman, M.A.; Vallgren, C.Yin; /CERN

    2011-12-13

    Electron cloud has been identified as one of the highest priority issues for the international Linear Collider (ILC) Damping Rings (DR). An electron cloud Working Group (WG) has evaluated the electron cloud effect and instability, and mitigation solutions for the electron cloud formation. Working group deliverables include recommendations for the baseline and alternate solutions to the electron cloud formation in various regions of the ILC Positron DR, which is presently assumed to be the 3.2 km design. Detailed studies of a range of mitigation options including coatings, clearing electrodes, grooves and novel concepts, were carried out over the previous several years by nearly 50 researchers, and the results of the studies form the basis for the recommendation. The recommendations are the result of the working group discussions held at numerous meetings and during a dedicated workshop. In addition, a number of items requiring further investigation were identified during the discussions at the Cornell meeting and studies will be carried out at CesrTA, a test accelerator dedicated to electron cloud studies, and other institutions.

  14. Cryogenic performance of a conduction-cooling splittable quadrupole magnet for ILC cryomodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, N.; Andreev, N.; Kashikhin, V. S.; Kerby, J.; Takahashi, M.; Tartaglia, M. A.; Tosaka, T.; Yamamoto, A.

    2014-01-01

    A conduction-cooled splittable superconducting quadrupole magnet was designed and fabricated at Fermilab for use in cryomodules of the International Linear Collider (ILC) type, in which the magnet was to be assembled around the beam tube to avoid contaminating the ultraclean superconducting radio frequency cavity volume. This quadrupole was first tested in a liquid helium bath environment at Fermilab, where its quench and magnetic properties were characterized. Because the device is to be cooled by conduction when installed in cryomodules, a separate test with a conduction-cooled configuration was planned at KEK and Fermilab. The magnet was converted to a conduction-cooled configuration by adding conduction-cooling passages made of high-purity aluminum. Efforts to convert and refabricate the magnet into a cryostat equipped with a double-stage pulse-tube-type cryocooler began in 2011, and a thermal performance test, including a magnet excitation test of up to 30 A, was conducted at KEK. In this test, the magnet with the conduction-cooled configuration was successfully cooled to 4 K within 190 h, with an acceptable heat load of less than 1 W at 4 K. It was also confirmed that the conduction-cooled splittable superconducting quadrupole magnet was practical for use in ILC-type cryomodules.

  15. ILC @ SLAC R&D Program for a Polarized RF Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, J.E.; Brachman, A.; Dowell, D.H.; Garwin, E.L.; Ioakemidi, K.; Kirby, R.E.; Maruyama, T.; Miller, R.A.; Prescott, C.Y.; Wang, J.W.; Lewellen, J.W.; Prepost, R.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-01-25

    Photocathode rf guns produce high-energy low-emittance electron beams. DC guns utilizing GaAs photocathodes have proven successful for generating polarized electron beams for accelerators, but they require rf bunching systems that significantly increase the transverse emittance of the beam. With higher extraction field and beam energy, rf guns can support higher current densities at the cathode. The source laser system can then be used to generate the high peak current, relatively low duty-factor micropulses required by the ILC without the need for post-extraction rf bunching. The net result is that the injection system for a polarized rf gun can be identical to that for an unpolarized rf gun. However, there is some uncertainty as to the survivability of an activated GaAs cathode in the environment of an operating rf gun. Consequently, before attempting to design a polarized rf gun for the ILC, SLAC plans to develop an rf test gun to demonstrate the rf operating conditions suitable for an activated GaAs cathode.

  16. Recommendation for Mitigations of the Electron Cloud Instability in the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M. T. F.; Wang, L.; Demma, T.; Guiducci, S.; Suetsugu, Y.; Shibata, K.; Ohmi, K.; Dugan, G.; Palmer, M.; Crittenden, J. A.; Harkay, K.; Boon, L.; Furman, M. A.; Yin Vallgren, A. C.

    2011-09-04

    Electron cloud has been identified as one of the highest priority issues for the international Linear Collider (ILC) Damping Rings (DR). An electron cloud Working Group (WG) has evaluated the electron cloud effect and instability, and mitigation solutions for the electron cloud formation. Working group deliverables include recommendations for the baseline and alternate solutions to the electron cloud formation in various regions of the ILC Positron DR, which is presently assumed to be the 3.2 km design. Detailed studies of a range of mitigation options including coatings, clearing electrodes, grooves and novel concepts, were carried out over the previous several years by nearly 50 researchers, and the results of the studies form the basis for the recommendation. The recommendations are the result of the working group discussions held at numerous meetings and during a dedicated workshop. In addition, a number of items requiring further investigation were identified during the discussions at the Cornell meeting and studies will be carried out at CesrTA, a test accelerator dedicated to electron cloud studies, and other institutions.

  17. Multi-point Adjoint-Based Design of Tilt-Rotors in a Noninertial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William T.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Acree, Cecil W.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of tilt-rotor systems requires the consideration of performance at multiple design points. In the current study, an adjoint-based optimization of a tilt-rotor blade is considered. The optimization seeks to simultaneously maximize the rotorcraft figure of merit in hover and the propulsive efficiency in airplane-mode for a tilt-rotor system. The design is subject to minimum thrust constraints imposed at each design point. The rotor flowfields at each design point are cast as steady-state problems in a noninertial reference frame. Geometric design variables used in the study to control blade shape include: thickness, camber, twist, and taper represented by as many as 123 separate design variables. Performance weighting of each operational mode is considered in the formulation of the composite objective function, and a build up of increasing geometric degrees of freedom is used to isolate the impact of selected design variables. In all cases considered, the resulting designs successfully increase both the hover figure of merit and the airplane-mode propulsive efficiency for a rotor designed with classical techniques.

  18. Analysis of Improved Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2010-06-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using an advanced Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of these system analyses, using the UniSim process analysis software, have shown that the HTE process, when coupled to a VHTR capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 °C to 950 °C, has the potential to produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs with hydrogen production efficiencies in excess of 50%. In addition, economic analyses performed on the INL reference plant design, optimized to maximize the hydrogen production rate for a 600 MWt VHTR, have shown that a large nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant can to be economically competitive with conventional hydrogen production processes, particularly when the penalties associated with greenhouse gas emissions are considered. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This paper describes the resulting new INL reference design and presents

  19. Integrated Design and Production Reference Integration with ArchGenXML V1.00

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, R H

    2004-07-20

    ArchGenXML is a tool that allows easy creation of Zope products through the use of Archetypes. The Integrated Design and Production Reference (IDPR) should be highly configurable in order to meet the needs of a diverse engineering community. Ease of configuration is key to the success of IDPR. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of using a UML diagram editor to configure IDPR through ArchGenXML and Archetypes.

  20. Synergistic antitumor effects of 131I-LC-1 IgM and IL-12 vaccine on Lewis lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao Ling; Yan, Xuexian; Wen, Ming; Peng, Zhi Ping; Li, Shao Lin

    2010-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the antitumor effects of iodine-131 labeled monoclonal antibody LC-1 ((131)I-LC-1), interleukin-12 (IL-12) vaccine, or the combination of both on C57BL/6 mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumors. Tumor-bearing mice models were randomly divided into 4 groups that were respectively injected intratumorally with phosphate buffered solution (PBS), IL-12 vaccine gene therapy (GT), (131)I-LC-1 radioimmuno-therapy (RIT), or GT+RIT. Tumor volumes were measured before and after treatment. ELISA and RT-PCR determined the expression of IL-l2. LC-1 monoclonal antibody (Mab) was labeled with Na(131)I. Cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity assay, Natural Killer cell (NK) activity assay and apoptosis analysis were performed. Intratumoral (131)I-LC-1 injection leads to higher delivery of the antibody to the tumor. Tumor apoptosis occurred in the GT, RIT and GT+RIT groups. Tumor growth was inhibited in the GT, RIT and GT+RIT groups. Compared with other groups, the combination of GT+RIT up-regulated the expression of IL-l2 gene and inhibited the tumor growth more effectively than either GT or RIT alone (p<0.05). These results suggest that GT+RIT have the synergistic antitumor effects on tumor-bearing mice.

  1. Longitudinal Single-Bunch Instability in the ILC Damping Rings: Estimate of Current Threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, Marco; Venturini, Marco

    2008-06-25

    Characterization of single-bunch instabilities in the International Linear Collider (ILC) damping rings (DRs) has been indicated as a high-priority activity toward completion of an engineering design. In this paper we report on a first estimate ofthe current thresholds for the instability using numerical and analytical models of the wake potentials associated with the various machine components. The numerical models were derived (upon appropriate scaling) from designs of the correspondingcomponents installed in existing machines. The current thresholds for instabilities were determined by numerical solution of the Vlasov equation for the longitudinal dynamics. For the DR baseline lattice as of Feb. 2007 we find the critical current forinstability to be safely above the design specifications leaving room for further optimization of the choice of the momentum compaction.

  2. CCR7-dependent trafficking of RORγ+ ILCs creates a unique microenvironment within mucosal draining lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Mackley, Emma C.; Houston, Stephanie; Marriott, Clare L.; Halford, Emily E.; Lucas, Beth; Cerovic, Vuk; Filbey, Kara J.; Maizels, Rick M.; Hepworth, Matthew R.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Milling, Simon; Withers, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Presentation of peptide:MHCII by RORγ-expressing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s), which are enriched within gut tissue, is required for control of CD4 T-cell responses to commensal bacteria. It is not known whether ILC populations migrate from their mucosal and peripheral sites to local draining secondary lymphoid tissues. Here we demonstrate that ILC3s reside within the interfollicular areas of mucosal draining lymph nodes, forming a distinct microenvironment not observed in peripheral lymph nodes. By photoconverting intestinal cells in Kaede mice we reveal constitutive trafficking of ILCs from the intestine to the draining mesenteric lymph nodes, which specifically for the LTi-like ILC3s was CCR7-dependent. Thus, ILC populations traffic to draining lymph nodes using different mechanisms. PMID:25575242

  3. Leptophilic dark matter in lepton interactions at LEP and ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, A.; Westhoff, S.

    2014-10-01

    Dark matter particles that couple primarily to leptons are only weakly constrained by data from direct detection experiments and the LHC. However, models of this kind necessarily generate effective four-lepton contact interactions at the tree- or one-loop-level, which can be probed in e + e - collisions. In this work, precise data from LEP is used to derive limits on leptophilic dark matter in a model-independent framework. The bounds turn out to be competitive with, and in some cases exceed, limits from mono-photon events. We also extrapolate our results to ILC energies and luminosities. We show that ILC data for contact interactions may be able to set the strongest limits on TeV-scale leptophilic dark matter for couplings g ≳1 of the mediators.

  4. Electroweak radiative corrections to triple photon production at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Wei-Hua; Duan, Peng-Fei; Song, Mao; Li, Gang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present the precision predictions for three photon production in the standard model (SM) at the ILC including the full next-to-leading (NLO) electroweak (EW) corrections, high order initial state radiation (h.o.ISR) contributions and beamstrahlung effects. We present the LO and the NLO EW + h.o.ISR + beamstrahlung corrected total cross sections for various colliding energy when √{ s} ≥ 200 GeV and the kinematic distributions of final photons with √{ s} = 500 GeV at ILC, and find that the NLO EW corrections, the h.o.ISR contributions and the beamstrahlung effects are important in exploring the process e+e- → γγγ.

  5. Longitudinal Beam Diagnostics for the ILC Injectors and Bunch Compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, Philippe; Bracke, Adam; Demir, Veysel; Maxwell, Timothy; Rihaoui, Marwan; Jing, Chunguang; Power, John

    2010-12-01

    We present a diagnostics suite and analyze techniques for setting up the longitudinal beam dynamics in ILC e⁻ injectors and e⁺ and e⁻ bunch compressors. Techniques to measure the first order moments and recover the first order longitudinal transfer map of the injector's intricate bunching scheme are presented. Coherent transition radiation diagnostics needed to measure and monitor the bunch length downstream of the ~5 GeV bunch compressor are investigated using a vector diffraction model.

  6. QCD correction to single top quark production at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Penunuri, F.; Larios, F.; Bouzas, Antonio O.

    2011-04-01

    Single top quark production at the International Linear Collider (ILC) can be used to obtain high precision measurements of the V{sub tb} Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing matrix (CKM) element as well as the effective tbW coupling. We have calculated the QCD correction for the cross section in the context of an effective vector boson approximation. Our results show a {approx}10% increase due to the strong interaction.

  7. Hard Pomeron in Exclusive Meson Production at ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enberg, R.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2006-03-01

    We calculate the exclusive process gamma *L (Q12)gamma *L(Q22) to rho 0L rho 0L, at high energy. The Born level estimate and the leading (LLA) and next to leading order (NLLA) BFKL resummation effects show the feasibility of experimental detection in a quite large range of Q2 values at future high energy e+e- linear colliders ILC.

  8. A Study of Thermocurrent Induced Magnetic Fields in ILC Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Anthony C.; Cooley, Victoria

    2014-03-31

    The case of axisymmetric ILC type cavities with titanium helium vessels is investigated. A first order estimate for magnetic field within the SRF current layer is presented. The induced magnetic field is found to be not more than 1.4x10-8 Tesla = 0.14 milligauss for the case of axial symmetry. Magnetic fields due to symmetry breaking effects are discussed.

  9. Wakefield Effects in the Beam Delivery System of the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Seryi, A.; /SLAC

    2007-06-27

    The main linac of the International Linear Collider (ILC) accelerates short, high peak current bunches into the Beam Delivery System (BDS) on the way to the interaction point. In the BDS wakefields, excited by the resistance of the beam pipe walls and by beam pipe transitions, will tend to degrade the emittance of the beam bunches. In this report we calculate the effect on single bunch emittance of incoming jitter or drift, and of misalignments of the beam pipes with respect to the beam axis, both analytically and through multi-particle tracking. As we want to keep emittance growth due to this effect small, we consider also mitigation measures of changing the metallic surface material and/or the beam pipe aperture. The wake effects are studied in that part of the BDS which includes the collimation and final focus systems. Typical ILC beam parameters are given in Table 1. Initially a stainless steel (SS) beam pipe is considered. Note that the ILC collimator wakes, though very important, are not included in this study; their effects have been studied elsewhere [1]. Note also that similar methods are presented in recent reports Refs. [2],[3].

  10. Planetary benchmarks. [structural design criteria for radar reference devices on planetary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uphoff, C.; Staehle, R.; Kobrick, M.; Jurgens, R.; Price, H.; Slade, M.; Sonnabend, D.

    1978-01-01

    Design criteria and technology requirements for a system of radar reference devices to be fixed to the surfaces of the inner planets are discussed. Offshoot applications include the use of radar corner reflectors as landing beacons on the planetary surfaces and some deep space applications that may yield a greatly enhanced knowledge of the gravitational and electromagnetic structure of the solar system. Passive retroreflectors with dimensions of about 4 meters and weighing about 10 kg are feasible for use with orbiting radar at Venus and Mars. Earth-based observation of passive reflectors, however, would require very large and complex structures to be delivered to the surfaces. For Earth-based measurements, surface transponders offer a distinct advantage in accuracy over passive reflectors. A conceptual design for a high temperature transponder is presented. The design appears feasible for the Venus surface using existing electronics and power components.

  11. High density wireless EEG prototype: Design and evaluation against reference equipment.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Stefano; Patki, Shrishail; Passoni, Marco; Perko, Hannes; Gritsch, Gerhard; Ossenblok, Pauly; Yazicioglu, Refet Firat

    2014-01-01

    A high density wireless electroencephalographic (EEG) platform has been designed. It is able to record up to 64 EEG channels with electrode to tissue impedance (ETI) monitoring. The analog front-end is based on two kinds of low power ASICs implementing the active electrodes and the amplifier. A power efficient compression algorithm enables the use of continuous wireless transmission of data through Bluetooth for real-time monitoring with an overall power consumption of about 350 mW. EEG acquisitions on five subjects (one healthy subject and four patients suffering from epilepsy) have been recorded in parallel with a reference system commonly used in clinical practice and data of the wireless prototype and reference system have been processed with an automatic tool for seizure detection and localization. The false alarm rates (0.1-0.5 events per hour) are comparable between the two system and wireless prototype also detected the seizure correctly and allowed its localization.

  12. Requirements and design reference mission for the WFIRST/AFTA coronagraph instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Richard T.; Dekens, Frank; Calvet, Rob; Chang, Zensheu; Effinger, Robert; Ek, Eric; Hovland, Larry; Jones, Laura; Loc, Anthony; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Charley; Neville, Timothy; Pham, Hung; Rud, Mike; Tang, Hong; Villalvazo, Juan

    2015-09-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument takes advantage of AFTAs 2.4-meter aperture to provide novel exoplanet imaging science at approximately the same instrument cost as an Explorer mission. The AFTA coronagraph also matures direct imaging technologies to high TRL for an Exo-Earth Imager in the next decade. The coronagraph Design Reference Mission (DRM) optical design is based on the highly successful High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), with modifications to accommodate the AFTA telescope design, service-ability, volume constraints, and the addition of an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). In order to optimally satisfy the three science objectives of planet imaging, planet spectral characterization and dust debris imaging, the coronagraph is designed to operate in two different modes: Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph. Active mechanisms change pupil masks, focal plane masks, Lyot masks, and bandpass filters to shift between modes. A single optical beam train can thus operate alternatively as two different coronagraph architectures. Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis predicts the instrument contrast with the Low Order Wave Front Control loop closed. The STOP analysis was also used to verify that the optical/structural/thermal design provides the extreme stability required for planet characterization in the presence of thermal disturbances expected in a typical observing scenario. This paper describes the instrument design and the flow down from science requirements to high level engineering requirements.

  13. Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0, Addendum #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G. (Editor); Watts Kevin D. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    This report serves as the second Addendum to NASA-SP-2009-566, "Human Exploration of Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0." The data and descriptions contained within this Addendum capture some of the key assessments and studies produced since publication of the original document, predominately covering those conducted from 2009 through 2012. The assessments and studies described herein are for the most part independent stand-alone contributions. Effort has not been made to assimilate the findings to provide an updated integrated strategy. That is a recognized future effort. This report should not be viewed as constituting a formal plan for the human exploration of Mars.

  14. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (CPS) Configuration in Support of NASA's Multiple Design Reference Missions (DRMs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, Stephen G.; Jones, David L.; Creech, Stephen D.; Lawrence, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), the Space Launch System (SLS) is being designed for safe, affordable, and sustainable human and scientific exploration missions beyond Earth's or-bit (BEO). The SLS Team is tasked with developing a system capable of safely and repeatedly lofting a new fleet of spaceflight vehicles beyond Earth orbit. The Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (CPS) is a key enabler for evolving the SLS capability for BEO missions. This paper reports on the methodology and initial recommendations relative to the CPS, giving a brief retrospective of early studies on this promising propulsion hardware. This paper provides an overview of the requirements development and CPS configuration in support of NASA's multiple Design Reference Missions (DRMs).

  15. Design verification of large time constant thermal shields for optical reference cavities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Wu, W; Shi, X H; Zeng, X Y; Deng, K; Lu, Z H

    2016-02-01

    In order to achieve high frequency stability in ultra-stable lasers, the Fabry-Pérot reference cavities shall be put inside vacuum chambers with large thermal time constants to reduce the sensitivity to external temperature fluctuations. Currently, the determination of thermal time constants of vacuum chambers is based either on theoretical calculation or time-consuming experiments. The first method can only apply to simple system, while the second method will take a lot of time to try out different designs. To overcome these limitations, we present thermal time constant simulation using finite element analysis (FEA) based on complete vacuum chamber models and verify the results with measured time constants. We measure the thermal time constants using ultrastable laser systems and a frequency comb. The thermal expansion coefficients of optical reference cavities are precisely measured to reduce the measurement error of time constants. The simulation results and the experimental results agree very well. With this knowledge, we simulate several simplified design models using FEA to obtain larger vacuum thermal time constants at room temperature, taking into account vacuum pressure, shielding layers, and support structure. We adopt the Taguchi method for shielding layer optimization and demonstrate that layer material and layer number dominate the contributions to the thermal time constant, compared with layer thickness and layer spacing. PMID:26931831

  16. Copper Prototype Measurements of the HOM, LOM and SOM Couplers for the ILC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.K.; Dexter, A.C.; Bellantoni, L.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.A.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2008-06-23

    The ILC Crab Cavity is positioned close to the IP and delivered luminosity is very sensitive to the wakefields induced in it by the beam. A set of couplers were designed to couple to and damp the spurious modes of the crab cavity. As the crab cavity operates using a dipole mode, it has different damping requirements from an accelerating cavity. A separate coupler is required for the monopole modes below the operating frequency of 3.9 GHz (known as the LOMs), the opposite polarization of the operating mode (the SOM), and the modes above the operating frequency (the HOMs). Prototypes of each of these couplers have been manufactured out of copper and measured attached to an aluminum nine cell prototype of the cavity and their external Q factors were measured. The results were found to agree well with numerical simulations.

  17. Copper Prototype Measurements of the HOM, LOM And SOM Couplers for the ILC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.K.; Dexter, A.C.; Bellantoni, L.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.A.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2011-11-04

    The ILC Crab Cavity is positioned close to the IP and delivered luminosity is very sensitive to the wakefields induced in it by the beam. A set of couplers were designed to couple to and damp the spurious modes of the crab cavity. As the crab cavity operates using a dipole mode, it has different damping requirements from an accelerating cavity. A separate coupler is required for the monopole modes below the operating frequency of 3.9 GHz (known as the LOMs), the opposite polarization of the operating mode (the SOM), and the modes above the operating frequency (the HOMs). Prototypes of each of these couplers have been manufactured out of copper and measured attached to an aluminum nine cell prototype of the cavity and their external Q factors were measured. The results were found to agree well with numerical simulations.

  18. Multi-Bunch Simulations of the ILC for Luminosity Performance Studies

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.; Walker, N.; Schulte, D.; /CERN

    2005-07-11

    To study the luminosity performance of the International Linear Collider (ILC) with different design parameters, a simulation was constructed that tracks a multi-bunch representation of the beam from the Damping Ring extraction through to the Interaction Point. The simulation code PLACET is used to simulate the LINAC, MatMerlin is used to track through the Beam Delivery System and GUINEA-PIG for the beam-beam interaction. Included in the simulation are ground motion and wakefield effects, intra-train fast feedback and luminosity-based feedback systems. To efficiently study multiple parameters/multiple seeds, the simulation is deployed on the Queen Mary High-Throughput computing cluster at Queen Mary, University of London, where 100 simultaneous simulation seeds can be run.

  19. Development of a 10 MW Sheet Beam Klystron for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Sprehn, D.; Jongewaard, E.; Haase, A.; Jensen, A.; Martin, D.; Burke, A.; /SAIC, Sunnyvale

    2009-05-07

    SLAC is developing a 10 MW, 5 Hz, 1.6 ms, L-band (1.3 GHz) Sheet-Beam Klystron as a less expensive and more compact alternative to the ILC baseline Multiple-Beam Klystron. The Klystron is intended as a plug-compatible device of the same beam current and operating voltage as existing Multiple-Beam Klystrons. At this time, a beam tester has been constructed and currently is in test. The beam tester includes an intercepting cup for making beam quality measurements of the 130 A, 40-to-1 aspect ratio beam. Measurements will be made of the electrostatic beam and of the beam after transporting through a drift tube and magnetic focusing system. General theory of operation, design trade-offs, and manufacturing considerations of both the beam tester and klystron will be discussed.

  20. 48 CFR 28.204-3 - Irrevocable letter of credit (ILC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contracting officer shall use the sight draft set forth in the clause at 52.228-14, and present it with the... substitute an acceptable ILC or shall draw on the ILC using the sight draft in paragraph (g) of the clause...

  1. 48 CFR 28.204-3 - Irrevocable letter of credit (ILC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contracting officer shall use the sight draft set forth in the clause at 52.228-14, and present it with the... substitute an acceptable ILC or shall draw on the ILC using the sight draft in paragraph (g) of the clause...

  2. ILC3 GM-CSF production and mobilisation orchestrate acute intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Claire; Thornton, Emily E; McKenzie, Brent; Schaupp, Anna-Lena; Huskens, Nicky; Griseri, Thibault; West, Nathaniel; Tung, Sim; Seddon, Benedict P; Uhlig, Holm H; Powrie, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) contribute to host defence and tissue repair but can induce immunopathology. Recent work has revealed tissue-specific roles for ILCs; however, the question of how a small population has large effects on immune homeostasis remains unclear. We identify two mechanisms that ILC3s utilise to exert their effects within intestinal tissue. ILC-driven colitis depends on production of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which recruits and maintains intestinal inflammatory monocytes. ILCs present in the intestine also enter and exit cryptopatches in a highly dynamic process. During colitis, ILC3s mobilize from cryptopatches, a process that can be inhibited by blocking GM-CSF, and mobilization precedes inflammatory foci elsewhere in the tissue. Together these data identify the IL-23R/GM-CSF axis within ILC3 as a key control point in the accumulation of innate effector cells in the intestine and in the spatio-temporal dynamics of ILCs in the intestinal inflammatory response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10066.001 PMID:26780670

  3. ILC You Later: Early and Irreparable Loss of Innate Lymphocytes in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Joseph C; Brenchley, Jason M

    2016-02-16

    Loss of IL-17-producing cells in the gut during HIV infection is linked to GI barrier damage. Kløverpris et al. (2016) find that circulating ILCs are lost early and irreversibly during HIV infection. Early ART administration protects against the ILC loss, and this might be clinically beneficial to HIV-infected individuals. PMID:26885853

  4. ILC3 GM-CSF production and mobilisation orchestrate acute intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Claire; Thornton, Emily E; McKenzie, Brent; Schaupp, Anna-Lena; Huskens, Nicky; Griseri, Thibault; West, Nathaniel; Tung, Sim; Seddon, Benedict P; Uhlig, Holm H; Powrie, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) contribute to host defence and tissue repair but can induce immunopathology. Recent work has revealed tissue-specific roles for ILCs; however, the question of how a small population has large effects on immune homeostasis remains unclear. We identify two mechanisms that ILC3s utilise to exert their effects within intestinal tissue. ILC-driven colitis depends on production of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which recruits and maintains intestinal inflammatory monocytes. ILCs present in the intestine also enter and exit cryptopatches in a highly dynamic process. During colitis, ILC3s mobilize from cryptopatches, a process that can be inhibited by blocking GM-CSF, and mobilization precedes inflammatory foci elsewhere in the tissue. Together these data identify the IL-23R/GM-CSF axis within ILC3 as a key control point in the accumulation of innate effector cells in the intestine and in the spatio-temporal dynamics of ILCs in the intestinal inflammatory response. PMID:26780670

  5. Benchmarking / Crosschecking DFS in the ILC Main Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey C.; Eliasson, Peder; Latina, Andrea; Schulte, Daniel; Poirier, Freddy; Walker, Nicholas; Lebrun, Paul; Ranjan, Kirti; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Tenenbaum, Peter; /SLAC

    2007-01-08

    In an effort to compare beam dynamics and create a ''benchmark'' for Dispersion Free Steering (DFS) a comparison was made between different ILC simulation programs while performing DFS. This study consisted of three parts. First, a simple betatron oscillation was tracked through each code. Secondly, a set of component misalignments and corrector settings generated from one program was read into the others to confirm similar emittance dilution. Thirdly, given the same set of component misalignments DFS was performed independently in each program and the resulting emittance dilution was compared. Performance was found to agree exceptionally well in all three studies.

  6. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IVV) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IVV portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IVV projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management.

  7. Characterization of bandgap reference circuits designed for high energy physics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traversi, G.; De Canio, F.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Mattiazzo, S.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Riceputi, E.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work is to design a high performance bandgap voltage reference circuit in a standard commercial 65 nm CMOS technology capable of operating in harsh radiation environments. A prototype circuit based on three different devices (diode, bipolar transistor and MOSFET) was fabricated and tested. Measurement results show a temperature variation as low as ±3.4 mV over a temperature range of 170 ° C (-30 °C to 140 °C) and a line regulation at room temperature of 5.2%/V. Measured VREF is 690 mV±15 mV (3σ) for 26 samples on the same wafer. Circuits correctly operate with supply voltages in the range from 1.32 V down to 0.78 V. A reference voltage shift of only 7.6 mV (around 1.1%) was measured after irradiation with 10 keV X-rays up to an integrated dose of 225 Mrad (SiO2).

  8. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator. Engineering design and reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Meile, L.J.

    1982-11-05

    The information in this manual is being presented to complete the documentation of the fluidized-bed incineration (FBI) process development at the Rocky Flats Plant. The information pertains to the 82-kg/hour demonstration unit at the Rocky Flats Plant. This document continues the presentation of design reference material in the aeas of equipment drawings, space requirements, and unit costs. In addition, appendices contain an operating procedure and an operational safety analysis of the process. The cost figures presented are based on 1978 dollars and have not been converted to a current dollar value. Also, the cost of modifications are not included, since they would be insignificant if they were incorporated into a new installation.

  9. Human Health and Performance Aspects of the Mars Design Reference Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will describe the current planning for exploration-class missions, emphasizing the medical, and human factors aspects of such expeditions. The details of mission architecture are still under study, but a typical Mars design reference mission comprises a six-month transit from Earth to Mar, eighteen months in residence on Mars, and a six-month transit back to Earth. Physiological stressors will include environmental factors such as prolonged exposure to radiation, weightlessness in transit, and hypogravity and a toxic atmosphere while on Mars. Psychological stressors will include remoteness from Earth, confinement, and potential interpersonal conflicts, all complicated by circadian alterations. Medical risks including trauma must also be considered. Results of planning for assuring human health and performance will be presented.

  10. Performance of three 4. 5 m dipoles for SSC reference design D

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, P.; Cottingham, J.; Fernow, R.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Goodzeit, C.; Greene, A.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.

