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Sample records for ileocolic artery occlusion

  1. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  2. Retinal artery occlusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... These blockages are more likely if there is hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ) in the eye. Clots ... Blindness and vision loss Blood clots Diabetes Glaucoma Hardening of the arteries High blood cholesterol levels High ...

  3. ACUTE RETINAL ARTERIAL OCCLUSIVE DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2011-01-01

    The initial section deals with basic sciences; among the various topics briefly discussed are the anatomical features of ophthalmic, central retinal and cilioretinal arteries which may play a role in acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Crucial information required in the management of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the length of time the retina can survive following that. An experimental study shows that CRAO for 97 minutes produces no detectable permanent retinal damage but there is a progressive ischemic damage thereafter, and by 4 hours the retina has suffered irreversible damage. In the clinical section, I discuss at length various controversies on acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Classification of acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders These are of 4 types: CRAO, branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), cotton wools spots and amaurosis fugax. Both CRAO and BRAO further comprise multiple clinical entities. Contrary to the universal belief, pathogenetically, clinically and for management, CRAO is not one clinical entity but 4 distinct clinical entities – non-arteritic CRAO, non-arteritic CRAO with cilioretinal artery sparing, arteritic CRAO associated with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and transient non-arteritic CRAO. Similarly, BRAO comprises permanent BRAO, transient BRAO and cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO), and the latter further consists of 3 distinct clinical entities - non-arteritic CLRAO alone, non-arteritic CLRAO associated with central retinal vein occlusion and arteritic CLRAO associated with GCA. Understanding these classifications is essential to comprehend fully various aspects of these disorders. Central retinal artery occlusion The pathogeneses, clinical features and management of the various types of CRAO are discussed in detail. Contrary to the prevalent belief, spontaneous improvement in both visual acuity and visual fields does occur, mainly during the first 7 days. The incidence of spontaneous visual

  4. [Cilioretinal artery occlusion in hemochromatosis].

    PubMed

    Peral, M J; Reche, A; Crespo, M J; Carpio, R; Gutierrez, O; Espino, A; Toledano, N

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a 31 year-old woman with a sudden visual loss due to a cilioretinal artery occlusion. The physical examinination showed hepatomegaly. Serum iron and ferritin and transferrin saturation were unusually high. The doppler scan of carotid arteries showed no relevant signs of atheromatous disease. Dilated cardiomiopaty was revealed in the B-scan with subendocardial calcium deposits. Genetic tests were positive for hemochromatosis. Subendocardial calcification due to hemochromatosis could be the embolic source in our patient. This embolic ocular disease is the first presentation of hemochromatosis in this patient. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Melorheostosis with occlusion of dorsalis pedis artery.

    PubMed

    Ishibe, Motomi; Inoue, Masayuki; Saitou, Katsutoshi

    2002-02-01

    Melorheostosis is an unusual sclerotic dysplasia of bone. The case of a 51-year-old female patient with melorheostosis and occlusion of the dorsalis pedis artery is described. Although numerous vascular anomalies have been noted in patients with melorheostosis, occlusion of the dorsalis pedis artery has not been reported previously.

  6. Stenting in Acute Lower Limb Arterial Occlusions

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, Jowad; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2008-07-15

    Management of critical limb ischemia of acute onset includes surgical embolectomy, bypass grafting, aspiration thrombectomy, thrombolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy followed by treatment of the underlying cause. We present our experience with the use of stents to treat acute embolic/thrombotic occlusions in one iliac and three femoropopliteal arteries. Although this is a small case series, excellent immediate and midterm results suggest that stenting of acute occlusions of the iliac, superficial femoral, and popliteal arteries is a safe and effective treatment option.

  7. Ophthalmic Artery Occlusion Following Transconjunctival Orbitotomy.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Anasua; Pappuru, Rajeev Reddy; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Mishra, Dilip Kumar; Naik, Milind N

    Postoperative blindness after orbital surgery is an extremely rare and a disastrous complication. Ophthalmic artery occlusion as a cause of such unexpected vision loss has not been documented in literature. The authors report a case of a middle aged man who developed sudden vision loss due to ophthalmic artery occlusion following transconjunctival excision of orbital schwanomma. The possible mechanisms contributing to the loss of vision are discussed and preventive strategies are suggested to reduce the incidence of this complication.

  8. [Acute popliteal arterial occlusion during extracorporeal circulation].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; Senda, Masahiro; Asahara, Miho; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Arita, Hideko; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2006-11-01

    A 79-year-old man underwent aortic arch replacement for thoracic aortic aneurysm. He had a history of smoking, coronary stenting for ischemic heart disease and replacement with artificial blood vessel for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with midazolam, fentanyl, sevoflurane, and vecuronium. A 20 gage catheter was placed in the right radial artery and a 22 gage catheter in the left posterior tibial artery. Total circulatory arrest under profound hypothermia and retrograde cerebral perfusion were performed using extracorporeal circulation. After finishing anastomosis with artificial blood vessel, he was weaned from extracorporeal circulation. The pressure in the left posterior tibial artery was maintained at 15 mmHg, although the blood pressure in the right radial artery increased gradually. Then, the pressure in the left femoral artery in the operative field was the same as the pressure in the right radial artery. Therefore, we suspected the arterial line occlusion of the left posterior tibial artery. After the operation, we found the left leg and foot pale and cold with no pulsation on the left popliteal, dorsal pedis, and posterior tibial arteries. Further, acute left popliteal arterial occlusion was assessed by means of Doppler and left lower extremity angiography. We immediately performed the balloon-catheter embolectomy. However, as he developed compartment syndrome on the left lower limb due to reperfusion injury postoperatively, fascitomy was performed. On the 58th postoperative day, he was discharged from our hospital. Measurement by Doppler is useful for the early diagnosis of the lower leg arterial occlusion.

  9. Acute arterial occlusion after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Patricia C; Rogic, Roselyn; Eddington, Carolyn

    2006-11-01

    There are a number of complications associated with total knee-joint arthroplasty. These include deep venous thromboses, peroneal palsy, infection, anemia, and Ogilvie's syndrome. An uncommon but potentially limb-threatening complication is acute arterial occlusion. Approximately 35 cases have been reported in the orthopedic literature. Prompt recognition and treatment intervention are the keys to successful outcome. We describe the case of one patient who had mild peroneal palsy and developed acute arterial occlusion 9 days postoperatively while on the inpatient rehabilitation service. Prompt aggressive management restored arterial circulation to the lower limb. Careful management of patients after total knee arthroplasty requires an understanding that arterial occlusion is a rare limb-threatening complication of surgery, but that it is treatable with prompt, deliberate management. Physiatrists should be aware that this condition exists in postoperative knee-joint arthroplasty patients. They should pay careful attention to any patient with a history of peripheral vascular disease or postoperative peroneal palsy.

  10. Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with common hepatic artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Bracale, G; Porcellini, M; Bernardo, B; Selvetella, L; Renda, A

    1996-12-01

    A unique case of true inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm (IPDA) associated with occlusion of common hepatic artery is reported. Radiological and MRI findings are described. Because of high risk of visceral ischemia that contraindicated a percutaneous transluminal embolization, a successful tangential resection of aneurysm was performed.

  11. Endovascular Management of Central Retinal Arterial Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Gala, Nihar B; Baumrind, Benjamin; Hansberry, David R; Thabet, Ahmad M; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2016-11-01

    Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an ophthalmologic emergency due to the sudden cessation of circulation to the inner retinal layer. Without immediate treatment, permanent blindness may ensue. Several treatment options exist, ranging from noninvasive medical management to thrombolysis. Nonetheless, ongoing debate exists regarding the best therapeutic strategy. The authors present the case of a 78-year-old woman with a medical history of hypercholesterolemia and rheumatoid arthritis who experienced complete loss of vision in her left eye. Following ophthalmologic evaluation demonstrating left CRAO, anterior chamber paracentesis was performed. Endovascular intervention was performed via local intra-arterial fibrinolysis with alteplase. Her vision returned to 20/20 following the procedure. In general, conventional therapies have not significantly improved patient outcomes. Several management options exist for CRAO. In general, conservative measures have not been reported to yield better patient outcomes as compared to the natural history of this medical emergency. Endovascular approaches are another option as observed with this case reported. In cases of CRAO, therapeutic strategies such as intra-arterial fibrinolysis utilize a local infusion of reactive tissue plasminogen activator directly at the site of occlusion via catheterization of the ophthalmic artery. Although several case series do show promising results after treating CRAO with intra-arterial fibrinolysis, further studies are required given the reports of complications.

  12. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization.

  13. Optimal management of infrainguinal arterial occlusive disease

    PubMed Central

    Pennywell, David J; Tan, Tze-Woei; Zhang, Wayne W

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease is becoming a major health problem in Western societies as the population continues to age. In addition to risk of limb loss, the complexity of the disease is magnified by its intimate association with medical comorbidity, especially cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Risk factor modification and antiplatelet therapy are essential to improve long-term survival. Surgical intervention is indicated for intermittent claudication when a patient’s quality of life remains unacceptable after a trial of conservative therapy. Open reconstruction and endovascular revascularization are cornerstone for limb salvage in patients with critical limb ischemia. Recent advances in catheter-based technology have made endovascular intervention the preferred treatment approach for infrainguinal disease in many cases. Nevertheless, lower extremity bypass remains an important treatment strategy, especially for reasonable risk patients with a suitable bypass conduit. In this review, we present a summary of current knowledge about peripheral arterial disease followed by a review of current, evidence-based medical and surgical therapy for infrainguinal arterial occlusive disease. PMID:25368519

  14. [Acute arterial occlusion associated disseminated hydatidosis].

    PubMed

    Somocurcio, Jose; Alvarez, Gamero; Lara Campos, Gloria; Cahuana Aparco, Judith; Calongos Porras, Estefanny; Bermejo Cataño, Pedro; Tejada Llacsa, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Hydatidosis or echinococcosis are terms used to denote the zoonotic infestation caused by adult and larval stages (metacestode) of the cestode from the genus Echinococcus (family tenidae). The term hydatidosis should be applied to the infestation caused by the metacestode while echinococcosis for the larval and adult stages. In Peru there is a high prevalence of this infection, liver and lung being the most affected organs. There are factors from the host and from the infectious agent that contribute to this infection, with the immune component of the host as an important infection and dissemination point. A case of acute arterial occlusion associated with disseminated hydatidosis in a 54 years old patient, born and from Huancavelica, with sudden onset of an acute arterial obstruction is reported. The patient did not improve after surgery and died within 48 hours of presentation.

  15. Common Carotid Artery Occlusion: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Bajkó, Zoltán; Bălaşa, Rodica; Moţăţăianu, Anca; Maier, Smaranda; Chebuţ, Octavia Claudia; Szatmári, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    Subjects and Methods. We analysed 5000 cerebrovascular ultrasound records. A total of 0.4% of the patients had common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). Results. The mean age was 59.8 ± 14.2 years, and the male/female ratio was 2.33. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Right-sided and left-sided CCAO occurred in 65% and 30% of the cases, respectively, and bilateral occlusion was detected in one case (5%). Patent bifurcation was observed in 10 cases of CCAO in which the anterograde flow in the ICA was maintained from the external carotid artery with reversed flow. In two of the cases, the occluded CCA was hypoplastic. The aetiology of CCAO in the majority of cases was the atherosclerosis (15 cases). The male/female ratio was higher in the patients with occluded distal vessels, and the short-term outcome was poorer. Only two cases from this series underwent revascularisation surgery. Spontaneous recanalisation was observed in one case. Conclusions. The most frequent cause of CCAO was atherosclerosis. The outcome is improved in the cases with patent distal vessels, and spontaneous recanalisation is possible. Treatment methods have not been standardised. Surgical revascularisation is possible in cases of patent distal vessels, but the indications are debatable. PMID:24167740

  16. SURGICAL EMBOLECTOMY FOR FOVEA-THREATENING ACUTE RETINAL ARTERY OCCLUSION

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David R.P.; Mammo, Zaid; Chin, Eric K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a technique of surgical intraocular embolectomy in patients with acute fovea-threatening branch retinal artery occlusion. Methods: Pars plana vitrectomy with embolectomy involving embolus isolation, dissection, and removal in patients with an acute fovea-threatening arterial occlusion without a patent cilioretinal artery. Results: The surgical technique involves a core vitrectomy. The blocked artery is incised using a microvitreoretinal blade, and microsurgical forceps are used to retrieve the embolus. No significant complications were noted. The study technique offers an excellent safety profile and minimizes the risk of vitreous hemorrhage by carefully dissecting the vascular adventitial sheath and isolating the embolus. Conclusion: Surgical embolectomy is a viable technique for patients with acute fovea-threatening arterial occlusions without patent cilioretinal artery. Careful dissection and retrieval of the embolus minimizes the risk of vitreous hemorrhage, which is an important improvement in previous techniques for management of acute retinal arterial occlusions. PMID:26674278

  17. Cilio-retinal arterial circulation in central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, D

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that an occlusion of the central retinal artery is an essential prerequisite for haemorrhage formation after central retinal vein obstruction has been investigated by examining the fundus changes in patients with a cilio-retinal arterial circulation; the findings are at variance with the 'combined occlusion hypothesis'. Comparisons were made between the pathological features in two retinal capillary beds with independent sources of arterial supply--namely, the central retinal and cilio-retinal arteries--but with an obstructed venous drainage channel common to both--namely, the central retinal vein. The importance of intraluminal pressure changes (as distinct from perfusion changes) in the causation of haemorrhages and oedema after venous occlusion is stressed, and the role of arterial disease in the pathogenesis of venous occlusions is distinguished from its role in determining the sequelae of such occlusions. Images PMID:1203235

  18. Central retinal artery occlusion following cosmetic blepharoplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, P W; May, D R

    1980-01-01

    A case is presented of a 70-year-old white male who underwent a bilateral cosmetic lower lid blepharoplasty with fat removal. He subsequently developed a right orbital haemorrhage which resulted in the occlusion of the central retinal artery. The patient had no light perception with his right eye for approximately 1 hour, but vision was eventually restored to 20/20 after emergency therapeutic measures. There are many possible causes of visual loss following blepharoplasty, with orbital haemorrhage being the most common. Visual loss secondary to blepharoplasty can be prevented in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases of surgery. Blindness as a complication of cosmetic blepharoplasty can be reversible if recognised early and treated appropriately. These facts must be kept in mind by all surgeons who perform blepharoplasties. Images PMID:7448145

  19. Bilateral atherosclerotic internal carotid artery occlusion and recurrent ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Amin, Osama S M

    2015-06-08

    Bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion (BICAO) is a rare disease that carries a gloomy prognosis. We report a case of a 52-year-old man who developed ischaemic infarction at the region of the right middle cerebral artery; he was found to have atherosclerotic occlusion of both internal carotid arteries on Doppler-duplex examination. He received medical treatment only. After 1 year, he developed a new infarction at the region of the left middle cerebral artery. Conventional angiography revealed bilateral occlusion of internal carotid arteries at their origin, approximately 50% stenosis of the common carotid bulbs and mild stenosis of the origin of external carotid arteries. The patient did not undergo any form of surgical revascularisation procedures and died of severe aspiration pneumonia approximately 2 months after the second stroke. BICAO portends a poor outcome and carries a risk of recurrent ischaemic events. The best management strategy for this vascular occlusion remains unclear.

  20. Acute Popliteal Artery Occlusion after Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Ryu; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Takayama, Koji; Kawakami, Yohei; Kamimura, Masato; Matsushita, Takehiko; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Acute arterial occlusions are a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, in revision TKA, the risk of such complications is higher and these complications can lead to amputation if not adequately treated. We describe a case of acute popliteal artery occlusion 4 hours after second revision TKA in a patient with a history of several surgical procedures because of periprosthetic infection at a previous hospital. Revascularization was achieved via bypass grafting and amputation was narrowly avoided despite time lag after symptom onset to revascularization. In this case, it was possible that the arterial disease that accompanied the vascular endothelium injury such as pseudoaneurysm had existed since the previous surgery at another hospital and was destroyed by the surgical procedure, which led to the formation of thrombosis and arterial occlusion. Preoperative evaluation of the arterial condition should be considered to avoid acute arterial occlusive disease, especially in patients who had several previous surgical procedures.