    1985-01-01

    Three 4.5 m long dipoles for Reference Design D of the proposed Superconducting Super Collider have been successfully tested. The magnets are cold-iron (and cold bore) 1-in-1 dipoles, wound with current density-graded high homogeneity NbTi cable in a two-layer cos theta coil of 40 mm inner diameter. The coil is prestressed by 15 mm wide stainless steel collars, and mounted in a circular, split iron yoke of 267 mm outer diameter, supported in a cylindrical yoke containment vessel. At 4.5 K the magnets reached a field of about 6.6T with little training, or the short sample limit of the conductor, and in subcooled (2.6 to 2.4 K) liquid, 8T was achieved. The allowed harmonics were close to the predicted values, and the unallowed harmonics small. The sextupole trim coil operated at eight times the required current without training.

  11. Use of the 4D-Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM) for space shuttle descent design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    The method of using the Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM) mean and dispersed atmospheres to study skipout/overshoot requirements, to characterize mean and worst case vehicle temperatures, study control requirements, and verify design was discussed. Landing sites in these analyses range from 65 N to 30 S, while orbit inclinations vary from 20 deg to 98 deg. The primary concern was that they cannot use as small vertical steps in the reentry calculation as desired because the model predicts anomalously large density shear rates for very small vertical step sizes. The winds predicted by the model are not satisfactory. This is probably because they are geostrophic winds and because the model has an error in the computation of winds in the equatorial regions.

  12. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IV&V portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IV&V projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IV&V techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. Additionally, the role FM has with regard to strengthened security requirements, with potential to advance overall asset protection of flight software systems, is being addressed with the development of an adverse conditions database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities. Capitalizing on the established framework, this TR suite provides assurance capability for a variety of FM architectures and varied development approaches. Research results are being disseminated across NASA, other agencies, and the

  13. Search for Higgs portal DM at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, P.; Yokoya, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Higgs portal dark matter (DM) models are simple interesting and viable DM models. There are three types of the models depending on the DM spin: scalar, fermion and vector DM models. In this paper, we consider renormalizable, unitary and gauge invariant Higgs portal DM models, and study how large parameter regions can be surveyed at the International Linear Collider (ILC) experiment at √{s}=500 GeV. For the Higgs portal singlet fermion and vector DM cases, the force mediator involves two scalar propagators, the SM-like Higgs boson and the dark Higgs boson. We show that their interference generates interesting and important patterns in the mono- Z plus missing E T signatures at the ILC, and the results are completely different from those obtained from the Higgs portal DM models within the effective field theories. In addition, we show that it would be possible to distinguish the spin of DM in the Higgs portal scenarios, if the shape of the recoil-mass distribution is observed. We emphasize that the interplay between these collider observations and those in the direct detection experiments has to be performed in the model with renomalizability and unitarity to combine the model analyses in different scales.

  14. First results with prototype ISIS devices for ILC vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damerell, C.; Zhang, Z.; Gao, R.; John John, Jaya; Li, Y.; Nomerotski, A.; Holland, A.; Seabroke, G.; Havranek, M.; Stefanov, K.; Kar-Roy, A.; Bell, R.; Burt, D.; Pool, P.

    2010-12-01

    The vertex detectors at the International Linear Collider (ILC) (there will be two of them, one for each of two general purpose detectors) will certainly be built with silicon pixel detectors, either monolithic or perhaps vertically integrated. However, beyond this general statement, there is a wide range of options supported by active R&D programmes all over the world. Pixel-based vertex detectors build on the experience at the SLAC large detector (SLD) operating at the SLAC linear collider (SLC), where a 307 Mpixel detector permitted the highest physics performance at LEP or SLC. For ILC, machine conditions demand much faster readout than at SLC, something like 20 time slices during the 1 ms bunch train. The approach of the image sensor with in-situ storage (ISIS) is unique in offering this capability while avoiding the undesirable requirement of 'pulsed power'. First results from a prototype device that approaches the pixel size of 20 μm square, needed for physics, are reported. The dimensional challenge is met by using a 0.18 μm imaging CMOS process, instead of a conventional CCD process.

  15. Mechanical design of the University of Florida Torsion Pendulum for testing the LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelley, Ryan; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Tawio; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2014-03-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) requires free falling test masses, whose acceleration must be below 3 fm/s2/rtHz in the lower part of LISA's frequency band ranging from 0.1 to 100 mHz. Gravitational reference sensors (GRS) house the test masses, shield them from external disturbances, control their orientation, and sense their position at the nm/rtHz level. The GRS torsion pendulum is a laboratory test bed for GRS technology. By decoupling the system of test masses from the gravity of the Earth, it is possible to identify and quantify many sources of noise in the sensor. The mechanical design of the pendulum is critical to the study of the noise sources and the development of new technologies that can improve performance and reduce cost. The suspended test mass is a hollow, gold-coated, aluminum cube which rests inside a gold-coated, aluminum housing with electrodes for sensing and actuating all six degrees of freedom. This poster describes the design, analysis, and assembly of the mechanical subsystems of the UF Torsion Pendulum.

  16. Design Of A SCRAMJET Nozzle With Streamline Tracing Technique And Reference Temerature Methode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehmer, J.; Gulhan, A.

    2011-05-01

    This study presents a method to find an optimal shape of a three-dimensional supersonic nozzle for a rectangular scramjet combustion chamber with rounded edges by taking into account the skin friction effects. The geometric and flow constraints are defined within the German DFG GRK 1095/2 project and the designed nozzle will be part of a scramjet demonstrator configuration [1]. The nozzle inlet conditions are mean values of the combustion chamber exit conditions with the assumption of a constant specific heat ratio. To generate the shape of the nozzle a streamline tracing technique is applied to an axis-symmetric flow field calculated by the Method of Characteristics (MOC). Skin friction in relatively high pressure supersonic flow from the combustion chamber is very dominant and cannot be neglected in the design process. Therefore the skin friction is calculated using the Reference Temperature Method (RTM) and used for the determination of the thrust and moment vectors. This allows considering viscous effects without boundary layer calculations. With this approach an optimal truncated ideal nozzle contour which yields the geometric constraints can be derived. For the validation of this method comparative calculations have been carried out with the DLR code TAU on an exemplary axis-symmetric supersonic nozzle for different flow conditions. Results showed a good agreement. Finally for the three-dimensional nozzle the analytical solution for the inviscous and viscous case provided comparable data like TAU simulations. Further simplifications of the approach for an efficient three-dimensional nozzle design will be addressed in the paper.

  17. REFERENCE MANUAL FOR RASSMIT VERSION 2.1: SUB-SLAB DEPRESSURIZATION SYSTEM DESIGN PERFORMANCE SIMULATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a reference manual for RASSMlT Version 2.1, a computer program that was developed to simulate and aid in the design of sub-slab depressurization systems used for indoor radon mitigation. The program was designed to run on DOS-compatible personal computers to ensure ...

  18. The X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS): A Reference Cryogenic Instrument Design for Constellation-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehouse, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    Constellation-X, a mission now belonging to the Beyond Einstein initiative, is being planned to inherit the x-ray sky from Chandra, XMM-Newton and Astro-E. The first two of four observatories in the constellation will be launched together in 2013 and followed a year later by the launch of the remaining two. The four will independently orbit the Sun-Earth Lagrange point L2. An instrument compliment resides in the Focal Plane Module (FPM) of each observatory 10 m from the Optics Module and consists of three Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) detectors, a Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) focal plane CCD camera and an X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS). Instrument awards are scheduled for early 2006. The reference detector for XMS is a 32 x 32 array of microcalorimetric superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES). Each pixel casts a variable resistance in a SQUID based multiplexed readout circuit which is coupled to series SQUID arrays for amplification and finally read out by external electronics. A multi-stage continuous ADR will provide the stable 50 mK desired for the TES array and a stable 1 K for the series SQUID arrays while also lifting thermal parasitic and inefficiency loads to a 6 K cryocooler interface. The 6 K cryocooler is expected to emerge from the joint-project Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program (ACTDP) in which Constellation-X is an active participant. Project Pre-Formulation activities are marked by extensive technology development necessitating early, but realistic, thermal and cooling load requirements for ADR and ACTDP-cryocooler design points. Such requirements are driven by the encompassing XMS cryostat and ultimately by the thermal environment imposed by the FPM. It is further desired that the XMS instrument be able to operate on its side in the laboratory, with a warm vacuum shell, during an extensive calibration regime. It is that reference system design of the XMS instrument (microcalorimeter, ADR, cryocooler and

  19. Optimization of the Low-Loss SRF Cavity for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Li; L. Ge; K. Ko; L. Lee; C.-K. Ng; G. L. Schussman; L. Xiao; T. Higo; Y. Morozumi; K. Saito; P. Kneisel; J. S. Sekutowicz

    2007-08-01

    The Low-Loss shape cavity design has been proposed as a possible alternative to the baseline TESLA cavity design for the ILC. The advantages of this design over the TESLA cavity are its lower cryogenic loss, and higher achievable gradient due to lower surface fields. High gradient prototypes for such designs have been tested at KEK (ICHIRO) and JLab (LL). However, issues related to HOM damping and multipacting (MP) still need to be addressed. Preliminary numerical studies of the prototype cavities have shown unacceptable damping for some higher-order dipole modes if the typical TESLA HOM couplers are directly adapted to the design. The resulting wakefield will dilute the beam emittance thus reduces the machine luminosity. Furthermore, high gradient tests on a 9-cell prototype at KEK have experienced MP barriers although a single LL cell had achieved a high gradient. From simulations, MP activities are found to occur in the end-groups of the cavity. In this paper, we will present the optimization results of the end-groups for the Low-Loss shape for effective HOM damping and alleviation of multipacting. Comparisons of simulation results with measurements will also be presented.

  20. Vehicle occupancy detection camera position optimization using design of experiments and standard image references

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Peter; Hoover, Martin; Rabbani, Mojgan

    2013-03-01

    Camera positioning and orientation is important to applications in domains such as transportation since the objects to be imaged vary greatly in shape and size. In a typical transportation application that requires capturing still images, inductive loops buried in the ground or laser trigger sensors are used when a vehicle reaches the image capture zone to trigger the image capture system. The camera in such a system is in a fixed position pointed at the roadway and at a fixed orientation. Thus the problem is to determine the optimal location and orientation of the camera when capturing images from a wide variety of vehicles. Methods from Design for Six Sigma, including identifying important parameters and noise sources and performing systematically designed experiments (DOE) can be used to determine an effective set of parameter settings for the camera position and orientation under these conditions. In the transportation application of high occupancy vehicle lane enforcement, the number of passengers in the vehicle is to be counted. Past work has described front seat vehicle occupant counting using a camera mounted on an overhead gantry looking through the front windshield in order to capture images of vehicle occupants. However, viewing rear seat passengers is more problematic due to obstructions including the vehicle body frame structures and seats. One approach is to view the rear seats through the side window. In this situation the problem of optimally positioning and orienting the camera to adequately capture the rear seats through the side window can be addressed through a designed experiment. In any automated traffic enforcement system it is necessary for humans to be able to review any automatically captured digital imagery in order to verify detected infractions. Thus for defining an output to be optimized for the designed experiment, a human defined standard image reference (SIR) was used to quantify the quality of the line-of-sight to the rear seats of

  1. Diffusive Barrier and Getter Under Waste Packages VA Reference Design Feature Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    MacNeil, K.

    1999-05-24

    This technical document evaluates those aspects of the diffusive barrier and getter features which have the potential for enhancing the performance of the Viability Assessment Reference Design and are also directly related to the key attributes for the repository safety strategy of that design. The effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the radionuclide migration rates through the diffusive barrier were determined through the application of the one-dimensional, advection/dispersion/diffusion equation. The results showed that because advective flow described by the advection-dispersion equation dominates, the diffusive barrier feature alone would not be effective in retarding migration of radiocuclides. However, if the diffusive barrier were combined with one or more features that reduced the potential for advection, then transport of radionuclides would be dominated by diffusion and their migration from the EBS would be impeded. Apatite was chosen as the getter material used for this report. Two getter configurations were developed, Case 1 and Case 2. As in the evaluation of the diffusive barrier, the effects of advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, and diffusion on the migration of radionuclides through the getter are evaluated. However, in addition to these mechanisms, the one-dimensional advection/dispersion/diffusion model is modified to include the effect of sorption on radionuclide migration rates through the sorptive medium (getter). As a result of sorption, the longitudinal dispersion coefficient, and the average linear velocity are effectively reduced by the retardation factor. The retardation factor is a function of the getter material's dry bulk density, sorption coefficient and moisture content. The results of the evaluation showed that a significant delay in breakthrough through the getter can be achieved if the thickness of the getter barrier is increased.

  2. A Design Method of Code Correlation Reference Waveform in GNSS Based on Least-Squares Fitting.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chengtao; Liu, Zhe; Tang, Xiaomei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-07-29

    The multipath effect is one of the main error sources in the Global Satellite Navigation Systems (GNSSs). The code correlation reference waveform (CCRW) technique is an effective multipath mitigation algorithm for the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signal. However, it encounters the false lock problem in code tracking, when applied to the binary offset carrier (BOC) signals. A least-squares approximation method of the CCRW design scheme is proposed, utilizing the truncated singular value decomposition method. This algorithm was performed for the BPSK signal, BOC(1,1) signal, BOC(2,1) signal, BOC(6,1) and BOC(7,1) signal. The approximation results of CCRWs were presented. Furthermore, the performances of the approximation results are analyzed in terms of the multipath error envelope and the tracking jitter. The results show that the proposed method can realize coherent and non-coherent CCRW discriminators without false lock points. Generally, there is performance degradation in the tracking jitter, if compared to the CCRW discriminator. However, the performance promotions in the multipath error envelope for the BOC(1,1) and BPSK signals makes the discriminator attractive, and it can be applied to high-order BOC signals.

  3. A Design Method of Code Correlation Reference Waveform in GNSS Based on Least-Squares Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chengtao; Liu, Zhe; Tang, Xiaomei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    The multipath effect is one of the main error sources in the Global Satellite Navigation Systems (GNSSs). The code correlation reference waveform (CCRW) technique is an effective multipath mitigation algorithm for the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signal. However, it encounters the false lock problem in code tracking, when applied to the binary offset carrier (BOC) signals. A least-squares approximation method of the CCRW design scheme is proposed, utilizing the truncated singular value decomposition method. This algorithm was performed for the BPSK signal, BOC(1,1) signal, BOC(2,1) signal, BOC(6,1) and BOC(7,1) signal. The approximation results of CCRWs were presented. Furthermore, the performances of the approximation results are analyzed in terms of the multipath error envelope and the tracking jitter. The results show that the proposed method can realize coherent and non-coherent CCRW discriminators without false lock points. Generally, there is performance degradation in the tracking jitter, if compared to the CCRW discriminator. However, the performance promotions in the multipath error envelope for the BOC(1,1) and BPSK signals makes the discriminator attractive, and it can be applied to high-order BOC signals. PMID:27483275

  4. Design of a Model Reference Adaptive Controller for an Unmanned Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Matsutani, Megumi; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the "Adaptive Control Technology for Safe Flight (ACTS)" architecture, which consists of a non-adaptive controller that provides satisfactory performance under nominal flying conditions, and an adaptive controller that provides robustness under off nominal ones. The design and implementation procedures of both controllers are presented. The aim of these procedures, which encompass both theoretical and practical considerations, is to develop a controller suitable for flight. The ACTS architecture is applied to the Generic Transport Model developed by NASA-Langley Research Center. The GTM is a dynamically scaled test model of a transport aircraft for which a flight-test article and a high-fidelity simulation are available. The nominal controller at the core of the ACTS architecture has a multivariable LQR-PI structure while the adaptive one has a direct, model reference structure. The main control surfaces as well as the throttles are used as control inputs. The inclusion of the latter alleviates the pilot s workload by eliminating the need for cancelling the pitch coupling generated by changes in thrust. Furthermore, the independent usage of the throttles by the adaptive controller enables their use for attitude control. Advantages and potential drawbacks of adaptation are demonstrated by performing high fidelity simulations of a flight-validated controller and of its adaptive augmentation.

  5. A Design Method of Code Correlation Reference Waveform in GNSS Based on Least-Squares Fitting.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chengtao; Liu, Zhe; Tang, Xiaomei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    The multipath effect is one of the main error sources in the Global Satellite Navigation Systems (GNSSs). The code correlation reference waveform (CCRW) technique is an effective multipath mitigation algorithm for the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signal. However, it encounters the false lock problem in code tracking, when applied to the binary offset carrier (BOC) signals. A least-squares approximation method of the CCRW design scheme is proposed, utilizing the truncated singular value decomposition method. This algorithm was performed for the BPSK signal, BOC(1,1) signal, BOC(2,1) signal, BOC(6,1) and BOC(7,1) signal. The approximation results of CCRWs were presented. Furthermore, the performances of the approximation results are analyzed in terms of the multipath error envelope and the tracking jitter. The results show that the proposed method can realize coherent and non-coherent CCRW discriminators without false lock points. Generally, there is performance degradation in the tracking jitter, if compared to the CCRW discriminator. However, the performance promotions in the multipath error envelope for the BOC(1,1) and BPSK signals makes the discriminator attractive, and it can be applied to high-order BOC signals. PMID:27483275

  6. Emittance Correction in the 2006 ILC Bunch Compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, P.; /SLAC

    2007-03-05

    A recent study [1] has indicated substantial potential emittance growth in the ILC bunch compressor due to quad misalignments, BPM misalignments, and pitches in the RF cavities. Table 1 summarizes several results from [1]. In this simulation, quad misalignments and cavity pitches are Gaussian distributed and are considered with respect to the nominal survey line; BPM misalignments are also Gaussian-distributed but are considered with respect to the quadrupole axis. It is assumed that the BPM offsets with respect to the quads are found in a previous quad-shunting BBA step which is not simulated. In this study we seek to repeat the studies documented above, and additionally to perform a study in which additional dispersion bumps are used to further reduce the projected emittance.

  7. FPGA-based Klystron linearization implementations in scope of ILC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Omet, M.; Michizono, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Miura, T.; Qiu, F.; Chase, B.; Varghese, P.; Schlarb, H.; Branlard, J.; Cichalewski, W.

    2015-01-23

    We report the development and implementation of four FPGA-based predistortion-type klystron linearization algorithms. Klystron linearization is essential for the realization of ILC, since it is required to operate the klystrons 7% in power below their saturation. The work presented was performed in international collaborations at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), USA and the Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), Germany. With the newly developed algorithms, the generation of correction factors on the FPGA was improved compared to past algorithms, avoiding quantization and decreasing memory requirements. At FNAL, three algorithms were tested at the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA), demonstrating a successfulmore » implementation for one algorithm and a proof of principle for two algorithms. Furthermore, the functionality of the algorithm implemented at DESY was demonstrated successfully in a simulation.« less

  8. Configuration Studies and Recommendations for the ILC DampingRings

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Gao, Jie; Guiducci, Susanna

    2006-02-04

    We describe the results of studies comparing differentoptions for the baseline configuration of the ILC damping rings. Theprincipal configuration decisions apply to the circumference, beamenergy, lattice type, and technology options for key components,including the injection/extraction kickers and the damping wigglers. Toarrive at our recommended configuration, we performed detailed studies ofa range of lattices representing a variety of different configurationoptions; these lattices are described in Chapter 2. The results of thevarious studies are reported in chapters covering issues of beamdynamics, technical subsystems, costs, and commissioning, reliability andupgradeability. Our detailed recommendations for the baselineconfiguration are given in Chapter 7, where we also outline furtherresearch and development that is needed before a machine using ourrecommended configuration can be built and operated successfully. In thesame chapter, we suggest possible alternatives to the baselineconfiguration.

  9. Configuration Studies and Recommendations for the ILC DampingRings

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Gao, Jie; Guiducci, Susanna

    2006-02-04

    We describe the results of studies comparing different options for the baseline configuration of the ILC damping rings. The principal configuration decisions apply to the circumference, beam energy, lattice type, and technology options for key components, including the injection/extraction kickers and the damping wigglers. To arrive at our recommended configuration, we performed detailed studies of a range of lattices representing a variety of different configuration options; these lattices are described in Chapter 2. The results of the various studies are reported in chapters covering issues of beam dynamics, technical subsystems, costs, and commissioning, reliability and upgrade ability. Our detailed recommendations for the baseline configuration are given in Chapter 7, where we also outline further research and development that is needed before a machine using our recommended configuration can be built and operated successfully. In the same chapter, we suggest possible alternatives to the baseline configuration.

  10. Cavity BPM System Tests for the ILC Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, M.

    2007-12-21

    The main physics program of the International Linear Collider (ILC) requires a measurement of the beam energy at the interaction point with an accuracy of 10{sup -4} or better. To achieve this goal a magnetic spectrometer using high resolution beam position monitors (BPMs) has been proposed. This paper reports on the cavity BPM system that was deployed to test this proposal. We demonstrate sub-micron resolution and micron level stability over 20 hours for a 1 m long BPM triplet. We find micron-level stability over 1 hour for 3 BPM stations distributed over a 30 m long baseline. The understanding of the behavior and response of the BPMs gained from this work has allowed full spectrometer tests to be carried out.

  11. FPGA-based Klystron linearization implementations in scope of ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Omet, M.; Michizono, S.; Varghese, P.; Schlarb, H.; Branlard, J.; Cichalewski, W.

    2015-01-23

    We report the development and implementation of four FPGA-based predistortion-type klystron linearization algorithms. Klystron linearization is essential for the realization of ILC, since it is required to operate the klystrons 7% in power below their saturation. The work presented was performed in international collaborations at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), USA and the Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), Germany. With the newly developed algorithms, the generation of correction factors on the FPGA was improved compared to past algorithms, avoiding quantization and decreasing memory requirements. At FNAL, three algorithms were tested at the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA), demonstrating a successful implementation for one algorithm and a proof of principle for two algorithms. Furthermore, the functionality of the algorithm implemented at DESY was demonstrated successfully in a simulation.

  12. Reconstruction of IP Beam Parameters at the ILC From Beamstrahlung

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.; /SLAC /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2005-07-11

    The luminosity performance of the ILC will be very sensitive to the parameters of the colliding bunches. Only some of these parameters can be measured using planned instrumentation. This analysis aims to access some of the colliding beam parameters not available by other means and to improve on the resolution of those that are. GUINEA-PIG is used to simulate the beam-beam interactions and produce beamstrahlung radiation (e+/e- pairs and photons). These are tracked to a simulation of the low-angle Beam Calorimeter and a photon detector and event shapes are produced. A Taylor map is produced to transform from the event shapes to the simulated beam parameters. This paper reports on the progress of this analysis, examining the usefulness of the proposed fitting technique.

  13. 48 CFR 28.204-3 - Irrevocable letter of credit (ILC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Sureties and Other Security for Bonds 28.204... furnish a bond secured by an ILC in an amount equal to the penal sum required to be secured (see...

  14. Design and control of energy efficient drying processes with specific reference to foods

    SciTech Connect

    Franzen, K.; Kim, M.; Liang, H.; Murakami, E.; Narsimhan, G.; Okos, M.; Singh, R.; Waananen, K.; Xiong, X.

    1988-07-15

    This report contains a detailed summary of all work performed to date. Task 10 involves a comprehensive review of drying theory. Proposed mass transfer mechanisms include liquid and vapor diffusion, capillary flow, surface diffusion, hydrodynamic flow, and evaporation/condensation processes. Pasta was chosen as a model system in this project since it is macroscopically homogenous and can be made under controlled conditions. Task 11 involves experimental drying studies. A high pressure drying apparatus is available for studies related to the revision of the fundamental drying model. The dryer will require two major modifications for the planned tests: installation of a pressure control valve and recirculation of exhaust gas. A tray dryer was used to measure the shrinkage coefficient of nonfat milk, and will be used for further tests on nonfat milk, as well as whey and tomato puree. A method of economic analysis regarding use of mechanical vapor recompression is presented. Task 12 involves food quality studies. A model of nonenzymatic browning (NEB) was developed based on NEB in skim milk samples containing 3.5--50% moisture, exposed to temperatures of 35--130{degrees}C. The browning rate was zero order after a lag period, and the temperature dependence fit an Arrhenius relation. The critical moisture occurs between 4% and 11% moisture. Task 13 addresses recommendations and strategies for dryer design and control. Moisture sensors were reviewed with specific reference to their on-line applicability. The IR sensor was found to be the most promising. Task 14 examined moisture mobility and interaction in foods. The BET adsorption method using nitrogen gas was applied to pasta, skim milk and egg albumin systems. The data obtained do not show good reproducibility, possibly due to an inadequate sample size. The possibility of using water vapor adsorption will be studied in future experiments. 210 refs., 30 figs., 22 tabs. (MHB)

  15. A Study of Laser System Requirements for Application in Beam Diagnostics And Polarimetry at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, S.; Delerue, N.; Foster, B.; Howell, D.F.; Peach, K.; Quelch, G.; Qureshi, M.; Reichold, A.; Hirst, G.; Ross, I.; Urakawa, J.; Soskov, V.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.; Blair, G.A.; Boogert, S.T.; Boorman, G.; Bosco, A.; Driouichi, C.; Karataev, P.; Brachmann, A.; /SLAC

    2007-02-12

    Advanced laser systems will be essential for a range of diagnostics devices and polarimetry at the ILC. High average power, high beam quality, excellent stability and reliability will be crucial in order to deliver the information required to attain the necessary ILC luminosity as well as for efficient polarimetry. The key parameters are listed together with the R & D required to achieve the necessary laser system performance.

  16. MAPMT H7546B anode current response study for ILC SiD muon system prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, A.; Blazey, G.; Francis, K.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Fisk, H.; Milstene, C.; Abrams, R.; /Indiana U.

    2007-10-01

    The proposed Silicon Detector (SiD) concept for the ILC has barrel and end cap muon systems. An SiD scintillator based muon system prototype has 256 strips and was constructed from extruded strips, WLS fibers, clear fibers, and multianode photo multiplier tubes (MAPMT) Hamamatsu H7546B. Six MAPMTs were used. As a first step to understand strip output, the response of every anode to a given brightness of light and applied voltage must be measured. For the test, a custom made light source was used. Each MAPMT output was measured independently. The anode currents were measured at constant (green) input light brightness and the same photocathode to anode voltage (800V). The anode currents have a wide spread; for all tubes the maximum value is 5.23 times larger than the minimum value. The MAPMT cross talk was measured for one of the central inputs. The maximum cross talk value is about 4.9%. The average cross talk for the nearest four neighboring channels is 3.9%, for the farthest four is 1%. To assure the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements, the double reference method was used.

  17. Critical role of fatty acid metabolism in ILC2-mediated barrier protection during malnutrition and helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Christoph; Harrison, Oliver J; Schmitt, Vanessa; Pelletier, Martin; Spencer, Sean P; Urban, Joseph F; Ploch, Michelle; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R; Siegel, Richard M; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2016-07-25

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) play an important role in many immune processes, including control of infections, inflammation, and tissue repair. To date, little is known about the metabolism of ILC and whether these cells can metabolically adapt in response to environmental signals. Here we show that type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), important mediators of barrier immunity, predominantly depend on fatty acid (FA) metabolism during helminth infection. Further, in situations where an essential nutrient, such as vitamin A, is limited, ILC2 sustain their function and selectively maintain interleukin 13 (IL-13) production via increased acquisition and utilization of FA. Together, these results reveal that ILC2 preferentially use FAs to maintain their function in the context of helminth infection or malnutrition and propose that enhanced FA usage and FA-dependent IL-13 production by ILC2 could represent a host adaptation to maintain barrier immunity under dietary restriction. PMID:27432938

  18. Critical role of fatty acid metabolism in ILC2-mediated barrier protection during malnutrition and helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Christoph; Harrison, Oliver J; Schmitt, Vanessa; Pelletier, Martin; Spencer, Sean P; Urban, Joseph F; Ploch, Michelle; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R; Siegel, Richard M; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2016-07-25

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) play an important role in many immune processes, including control of infections, inflammation, and tissue repair. To date, little is known about the metabolism of ILC and whether these cells can metabolically adapt in response to environmental signals. Here we show that type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), important mediators of barrier immunity, predominantly depend on fatty acid (FA) metabolism during helminth infection. Further, in situations where an essential nutrient, such as vitamin A, is limited, ILC2 sustain their function and selectively maintain interleukin 13 (IL-13) production via increased acquisition and utilization of FA. Together, these results reveal that ILC2 preferentially use FAs to maintain their function in the context of helminth infection or malnutrition and propose that enhanced FA usage and FA-dependent IL-13 production by ILC2 could represent a host adaptation to maintain barrier immunity under dietary restriction.

  19. Design reference missions for the exoplanet starshade (Exo-S) probe-class study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabert, Rachel; Shaklan, Stuart; Lisman, P. Douglas; Roberge, Aki; Turnbull, Margaret; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Stark, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Exo-S is a direct imaging space-based mission to discover and characterize exoplanets. The mission is comprised of two formation-flying spacecraft - a starlight suppressing starshade and a telescope separated by ~30,000 km. To align the starshade between the target star and telescope, one of the two spacecraft must perform a retargeting slew. This drives the need for a sophisticated program to help optimize this path to maximize target yield within mission constraints such as solar and earth avoidance angles, thrust and fuel limitations, and target scheduling for previously-discovered known giant planets. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) describes the sequence of observations to be performed and estimates the number of planets that will be detected and characterized. It is executed with a Matlab-based tool developed for the Exo-S Study. Here we analyze four case studies: • Case 1: Starshade with a 1.1m dedicated telescope prioritizing the search for earths in the Habitable Zone (HZ). • Case 2: Starshade with a 1.1m dedicated telescope focused on maximizing planet harvest return and characterization. • Case 3: Starshade that rendezvous with a 2.4 m shared telescope prioritizing the search for earths in the HZ. • Case 4: A Rendezvous Earth Finder mission based on a 40-m diameter starshade with a 2.4 m telescope, operating for 4 years, and focused exclusively on detecting Earths in the HZ Previous starshade DRM tools have been reported in the literature, all of them focused on detection and/or characterization of Earth-twins in the habitable zone. This study has taken then next step and focused on total planet harvest including known Gas Giants, Earths in the Habitable Zone and elsewhere, super-earths, sub-Neptunes, and Jupiters. The DRM employs a hierarchical approach: an observation schedule of known radial velocity gas giants, whose availabilities for observation are known form their orbital parameters, forms a "framework" of observation that have a high

  20. Compact, Intelligent, Digitally Controlled IGBT Gate Drivers for a PEBB-Based ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.N.; Burkhart, C.; Olsen, J.J.; Macken, K.; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has built and is currently operating a first generation prototype Marx klystron modulator to meet ILC specifications. Under development is a second generation prototype, aimed at improving overall performance, serviceability, and manufacturability as compared to its predecessor. It is designed around 32 cells, each operating at 3.75 kV and correcting for its own capacitor droop. Due to the uniqueness of this application, high voltage gate drivers needed to be developed for the main 6.5 kV and droop correction 1.7 kV IGBTs. The gate driver provides vital functions such as protection of the IGBT from over-voltage and over-current, detection of gate-emitter open and short circuit conditions, and monitoring of IGBT degradation (based on collector-emitter saturation voltage). Gate drive control, diagnostic processing capabilities, and communication are digitally implemented using an FPGA. This paper details the design of the gate driver circuitry, component selection, and construction layout. In addition, experimental results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the protection circuit.

  1. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Promotes RORγt+ ILCs and Controls Intestinal Immunity and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ju; Zhou, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Unlike adaptive immune cells that require antigen recognition and functional maturation during infection, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) usually respond to pathogens promptly and serve as the first line of defense in infectious diseases. RAR-related orphan receptors (RORγt)+ ILCs are one of the innate cell populations that have recently been intensively studied. During the fetal stage of development, RORγt+ ILCs (e.g., lymphoid tissue inducer-LTi cells) are required for lymphoid organogenesis. In adult mice, RORγt+ ILCs are abundantly present in the gut to exert immune defensive functions. Under certain circumstances, however, RORγt+ ILCs can be pathogenic and contribute to intestinal inflammation. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), a ligand-dependent transcriptional factor, is widely expressed by various immune and non-immune cells. In the gut, the ligand for Ahr can be derived/generated from diet, microflora, and/or host cells. Ahr has been shown to regulate different cell populations in the immune system including RORγt+ ILCs, T helper (Th)17/22 cells, γδT cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs), Tr1 cells, and antigen presenting cells (APCs). In this review, we will focus on the development and function of RORγt+ ILCs, and discuss the role of Ahr in intestinal immunity and inflammation in mice and in humans. Better understanding the function of Ahr in the gut is important for developing new therapeutic means to target Ahr in future treatment of infectious and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23975386

  2. Connecting Online Learners with Diverse Local Practices: The Design of Effective Common Reference Points for Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend Wise, Alyssa; Padmanabhan, Poornima; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-methods study probed the effectiveness of three kinds of objects (video, theory, metaphor) as common reference points for conversations between online learners (student teachers). Individuals' degree of detail-focus was examined as a potentially interacting covariate and the outcome measure was learners' level of tacit knowledge related…

  3. Progress towards crab cavity solutions for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; Bellantoni, L.; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.

    2006-06-01

    In order to achieve acceptable luminosity for ILC crossing angles greater than 2 mrad, RF deflection cavities must be used to rotate electron and position bunches leading up to the IP. A bunch that passes through a deflection cavity at a phase where the deflection averages to zero, receives a crab kick leading to a finite rotation at the IP. For a beam energy of 500 GeV and a crossing angle of 20 mrad the required crab kick is about 11.4 MV at 1.3 GHz and 3.8 MV at 3.9 GHz. Cavities are needed on both beams and are likely to be positioned about 12 m before the IP. Any RF phase error between the bunch and the cavity leads to a deflection of the bunch in addition to a rotation of the bunch. Any differential phase error between the cavities leads to differing deflections and consequential loss in luminosity. An updated analysis of system requirements and phase tolerances with respect to original calculations [1] is given. Issues on cavity and frequency choice are discussed.

  4. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  5. RF and Data Acquisition Systems for Fermilab's ILC SRF Cavity Vertical Test Stand

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph P. Ozelis; Roger Nehring; Christiana Grenoble; Thomas J. Powers

    2007-06-01

    Fermilab is developing a facility for vertical testing of SRF cavities as part of a program to improve cavity performance reproducibility for the ILC. The RF system for this facility, using the classic combination of oscillator, phase detector/mixer, and loop amplifier to detect the resonant cavity frequency and lock onto the cavity, is based on the proven production cavity test systems used at Jefferson Lab for CEBAF and SNS cavity testing. The design approach is modular in nature, using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components. This yields a system that can be easily debugged and modified, and with ready availability of spares. Data acquisition and control is provided by a PXI-based hardware platform in conjunction with software developed in the LabView programming environment. This software provides for amplitude and phase adjustment of incident RF power, and measures all relevant cavity power levels, cavity thermal environment parameters, as well as field emission-produced radiation. It also calculates the various cavity performance parameters and their associated errors. Performance during system commissioning and initial cavity tests will be presented.

  6. ILC Damping Rings: Benefit of the Antechamber or: Antechamber vs. SEY

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M. A.

    2011-03-30

    We present simulation results of the build-up of the electron-cloud density ne for the two proposed ILC damping ring lattices, DC04 and DSB3, with particular attention to the potential benefit of an antechamber. We examine a field-free region and a dipole bending magnet, with or without an antechamber. We assume a secondary electronemission model for the chamber surface based on approximate fits to measured data for TiN, except that we let the peak value of the secondary emission yield (SEY), delta max, be a variable. We conclude that there is a critical value of delta max below which the antechamber provides a substantial benefit, roughly a factor ~;;40 reduction in ne relative to the case in which max exceeds the critical value. We estimate the steady-state value of ne as a function of delta max, and thereby obtain the critical value of delta max for all cases considered. Thus, from the perspective of the electron-cloud effect, the inclusion of an antechamber in the design is justified only if delta max is below the critical value. The results presented here constitute a slight extension of those previously presented in March and September, 2010 [1, 2].

  7. Seasonal Dependence and Aging Effect of GEM Prototype for the SiD in the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Yvonne; Yu, Jaehoon; White, Andrew; UTA Advance Detector Team

    2015-04-01

    High energy physics experiments require detectors and electronics that are capable of high precision, stable energy read out. Since 2007, the Advance Detector team in University of Texas at Arlington has been working on the Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector technology. The detector technology utilizes the avalanche effect of charged particles in high electric field to magnify hadron signals produced in collision for precise and accurate energy interpretation. KPiX is a multi-channel 13 bits electronic chip designed for the time synchronous requirements of the Silicon Detector (SiD) in the International Linear Collider (ILC). The chip is coupled with GEM in this experiment to study the aging of the prototype 30cm × 30cm detector. In this study, cosmic ray is used as a source to study the gain fluctuation of GEM over a period of 3 years. Statistics methods are implemented to investigate the seasonal dependence of the gain of the signal. Also, the self-trigger mode of KPiX v.9 enable the study of the electronics though the chip's electronics gain variation. Results over 3 years shows that GEM is capable of stable data read out with little aging effect. The study provides invaluable information of the detector on its stability as a calorimeter.

  8. A Computational/Experimental Study of Two Optimized Supersonic Transport Designs and the Reference H Baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Baker, Timothy J.; Hicks, Raymond M.; Reuther, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Two supersonic transport configurations designed by use of non-linear aerodynamic optimization methods are compared with a linearly designed baseline configuration. One optimized configuration, designated Ames 7-04, was designed at NASA Ames Research Center using an Euler flow solver, and the other, designated Boeing W27, was designed at Boeing using a full-potential method. The two optimized configurations and the baseline were tested in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Supersonic Wind Tunnel to evaluate the non-linear design optimization methodologies. In addition, the experimental results are compared with computational predictions for each of the three configurations from the Enter flow solver, AIRPLANE. The computational and experimental results both indicate moderate to substantial performance gains for the optimized configurations over the baseline configuration. The computed performance changes with and without diverters and nacelles were in excellent agreement with experiment for all three models. Comparisons of the computational and experimental cruise drag increments for the optimized configurations relative to the baseline show excellent agreement for the model designed by the Euler method, but poorer comparisons were found for the configuration designed by the full-potential code.

  9. The Reference Ability Neural Network Study: Motivation, Design, and Initial Feasibility Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Yaakov; Habeck, Christian; Steffener, Jason; Barulli, Daniel; Gazes, Yunglin; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Shaked, Danielle; Salthouse, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    We introduce and describe the Reference Ability Neural Network Study and provide initial feasibility data. Based on analyses of large test batteries administered to individuals ranging from young to old, four latent variables, or reference abilities (RAs) that capture the majority of the variance in age-related cognitive change have been identified: episodic memory, fluid reasoning, perceptual speed, and vocabulary. We aim to determine whether spatial fMRI networks can be derived that are uniquely associated with the performance of each reference ability. We plan to image 375 healthy adults (50 per decade from age 20 to 50; 75 per decade from age 50 to 80) while performing a set of 12 cognitive tasks. Data on 174 participants are reported here. Three tasks were grouped a priori into each of the four reference ability domains. We first assessed to what extent both cognitive task scores and activation patterns readily show convergent and discriminant validity, i.e. increased similarity between tasks within the same domain and decreased similarity between tasks between domains, respectively. Block-based time-series analysis of each individual task was conducted for each participant via general linear modeling. We partialled activation common to all tasks out of the imaging data. For both test scores and activation topographies, we then calculated correlations for each of 66 possible pairings of tasks, and compared the magnitude of correlation of tasks within reference ability domains to that of tasks between domains. For the behavioral data, globally there were significantly stronger inter-task correlations within than between domains. When examining individual abilities, 3 of the domains also met these criteria but memory reached only borderline significance. Overall there was greater topographic similarity within reference abilities than between them (p<0.0001), but when examined individually, statistical significance was reached only for episodic memory and

  10. Take A Trip Reference Manual: An Authoring and Storage System for Designing and Sharing Challenging Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Evaluation Section.

    The Take a Trip program is an authoring and storage system for designing challenging curriculum. Using the power of hypermedia, specifically Apple Computer's HyperCard, Take a Trip provides course file stacks, help stacks, and personalized learning plan stacks. Designed to assist the user when new units are written, the help stacks provide an…

  11. Tuft-cell-derived IL-25 regulates an intestinal ILC2-epithelial response circuit.

    PubMed

    von Moltke, Jakob; Ji, Ming; Liang, Hong-Erh; Locksley, Richard M

    2016-01-14

    Parasitic helminths and allergens induce a type 2 immune response leading to profound changes in tissue physiology, including hyperplasia of mucus-secreting goblet cells and smooth muscle hypercontractility. This response, known as 'weep and sweep', requires interleukin (IL)-13 production by tissue-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and recruited type 2 helper T cells (TH2 cells). Experiments in mice and humans have demonstrated requirements for the epithelial cytokines IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-25 in the activation of ILC2s, but the sources and regulation of these signals remain poorly defined. In the small intestine, the epithelium consists of at least five distinct cellular lineages, including the tuft cell, whose function is unclear. Here we show that tuft cells constitutively express IL-25 to sustain ILC2 homeostasis in the resting lamina propria in mice. After helminth infection, tuft-cell-derived IL-25 further activates ILC2s to secrete IL-13, which acts on epithelial crypt progenitors to promote differentiation of tuft and goblet cells, leading to increased frequencies of both. Tuft cells, ILC2s and epithelial progenitors therefore comprise a response circuit that mediates epithelial remodelling associated with type 2 immunity in the small intestine, and perhaps at other mucosal barriers populated by these cells. PMID:26675736

  12. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report on reference conceptual designs for a repository waste package

    SciTech Connect

    Rote, D.M.; Hull, A.B.; Was, G.S.; Macdonald, D.D.; Wilde, B.E.; Russell, J.E.; Kruger, J.; Harrison, W.; Hambley, D.F.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the findings of the peer panel constituted by Argonne National Laboratory to review Region A of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report entitled Waste Package Reference Conceptual Designs for a Repository in Salt. The panel determined that the reviewed report does not provide reasonable assurance that US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for waste packages will be met by the proposed design. It also found that it is premature to call the design a ''reference design,'' or even a ''reference conceptual design.'' This review report provides guidance for the preparation of a more acceptable design document.

  13. Validation Studies for Numerical Simulations of Flow Phenomena Expected in the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic VHTR Reference Design

    SciTech Connect

    Richard W. Johnson

    2005-09-01

    The final design of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants (Gen IV) has not yet been established. The VHTR may be either a prismatic (block) or pebble bed type. It may be either gas-cooled or cooled with an as yet unspecified molten salt. However, a conceptual design of a gas-cooled VHTR, based on the General Atomics GT-MHR, does exist and is called the prismatic VHTR reference design, MacDonald et al [2003], General Atomics [1996]. The present validation studies are based on the prismatic VHTR reference design. In the prismatic VHTR reference design, the flow in the lower plenum will be introduced by dozens of turbulent jets issuing into a large crossflow that must negotiate dozens of cylindrical support columns as it flows toward the exit duct of the reactor vessel. The jets will not all be at the same temperature due to the radial variation of power density expected in the core. However, it is important that the coolant be well mixed when it enters the power conversion unit to ensure proper operation and long life of the power conversion machinery. Hence, it is deemed important to be able to accurately model the flow and mixing of the variable temperature coolant in the lower plenum and exit duct. Accurate flow modeling involves determining modeling strategies including the fineness of the grid needed, iterative convergence tolerance, numerical discretization method used, whether the flow is steady or unsteady, and the turbulence model and wall treatment employed. It also involves validation of the computer code and turbulence model against a series of separate and combined flow phenomena and selection of the data used for the validation. The present report describes progress made to date for the task entitled ‘CFD software validation of jets in crossflow’ which was designed to investigate the issues pertaining to the validation process.

  14. SP-100 system definition conceptual reference design activities: February through June 1983. Technical information report

    SciTech Connect

    Fortenberry, J.W.; Moore, D.M.; Petrick, S.W.; Smoak, R.H.

    1983-12-01

    The original SP-100 conceptual system design was examined from the mechanical design and integration viewpoint for the purpose of updating the design, identifying concerns, and providing recommendations for future work. Some of the findings were that: Integration of heat pipes into the radiator structure appears practical, but a number of problems remain to be addressed and resolved through development effort; thermal and structural interfacing of the shield and defining shield weight are key areas that need to be addressed; the radiator may be critical in shell buckling which would make beryllium a leading candidate material; material problems such as beryllium vs. shuttle fracture mechanics criteria need to be addressed.

  15. Next Generation Fast RF Interlock Module and ATCA Adapter for ILC High Availability RF Test Station Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R

    2009-10-17

    High availability interlocks and controls are required for the ILC (International Linear Collider) L-Band high power RF stations. A new F3 (Fast Fault Finder) VME module has been developed to process both fast and slow interlocks using FPGA logic to detect the interlock trip excursions. This combination eliminates the need for separate PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control of slow interlocks. Modules are chained together to accommodate as many inputs as needed. In the next phase of development the F3's will be ported to the new industry standard ATCA (Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture) crate (shelf) via a specially designed VME adapter module with IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface). The goal is to demonstrate auto-failover and hot-swap for future partially redundant systems.

  16. Critical role of fatty acid metabolism in ILC2 mediated barrier protection during malnutrition and helminth infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play an important role in many immune processes, including control of infections, inflammation and tissue repair. To date little is known about the metabolism of ILCs under steady-state conditions and infection, and whether these cells can metabolically adapt in response...

  17. An Architecture Proposal for the ILC Test Beam Silicon Telescope at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Turqueti, M.A.; /Fermilab

    2007-04-01

    The requirements for an ILC Test Beam silicon telescope system are foreseen to be very stringent. Resolution, noise, and throughput must be carefully managed in order to provide a useful instrument for the high energy physics community to develop detector technologies for the ILC. Since the ILC Test Beam is meant to test a wide variety of different detectors, it must employ universally accepted software techniques, hardware standards and protocols as well as easy integration of hardware and software with the various clients using the system. In this paper, we describe an open modular architecture to achieve these goals, including an analysis of the entire chain of software and hardware needed to meet the requirements.

  18. Higgs boson production in the U(1)B‑L model at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jinzhong; Yang, Bingfang; Liu, Ning; Li, Jitao

    2016-06-01

    In the framework of the minimal U(1)B‑L extension of the Standard Model, we investigate the Higgs boson production processes e+e‑→ ZH, e+e‑→ ν eν¯eH, e+e‑→ tt¯H, e+e‑→ ZHH and e+e‑→ ν eν¯eHH at the International Linear Collider (ILC). We present the production cross-sections, the relative corrections and compare our results with the expected experimental accuracies for Higgs decay channel H → bb¯. In the allowed parameter space, we find that the effects of the three single Higgs boson production processes might approach the observable threshold of the ILC. But the Higgs signal strengths μbb¯ of the two double Higgs boson production processes are all out of the observable threshold so that these effects will be difficult to be observed at the ILC.

  19. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  20. An Electronic Service Quality Reference Model for Designing E-Commerce Websites Which Maximizes Customer Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaheen, Amer N.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated Electronic Service Quality (E-SQ) features that contribute to customer satisfaction in an online environment. The aim was to develop an approach which improves E-CRM processes and enhances online customer satisfaction. The research design adopted mixed methods involving qualitative and quantitative methods to…

  1. Environmental Design and Educational Performance, with Particular Reference to "Green" Schools in Hampshire and Essex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian W.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the argument that "green" schools enhance educational performance. Having set the context of the relationship between environmentalism and the design of schools in the twentieth century, the article explores the performance of a number of green schools built in the UK between 1980 and 1995. The aim is to discover whether…

  2. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... 53, as amended on August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54326-54341). The new equivalent methods are automated... beta radiation attenuation. The newly designated equivalent methods are identified as follows: EQPM-0912-204, ``Teledyne Model 602 Beta\\PLUS\\ Particle Measurement System'' and ``SWAM 5a Dual...

  3. IL-33-driven ILC2/eosinophil axis in fat is induced by sympathetic tone and suppressed by obesity.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaofeng; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Xing; Zheng, Handong; Yang, Xin; Yang, Xuexian; Liu, Meilian

    2016-10-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in white adipose tissue (WAT) promote WAT browning and assist in preventing the development of obesity. However, how ILC2 in adipose tissue is regulated remains largely unknown. Here, our study shows that ILC2s are present in brown adipose tissue (BAT) as well as subcutaneous and epididymal WAT (sWAT and eWAT). The fractions of ILC2s, natural killer T (NKT) cells and eosinophils in sWAT, eWAT and BAT are significantly decreased by high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding and leptin deficiency-induced obesity. Consistent with this, the adipose expression and circulating levels of IL-33, a key inducing cytokine of ILC2, are significantly downregulated by obesity. Furthermore, administration of IL-33 markedly increases the fraction of ILC2 and eosinophil as well as the expression of UCP1 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, in adipose tissue of HFD-fed mice. On the other hand, cold exposure induces the expression levels of IL-33 and UCP1 and the population of ILC2 and eosinophil in sWAT, and these promoting effects of cold stress are reversed by neutralization of IL-33 signaling in vivo Moreover, the basal and cold-induced IL-33 and ILC2/eosinophil pathways are significantly suppressed by sympathetic denervation via local injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in sWAT. Taken together, our data suggest that the ILC2/eosinophil axis in adipose tissue is regulated by sympathetic nervous system and obesity in IL-33-dependent manner, and IL-33-driven ILC2/eosinophil axis is implicated in the development of obesity. PMID:27562191

  4. IL-33-driven ILC2/eosinophil axis in fat is induced by sympathetic tone and suppressed by obesity.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaofeng; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Xing; Zheng, Handong; Yang, Xin; Yang, Xuexian; Liu, Meilian

    2016-10-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in white adipose tissue (WAT) promote WAT browning and assist in preventing the development of obesity. However, how ILC2 in adipose tissue is regulated remains largely unknown. Here, our study shows that ILC2s are present in brown adipose tissue (BAT) as well as subcutaneous and epididymal WAT (sWAT and eWAT). The fractions of ILC2s, natural killer T (NKT) cells and eosinophils in sWAT, eWAT and BAT are significantly decreased by high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding and leptin deficiency-induced obesity. Consistent with this, the adipose expression and circulating levels of IL-33, a key inducing cytokine of ILC2, are significantly downregulated by obesity. Furthermore, administration of IL-33 markedly increases the fraction of ILC2 and eosinophil as well as the expression of UCP1 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, in adipose tissue of HFD-fed mice. On the other hand, cold exposure induces the expression levels of IL-33 and UCP1 and the population of ILC2 and eosinophil in sWAT, and these promoting effects of cold stress are reversed by neutralization of IL-33 signaling in vivo Moreover, the basal and cold-induced IL-33 and ILC2/eosinophil pathways are significantly suppressed by sympathetic denervation via local injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in sWAT. Taken together, our data suggest that the ILC2/eosinophil axis in adipose tissue is regulated by sympathetic nervous system and obesity in IL-33-dependent manner, and IL-33-driven ILC2/eosinophil axis is implicated in the development of obesity.

  5. Analysis of DESY-Flash LLRF Measurements for the ILC Heavy Beam Loading Test

    SciTech Connect

    Cancelo, Gustavo; Chase, Brian; Davidsaver, Michael; Carwardine, J.; Simrock, Stefan; Ayvazyan, Valeri; Grecki, Mariusz; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Michizono, Shinichiro; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2009-06-01

    In September 2008 the DESY-FLASH accelerator was run with up to 550, 3 nano-coulomb bunches at 5 Hz repetition rate. This test is part of a longer-term study aimed at validating ILC parameters by operation as close as possible to ILC beam currents and RF gradients. The present paper reports on the analysis that has been done in order to understand the RF control system performance during this test. Actual klystron power requirements and beam stability are evaluated with heavy beam loading conditions. Results include suggested improvements for upcoming tests in 2009.

  6. Machine-Related Backgrounds in the SiD Detector at ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, D.S.; Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; Kostin, M.A.; Tropin, I.S.; /Tomsk Polytechnic U.

    2006-08-01

    With a multi-stage collimation system and magnetic iron spoilers in the tunnel, the background particle fluxes on the ILC detector can be substantially reduced. At the same time, beam-halo interactions with collimators and protective masks in the beam delivery system create fluxes of muons and other secondary particles which can still exceed the tolerable levels for some of the ILC sub-detectors. Results of modeling of such backgrounds in comparison to those from the e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions are presented in this paper for the SiD detector.

  7. Durability-Based Design Properties of Reference Crossply Carbon-Fiber Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Corum, J.M.

    2001-04-16

    This report provides recommended durability-based design properties and criteria for a crossply carbon-fiber composite for possible automotive structural applications. Although the composite utilized aerospace-grade carbon-fiber reinforcement, it was made by a rapid-molding process suitable for high-volume automotive use. The material is the first in a planned progression of candidate composites to be characterized as part of an Oak Ridge National Laboratory project entitled Durability of Carbon-Fiber Composites. The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies and is closely coordinated with the Advanced Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-driven design data and criteria to assure the long-term integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for automotive structural applications. The composite addressed in this report is a ({+-}45{degree})3S crossply consisting of continuous Thornel T300 fibers in a Baydur 420 IMR urethane matrix. This composite is highly anisotropic with two dominant fiber orientations--0/90{degree} and {+-}45{degree}. Properties and models were developed for both orientations. This document is in two parts. Part 1 provides design data and correlations, while Part 2 provides the underlying experimental data and models. The durability issues addressed include the effects of short-time, cyclic, and sustained loadings; temperature; fluid environments; and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and kickups of roadway debris) on deformation, strength, and stiffness. Guidance for design analysis, time-independent and time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loadings, and damage-tolerance design guidance are provided.

  8. Resequencing studies of nonmodel organisms using closely related reference genomes: optimal experimental designs and bioinformatics approaches for population genomics.

    PubMed

    Nevado, B; Ramos-Onsins, S E; Perez-Enciso, M

    2014-04-01

    Decreasing costs of next-generation sequencing (NGS) experiments have made a wide range of genomic questions open for study with nonmodel organisms. However, experimental designs and analysis of NGS data from less well-known species are challenging because of the lack of genomic resources. In this work, we investigate the performance of alternative experimental designs and bioinformatics approaches in estimating variability and neutrality tests based on the site-frequency-spectrum (SFS) from individual resequencing data. We pay particular attention to challenges faced in the study of nonmodel organisms, in particular the absence of a species-specific reference genome, although phylogenetically close genomes are assumed to be available. We compare the performance of three alternative bioinformatics approaches – genotype calling, genotype–haplotype calling and direct estimation without calling genotypes. We find that relying on genotype calls provides biased estimates of population genetic statistics at low to moderate read depth (2–8X). Genotype–haplotype calling returns more accurate estimates irrespective of the divergence to the reference genome, but requires moderate depth (8–20X). Direct estimation without calling genotypes returns the most accurate estimates of variability and of most SFS tests investigated, including at low read depth (2–4X). Studies without species-specific reference genome should thus aim for low read depth and avoid genotype calling whenever individual genotypes are not essential. Otherwise, aiming for moderate to high depth at the expense of number of individuals, and using genotype–haplotype calling, is recommended. PMID:24795998

  9. Light weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU): a technical description of the reference design

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU), a new radioisotope heater unit for use in space missions, is a /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled unit designed to provide a thermal watt in dispersed locations on a spacecraft. The LWRHU is required to maintain the temperature of a component at a level where the component will function reliably in space. Two major constraints are placed on the unit's design; it must be as light as possible and must provide enough protection to immobilize the plutonium fuel to the maximum extent in all phases of the unit's lifetime. The four components are pelletized fuel, platinum-alloy encapsulation, pyrolytic graphite thermal insulation, and high-technology graphite ablation shell. The LWRHU is a cylinder 32 mm (1.26 in.) high and 26 mm (1.02 in.) in diameter. It weighs slightly less than 40 g(.09 lb).

  10. Optical Systems Design With Reference To The Evolution Of The Double Gauss Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltche, Walter

    1980-09-01

    This year 140 years have elapsed since the first photographic objective was designed, more than 90 years have passed since the first anastigmatic lenses were created and about 20 years ago computer-aided lens design was started. The double Gauss lens will be used as an example to outline the problems, procedures and results obtained in designing optical systems. In retrospect a search will be made for the first introduction and development of the double Gauss lens in order to draw further conclusions from the historical facts as to the ideas that have led to the present state of the art. Contemporary systems of the double Gauss lens will be demonstrated with regard to the available construction parameters and the numerous fields of application. While discussing several variants emphasis will be placed on the choice of glass types for high speed lenses, the relationship between refractive index and image quality and the comparison between performance and costs. Recent explorations led to double Gauss lenses with special properties. New objectives with stabilized performance, ultra high speed lenses and lenses with reduced secondary spectrum will be presented.

  11. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a reference repository in bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Meyer, D.; Coons, W.E.

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that man-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the straitigraphy of southeastern New Mexico. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as site-specific conceptual designs when a site for a repository in salt has been selected. The principal material used in the seal system is crushed salt obtained from excavating the repository. It is anticipated that crushed salt will consolidate as the repository rooms creep close to the degree that mechanical and hydrologic properties will eventually match those of undisturbed, intact salt. For southeastern New Mexico salt, analyses indicate that this process will require approximately 1000 years for a seal located at the base of one of the repository shafts (where there is little increase in temperature due to waste emplacement) and approximately 400 years for a seal located in an access tunnel within the repository. Bulkheads composed of contrete or salt bricks are also included in the seal system as components which will have low permeability during the period required for salt consolidation.

  12. Altair Descent and Ascent Reference Trajectory Design and Initial Dispersion Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kos, Larry D.; Polsgrove, Tara T.; Sostaric, Ronald r.; Braden, Ellen M.; Sullivan, Jacob J.; Lee, Thanh T.

    2010-01-01

    The Altair Lunar Lander is the linchpin in the Constellation Program (CxP) for human return to the Moon. Altair is delivered to low Earth orbit (LEO) by the Ares V heavy lift launch vehicle, and after subsequent docking with Orion in LEO, the Altair/Orion stack is delivered through translunar injection (TLI). The Altair/Orion stack separating from the Earth departure stage (EDS) shortly after TLI and continues the flight to the Moon as a single stack. Altair performs the lunar orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver, targeting a 100-km circular orbit. This orbit will be a polar orbit for missions landing near the lunar South Pole. After spending nearly 24 hours in low lunar orbit (LLO), the lander undocks from Orion and performs a series of small maneuvers to set up for descending to the lunar surface. This descent begins with a small deorbit insertion (DOI) maneuver, putting the lander on an orbit that has a perilune of 15.24 km (50,000 ft), the altitude where the actual powered descent initiation (PDI) commences. At liftoff from Earth, Altair has a mass of 45 metric tons (mt). However after LOI (without Orion attached), the lander mass is slightly less than 33 mt at PDI. The lander currently has a single descent module main engine, with TBD lb(sub f) thrust (TBD N), providing a thrust-to-weight ratio of approximately TBD Earth g's at PDI. LDAC-3 (Lander design and analysis cycle #3) is the most recently closed design sizing and mass properties iteration. Upgrades for loss of crew (LDAC-2) and loss of mission (LDAC-3) have been incorporated into the lander baseline design (and its Master Equipment List). Also, recently, Altair has been working requirements analyses (LRAC-1). All nominal data here are from the LDAC-3 analysis cycle. All dispersions results here are from LRAC-1 analyses.

  13. Design and control of energy efficient drying processes with specific reference to foods

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.; Liang, H.; Murakami, E.; Narsimhan, G.; Okos, M.; Singh, R.; Waananen, K.; Xiong, X.