  1. Hemi-central retinal artery occlusion in young adults.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Rishi, Ekta; Sharma, Tarun; Mahajan, Sheshadri

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the clinical presentations of retinal artery occlusion, hemi-central retinal artery occlusion (Hemi-CRAO) is rarely described. This case series of four adults aged between 22 and 36 years attempts to describe the clinical profile, etiology and management of Hemi-CRAO. Case 1 had an artificial mitral valve implant. Polycythemia and malignant hypertension were noted in Case 2. The third patient had Leiden mutation while the fourth patient had Eisenmenger's syndrome. Clinical examination and fundus fluorescein angiography revealed a bifurcated central retinal artery at emergence from the optic nerve head, in all cases. Color Doppler examination of the central retinal artery confirmed branching of the artery behind the lamina cribrosa. It is hypothesized that bifurcation of central retinal artery behind the lamina cribrosa may predispose these hemi-trunks to develop an acute occlusion if associated with underlying risk factors. The prognosis depends upon arterial recanalisation and etiology of the thromboembolic event.

  2. Ileo-right hemi-colonic cervical pull-up on a non-supercharged ileocolic arterial pedicle: A technical and case report

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Andreas RR; Hackl, Christina; Soeder, Yorick; Schlitt, Hans J; Dahlke, Marc-H

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal reconstruction can be challenging when stomach and colon are not anatomically intact and their use as esophageal substitutes is therefore limited. Innovative individual approaches are then necessary to restore the intestinal passage. We describe a technique in which a short stump of the right hemicolon and 25 cm of ileum on a long, non-supercharged, fully mobilized ileocolic arterial pedicle were used for esophageal reconstruction to the neck. In this case, a 65 year-old male patient had accidentally indigested hydrochloric acid which caused necrosis of his upper digestive tract. An emergency esophagectomy, gastrectomy, duodenectomy, pancreatectomy and splenectomy had been performed in an outside hospital. A cervical esophagostomy and a biliodigestive anastomosis had been created and a jejunal catheter for enteral feeding had been placed. After the patient had recovered, a reconstruction of his food passage via the left and transverse colon failed for technical reasons due to an intraoperative necrotic demarcation of the colon. Our team then faced the situation that only a short stump of the right hemi-colon was left in situ when the patient was referred to our center. After intensified nutritional therapy, we reconstructed this patient’s food passage with the right hemicolon-approach described herein. After treatment of a postoperative pneumonia, the patient was discharged from hospital on the 26th postoperative day in a good clinical condition on an oral-only diet. In conclusion, individual approaches for long-segment reconstruction of the esophagus can be technically feasible in experienced hands. They do not always require arterial supercharging or free intestinal transplantation. PMID:27076773

  3. Ileo-right hemi-colonic cervical pull-up on a non-supercharged ileocolic arterial pedicle: A technical and case report.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Andreas Rr; Hackl, Christina; Soeder, Yorick; Schlitt, Hans J; Dahlke, Marc-H

    2016-04-14

    Esophageal reconstruction can be challenging when stomach and colon are not anatomically intact and their use as esophageal substitutes is therefore limited. Innovative individual approaches are then necessary to restore the intestinal passage. We describe a technique in which a short stump of the right hemicolon and 25 cm of ileum on a long, non-supercharged, fully mobilized ileocolic arterial pedicle were used for esophageal reconstruction to the neck. In this case, a 65 year-old male patient had accidentally indigested hydrochloric acid which caused necrosis of his upper digestive tract. An emergency esophagectomy, gastrectomy, duodenectomy, pancreatectomy and splenectomy had been performed in an outside hospital. A cervical esophagostomy and a biliodigestive anastomosis had been created and a jejunal catheter for enteral feeding had been placed. After the patient had recovered, a reconstruction of his food passage via the left and transverse colon failed for technical reasons due to an intraoperative necrotic demarcation of the colon. Our team then faced the situation that only a short stump of the right hemi-colon was left in situ when the patient was referred to our center. After intensified nutritional therapy, we reconstructed this patient's food passage with the right hemicolon-approach described herein. After treatment of a postoperative pneumonia, the patient was discharged from hospital on the 26(th) postoperative day in a good clinical condition on an oral-only diet. In conclusion, individual approaches for long-segment reconstruction of the esophagus can be technically feasible in experienced hands. They do not always require arterial supercharging or free intestinal transplantation.

  4. Isolated supraclinoid occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Lagrèze, H L; Hartmann, A; Ries, F; Wappenschmidt, J; Hanisch, E

    1987-01-01

    Isolated supraclinoid occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery is a rare cause of cerebral ischemia. The authors of the only review of this subject concluded that it is caused predominantly by factors other than atherosclerosis. We examined 6 patients with isolated supraclinoid occlusive lesions. Five of them had one or more risk factors for atherosclerosis. Thus, the isolated stenosis of that part of the internal carotid artery does not seem to represent a particular pathologic entity.

  5. Digital Artery Occlusion Secondary to Plastic Shopping Bag Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Joy, R; Isaacs, JL; McCarthy, RJ

    2007-01-01

    Upper limb digital arterial occlusion is uncommon. We present the case of a 47-year-old man with an ischaemic right middle finger (dominant hand) due to trauma from carrying a heavy plastic shopping bag. Duplex scanning revealed no proximal source of emboli. An angiogram demonstrated occlusions in the medial and lateral digital arteries of the middle digit at the level of the proximal phalanx. Treatment with heparin and warfarin resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:18201465

  6. Central retinal artery occlusion (reversible in sickle trait with glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Radius, R L; Finkelstein, D

    1976-01-01

    We report a case of central retinal artery occlusion in an 18-year-old black woman with sickle-trait haemoglobinopathy and acute glaucoma after hyphaema. The central retinal artery occlusion occurred immediately after treatment of the glaucoma with osmotic agents, raising the possibility that they played a precipitating role. We suggest that osmotic agents be used with extreme caution in sickle patients with glaucoma. The occlusion was treated by anterior chamber paracentesis with eventual return of good vision. The reversibility of retinal and optic nerve function after total ischaemia is discussed. PMID:952815

  7. Leptospirosis and Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Hsiang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lee, Feng-You; Wang, Ying-Chuan; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Data on the association between peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) and leptospirosis are limited. We conducted a retrospective cohort study for determining whether leptospirosis is one of the possible risk factors for PAOD. Patients diagnosed with leptospirosis by using 2000 to 2010 data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with leptospirosis without a history of PAOD were selected. For each leptospirosis patient, 4 controls without a history of leptospirosis and PAOD were randomly selected and frequency-matched for sex, age, the year of the index date, and comorbidity diseases. The follow-up period was from the time of the initial diagnosis of leptospirosis to the diagnosis date of PAOD, or December 31, 2011. The Cox proportional hazard regression models were used for analyzing the risk of PAOD. During the follow-up period, the cumulative incidence of PAOD was higher among the patients from the leptospirosis cohort than among the nonleptospirosis cohort (log-rank test, P < 0.001). In total, 29 patients with PAOD from the leptospirosis cohort and 81 from the nonleptospirosis cohort were observed with the incidence rates of 2.1 and 1.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively, yielding a crude hazards ratio (HR) of 1.62 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44–1.81) and adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.75 (95% CI = 1.58–1.95). The risk of PAOD was 1.75-fold higher in the patients with leptospirosis than in the general population. PMID:26986166

  8. Spontaneous Recanalization of Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion Following Angioplasty and Stenting of Inferior Mesenteric Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Akpinar, Erhan Cil, Barbaros E.; Arat, Anil; Baykal, Atac; Karaman, Kerem; Balkanci, Ferhun

    2006-02-15

    An 84-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and coronary artery disease was admitted with a progressively worsening diffuse abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and angiography revealed occlusion of the origin and proximal portion of superior mesenteric artery. Aortography also showed severe origin stenosis of inferior mesenteric artery and that the distal part of the superior mesenteric artery was supplied by a prominent marginal artery of Drummond. Patient was effectively treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of the inferior mesenteric artery. Follow-up imaging studies demonstrated patency of the stent and spontaneous recanalization of superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  9. Subclavian artery occlusion after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the breast

    SciTech Connect

    Hashmonai, M.; Elami, A.; Kuten, A.; Lichtig, C.; Torem, S.

    1988-05-15

    Disturbance of the arterial circulation in the ipsilateral upper limb following mastectomy is a rare sequel attributed to adjuvant radiotherapy. A review of the literature revealed 20 such cases, and two more are presented. Different mechanisms of injury leading to arterial occlusion have been proposed. This is a late complication with a considerable time lag between irradiation and onset of symptoms. The symptoms vary in type and severity, but are consistent with peripheral occlusive arterial disease. To alleviate symptoms and prevent limb loss, reconstructive vascular surgery is advocated, and was successfully performed in one of our patients. 18 references.

  10. Rare Post-Tonsillectomy Internal Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm: Management by Parent Artery Occlusion Using Detachable Balloons.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arun; Kumar, Sanjeev; Devarajan, S Leve Joseph; Agarwal, Himanshu

    2017-10-01

    Iatrogenic cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare and potentially lethal complication following tonsillectomy. It can be complicated by thromboembolism, mass effect and eventually may rupture leading to death. Various endovascular treatment options are available for the management of these pseudoaneurysms, including coil embolization, detachable balloon occlusion, or stent graft placement. Parent artery occlusion using detachable balloons can be a therapeutic option in a subset of patients. However, evaluation of cross circulation with preprocedure balloon test occlusion is imperative in such cases.

  11. Current status of thrombolysis for peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Ouriel, Kenneth

    2002-11-01

    Acute peripheral arterial occlusion occurs as a result of thrombosis or embolism. A reduction in the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease accounts for a shift in the frequency of embolic to thrombotic occlusions. Also, a dramatic increase in the number of lower extremity arterial bypass graft procedures explains the predominance of graft occlusions in most recent series of patients with acute limb ischemia. While open surgical procedures remain the gold standard in the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusion, thrombolytic agents have been employed as an alternative to primary surgical revascularization in patients with acute limb ischemia. Systemic administration of thrombolytic agents, while effective for small coronary artery clots, fails to achieve dissolution of the large peripheral arterial thrombi. Catheter-directed administration of the agents directly into the occlusive thrombus is the only means of effecting early recanalization. Prior to 1999, urokinase was the sole agent used in North America for peripheral arterial indications, but the loss of the agent from the marketplace forced clinicians to turn to alternate agents, specifically alteplase and reteplase. Interest in the use of platelet glycoprotein inhibitors and mechanical thrombectomy devices also rose, coincident with the loss of urokinase from the marketplace. Most clinicians welcome the predicted return of urokinase to the marketplace. New investigative trials should be organized and executed to answer some of the remaining questions related to thrombolytic treatment of peripheral arterial disease. Foremost in this regard remains the question of which patients are best treated with percutaneous thrombolytic techniques and which are best treated with primary operative intervention. Ultimately, however, the thrombolytic agents are but one tool in the armamentarium of the vascular practitioner. This review is directed at providing the practicing clinician with the basic fund of knowledge

  12. Carotid endarterectomy in patients with contralateral carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Dalainas, Ilias; Nano, Giovanni; Bianchi, Paolo; Casana, Renato; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-day outcome of carotid endarterectomy in patients with contralateral carotid artery occlusion and compare it to that in patients with patent contralateral carotid artery. We compared 2,959 carotid endarterectomies performed in patients with patent contralateral internal carotid artery to 373 carotid endarterectomies performed in patients with occlusion of the contralateral carotid artery in the same institute between 1988 and 2004. Patient demographics, surgical and anesthesiological strategy, perioperative neurological and cardiac events, and deaths were compared. The patients were grouped and analyzed according to the presence or absence of symptoms and to their gender. No significant difference was shown in perioperative cardiological and neurological events and deaths in patients with contralateral carotid occlusion versus patients without contralateral carotid occlusion. Females had significant more neurological events than males, in both the asymptomatic (P < 0.001) and symptomatic (P = 0.02) groups. Concomitant occlusion of the contralateral carotid artery was not associated with increased risk of perioperative cardiological or neurological adverse events. However, female gender was associated with higher risk for adverse neurological events.

  13. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion With Subsequent Central Retinal Vein Occlusion in Biopsy-Proven Giant Cell Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Zoë R; Wang, Xiaofei; DiLoreto, David A

    2016-09-01

    Central retinal artery occlusion with subsequent central retinal vein occlusion in the same eye is a rare entity. We present a 72-year-old man with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis who developed bilateral arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and a left central retinal artery occlusion. Subsequently, he developed a left central retinal vein occlusion within 2 weeks of his initial vision loss. His vision did not improve with corticosteroids.

  14. Spontaneous recanalization of atherosclerotic middle cerebral artery occlusion: Case report.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ying; Huang, Yujing; Zhang, Li; Nan, Guangxian

    2017-07-01

    Intracranial vascular atherosclerotic occlusion is one of the most common causes of ischemic stroke world wide. The involvement of large intracranial vessels, in particular, the middle cerebral artery, is usually associated with unfavorable outcomes in patients. Spontaneous recanalization of atherosclerotic occlusion is relatively rare. The first patient was a 43-year-old male with slurred speech and left-sided weakness for a duration of 24 hours. The second was a 59-year-old male with left-sided weakness over a period of 13 hours. The last was a 49-year-old female patient presented with a 1-month history of right-sided headache. Atherosclerotic middle cerebral artery occlusion. In all cases, oral aspirin (100 mg; once daily), Plavix (75 mg; once daily), and Lipitor (40 mg; once daily) were used . Oral Plavix was stopped 3 months. Spontaneous recanalization occured in the three cases of atherosclerotic middle cerebral artery occlusion. Spontaneous recanalization may occur in both early and late stages of atherosclerotic middle cerebral artery occlusion. Clinicians should be aware of this particular condition, as it may represent a relatively favorable prognosis.

  15. A Case of Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion following Uneventful Phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Dragnev, Daniel; Barr, Dai; Kulshrestha, Manoj; Shanmugalingam, Sinnathamboo

    2013-01-01

    We would like to present a case of branch retinal artery occlusion following uneventful phacoemulsification, possibly caused by sub-Tenon's anaesthesia. There were no predisposing general health problems. There are two possible mechanisms: (1) mechanical effect of the bolus anaesthetic; (2) pharmacologically mediated changes in the vascular calibre. The latter mechanism is much more probable, because of the vasoconstrictive properties of both medications used. This is the first reported case of branch retinal artery occlusion after sub-Tenon's anaesthesia with preservative-free medications. PMID:23626570

  16. History of uterine artery occlusion and subsequent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Fred

    2009-06-01

    During mature placenta formation, select fetal trophoblasts invade maternal decidual arterioles and junctional zone arteries and change them into low-resistance uteroplacental arteries. Consequently, physicians performing vascular procedures that occlude the uterine arteries should understand their effects on miscarriage rates, the various toxemias of pregnancy, gross and microscopic placental anatomy, and invasive placentation. Thus, the objective of this article is to review the effects of vascular occlusion on pregnancy. In the long run, placental abnormalities may be the canary in the mine shaft to globally judge the effect of uterine artery embolization on pregnancy.

  17. Missed Total Occlusion Due to the Occipital Artery Arising from the Internal Carotid Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Ustunsoz, Bahri Gumus, Burcak; Koksal, Ali; Koroglu, Mert; Akhan, Okan

    2007-02-15

    A 56-year-old man was referred for digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with an ultrasound diagnosis of right proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis for possible carotid artery stenting. DSA revealed total occlusion of the ICA and an occipital artery arising from the stump and simulating continuation of the ICA. An ascending pharyngeal artery also arose from the same occipital artery. This case is of interest because this is a rare variation besides being a cause of misdiagnosis at carotid ultrasound.

  18. [Surgical treatment of the internal carotid artery atherosclerotic occlusion].

    PubMed

    Galkin, P V; Gushcha, A O; Antonov, G I

    2014-01-01

    Internal carotid artery occlusion is the cause of carotid territory transient ischemic attacks or infarction approximately in 15% of patients. Extracranial-lntracranial (EC-IC) Bypass Study and Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS) failed to show a benefit of EC-IC bypass over medical therapy in patients with symptomatic carotid artery occlusion. Weak sides of COSS were investigators reliance on post hoc analysis, use of specific thresholds in the definition of impaired cerebral hemodynamics and high perioperative morbidity. In selected subset of patients with medically refractory ischemic symptoms, EC-IC bypass, can provide benefit from surgery performed with sufficiently low perioperative morbidity. The potential of functional and cognitive improvement after cerebral revascularization needs further investigation.

  19. Intra-arterial Thrombolysis for Central Retinal Artery Occlusion after the Coil Embolization of Paraclinoid Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Minwook; Kim, Hae Yu; Choi, Byeong-Sam

    2016-01-01

    The most common complication of coil embolization for cerebral aneurysms is thrombo-embolic stroke; in rare cases, these strokes, can present with central retinal artery occlusion. At our institution, a 53-year-old woman underwent stent-assisted coiling of the aneurysm. The patient's vision was improved immediately after intra-arterial thrombolysis and had further improved 8 months later. This report describes our experience of a rare case of central retinal artery occlusion after coil embolization that was successfully treated by intra-arterial thrombolysis. PMID:28184347

  20. Inadvertent Occlusion of the Anterior Choroidal Artery Explains Infarct Variability in the Middle Cerebral Artery Thread Occlusion Stroke Model

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Damian D.; Beard, Daniel J.; Parsons, Mark W.; Levi, Christopher R.; Calford, Mike B.; Spratt, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    Intraluminal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAo) in rodents is perhaps the most widely used model of stroke, however variability of infarct volume and the ramifications of this on sample sizes remains a problem, particularly for preclinical testing of potential therapeutics. Our data and that of others, has shown a dichotomous distribution of infarct volumes for which there had previously been no clear explanation. When studying perfusion computed tomography cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps obtained during intraluminal MCAo in rats, we observed inadvertent occlusion of the anterior choroidal artery (AChAo) in a subset of animals. We hypothesized that the combined occlusion of the MCA and AChA may be a predictor of larger infarct volume following stroke. Thus, we aimed to determine the correlation between AChAo and final infarct volume in rats with either temporary or permanent MCA occlusion (1 h, 2 h, or permanent MCAo). Outbred Wistar rats (n = 28) were imaged prior to and immediately following temporary or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Presence of AChAo on CBV maps was shown to be a strong independent predictor of 24 h infarct volume (β = 0.732, p <0.001). This provides an explanation for the previously observed dichotomous distribution of infarct volumes. Interestingly, cortical infarct volumes were also larger in rats with AChAo, although the artery does not supply cortex. This suggests an important role for perfusion of the MCA territory beyond the proximal occlusion through AChA-MCA anastomotic collateral vessels in animals with a patent AChAo. Identification of combined MCAo and AChAo will allow other investigators to tailor their stroke model to reduce variability in infarct volumes, improve statistical power and reduce sample sizes in preclinical stroke research. PMID:24069448

  1. Patterns of recurrent disease after recanalization of femoropopliteal artery occlusions

    SciTech Connect

    Vroegindeweij, Dammis; Tielbeek, Alexander V.; Buth, Jaap; Vos, Louwerens D.; Bosch, Harrie C. M. van den

    1997-07-15

    Purpose. In this prospective study we investigated the site, occurrence, and development of stenoses and occlusions following recanalization of superficial femoral artery occlusions. Methods. Recanalization of an occluded femoropopliteal artery was attempted in 62 patients. Follow-up examinations included clinical examination and color-flow duplex scanning at regular intervals. Arteriography was used to determine the localization of the recurrent disease relative to the initially occluded segment. Results. During a mean follow-up of 23 months (range 0-69 months) 14 high-grade restenoses, indicated by a peak systolic velocity ratio {>=}3.0, were detected by color-flow duplex scanning. Occlusion of the treated segment occurred in 11 patients. The cumulative 3-year primary patency rate for high-grade restenoses and occlusions combined was 44% (SE 9%). By arteriographic examination the site of restenosis was localized in the distal half of the treated vessel segment in 16 of 21 cases. Conclusion. Most restenoses and occlusions occurred during the first year and most disease developed at the previous intervention site. The site of restenosis is more frequently in the distal part of the initially treated segment, a finding that may have therapeutic implications.

  2. Suppression of ischemia in arterial occlusive disease by JNK-promoted native collateral artery development

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Kasmir; Sugamura, Koichi; Craige, Siobhan; Keaney, John F; Davis, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    Arterial occlusive diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Blood flow to the affected tissue must be restored quickly if viability and function are to be preserved. We report that disruption of the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) - cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in endothelial cells causes severe blockade of blood flow and failure to recover in the murine femoral artery ligation model of hindlimb ischemia. We show that the MLK-JNK pathway is required for the formation of native collateral arteries that can restore circulation following arterial occlusion. Disruption of the MLK-JNK pathway causes decreased Dll4/Notch signaling, excessive sprouting angiogenesis, and defects in developmental vascular morphogenesis. Our analysis demonstrates that the MLK-JNK signaling pathway is a key regulatory mechanism that protects against ischemia in arterial occlusive disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18414.001 PMID:27504807

  3. Stent-based mechanical thrombectomy in acute basilar artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Leker, Ronen R; Moscovici, Samuel; Attia, Moshe; Itshayek, Eyal

    2011-12-01

    Stent-based mechanical thrombectomy was recently proposed as an effective alternative to other mechanical techniques to achieve recanalization of large-vessel embolic occlusions in the anterior circulation. To our knowledge, there are no reports of the use of this technique in acute basilar artery occlusion (ABAO). We present a patient with complete endovascular recanalization of ABAO using a stent-based thrombectomy technique. Advantages and limitations of this technique in the management of ABAO are discussed. The stent-thrombectomy technique is promising, and will need further evaluation in posterior circulation stroke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with coeliac artery occlusion from an aortic intramural hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Sakatani, Akihiko; Doi, Yoshinori; Kitayama, Toshiaki; Matsuda, Takaaki; Sasai, Yasutaka; Nishida, Naohiro; Sakamoto, Megumi; Uenoyama, Naoto; Kinoshita, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms are a rare type of visceral artery aneurysm, whose rupture is associated with high mortality. These aneurysms are of particular interest because local haemodynamic change caused by coeliac artery obstruction plays an important role in their development. However, the pathophysiological mechanism of coeliac artery obstruction is not completely understood. Pressure from the median arcuate ligament is most frequently reported cause. Although it is well-known that stenosis or occlusion of the visceral vessels may be caused by aortic syndrome, reports of pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with coeliac artery occlusion due to aortic syndrome are extremely rare. Our case indicates a new aetiology for a pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm and demonstrates the rapid deterioration of the patient affected. PMID:27122676

  5. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for innominate artery stenosis and total occlusion of subclavian artery in Takayasu's-type arteritis.

    PubMed

    Staller, B J; Maleki, M

    1989-02-01

    Previous reports describe high success rates achieved by dilating subclavian artery stenoses. Attempts at angioplasty for total occlusions have been uniformly unsuccessful. No previous case successfully recanalizing total subclavian artery occlusion was found after an extensive literature search. Modified guidewire technique facilitated safe crossing of the occlusion.

  6. Popliteal artery occlusion in a young baseball athlete.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mindy Ming-Huey; Chuech, Leonard Shun-Jen; Yang, Cheng-Hsu; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Guo, Gary Bih-Fang

    2007-02-01

    Popliteal artery occlusion is a rare vascular complication in athletes and has not been previously documented in baseball players. A 21-year-old male baseball player presented with a 10-month history of progressive claudication because of repeated trauma-induced popliteal artery occlusion from frequently practicing stealing bases by sliding down onto his right leg. He was found to have a transient deficiency in both protein C and protein S. The patient underwent percutaneous transluminal recanalization angioplasty followed by anticoagulation therapy, with good results. This case illustrates the importance of awareness of this potential complication in baseball athletes, work-up for a hypercoagulable state and the feasibility of angioplasty therapy in the management of ischemic limbs after trauma.

  7. Deaths from occlusive arterial disease in renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Ibels, L S; Stewart, J H; Mahony, J F; Sheil, A G

    1974-08-31

    In a series of 325 recipients of cadaveric renal transplants sudden occlusive arterial disease was found to be responsible for 12% of deaths. Acute myocardial infarction (9%) occurred 25 times more than expected in the normal population and cerebral thrombosis (3%) 300 times more. The greatest loss was in the initial three-month period after transplantation. Patients with renal failure due to essential hypertension were especially at risk, accounting for six of the 12 deaths.

  8. Idiopathic Isolated Cilioretinal Artery Occlusion Treated with Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Aktaş, Serdar; Uyar, Osman Murat; Özer, Erol; Aktaş, Hatice; Eltutar, Kadir

    2016-01-01

    Cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO) is a rare event which has been reported in association with various systemic diseases. We report a case of idiopathic isolated CLRAO treated successfully with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. A 26-year-old man presented with sudden, painless vision loss and an inferior hemivisual field defect in the left eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed an occluded cilioretinal artery. After 2 weeks of HBO therapy, visual acuity improved from 20/200 to 20/20. The visual field defect improved. PMID:28058169

  9. Total occlusion of left main coronary artery without angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Kimbiris, D; Iskandrian, A S; Bemis, C E; Segal, B L

    1983-05-01

    A patient had total occlusion of the left main coronary artery that was proved by coronary arteriography. The patient was initially seen with clinical signs of congestive heart failure but without symptoms of angina pectoris or ECG evidence of myocardial infarction. The patient's extensive right-to-left coronary artery collaterals may have contributed to the absence of chest pain. Because of the severe left ventricular dysfunction and the absence of chest pain, the patient was treated with medical therapy. Six months after the cardiac catheterization, he was alive and well under New York Heart Association functional classification II.

  10. Pituitary apoplexy causing internal carotid artery occlusion--case report.

    PubMed

    Chokyu, Isao; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Goto, Takeo; Chokyu, Kimihiko; Chokyu, Masahiro; Ohata, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with pituitary apoplexy resulting in internal carotid artery occlusion manifesting as sudden onset of severe headache, right ptosis, and left hemiparesis, associated with visual impairment. Computed tomography showed a nodular mass, located in the sellar and suprasellar regions with early signs of acute cerebral ischemia. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging indicated that the mass compressed the bilateral cavernous sinuses, resulting in obliteration of the cavernous portion of the right internal carotid artery. Right middle cerebral artery territory infarction was also found. Conservative therapy with steroids was given in the acute stage and repeated MR imaging showed recanalization of the internal carotid artery with reduction of the tumor size. The tumor was removed through the transsphenoidal approach to obtain a definitive diagnosis in the chronic stage. The histological diagnosis was consistent with non-functioning pituitary adenoma. Eye movement of this patient showed full recovery after the operation. Pituitary apoplexy resulting in internal carotid artery occlusion is rare. Surgical decompression through the transsphenoidal approach is appropriate, but the optimal timing should consider severe disturbance of visual acuity and visual field in the acute stage.

  11. Carotid artery occlusion by rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Faisal; Albloushi, Monirah; Alhindi, Hindi; Timms, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Mucormycosis is the third most common invasive fungal infection that particularly occurs in immunocompromised patients. Intracranial and extracranial arteriovenous vasculopathy is a complication that makes this disease more complex and difficult to treat. We describe a 23-year-old female, who presented to her local hospital with acute blindness and diabetic ketoacidosis-induced coma requiring intensive care treatment. She was found to have lesions in the nasal sinuses, orbit, and frontal base. The left carotid artery was occluded from its origin in the neck to the supraclinoid segment and left cavernous sinus involvement. No cerebral infarction was noted. Biopsies obtained by endonasal debridement confirmed mucormycosis. In addition to antimicrobial therapy, she underwent several multidisciplinary approaches to treat her disease. Multiple endonasal, and cranial procedures were done including bilateral orbital exenteration. After prolonged treatment on the intensive care unit she made a remarkable recovery to the point where she was communicating verbally and had normal limb movements and later discharged home. She remained alive and well for two months, but later succumbed to a recurrence of her disease. In conclusion, mucormycosis-induced vasculopathy is a complex problem, which merits aggressive treatment of this invasive disease. It is normally regarded as an indicator of grave prognosis.

  12. Balloon Occlusion of the Contralateral Iliac Artery to Assist Recanalization of the Ipsilateral Iliac Artery in Total Aortoiliac Occlusion: A Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Jaffan, Abdel Aziz A.

    2013-01-01

    Endovascular recanalization of chronic total aortoiliac occlusion is technically challenging. Inability to reenter the true aortic lumen, following retrograde iliac recanalization, is one of the most common causes of failure. We describe a case of a total aortoiliac occlusion where balloon occlusion of the right common iliac artery, following its recanalization from a brachial approach, was used to facilitate antegrade recanalization of the occluded contralateral left common iliac artery. PMID:23762730

  13. Subintimal Angioplasty for Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease: A Systematic Review

    SciTech Connect

    Met, Rosemarie Lienden, Krijn P. Van; Koelemay, Mark J. W.; Bipat, Shandra; Legemate, Dink A.; Reekers, Jim A.

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study was to summarize outcomes of subintimal angioplasty (SA) for peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase databases were searched to perform a systematic review of the literature from 1966 through May 2007 on outcomes of SA for peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the infrainguinal vessels. The keywords 'percutaneous intentional extraluminal revascularization,' 'subintimal angioplasty,' 'peripheral arterial disease,' 'femoral artery,' 'popliteal artery,' and 'tibial artery' were used. Assessment of study quality was done using a form based on a checklist of the Dutch Cochrane Centre. The recorded outcomes were technical and clinical success, primary (assisted) patency, limb salvage, complications, and survival, in relation to the clinical grade of disease (intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia [CLI] or mixed) and location of lesion (femoropopliteal, crural, or mixed). Twenty-three cohort studies including a total of 1549 patients (range, 27 to 148) were included in this review. Methodological and reporting quality were moderate, e.g., there was selection bias and reporting was not done according to the reporting standards. These and significant clinical heterogeneity obstructed a meta-analysis. Reports about length of the lesion and TASC classification were too various to summarize or were not mentioned at all. The technical success rates varied between 80% and 90%, with lower rates for crural lesions compared with femoral lesions. Complication rates ranged between 8% and 17% and most complications were minor. After 1 year, clinical success was between 50% and 70%, primary patency was around 50% and limb salvage varied from 80% to 90%. In conclusion, taking into account the methodological shortcomings of the included studies, SA can play an important role in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease, especially in the case of critical limb ischemia. Despite the moderate patency

  14. Are inflammatory parameters predictors of amputation in acute arterial occlusions?

    PubMed

    Saskin, Huseyin; Ozcan, Kazim S; Duzyol, Cagri; Baris, Ozgur; Koçoğulları, Uğur C

    2017-04-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of inflammatory markers to predict amputation following embolectomy in acute arterial occlusion. Methods A total of 123 patients operated for arterial thromboembolectomy due to acute embolism were included in the study. The patients without an extremity amputation following thromboembolectomy were classified as Group 1 ( n = 91) and the rest were classified as Group 2 ( n = 32). These groups were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics, C-reactive protein, complete blood count parameters, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-lymphocyte ratio and red cell distribution width. Results The average age was 68.0 ± 11.7 years. The most common thromboembolism localization was femoral artery. When preoperative mean C-reactive protein ( p = 0.0001), mean platelet volume ( p = 0.0001), platelet-lymphocyte ratio ( p = 0.0001), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio ( p = 0.0001) and red cell distribution width ( p = 0.0001) were compared, a statistically significant difference was observed between groups. In univariate and multivariate regression analysis, higher levels of preoperative C-reactive protein ( p = 0.009) and mean platelet volume ( p = 0.04) were detected as independent risk factors of early extremity amputation. Conclusion We observed that preoperative mean platelet volume and C-reactive protein were predictors of amputation after thromboembolectomy in acute arterial occlusion.

  15. [Reconstruction of foot arteries after injury in arterial occlusive disease].

    PubMed

    Flis, V; Tomazic, T

    1993-06-01

    At the Maribor Teaching Hospital two elderly with progressive atherosclerotic disease below the knee were treated between 1986-1992 for open fracture of ankle joint and pedal arterial trauma. The only patent atherosclerotic vessel (dorsal artery of the foot) that was disrupted was reconstructed in both cases by interposition of a part of the great and small saphenous vein in one case each. A termino-terminal anastomosis with a long, triangular patch was used, fixed with interrupted sutures. The fractures were stabilized with external fixators. Both extremities were saved.

  16. Bilateral simultaneous central retinal artery occlusion following head injury.

    PubMed

    Narang, Subina; Kochhar, Suman; Gupta, Sonika; Gupta, Hemlata; Bansal, Rakesh; Sood, Sunandan

    2007-12-01

    To report a case of bilateral simultaneous central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) following head injury in a young 29-year-old man. A 29-year-old man presented with head injury following road traffic accident. Posterior segment evaluation revealed CRAO in both eyes. The patient was treated for CRAO in the form of immediate ocular massage, paracentesis, intravenous mannitol and transdermal isosorbide dinitrate patch. Despite treatment the vision continued to be no perception of light. Systemic investigations were unremarkable. Color Doppler of carotid arteries showed plaque in left carotid bulb and thrombus in right internal carotid artery. Bilateral simultaneous CRAO following head trauma has not been reported earlier. Thorough ocular examination is recommended in all cases of head injury.