    1988-10-14

    This report contains a summary of work performed on tasks 10 to 14. Task 10 involves revision of the drum drying model developed and revised earlier. In its completed form, the model should contain three nonlinear differential equations covering energy, mass transfer and gas phase momentum. The model currently in use now employs the vapor pressure gradient as the driving force. The vapor pressure is obtained from the isotherm of each material of interest. The revision of this model should be complete after an isotherm equation is obtained and tested. Task 11 concerns experimental studies for model verification. Extrusion of pasta at temperatures below 100{degrees}C gave a low porosity product, while higher temperatures caused puffing and increased porosities. Further variations in extrusion temperatures will enable a study of the relationship between food structure and mass transfer rates. Modification of the high pressure drying apparatus is complete; tests with the new dryer should begin next quarter. An additional improvement on the original design was installation of an oil bath, which is shown to provide better temperature control. Task 12 examines the thermal properties of foods. A comprehensive collection of thermal property equations, predictive models and measurement techniques has been compiled. A final report on viscoelasticity and thermal properties is being organized. Task 13 lists recommendations and strategies for dryer design and control. Controller design methods are reviewed, and evaluations are based on accuracy, stability, response time, and robustness of a closed loop system. Task 14 examines moisture mobility and interaction in foods. Methods to measure porosity are reviewed, and a suitable technique will be selected during next quarter. 31 refs., 4 figs. (MHB)

  14. Destination Deimos: A Design Reference Architecture for Initial Human Exploration of the Mars System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, James S.; Adamo, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    The two biggest challenges to successful human operations in interplanetary space are flight dynamics, constrained by the cold hard physics of the rocket equation, and bioastronautics, the psychophysiological realities of human adaptation, or lack thereof, to the deep space environment. Without substantial innovation in project/mission architecture and vehicle design, human exploration of the Mars system could be problematic for decades. Although a human landing on Mars is inevitable, humans-in-the-loop telerobotic exploration from the outer Martian moon Deimos is the best way to begin. Precursor robotic missions for reconnaissance and local site preparation will be required.

  15. Human Health and Performance Aspects of Mars Design Reference Mission of July, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    1999-01-01

    The human element is the most complex element of the mission design Mars missions will pose significant physiological and psychological challenges to crew members Some challenges (human engineering, life support) must be overcome (potential "non-starters") Some challenges (bone, radiation) may be show-stoppers ISS will only Indirectly address Mars questions before any "Go/No Go" decision Significant amount of ground-based and specialized flight research will be required -- Critical Path Roadmap project will direct HSLSPO's research toward Mars exploration objectives

  16. Analysis of Reference Design for Nuclear-Assisted Hydrogen Production at 750°C Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. McKellar; Edwin A. Harvego

    2010-05-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This report describes the resulting new INL reference design coupled to two alternative HTGR power conversion systems, a Steam Rankine Cycle and a Combined Cycle (a Helium Brayton Cycle with a Steam Rankine Bottoming Cycle). Results of system analyses performed to optimize the design and to determine required plant performance and operating conditions when coupled to the two different power cycles are also presented. A 600 MWt high temperature gas reactor coupled with a Rankine steam power cycle at a thermal efficiency of 44.4% can produce 1.85 kg/s of hydrogen and 14.6 kg/s of oxygen. The same capacity reactor coupled with a combined cycle at a thermal efficiency of 42.5% can produce 1.78 kg/s of hydrogen and 14.0 kg/s of oxygen.

  17. H2FIRST Reference Station Design Task: Project Deliverable 2-2

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Joseph; Terlip, Danny; Ainscough, Chris; Kurtz, Jennifer; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-04-20

    This report presents near-term station cost results and discusses cost trends of different station types. It compares various vehicle rollout scenarios and projects realistic near-term station utilization values using the station infrastructure rollout in California as an example. It describes near-term market demands and matches those to cost-effective station concepts. Finally, the report contains detailed designs for five selected stations, which include piping and instrumentation diagrams, bills of materials, and several site-specific layout studies that incorporate the setbacks required by NFPA 2, the National Fire Protection Association Hydrogen Technologies Code. This work identified those setbacks as a significant factor affecting the ability to site a hydrogen station, particularly liquid stations at existing gasoline stations. For all station types, utilization has a large influence on the financial viability of the station.

  18. The Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) Web service Design-Pattern, API and Reference Implementation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The complexity and inter-related nature of biological data poses a difficult challenge for data and tool integration. There has been a proliferation of interoperability standards and projects over the past decade, none of which has been widely adopted by the bioinformatics community. Recent attempts have focused on the use of semantics to assist integration, and Semantic Web technologies are being welcomed by this community. Description SADI - Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration - is a lightweight set of fully standards-compliant Semantic Web service design patterns that simplify the publication of services of the type commonly found in bioinformatics and other scientific domains. Using Semantic Web technologies at every level of the Web services "stack", SADI services consume and produce instances of OWL Classes following a small number of very straightforward best-practices. In addition, we provide codebases that support these best-practices, and plug-in tools to popular developer and client software that dramatically simplify deployment of services by providers, and the discovery and utilization of those services by their consumers. Conclusions SADI Services are fully compliant with, and utilize only foundational Web standards; are simple to create and maintain for service providers; and can be discovered and utilized in a very intuitive way by biologist end-users. In addition, the SADI design patterns significantly improve the ability of software to automatically discover appropriate services based on user-needs, and automatically chain these into complex analytical workflows. We show that, when resources are exposed through SADI, data compliant with a given ontological model can be automatically gathered, or generated, from these distributed, non-coordinating resources - a behaviour we have not observed in any other Semantic system. Finally, we show that, using SADI, data dynamically generated from Web services can be explored in a manner

  19. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) and Database for Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Johnson, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is an engineering-level Mars atmosphere model widely used for many Mars mission applications. From 0-80 km, it is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model, while above 80 km it is based on Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model. Mars-GRAM 2001 and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter. Validation studies are described comparing Mars-GRAM with Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science and Thermal Emission Spectrometer data. RS data from 2480 profiles were used, covering latitudes 75 deg S to 72 deg N, surface to approximately 40 km, for seasons ranging from areocentric longitude of Sun (Ls) = 70-160 deg and 265-310 deg. RS data spanned a range of local times, mostly 0-9 hours and 18-24 hours. For interests in aerocapture and precision landing, comparisons concentrated on atmospheric density. At a fixed height of 20 km, RS density varied by about a factor of 2.5 over ranges of latitudes and Ls values observed. Evaluated at matching positions and times, these figures show average RSMars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-)0.05, except at heights above approximately 25 km and latitudes above approximately 50 deg N. Average standard deviation of RSMars-GRAM density ratio was 6%. TES data were used covering surface to approximately 40 km, over more than a full Mars year (February, 1999 - June, 2001, just before start of a Mars global dust storm). Depending on season, TES data covered latitudes 85 deg S to 85 deg N. Most TES data were concentrated near local times 2 hours and 14 hours. Observed average TES/Mars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-0.05, except at high altitudes (15-30 km, depending on season) and high latitudes (greater than 45 deg N), or at most altitudes in the southern hemisphere at Ls approximately 90 and 180 deg. Compared to TES averages for a given latitude and season, TES data had average density standard deviation about the mean of

  20. A novel IL-10-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILC10) in a contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyuk Soon; Jang, Jong-Hwa; Lee, Min Bum; Jung, In Duk; Park, Yeong-Min; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2016-01-01

    The immunoregulatory cytokine Interleukin 10 (IL-10) protein is produced by various cells during the course of inflammatory disorders. Mainly, it downregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines, antigen presentation, and helper T cell activation. In this study, we show that the ratio of IL-10-producing cells was significantly increased in lineage negative (i.e., not T, B, or leukocyte cell lineages) cells than in lineage positive cells in lymphoid and peripheral tissues. We further observed that IL-10-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), here called firstly ILC10, were increased in number in oxazolone-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) mice. In detail, IL-10-producing lineage negative cells were elevated in the axillary, inguinal lymph node, and ear tissues of CHS mice. Notably, the cells expressed classical ILC marker proteins such as CD45, CD127, and Sca-1. Altogether, our findings suggest for the first time that ILC10s are present in various physiological settings and could be involved in numerous immune responses as regulatory cells. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 293-296] PMID:26949018

  1. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 1, Reference design document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The Galileo mission uses nuclear power sources called Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide the spacecraft's primary electrical power. Because these generators contain nuclear material, a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is required. A preliminary SAR and an updated SAR were previously issued that provided an evolving status report on the safety analysis. As a result of the Challenger accident, the launch dates for both Galileo and Ulysses missions were later rescheduled for November 1989 and October 1990, respectively. The decision was made by agreement between the DOE and the NASA to have a revised safety evaluation and report (FSAR) prepared on the basis of these revised vehicle accidents and environments. The results of this latest revised safety evaluation are presented in this document (Galileo FSAR). Volume I, this document, provides the background design information required to understand the analyses presented in Volumes II and III. It contains descriptions of the RTGs, the Galileo spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the trajectory and flight characteristics including flight contingency modes, and the launch site. There are two appendices in Volume I which provide detailed material properties for the RTG.

  2. On the Design of Attitude-Heading Reference Systems Using the Allan Variance.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Carrió, Javier; Arnold, Sascha; Poulakis, Pantelis

    2016-04-01

    The Allan variance is a method to characterize stochastic random processes. The technique was originally developed to characterize the stability of atomic clocks and has also been successfully applied to the characterization of inertial sensors. Inertial navigation systems (INS) can provide accurate results in a short time, which tend to rapidly degrade in longer time intervals. During the last decade, the performance of inertial sensors has significantly improved, particularly in terms of signal stability, mechanical robustness, and power consumption. The mass and volume of inertial sensors have also been significantly reduced, offering system-level design and accommodation advantages. This paper presents a complete methodology for the characterization and modeling of inertial sensors using the Allan variance, with direct application to navigation systems. Although the concept of sensor fusion is relatively straightforward, accurate characterization and sensor-information filtering is not a trivial task, yet they are essential for good performance. A complete and reproducible methodology utilizing the Allan variance, including all the intermediate steps, is described. An end-to-end (E2E) process for sensor-error characterization and modeling up to the final integration in the sensor-fusion scheme is explained in detail. The strength of this approach is demonstrated with representative tests on novel, high-grade inertial sensors. Experimental navigation results are presented from two distinct robotic applications: a planetary exploration rover prototype and an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV).

  3. On the Design of Attitude-Heading Reference Systems Using the Allan Variance.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Carrió, Javier; Arnold, Sascha; Poulakis, Pantelis

    2016-04-01

    The Allan variance is a method to characterize stochastic random processes. The technique was originally developed to characterize the stability of atomic clocks and has also been successfully applied to the characterization of inertial sensors. Inertial navigation systems (INS) can provide accurate results in a short time, which tend to rapidly degrade in longer time intervals. During the last decade, the performance of inertial sensors has significantly improved, particularly in terms of signal stability, mechanical robustness, and power consumption. The mass and volume of inertial sensors have also been significantly reduced, offering system-level design and accommodation advantages. This paper presents a complete methodology for the characterization and modeling of inertial sensors using the Allan variance, with direct application to navigation systems. Although the concept of sensor fusion is relatively straightforward, accurate characterization and sensor-information filtering is not a trivial task, yet they are essential for good performance. A complete and reproducible methodology utilizing the Allan variance, including all the intermediate steps, is described. An end-to-end (E2E) process for sensor-error characterization and modeling up to the final integration in the sensor-fusion scheme is explained in detail. The strength of this approach is demonstrated with representative tests on novel, high-grade inertial sensors. Experimental navigation results are presented from two distinct robotic applications: a planetary exploration rover prototype and an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). PMID:26800535

  4. Design and assembly sequence analysis of option 3 for CETF reference space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. Bernard; Andersen, Gregory C.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Allen, Cheryl L.; Scott, A. D., Jr.; So, Kenneth T.

    1987-01-01

    A design and assembly sequence was conducted on one option of the Dual Keel Space Station examined by a NASA Critical Evaluation Task Force to establish viability of several variations of that option. A goal of the study was to produce and analyze technical data to support Task Force decisions to either examine particular Option 3 variations in more depth or eliminate them from further consideration. An analysis of the phasing assembly showed that use of an Expendable Launch Vehicle in conjunction with the Space Transportation System (STS) can accelerate the buildup of the Station and ease the STS launch rate constraints. The study also showed that use of an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle on the first flight can significantly benefit Station assembly and, by performing Station subsystem functions, can alleviate the need for operational control and reboost systems during the early flights. In addition to launch and assembly sequencing, the study assessed stability and control, and analyzed node-packaging options and the effects of keel removal on the structural dynamics of the Station. Results of these analyses are presented and discussed.

  5. Power Requirements for The NASA Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the power systems analysis results from NASA s recent Mars DRA 5.0 study which examined three architecture options and resulting mission requirements for a human Mars landing mission in the post-2030 timeframe. DRA 5.0 features a long approximately 500 day surface stay split mission using separate cargo and crewed Mars transfer vehicles. Two cargo flights, utilizing minimum energy trajectories, pre-deploy a cargo lander to the surface and a habitat lander into a 24-hour elliptical Mars parking orbit where it remains until the arrival of the crew during the next mission opportunity approximately 26 months later. The pre-deployment of cargo poses unique challenges for set-up and emplacement of surface assets that results in the need for self or robotically deployed designs. Three surface architecture options were evaluated for breadth of science content, extent of exploration range/capability and variations in system concepts and technology. This paper describes the power requirements for the surface operations of the three mission options, power system analyses including discussion of the nuclear fission, solar photovoltaic and radioisotope concepts for main base power and long range mobility.

  6. Design and control of energy efficient drying processes with specific reference to foods

    SciTech Connect

    Franzen, K.; Kim, M.; Liang, H.; Murakami, E.; Narsimhan, G.; Okos, M.; Singh, R.; Waananen, K.

    1987-10-10

    Work on Phase 2 of the drying project was started during the last quarter. Progress on Task 10 (Revision of Drying Models) included a review of fundamental drying theory, and an investigation of experimental methods to determine model coefficients. Models for a drum dryer were also analyzed this quarter. Progress on Task 11 (Dryer Studies) included an analysis of a pressurized drying chamber, and installation of a vacuum drum dryer. Further work is needed to prepare both systems for experimental drying studies. Progress on Task 12 (Food Quality Studies) included collection of data on browning and vitamin A degradation in nonfat dried milk. Analysis and interpretation of the data are planned for the next quarter. Thermal property tests on porous food materials were also investigated during the past quarter. Progress on Task 13 (Recommendations/Strategies for Dryer Design and Control) included a review of dryer control strategies presented in the literature. A survey of available sensors for dryer control is planned for the next quarter.

  7. Design and performance of an arcjet nuclear electric propulsion system for a mid-1990's reference mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, William D.; Vondra, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The design and performance of an arcjet nuclear-electric-propulsion spacecraft, suitable for use in the Space Nuclear Power System (SNPS) reference mission, are outlined. The vehicle design was based on a 30-kW ammonia arcjet system operating at an Isp of 1050 s and an efficiency of 45 percent. The arcjet/gimbal system, power-processing unit, and propellant-feed system are described. A 100-kWe SNPS was assumed, and the spacecraft mass was baselined at 5250 kg (excluding the propellant-feed system). A radiation/arcjet efflux diagnostics package was included in the performance analysis. This spacecraft, assuming a Shuttle launch from KSC, can perform a 50-deg inclination change and reach a final orbit of 35,860 km with a 120-d trip time providing a 4-mo active load for the SNPS. Alternatively, a Titan IV launch would provide a mass margin of 120 kg to a 10,000-km, 58-deg final orbit in 74 d. This spacecraft meets the reference-mission constraint of low developmental risk, and is scalable to power levels projected for future space platforms.

  8. The Persistence of Asthma requires Multiple Feedback Circuits Involving ILC2 and IL33

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, Christina A.; Goplen, Nicholas P.; Zafar, Iram; Irvin, Chaoyu; Good, James T.; Rollins, Donald R.; Gorentla, Balachandra; Liu, Weimin; Gorska, Magdalena M.; Chu, HongWei; Martin, Richard J.; Alam, Rafeul

    2015-01-01

    Background Asthma in the mouse model spontaneously resolves after cessation of allergen exposure. We developed a mouse model where asthma features persisted for 6 months after cessation of allergen exposure. Objective To elucidate factors contributing to the persistence of asthma. Methods We utilized a combination of immunologic, genetic, microarray and pharmacologic approaches to dissect the mechanism of persistence of asthma. Results Elimination of T cells though antibody-mediated depletion or lethal irradiation and transplantation of Rag1−/− bone marrow in mice with chronic asthma resulted in resolution of airway inflammation but not airway hyperreactivity or remodeling. Elimination of T cells and ILC2 through lethal irradiation and transplantation of Rag2−/−γc−/− bone marrow or blockade of IL33 resulted in resolution of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity. Persistence of asthma required multiple interconnected feedback and feed forward circuits between ILC2 and epithelial cells. Epithelial IL33 induced ILC2, a rich source of IL13. The latter directly induced epithelial IL33 establishing a positive feedback circuit. IL33 auto-induced, generating another feedback circuit. IL13 upregulated IL33 receptors and facilitated IL33 auto-induction, thus establishing a feed forward circuit. Elimination of any component of these circuits resulted in resolution of chronic asthma. In agreement with the foregoing, IL33 and ILC2 were increased in the airways from asthmatic patients. IL33 correlated with disease severity. Conclusions We present a critical network of feedback and feed forward interactions between epithelial cells and ILC2 involved in maintaining chronic asthma. Although T cells contributed to the severity of chronic asthma they were redundant in maintaining airway hyperreactivity and remodeling. PMID:25617223

  9. Multi-omics data driven analysis establishes reference codon biases for synthetic gene design in microbial and mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ang, Kok Siong; Kyriakopoulos, Sarantos; Li, Wei; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed multi-omics data and subsets thereof to establish reference codon usage biases for codon optimization in synthetic gene design. Specifically, publicly available genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and translatomic data for microbial and mammalian expression hosts, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, were compiled to derive their individual codon and codon pair frequencies. Then, host dependent and -omics specific codon biases were generated and compared by principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering. Interestingly, our results indicated the similar codon bias patterns of the highly expressed transcripts, highly abundant proteins, and efficiently translated mRNA in microbial cells, despite the general lack of correlation between mRNA and protein expression levels. However, for CHO cells, the codon bias patterns among various -omics subsets are not distinguishable, forming one cluster. Thus, we further investigated the effect of different input codon biases on codon optimized sequences using the codon context (CC) and individual codon usage (ICU) design parameters, via in silico case study on the expression of human IFNγ sequence in CHO cells. The results supported that CC is more robust design parameter than ICU for improved heterologous gene design. PMID:26850284

  10. Design and characterization of an RF excited micro atmospheric pressure plasma jet for reference in plasma medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker

    2015-09-01

    Over the last decade a huge variety of atmospheric pressure plasma jets has been developed and applied for plasma medicine. The efficiency of these non-equilibrium plasmas for biological application is based on the generated amounts of reactive species and radiation. The gas temperatures stay within a range tolerable for temperature-sensitive tissues. The variety of different discharge geometries complicates a direct comparison. In addition, in plasma-medicine the combination of plasma with reactive components, ambient air, as well as biologic tissue - typically also incorporating fluids - results in a complex system. Thus, real progress in plasma-medicine requires a profound knowledge of species, their fluxes and processes hitting biological tissues. That will allow in particular the necessary tailoring of the discharge to fit the conditions. The complexity of the problem can only be overcome by a common effort of many groups and requires a comparison of their results. A reference device based on the already well-investigated micro-scaled atmospheric pressure plasma jet is presented. It is developed in the frame of the European COST initiative MP1101 to establish a publicly available, stable and reproducible source, where required plasma conditions can be investigated. Here we present the design and the ideas behind. The presentation discusses the requirements for the reference source and operation conditions. Biological references are also defined by the initiative. A specific part of the talk will be attributed to the reproducibility of results from various samples of the device. Funding by the DFG within the Package Project PAK816 ``Plasma Cell Interaction in Dermatology'' and the Research Unit FOR 1123 ``Physics of microplasmas'' is gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Design and analysis strategies for digital repetitive control systems with time-varying reference/disturbance period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Castelló, R.; Olm, J. M.; Ramos, G. A.

    2011-07-01

    This article analyses stability and performance features of different design schemes for digital repetitive control systems subject to references/disturbances that exhibit non-uniform frequency. Aiming at maintaining a constant value for the ratio T p /T s , T p being the period of the reference/disturbance signal and T s being the sampling period, two approaches are proposed. The first one deals with the real-time adaptation of T s to the actual changes of T p ; stability is studied by means of an LMI gridding method and also using robust control techniques. The second one propounds the introduction of an additional compensator that annihilates the effect of the time-varying sampling in the closed-loop system and forces its behaviour to coincide with that of an a priori selected nominal sampling period; the internal stability of the compensator-plant subsystem is checked by means of LMI gridding. The theoretical results are experimentally tested and compared through a mechatronic plant model.

  12. Adjoint-Based Design of Rotors using the Navier-Stokes Equations in a Noninertial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Eric J.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Jones, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Optimization of rotorcraft flowfields using an adjoint method generally requires a time-dependent implementation of the equations. The current study examines an intermediate approach in which a subset of rotor flowfields are cast as steady problems in a noninertial reference frame. This technique permits the use of an existing steady-state adjoint formulation with minor modifications to perform sensitivity analyses. The formulation is valid for isolated rigid rotors in hover or where the freestream velocity is aligned with the axis of rotation. Discrete consistency of the implementation is demonstrated using comparisons with a complex-variable technique, and a number of single- and multi-point optimizations for the rotorcraft figure of merit function are shown for varying blade collective angles. Design trends are shown to remain consistent as the grid is refined.

  13. Adjoint-Based Design of Rotors Using the Navier-Stokes Equations in a Noninertial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Eric J.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Jones, William T.

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of rotorcraft flowfields using an adjoint method generally requires a time-dependent implementation of the equations. The current study examines an intermediate approach in which a subset of rotor flowfields are cast as steady problems in a noninertial reference frame. This technique permits the use of an existing steady-state adjoint formulation with minor modifications to perform sensitivity analyses. The formulation is valid for isolated rigid rotors in hover or where the freestream velocity is aligned with the axis of rotation. Discrete consistency of the implementation is demonstrated by using comparisons with a complex-variable technique, and a number of single- and multipoint optimizations for the rotorcraft figure of merit function are shown for varying blade collective angles. Design trends are shown to remain consistent as the grid is refined.

  14. Detectors for Linear Colliders: Detector design for a Future Electron-Positron Collider (4/4)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In this lecture I will discuss the issues related to the overall design and optimization of a detector for ILC and CLIC energies. I will concentrate on the two main detector concepts which are being developed in the context of the ILC. Here there has been much recent progress in developing realistic detector models and in understanding the physics performance of the overall detector concept. In addition, I will discuss the how the differences in the detector requirements for the ILC and CLIC impact the overall detector design.

  15. Design and characterisation of a thin-film electrode array with shared reference/counter electrodes for electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Yildiz; Olcer, Zehra; Sagiroglu, Mahmut Samil

    2014-07-15

    In the current study, a novel electrode array and integrated microfluidics have been designed and characterised in order to create a sensor chip which is not only easy, rapid and cheaper to produce but also have a smaller imprint and good electrochemical sensing properties. The current study includes the assessment of the effects of an Au quasi-reference electrode and the use of shared reference/counter electrodes for the array, in order to obtain a small array that can be produced using a fine metal mask. In the study, it is found that when Au is used as the quasi-reference electrode, the arrays with shared reference and counter electrodes result in faster electron transfer kinetics and prevent the potential change with respect to scan rate, and hence is advantageous with respect to conventional electrodes. In addition, the resulting novel electrode array has been shown to result in higher current density (10.52 µA/cm(2); HRP detection assay) and measured diffusion coefficient (14.40×10(-12) cm(2)/s; calculated from the data of cyclic voltammetry with 1mM potassium ferricyanide) with respect to conventional electrodes tested in the study. Using the new electrode arrays, the detection limits obtained from horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and bisphenol A assays were 12.5 ng/ml (2.84×10(-10) M ) and 10 ng/ml (44×10(-9) M), respectively. Performing the HRP detection assay in a flow injection system using array integrated microfluidics provided 25 times lower detection limit (11.36×10(-12) M), although Ti has been used as electrode material instead of Au. In short, incorporation of this new electrode array to lab-on-a-chip or MEMs (micro-electro mechanic systems) technologies may pave the way for easy to use automated biosensing devices that could be used for a variety of applications from diagnostics to environmental monitoring, and studies will continue to move forward in this direction. PMID:24561521

  16. Design and characterisation of a thin-film electrode array with shared reference/counter electrodes for electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Yildiz; Olcer, Zehra; Sagiroglu, Mahmut Samil

    2014-07-15

    In the current study, a novel electrode array and integrated microfluidics have been designed and characterised in order to create a sensor chip which is not only easy, rapid and cheaper to produce but also have a smaller imprint and good electrochemical sensing properties. The current study includes the assessment of the effects of an Au quasi-reference electrode and the use of shared reference/counter electrodes for the array, in order to obtain a small array that can be produced using a fine metal mask. In the study, it is found that when Au is used as the quasi-reference electrode, the arrays with shared reference and counter electrodes result in faster electron transfer kinetics and prevent the potential change with respect to scan rate, and hence is advantageous with respect to conventional electrodes. In addition, the resulting novel electrode array has been shown to result in higher current density (10.52 µA/cm(2); HRP detection assay) and measured diffusion coefficient (14.40×10(-12) cm(2)/s; calculated from the data of cyclic voltammetry with 1mM potassium ferricyanide) with respect to conventional electrodes tested in the study. Using the new electrode arrays, the detection limits obtained from horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and bisphenol A assays were 12.5 ng/ml (2.84×10(-10) M ) and 10 ng/ml (44×10(-9) M), respectively. Performing the HRP detection assay in a flow injection system using array integrated microfluidics provided 25 times lower detection limit (11.36×10(-12) M), although Ti has been used as electrode material instead of Au. In short, incorporation of this new electrode array to lab-on-a-chip or MEMs (micro-electro mechanic systems) technologies may pave the way for easy to use automated biosensing devices that could be used for a variety of applications from diagnostics to environmental monitoring, and studies will continue to move forward in this direction.

  17. A Phobos-Deimos Mission as an Element of the NASA Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has conducted a series of mission studies over the past 25 years examining the eventual exploration of the surface of Mars by humans. The latest version of this evolutionary series of design reference missions/architectures - Design Reference Architecture 5 or DRA-5 - was completed in 2007. This paper examines the implications of including a human mission to explore the moons of Mars and teleoperate robots in various locations, but not to land the human crews on Mars, as an element of this reference architecture. Such a mission has been proposed several times during this same 25 year evolution leading up to the completion of DRA-5 primarily as a mission of testing the in-space vehicles and operations while surface vehicles and landers are under development. But such a precursor or test mission has never been explicitly included as an element of this Architecture. This paper will first summarize the key features of the DRA-5 to provide context for the remainder of the assessment. This will include a description of the in-space vehicles that would be the subject of a shakedown test during the Mars orbital mission. A decision tree will be used to illustrate the factors that will be analyzed, and the sequence in which they will be addressed, for this assessment. The factors that will be analyzed include the type of interplanetary transfer orbit (opposition class versus conjunction class), the type of parking orbit (circular versus elliptical), and the type of propulsion technology (high thrust chemical versus nuclear thermal rocket). The manner in which each of these factors impacts an individual mission will be described. In addition to the direct impact of these factors, additional considerations impacting crew health and overall programmatic outcomes will be discussed. Numerical results for each of the factors in the decision tree will be grouped with derived qualitative impacts from crew health and programmatic consideration. These quantitative and qualitative

  18. Evaluation and Compensation of Detector Solenoid Effects on Disrupted Beam in the ILC 14 mrad Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Toprek, Dragan; Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC

    2008-12-18

    This paper presents calculations of detector solenoid effects on disrupted primary beam in the ILC 14 mrad extraction line. Particle tracking simulations are performed for evaluation of primary beam loss along the line as well as of beam distribution and polarization at Compton Interaction Point. The calculations are done both without and with solenoid compensation. The results are obtained for the baseline ILC energy of 500 GeV center-of-mass and three options of beam parameters.

  19. Towards a reference cavitating vessel Part III—design and acoustic pressure characterization of a multi-frequency sonoreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lian; Memoli, Gianluca; Hodnett, Mark; Butterworth, Ian; Sarno, Dan; Zeqiri, Bajram

    2015-08-01

    A multi-frequency cavitation vessel (RV-multi) has been commissioned at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, UK), with the aim of establishing a standard source of acoustic cavitation in water, with reference to which details of the cavitation process can be studied and cavitation measurement techniques evaluated. The vessel is a cylindrical cavity with a maximum capacity up to 17 L, and is designed to work at six frequency ranges, from 21 kHz to 136 kHz, under controlled temperature conditions. This paper discusses the design of RV-multi and reports experiments carried out to establish the reproducibility of the acoustic pressure field established within the vessel and its operating envelope, including sensitivity to aspects such as water depth and temperature. The acoustic field distribution was determined along the radial and depth directions within the vessel using a miniature hydrophone, for two input voltage levels under low power transducer excitation conditions (e.g. below the cavitation threshold). Particular care was taken in determining peak acoustic pressure locations, as these are critical for accompanying cavitation studies. Perturbations of the vessel by the measuring hydrophone were also monitored with a bottom-mounted pressure sensor.

  20. When Insult Is Added to Injury: Cross Talk between ILCs and Intestinal Epithelium in IBD

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by an impairment of the integrity of the mucosal epithelial barrier, which causes exacerbated inflammation of the intestine. The intestinal barrier is formed by different specialized epithelial cells, which separate the intestinal lumen from the lamina propria. In addition to its crucial role in protecting the body from invading pathogens, the intestinal epithelium contributes to intestinal homeostasis by its biochemical properties and communication to underlying immune cells. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently described population of lymphocytes that have been implicated in both mucosal homeostasis and inflammation. Recent findings indicate a critical feedback loop in which damaged epithelium activates these innate immune cells to restore epithelial barrier function. This review will focus on the signalling pathways between damaged epithelium and ILCs involved in repair of the epithelial barrier and tissue homeostasis and the relationship of these processes with the control of IBD. PMID:27578924

  1. Measuring a light neutralino mass at the ILC: Testing the MSSM neutralino cold dark matter model

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, J. A.; Dreiner, H. K.; Wienemann, P.

    2011-03-01

    The LEP experiments give a lower bound on the neutralino mass of about 46 GeV which, however, relies on a supersymmetric grand unification relation. Dropping this assumption, the experimental lower bound on the neutralino mass vanishes completely. Recent analyses suggest, however, that in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), a light neutralino dark matter candidate has a lower bound on its mass of about 7 GeV. In light of this, we investigate the mass sensitivity at the ILC for very light neutralinos. We study slepton pair production, followed by the decay of the sleptons to a lepton and the lightest neutralino. We find that the mass measurement accuracy for a few-GeV neutralino is around 2 GeV, or even less if the relevant slepton is sufficiently light. We thus conclude that the ILC can help verify or falsify the MSSM neutralino cold dark matter model even for very light neutralinos.