  17. Branch retinal artery occlusion caused by toxoplasmosis in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Debra A; Shapiro, Michael J; Mets, Marilyn B

    2012-09-01

    Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), while not uncommon in elderly patient populations, is rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of a BRAO secondary to toxoplasmosis in this demographic. A previously healthy 17-year-old male developed a unilateral BRAO in conjunction with inflammation and increased intraocular pressure. Family history was positive for cerebrovascular accidents in multiple family members at relatively young ages. The patient had a hypercoagulable workup as well as a cardiovascular workup which were both normal. A rheumatologic workup was unremarkable. By 3 weeks, a patch of retinitis was more easily distinguished from the BRAO and the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made. Treatment was started with prednisone and azithromycin with subsequent improvement in vision. Toxoplasma antibody levels were elevated for IgG and negative for IgM, IgA, and IgE. The etiology of the BRAO was attributed to ocular toxoplasmosis. Vascular occlusions are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the third case report of a BRAO in a patient in the pediatric population. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in young patients with retinal artery occlusions associated with inflammation.

  18. Acute arterial occlusion in the midpiece of femoral artery following total knee arthroplasty: Report of one case.

    PubMed

    He, Rui; Yang, Liu

    2016-04-01

    Acute arterial occlusion is a rare complication following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The incidence as reported previously is from 0.03% to 0.17%; however, the sequelae can be disastrous because of its potential threat to limb loss.We report a case of acute arterial occlusion in the midpiece of femoral artery following TKA occurred 40 min postoperatively. The occlusion site existed at the midpiece of femoral artery is uncommon. Arterial circulation of the lower limb could not be restored by the thrombolysis and thrombectomy treatments performed within 11 h after TKA. In the end, amputation had to be carried out. In the treatment of acute arterial occlusion following TKA with a tourniquet, it is important to fully consider that arteriosclerosis may induce atheromatous plaque disruption, which might be the reason for acute arterial occlusion.

  19. Percutaneous Endovascular Treatment of Chronic Iliac Artery Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, F. C. De Blas, Mariano; Merino, Santiago; Egana, Jose M.; Caldas, Jose G.M.P.

    2004-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and radiological long-term results of recanalization of chronic occluded iliac arteries with balloon angioplasty and stent placement.Methods: Sixty-nine occluded iliac arteries (mean length 8.1 cm; range 4-16 cm) in 67 patients were treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement. Evaluations included clinical assesment according to Fontaine stages, Doppler examinations with ankle-brachial index (ABI) and bilateral lower extremity arteriograms. Wallstent and Cragg vascular stents were inserted for iliac artery recanalization under local anesthesia. Follow-up lasted 1-83 months (mean 29.5 months).Results: Technical success rate was 97.1% (67 of 69). The mean ABI increased from 0.46 to 0.85 within 30 days after treatment and was 0.83 at the most recent follow-up. Mean hospitalization time was 2 days and major complications included arterial thrombosis (3%), arterial rupture (3%) and distal embolization (1%). During follow-up 6% stenosis and 9% thrombosis of the stents were observed. Clinical improvement occurred in 92% of patients. Primary and secondary patency rates were 75% and 95%, respectively.Conclusion: The long-term patency rates and clinical benefits suggest that percutaneous endovascular revascularization with metallic stents is a safe and effective treatment for patients with chronic iliac artery occlusion.

  20. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies. PMID:27574609

  1. [Occlusion of maxillary artery in treatment of trigeminal neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Novak, Vesna; Bosnjaković, Petar; Ristić, Sasa; Kostić, Aleksandar; Jelenković, Boban; Novak, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a treating method of trigeminal neuralgia classified so far as idiopathic neuralgias and treated conservatively. The study was aimed at proving the compression of peripheral branches of N. trigeminus in those patients by vascular elements of A. maxillaris within the bone-ligament space of the scull and the face base. The study sample consisted of 76 patients having trigeminal neuralgia. The compression was proved by clinical examination, by angiography and electrophysiological investigations. Endovascular occlusion of A. maxillaris is the original method and it was carried out in selected patients. This method was applied in 76 patients. Embolisation was done in 71 patients by using occlusion spiral and gelfoan was used in 3 patients. Externa carotid artery ligation was done in 2 cases. The effect of absolute improvement has been achieved and verified by electrophysiological method and subjective assessment of the patients.

  2. Endovascular treatment strategies for supra-aortic arterial occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Peeters, P; Verbist, J; Deloose, K; Bosiers, M

    2005-06-01

    Because of the focal nature of stenoses or occlusions in the supra-aortic vasculature, the high blood-pressures in this area and the very low morbidity rates related to percutaneous therapy have largely replaced surgical revascularization as the initial treatment of choice for patients with supra-aortic arterial occlusive disease. The initial technical success and durability of percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) and stenting in these lesions is excellent. Nevertheless several factors can make PTA and stenting a complex procedure that requires advanced endovascular skills for a successful outcome. Profound knowledge of surgical reconstruction techniques or extra-anatomic bypasses remains mandatory, as it is occasionally required for failure of endovascular techniques or if contraindications exist.

  3. Emergency Stenting of Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery after Acute Catheter-Induced Occlusive Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Akgul, Ferit; Batyraliev, Talantbek; Besnili, Fikret; Karben, Zarema

    2006-01-01

    Left main coronary artery dissection occurs very rarely during selective coronary angiography, but it generally progresses to complete coronary occlusion. The traditional treatment of occlusive dissection of the unprotected left main coronary artery has been surgical. Percutaneous treatment has been sporadic and controversial. We report a case of iatrogenic occlusive dissection of the unprotected left main coronary artery during diagnostic coronary angiography, followed by successful stenting of the lesion. PMID:17215985

  4. [Cilioretinal artery occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion complicating hyperhomocysteinemia: a case report].

    PubMed

    Berkani, Z; Kitouni, Y; Belhadj, A; Sifi, K; Abbadi, N; Bellatrache, C; Hartani, D; Kherroubi, R

    2013-09-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is known to be a risk factor in both retinal artery and retinal vein occlusions. We report the case of a young patient with combined occlusion of the cilioretinal artery and the central retinal vein due to hyperhomocysteinemia. A 23-year-old patient without significant medical history, presented for sudden, painless visual loss in the right eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed best-corrected visual acuity of the right eye 8/10 P2, and 10/10 P2 on the left. Anterior segment exam was normal in both eyes, while the right fundus revealed white, ischemic edema, centered around a cilioretinal artery, sparing the fovea, with some hemorrhagic spots and disc edema. Fluorescein angiography confirmed delayed filling of the right cilioretinal artery and revealed a normal disc on the left. Two weeks later, the clinical picture had evolved into a right ischemic CRVO, confirmed by a second angiogram, with a decrease in visual acuity to 3/10. A work-up was performed, including: a full lipid profile, serum electrolytes, ESR, CRP, a complete blood count (leukocytes, platelets, hemoglobin were normal), a coagulation work-up (PT, PTT, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, factor V Leiden were normal), ANCA, antiphospholipid antibodies and antinuclear antibodies were negative, and finally cardiology studies (cardiac echo, carotid Doppler) and neurology (brain MRI) were ordered and came back normal. Otherwise, plasma homocysteine was moderately high on two samples, at 18.3 μmol/L and 17.78 μmol/L. Thyroid and renal work-ups were ordered. Urgent PRP was performed, and vitamin therapy (vitB12, vitB6, folic acid) was instituted. The subsequent course was remarkable for recovery of visual acuity to 10/10, P2 with persistence of an inferior altitudinal central scotoma. MTHFR C677T polymorphism was negative. Retinal vascular occlusions (RVO) are serious events, which require investigation for underlying systemic disease, which can be life-threatening. The clinical

  5. Preliminary Experience with Vascular Plugs for Parent Artery Occlusion of the Carotid or Vertebral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woosung; Shin, Yong Sam; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae; Hong, Chang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to report the authors' preliminary experience using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) (St. Jude Medical, Plymouth, MN, USA) for parent artery occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) or vertebral artery (VA). Materials and Methods Between September 2008 and December 2015, we performed 52 therapeutic parent artery occlusions (PAOs) by an endovascular technique. Among them, 10 patients underwent PAO of the carotid or vertebral arteries using AVPs. Clinical and radiographic data of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Results The devices were used for VA dissection that presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in five patients, traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in two patients, spontaneous AVF in one patient, recurrence of carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in one patient, and symptomatic unruptured giant ICA aneurysm in one patient. The devices were used in conjunction with detachable and/or pushable coils and in the extracranial segments of the ICA or VA. Complete occlusion of the parent artery was achieved in all patients. There was one intra-procedural rupture of the VA dissection during coiling prior to using the device. Conclusion Results from the current series suggest that the AVP might be used for therapeutic PAO in the extracranial segments of the ICA or VA. PMID:27847763

  6. Acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery following covered stent occlusion in the superior mesenteric artery: endovascular therapy using mechanical rotational thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Jan P; Petritsch, Bernhard; Spor, Leo; Hahn, Dietbert; Kickuth, Ralph

    2012-09-01

    Acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery is a rare and often fatal condition in which surgery represents the golden standard in therapy. We present a case in which a patient was treated with covered stent implantation for acute bleeding from the superior mesenteric artery following pancreatic resection, radiation, and embolization of a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm. Some weeks later clinical signs were suggestive of acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery and digital subtraction angiography showed occlusion of the previously implanted covered stents. The patient was successfully treated transfemorally with percutaneous mechanical instent thrombectomy using a 6F Rotarex® catheter. We conclude that in selected cases percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy may represent a minimally-invasive alternative to open surgical thrombectomy for treatment of acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery.

  7. Plasmacytic Aortitis with Occlusion of the Right Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Zambetti, Benjamin R.; Garrett, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 55 Final Diagnosis: Plasmacytic aortitis Symptoms: Dizziness • nausea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Inflammation of the aortic wall, known as aortitis, is a rare clinical entity which is frequently asymptomatic, or identified when the patient presents with an aortic aneurysm or dissection. It is most often caused by infection or autoimmune vasculitides such as giant cell or Takayasu’s arteritis. Case Report: The case presented is that of a 55-year-old man with symptomatic occlusion of the right coronary artery caused by a plasmacytic aortitis suggestive of IgG4 disease, which was successfully treated with coronary artery bypass grafting and an ascending aortic graft. Conclusions: A review of the current literature emphasizes how poorly the etiology and natural history of plasmacytic aortitis is understood. PMID:27471062

  8. Endovascular Therapeutic Approaches for Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, S. Sonesson, B.; Resch, T.

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the outcome of attempted endovascular intervention in patients with acute embolic or thrombotic superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion. The records of 21 patients during a 3-year period between 2005 and 2008 were retrieved from the in-hospital registry. The first group included 10 patients (6 women and 4 men; median age 78 years) with acute embolic occlusion of the SMA. The median duration of symptoms from symptom onset to angiography was 30 hours (range 6 to 120). Synchronous emboli (n = 12) occurred in 6 patients. Embolus aspiration was performed in 9 patients, and 7 of these had satisfactory results. Complementary local thrombolysis was successful in 2 of 3 patients. Residual emboli were present at completion angiography in all 7 patients who underwent successful aspiration embolectomy, and bowel resection was necessary in only 1 of these patients. One serious complication occurred because of a long SMA dissection. The in-hospital survival rate was 90% (9 of 10 patients). The second group included 11 patients (10 women and 1 man; median age 68 years) with atherosclerotic acute SMA occlusions. The median time of symptom duration before intervention was 97 hours (range 17 to 384). The brachial, femoral, and SMA routes were used in 6, 7, and 5 patients, respectively. SMA stenting was performed through an antegrade (n = 7) or retrograde (n = 3) approach. Bowel resection was necessary in 4 patients. No major complications occurred. The in-hospital survival rate was 82% (9 of 11 patients). Endovascular therapy of acute SMA occlusion provides a good alternative to open surgery.

  9. Retinal artery occlusion due to Bartonella henselae infection: a case series.

    PubMed

    Eiger-Moscovich, Maya; Amer, Radgonde; Oray, Merih; Tabbara, Khalid F; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur; Kramer, Michal

    2016-08-01

    To report a case series of six patients suffering from branch retinal artery occlusion due to Bartonella henselae infection, in order to raise awareness to this etiology in the differential diagnosis of retinal artery occlusion. A retrospective case series of patients with branch retinal artery occlusion due to ocular cat scratch disease who presented at four tertiary medical centers in Israel, Turkey and Saudi Arabia between the years 2008-2014. Data retrieved from the medical records included demographic data, exposure, complaints, visual acuity, clinical findings and imaging, laboratory assessment, treatment, disease course and visual outcome. The study group consisted of six patients who presented with branch retinal artery occlusion with or without neuroretinitis. One patient had multiple artery occlusions. Diagnosis of cat scratch disease was established based on positive serology and accompanying systemic symptoms, after ruling out other causes of retinal artery occlusion. Treatment included various regimens of antibiotics and systemic steroids. Visual outcome depended upon the obstructed artery. Cat scratch disease may cause retinal artery occlusion in infected patients, leaving them with a permanent visual field defect. When retinal artery occlusion occurs as an early sign of the disease, prompt recognition may prevent further events. Thorough history and relevant tests may be of great value. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A vertebral artery dissection with basilar artery occlusion in a child.

    PubMed

    Devue, Katleen; Van Ingelgem, Annemie; De Keukeleire, Katrien; De Leeuw, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the case report of an 11-year-old boy with an acute dissection with thrombosis of the left vertebral artery and thrombosis of the basilar artery. The patient was treated with acute systemic thrombolysis, followed by intra-arterial thrombolysis, without any clinical improvement, showing left hemiplegia, bilateral clonus, hyperreflexia, and impaired consciousness. MRI indicated persistent thrombosis of the arteria basilaris with edema and ischemia of the right brainstem. Heparinization for 72 hours, followed by a two-week LMWH treatment and subsequent oral warfarin therapy, resulted in a lasting improvement of the symptoms. Vertebral artery dissection after minor trauma is rare in children. While acute basilar artery occlusion as a complication is even more infrequent, it is potentially fatal, which means that prompt diagnosis and treatment are imperative. The lack of class I recommendation guidelines for children regarding treatment of vertebral artery dissection and basilar artery occlusion means that initial and follow-up management both require a multidisciplinary approach to coordinate emergency, critical care, interventional radiology, and child neurology services.

  11. A Vertebral Artery Dissection with Basilar Artery Occlusion in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Devue, Katleen; Van Ingelgem, Annemie; De Keukeleire, Katrien; De Leeuw, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the case report of an 11-year-old boy with an acute dissection with thrombosis of the left vertebral artery and thrombosis of the basilar artery. The patient was treated with acute systemic thrombolysis, followed by intra-arterial thrombolysis, without any clinical improvement, showing left hemiplegia, bilateral clonus, hyperreflexia, and impaired consciousness. MRI indicated persistent thrombosis of the arteria basilaris with edema and ischemia of the right brainstem. Heparinization for 72 hours, followed by a two-week LMWH treatment and subsequent oral warfarin therapy, resulted in a lasting improvement of the symptoms. Vertebral artery dissection after minor trauma is rare in children. While acute basilar artery occlusion as a complication is even more infrequent, it is potentially fatal, which means that prompt diagnosis and treatment are imperative. The lack of class I recommendation guidelines for children regarding treatment of vertebral artery dissection and basilar artery occlusion means that initial and follow-up management both require a multidisciplinary approach to coordinate emergency, critical care, interventional radiology, and child neurology services. PMID:25587466

  12. Giant vertebral artery aneurysm in a child treated with endovascular parent artery occlusion and coil embolization.

    PubMed

    Park, Hun-Soo; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Wada, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Hironaka, Yasuo; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial giant vertebral artery aneurysms are extremely rare in the pediatric population and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The present report describes a case of a pediatric patient with giant vertebral artery aneurysm who presented with intracranial mass effect. This patient was successfully treated with endovascular parent artery occlusion and coil embolization. A 7-year-old girl presented with tetraparesis, ataxia, dysphagia, and dysphonia. Cerebral angiography revealed intracranial giant aneurysm arising from the right vertebral artery. The patient underwent endovascular parent artery occlusion alone to facilitate aneurysmal thrombosis as an initial treatment. This was done to avoid a coil mass effect to the brainstem. However, incomplete thrombosis occurred in the vicinity of the vertebral artery union. Therefore, additional coil embolization for residual aneurysm was performed. Two additional coil embolization procedures were performed in response to recurrence. Mass effect and clinical symptoms gradually improved, and the patient had no associated morbidity or recurrence at 2 years after the last fourth coil embolization. Intracranial giant vertebral artery aneurysms are rare and challenging in pediatric patients. Staged endovascular strategy can be a safe and effective treatment option.

  13. Treatment Strategies for Acute Ischemic Stroke Caused by Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Yin, Qin; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute ischemic stroke caused by internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion usually has a poor prognosis, especially the T occlusion cases without functional collaterals. The efficacy of intravenous (IV) or intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) remains ambiguous in these patients. Eendovascular recanalization of the occluded carotid has been attempted in recent years as a potential strategy. However, the different etiologies of ICA occlusion pose a significant challenge to neurointerventionists. Recently, several endovascular evolvements have been reported in treating carotid occlusion-related stroke. This review summarizes the current status of treatment for acute ICA occlusion. PMID:27781043

  14. Bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion associated with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anand, Pria; Mann, Sharan K; Fischbein, Nancy J; Lansberg, Maarten G

    2014-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman presented with a right-hemispheric stroke 1 year after she had suffered a left-hemispheric stroke. Her diagnostic workup was notable for bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries at their origins and a positive lupus anticoagulant antibody test. There was no evidence of carotid dissection or another identifiable cause for her carotid occlusions. These findings suggest that the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome may be implicated in the pathological changes that resulted in occlusions of the extracranial internal carotid arteries. Young stroke patients who present with unexplained internal carotid artery occlusions may benefit from testing for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies.

  15. Bilateral Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion Associated with the Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pria; Mann, Sharan K.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Lansberg, Maarten G.

    2014-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman presented with a right-hemispheric stroke 1 year after she had suffered a left-hemispheric stroke. Her diagnostic workup was notable for bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries at their origins and a positive lupus anticoagulant antibody test. There was no evidence of carotid dissection or another identifiable cause for her carotid occlusions. These findings suggest that the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome may be implicated in the pathological changes that resulted in occlusions of the extracranial internal carotid arteries. Young stroke patients who present with unexplained internal carotid artery occlusions may benefit from testing for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. PMID:24707268

  16. Design and validation of a prehospital stroke scale to predict large arterial occlusion: the rapid arterial occlusion evaluation scale.

    PubMed

    Pérez de la Ossa, Natalia; Carrera, David; Gorchs, Montse; Querol, Marisol; Millán, Mònica; Gomis, Meritxell; Dorado, Laura; López-Cancio, Elena; Hernández-Pérez, María; Chicharro, Vicente; Escalada, Xavier; Jiménez, Xavier; Dávalos, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to develop and validate a simple prehospital stroke scale to predict the presence of large vessel occlusion (LVO) in patients with acute stroke. The Rapid Arterial oCclusion Evaluation (RACE) scale was designed based on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) items with a higher predictive value of LVO on a retrospective cohort of 654 patients with acute ischemic stroke: facial palsy (scored 0-2), arm motor function (0-2), leg motor function (0-2), gaze (0-1), and aphasia or agnosia (0-2). Thereafter, the RACE scale was validated prospectively in the field by trained medical emergency technicians in 357 consecutive patients transferred by Emergency Medical Services to our Comprehensive Stroke Center. Neurologists evaluated stroke severity at admission and LVO was diagnosed by transcranial duplex, computed tomography, or MR angiography. Receiver operating curve, sensitivity, specificity, and global accuracy of the RACE scale were analyzed to evaluate its predictive value for LVO. In the prospective cohort, the RACE scale showed a strong correlation with NIHSS (r=0.76; P<0.001). LVO was detected in 76 of 357 patients (21%). Receiver operating curves showed a similar capacity to predict LVO of the RACE scale compared with the NIHSS (area under the curve 0.82 and 0.85, respectively). A RACE scale≥5 had sensitivity 0.85, specificity 0.68, positive predictive value 0.42, and negative predictive value 0.94 for detecting LVO. The RACE scale is a simple tool that can accurately assess stroke severity and identify patients with acute stroke with large artery occlusion at prehospital setting by medical emergency technicians.

  17. Hemodynamic role of ophthalmic artery collateral in internal carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Tatemichi, T K; Chamorro, A; Petty, G W; Khandji, A; Oropeza, L A; Duterte, D I; Mohr, J P

    1990-03-01

    We performed duplex and transcranial Doppler studies in 36 patients with angiographically documented internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) to determine the effect of ophthalmic artery collateral (OAC) on measures of vascular resistivity both proximal and distal to the occlusion. Resistance in the common carotid artery, measured by the resistivity index, was significantly lower in the group with OAC than in those without OAC, indicating a shunt to the low resistance intracranial circuit. The pulsatility index (PI) of the Doppler signal in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery, a measure of both inflow pressure and distal vascular resistance, did not differ between those with and without OAC. However, the presence of circle of Willis collateral pathways (anterior communicating and/or posterior communicating artery) did appear to have a significant effect on pulsatility. When both were present angiographically, PI was higher than in the group with only 1 Willisian collateral. These findings suggest that OAC has a marginal effect on vascular resistance in arterial bed distal to an ICAO, while Willisian collaterals appear to have a more important role in cerebral perfusion, as measured indirectly by Doppler methods.

  18. Aphthoid ulcerations in ileocolic candidiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Gedgaudas-McClees, R.K.

    1983-11-01

    A case of well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma complicated by Candida tropicalis ileocolic infection is reported. Candida tropicalis is a saprophytic organism, less abundant in man than the more commonly known Candida albicans. These organisms may be the source of infection in debilitated or immune-deficient patients. A 55-year-old man presented to Emory Hospital 7 months before admission with weight loss. At that time the diagnosis of well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma was made by bone-marrow biopsy.

  19. Selective thrombolysis performed through meningo-ophthalmic artery in central retinal artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Moscovici, Samuel; Halpert, Michael; Itshayek, Eyal

    2012-03-01

    The poor natural history of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is usually not modified with conventional, conservative management techniques. Guidelines for selective intraarterial ophthalmic thrombolysis are still lacking. While many centers continue to perform this procedure with promising results, others are reluctant due to conflicting findings in recent studies. We present our experience in a 36-year-old male with CRAO. Based on the patient's clinical presentation, we planned to perform selective intraarterial ophthalmic thrombolysis via the ophthalmic artery. When angiography demonstrated that the retina was not supplied by the ophthalmic artery, but by a meningo-ophthalmic artery branching from the internal maxillary artery, we instead administered thrombolytic agents via the meningo-ophthalmic artery. The patient's vision recovered completely, with visual acuity and visual field examination at 30 day follow up comparable to his pre-treatment status. This case emphasizes the need for external carotid artery examination in cases of nonvisualization of the ophthalmic artery. In addition, it illustrates the successful use of the meningo-ophthalmic artery to perform selective intraarterial thrombolysis for CRAO. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Review: Proteomics in Retinal Artery Occlusion, Retinal Vein Occlusion, Diabetic Retinopathy and Acquired Macular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cehofski, Lasse Jørgensen; Honoré, Bent; Vorum, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Retinal artery occlusion (RAO), retinal vein occlusion (RVO), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are frequent ocular diseases with potentially sight-threatening outcomes. In the present review we discuss major findings of proteomic studies of RAO, RVO, DR and AMD, including an overview of ocular proteome changes associated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatments. Despite the severe outcomes of RAO, the proteome of the disease remains largely unstudied. There is also limited knowledge about the proteome of RVO, but proteomic studies suggest that RVO is associated with remodeling of the extracellular matrix and adhesion processes. Proteomic studies of DR have resulted in the identification of potential therapeutic targets such as carbonic anhydrase-I. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the most intensively studied stage of DR. Proteomic studies have established VEGF, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and complement components as key factors associated with AMD. The aim of this review is to highlight the major milestones in proteomics in RAO, RVO, DR and AMD. Through large-scale protein analyses, proteomics is bringing new important insights into these complex pathological conditions. PMID:28452939

  1. Central retinal artery occlusion and infective endocarditis: rigor does matter.

    PubMed

    Piqueras Flores, J; Esquinas Blanco, G; Pinilla Rivas, M; Montero, M A; Marina Breysse, M; López Lluva, M T

    2015-11-01

    A patient with acute amaurosis due central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), who had mitral regurgitation and Streptococcus viridans positive blood cultures. Using transesophageal ultrasound, the patient was diagnosed with native valve infective endocarditis without fever, and with loss of vision as the only symptom. CRAO due to infective endocarditis is rare and there are few cases reported in the literature. Semiology and a systematic and comprehensive study of patients with this ophthalmological pathology helps uncover serious underlying medical conditions. Infective endocarditis has many different forms of presentation and a high clinical suspicion is often required to reach a diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Internal carotid artery occlusion: association with atherosclerotic disease in other arterial beds and vascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Liapis, Christos D

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the association between internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) and the presence of atherosclerotic disease and vascular risk factors. The clinical characteristics and risk factors of 120 patients presenting with ICAO were retrospectively reviewed. All patients (n = 120) had at least 1 of the 4 vascular risk factor (diabetes, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension); 2, 3, or all 4 risk factors were present in 14 to 82 of the patients (11.7% to 68.3%), 10 to 39 of the patients (8.3% to 32.5%), and 9 of the patients (7.5%), respectively. A total of 84 patients (70%) with ICAO had disease in at least 1 additional vascular bed (aorta, coronary or lower limb arteries). In addition to ICAO, vascular disease was present in 2 and all 3 of these arterial beds in 42 (35%) and 9 (7.5%) patients, respectively. Furthermore, stenosis or occlusion of the ipsilateral or contralateral vertebral arteries was recorded in 19 of 120 patients (15.8%). Regarding the contralateral carotid artery, 1 patient had bilateral ICAO. One patient had contralateral common carotid artery occlusion, and 1 patient was excluded from the analysis because of surgery to the contralateral carotid artery. Of the remaining 117 patients, 34 (29.0%) had less than 50% contralateral carotid artery stenosis. Thirty-two patients (27.4%) had 50% to 69%, and 51 (43.6%) had 70% to 99% stenosis. Ultrasonographic imaging of the carotid plaque of the contralateral carotid artery revealed that 52 of the 120 arteries (43.3%) were uniformly or predominantly echolucent (types I and II, respectively). Fifty-nine (49.2%) were predominantly or uniformly echogenic (types III and IV), and 9 (7.5%) could not be classified. A similar distribution of echomorphology was observed on the occluded side. ICAO is associated with widespread atherosclerotic disease and a high prevalence of vascular risk factors. Detection of ICAO should prompt the investigation of other arterial beds and

  3. Waveform patterns and peak reversed velocity in vertebral arteries predict severe subclavian artery stenosis and occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun-Ping; Hu, Yuan-Ping

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the value of analyzing spectral Doppler waveform patterns and measuring the peak reversed velocity (PRV) of the vertebral artery (VA) in predicting proximal severe subclavian artery (SA) stenosis and occlusion. Fifty-one patients with proximal SA stenosis were studied retrospectively. Based on the depth of the mid-systolic notch, the Doppler waveforms of the ipsilateral VA were divided into five subtypes (type I, n = 8; type II, n = 8; type III, n = 6; type IV, n = 13; and type V, n = 16). PRV was also measured. PRV receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to obtain the best cutoff value for predicting severe SA stenosis or complete SA occlusion. The results indicated that both VA Doppler waveform and PRV were associated with the degree of SA stenosis (p < 0.05). PRV and the Doppler waveform in the VA had similar accuracy in predicting SA occlusion (84.3%, 43/51). PRV was more accurate than VA waveforms in predicting severe SA stenosis (98%, 50/51 vs. 94.1%, 48/51). However, no significant differences between the two methods in predicting severe SA stenosis were observed (p = 0.84). Thus, with severe obstruction of the SA, typical Doppler waveform patterns of the VA could be observed. PRV is a helpful criterion in predicting severe stenosis and occlusion of the SA.

  4. Dual-Energy CT Angiography in Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, Carolin Jochum, Susanne; Sadick, Maliha; Huck, Kurt; Ziegler, Peter; Fink, Christian; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Diehl, Steffen J.

    2009-07-15

    We sought to study the accuracy of dual-energy computed tomographic angiography (DE-CTA) for the assessment of symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremity by using the dual-energy bone removal technique compared with a commercially available conventional bone removal tool. Twenty patients underwent selective digital subtraction angiography and DE-CTA of the pelvis and lower extremities. CTA data were postprocessed with two different applications: conventional bone removal and dual-energy bone removal. All data were reconstructed and evaluated as 3D maximum-intensity projections. Time requirements for reconstruction were documented. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and concordance of DE-CTA regarding degree of stenosis and vessel wall calcification were calculated. A total of 359 vascular segments were analyzed. Compared with digital subtraction angiography, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively, of CTA was 97.2%, 94.1%, and 94.7% by the dual-energy bone removal technique. The conventional bone removal tool delivered a sensitivity of 77.1%, a specificity of 70.7%, and an accuracy of 72.0%. Best results for both postprocessing methods were achieved in the vascular segments of the upper leg. In severely calcified segments, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy stayed above 90% by the dual-energy bone removal technique, whereas the conventional bone removal technique showed a substantial decrease of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. DE-CTA is a feasible and accurate diagnostic method in the assessment of symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Results obtained by DE-CTA are superior to the conventional bone removal technique and less dependent on vessel wall calcifications.

  5. Parent artery occlusion for ruptured “true” posterior communicating artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Nobuaki; Oishi, Hidenori; Arai, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    A case of a patient with a ruptured true posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm is reported, who had been managed by early endovascular parent artery occlusion with coils. The small blister aneurysm was located at the proximal PCoA itself and directed superiorly. Postoperative course was uneventful. During 1-month follow-up, the patient recovered well and could care for herself. Aneurysms of the PCoA itself are very rare. As reported to date, surgical procedures would favor microsurgical clipping over endovascular coil embolization. Endovascular treatment may be a good alternative to surgical trapping for true PCoA blister aneurysm. PMID:25953771

  6. rt-PA Thrombolysis in Acute Thromboembolic Upper-Extremity Arterial Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Cejna, Manfred; Salomonowitz, Erich; Wohlschlager, Helmut; Zwrtek, Karin; Boeck, Rudolf; Zwrtek, Ronald

    2001-07-15

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis of the results of rt-PA thrombolysis in the treatment of acute thromboembolic occlusion of the upper limb.Methods: Of 55 patients with demonstrated acute embolic arterial occlusion, rt-PA thrombolysis was performed on 40 occlusions in 38 patients (23 women with a mean age of 62 years, range 32-85 years; 15 men with a mean age of 65 years, range 32-92 years) according to the following design: 6 mg rt-PA/hr for 30 min, 3 mg rt-PA/hr for the next 30 min, 1 mg rt-PA/hr for 7 hr, and 0.4 mg rt-PA/hr until the end of lysis. Onset of symptoms varied from 1 to 14 days. Included were three isolated upper-arm occlusions, nine combined brachial and forearm occlusions, and 28 forearm and hand artery occlusions.Results: The overall success rate was 55%. The lysis results for isolated upper arm, combined brachial and forearm occlusions, and forearm and hand artery occlusions were 100%, 66%, and 46%, respectively. In eight patients surgical embolectomy had to be performed after failed thrombolysis. No amputation was required in the follow-up period. No lethal complications occurred.Conclusions: Interventional rt-PA treatment of proximal upper-extremity arterial occlusions may be performed with comparable success rates to surgical embolectomy and without severe complications. For distal occlusions the results are inferior to the success rates obtained with surgery.

  7. Transcatheter Splenic Artery Occlusion for Treatment of Splenic Artery Steal Syndrome After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Uflacker, Renan; Selby, J. Bayne; Chavin, Kenneth; Rogers, Jeffrey; Baliga, Prabhakar

    2002-08-15

    Purpose: To review some aspects of the problem of splenic artery steal syndrome as cause of ischemia in transplanted livers and treatment by selective splenic artery occlusion. Materials and Methods: Eleven liver transplant patients from a group of 350 patients, nine men and two women,ranging in age from 40 years to 61 years (mean 52 years), presented with biochemical evidences of liver ischemia and failure, ranging from one to 60 days following orthotopic liver transplantation. Diagnosis of splenic artery steal syndrome was suspected by elevated enzymes, Doppler ultrasound and confirmed by celiac angiogram. Patients with confirmed hepatic artery thrombosis before angiography were excluded from the study. Embolization with Gianturco coils was performed. Results: All patients were treated by splenic artery embolization with Gianturco coils. The 11 patients improved clinically within 24 hours of the procedure with significant change in the biochemical and clinical parameters. Followup ranged from one month to two years. One of the 11 patient initially improved, but developed hepatic artery thrombosis within 24 hours of the embolic treatment,requiring surgical repair. Conclusion: Splenicartery steal syndrome following liver transplantation surgery can be diagnosed by celiac angiography, and effectively treated by splenic artery embolization with coils. Embolization is one of the treatments available, it is minimally invasive, and leads to immediate clinical improvement. Hepatic artery thrombosis is a possible complication of the procedure.