  2. The ILC P2 Marx and Application of the Marx Topology to Future Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Hugyik, J.; Larsen, R.; Macken, K.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    The SLAC P2 Marx is under development as the linac klystron modulator for the ILC. This modulator builds upon the success of the P1 Marx, which is currently undergoing lifetime evaluation. While the SLAC P2 Marx's (henceforth, 'P2 Marx') target application is the ILC, characteristics of the Marx topology make it equally well-suited for operation at different parameter ranges; for example, increased pulse repetition frequency, increased output current, longer pulse width, etc. Marx parameters such as the number of cells, cell capacitance, and component selection can be optimized for the application. This paper provides an overview of the P2 Marx development. In addition, the scalability of the Marx topology to other long-pulse parameter ranges is discussed.

  3. Search for doubly-charged Higgs bosons through the diboson decay channel at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jun; Liu, Yao-Bei

    2016-09-01

    The doubly-charged Higgs bosons (H5±±) are the typical particles predicted in the Georgi-Machacek (GM) model and their decay modes depend on the magnitude of the triplet vacuum expectation value (VEV) vΔ. In this paper, we focus on the study of their pair production process at the International Linear Collider (ILC): e+e‑→ H 5++H 5‑‑→ W+W+W‑W‑→ ℓ‑ℓ‑jjjjE/ Tmiss, with the subsequent decay of two like-sign W bosons through a pair of like-sign dileptons and the remaining two in their hadronic decays. The 5σ confidence level discovery reach at the ILC is also studied with two collision energies of 1.0 TeV and 1.5 TeV.

  4. Probing top-Z dipole moments at the LHC and ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Röntsch, Raoul; Schulze, Markus

    2015-08-11

    We investigate the weak electric and magnetic dipole moments of top quark-Z boson interactions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the International Linear Collider (ILC). Their vanishingly small magnitude in the Standard Model makes these couplings ideal for probing New Physics interactions and for exploring the role of top quarks in electroweak symmetry breaking. In our analysis, we consider the production of two top quarks in association with a Z boson at the LHC, and top quark pairs mediated by neutral gauge bosons at the ILC. These processes yield direct sensitivity to top quark-Z boson interactions and complement indirect constraints from electroweak precision data. Our computation is accurate to next-to-leading order in QCD, we include the full decay chain of top quarks and the Z boson, and account for theoretical uncertainties in our constraints. Furthermore, we find that LHC experiments will soon be able to probe weak dipole moments for the first time.

  5. Thermal Photon and Residual Gas Scattering of the Electrons in the ILC RTML

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.M.; /SLAC

    2006-08-16

    The scattering of the primary beam electrons off of thermal photons and residual gas molecules in the projected International Linear Collider (ILC) is a potential source of beam haloes which must be collimated downstream of the linac. In this report we give the analytic estimations of the individual input that each of the main scattering processes makes in the production of off-energy and large amplitude particles in the Damping Ring to Main Linac region (RTML).

  6. Suppression of Secondary Electron Emission using Triangular Grooved Surface in the ILC Dipole and Wiggler Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Bane, K.; Chen, C.; Himel, T.; Munro, M.; Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.; Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    The development of an electron cloud in the vacuum chambers of high intensity positron and proton storage rings may limit machine performance. The suppression of electrons in a magnet is a challenge for the positron damping ring of the International Linear Collider (ILC) as well as the Large Hadron Collider. Simulation show that grooved surfaces can significantly reduce the electron yield in a magnet. Some of the secondary electrons emitted from the grooved surface return to the surface within a few gyrations, resulting in a low effective secondary electron yield (SEY) of below 1.0 A triangular surface is an effective, technologically attractive mitigation with a low SEY and a weak dependence on the scale of the corrugations and the external magnetic field. A chamber with triangular grooved surface is proposed for the dipole and wiggler sections of the ILC and will be tested in KEKB in 2007. The strategy of electron cloud control in ILC and the optimization of the grooved chamber such as the SEY, impedance as well as the manufacturing of the chamber, are also discussed.

  7. Design of Linear DC Motor Two-degree-of-freedom Positioning System using Model Reference type Sliding Mode Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urushihara, Shiro; Kamano, Takuya; Yura, Satoshi; Yasuno, Takashi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    One of fundamental problems in the factory automation is how to obtain linear motion. Linear motors produce directly the linear motion force without a motion-transform mechanism. Linear d.c. motors (LDMs) have excellent performance and controllability. However, the dynamics of small-sized LDMs is adversely affected by the dead-band due to the friction between brushes and commutators. In this paper, it is described that the design of the two-degree-of-freedom positioning system with a LDM using model reference type sliding mode controller (SMC). The proposed positioning system consists of a fixed gain feedforward controller and a SMC used as a feedback controller. The objective of the SMC is to repress the influence of nonlinear characteristics (the dead-band and parameter variations etc.). The tracking performance can be improved as the fixed gain feedforward controller makes a dynamic inverse system in the feedforward path. The effectiveness of the proposed system for improvement of the tracking performance is demonstrated by experimental results.

  8. Design and high order optimization of the Accelerator Test Facility lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, E.; Tomás, R.; Bambade, P.; Kubo, K.; Okugi, T.; Tauchi, T.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Seryi, A.; White, G. R.; Woodley, M.

    2014-02-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) aims to test the novel chromaticity correction scheme which is implemented in the final focus systems of future linear colliders such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The ATF2 nominal and ultralow β* lattices are designed to vertically focus the beam at the focal point, or usually referred to as interaction point (IP), down to 37 and 23 nm, respectively. The vertical chromaticities of the nominal and ultralow β* lattices are comparable to those of ILC and CLIC, respectively. When the measured multipole components of the ATF2 magnets are considered in the simulations, the evaluated spot sizes at the IP are well above the design values. In this paper we describe the analysis of the high order aberrations that allows identifying the sources of the observed beam size growth. In order to recover the design spot sizes three solutions are considered, namely final doublet replacement, octupole insertion, and optics modification. Concerning the future linear collider projects, the consequences of magnetic field errors of the focusing quadrupole magnet of the final doublet are also addressed.

  9. American Indian Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    Designed to aid librarians, school teachers, and others in need of American Indian references and reference sources, this compilation covers a wide variety of material which has generally been scattered throughout various individual references. Specifically, this reference book includes: (1) Location of Tribes by State; (2) Locations of Tribes by…

  10. New SCALE Sensitivity/Uncertainty Capabilities Applied to Bias Estimation and to Design of MIRTE Reference Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T; Duhamel, Isabelle; Letang, Eric

    2009-01-01

    New TSUNAMI tools of SCALE 6, TSURFER and TSAR, are demonstrated to examine the bias effects of small-worth test materials, relative to reference experiments. TSURFER is a data adjustment bias and bias uncertainty assessment tool, and TSAR computes the sensitivity of the change in reactivity between two systems to the cross-section data common to their calculation. With TSURFER, it is possible to examine biases and bias uncertainties in fine detail. For replacement experiments, the application of TSAR to TSUNAMI-3D sensitivity data for pairs of experiments allows the isolation of sources of bias that could otherwise be obscured by materials with more worth in an individual experiment. The application of TSUNAMI techniques in the design of nine reference experiments for the MIRTE program will allow application of these advanced techniques to data acquired in the experimental series. The validation of all materials in a complex criticality safety application likely requires consolidating information from many different critical experiments. For certain materials, such as structural materials or fission products, only a limited number of critical experiments are available, and the fuel and moderator compositions of the experiments may differ significantly from those of the application. In these cases, it is desirable to extract the computational bias of a specific material from an integral keff measurement and use that information to quantify the bias due to the use of the same material in the application system. Traditional parametric and nonparametric methods are likely to prove poorly suited for such a consolidation of specific data components from a diverse set of experiments. An alternative choice for consolidating specific data from numerous sources is a data adjustment tool, like the ORNL tool TSURFER (Tool for Sensitivity/Uncertainty analysis of Response Functionals using Experimental Results) from SCALE 6.1 However, even with TSURFER, it may be difficult to

  11. Transient inhibition of ROR-γt therapeutically limits intestinal inflammation by reducing TH17 cells and preserving ILC3

    PubMed Central

    Withers, David R.; Hepworth, Matthew R.; Wang, Xinxin; Mackley, Emma C.; Halford, Emily E.; Dutton, Emma E.; Marriott, Clare L.; Brucklacher-Waldert, Verena; Veldhoen, Marc; Kelsen, Judith; Baldassano, Robert N.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.

    2016-01-01

    RAR-related orphan receptor γt (ROR-γt) directs differentiation of pro-inflammatory T helper 17 (TH17) cells and is a potential therapeutic target in chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases1–3. However, ROR-γt-dependent group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) provide essential immunity and tissue protection in the intestine4–11, suggesting that targeting ROR-γt could also result in impaired host defense to infection or enhanced tissue damage. Here, we demonstrate that transient chemical inhibition of ROR-γt in mice selectively reduces cytokine production from TH17 cells but not ILC3s in the context of intestinal infection with Citrobacter rodentium, resulting in preserved innate immunity. Transient genetic deletion of ROR-γt in mature ILC3s also did not impair cytokine responses in the steady state or during infection. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of ROR-γt provided therapeutic benefit in mouse models of intestinal inflammation, and reduced the frequencies of TH17 cells but not ILC3s isolated from primary intestinal samples of individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Collectively, these results reveal differential requirements for ROR-γt in the maintenance of TH17 cell versus ILC3 responses, and suggest that transient inhibition of ROR-γt is a safe and effective therapeutic approach during intestinal inflammation. PMID:26878233

  12. Polarization of ILC2s in Peripheral Blood Might Contribute to Immunosuppressive Microenvironment in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bie, Qingli; Zhang, Pan; Su, Zhaoliang; Zheng, Dong; Ying, Xinyu; Wu, Yumin; Yang, Huijian; Chen, Deyu; Xu, Huaxi

    2014-01-01

    Newly identified nuocytes or group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play an important role in Th2 cell mediated immunity such as protective immune responses to helminth parasites, allergic asthma, and chronic rhinosinusitis. However, the contributions of ILC2s in the occurrence and development of cancer remain unknown. Our previous study found that there was a predominant Th2 phenotype in patients with gastric cancer. In this study, the ILC2s related genes or molecules in PBMC from patients with gastric cancer were measured, and the potential correlation between them was analyzed. The expression levels of RORα, GATA3, T1/ST2, IL-17RB, CRTH2, IL-33, IL-5, and IL-4 mRNA were significantly increased in patients, but no significant changes were found in ICOS, CD45, and IL-13 expression, and there was a positive correlation between RORα or IL-13 and other related factors, such as ICOS and CD45. The increased frequency of ILC2s was also found in PBMC of patients by flow cytometry. In addition, the mRNA of Arg1 and iNOS were also significantly increased in patients. These results suggested that there are polarized ILC2s in gastric cancer patients which might contribute to immunosuppressive microenvironment and closely related to the upregulation of MDSCs and M2 macrophages. PMID:24741632

  13. Fast Ferroelectric L-Band Tuner for ILC Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2010-03-15

    Design, analysis, and low-power tests are described on a 1.3 GHz ferroelectric tuner that could find application in the International Linear Collider or in Project X at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The tuner configuration utilizes a three-deck sandwich imbedded in a WR-650 waveguide, in which ferroelectric bars are clamped between conducting plates that allow the tuning bias voltage to be applied. Use of a reduced one-third structure allowed tests of critical parameters of the configuration, including phase shift, loss, and switching speed. Issues that were revealed that require improvement include reducing loss tangent in the ferroelectric material, development of a reliable means of brazing ferroelectric elements to copper parts of the tuner, and simplification of the mechanical design of the configuration.

  14. 20 CFR 10.301 - May the physician designated on Form CA-16 refer the employee to another medical specialist or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the physician designated on Form CA-16 refer the employee to another medical specialist or medical facility? 10.301 Section 10.301 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE...

  15. Field Quality And Magnetic Center Stability Achieved in a Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Iwashita, Y.; Mihara, T.; Kumada, M.; Spencer, C.; /SLAC

    2006-02-06

    A superstrong permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Our prototype PMQ can produce variable strengths from 3.5T to 24.2T in 1.4T steps. The magnetic center of the PMQ must not move more than a few microns during a 20% strength change to enable a Beam-Based Alignment (BBA) process to work. Our PMQ can be mechanically adjusted to suppress the center movement from more than 30{micro}m to less than 10{micro}m during strength changes.

  16. Controls, LLRF, and instrumentation systems for ILC test facilities at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, B.; Votava, M.; Wendt, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The major controls and instrumentation systems for the ILC test areas and the NML test accelerator at Fermilab are discussed. The test areas include 3 separate areas for Vertical Superconducting RF Cavity Testing, Horizontal Cavity Testing, and NML RF and beam test area. A common control infrastructure for the test areas including a controls framework, electronic logbook and cavity database will be provided, while supporting components supplied by collaborators with diverse areas of expertise (EPICS, DOOCS, LabVIEW, and Matlab). The discussions on the instrumentation systems are focused on overview and requirements.

  17. Beam Emittance Measurement with Laser Wire Scanners in the ILC Beam Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Agapov, I.; Blair, G.A.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2008-02-01

    Accurate measurement of the beam phase-space is essential for the next generation of electron accelerators. A scheme for beam optics optimization and beam matrix reconstruction algorithms for the diagnostics section of the beam delivery system of the International Linear Collider based on laser-wire beam profile monitors are discussed. Possible modes of operation of the laser-wire system together with their corresponding performance are presented. Based on these results, prospects for reconstructing the ILC beam emittance from representative laser-wire beam size measurements are evaluated.

  18. Development of an Adder-Topology ILC Damping Ring Kicker Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Tao; Burkhart, Craig; /SLAC

    2009-05-08

    The ILC damping ring injection and extraction kickers will require high availability modulators that can deliver {+-}5 kV pulses into 50 {Omega} with a 2 ns flattop ({approx}1 ns rise and fall time) at up to 6 MHz. An effort is underway at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to meet these requirements using a transmission line adder topology to combine the output of an array of {approx}1 kV modules. The modules employ an ultra-fast hybrid MOSFET/driver that can switch 33 A in 1.2 ns. Experimental results for a scale adder structure are presented.

  19. Probing for leptophilic gauge boson Zl at ILC with $\\sqrt{s} = 1~{\\rm TeV}$ by using ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, S. Okan; Akkoyun, Serkan; Bayram, Tuncay

    2014-11-01

    We search for leptophilic gauge boson Zl via the process e+e- → μ+μ- at ILC with √ {s} = 1 TeV. In the leptonic extension of SM (SUC(3) × SUW(2) × UY(1) × Ul'(1)) we have predicted that ILC with √ {s} = 1 TeV will enable searching Zl with masses up to the center-of-mass energy if the related coupling constant gl exceeds 10-3 for 3σ observations and 5σ discovery. Furthermore similar results have been obtained by using artificial neural network (ANN) method.

  20. ILC TARGET WHEEL RIM FRAGMENT/GUARD PLATE IMPACT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hagler, L

    2008-07-17

    A positron source component is needed for the International Linear Collider Project. The leading design concept for this source is a rotating titanium alloy wheel whose spokes rotate through an intense localized magnetic field. The system is composed of an electric motor, flexible motor/drive-shaft coupling, stainless steel drive-shaft, two Plumber's Block tapered roller bearings, a titanium alloy target wheel, and electromagnet. Surrounding the target wheel and magnet is a steel frame with steel guarding plates intended to contain shrapnel in case of catastrophic wheel failure. Figure 1 is a layout of this system (guard plates not shown for clarity). This report documents the FEA analyses that were performed at LLNL to help determine, on a preliminary basis, the required guard plate thickness for three potential plate steels.

  1. Design and Development of an Equipotential Voltage Reference (Grounding) System for a Low-Cost Rapid-Development Modular Spacecraft Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukash, James A.; Daley, Earl

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and development effort to adapt rapid-development space hardware by creating a ground system using solutions of low complexity, mass, & cost. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is based on the modular common spacecraft bus architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The challenge was building upon the existing modular common bus design and development work and improving the LADEE spacecraft design by adding an Equipotential Voltage Reference (EVeR) system, commonly referred to as a ground system. This would aid LADEE in meeting Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) requirements, thereby making the spacecraft more compatible with itself and its space environment. The methods used to adapt existing hardware are presented, including provisions which may be used on future spacecraft.

  2. Latest Results of ILC High-Gradient R&D 9-cell Cavities at JLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Rongli

    2008-02-11

    It has been over a year since JLAB started processing and testing ILC 9-cell cavities in the frame work of ILC high-gradient cavity R&D, aiming at the goal of a 35 MV/m gradient at a Q of 1E10 with a yield of 90%. The necessary cavity processing steps include field flatness tuning, electropolishing (EP), hydrogen out-gassing under vacuum, high-pressure water rinsing, clean room assembly, and low temperature bake. These are followed by RF test at 2 Kelvin. Ultrasonic cleaning with Micro-90, an effective post-EP rinsing recipe discovered at JLAB, is routinely used. Seven industry manufactured 9-cell TESLAshape cavities are processed and tested repeatedly. So far, 33 EP cycles are accumulated, corresponding to more than 65 hours of active EP time. An emphasis put on RF testing is to discern cavity quench characteristics, including its nature and its location. Often times, the cavity performance is limited by thermal-magnetic quench instead of field emission. The quench field in some cavities is lower than 20 MV/m and remains unchanged despite repeated EP, implying material and/or fabrication defects. The quench field in some other cavities is high but changes unpredictably after repeated EP, suggesting processing induced defects. Based on our experience and results, several areas are identified where improvement is needed to improve cavity performance as well as yield.

  3. Possible futures of electroweak precision: ILC, FCC-ee, and CEPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, JiJi; Reece, Matthew; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2015-09-01

    The future of high-precision electroweak physics lies in e + e - collider measurements of properties of the Z boson, the W boson, the Higgs boson, and the top quark. We estimate the expected performance of three possible future colliders: the ILC, FCC-ee (formerly known as TLEP), and CEPC. In particular, we present the first estimates of the possible reach of CEPC, China's proposed Circular Electron-Positron Collider, for the oblique parameters S and T and for seven-parameter fits of Higgs couplings. These results allow the physics potential for CEPC to be compared with that of the ILC and FCC-ee. We also show how the constraints on S and T would evolve as the uncertainties on each of the most important input measurements change separately. This clarifies the basic physics goals for future colliders. To improve on the current precision, the highest priorities are improving the uncertainties on m W and sin2 θ eff . At the same time, improved measurements of the top mass, the Z mass, the running of α, and the Z width will offer further improvement which will determine the ultimate reach. Each of the possible future colliders we consider has strong prospects for probing TeV-scale electroweak physics.

  4. Probing top-Z dipole moments at the LHC and ILC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Röntsch, Raoul; Schulze, Markus

    2015-08-11

    We investigate the weak electric and magnetic dipole moments of top quark-Z boson interactions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the International Linear Collider (ILC). Their vanishingly small magnitude in the Standard Model makes these couplings ideal for probing New Physics interactions and for exploring the role of top quarks in electroweak symmetry breaking. In our analysis, we consider the production of two top quarks in association with a Z boson at the LHC, and top quark pairs mediated by neutral gauge bosons at the ILC. These processes yield direct sensitivity to top quark-Z boson interactions and complement indirectmore » constraints from electroweak precision data. Our computation is accurate to next-to-leading order in QCD, we include the full decay chain of top quarks and the Z boson, and account for theoretical uncertainties in our constraints. Furthermore, we find that LHC experiments will soon be able to probe weak dipole moments for the first time.« less

  5. Contact interactions in Higgs-vector boson associated production at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Bar-Shalom, Shaouly; Eilam, Gad

    2016-08-01

    We explore new physics (NP) effects in Higgs-vector boson associated production at a future International Linear Collider (ILC) via e+e-→Z h ,Z h h , using effective field theory (EFT) techniques. In particular, we focus on a certain class of dimension 6 operators, which are generated by tree-level exchanges of a new heavy vector field in the underlying theory. These operators induce new contact terms of the form ψ ψ ϕ D ϕ , involving the Standard Model (SM) fermions (ψ ), gauge-bosons (D is the covariant derivative) and the SM Higgs field (ϕ ). We investigate the high-energy behavior of these new effective interactions in e+e-→Z h ,Z h h , imposing bounds from electroweak precision measurements, and show that the ILC is an excellent testing ground for probing this type of NP via e+e-→Z h ,Z h h . We also address the validity of the EFT expansion and we study the correlation between the h Z and h h Z signals, which can be utilized in future searches for NP in these channels.

  6. Characterization and Comparison of Control Units for Piezo Actuators to be used for Lorentz Force Compensation inth ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Sampriti; Pilipenko, Roman; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Superconducting accelerators, such as the International Linear Collider (ILC), rely on very high Q accelerating cavities to achieve high electric fields at low RF power. Such cavities have very narrow resonances: a few kHz with a 1.3GHz resonance frequency for the ILC. Several mechanical factors cause tune shifts much larger than this: pressure variations in the liquid helium bath; microphonics from pumps and other mechanical devices; and for a pulsed machine such as the ILC, Lorentz force detuning (pressure from the contained RF field). Simple passive stiffening is limited by many manufacturing and material considerations. Therefore, active tuning using piezo actuators is needed. Here we study a supply for their operation. Since commercial power amplifiers are expensive, we analyzed the characteristics of four power amplifiers: (iPZD) built by Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Sezione di Pisa); and a DC-DC converter power supply built in Fermilab (Piezo Master); and two commercial amplifiers, Piezosystem jena and Piezomechanik. This paper presents an analysis and characterization of these amplifiers to understand the cost benefit and reliability when using in a large scale, pulsed beam accelerator like the ILC.

  7. DAKOTA, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis:version 4.0 reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Joshua D. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Eldred, Michael Scott; Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Kolda, Tamara Gibson; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Williams, Pamela J.; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Eddy, John P.; Hart, William Eugene; Guinta, Anthony A.; Brown, Shannon L.

    2006-10-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.

  8. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. Version 5.0, user's reference manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Eddy, John P.; Haskell, Karen H.

    2010-05-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.

  9. Reference design of 100 MW-h lithium/iron sulfide battery system for utility load leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Zivi, S.M.; Kacinskas, H.; Pollack, I.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Barney, D.L.; Grieve, W.; McFarland, B.L.; Sudar, S.; Goldstein, E.; Adler, E.

    1980-03-01

    The first year in a two-year cooperative effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Rockwell International to develop a conceptual design of a lithium alloy/iron sulfide battery for utility load leveling is presented. A conceptual design was developed for a 100 MW-h battery system based upon a parallel-series arrangement of 2.5 kW-h capacity cells. The sales price of such a battery system was estimated to be very high, $80.25/kW-h, exclusive of the cost of the individual cells, the dc-to-ac converters, site preparation, or land acquisition costs. Consequently, the second year's efforts were directed towards developing modified designs with significantly lower potential costs.

  10. Power Losses in the ILC 20-Mrad Extraction Line at 1-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, Arnaud; Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC

    2007-07-02

    The authors have performed a detailed study of the power losses in the post-collision extraction line of a TeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a crossing angle of 20 mrad at the interaction point. Five cases were considered: four luminosity configurations for ILC and one for CLIC. For all of them, the strong beam-beam effects at the interaction point lead to an emittance growth for the outgoing beam, as well as to the production of beamstrahlung photons and e{sup +}e{sup -} coherent pairs. The power losses along the extraction line, which are due to energy deposition by a fraction of the disrupted beam, of the beamstrahlung photons and of the coherent pairs, were estimated in the case of ideal collisions, as well as with a vertical position or angular offset at the interaction point.

  11. Testing the CP-violating MSSM in stau decays at the LHC and ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Dreiner, Herbi; Kulkarni, Suchita; Marold, Anja; Kittel, Olaf

    2011-05-01

    We study CP violation in the two-body decay of a scalar tau into a neutralino and a tau, which should be probed at the LHC and ILC. From the normal tau polarization, a CP asymmetry is defined which is sensitive to the CP phases of the trilinear scalar coupling parameter A{sub {tau}}, the gaugino mass parameter M{sub 1}, and the Higgsino mass parameter {mu}, in the stau-neutralino sector of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Asymmetries of more than 70% are obtained in scenarios with strong stau mixing. As a result, detectable CP asymmetries in stau decays at the LHC are found, motivating further detailed experimental studies for probing the supersymmetry CP phases.

  12. Emittance reconstruction from measured beam sizes in ATF2 and perspectives for ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faus-Golfe, A.; Navarro, J.; Fuster Martinez, N.; Resta Lopez, J.; Giner Navarro, J.

    2016-05-01

    The projected emittance (2D) and the intrinsic emittance (4D) reconstruction method by using the beam size measurements at different locations is analyzed in order to study analytically the conditions of solvability of the systems of equations involved in this process. Some conditions are deduced and discussed, and general guidelines about the locations of the measurement stations have been obtained to avoid unphysical results. The special case of the multi-Optical Transition Radiation system (m-OTR), made of four measurement stations, in the Extraction Line (EXT) of Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) has been simulated in much detail and compared with measurements. Finally a feasibility study of a multi-station system for fast transverse beam size measurement, emittance reconstruction and coupling correction in the Ring to Main Linac (RTML) of International Linear Collider (ILC) Diagnostic sections of the RTML has been discussed in detail.

  13. Complete one-loop electroweak corrections to ZZZ production at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji-Juan, Su; Wen-Gan, Ma; Ren-You, Zhang; Shao-Ming, Wang; Lei, Guo

    2008-07-01

    We study the complete O(αew) electroweak (EW) corrections to the production of three Z0 bosons in the framework of the standard model (SM) at the ILC. The leading-order and the EW next-to-leading-order corrected cross sections are presented, and their dependence on the colliding energy s and Higgs-boson mass mH is analyzed. We investigate also the LO and one-loop EW corrected distributions of the transverse momentum of the final Z0 boson, and the invariant mass of the Z0Z0 pair. Our numerical results show that the EW one-loop correction generally suppresses the tree-level cross section, and the relative correction with mH=120GeV(150GeV) varies between -15.8%(-13.9%) and -7.5%(-6.2%) when s goes up from 350 GeV to 1 TeV.

  14. Beam Ion Instability in ILC Damping Ring with Multi-Gas Species

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lanfa; Pivi, Mauro; /SLAC

    2012-05-30

    Ion induced beam instability is one critical issue for the electron damping ring of the International Linear Collider (ILC) due to its ultra small emittance of 2 pm. The beam ion instability with various beam filling patterns for the latest lattice DTC02 is studied using PIC code. The code has been benchmarked with SPEAR3 experimental data and there is a good agreement between the simulation and observations. It uses the optics from MAD and can handle arbitrary beam filling pattern and vacuum. Different from previous studies, multi-gas species and exact beam filling patterns have been modeled simultaneously in the study. This feature makes the study more realistic. Analyses have been done to compare with the simulations.

  15. Architectural and Functional Design and Evaluation of E-Learning VUIS Based on the Proposed IEEE LTSA Reference Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Droma, Mairtin S.; Ganchev, Ivan; McDonnell, Fergal

    2003-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Learning Technology Standards Committee's (LTSC) of the architectural and functional design of e-learning delivery platforms and applications, e-learning course authoring tools, and learning management systems (LMSs), with a view of assessing how…

  16. Overview of high gradient SRF R&D for ILC cavities at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Rongli

    2009-11-01

    We report the progress on high gradient R&D of ILC cavities at Jefferson Lab (JLab) since the Beijing workshop. Routine 9-cell cavity electropolishing (EP) processing and RF testing has been enhanced with added surface mapping and T-mapping instrumentations. 12 new 9-cell cavities (10 of them are baseline fine-grain TESLA-shape cavities: 5 built by ACCEL/Research Instruments, 4 by AES and 1 by JLab; 2 of them are alternative cavities: 1 fine-grain ICHIRO-shape cavity built by KEK/Japan industry and 1 large-grain TESLA-shape cavity built by JLab) are EP processed and tested. 76 EP cycles are accumulated, corresponding to more than 200 hours of active EP time. Field emission (FE) and quench behaviors of electropolished 9-cell cavities are studied. EP process continues to be optimized, resulting in advanced procedures and hence improved cavity performance. Several 9-cell cavities reached 35 MV/m after the first light EP processing. FE-free performance has been demonstrated in 9-cell cavities in 35-40 MV/m range. 1-cell cavity studies explore new techniques for defect removal as well as advanced integrated cavity processing. Surface studies of niobium samples electropolished together with real cavities provide new insight into the nature of field emitters. Close cooperation with the US cavity fabrication industry has been undertaking with the successful achievement of 41 MV/m for the first time in a 9-cell ILC cavity built by AES. As the size of the data set grows, it is now possible to construct gradient yield curves, from which one can see that significant progress has been made in raising the high gradient yield.