  8. Management of patients with symptomatic carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kappelle, L Jaap; Klijn, Catharina J M; Tulleken, Cornelis A F

    2002-01-01

    The annual risk of stroke in patients with symptomatic carotid artery occlusion (CAO) and impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) is approximately 10%. Increased oxygen extraction fraction measured by positron emission tomography (PET) and low cerebrovascular reactivity assessed by transcranial Doppler is associated with an increased risk of recurrent ischemic stroke in these patients. Recently, other risk factors have been identified: (1) symptoms of purported hemodynamic origin; (2) ongoing symptoms in the presence of documented symptomatic CAO; (3) leptomeningeal collaterals visible on angiography; and (4) low NAA/choline ratio on magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy. Evidence is growing that a second extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass trial might be worthwhile in patients with symptomatic CAO. Probably, only patients with ongoing symptoms and compromised CBF should be included in such a trial. Current evidence based therapeutic options for patients with symptomatic CAO include antithrombotic medication and control of vascular risk factors. For stenosis of the contralateral internal or ipsilateral external carotid artery endarterectomy may be considered. Ongoing symptoms may cease after tapering of antihypertensive medication.

  9. Percutaneous Treatment in Iliac Artery Occlusion: Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto; Fabiano, Sebastiano; Chiocchi, Marcello; Chiappa, Roberto Simonetti, Giovanni

    2008-11-15

    We evaluated the long-term results of recanalization with primary stenting for patients with long and complex iliac artery occlusions. This was a retrospective nonrandomised study. Between 1995 and 1999, 138 patients underwent recanalization of an occluded iliac artery with subsequent stenting. Patency results were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The mean length of follow-up was 108 months. Variables affecting primary stent patency such as patient age; stent type and diameter; lesion site, shape, and length; Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology classification; total runoff score; Fontaine classification; and cardiovascular risk factors were analysed using Breslow test. These variables were then evaluated for their relation to stent patency using Cox proportional hazards test. Technical success was 99%. Primary patency rates were 90% (SE .024), 85% (SE .029), 80% (SE .034), and 68% (SE .052) at 3, 5, 7, and 10 years, respectively. Lesion site (p = 0.022) and stent diameter (p = 0.028) were shown to have a statistically significant influence on primary stent patency. Long-term results of iliac recanalization and stent placement were excellent, without major complications, even in highly complex vascular obstructions. A primary endovascular approach appears to be justified in the majority of patients as a less invasive alternative treatment to surgery. In any case, a first-line interventional approach should be considered in elderly patients or in patients with severe comorbidities.

  10. A novel method to determine perineal artery occlusion among male bicyclists

    PubMed Central

    Hotaling, James M.; Kathrins, Martin; Baftiri, Amit P.; Freels, Sally; Niederberger, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Perineal pressure due to bicycle riding has been associated with erectile dysfunction. We developed a novel method to measure the occlusive force exerted over the perineal arteries and determined perineal artery occlusion by a variety of seat designs. Methods. Doppler ultrasonography facilitated perineal artery localization and determination of the force required for perineal artery occlusion in 20 healthy men. Flexiforce® sensors were affixed over the proximal and distal aspects of the perineal arteries bilaterally. Individuals completed bicycle rides in the road- and stationary-settings with six distinct seat designs, including those with and without an anterior “nose.” Results. The occlusion time proportion of the total ride time was calculated for each trial. The overall occlusion time proportion was 0.59 (95% CI [0.45–0.73]) across all seats and settings. The “no-nose” bicycle seat and the stationary-setting demonstrated significantly lower occlusion proportion times than the traditional nose bicycle seat and road-setting, respectively. However, all bicycle seats yielded an occlusion time proportion of 0.41 or greater. Discussion. Our method of real-time, non-invasive force measurement localized to the perineal arteries may be used to validate future bicycle seat design. It also underscores the significant risk of perineal artery insufficiency in men who are avid bicyclists. This risk may be minimized by using newer “no-nose” bicycle seats. PMID:26713236

  11. A novel method to determine perineal artery occlusion among male bicyclists.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, Sujeeth; Hotaling, James M; Kathrins, Martin; Baftiri, Amit P; Freels, Sally; Niederberger, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    Background. Perineal pressure due to bicycle riding has been associated with erectile dysfunction. We developed a novel method to measure the occlusive force exerted over the perineal arteries and determined perineal artery occlusion by a variety of seat designs. Methods. Doppler ultrasonography facilitated perineal artery localization and determination of the force required for perineal artery occlusion in 20 healthy men. Flexiforce(®) sensors were affixed over the proximal and distal aspects of the perineal arteries bilaterally. Individuals completed bicycle rides in the road- and stationary-settings with six distinct seat designs, including those with and without an anterior "nose." Results. The occlusion time proportion of the total ride time was calculated for each trial. The overall occlusion time proportion was 0.59 (95% CI [0.45-0.73]) across all seats and settings. The "no-nose" bicycle seat and the stationary-setting demonstrated significantly lower occlusion proportion times than the traditional nose bicycle seat and road-setting, respectively. However, all bicycle seats yielded an occlusion time proportion of 0.41 or greater. Discussion. Our method of real-time, non-invasive force measurement localized to the perineal arteries may be used to validate future bicycle seat design. It also underscores the significant risk of perineal artery insufficiency in men who are avid bicyclists. This risk may be minimized by using newer "no-nose" bicycle seats.

  12. Evaluation of Ophthalmic Artery Branch Retrograde Intervention in the Treatment of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Runsheng; Qian, Lu; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Du, Shanshuang; Lei, Tao; Lv, Peilin; Long, Tan; Wang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Background Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the occlusion of the central retinal artery resulting in retinal infarction and acute vision loss. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)–guided superselective ophthalmic artery or selective carotid thrombolysis remains the preferred treatment method for CRAO. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of the novel ophthalmic artery branch retrograde thrombolytic intervention for CRAO. Material/Methods Fifty patients with monocular CRAO were enrolled, including 28 males and 22 females (mean age: 55.7±2.3 years). The patients were randomly divided into two groups for thrombolysis with urokinase (400,000 U) and papaverine (30 mg) by either ophthalmic artery branch retrograde intervention (group A, n=26) or superselective ophthalmic artery/selective carotid intervention (group B, n=24). There was no significant difference in age (P=0.58), gender ratio (P=0.49), and time to onset (P=1.00) between the two groups. The adverse reactions and clinical efficacy were evaluated by postoperative DSA, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and visual acuity tests. Results No serious complications, abnormal eye movement, or vitreous hemorrhage occurred in either group. DSA showed that group A had an effective rate (92.30%) comparable to that of group B (100%, χ2=2.08, P=0.25). FFA suggested that both groups had similar treatment efficacy (χ2=3.09, P=0.21). Visual acuity tests also confirmed a similar efficacy of the two intervention approaches (χ2=0.25, P=0.88). Conclusions The developed novel ophthalmic artery branch retrograde intervention is highly effective and safe for CRAO, and may be a superior method compared with the conventional approach. PMID:28064304

  13. Comprehensive analysis of myocardial infarction due to left circumflex artery occlusion: comparison with infarction due to right coronary artery and left anterior descending artery occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Huey, B.L.; Beller, G.A.; Kaiser, D.L.; Gibson, R.S.

    1988-11-01

    Forty consecutive patients with creatine kinase-MB confirmed myocardial infarction due to circumflex artery occlusion (Group 1) were prospectively evaluated and compared with 107 patients with infarction due to right coronary artery occlusion (Group 2) and 94 with left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group 3). All 241 patients underwent exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography, 24 h Holter electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring and coronary arteriography before hospital discharge and were followed up for 39 +/- 18 months. There were no significant differences among the three infarct groups in age, gender, number of risk factors, prevalence and type of prior infarction, Norris index, Killip class and frequency of in-hospital complications. Acute ST segment elevation was present in only 48% of patients in Group 1 versus 71 and 72% in Groups 2 and 3, respectively (p = 0.012), and 38% of patients with a circumflex artery-related infarct had no significant ST changes (that is, elevation or depression) on admission (versus 21 and 20% for patients in Groups 2 and 3, respectively) (p = 0.001). Abnormal R waves in lead V1 were more common in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p less than 0.003) as was ST elevation in leads I, aVL and V4 to V6 (p less than or equal to 0.048). These differences in ECG findings between Group 1 and 2 patients correlated with a significantly higher prevalence of posterior and lateral wall asynergy in the group with a circumflex artery-related infarct. Infarct size based on peak creatine kinase levels and multiple radionuclide variables was intermediate in Group 1 compared with that in Group 2 (smallest) and Group 3 (largest). During long-term follow-up, the probability of recurrent cardiac events was similar in the three infarct groups.

  14. Right Coronary Artery Fistula and Occlusion Causing Myocardial Infarction after Blunt Chest Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Il; Lee, Won Yong; Ko, Ho Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Soo; Lee, Hee Sung

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) secondary to coronary artery fistula and the subsequent occlusion of the distal right coronary artery (RCA) after blunt chest trauma is a rare entity. Here, we describe a case of coronary artery fistula and occlusion with an inferior MI that occurred following blunt chest trauma. At the initial visit to the emergency room after a car accident, this patient had been undiagnosed with acute myocardial infarction, readmitted five months after ischemic insult, and revealed to have experienced MI due to RCA-right atrial fistula and occlusion of the distal RCA. He underwent coronary surgery and recovered without complications. PMID:25207252

  15. An automated coronary artery occlusion device for stimulating collateral development in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rys, Richard; LaDisa, John F; Tessmer, John P; Gu, Weidong; Kersten, Judy R; Warltier, David C; Pagel, Paul S

    2002-01-01

    Repetitive, brief coronary artery occlusions produce collateral development in experimental animals. This model causes coronary collateralization in a highly reproducible fashion, but the process is very labor intensive. We report the design and use of a fully automated hydraulic coronary occlusion device capable of producing repetitive coronary occlusions and enhancement of coronary collateral development in dogs. The device consists of analog electronics that allow adjustment of occlusion number, frequency, pressure and duration, and mechanical components responsible for the coronary occlusion. The motor and piston of the device are coupled to a chronically implanted hydraulic vascular occluder placed around the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) of dogs instrumented for measurement of systemic and coronary hemodynamics. One group of dogs (n = 6) underwent brief (2 min) LAD occlusions once per hour, eight times per day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks to stimulate collateral development (measured using radioactive microspheres). Another group of dogs (n = 6) that did not receive repetitive occlusions served as controls. The device reproducibly produced repetitive LAD occlusions for the duration, frequency, and time interval initially programmed. A time-dependent increase in transmural collateral blood flow was observed in dogs undergoing repetitive occlusions using the device. Collateral blood flow was unchanged in dogs that did not undergo occlusions. The automated occluder device reliably produces repetitive coronary occlusions and may facilitate further study of coronary collateral development in response to chronic myocardial ischemia.

  16. A Large Posttraumatic Subclavian Artery Aneurysm Complicated by Artery Occlusion and Arteriobronchial Fistula Successfully Treated Using a Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Czeczotka, Jaroslaw; Elgalal, Marcin; Sapieha, Michal; Rowinski, Olgierd

    2011-02-15

    The treatment of posttraumatic aneurysms of peripheral arteries using covered stents is increasingly commonplace. We present the case of a 10-year-old girl with a pseudoaneurysm of the subclavian artery complicated by an arteriobronchial fistula with hemorrhaging into the bronchial tree and distal subclavian artery occlusion. Despite the lack of artery patency, endovascular stent graft implantation was successful. Pseudoaneurysm exclusion and involution was achieved, together with a patent implant and maintained collateral circulation patency.

  17. No evidence that severity of stroke in internal carotid occlusion is related to collateral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Mead, G E; Wardlaw, J M; Lewis, S C; Dennis, M S

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aim The neurological effects of internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion vary between patients. The authors investigated whether the severity of symptoms in a large group of patients with ipsilateral or/and contralateral ICA occlusion at presentation with ocular or cerebral ischaemic symptoms could be explained by patency of other extra or intracranial arteries to act as collateral pathways. Methods The authors prospectively identified all patients (n = 2881) with stroke, cerebral transient ischaemic attack (TIA), retinal artery occlusion (RAO), and amaurosis fugax (AFx) presenting to our hospital over five years, obtained detailed history and examination, and examined the intra and extracranial arteries with carotid and colour‐power transcranial Doppler ultrasound. For this analysis, all those with intracranial haemorrhage on brain imaging and cerebral events without brain imaging were excluded. Results Among 2228/2397 patients with brain imaging (1713 ischaemic strokes, 401 cerebral TIAs, 193 AFx, and 90 RAO) who underwent carotid Doppler, 195 (9%) had ICA occlusion. Among those patients with cortical events, disease in potential collateral arteries (contralateral ICA, external carotid, ipsilateral or contralateral vertebral or intracranial arteries) was equally distributed among patients with severe and mild ischaemic presenting symptoms. Conclusion The authors found no evidence that the clinical presentation associated with an ICA occlusion was related to patency of other extra or intracranial arteries to act as collateral pathways. Further work is required to investigate what determines the clinical effects of ICA occlusion. PMID:16488923

  18. Cryptic Recanalization of Chronic Vertebral Artery Occlusion by Head Rotation.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Kenji; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Mure, Hideo; Okita, Shinya; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2017-04-01

    Chronic vertebral artery occlusion (VAO) can be associated with ischemic stroke, as thrombi formed under blood flow stagnation around the stump of the VAO may migrate into the brain. We report a new mechanism of chronic VAO-associated ischemic stroke and a patient with cryptic recanalization of chronic VAO by head rotation. A 74-year-old man presented with chronic right VAO and repeated ischemic embolic stroke in the posterior circulation despite antiplatelet therapy. He also manifested vertigo with 30° leftward head rotation, indicative of rotational vertebrobasilar insufficiency due to mechanical compression of the patent left vertebral artery (VA) at the C4-C5 level. Surgical decompression of the vessel via the anterior approach resulted in the disappearance of his rotational vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Adequate decompression of the VA on the left side was confirmed on postoperative computed tomography angiography scans obtained with his head rotated more to the left than on preoperative scans. Unexpected partial recanalization of his right chronic VAO was observed at the C5-C6 level. VAO was due to VA compression by osteophytes at neutral head position; it was released by head rotation. We suspected that his repeated brain infarcts were attributable to head rotation-related opening and closing of the VA lumen and these decompressed the left VA by removing the implicated osteophyte via the anterior approach. Cryptic recanalization of chronic VAO by head rotation contributed to repeated infarcts in the posterior circulation and was resolved by surgical decompression. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Periorbital Region Complicated by Combined Central Retinal Artery Occlusion, Central Retinal Vein Occlusion, and Posterior Ciliary Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Harris; Malik, Amina; Li, Helen K; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia; Lee, Andrew G

    A 50 year-old man on immunosuppressive agents presented with left eye vision loss, periorbital swelling, pain, and ophthalmoplegia. The patient was clinically found to have a central retinal artery and vein occlusion. A CT scan was performed which demonstrated intraorbital fat stranding, however the patient lacked sinus disease. The etiology of the orbital infection was held in question. The area was debrided in the operating room, and the specimen demonstrated group A streptococcal species consistent with necrotizing fasciitis. Periorbital necrotizing fasciitis should be suspected in patients with rapidly progressive orbital symptoms without sinus disease as lack of surgical intervention can result in poor outcomes. The unusual aspect to this case is the mechanism of vision loss, as the authors hypothesize that there was vascular infiltration of the infection resulting in the central retinal artery occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion which have not been previously reported secondary to necrotizing fasciitis of the orbit.

  20. Bilateral renal artery occlusion in a patient with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: thrombosis, vasculitis or both?

    PubMed

    Ames, P R; Cianciaruso, B; Bellizzi, V; Balletta, M; Lubrano, E; Scarpa, R; Brancaccio, V

    1992-11-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with oliguria and hypertension. Renal arteriography showed bilateral renal artery occlusion. Circulating antiphospholipid antibodies were found together with a change in natural anticoagulant plasma levels. Immunofluorescence of examined vessels showed immune complex vasculitis. We discuss the pathogenetic mechanism leading to the development of this rare occlusive event.

  1. Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion with Moyamoya-Like Vessels and Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Rodrigo; Sordo, Juan; Badilla, Lautaro; Bravo, Eduardo; Riveros, Rodrigo; Giacaman, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe two cases of aneurysmal rupture in moyamoya-like vessels in middle cerebral artery occlusion. This phenomenon was previously described in severe steno-occlusive disease and accounts for the hemorrhagic presentation. To our knowledge, these are the second and third clinical cases published in modern neuroradiological literature. PMID:24556306

  2. Preservation of retinal structure and function after cilioretinal artery occlusion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Craig J

    2016-01-01

    Cilioretinal artery occlusion is a cause of sudden, often catastrophic loss of central vision. There are no established effective treatments. Recently, a patient presented 24 hours after a cilioretinal artery occlusion, following a cardiac catheterization prior to which her blood thinners had been discontinued. Lacking an effective way to address the severe retinal ischemic oxidative stress, she was offered, under compassionate use, a multivitamin complex designed to address retinal ischemia and oxidative stress. Significant components of this product are L-methylfolate and n-acetyl cysteine. The patient experienced a rapid unexpected improvement in vision and preservation of retinal structure, suggesting that marked improvement in retinal artery occlusions outcomes may be possible as late as 24 hours postocclusion. This is the third reported case of cilioretinal artery occlusion associated with cardiac catheterization. PMID:26929671

  3. Iatrogenic occlusion of the ophthalmic artery after cosmetic facial filler injections: a national survey by the Korean Retina Society.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu Hyung; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Woo, Se Joon; Kang, Se Woong; Lee, Won Ki; Choi, Kyung Seek; Kwak, Hyung Woo; Yoon, Ill Han; Huh, Kuhl; Kim, Jong Woo

    2014-06-01

    Iatrogenic occlusion of the ophthalmic artery and its branches is a rare but devastating complication of cosmetic facial filler injections. To investigate clinical and angiographic features of iatrogenic occlusion of the ophthalmic artery and its branches caused by cosmetic facial filler injections. Data from 44 patients with occlusion of the ophthalmic artery and its branches after cosmetic facial filler injections were obtained retrospectively from a national survey completed by members of the Korean Retina Society from 27 retinal centers. Clinical features were compared between patients grouped by angiographic findings and injected filler material. Visual prognosis and its relationship to angiographic findings and injected filler material. Ophthalmic artery occlusion was classified into 6 types according to angiographic findings. Twenty-eight patients had diffuse retinal and choroidal artery occlusions (ophthalmic artery occlusion, generalized posterior ciliary artery occlusion, and central retinal artery occlusion). Sixteen patients had localized occlusions (localized posterior ciliary artery occlusion, branch retinal artery occlusion, and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy). Patients with diffuse occlusions showed worse initial and final visual acuity and less visual gain compared with those having localized occlusions. Patients receiving autologous fat injections (n = 22) had diffuse ophthalmic artery occlusions, worse visual prognosis, and a higher incidence of combined brain infarction compared with patients having hyaluronic acid injections (n = 13). Clinical features of iatrogenic occlusion of the ophthalmic artery and its branches following cosmetic facial filler injections were diverse according to the location and extent of obstruction and the injected filler material. Autologous fat injections were associated with a worse visual prognosis and a higher incidence of combined cerebral infarction. Extreme caution and care should be taken during

  4. Basilar artery occlusion: Prognostic signs of severity on computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Canel, Lucie; Sztajzel, Roman; Becker, Minerva; Perneger, Thomas; Platon, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    To determine the computed tomography (CT) signs that are predictive of the clinical outcome of basilar artery occlusion (BAO). The study population consisted in 37 patients (14 women, 23 men, mean age: 63 years), admitted with onset of neurological deficit, starting 1-72 h prior to admission, who were diagnosed with BAO on the basis of a CT examination with intravenous contrast agent. The following signs were collected on CT scans performed on admission: clot density on noncontrast images, clot length, and clot location, as well as the presence of acute ischemic lesions. The results were compared against the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of patients at 3 months, favorable clinical outcome being defined as a mRS score ≤3. The clinical outcome was favorable in 13 (35%) of the 37 patients and unfavorable in 24 (65%). Signs of acute ischemia were visible in 13 of the 24 patients with unfavorable outcome but in none of the 13 patients with favorable outcome (p<0.001). None of the other CT signs analyzed were significantly correlated with clinical prognosis. Of all the CT signs analyzed, only the presence of signs of acute ischemia on the admission CT of patients with BAO was associated with poor prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Principles of conservative treatment of occlusive arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Coffman, J D

    1983-01-01

    Conservative medical treatment is indicated for patients who have stable symptoms of intermittent claudication without rest symptoms or signs, rapidly progressive disease, or disability interfering with gainful employment (see Fig. 1). Valuable general measures include meticulous care of the limbs, avoidance of trauma and infections, and maintenance of normal body weight. Cessation of tobacco smoking is extremely important, and a regimented exercise program is therapeutically beneficial (see Table 1). The high risk factors of diabetes mellitus and hypertension should be controlled. Hyperlipoproteinemia should be treated if present, but it is currently not known if treatment of elevated cholesterol or triglyceride levels prevents progression of or reverses the disease process. If a recent arterial occlusion is suspected, fibrinolytic therapy can be expected to benefit approximately one third of the patients. Anticoagulants and vasodilator drugs have not been shown to be of value. In patients with rest symptoms or signs, who are not candidates for surgical revascularization of the limb, bed rest with dependency of the limb in a warm environment, good foot care, and analgesics are most important. Ulcers should be treated with wet dressings to preserve granulation tissue, and parenteral antibiotics are used if infection is present. When rest symptoms or trophic lesions have disappeared or improved, the patient may be gradually ambulated but should continue to sleep with the head of the bed elevated and should maintain meticulous foot care.

  6. Clinical Scales Do Not Reliably Identify Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients With Large-Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Turc, Guillaume; Maïer, Benjamin; Naggara, Olivier; Seners, Pierre; Isabel, Clothilde; Tisserand, Marie; Raynouard, Igor; Edjlali, Myriam; Calvet, David; Baron, Jean-Claude; Mas, Jean-Louis; Oppenheim, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    It remains debated whether clinical scores can help identify acute ischemic stroke patients with large-artery occlusion and hence improve triage in the era of thrombectomy. We aimed to determine the accuracy of published clinical scores to predict large-artery occlusion. We assessed the performance of 13 clinical scores to predict large-artery occlusion in consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing clinical examination and magnetic resonance or computed tomographic angiography ≤6 hours of symptom onset. When no cutoff was published, we used the cutoff maximizing the sum of sensitivity and specificity in our cohort. We also determined, for each score, the cutoff associated with a false-negative rate ≤10%. Of 1004 patients (median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score, 7; range, 0-40), 328 (32.7%) had an occlusion of the internal carotid artery, M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery, or basilar artery. The highest accuracy (79%; 95% confidence interval, 77-82) was observed for National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score ≥11 and Rapid Arterial Occlusion Evaluation Scale score ≥5. However, these cutoffs were associated with false-negative rates >25%. Cutoffs associated with an false-negative rate ≤10% were 5, 1, and 0 for National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, Rapid Arterial Occlusion Evaluation Scale, and Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Severity Scale, respectively. Using published cutoffs for triage would result in a loss of opportunity for ≥20% of patients with large-artery occlusion who would be inappropriately sent to a center lacking neurointerventional facilities. Conversely, using cutoffs reducing the false-negative rate to 10% would result in sending almost every patient to a comprehensive stroke center. Our findings, therefore, suggest that intracranial arterial imaging should be performed in all patients with acute ischemic stroke presenting within 6 hours of symptom onset. © 2016 American Heart Association

  7. Occlusion of the left main coronary artery and collateral circulation via the conus branch.

    PubMed

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; Nunez-Gil, Ivan Javier; del Carmen Manzano, Maria; Vivas, David; Mateos, Borja Ruiz; Carda, Rocio; Vilacosta, Isidre; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Macaya, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old-man, a smoker, admitted for unstable angina. Subsequent investigation revealed complete proximal occlusion of the left main coronary with an unusual collateral circulation. The left coronary artery was filled by a large conus branch originating from the right sinus of Valsalva. This case shows the importance of looking for atypical collateral circulation in patients with chronic occlusion of the left main coronary artery and normal left ventricular function.

  8. Cerebral ischemia symptoms in carotid artery occlusion: role of hemodynamic factors.

    PubMed

    Norrving, B; Nilsson, B; Cronquist, S

    1981-01-01

    The acute outcome in 59 patients with carotid artery occlusion was studied and related to the angiographic pattern of collateral flow. No patient with TIA only had retrograde ophthalmic artery flow, although such a pattern was found in 50 percent of patients with stroke. In a follow-up study (mean 48 months), the same distribution of the collateral pattern was found on ultrasonic Doppler examination. The absence of substantial retrograde ophthalmic flow was associated with an increased contralateral carotid flow. The findings show that the efficiency of the collateral pathways, mainly the contralateral carotid artery and the circle of Willis, largely determines the outcome of carotid artery occlusion.

  9. Nettleship collaterals: circumpapillary cilioretinal anastomoses after occlusion of the central retinal artery.

    PubMed

    Ragge, N K; Hoyt, W F

    1992-03-01

    In extremely rare cases, after occlusion of the central retinal artery, a complete ring of peripapillary anastomotic channels develops. One such case is described and a proposed term given to these channels--'Nettleship collaterals'--after the man who first described them. These collaterals are dilated pathways within the terminal capillary networks of the posterior ciliary arteries and the branches of the central retinal artery. Formation of the channels is believed to be promoted by prelaminar obstruction of the central retinal artery.

  10. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Kyu; Jung, Cheolkyu; Woo, Se Joon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2015-12-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed cerebral angiography of 7 patients (4 hyaluronic acid [HA] and 3 autologous fat-injected cases) showing ophthalmic artery and its branches occlusion after cosmetic facial filler injections, and underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis. On selective ophthalmic artery angiograms, all fat-injected patients showed a large filling defect on the proximal ophthalmic artery, whereas the HA-injected patients showed occlusion of the distal branches of the ophthalmic artery. Three HA-injected patients revealed diminished distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries, which clinically corresponded with skin necrosis. However, all fat-injected patients and one HA-injected patient who were immediately treated with subcutaneous hyaluronidase injection showed preserved distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries and mild skin problems. The size difference between injected materials seems to be associated with different angiographic findings. Autologous fat is more prone to obstruct proximal part of ophthalmic artery, whereas HA obstructs distal branches. In addition, hydrophilic and volume-expansion property of HA might exacerbate blood flow on injected area, which is also related to skin necrosis. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has a limited role in reconstituting blood flow or regaining vision in cosmetic facial filler-associated ophthalmic artery occlusions.

  11. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed cerebral angiography of 7 patients (4 hyaluronic acid [HA] and 3 autologous fat-injected cases) showing ophthalmic artery and its branches occlusion after cosmetic facial filler injections, and underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis. On selective ophthalmic artery angiograms, all fat-injected patients showed a large filling defect on the proximal ophthalmic artery, whereas the HA-injected patients showed occlusion of the distal branches of the ophthalmic artery. Three HA-injected patients revealed diminished distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries, which clinically corresponded with skin necrosis. However, all fat-injected patients and one HA-injected patient who were immediately treated with subcutaneous hyaluronidase injection showed preserved distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries and mild skin problems. The size difference between injected materials seems to be associated with different angiographic findings. Autologous fat is more prone to obstruct proximal part of ophthalmic artery, whereas HA obstructs distal branches. In addition, hydrophilic and volume-expansion property of HA might exacerbate blood flow on injected area, which is also related to skin necrosis. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has a limited role in reconstituting blood flow or regaining vision in cosmetic facial filler-associated ophthalmic artery occlusions. PMID:26713062

  12. Acute basilar artery occlusion in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study: does gender matter?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Marcel; Fischer, Urs; Compter, Annette; Gralla, Jan; Findling, Oliver; Mattle, Heinrich P; Kappelle, L Jaap; Tanne, David; Algra, Ale; Schonewille, Wouter J

    2010-11-01

    Randomized trials suggested a different benefit of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) between men and women with anterior circulation stroke because of a worse outcome of women in the control group. We compared outcome and recanalization in men and women with basilar artery occlusion treated with antithrombotic treatment alone, IVT or combined IVT-IAT, or IAT in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study. Overall, 389 male and 226 female patients were analyzed. In the antithrombotic treatment group, 68 of 111 (61%) men and 47 of 70 (67%) women had a poor outcome defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 4 to 6 (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.24), in the IVT/combined IVT-IAT group, 47 of 77 (61%) men and 24 of 43 (56%) women (aRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.60), and in the IAT group, 142 of 185 (77%) men and 71 of 102 (70%) women (aRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.17). Mortality was not different between men and women in the antithrombotic treatment group (aRR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.55 to 1.16), the IVT/combined IVT-IAT group (aRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.73), or in the IAT group (aRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.36). Insufficient recanalization after combined IVT-IAT or IAT was similar in men and women (23% versus 22%; aRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.46). In patients with acute basilar artery occlusion, no significant gender differences for outcome and recanalization were observed, regardless of treatment modality.

  13. Carotid Artery Stenting in a Patient with Spontaneous Recanalization of a Proximal Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jun Seok; Choi, Woo Suk

    2006-01-01

    We report here on a rare case of carotid artery angioplasty and stenting in a patient with spontaneous recanalization after complete occlusion of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). The patient initially showed severe stenosis at the left proximal ICA on MR angiography (MRA). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) performed three days after MRA showed complete occlusion of the proximal ICA. The follow-up DSA after four weeks showed recanalization of the ICA, and then carotid artery stenting was successfully performed. There has been no neurologic complication during more than one year follow-up. PMID:17143034

  14. Traumatically induced vertebral artery occlusion associated with cervical spine injuries: prospective study using magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Taneichi, Hiroshi; Suda, Kota; Kajino, Tomomichi; Kaneda, Kiyoshi

    2005-09-01

    A prospective study using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) on a consecutive cohort of patients with cervical spine injuries. To investigate clinical and radiographic features of vertebral artery injury/occlusion associated with nonpenetrating cervical spine trauma. With the popularization of MRA, vertebral artery injury has been a common complication of cervical spine trauma. However, detailed clinical features such as restoration of blood flow in occluded vessels and collateral circulation have not been fully evaluated. During a 2-year period, 64 consecutive patients with cervical spine fractures and/or dislocations were prospectively evaluated for patency of the vertebral artery and collateral circulation. Extracranial and intracranial MRAs were conducted at initial injury and follow-up. Vertebral artery occlusion occurred in 11 patients, including 10 with unilateral and 1 with bilateral. Only the patient with bilateral occlusion was symptomatic but had no permanent neurologic deficit as a result of brain ischemia. He had complete circle of Willis, which provides sufficient collateral blood supply from anterior circulation. Follow-up MRAs revealed restoration of blood flow in occluded vessel(s) in 3 patients. All of them had compressive injuries. The incidence of traumatically induced vertebral artery occlusion was 17.2%. The potential for blood flow restoration was higher in compressive injuries than in distractive injuries. The mechanism of occlusion in compressive injuries is likely to be vasospasm or minor artery dissection, which may cause reversible occlusion because vessels are subjected to relatively minor stretching in compressive injuries. Vertebral artery occlusion was rarely symptomatic because of sufficient collateral blood supply through not only contralateral vertebral artery but also the circle of Willis.

  15. Management of acute central retinal artery occlusion: Intravenous thrombolysis is feasible and safe.

    PubMed

    Préterre, Cécile; Godeneche, Gaelle; Vandamme, Xavier; Ronzière, Thomas; Lamy, Matthias; Breuilly, Christophe; Urbanczyk, Cédric; Wolff, Valérie; Lebranchu, Pierre; Sevin-Allouet, Mathieu; Guillon, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Background Although acute central retinal artery occlusion is as a stroke in the carotid territory (retinal artery), its management remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of intravenous thrombolysis delivered within 6 h of central retinal artery occlusion in French stroke units. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients treated with intravenous alteplase (recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator), based on stroke units thrombolysis registers from June 2005 to June 2015, and we selected those who had acute central retinal artery occlusion. The feasibility was assessed by the ratio of patients that had received intravenous alteplase within 6 h after central retinal artery occlusion onset among those who had been admitted to the same hospital for acute central retinal artery occlusion. All adverse events were documented. Results Thirty patients were included. Visual acuity before treatment was limited to "hand motion", or worse, in 90% of the cases. The mean onset-to-needle time was 273 min. The individuals treated with intravenous alteplase for central retinal artery occlusion represented 10.2% of all of the patients hospitalized for central retinal artery occlusion in 2013 and 2014. We observed one occurrence of major bleeding, a symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Conclusion When applied early on, intravenous thrombolysis appears to be feasible and safe, provided that contraindications are given due consideration. Whether intravenous thrombolysis is more effective than conservative therapy remains to be determined. In order to conduct a well-designed prospective randomized control trial, an organized network should be in place.

  16. Effects of CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody on rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, J. H.; Liu, K. F.; Bree, M. P.