  17. The human brain in 1700 pieces: design and development of a three-dimensional, interactive and reference atlas.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, W L; Chua, B C; Qian, G Y; Nowinska, N G

    2012-02-15

    As the human brain is the most complex living organ, constructing its detailed model with exploration capabilities in a form of an atlas is a challenge. Our overall goal is to construct an advanced, detailed, parcellated, labeled, accurate, interactive, three-dimensional (3D), and scalable whole human brain atlas of structure, vasculature, tracts and systems. The objectives of this work are three-fold; to present: (1) method of atlas design and development including design principles, accuracy requirements, atlas content, architecture, functionality, user interface, and customized tools; (2) creation of an atlas of structure and systems including its modeling method and validation; and (3) integration of this atlas with the cerebrovasculature and tracts created earlier. The atlas is created from multiple in vivo 3/7 T scans. Its design based on "pyramidal principle" enables scalability while preserving design principles and exploits interaction paradigm "from blocks to brain". The atlas contains (1) navigator with modules for system/object/object state management, interaction, user interfacing, and rendering; and (2) brain model with cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, white matter, deep structures, systems, ventricles, arteries, veins, sinuses, and tracts. The brain model is parcellated, labeled, consistent, realistic, of high resolution, polygonal/volumetric, dissectible, extendable, and deformable. It has over 1700 3D components. The atlas has sub-voxel accuracy of 0.1mm and the smallest vessels of 80 μm. Brain exploration includes dynamic scene composition, manipulation-independent 3D labeling, interaction combined with animation, meta-labeling, and quantification. This atlas is useful in education, research, and clinical applications. It can potentially be foundation for a multi-level molecular-cellular-anatomical-physiological-behavioral platform. PMID:22062451

  18. Conceptual designs for waste packages for horizontal or vertical emplacement in a repository in salt for reference in the site characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report includes the options of horizontal and vertical emplacement, the addition of a phased repository, an additional waste form (intact spent fuel), revised geotechnical data appropriate for the Deaf Smith County site, new corrosion data for the container, and new repository design data. The waste package consists of waste form and canister within a thick-walled, low-carbon steel container surrounded by packing. The container is a hollow cylinder with a flat head welded to each end. The design concepts for the waste container or vertical and horizontal emplacement are identical. This report discusses the results of analyses of aspects of the reference waste package concept needing changes because of new data and information believed applicable to the Deaf Smith County site. Included are waste package conceptual designs or (1) the reference defense high-level waste form from the Savannah River Plant; (2) intact spent fuel with our pressurized-water-reactor or nine boiling-water-reactor assemblies per package for emplacement during Phase 1 of repository operation; and (3) spent fuel which has been disassembled and consolidated into a segmented cylindrical canister with rods from either 12 pressurized-water-reactor or 30 boiling-water-reactor assemblies per package for emplacement during Phase 2. 30 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.

  19. Improved fiber-optic link for the phase reference distribution system for the TESLA technology based projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, Krzysztof; Felber, Matthias

    2005-09-01

    The UV Free-Electron Laser (UVFEL) [1], The X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) [2] and The International Linear Accelerator (ILC) [9] projects will require phase synchronization of various RF frequency subsystems on kilometer distances with accuracy better than 1ps. To fulfill these requirements, a phase reference distribution system concept was proposed and a prototype was developed for tests in the TESLA Test Facility 2 (TTF2). An important part of the phase reference system is the fiber-optic phase stable, long distance link described in this paper. An interferometrical scheme with feedback on phase, suppressing long term phase drifts induced by temperature changes was developed and tested in laboratory and under accelerator conditions. A motorized optical delay line was used in the system to compensate for phase errors. Described are error considerations and most important project issues like the hardware development and the real time phase controller software. The presented measurement results satisfy the design requirements. Experience gained during the experiments yielded proposals for system improvements.

  20. China Connections Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalat, Marie B.; Hoermann, Elizabeth F.

    This reference book focuses on six aspects of the geography of the People's Republic of China. They are: territory, governing units, population and land use, waterways, land forms, and climates. Designed as a primary reference, the book explains how the Chinese people and their lifestyles are affected by China's geography. Special components…

  1. Reference Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1998-01-01

    Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic reference services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of reference services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…

  2. SUSY-QCD Effects in Top Quark Pair Production in Association with a Gluon at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ning

    2015-08-01

    Given the null results of searches for new physics at the LHC, we investigate the one-loop effects SUSY QCD in the process e^ + e^ - \\to t\\bar tg at the ILC in Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We find that the relative SUSY-QCD corrections to the cross section of e^ + e^ - \\to t\\bar tg can maximally reach 6.5%(3.2%) at the ILC with \\sqrt s = 1000 GeV when m\\bar t1 = 313.4 GeV and m\\bar g = 500≤ft( {1500} \\right) GeV. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC) under Grant Nos. 11305049, 11275057, and 11405047, by Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education under Grant No. 20134104120002 and by the Startup Foundation for Doctors of Henan Normal University under Grant No. 11112

  3. Probing the origin of 750 GeV diphoton excess with the precision measurements at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Moroi, Takeo; Yanagi, Keisuke

    2016-08-01

    The recently reported diphoton excess at the LHC may imply the existence of a new resonance with a mass of about 750 GeV which couples to photons via loops of new charged particles. In this letter, we study the possibility to test such models at the ILC, paying attention to the new charged particles responsible for the diphoton decay of the resonance. We show that they affect the scattering processes e+e- → f f bar (with f denoting Standard Model fermions) at the ILC, which makes it possible to indirectly probe the new charged particles even if they are out of the kinematical reach. We also show that the discriminations of the diphoton models may be possible based on a study of the angular distributions of f f bar .

  4. Interreligious education: Conceptualising a needs assessment framework for curriculum design in plural societies (with special reference to Mauritius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maudarbux, Mohammad Belall

    2016-08-01

    The growing debate on intercultural and interreligious dialogue has one major drawback: how to translate academic and theoretical contributions into practical tools for educators and policy makers. This paper aims to fill this gap by presenting a transferable "needs assessment model" based on five criteria and twenty measurable indicators of interreligious relations within a country. Using the example of Mauritius, a densely multilingual and multireligious country, the paper gives an inside view of the preparations which led to the launch of an innovative "Peace and Interfaith Studies" course at the University of Mauritius in 2010. The author was himself involved first as a curriculum consultant and then as a project manager of this course at the Council of Religions in Mauritius. After clarifying the differences between related concepts like multicultural education, intercultural education and religious education, the author defines "interreligious education" as being distinct from all of the above. The paper then proceeds to explain the rationale of interreligious education, followed by the identification of the critical factors which affect curriculum design and policy making. It uses these factors to highlight how each of them operates in Mauritius to create a web of complexity which makes interreligious education extremely volatile. This is followed by an overview of religious education in the Mauritian schooling system, an overview of the needs assessment framework and a description of the innovative "Peace and Interfaith Studies" course. The paper ends with a brief discussion of the main challenges of this model.

  5. Design and control of energy efficient food drying processes with specific reference to quality; Model development and experimental studies: Moisture movement and dryer design

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.; Litchfield, B.; Singh, R.; Liang, H.; Narsimhan, G.; Waananen, K.

    1989-08-01

    The ultimate goal of the project is to develop procedures, techniques, data and other information that will aid in the design of cost effective and energy efficient drying processes that produce high quality foods. This objective has been sought by performing studies to determine the pertinent properties of food products, by developing models to describe the fundamental phenomena of food drying and by testing the models at laboratory scale. Finally, this information is used to develop recommendations and strategies for improved dryer design and control. This volume, Model Development and Experimental Studies, emphasizes the direct and indirect drying processes. An extensive literature review identifies key characteristics of drying models including controlling process resistances, internal mechanisms of moisture movement, structural and thermodynamic assumptions, and methods of model coefficients and material property measurement/determination, model solution, and model validation. Similarities and differences between previous work are noted, and strategies for future drying model development are suggested.

  6. Moderator design studies for a new neutron reference source based on the D-T fusion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Piper, Roman K.; Rathbone, Bruce A.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    The radioactive isotope Californium-252 (252Cf) is relied upon internationally as a neutron calibration source for ionizing radiation dosimetry because of its high specific activity. The source may be placed within a heavy-water (D2O) moderating sphere to produce a softened spectrum representative of neutron fields common to commercial nuclear power plant environments, among others. Due to termination of the U.S. Department of Energy loan/lease program in 2012, the expense of obtaining 252Cf sources has undergone a significant increase, rendering high output sources largely unattainable. On the other hand, the use of neutron generators in research and industry applications has increased dramatically in recent years. Neutron generators based on deuteriumtritium (D-T) fusion reaction provide high neutron fluence rates and, therefore, could possibly be used as a replacement for 252Cf. To be viable, the 14 MeV D-T output spectrum must be significantly moderated to approximate common workplace environments. This paper presents the results of an effort to select appropriate moderating materials and design a configuration to reshape the primary neutron field toward a spectrum approaching that from a nuclear power plant workplace. A series of Monte-Carlo (MCNP) simulations of single layer high- and low-Z materials are used to identify initial candidate moderators. Candidates are refined through a similar series of simulations involving combinations of 2-5 different materials. The simulated energy distribution using these candidate moderators are rated in comparison to a target spectrum. Other properties, such as fluence preservation and/or enhancement, prompt gamma production and other characteristics are also considered.

  7. Initial Piloted Simulation Evaluation of the Reference-H High-Speed Civil Transport Design During Takeoff and Recovery From Limit Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.

    1999-01-01

    An initial assessment of a proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was conducted in the fall of 1995 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This configuration, known as the Industry Reference-H (Ref.-H), was designed by the Boeing Aircraft Company as part of their work in the High Speed Research program. It included a conventional tail, a cranked-arrow wing, four mixed-flow turbofan engines, and capacity for transporting approximately 300 passengers. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate and quantify operational aspects of the Reference-H configuration from a pilot's perspective with the additional goal of identifying design strengths as well as any potential configuration deficiencies. This study was aimed at evaluating the Ref.-H configuration at many points of the aircraft's envelope to determine the suitability of the vehicle to accomplish typical mission profiles as well as emergency or envelope-limit conditions. Pilot-provided Cooper-Harper ratings and comments constituted the primary vehicle evaluation metric. The analysis included simulated real-time piloted evaluations, performed in a 6 degree of freedom motion base NASA Langley Visual-Motion Simulator, combined with extensive bath analysis. The assessment was performed using the third major release of the simulation data base (known as Ref.-H cycle 2B).

  8. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Characteristics And Sensitivity Trades For NASA's Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes Phase I and II analysis results from NASA's recent Mars DRA 5.0 study which re-examined mission, payload and transportation system requirements for a human Mars landing mission in the post-2030 timeframe. Nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion was again identified as the preferred in-space transportation system over chemical/aerobrake because of its higher specific impulse (I(sub sp)) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) which is important for reducing the number of Ares-V heavy lift launches and overall mission cost. DRA 5.0 features a long surface stay (approximately 500 days) split mission using separate cargo and crewed Mars transfer vehicles (MTVs). All vehicles utilize a common core propulsion stage with three 25 klbf composite fuel NERVA-derived NTR engines (T(sub ex) approximately 2650 - 2700 K, p(sub ch) approximately 1000 psia, epsilon approximately 300:1, I(sub sp) approximately 900 - 910 s, engine thrust-toweight ratio approximately 3.43) to perform all primary mission maneuvers. Two cargo flights, utilizing 1-way minimum energy trajectories, pre-deploy a cargo lander to the surface and a habitat lander into a 24-hour elliptical Mars parking orbit where it remains until the arrival of the crewed MTV during the next mission opportunity (approximately 26 months later). The cargo payload elements aerocapture (AC) into Mars orbit and are enclosed within a large triconicshaped aeroshell which functions as payload shroud during launch, then as an aerobrake and thermal protection system during Mars orbit capture and subsequent entry, descent and landing (EDL) on Mars. The all propulsive crewed MTV is a 0-gE vehicle design that utilizes a fast conjunction trajectory that allows approximately 6-7 month 1-way transit times to and from Mars. Four 12.5 kW(sub e) per 125 square meter rectangular photovoltaic arrays provide the crewed MTV with

  9. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following ready reference information: "Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers"; "How to Obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number)"; "How to Obtain an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)"; and "How to Obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number)". (AEF)

  10. The lepton flavour violating Higgs decays at the HL-LHC and the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shankha; Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Mitra, Manimala; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Run-I results from the CMS collaboration show an excess of events in the decay h → μτ e with a local significances of 2.4 σ. This could be the first hint of flavour violation in the Higgs sector. We summarise the bounds on the flavour violating Yukawa couplings from direct searches, low energy measurements and projected future experiments. We discuss the sensitivity of upcoming HL-LHC runs and future lepton colliders in measuring lepton-flavour violating couplings using an effective field theory framework. For the HL-LHC we find limits on BR( h → μτ ) and BR( h → eτ ) ≲ {O}(0.5)% and on BR( h → eμ) ≲ {O}(0.02)% . For an ILC with center-of-mass energy of 1 TeV we expect BR( h → eτ) and BR( h → μτ ) to be measurable down to {O}(0.2)%.

  11. Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkus, Henk G.

    Reference materials for measurement of particle size and porosity may be used for calibration or qualification of instruments or for validation of operating procedures or operators. They cover a broad range of materials. On the one hand there are the certified reference materials, for which governmental institutes have certified one or more typical size or porosity values. Then, there is a large group of reference materials from commercial companies. And on the other hand there are typical products in a given line of industry, where size or porosity values come from the analysis laboratory itself or from some round-robin test in a group of industrial laboratories. Their regular application is essential for adequate quality control of particle size and porosity measurement, as required in e.g., ISO 17025 on quality management. In relation to this, some quality requirements for certification are presented.

  12. Design and simulation of a biconic multipass absorption cell for the frequency stabilization of the reference seeder laser in IPDA lidar.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yongji; Du, Juan; Yang, Zhongguo; Sun, Yanguang; Liu, Jiqiao; Hou, Xia; Chen, Weibiao

    2016-09-01

    The design process and simulation method of a multipass absorption cell used for the frequency stabilization of the reference seeder laser in integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar are presented. On the basis of the fundamental theory of the Herriott multipass cell comprising two spherical mirrors, the initial parameters of the multipass cell, which has an optical path greater than 10 m and consists of two biconic mirrors, were calculated. More than 30 light spots were distributed on each mirror, and the distance between adjacent spots was mostly optimized to greater than six times the beam waist. After optimization, the simulated transmittance spectrum and associated differential signal were obtained. The interference induced by surface scattering was also simulated, and its influence on the differential signal was analyzed. A correspondence between the simulated results and the testing data was observed. PMID:27607288

  13. Poroelastic references

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  14. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that relate to ready reference, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…

  15. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  16. A review on grain and nut deterioration and design of the dryers for safe storage with special reference to Turkish hazelnuts.

    PubMed

    Ozilgen, M; Ozdemir, M

    2001-01-01

    Turkey produces about 80% of the total hazelnut crop of the world. About 75% of the production are exported. In Turkey hazelnuts are traditionally sun dried, and may be subject to mold growth and subsequent mycotoxin formation due to prolonged drying time under humid and rainy weather conditions. Drying hazelnuts in a reasonable time after harvest is necessary for mycotoxin-free, high-quality products. In general, nuts and cereals contaminated by the toxins pose a potential hazard not only to the people of the producer countries, but also to people of the importing countries, if they should be regarded as safe by inefficient sampling plans, therefore preventing toxin formation actually benefits very large populations. Deterioration and health hazards associated with toxin contaminated hazelnuts and other nuts and cereals have similar causes and consequences; therefore, deterioration of the nuts and cereals in storage has been reviewed by considering as many grains and nuts as possible, then special reference was made to hazelnuts. Proper preharvest practices followed by proper drying and safe storage reduces the hazards associated with contamination by the toxins. This article reviews the pre- and post-harvest practices, and the grain- and nut-drying systems required for toxin-free products. Because drying is the major unit operation involving this process, the drying systems and the mathematical models required for their design is also discussed.

  17. Chat Reference. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronan, Jana, Comp.; Turner, Carol, Comp.

    2002-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to gather data on chat reference service. A total of 66 of 124 ARL member libraries responded to the survey. A copy of the questionnaire with tabulated results is presented. Representative…

  18. HPV16-E7 Expression in skin induces TSLP secretion, type 2 ILC infiltration and atopic dermatitis-like lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Monnet, Nastasia; Tran, Le Son; Mittal, Deepak; Al-Kouba, Jane; Steptoe, Raymond J.; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Frazer, Ian H.; Wells, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic and inflammatory skin disorder with unknown etiology. Most commonly occurring during early childhood, atopic dermatitis is associated with eczematous lesions and lichenification, in which the epidermis becomes hypertrophied resulting in thickening of the skin. In this study, we report an atopic dermatitis-like pathophysiology results in a murine model following the expression of the high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncoprotein E7 in keratinocytes under the Keratin 14 promoter. We show that HPV 16 E7 expression in the skin is associated with skin thickening, acanthosis and light spongiosis. Locally, HPV 16 E7 expressing skin secreted high levels of TSLP and contained increased numbers of ILCs. High levels of circulating IgE were associated with increased susceptibility to skin allergy in a model of cutaneous challenge, and to airway bronchiolar inflammation, enhanced airway goblet cell metaplasia and mucus production in a model of atopic march. Surprisingly, skin pathology occurred independently of T-cells and mast cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the expression of a single HPV oncogene in the skin can drive the onset of atopic dermatitis-like pathology through the induction of TSLP and type 2 ILC infiltration. PMID:25601274

  19. Q0 Improvement of Large-Grain Multi-Cell Cavities by Using JLab's Standard ILC EP Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, R. L.; Eremeev, G. V.; Kneisel, P.; Liu, K. X.; Lu, X. Y.; Zhao, K.

    2011-07-01

    As reported previously at the Berlin workshop, applying the JLab standard ILC electropolishing (EP) recipe on previously buffered chemical polishing (BCP) etched fine-grain multi-cell cavities results in improvement both in gradient and Q{sub 0}. We recently had the opportunity to experiment with two 1300 MHz 9-cell large-gain niobium cavities manufactured by JLab and Peking University. Both cavities were initially BCP etched and further processed by using JLab's standard ILC EP recipe. Due to fabrication defects, these two cavities only reached a gradient in the range of 20-30 MV/m. Interestingly both cavities demonstrated significant Q{sub 0} improvement in the gradient range of 15-20 MV/m. At 2K, a Q{sub 0} value of 2E10 is achieved at 20 MV/m. At a reduced temperature of 1.8K, a Q{sub 0} value of 3E10 is achieved at 20 MV/m. These results suggest that a possible path for obtaining higher Q{sub 0} in the medium gradient range is to use the large-grain material for cavity fabrication and EP and low temperature bake for cavity processing.

  20. Neutral Higgs Boson Pair-Production and Trilinear Self-Couplings in the Mssm at Ilc and Clic Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A.; Hernández-Ruíz, M. A.; Sampayo, O. A.

    We study pair-production as well as the triple self-couplings of the neutral Higgs bosons of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) at the future International Linear e+e- Collider (ILC) and Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The analysis is based on the reactions e+e--> b bar b hih_i, t bar t hih_i with hi = h, H, A. We evaluate the total cross-section for both bbar bhih_i, tbar thih_i and calculate the total number of events considering the complete set of Feynman diagrams at tree-level. We vary the triple couplings κλhhh, κλHhh, κλhAA, κλHAA, κλhHH and κλHHH within the range κ = -1 and +2. The numerical computation is done for the energies expected at the ILC with a center-of-mass energy 500, 1000, 1600 GeV and a luminosity 1000 fb-1. The channels e+e--> b bar b hih_i and e+e--> t bar t hih_i are also discussed to a center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV and luminosities of 1000 fb-1 and 5000 fb-1.

  1. SIMULATION OF NEUTRON BACKGROUNDS FROM THE ILC EXTRACTION LINE BEAM DUMP

    SciTech Connect

    Darbha, S; Keller, L.; Maruyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    The operation of the International Linear Collider (ILC) as a precision measurement machine is dependent upon the quality of the charge-coupled device (CCD) silicon vertex detector. An integrated fl ux of 1010 neutrons/cm2 incident upon the vertex detector will degrade its performance by causing displacement damage in the silicon. One source of the neutron background arises from the dumping of the spent electron and positron beams into the extraction line beam dumps. The Monte Carlo program FLUKA was used to simulate the collision of the electron beam with the dump and to determine the resulting neutron fl ux at the interaction point (IP). A collimator and tunnel were added and their effect on the fl ux was analyzed. A neutron source was then generated and directed along the extraction line towards a model of the vertex detector to determine the neutron fl ux in its silicon layers. Models of the beampipe and BeamCal, a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter in the very forward region of the detector, were placed in the extraction line and their effects on scattering were studied. The IP fl uence was determined to be 3.7x1010 +/- 2.3x1010 neutrons/cm2/year when the tunnel and collimator were in place, with no appreciable increase in statistics when the tunnel was removed. The BeamCal was discovered to act as a collimator by signifi cantly impeding the fl ow of neutrons towards the detector. The majority of damage done to the fi rst layer of the detector was found to come from neutrons with a direct line of sight from the fi rst extraction line quadrupole QDEX1, with only a small fraction scattering off of the beampipe and into the detector. The 1 MeV equivalent neutron fl uence was determined to be 9.3x108 neutrons/cm2/year from the electron beam alone. The two beams collectively contribute double to this fl uence, which is 19% of the threshold value in one year. Future work will improve the detector model and other sources of neutron backgrounds will be

  2. The Center for Informal Learning and Schools' Informal Learning Certificate (ILC) Program: Professional Development and Community for Informal Science Educators Working with Schools. An Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anita; Helms, Jenifer V.; St. John, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Inverness Research Associates served as external evaluators for the Center for Informal Learning and Schools (CILS) from its inception in 2002 as a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded Center for Learning and Teaching. One of the programs that CILS developed was the Informal Learning Certificate (ILC) for informal science educators (mostly…

  3. Enterprise Reference Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  4. Setting reference targets

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  5. Polarization Setup and Polarimetry for 2 IRs, and Status of Downstream Polarimeter Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Moffeit, Kenneth; Woods, Mike; Nosochkov, Yuri; Schuler, Peter; Moenig, Klaus; Oliver, W.; /Tufts U.

    2005-06-29

    A spin rotation scheme for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is presented that allows the polarization spin vector to be tuned independently for different Interaction Regions (IR). A scheme to allow rapid helicity switching for polarized positrons is discussed. Comments on the downstream polarimeter designs are given.

  6. Full simulation study of the top Yukawa coupling at the ILC at √s = 1 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Price, T.; Roloff, P.; Strube, J.; Tanabe, T.

    2015-07-04

    We present a study of the expected precision for the measurement of the top Yukawa coupling, yt, in e+e- collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1 TeV. Independent analyses of tt-barH final states containing at least six hadronic jets are performed, based on detailed simulations of SiD and ILD, the two candidate detector concepts for the ILC. We estimate that a statistical precision on yt of 4.5 % can be obtained with an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 that is split equally between two configurations for the beam polarization P(e-,e+), (-80 %,+20 %) and (+80 %,-20 %). This estimate improves to 4 % if the 1 ab-1 sample is assumed to be fully in the P(e-,e+)=(-80 %,+20 %) configuration.

  7. Full simulation study of the top Yukawa coupling at the ILC at √s = 1 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Price, T.; Roloff, P.; Strube, J.; Tanabe, T.

    2015-07-04

    We present a study of the expected precision for the measurement of the top Yukawa coupling, yt, in e+e- collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1 TeV. Independent analyses of tt-barH final states containing at least six hadronic jets are performed, based on detailed simulations of SiD and ILD, the two candidate detector concepts for the ILC. We estimate that a statistical precision on yt of 4.5 % can be obtained with an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 that is split equally between two configurations for the beam polarization P(e-,e+), (-80 %,+20 %) and (+80 %,-20 %). This estimate improvesmore » to 4 % if the 1 ab-1 sample is assumed to be fully in the P(e-,e+)=(-80 %,+20 %) configuration.« less

  8. Flavor-changing top-charm associated productions at the ILC in the littlest Higgs model with T parity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yanju; Lu Gongru; Wang Xuelei

    2011-04-01

    The littlest Higgs model with T parity has new flavor-changing couplings with the standard model quarks, which do not suffer strong constraints from electroweak precision data. So these flavor-changing interactions may enhance the cross sections of some flavor-changing neutral-current processes. In this work, we study the flavor-changing top-charm associated productions via the e{sup -}{gamma} collision at the ILC. We find that the cross sections are sensitive to the mirror quark masses. With reasonable values of the parameters, the cross sections may reach the detectable level and provide useful information about the relevant parameters in the littlest Higgs model with T parity, especially in setting an upper limit on the mirror quark masses.

  9. Expert Systems for Reference Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, James R.

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of library reference work that may be suitable for use of expert systems focuses on (1) information and literature searches, and (2) requests to interpret bibliographic references and locate items listed. Systems and computer-assisted instruction modules designed for information retrieval at the University of Waterloo Library are…

  10. Design of a Power-Assisted Spacesuit Glove Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Russell D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the details of the design and implementation of an electromechanical power-assisted spacesuit glove actuator. The project was a joint effort by the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory and ILC Dover, Inc., and involved innovative approaches to power augmentation and compact actuator packaging. The first actuator built validated several basic design concepts, and the second demonstrated improved performance and met many of the goals for flight qualification of the technology.

  11. Certified reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security.

    PubMed

    Jakopič, R; Sturm, M; Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Aregbe, Y

    2013-11-01

    Confidence in comparability and reliability of measurement results in nuclear material and environmental sample analysis are established via certified reference materials (CRMs), reference measurements, and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs). Increased needs for quality control tools in proliferation resistance, environmental sample analysis, development of measurement capabilities over the years and progress in modern analytical techniques are the main reasons for the development of new reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) prepares and certifices large quantities of the so-called "large-sized dried" (LSD) spikes for accurate measurement of the uranium and plutonium content in dissolved nuclear fuel solutions by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and also develops particle reference materials applied for the detection of nuclear signatures in environmental samples. IRMM is currently replacing some of its exhausted stocks of CRMs with new ones whose specifications are up-to-date and tailored for the demands of modern analytical techniques. Some of the existing materials will be re-measured to improve the uncertainties associated with their certified values, and to enable laboratories to reduce their combined measurement uncertainty. Safeguards involve the quantitative verification by independent measurements so that no nuclear material is diverted from its intended peaceful use. Safeguards authorities pay particular attention to plutonium and the uranium isotope (235)U, indicating the so-called 'enrichment', in nuclear material and in environmental samples. In addition to the verification of the major ratios, n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((240)Pu)/n((239)Pu), the minor ratios of the less abundant uranium and plutonium isotopes contain valuable information about the origin and the 'history' of material used for commercial or possibly clandestine purposes, and

  12. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  13. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A suppresses murine innate allergic inflammation by blocking group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) activation

    PubMed Central

    Toki, Shinji; Goleniewska, Kasia; Reiss, Sara; Zhou, Weisong; Newcomb, Dawn C; Bloodworth, Melissa H; Stier, Matthew T; Boyd, Kelli L; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Subramaniam, Sriram; Peebles, R Stokes

    2016-01-01

    Background Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are an important source of the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 that are critical to the allergic airway phenotype. Previous studies reported that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition by trichostatin A (TSA) downregulated adaptive allergic immune responses; however, the effect of HDAC inhibition on the early innate allergic immune response is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of TSA on innate airway inflammation mediated by ILC2 activation. Methods BALB/c mice were challenged intranasally with Alternaria extract, exogenous recombinant mouse IL-33 (rmIL-33) or the respective vehicles for four consecutive days following TSA or vehicle treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and lungs were harvested 24 h after the last challenge. Results We found that TSA treatment significantly decreased the number of ILC2 expressing IL-5 and IL-13 in the lungs challenged with Alternaria extract or rmIL-33 compared with vehicle treatment (p<0.05). TSA treatment significantly decreased protein expression of IL-5, IL-13, CCL11 and CCL24 in the lung homogenates from Alternaria extract-challenged mice or rmIL-33-challenged mice compared with vehicle treatment (p<0.05). Further, TSA treatment significantly decreased the number of perivascular eosinophils and mucus production in the large airways that are critical components of the asthma phenotype (p<0.05). TSA did not change early IL-33 release in the BAL fluids; however, TSA decreased lung IL-33 expression from epithelial cells 24 h after last Alternaria extract challenge compared with vehicle treatment (p<0.05). Conclusions These results reveal that TSA reduces allergen-induced ILC2 activation and the early innate immune responses to an inhaled protease-containing aeroallergen. PMID:27071418

  14. The MARX Modulator Development Program for the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Leyh, G.E.; /SLAC

    2006-06-12

    The ILC Marx Modulator Development Program at SLAC is working towards developing a full-scale ILC Marx ''Reference Design'' modulator prototype, with the goal of significantly reducing the size and cost of the ILC modulator while improving overall modulator efficiency and availability. The ILC Reference Design prototype will provide a proof-of-concept model to industry in advance of Phase II SBIR funding, and also allow operation of the new 10MW L-Band Klystron prototypes immediately upon their arrival at SLAC.

  15. A strategy for designing multi-taxa specific reference gene systems. example of application--ppi phosphofructokinase (ppi-PPF) used for the detection and quantification of three taxa: maize (Zea mays), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Maher; Giancola, Sandra; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Bertheau, Yves; Brunel, Dominique

    2007-10-01

    In the first part of the paper, we report the description of a new strategy for the development of a plant reference gene system that can be used for genetically modified organism (GMO) analysis. On the basis of in silico research for candidate genes, the design of degenerate primers allowed the obtention of genomic sequences of the selected gene ppi-phosphofructokinase ( ppi-PPF) for nine taxa in which GMOs have been developed. The comparison and the analysis of inter- and intraspecies sequence variability were performed using a large number of species and cultivars. As an example of application following the detection of single nucleotide polymorphism, we designed specific conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection and quantification of three taxa, namely, maize, cotton, and rice. This system was highly specific and sensitive. The gene copy number conservation among different cultivars was analyzed and confirmed with a sequencing step. This reference gene system is adequate for use in routine assays for the quantification of GMOs. We then explain briefly the constraints faced and propose recommendations when designing a reference gene system depending on the species to be targeted. PMID:17824661

  16. A strategy for designing multi-taxa specific reference gene systems. example of application--ppi phosphofructokinase (ppi-PPF) used for the detection and quantification of three taxa: maize (Zea mays), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Maher; Giancola, Sandra; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Bertheau, Yves; Brunel, Dominique

    2007-10-01

    In the first part of the paper, we report the description of a new strategy for the development of a plant reference gene system that can be used for genetically modified organism (GMO) analysis. On the basis of in silico research for candidate genes, the design of degenerate primers allowed the obtention of genomic sequences of the selected gene ppi-phosphofructokinase ( ppi-PPF) for nine taxa in which GMOs have been developed. The comparison and the analysis of inter- and intraspecies sequence variability were performed using a large number of species and cultivars. As an example of application following the detection of single nucleotide polymorphism, we designed specific conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection and quantification of three taxa, namely, maize, cotton, and rice. This system was highly specific and sensitive. The gene copy number conservation among different cultivars was analyzed and confirmed with a sequencing step. This reference gene system is adequate for use in routine assays for the quantification of GMOs. We then explain briefly the constraints faced and propose recommendations when designing a reference gene system depending on the species to be targeted.

  17. Qualification of the Second Batch Production 9-Cell Cavities Manufactured by AES and Validation of the First US Industrial Cavity Vendor for ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, R. L.; Golden, B. A.; Kushnick, P.; Overton, R. B.; Calderaro, M.; Peterson, E.; Rathke, J.; Champion, M. S.; Follkie, J.; Crawford, A. C.; Forehand, D.

    2011-07-01

    One of the major goals of ILC SRF cavity R&D is to develop industrial capabilities of cavity manufacture and processing in all three regions. In the past several years, Jefferson Lab, in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, has processed and tested all the 9-cell cavities of the first batch (4 cavities) and second batch (6 cavities) production cavities manufactured by Advanced Energy Systems Inc. (AES). Over the course, close information feedback was maintained, resulting in changes in fabrication and processing procedures. A light buffered chemical polishing was introduced, removing the weld splatters that could not be effectively removed by heavy EP alone. An 800 Celsius 2 hour vacuum furnace heat treatment procedure replaced the original 600 Celsius 10 hour procedure. Four out of the six 9-cell cavities of the second production bath achieved a gradient of 36-41 MV/m at a Q0 of more than 8E9 at 35 MV/m. This result validated AES as the first ''ILC certified'' industrial vendor in the US for ILC cavity manufacture.

  18. Measurements and simulations of MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors) response to charged particles - a study towards a vertex detector at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maczewski, Lukasz

    2010-05-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a project of an electron-positron (e+e-) linear collider with the centre-of-mass energy of 200-500 GeV. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are one of the proposed silicon pixel detector concepts for the ILC vertex detector (VTX). Basic characteristics of two MAPS pixel matrices MIMOSA-5 (17 μm pixel pitch) and MIMOSA-18 (10 μm pixel pitch) are studied and compared (pedestals, noises, calibration of the ADC-to-electron conversion gain, detector efficiency and charge collection properties). The e+e- collisions at the ILC will be accompanied by intense beamsstrahlung background of electrons and positrons hitting inner planes of the vertex detector. Tracks of this origin leave elongated clusters contrary to those of secondary hadrons. Cluster characteristics and orientation with respect to the pixels netting are studied for perpendicular and inclined tracks. Elongation and precision of determining the cluster orientation as a function of the angle of incidence were measured. A simple model of signal formation (based on charge diffusion) is proposed and tested using the collected data.

  19. Analysis and design of three dimensional supersonic nozzles. Volume 1: Nozzle-exhaust flow field analysis by a reference plane characteristics technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, S.; Delguidice, P.

    1972-01-01

    A second order numerical method employing reference plane characteristics has been developed for the calculation of geometrically complex three dimensional nozzle-exhaust flow fields, heretofore uncalculable by existing methods. The nozzles may have irregular cross sections with swept throats and may be stacked in modules using the vehicle undersurface for additional expansion. The nozzles may have highly nonuniform entrance conditions, the medium considered being an equilibrium hydrogen-air mixture. The program calculates and carries along the underexpansion shock and contact as discrete discontinuity surfaces, for a nonuniform vehicle external flow.

  20. Flexible Educational Facilities. An Annotated Reference List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Howard E.

    These references on flexible educational facilities are abstracted by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Facilities. College material includes an experimental learning center, a college health center, a fine arts center, and university library design. References on schools include secondary school design, flexible high school design, standard…

  1. "EWS Matrix" and "EWG Matrix": "De-sign for All" tools referred to the development of a enabling communication system for public spaces.

    PubMed

    Di Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Camplone, Stefania; Picciani, Stefano; Vallese, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    The widespread sense of spatial disorientation that can be experienced in many public places (buildings and open spaces),generally depends on a design approach that doesn't take into account both the "communication skills" of the different parts of the spatial organization, both the variability of people and their ways of interacting with environments, orienteering themselves. Nevertheless, "not find the way" often has some obvious practical costs (loss of time, failure to achieve a target) and some more intangible, but no less important, emotional costs. That's why the design of signage systems must take into account both the specificities of places and the extreme variability of its users. The paper presents the results of a study on this specific issue. In particular, the study focuses on the description of some tools useful for the analysis and design of a signage system that is truly "for All".

  2. Design and implementation of a wireless (Bluetooth) four channel bio-instrumentation amplifier and digital data acquisition device with user-selectable gain, frequency, and driven reference.

    PubMed

    Cosmanescu, Alin; Miller, Benjamin; Magno, Terence; Ahmed, Assad; Kremenic, Ian

    2006-01-01

    A portable, multi-purpose Bio-instrumentation Amplifier and Data AcQuisition device (BADAQ) capable of measuring and transmitting EMG and EKG signals wirelessly via Bluetooth is designed and implemented. Common topologies for instrumentation amplifiers and filters are used and realized with commercially available, low-voltage, high precision operational amplifiers. An 8-bit PIC microcontroller performs 10-bit analog-to-digital conversion of the amplified and filtered signals and controls a Bluetooth transceiver capable of wirelessly transmitting the data to any Bluetooth enabled device. Electrical isolation between patient/subject, circuitry, and ancillary equipment is achieved by optocoupling components. The design focuses on simplicity, portability, and affordability.

  3. Future Telehealth and Telecare Reference Design based on IoT Technologies: From Remote Monitoring to Smart Collaborative Services with Decision Support.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Martin; Reichert, Frank; Pettersen Nytun, Jan; Fensli, Rune

    2015-01-01

    The demographic changes are producing aging societies across the world, resulting in greater demands on the health and care systems due to age-related disabilities and chronic diseases. Efficient telehealth and telecare services are needed to control the corresponding expenditures, by supporting increased collaboration between different professional and involving informal health care providers, and by empowering the patients to manage their health and well-being. Emerging trial systems for remote patient monitoring present preliminary solutions not exempt of certain limitations. We propose a future eHealth reference system architecture and core components, aiming at secure, smarter and more collaborative telehealth and telecare services. The implicit cooperation between the so-far separated domains of consumer well-being services and public telehealth and telecare services will be beneficial for all parties.

  4. Design, flight test, and analysis of an in-flight calibration reference for the advanced solid-state array spectroradiometer (ASAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, M.R. Jr.; Dabney, P.W.

    1996-11-01

    An in-flight calibration system is being developed to monitor the in-flight characteristics of the Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS). Extreme space and environmental constraints within the aircraft instrument bay aircraft precluded obvious solutions for an in-flight calibration source, such as an integrating sphere, however, commercial off-the-shelf fiber optic technology provided a low cost solution. This is an unproven technology for airborne applications. As such, tests are still being performed to determine the effectiveness of the device as an absolute radiometric reference. This fiber optic based in-flight calibration source was flight tested in June 1995, and an in-flight/ground calibration procedure was developed. The information presented is the result of preliminary laboratory tests, the results of the analysis of the flight test data, lessons teamed from the flight test, and enhancements to the calibration system since the flight test. 5 figs.

  5. Antares Reference Telescope System

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 ..mu..m in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10/sup -6/ torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 ..mu..m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail.

  6. Direct or Directed: Orchestrating a More Harmonious Approach to Teaching Technology within an Art & Design Higher Education Curriculum with Special Reference to Visual Communications Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Lindsey; Meachem, Lester

    2007-01-01

    In this scoping study we have investigated the integration of subject-specific software into the structure of visual communications courses. There is a view that the response within visual communications courses to the rapid developments in technology has been linked to necessity rather than by design. Through perceptions of staff with day-to-day…

  7. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  8. Associated Production of the Charged and Neutral Higgs Bosons at the ILC within the Higgs Triplet Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Ju; Cao, Jun; Zhang, Wen-Qing

    2016-09-01

    The Higgs Triplet Model (HTM) predicts the existences of the extra neutral scalars H i ( H i = H, A) and the charged Higgs bosons ( H ± and H ±±). In this work, we make a systematic investigation for the associated production of the singly-charged and neutral Higgs bosons via the processes: e+e-→ H+W-H and e+e-→ H+W-A. From the numerical evaluations for the production cross sections and relevant phenomenological analysis we find that (i) the production rates of these processes can reach the level of several fb with reasonable parameter values; (ii) due to the large production rates and small backgrounds, the signals of these scalars might be detected via these processes at the future ILC experiments; and (iii) for the case of m_{Hi}> m_{H^{± }}> m_{H^{± ± }}, the cascade decay modes Hito H^{± }W^{∓ ast } with H^{± }to H^{± ± }W^{∓ ast } would lead to production of H ++ H - accompanied by several virtual W bosons. Such characteristic feature can help us to distinguish the HTM from the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM) and the Minimal Supersymmetric Model (MSSM).

  9. Constraining parameter space of the little Higgs model using data from tera-Z factory and ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xing-Dao; Feng, Tai-Fu; Zhao, Shu-Min; Ke, Hong-Wei; Li, Xue-Qian

    2015-02-01

    The Standard Model (SM) prediction on the forward-backward asymmetry for bb¯ production (AbFB)is well consistent with the data of LEP I at the Z-pole, but deviates from the data at √s = 89.55 and 92.95 GeV which are slightly away from the pole. This deviation implies that there is still room for new physics. We calculate the AbFB at the vicinity of the Z-pole in the little Higgs model as well as other measurable parameters such as Rb and Rc, by which we may constrain the parameter space of the little Higgs model. This can be further tested in the newly proposed tera-Z factory. With the fitted parameters we further make predictions on AbFB and AtFB for tt¯ production at the International Linear Collider (ILC). Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275036, 11047002, 11375128), Fund of Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province(A2011201118) and Natural Science Fund of Hebei University (2011JQ05, 2007113)

  10. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit Safety Analysis Report (LWRHU-SAR). Volume I. A. Introduction and executive summary. B. Reference Design Document (RDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W.

    1985-10-01

    The orbiter and probe portions of the NASA Galileo spacecraft contain components which require auxiliary heat during the mission. To meet these needs, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Special Nuclear Projects (OSNP) has sponsored the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-watt encapsulated plutonium dioxide-fueled thermal heater named the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU). This report addresses the radiological risks which might be encountered by people both at the launch area and worldwide should postulate mission failures or malfunctions occur, which would result in the release of the LWRHUs to the environment. Included are data from the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events.

  11. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit final safety analysis report (LWRHU-FSAR): Volume 1: A. Introduction and executive summary: B. Reference Design Document (RDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W.

    1988-10-01

    The orbiter and probe portions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Galileo spacecraft contain components which require auxiliary heat during the mission. To meet these needs, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Special Applications (OSA) has sponsored the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-watt encapsulated plutonium dioxide-fueled thermal heater named the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU). This report, prepared by Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC), addresses the radiological risks which might be encountered by people both at the launch area and worldwide should postulated mission failures or malfunctions occur, resulting in the release of the LWRHUs to the environment. Included are data from the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events. 11 refs., 44 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. A Project to Design and Build the Magnets for a New Test Beamline, the ATF2, at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Cherrill M.; Sugahara, Ryuhei; Masuzawa, Mika; Bolzon, Benoit; Jeremie, Andrea; /Annecy, LAPP

    2011-02-07

    In order to achieve the high luminosity required at the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), it is critical to focus the beams to nanometer size with the ILC Beam Delivery System, and to maintain the beams collisions with a nanometer-scale stability. To establish the technologies associated with this ultra-high precision beam handling, a special beamline has been designed and built as an extension of the existing extraction beamline of the Accelerator Test Facility at KEK, Japan. The ATF provides an adequate ultra-low emittance electron beam that is comparable to the ILC requirements; the ATF2 mimics the ILC final focus system to create a tightly focused, stable beam. There are 37 magnets in the ATF2, 29 quadrupoles, 5 sextupoles and 3 bends. These magnets had to be acquired in a short time and at minimum cost, which led to various acquisition strategies; but nevertheless they had to meet strict requirements on integrated strength, physical dimensions, compatibility with existing magnet movers and beam position monitors, mechanical stability and field stability and quality. This paper will describe how 2 styles of quadrupoles, 2 styles of sextupoles, one dipole style and their supports were designed, fabricated, refurbished or modified, measured and aligned by a small team of engineers from 3 continents.

  13. The design schemes of graphic user interface database and intelligent local controller in the SRRC control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. J.; Chen, Jenny; Chen, J. S.; Jan, G. J.

    1994-12-01

    The control system of the SRRC has been utilized to facilitate commisioning since the beginning, and it provides operators an easy to use environment. Hence, we would like to discuss the design schemes and relationships between the user's interface, the database and the ILC (Intelligent Local Controller) levels. The whole control system in SRRC is a two-level design connected by Ethernet. From operator's view, the upper level is the CONSOLE level and the lower one is the ILC level. Those signals from, or to, equipment are connected to ILCs through analog/digital interfaces, GPIB buses, RS232 serial links, etc.; the ILC is an IEEE 1014 bus (VMEbus) based system running PSOS + real-time multi-tasking kernel and PNA + (TCP/IP protocols) communication software. The control software of CONSOLE level is developed in the VMS operating system on DEC workstations, and The Graphic User Interfaces are built on the X-Window/Motif environment. The control system has fulfilled the expectations of the facility commissioning group. It has also proved to be a simple, stable, accurate, easily maintained system.

  14. Design development scopes towards occupational wellness of women workers: specific reference to local agro based food processing industries in NE India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Nandita; Chakrabarti, Debkumar

    2012-01-01

    Women workers constitute one of the most vulnerable segments of the country's labour force. They often face different workplace health challenges than men do. They are engaged in a range of work that extends from heavy, monotonous, repetitive jobs, which are in many times experienced with low-paid and involves in long hours of work. Women's workplace health problems are frequently compounded by getting more of the same at home--the "double jeopardy" of domestic work. Specific issues to improve the workers motivation leading to enhancement of productivity and improving occupational health and safety were addressed. Context specific application of ergonomics principles were studied in the process of designing of work related equipment of local fruit processing units, as well as in tea industry, covering 180 subjects selected purposively. Ergonomic risk factors prevailed among the workers associates productivity and relevant health issues were quantified using QEC, RULA. NMQ was used to gather data on prevalence of CTDs among the workers. Pineapple peeling, tea leaves plucking were found highly labour intensive, done manually. Postures scores found were very high. WRMSDs were prevalent among the workers. Scope for ergonomic design intervention was observed to improve productivity and occupational health.

  15. Design and control of energy efficient food drying processes with specific reference to quality; evaluation of physical and quality changes in foods during drying

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, L.; Castaldi, A.; Jones, C.; Litchfield, B.; Narsimhan, G.; Singh, R.; Xiong, X.; Bogusz, J.; Franzen, K.; Kim, M.; Murakami, E.; Pflum, J.; Waananen, K.

    1989-08-01

    The ultimate goal of the project is to develop procedures, techniques, data and other information that will aid in the design of cost effective and energy efficient drying processes that produce high quality foods. This objective has been sought by performing studies to determine the pertinent properties of food products, by developing models to describe the fundamental phenomena of food drying and by testing the models at laboratory scale. Finally, this information is used to develop recommendations and strategies for improved dryer design and control. This volume emphasizes a detailed literature review and several extensive experimental studies. Since the basic principle of food dehydration is the removal of water from food, the process of removing water causes quality changes which can be categorized as physical, chemical, and nutritional. These changes often have adverse effects on the quality of the resulting dehydrated food. In this work, the types of physical and chemical changes common in food drying and the important factors for them were reviewed. Pertinent kinetic models and kinetic data reported in literature were also collected and compiled as the results of review study. The overall objectives of this study were to identify major quality change in foods caused by drying process and to get the knowledge of the relationship between the quality change and factors known to affect them. The quality parameters reviewed included: browning, lipid oxidation, color loss, shrinkage, solubility, texture, aroma and flavor, vitamin and protein loss and microbiological concerns. 54 refs., 74 figs., 49 tabs.

  16. Design development scopes towards occupational wellness of women workers: specific reference to local agro based food processing industries in NE India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Nandita; Chakrabarti, Debkumar

    2012-01-01

    Women workers constitute one of the most vulnerable segments of the country's labour force. They often face different workplace health challenges than men do. They are engaged in a range of work that extends from heavy, monotonous, repetitive jobs, which are in many times experienced with low-paid and involves in long hours of work. Women's workplace health problems are frequently compounded by getting more of the same at home--the "double jeopardy" of domestic work. Specific issues to improve the workers motivation leading to enhancement of productivity and improving occupational health and safety were addressed. Context specific application of ergonomics principles were studied in the process of designing of work related equipment of local fruit processing units, as well as in tea industry, covering 180 subjects selected purposively. Ergonomic risk factors prevailed among the workers associates productivity and relevant health issues were quantified using QEC, RULA. NMQ was used to gather data on prevalence of CTDs among the workers. Pineapple peeling, tea leaves plucking were found highly labour intensive, done manually. Postures scores found were very high. WRMSDs were prevalent among the workers. Scope for ergonomic design intervention was observed to improve productivity and occupational health. PMID:23151732

  17. COSY INFINITY reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Berz, M.

    1990-07-01

    This is a reference manual for the arbitrary order particle optics and beam dynamics code COSY INFINITY. It is current as of June 28, 1990. COSY INFINITY is a code to study and design particle optical systems, including beamlines, spectrometers, and particle accelerators. At its core it is using differential algebraic (DA) methods, which allow a very systematic and simple calculation of high order effects. At the same time, it allows the computation of dependences on system parameters, which is often interesting in its own right and can also be used for fitting. COSY INFINITY has a full structured object oriented language environment. This provides a simple interface for the casual user. At the same time, it offers the demanding user a very flexible and powerful tool for the study and design of systems, and more generally, the utilization of DA methods. The power and generality of the environment is perhaps best demonstrated by the fact that the physics routines of COSY INFINITY are written in its own input language and are very compact. The approach also considerably facilitates the implementation of new features because they are incorporated with the same commands that are used for design and study. 26 refs.

  18. Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

  19. The ring vaccination trial: a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design to evaluate vaccine efficacy and effectiveness during outbreaks, with special reference to Ebola.

    PubMed

    2015-07-27

    A World Health Organization expert meeting on Ebola vaccines proposed urgent safety and efficacy studies in response to the outbreak in West Africa. One approach to communicable disease control is ring vaccination of individuals at high risk of infection due to their social or geographical connection to a known case. This paper describes the protocol for a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design which uses ring vaccination.In the Ebola ça suffit ring vaccination trial, rings are randomised 1:1 to (a) immediate vaccination of eligible adults with single dose vaccination or (b) vaccination delayed by 21 days. Vaccine efficacy against disease is assessed in participants over equivalent periods from the day of randomisation. Secondary objectives include vaccine effectiveness at the level of the ring, and incidence of serious adverse events. Ring vaccination trials are adaptive, can be run until disease elimination, allow interim analysis, and can go dormant during inter-epidemic periods.

  20. Antares reference telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    Antares is a 24 beam, 40 TW carbon dioxide laser fusion system currently nearing completion. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target. It is to position the targets to within 10 (SIGMA)m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares reference telescope system is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares reference telescope system consists of two similar electrooptical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9% optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and tradeoffs are discussed. The final system chosen and its current status are described.

  1. Research and development for electropolishing of Nb for ILC accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Michael J.

    2009-09-21

    The objectives of this project are to 1, Expand the scientific and technological understanding of the effect of post-treatment (electropolish, buffered chemical polish, low-temperature baking) on the surface of niobium; 2, Relate the knowledge to the performance of niobium superconducting radiofrequency accelerator cavities; and, 3, Thereby design and demonstrate an electropolish process that can be applied to complete cavities.

  2. PASCAL/48 reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Hamm, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    PASCAL/48 is a programming language for the Intel MCS-48 series of microcomputers. In particular, it can be used with the Intel 8748. It is designed to allow the programmer to control most of the instructions being generated and the allocation of storage. The language can be used instead of ASSEMBLY language in most applications while allowing the user the necessary degree of control over hardware resources. Although it is called PASCAL/48, the language differs in many ways from PASCAL. The program structure and statements of the two languages are similar, but the expression mechanism and data types are different. The PASCAL/48 cross-compiler is written in PASCAL and runs on the CDC CYBER NOS system. It generates object code in Intel hexadecimal format that can be used to program the MCS-48 series of microcomputers. This reference manual defines the language, describes the predeclared procedures, lists error messages, illustrates use, and includes language syntax diagrams.

  3. Fundamentals of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  4. Personal Reference in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory L.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a systematic investigation of the factors underlying the choice of personal reference. Five experiments examine how native-English-speaking undergraduates of Brown University refer to a professor or student in various situations. The Rule of Polite Reference (RPR) explains how speakers choose the way they will refer to a person in a given…

  5. Statistical Reference Datasets

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

  6. Live, Digital Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;…

  7. High energy photon reference for radiation protection: technical design of the LINAC beam and ionization chambers; and calculation of monoenergetic conversion coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusciac, D.; Bordy, J.-M.; Daures, J.; Blideanu, V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present the results of the first part of a research project aimed at offering a complete response to dosimeters providers and nuclear physicists' demands for high-energy (6 - 9 MeV) photon beams for radiation protection purposes. Classical facilities allowing the production of high-energy photonic radiation (proton accelerators, nuclear reactors) are very rare and need large investment for development and use. A novel solution is proposed, consisting in the use of a medical linear accelerator, allowing a significant decrease of all costs.Using Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP5 and PENELOPE codes), a specifically designed electron-photon conversion target allowing for obtaining a high energy photon beam (with an average energy weighted by fluence of about 6 MeV) has been built for radiation protection purposes. Due to the specific design of the target, this "realistic" radiation protection high-energy photon beam presents a uniform distribution of air kerma rate at a distance of 1 m, over a 30 × 30 cm2 surface. Two graphite cavity ionizing chambers for ionometric measurements have been built. For one of these chambers, the charge collection volume has been measured allowing for its use as a primary standard. The second ionizing chamber is used as a transfer standard; as such it has been calibrated in a 60Co beam, and in the high energy photon beam for radiation protection.The measurements with these ionizing chambers allowed for an evaluation of the air kerma rate in the LINAC based high-energy photon beam for radiation protection: the values cover a range between 36 mGy/h and 210 mGy/h, compatible with radiation protection purposes.Finally, using Monte Carlo simulations, conversion coefficients from air kerma to dose equivalent quantities have been calculated in the range between 10 keV and 22.4 MeV, for the spectral distribution of the fluence corresponding to the beam produced by the linear accelerator of the LNE-LNHB.

  8. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  9. Gas phase bio-filter for the removal of triethylamine (TEA) from air: microbial diversity analysis with reference to design parameters.

    PubMed

    Gandu, Bharath; Sandhya, K; Gangagni Rao, A; Swamy, Y V

    2013-07-01

    Biotic (packed bio-filter; PBF) and abiotic (packed filter; PF) studies were carried out on two similar 2L gas phase filters for the removal of triethylamine (TEA) at inlet concentration in the range of 250-280 ppmV. Removal efficiency (RE) of PBF remained in the range of 90-99% during the stable period of operation (170 days) whereas RE of PF dropped gradually to 10% in a span of 90 days. Five different bacterial species viz; Aeromonas sp., Alcaligenes sp., Arthrobacter sp., Klebsiella sp., and Pseudomonas sp., were identified in PBF. It was observed that diethyl amine, ethylamine and nitrate were formed as metabolites during the degradation pathway. Empty bed residence time of 20s, mass loading rate of 202.26 g/m(3)/h, space velocity of 178.82 m(3)/m(3)/h and elimination capacity of 201.52 g/m(3)/h were found to be optimum design parameters for PBF to get RE in the range of 90-99%.

  10. Natural convection mass transfer at a vertical array of closely-spaced horizontal cylinders with special reference to electrochemical reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Sedahmed, G.H.; Nirdosh, I.

    1995-06-01

    Many industrial electrochemical processes such as electrowinning of metals, electrochemical pollution control, and electroorganic and electroinorganic syntheses are diffusion-controlled processes whose rates depend on the geometry of the working electrode as well as the prevailing hydrodynamic conditions. Recently much work has been done to develop new electrochemical reactors which are more efficient than the traditional parallel plate electrochemical reactor used in conducting such processes. In line with this, the object of the present work was to study the natural convection mass transfer behavior of a new electrode geometry, namely an array of closely-spaced horizontal tubes. Natural convection mass transfer at a vertical array of closely-spaced horizontal cylinders was studied by an electrochemical technique involving the measurement of the limiting current of the cathodic deposition of copper from acidified copper sulfate solution. Various combinations of solution concentration, cylinder diameter, and number of cylinders per array were used including experiments on single cylinders. The mass transfer coefficient at the array was found to decrease with increasing number of cylinders, pass through a minimum, and then increase with further increase in the number of cylinders per array; the mass transfer coefficient increased with increasing cylinder diameter in the array. Mass transfer data for different arrays were correlated for the range 6.3 {times} 10{sup 9} < ScGr < 3.63 {times} 10{sup 10} by the equation Sh = 0.455(ScGr){sup 0.25} and for the range 6.3 {times} 10{sup 10} < ScGr < 3.63 {times} 10{sup 12} by the equation Sh = 0.0064(ScGr){sup 0.42}. The characteristic length used in the above correlations was obtained by dividing the array area by the perimeter projected onto a horizontal plane. Practical implications of the present results in designing electrochemical reactors with heat transfer facilities are highlighted.

  11. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  12. Optimization of the SiD concept in the presence of ILC backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strube, Jan; Markiewicz, Thomas; Milke, Christopher; Schuetz, Anne; Schumm, Bruce; Stanitzki, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    The International Linear Collider is a high-energy e+e- machine, planned to be built in Japan in the next decade. Its physics program features precision measurements of the top and Electroweak sectors and a discovery potential of Physics beyond the Standard Model complementary to that of the LHC. We present studies of machine-related background processes in the context of detector optimization. For each of the dominant background processes, we will present its main signature in the detector, impact on physics measurements, and strategies for mitigation in detector design and reconstruction algorithms. The studies are based on a detailed simulation of the SiD detector concept.

  13. Design and Development of an In-Space Deployable Sun Shield for the Atlas Centaur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dew, Michael; Allwein, Kirk; Kutter, Bernard; Ware, Joanne; Lin, John; Madlangbayan, Albert; Willey, Cliff; Pitchford, Brian; O'Neil, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The Centaur, by virtue of its use of high specific-impulse (Isp) LO2/LH2 propellants, has initial mass-to-orbit launch requirements less than half of those upper stages using storable propellants. That is, for Earth escape or GSO missions the Centaur is half the launch weight of a storable propellant upper stage. A drawback to the use of Liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen, at 90 K and 20 K respectively, over storable propellants is the necessity of efficient cryogen storage techniques that minimize boil-off from thermal radiation in space. Thermal blankets have been used successfully to shield both the Atlas Centaur and Titan Centaur. These blankets are protected from atmospheric air loads during launch by virtue of the fact that the Centaur is enclosed within the payload fairing. The smaller Atlas V vehicle, the Atlas 400, has the Centaur exposed to the atmosphere during launch, and therefore, to date has not flown with thermal blankets shielding the Centaur. A design and development effort is underway to fly a thermal shield on the Atlas V 400 vehicle that is not put in place until after the payload fairing jettisons. This can be accomplished by the use of an inflatable and deployable thermal blanket referred to as the Centaur Sun Shield (CSS). The CSS design is also scalable for use on a Delta upper stage, and the technology potentially could be used for telescope shades, re-entry shields, solar sails and propellant depots. A Phase I effort took place during 2007 in a partnership between ULA and ILC Dover which resulted in a deployable proof-of-concept Sun Shield being demonstrated at a test facility in Denver. A Phase H effort is underway during 2008 with a partnership between ULA, ILC, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to define requirements, determine materials and fabrication techniques, and to test components in a vacuum chamber at cold temperatures. This paper describes the Sun Shield development work to date, and the

  14. An Integrated Support and Alignment System for Large ILC Lattice Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, Robert

    2013-05-15

    The manipulators used to support and position lattice elements are critical components of all particle accelerators. The increased use of large superconducting magnets and accelerator modules places even greater demands on these manipulators. However, the performance of these support systems has not kept pace with the advances made in other areas of accelerator technology. This results in accelerators that are difficult to align and may not be capable of achieving target luminosities. An innovative new type of positioning mechanism tailored to the requirements of the International Linear Collider is proposed. The Tri-Sphere System provides secure support for large lattice elements and precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom. Integrated target sockets allow the support system to be rapidly pre-aligned. The system's kinematic design passively guides lattice elements into their correct location during installation. A complimentary Portable Actuation Unit provides the advantages of automated adjustment and allows these adjustments to be completely decoupled from surveying.

  15. Best Reference Sources 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Brian; McConnell, Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of the best reference materials published in 2001. Discusses activity in the reference publishing industry; costs; and lists print materials, Web sites, databases, and CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  16. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  17. Academic Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Fred

    This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…

  18. Simulator For The Linear Collider (SLIC): A Tool For ILC Detector Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman; McCormick, Jeremy

    2006-10-01

    The Simulator for the Linear Collider (SLIC) is a detector simulation program based on the GEANT4 toolkit. It is intended to enable end users to easily model detector concepts by providing the ability to fully describe detectors using plain text files read in by a common executable at runtime. The detector geometry, typically the most complex part of a detector simulation, is described at runtime using the Linear Collider Detector Description (LCDD). This system allows end users to create complex detector geometries in a standard XML format rather than procedural code such as C++. The LCDD system is based on the Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) from the LHC Applications Group (LCG). The geometry system facilitates the study of different full detector design and their variations. SLIC uses the StdHep format to read input created by event generators and outputs events in the Linear Collider IO (LCIO) format. The SLIC package provides a binding to GEANT4 and many additional commands and features for the end user.

  19. Simulator for the Linear Collider (SLIC): a Tool for ILC Detector Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.; McCormick, J.; /SLAC

    2007-02-13

    The Simulator for the Linear Collider (SLIC) is a detector simulation program based on the GEANT4 toolkit. It is intended to enable end users to easily model detector concepts by providing the ability to fully describe detectors using plain text files read in by a common executable at runtime. The detector geometry, typically the most complex part of a detector simulation, is described at runtime using the Linear Collider Detector Description (LCDD). This system allows end users to create complex detector geometries in a standard XML format rather than procedural code such as C++. The LCDD system is based on the Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) from the LHC Applications Group (LCG). The geometry system facilitates the study of different full detector design and their variations. SLIC uses the StdHep format to read input created by event generators and outputs events in the Linear Collider IO (LCIO) format. The SLIC package provides a binding to GEANT4 and many additional commands and features for the end user.

  20. Associated production of the doubly-charged scalar pair with the Higgs boson in the Georgi-Machacek model at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi; Bi, Yan-Ping; Shen, Jie-Fen

    2016-08-01

    Besides the SM-like Higgs boson h, the Georgi-Machacek (GM) model predicts the existence of doubly-charged Higgs bosons H5±± in the 5-plet representation, which can be seen the typical particles in this model. We first used the latest Higgs boson diphoton signal strength data to find the allowed region at 2σ confidence level on the plane of the scalar mass values mH and the triple scalar coupling parameter ghHH, and then focus on the study of the triple Higgs production process e+e- → h H5++ H5-- at the future International Linear collider (ILC). Our numerical results show that, the values of the production cross section are very sensitive to the triple Higgs coupling strength ghHH and can reach the level several fb in the reasonable parameter space. Considering the same-sign diboson decay H5±± →W±W±, the expected discovery reach at the future ILC experiments are also studied.

  1. T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) development and regulation of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-09-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, the signature cytokines that are produced during type 2 immune responses, are critical for protective immunity against infections of extracellular parasites and are responsible for asthma and many other allergic inflammatory diseases. Although many immune cell types within the myeloid lineage compartment including basophils, eosinophils and mast cells are capable of producing at least one of these cytokines, the production of these "type 2 immune response-related" cytokines by lymphoid lineages, CD4 T helper 2 (Th2) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in particular, are the central events during type 2 immune responses. In this review, I will focus on the signaling pathways and key molecules that determine the differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into Th2 cells, and how the expression of Th2 cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-13, is regulated in Th2 cells. The similarities and differences in the differentiation of Th2 cells, IL-4-producing T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and ILC2s as well as their relationships will also be discussed.

  2. Prospects for the study of the {tau}-tilde system in SPS1a' at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtle, Philip; Berggren, Mikael; List, Jenny; Schade, Peter; Stempel, Olga

    2010-09-01

    The prospects for the analysis of {tau} channels at the supersymmetry (SUSY) benchmark point SPS1a', especially from e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}{tau}}-tilde{sub 1}{sup +{tau}}-tilde{sub 1}{sup -} and e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}{tau}}-tilde{sub 2}{sup +{tau}}-tilde{sub 2}{sup -}, have been studied in full simulation of the ILD detector concept foreseen for the International Linear Collider. All accessible SUSY channels as well as all standard model backgrounds were generated at a center-of-mass energy E{sub CMS}=500 GeV, including the beam energy spectrum and beam backgrounds expected for nominal ILC beam parameters. With an integrated luminosity of 500 fb{sup -1} delivered to the experiment, the masses of the {tau}-tilde{sub 1} and {tau}-tilde{sub 2} can be measured to 107.73{sub -0.05}{sup +0.03} GeV{+-}1.1{center_dot}{delta}M{sub {chi}-}tilde{sub 1}{sup 0} and 183{sub -5}{sup +11} GeV{+-}18{center_dot}{delta}M{sub {chi}-}tilde{sub 1}{sup 0}, respectively, while the true values in SPS1a' are 107.9 GeV and 194.9 GeV, respectively. This corresponds to {delta}M{sub {tau}-}tilde{sub 1}/M{sub {tau}-}tilde{sub 1{approx}}0.1% and {delta}M{sub {tau}-}tilde{sub 2}/M{sub {tau}-}tilde{sub 2{approx}}3% with reasonable assumptions on {delta}M{sub {chi}-}tilde{sub 1}{sup 0}. The cross sections for {tau}-tilde{sub 1} and {tau}-tilde{sub 2} pair production could be obtained with a precision of 3.1% and 4.2%, respectively. Combining the mass and cross section measurement in the {tau}-tilde{sub 2} channel allows to determine the LSP mass with a relative error of 1.7%, assuming a known {tau}-tilde mixing angle. In {tau}-tilde{sub 1{yields}{tau}{chi}}-tilde{sub 1}{sup 0} decays, the {tau} polarization is measured to be 91{+-}9% and 86{+-}5% in the {pi} and {rho} decay channels of the {tau}, respectively. The true value in the simulated SPS1a' sample is 89.6%.

  3. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  4. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  5. VIEWCACHE: An incremental pointer-base access method for distributed databases. Part 1: The universal index system design document. Part 2: The universal index system low-level design document. Part 3: User's guide. Part 4: Reference manual. Part 5: UIMS test suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the Universal Index System (UIS), is to provide an easy-to-use and reliable interface to many different kinds of database systems. The impetus for this system was to simplify database index management for users, thus encouraging the use of indexes. As the idea grew into an actual system design, the concept of increasing database performance by facilitating the use of time-saving techniques at the user level became a theme for the project. This Final Report describes the Design, the Implementation of UIS, and its Language Interfaces. It also includes the User's Guide and the Reference Manual.

  6. Characterization of interim reference shales

    SciTech Connect

    Miknis, F.P.; Sullivan, S.; Mason, G.

    1986-03-01

    Measurements have been made on the chemical and physical properties of two oil shales designated as interim reference oil shales by the Department of Energy. One oil shale is a Green River Formation, Parachute Creek Member, Mahogany Zone Colorado oil shale from the Anvil Points mine and the other is a Clegg Creek Member, New Albany shale from Kentucky. Material balance Fischer assays, kerogen concentrates, carbon aromaticities, thermal properties, and bulk mineralogic properties have been determined for the oil shales. The measured properties of the interim reference shales are comparable to results obtained from previous studies on similar shales. The western interim reference shale has a low carbon aromaticity, high Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant carbonate mineralogy. The eastern interim reference shale has a high carbon aromaticity, low Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant silicate mineralogy. Chemical and physical properties, including ASTM distillations, have been determined for shale oils produced from the interim reference shales. The distillation data were used in conjunction with API correlations to calculate a large number of shale oil properties that are required for computer models such as ASPEN. The experimental determination of many of the shale oil properties was beyond the scope of this study. Therefore, direct comparison between calculated and measured values of many properties could not be made. However, molecular weights of the shale oils were measured. In this case, there was poor agreement between measured molecular weights and those calculated from API and other published correlations. 23 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  8. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  9. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  10. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  11. MSDS sky reference and preamplifier study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, L.; Stewart, S.; Lambeck, P.

    1974-01-01

    The major goals in re-designing the Multispectral Scanner and Data System (MSDS) sky reference are: (1) to remove the sun-elevation angle and aircraft-attitude angle dependence from the solar-sky illumination measurement, and (2) to obtain data on the optical state of the atmosphere. The present sky reference is dependent on solar elevation and provides essentially no information on important atmospheric parameters. Two sky reference designs were tested. One system is built around a hyperbolic mirror and the reflection approach. A second approach to a sky reference utilizes a fish-eye lens to obtain a 180 deg field of view. A detailed re-design of the present sky reference around the fish-eye approach, even with its limitations, is recommended for the MSDS system. A preamplifier study was undertaken to find ways of improving the noise-equivalent reflectance by reducing the noise level for silicon detector channels on the MSDS.

  12. Reference Artifacts for NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, M; Hibbard, R; Martz, H E

    2003-02-11

    Two reference artifacts will be fabricated for this study. One of the artifacts will have a cylindrical geometry and will contain features similar to those on an SNRT target. The second artifact will have a spherical geometry and will contain features similar to those on a Double Shell target. The artifacts were designed for manufacturability and to provide a range of features that can be measured using NDE methods. The cylindrical reference artifact is illustrated in Figure 1. This artifact consists of a polystyrene body containing two steps and a machined slot, into which will fit a tracer made of doped polystyrene. The polystyrene body contains several grooves and can be fabricated entirely on a diamond turning machine. The body can be machined by turning a PS rod to a diameter slightly greater than the finished diameter of 2 mm. The part can be moved off-axis to face it off and to machine the steps, slot, and grooves. The tracer contains a drilled hole and a milled slot, which could be machined with a single setup on a milling machine. Once assembled, the artifact could be placed in a Be tube or other structure relevant to target assemblies. The assembled artifact will contain many features that could be measured using various NDE methods. Some of these features are: Diameter; Maximum height; Step height; Dimensions of upper step; Radius at the union of the bottom of step and the vertical wall; Sizes of the grooves; Distance from step to groove; Slot width; Slot height; Location of the groove beneath the tracer; Diameter and location of drilled hole in tracer; and Size and location of slot in tracer. The spherical reference artifact is illustrated in Figure 2. This artifact is intended to replicate a double shell target, which consists of concentric polymer spheres separated by aerogel. The artifact consists of an upper hemispherical shell composed of 1% BrCH, which mates via a step joint with a hemispherical component made of polystyrene. This lower component

  13. Reach for Reference. Grolier's The Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This column describes Grolier's new ten-volume reference set, "The Civil War." The volumes are easy to handle and the set's appearance is designed to appeal to middle level students. Arrangement is alphabetical from Abolition in volume one to Zouaves in volume ten with reasonable cross references to other relevant articles. Each volume contains a…

  14. SCORE, A Measurement of Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeler, Richard J.

    The University of Denver Libraries employed SCORE (Service Components Reliability and Efficiency), a cost analysis technique, to measure effectiveness and cost of reference activity. This report examines the results and the problems encountered in application of this methodology. A reference model, designed as a flow chart, was developed by…

  15. Reference Point Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Ayse; Koedijk, Kees; Noussair, Charles N; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that, when confronted with a decision to be taken under risk, individuals use reference payoff levels as important inputs. The purpose of this paper is to study which reference points characterize decisions in a setting in which there are several plausible reference levels of payoff. We report an experiment, in which we investigate which of four potential reference points: (1) a population average payoff level, (2) the announced expected payoff of peers in a similar decision situation, (3) a historical average level of earnings that others have received in the same task, and (4) an announced anticipated individual payoff level, best describes decisions in a decontextualized risky decision making task. We find heterogeneity among individuals in the reference points they employ. The population average payoff level is the modal reference point, followed by experimenter's stated expectation of a participant's individual earnings, followed in turn by the average earnings of other participants in previous sessions of the same experiment. A sizeable share of individuals show multiple reference points simultaneously. The reference point that best fits the choices of the individual is not affected by a shock to her income. PMID:27672374

  16. Reference Point Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Ayse; Koedijk, Kees; Noussair, Charles N.; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that, when confronted with a decision to be taken under risk, individuals use reference payoff levels as important inputs. The purpose of this paper is to study which reference points characterize decisions in a setting in which there are several plausible reference levels of payoff. We report an experiment, in which we investigate which of four potential reference points: (1) a population average payoff level, (2) the announced expected payoff of peers in a similar decision situation, (3) a historical average level of earnings that others have received in the same task, and (4) an announced anticipated individual payoff level, best describes decisions in a decontextualized risky decision making task. We find heterogeneity among individuals in the reference points they employ. The population average payoff level is the modal reference point, followed by experimenter's stated expectation of a participant's individual earnings, followed in turn by the average earnings of other participants in previous sessions of the same experiment. A sizeable share of individuals show multiple reference points simultaneously. The reference point that best fits the choices of the individual is not affected by a shock to her income. PMID:27672374

  17. Rethinking Virtual Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

  18. An Online Reference System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisman, Janet; Treat, William

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer aid developed to assist in academic library reference service using the DataPhase Circulation System, an automated system that features full cataloging records in database and permits local programing. Access points (subject, type of reference work, course) and database structure and user screens are highlighted. (EJS)

  19. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  20. Reference Point Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Ayse; Koedijk, Kees; Noussair, Charles N.; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that, when confronted with a decision to be taken under risk, individuals use reference payoff levels as important inputs. The purpose of this paper is to study which reference points characterize decisions in a setting in which there are several plausible reference levels of payoff. We report an experiment, in which we investigate which of four potential reference points: (1) a population average payoff level, (2) the announced expected payoff of peers in a similar decision situation, (3) a historical average level of earnings that others have received in the same task, and (4) an announced anticipated individual payoff level, best describes decisions in a decontextualized risky decision making task. We find heterogeneity among individuals in the reference points they employ. The population average payoff level is the modal reference point, followed by experimenter's stated expectation of a participant's individual earnings, followed in turn by the average earnings of other participants in previous sessions of the same experiment. A sizeable share of individuals show multiple reference points simultaneously. The reference point that best fits the choices of the individual is not affected by a shock to her income.

  1. Ethics and Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Elena S.

    1997-01-01

    While revised ethical codes provide helpful guidelines, reference archivists face many ethical questions raised by rapidly evolving technology, changing expectations, and inconsistent privacy laws that have no clear answers. Discusses issues related to reference searching, codification of ethics, cultural property and the responsibility of…

  2. Design of a New Electropolishing System for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Boffo, Cristian; Kelly, M.P.; Mammosser, John

    2006-07-01

    Electropolishing (EP) is considered the baseline surface treatment for Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities to achieve >35 MV/m accelerating gradient for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Based on the lessons learned at the forerunners such as KEK/Nomura, DESY and JLAB and on the recent studies, we have started a new design of the next EP system that will be installed in the US. This paper presents requirements, specifications, and the detail of the system design as well as the path forward towards the future industrialization.

  3. Adaptive Control with Reference Model Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to improve transient performance of the input and output signals of uncertain systems. A simple modification of the reference model is proposed by feeding back the tracking error signal. It is shown that the proposed approach guarantees tracking of the given reference command and the reference control signal (one that would be designed if the system were known) not only asymptotically but also in transient. Moreover, it prevents generation of high frequency oscillations, which are unavoidable in conventional MRAC systems for large adaptation rates. The provided design guideline makes it possible to track a reference commands of any magnitude from any initial position without re-tuning. The benefits of the method are demonstrated with a simulation example

  4. EPA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Quick Reference Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...

  5. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  6. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  7. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  8. USGS reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of measurements are made on the chemical composition of items that affect us on a daily basis. Determining the accuracy of these measurements is based on the analysis of appropriate reference materials whose composition was previously determined through rigorous testing. Today, reference materials help us evaluate the composition of the food we eat, medicine we use, soil we grow our crops in, and hundreds of other products that affect our everyday lives.

  9. Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time

  10. Reference Man anatomical model

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - References

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Performance Characteristics of Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM 2.5 or PM... Assurance Guidance Document 2.12. Monitoring PM 2.5 in Ambient Air Using Designated Reference or Class...

  12. Final Design of the SLAC P2 Marx Klystron Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The SLAC P2 Marx has been under development for two years, and follows on the P1 Marx as an alternative to the baseline klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider. The P2 Marx utilizes a redundant architecture, air-insulation, a control system with abundant diagnostic access, and a novel nested droop correction scheme. This paper is an overview of the design of this modulator. There are several points of emphasis for the P2 Marx design. First, the modulator must be compatible with the ILC two-tunnel design. In this scheme, the modulator and klystron are located within a service tunnel with limited access and available footprint for a modulator. Access to the modulator is only practical from one side. Second, the modulator must have high availability. Robust components are not sufficient alone to achieve availability much higher than 99%. Therefore, redundant architectures are necessary. Third, the modulator must be relatively low cost. Because of the large number of stations in the ILC, the investment needed for the modulator components is significant. High-volume construction techniques which take advantage of an economy of scale must be utilized. Fourth, the modulator must be simple and efficient to maintain. If a modulator does become inoperable, the MTTR must be small. Fifth, even though the present application for the modulator is for the ILC, future accelerators can also take advantage of this development effort. The hardware, software, and concepts developed in this project should be designed such that further development time necessary for other applications is minimal.

  13. Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavretsky, Eugene; Gadient, Ross; Gregory, Irene M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to robust, Predictor-based Model Reference Adaptive Control (PMRAC) design. The proposed adaptive system is compared with the now-classical Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) architecture. Simulation examples are presented. Numerical evidence indicates that the proposed PMRAC tracking architecture has better than MRAC transient characteristics. In this paper, we presented a state-predictor based direct adaptive tracking design methodology for multi-input dynamical systems, with partially known dynamics. Efficiency of the design was demonstrated using short period dynamics of an aircraft. Formal proof of the reported PMRAC benefits constitute future research and will be reported elsewhere.

  14. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  15. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  16. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  17. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  18. Isotope reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the same isotopically homogeneous sample by any laboratory worldwide should yield the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty. International distribution of light element isotopic reference materials by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology enable laboratories to achieve this goal.

  19. Generating Multimodal References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

  20. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  1. Role and Reference Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Valin, Robert D., Jr.

    This paper discusses Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which is a structuralist-formalist theory of grammar. RRG grew out of an attempt to answer two fundamental questions: (1) what would linguistic theory look like if it were based on the analysis of Lakhota, Tagalog, and Dyirbal, rather than on the analysis of English?; and (2) how can the…

  2. Volunteeer's Reference Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Julie; And Others

    For Postpartum Education for Parents (PEP) volunteers, this reference guide provides background information about the common concerns of parents. Extensively reviewed for accuracy and content by pediatricians, psychologists, obstetricians, nurses, and childbirth educators, the guide contains a summary discussion of the postpartum infant and…

  3. The Reference Encounter Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1983-01-01

    Develops model of the reference interview which explicitly incorporates human information processing, particularly schema ideas presented by Marvin Minsky and other theorists in cognitive processing and artificial intelligence. Questions are raised concerning use of content analysis of transcribed verbal protocols as methodology for studying…

  4. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  5. Reference Collections and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Lois

    1999-01-01

    Reviews six reference materials for young people: "The New York Public Library Kid's Guide to Research"; "National Audubon Society First Field Guide. Mammals"; "Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary"; "Encarta Africana"; "World Fact Book, 1998"; and "Factastic Book of 1001 Lists". Includes ordering information.(AEF)

  6. The Unreliability of References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's references to ensure that they know…

  7. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  8. Reference Book Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Bill, Ed.

    For each reference work there is a 5 1/2 x 8 1/2" card with information about the work in brief, standardized format. The card indicates what the subject coverage is, the types of materials included, the service given, frequency of publication, procedure for use, an example of the procedure, a sample entry with explanatory notes, other places to…

  9. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  10. Reflections on Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Kerryn A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes programmatic changes in reference services at the Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical library and speculates on the future. Topics include institutional restructuring and consolidation; improvements in technology infrastructure; external economic pressure; and fiscal accountability, including library funding and cost center…

  11. International reference ionosphere 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

  12. THAI, REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSS, RICHARD B.

    A REFERENCE GRAMMAR FOR THE THAI LANGUAGE IS PROVIDED. THE MAIN STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF STANDARD SPOKEN THAI ARE OUTLINED AND ELABORATED BY SUBCLASSIFICATION AND EXAMPLE. IN ADDITION, AN INDEX OF MINOR FORM-CLASS MEMBERS IS PROVIDED. THE APPROACH TO CLASSIFICATION OF GRAMMATICAL FEATURES FOLLOWS CURRENT TECHNIQUES OF AMERICAN DESCRIPTIVE…

  13. Multimedia Reference Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzberg, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for content-rich classroom encyclopedias on CO-ROM and DVD, including: the Encarta Reference Suite 2001; the 2001 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, School Edition; the Britannica 2001 DVD; and the World Book 2001 Deluxe Edition, v5.0. (SM)

  14. Reference Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress to develop a representative set of Reference Models (RM) for the MHK industry to develop baseline cost of energy (COE) and evaluate key cost component/system reduction pathways.

  15. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  16. On fractional Model Reference Adaptive Control.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bao; Yuan, Jian; Dong, Chao

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends the conventional Model Reference Adaptive Control systems to fractional ones based on the theory of fractional calculus. A control law and an incommensurate fractional adaptation law are designed for the fractional plant and the fractional reference model. The stability and tracking convergence are analyzed using the frequency distributed fractional integrator model and Lyapunov theory. Moreover, numerical simulations of both linear and nonlinear systems are performed to exhibit the viability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology. PMID:24574897

  17. OSH technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  18. The NPL reference hazemeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, G. H. C.

    1992-09-01

    The reference hazemeter is a development of a commercial pivotable sphere hazemeter. The principle improvements are a high quality photometer and its associated electronic and temperature controller, a stable power supply for the source and the determination of the lamp current of illuminants A and C, improvements to the optics to achieve a well shaped beam, and mechanical modifications to accommodate the improvements and allow a good mechanical movement. Various tests were carried out to validate the instrument behavior. These identified systematic errors caused by inter-reflections. To reduce the inter-reflection errors, the blue filter and the input lenses were antireflection coated. The reference hazemeter complies with BS 2782--methods of testing plastics; part 5--optical and color properties; method 521A--determination of haze of film and sheet. A calibration service using the hazemeter is now in operation.

  19. The Brewer reference triad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioletov, V. E.; Kerr, J. B.; McElroy, C. T.; Wardle, D. I.; Savastiouk, V.; Grajnar, T. S.

    2005-10-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the Brewer reference triad was established by Environment Canada at Toronto. The triad serves as a reference for traveling standard instruments that are used to calibrate Brewer spectrophotometers around the world. The members of the triad are calibrated on a regular basis at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Regular tests made with an internal quartz halogen lamp make it possible to track the instrument response between the calibrations. A new analysis of available column ozone data records indicates that the uncertainty in the daily values derived from each instrument is approximately 0.6%. The random errors of individual observations are within +/-1% for 90% of all measurements. Sources of potential errors in the individual Brewer measurements as well as quality control tools are also discussed.

  20. Alignment reference device

    DOEpatents

    Patton, Gail Y.; Torgerson, Darrel D.

    1987-01-01

    An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

  1. Reference Undulator Measurement Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary; Levashov, Yurii; /SLAC

    2011-08-18

    The LCLS reference undulator has been measured 22 times during the course of undulator tuning. These measurements provide estimates of various statistical errors. This note gives a summary of the reference undulator measurements and it provides estimates of the undulator tuning errors. We measured the reference undulator many times during the tuning of the LCLS undulators. These data sets give estimates of the random errors in the tuned undulators. The measured trajectories in the reference undulator are stable and straight to within {+-}2 {micro}m. Changes in the phase errors are less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The phase advance in the cell varies by less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The rms variation between data sets of the first integral of B{sub x} is 9.98 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub x} is 17.4 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the first integral of B{sub y} is 6.65 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub y} is 12.3 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the x-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 35 {micro}m in the final production run This corresponds to an rms uncertainty in the K value of {Delta}K/K = 2.7 x 10{sup -5}. The rms variation of the y-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 4 {micro}m in the final production run.

  2. Celestial Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-03-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  3. Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  4. New SCIAMACHY Solar Reference Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbig, Tina; Bramstedt, Klaus; Weber, Mark; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    The Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard ESA's ENVISAT satellite platform was operating from 2002 until 2012. It was designed to measure the radiance backscattered from the Earth and hence determine total columns and vertical profiles of atmospheric trace gas species. Furthermore SCIAMACHY performed daily sun observations via a diffuser. Solar spectra in the wavelength range from 212 nm to 1760 nm and two narrow bands from 1930 to 2040 nm and 2260 to 2380 nm are measured with a spectral resolution of 0,2 to 1,5 nm in the different channels. Recent developments in the SCIAMACHY calibration (e.g. a physical model of the scanner unit including degradation effects, and an on-ground to in-flight correction using the on-board white light source (WLS)) are used for the generation of a new SCIAMACHY solar reference spectrum as a first step towards a 10 years time series of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) data. For validation comparisons with other solar reference spectra are performed.

  5. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) in response to growing awareness of a land loss crisis in Louisiana. Projects funded by CWPPRA require monitoring and evaluation of project effectiveness, and there is also a need to assess the cumulative effects of all projects to achieve a sustainable coastal environment. In 2003, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration (OCPR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received approval from the CWPPRA Task Force to implement the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) as a mechanism to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of CWPPRA projects at the project, region, and coastwide levels. The CRMS design implements a multiple reference approach by using aspects of hydrogeomorphic functional assessments and probabilistic sampling. The CRMS program is as dynamic as the coastal habitats it monitors. The program is currently funded through CWPPRA and provides data for a variety of user groups, including resource managers, academics, landowners, and researchers.

  6. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  7. Analysis of SOFCs Using Reference Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Finklea, H.; Chen, X.; Gerdes, K.; Pakalapati, S.; Celik, I.

    2013-01-01

    Reference electrodes are frequently applied to isolate the performance of one electrode in a solid oxide fuel cell. However, reference electrode simulations raise doubt to veracity of data collected using reference electrodes. The simulations predict that the reported performance for the one electrode will frequently contain performance of both electrodes. Nonetheless, recent reports persistently treat data so collected as ideally isolated. This work confirms the predictions of the reference electrode simulations on two SOFC designs, and to provides a method of validating the data measured in the 3-electrode configuration. Validation is based on the assumption that a change in gas composition to one electrode does not affect the impedance of the other electrode at open circuit voltage. This assumption is supported by a full physics simulation of the SOFC. Three configurations of reference electrode and cell design are experimentally examined using various gas flows and two temperatures. Impedance data are subjected to deconvolution analysis and equivalent circuit fitting and approximate polarization resistances of the cathode and anode are determined. The results demonstrate that the utility of reference electrodes is limited and often wholly inappropriate. Reported impedances and single electrode polarization values must be scrutinized on this basis.

  8. NASA CEV Reference GN&C Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamblyn, Scott; Hinkel, Heather; Saley, Dave

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will be the first human spacecraft built by NASA in almost 3 decades and will be the first vehicle to perform both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions and lunar missions since Apollo. The awesome challenge of designing a Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system for this vehicle that satisfies all of its various mission requirements is countered by the opportunity to take advantage of the improvements in algorithms, software, sensors, and other related GN&C technology over this period. This paper describes the CEV GN&C reference architecture developed to support the overall NASA reference configuration and validate the driving requirements of the Constellation (Cx) Architecture Requirements Document (CARD, Reference 1) and the CEV System Requirements Document (SRD, Reference 2). The Orion GN&C team designed the reference architecture based on the functional allocation of GN&C roles and responsibilities of CEV with respect to the other Cx vehicles, such as the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), Earth Departure Stage (EDS), and Lunar Surface Area Module (LSAM), across all flight phases. The specific challenges and responsibilities of the CEV GN&C system from launch pad to touchdown will be introduced along with an overview of the navigation sensor suite, its redundancy management, and flight software (FSW) architecture. Sensors will be discussed in terms of range of operation, data utility within the navigation system, and rationale for selection. The software architecture is illustrated via block diagrams, commensurate with the design aspects.

  9. Astronomical catalog desk reference, 1994 edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference is designed to aid astronomers in locating machine readable catalogs in the Astronomical Data Center (ADC) archives. The key reference components of this document are as follows: A listing of shortened titles for all catalogs available from the ADC (includes the name of the lead author and year of publication), brief descriptions of over 300 astronomical catalogs, an index of ADC catalog numbers by subject keyword, and an index of ADC catalog numbers by author. The heart of this document is the set of brief descriptions generated by the ADC staff. The 1994 edition of the Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference contains descriptions for over one third of the catalogs in the ADC archives. Readers are encouraged to refer to this section for concise summaries of those catalogs and their contents.

  10. STS ancillary equipment study. User reference book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plough, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A record of what is currently known about STS ancillary equipment is presented in this user-oriented design so that a potential user may evaluate whether he could use the described ancillary equipment or if he would need to design and fabricate a payload-unique item. References that the user can use to obtain additional details and requirements to aid in his evaluation and decision are included.

  11. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  12. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, Robert M.; Nagy, Zoltan

    1989-01-01

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservior and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved.

  13. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1987-07-30

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  14. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1989-04-04

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  15. Tank characterization reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  16. Accurate Optical Reference Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, N.

    2006-08-01

    Current and near future all-sky astrometric catalogs on the ICRF are reviewed with the emphasis on reference star data at optical wavelengths for user applications. The standard error of a Hipparcos Catalogue star position is now about 15 mas per coordinate. For the Tycho-2 data it is typically 20 to 100 mas, depending on magnitude. The USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC) observing program was completed in 2004 and reductions toward the final UCAC3 release are in progress. This all-sky reference catalogue will have positional errors of 15 to 70 mas for stars in the 10 to 16 mag range, with a high degree of completeness. Proper motions for the about 60 million UCAC stars will be derived by combining UCAC astrometry with available early epoch data, including yet unpublished scans of the complete set of AGK2, Hamburg Zone astrograph and USNO Black Birch programs. Accurate positional and proper motion data are combined in the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset (NOMAD) which includes Hipparcos, Tycho-2, UCAC2, USNO-B1, NPM+SPM plate scan data for astrometry, and is supplemented by multi-band optical photometry as well as 2MASS near infrared photometry. The Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (MAPS) mission is currently being planned at USNO. This is a micro-satellite to obtain 1 mas positions, parallaxes, and 1 mas/yr proper motions for all bright stars down to about 15th magnitude. This program will be supplemented by a ground-based program to reach 18th magnitude on the 5 mas level.

  17. A Reference Unit on Home Vegetable Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCully, James S., Comp.; And Others

    Designed to provide practical, up-to-date, basic information on home gardening for vocational agriculture students with only a limited knowledge of vegetable gardening, this reference unit includes step-by-step procedures for planning, planting, cultivating, harvesting, and processing vegetables in a small plot. Topics covered include plot…

  18. Magnifying Devices: A Resource Guide. Reference Circular.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Carol, Comp.

    The devices listed in this reference circular are designed to assist people who have visual impairments by magnifying objects and print or graphic materials. Before buying a magnification device, one should consult a low-vision specialist to determine the level of usable vision, the power of magnification needed for a particular eye condition and…

  19. The Elementary Reading Reference Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks North Star Borough School District, AK.

    Designed to complement the RIM (Reading-Instruction-Maintenance) Reading Skill Guide, this reference guide provides a useful tool for teachers utilizing the RIM Model in grades kindergarten through six. In the RIM model, readiness (R) stands for exposure to the skill, mastery not expected; instruction (I) stands for formal presentation with…

  20. Reference Lists for HECE Occupational Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    The annotated bibliography contains citations to appropriate reference books, pamphlets and audiovisual materials for the following 17 occupations: art and craft aide, bridal consultant, child care aide, clothing assistant, companion to the elderly, consumer aide, dietetic aide, fabric coordinator, fashion coordinator, floral designer, food…