    1996-01-01

    The progression of a lesion from ischemic injury to infarct, after the permanent occlusion of a middle cerebral artery, may be influenced by the influx of leukocytes into the ischemic territory. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of treating rats that had permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion with a single dose of an anti-CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody injected 1 hour after the arterial occlusion. To mimic the clinical situation of patients with ischemic strokes who may be treated within 1 hour of the ischemic event, the artery remained occluded. Forty-one adult Wistar rats had permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, and one was subjected to a sham operation. One hour later, 22 rats received CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody and an additional 20 were injected either with a nonspecific antibody (n = 10) or a buffer solution (n = 10). Experiments were terminated at intervals ranging 12 to 96 hours after the arterial occlusion. Endpoints included neurological testing, daily evaluation of body weight, counts of white blood cells in the peripheral blood, measurement of the area of pallor in the ischemic hemisphere, counts of necrotic neurons, and counts of leukocytes sequestered in the ischemic hemisphere. In experiments terminated 12 hours after the arterial occlusion (n = 4), there were fewer necrotic neurons in the group treated with the CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody compared with the two controls (P < .05), but this difference was not reflected in the neurological scores. Numbers of necrotic neurons in experiments terminated > 12 hours later were not different among the three subgroups. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood were lower in animals with arterial occlusion injected with the monoclonal antibody CD11b/18 (P < .05); numbers of leukocytes sequestered in the ischemic hemisphere were not different in the three groups. Neither changes in body weight nor in the volume of the area of pallor were significantly different among the three groups. Images

  17. Assessment of gene expression profiles in peripheral occlusive arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Bubenek, Serban; Nastase, Anca; Niculescu, Ana Maria; Baila, Sorin; Herlea, Vlad; Lazar, Vadimir; Paslaru, Liliana; Botezatu, Anca; Tomescu, Dana; Popescu, Irinel; Dima, Simona

    2012-01-01

    Molecular events responsible for the onset and progression of peripheral occlusive arterial disease (POAD) are incompletely understood. Gene expression profiling may point out relevant features of the disease. Tissue samples were collected as operatory waste from a total of 36 patients with (n = 18) and without (n = 18) POAD. The tissues were histologically evaluated, and the patients with POAD were classified according to Leriche-Fontaine (LF) classification: 11% with stage IIB, 22% with stage III, and 67% with stage IV. Total RNA was isolated from all samples and hybridized onto Agilent 4×44K Oligo microarray slides. The bioinformatic analysis identified genes differentially expressed between control and pathologic tissues. Ten genes with a fold change ≥ 2 (1 with a fold change ≥ 1.8) were selected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction validation (GPC3, CFD, GDF10, ITLN1, TSPAN8, MMP28, NNMT, SERPINA5, LUM, and FDXR). C-reactive protein (CRP) was assessed with a specific assay, while nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) was evaluated in the patient serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A multiple regression analysis showed that the level of CRP in the serum is correlated with the POAD LF stages (r(2) = 0.22, P = 0.046) and that serum NNMT is higher in IV LF POAD patients (P = 0.005). The mRNA gene expression of LUM is correlated with the LF stage (r(2) = 0.45, P = 0.009), and the mRNA level of ITLN1 is correlated with the ankle-brachial index (r(2) = 0.42, P = 0.008). Our analysis shows that NNMT, ITLN1, LUM, CFD, and TSPAN8 in combination with other known markers, such as CRP, could be evaluated as a panel of biomarkers of POAD. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Leptospirosis and Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease: A Nationwide Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chun-Hsiang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lee, Feng-You; Wang, Ying-Chuan; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-03-01

    Data on the association between peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) and leptospirosis are limited. We conducted a retrospective cohort study for determining whether leptospirosis is one of the possible risk factors for PAOD. Patients diagnosed with leptospirosis by using 2000 to 2010 data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with leptospirosis without a history of PAOD were selected. For each leptospirosis patient, 4 controls without a history of leptospirosis and PAOD were randomly selected and frequency-matched for sex, age, the year of the index date, and comorbidity diseases. The follow-up period was from the time of the initial diagnosis of leptospirosis to the diagnosis date of PAOD, or December 31, 2011. The Cox proportional hazard regression models were used for analyzing the risk of PAOD. During the follow-up period, the cumulative incidence of PAOD was higher among the patients from the leptospirosis cohort than among the nonleptospirosis cohort (log-rank test, P < 0.001). In total, 29 patients with PAOD from the leptospirosis cohort and 81 from the nonleptospirosis cohort were observed with the incidence rates of 2.1 and 1.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively, yielding a crude hazards ratio (HR) of 1.62 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44-1.81) and adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.75 (95% CI = 1.58-1.95).The risk of PAOD was 1.75-fold higher in the patients with leptospirosis than in the general population.

  19. Retinal Arterial Occlusive Disease in a Young Patient with Cat Scratch Disease

    PubMed Central

    Batsos, Georgios; Kabanarou, Stamatina A.; Fotiou, Pantelis; Rouvas, Alexandros; Xirou, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report an unusual case of a branch retinal arterial occlusion and bilateral multifocal retinitis in a young woman with cat scratch disease. Methods A 23-year-old woman was referred to our clinic complaining of a sudden scotoma in the upper part of the visual field of her left eye. Fundoscopy revealed occlusion of an inferior temporal branch of the retinal artery in the left eye and bilateral multifocal retinitis, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. Subsequent indocyanine angiography did not reveal choroidal involvement. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgG titers for Bartonella henselae. Results Cat scratch disease was diagnosed, and a 4-week course of doxycycline was initiated. The patient responded well to the antibiotics. Both retinitis and arterial occlusion were resolved, the visual field was regained and the patient reported elimination of her symptoms. Conclusions Cat scratch disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in young patients with retinal occlusive disease. PMID:24019792

  20. Retinal arterial occlusive disease in a young patient with cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Batsos, Georgios; Kabanarou, Stamatina A; Fotiou, Pantelis; Rouvas, Alexandros; Xirou, Tina

    2013-01-01

    To report an unusual case of a branch retinal arterial occlusion and bilateral multifocal retinitis in a young woman with cat scratch disease. A 23-year-old woman was referred to our clinic complaining of a sudden scotoma in the upper part of the visual field of her left eye. Fundoscopy revealed occlusion of an inferior temporal branch of the retinal artery in the left eye and bilateral multifocal retinitis, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. Subsequent indocyanine angiography did not reveal choroidal involvement. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgG titers for Bartonella henselae. Cat scratch disease was diagnosed, and a 4-week course of doxycycline was initiated. The patient responded well to the antibiotics. Both retinitis and arterial occlusion were resolved, the visual field was regained and the patient reported elimination of her symptoms. Cat scratch disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in young patients with retinal occlusive disease.

  1. Endovascular revascularization of symptomatic chronic middle cerebral artery occlusions: Two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yue; Lo, Wai-Ting; Liu, Yang-Xia

    2016-01-01

    For patients with chronic middle cerebral artery occlusions who have recurrent ischemic symptoms despite antiplatelet therapy and vascular risk factor control, treatment options are limited. Because of concerns about the safety of endovascular revascularization of these occlusions and the technical skills required, these procedures have not been widely performed. We report on two patients with successful endovascular revascularization of the chronic middle cerebral artery occlusion with impaired cerebral hemodynamics, with vessel patency maintained on follow-up imaging and no recurrence of stroke. A literature review of treatment options for such patients was performed. Revascularization is technically feasible and can be considered an option for carefully selected chronic middle cerebral artery occlusion patients with recurrent ischemic symptoms despite medical therapy. PMID:26647227

  2. The Basilar Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography Prognostic Score for Basilar Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Alemseged, Fana; Shah, Darshan G; Diomedi, Marina; Sallustio, Fabrizio; Bivard, Andrew; Sharma, Gagan; Mitchell, Peter J; Dowling, Richard J; Bush, Steven; Yan, Bernard; Caltagirone, Carlo; Floris, Roberto; Parsons, Mark W; Levi, Christopher R; Davis, Stephen M; Campbell, Bruce C V

    2017-03-01

    Basilar artery occlusion is associated with high risk of disability and mortality. This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of a new radiological score: the Basilar Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography (BATMAN) score. A retrospective analysis of consecutive stroke patients with basilar artery occlusion diagnosed on computed tomographic angiography was performed. BATMAN score is a 10-point computed tomographic angiography-based grading system which incorporates thrombus burden and the presence of collaterals. Reliability was assessed with intraclass coefficient correlation. Good outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score of ≤3 at 3 months and successful reperfusion as thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2b-3. BATMAN score was externally validated and compared with the Posterior Circulation Collateral score. The derivation cohort included 83 patients with 41 in the validation cohort. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, BATMAN score had an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-0.9) in derivation cohort and an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.6-0.9) in validation cohort. In logistic regression adjusted for age and clinical severity, BATMAN score of <7 was associated with poor outcome in derivation cohort (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% CI, 1.4-21; P=0.01), in validation cohort (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% CI, 1.4-33; P=0.01), and in endovascular patients, after adjustment for recanalization and time to treatment (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.2-18; P=0.01). BATMAN score of <7 was not associated with recanalization. Interrater agreement was substantial (intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.8-0.9). BATMAN score had greater accuracy compared with Posterior Circulation Collateral score (P=0.04). The addition of collateral quality to clot burden in BATMAN score seems to improve prognostic accuracy in basilar artery occlusion patients. © 2017

  3. Ophthalmic artery blood flow in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, T; Mori, K; Yasuhara, T; Tei, M; Yokoi, N; Kinoshita, S; Kamei, M

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the risk factors for rubeosis iridis by colour Doppler imaging (CDI) in patients with complete internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO). Methods: 34 eyes of 32 consecutive patients with complete ICAO were enrolled. Using CDI, blood flow direction (forward, reverse, undetectable) in the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA), and short posterior ciliary artery (SPCA) were determined. Arterial mean blood velocity (Vmean) and resistive index (RI) were calculated and correlations between the rubeosis iridis incidence and CDI parameters analysed. Results: The eyes were classified into four types according to blood flow direction: forward flow in OA, CRA, and SPCA (type 1; n = 11); reverse OA and forward CRA and SPCA flow (type 2a; n = 12); reverse OA and undetectable CRA and SPCA flow (type 2b; n = 8); undetectable flow in all three arteries (type 3; n = 3). Rubeosis iridis was seen only in type 2b and 3 eyes. Type 2b showed significantly (p<0.01) higher Vmean and lower RI values in the OA, indicating more rapid reverse flow than in type 2a eyes. Although in type 1 and 2a eyes OA flow was in opposite directions, they manifested no rubeosis iridis and no difference in the Vmean and RI values of the CRA and SPCA. Conclusions: The classification of eyes from patients with ICAO into four types by CDI may facilitate the identification of the eyes at high risk for rubeosis iridis. Markedly diminished flow in both the CRA and SPCA may result in rubeosis iridis, regardless of OA flow direction. PMID:15031166

  4. Obstruction of the Aorta and Left Pulmonary Artery After Gianturco Coil Occlusion of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, H.-Cg; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Wu, Yu-Tsun; Huang, Chien-Fu; Chien, Shao-Ju; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Liang, Chi-Di

    2005-01-15

    We report an unusual case of simultaneous obstruction of the left pulmonary artery and descending thoracic aorta after Gianturco coil occlusion in a 15-month-old boy. The diagnosis was made by echocardiography and cardiac angiography. At surgery, thrombi coating on the protruded parts of the Gianturco coil in the pulmonary artery and aorta were found.

  5. Cerebral arterial occlusion and intracranial venous thrombosis in a woman taking oral contraceptives.

    PubMed Central

    Montón, F.; Rebollo, M.; Quintana, F.; Berciano, J.

    1984-01-01

    Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus are reported in a 30-year-old woman taking oral contraceptives (OC). The coexistence of arterial and venous cerebral pathology as a complication of OC use has only been previously reported in one case. The pathogenesis of this rare association is briefly discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6462985

  6. Temporary Arterial Balloon Occlusion as an Adjunct to Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Nambiar, Ashwin; Hagspiel, Lauren M.; Ahmad, Ehab Ali; Bozlar, Ugur

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. This study was designed to describe the technique of arterial occlusion using a temporary occlusion balloon system as an alternative to coil occlusion during Yttrium-90 radioembolization of hepatic tumors. Methods. Review of charts, angiography, and follow-up imaging studies of consecutive patients undergoing oncological embolization procedures in which a HyperForm system (ev3 Neurovascular, Irvine, CA) was used. Intraprocedural target vessel occlusion and patency of the target vessel on follow-up were recorded. Clinical data and Bremsstrahlung scans were reviewed for evidence of nontarget embolization. Results. Four radioembolization procedures were performed in three patients (all female, age 48-54 (mean 52) years). Five arteries were temporarily occluded (three gastroduodenal arteries, one right gastric artery, and one cystic artery). All radioembolization procedures were successfully completed. Follow-up imaging (either digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA)) was available for all patients between 28-454 (mean 183) days following the procedure, demonstrating all five vessels to be patent. No clinical or imaging evidence for nontarget embolization was found. Conclusions. Temporary balloon occlusion of small and medium-sized arteries during radioembolization allows safe therapy with preserved postprocedural vessel patency on early and midterm follow-up.

  7. Mechanical Recanalization of Subacute Vessel Occlusion in Peripheral Arterial Disease with a Directional Atherectomy Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Massmann, Alexander Katoh, Marcus; Shayesteh-Kheslat, Roushanak; Buecker, Arno

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively examine the technical feasibility and safety of directional atherectomy for treatment of subacute infrainguinal arterial vessel occlusions. Methods: Five patients (one woman, four men, age range 51-81 years) with peripheral arterial disease who experienced sudden worsening of their peripheral arterial disease-related symptoms during the last 2-6 weeks underwent digital subtraction angiography, which revealed vessel occlusion in native popliteal artery (n = 4) and in-stent occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (n = 1). Subsequently, all patients were treated by atherectomy with the SilverHawk (ev3 Endovascular, USA) device. Results: The mean diameter of treated vessels was 5.1 {+-} 1.0 mm. The length of the occlusion ranged 2-14 cm. The primary technical success rate was 100%. One patient experienced a reocclusion during hospitalization due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. There were no further periprocedural complications, in particular no peripheral embolizations, until hospital discharge or during the follow-up period of 1 year. Conclusion: The recanalization of infrainguinal arterial vessel occlusions by atherectomy with the SilverHawk device is technically feasible and safe. In our limited retrospective study, it was associated with a high technical success rate and a low procedure-related complication rate.

  8. [A case of vertebral artery occlusion following heading play in soccer].

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Osamu; Kameyama, Motonobu; Kon, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Miki; Onuma, Takehide

    2003-04-01

    A 13-year-old boy suffered from cerebeller infarction due to right vertebral artery occlusion after heading a ball during a rainy soccer game. Dissection of the vertebral artery after trivial head trauma is well known, but heading as the cause has not been reported. We speculated in this present case that excessive impact force to the young boy's neck due to the heavy rain-soaked ball might have caused right vertebral artery dissection and occlusion. High quality balls are recommended for young amateur players on rainy days.

  9. Iatrogenic central retinal artery occlusion after carotid body tumor embolization and excision.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Carlos M; Jaramillo, Sergio; Varón, Clara L; Prada, Angélica M

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of iatrogenic central retinal artery occlusion after embolization and surgical resection of carotid body paraganglioma. Methods: Case report Results: One adult female patient presented with persistent unilateral visual loss after embolization with Embosphere(®) and Contour(®) microparticles of carotid body tumor. Fluorescein angiography revealed intraluminal microspheres in the central retinal artery ramifications. OCT revealed intraretinal spherical, hyporeflective particles with posterior shadowing. Conclusions: Central retinal artery occlusion should be assessed as a possible complication after surgical repair of head and neck paragangliomas.

  10. Iatrogenic central retinal artery occlusion after carotid body tumor embolization and excision

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Carlos M.; Jaramillo, Sergio; Varón, Clara L.; Prada, Angélica M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of iatrogenic central retinal artery occlusion after embolization and surgical resection of carotid body paraganglioma. Methods: Case report Results: One adult female patient presented with persistent unilateral visual loss after embolization with Embosphere® and Contour® microparticles of carotid body tumor. Fluorescein angiography revealed intraluminal microspheres in the central retinal artery ramifications. OCT revealed intraretinal spherical, hyporeflective particles with posterior shadowing. Conclusions: Central retinal artery occlusion should be assessed as a possible complication after surgical repair of head and neck paragangliomas. PMID:28401029

  11. Acute occlusion of the left iliac artery after long-distance-running.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, O; Thaler, K H; Lang, W

    2001-02-01

    We report a case of spontaneous iliac occlusion in a 44-year-old male patient after long-distance running. Atherogenic risk factors like hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and smoking were missing. Spontaneous iliac occlusion is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. Angiography showed occlusion of the left iliac artery with collateral flow via the obturator artery to the common femoral artery. Thrombectomy was performed but reocclusion occurred. An iliacofemoral bypass, arterial lysis and bypass thrombectomy was necessary within a few months. At the last follow-up visit two years afterwards the patient was symptom-free. This case indicates that exercise-dependent blood flow disturbances in long-distance-runners could produce changes of the intima.

  12. Endovascular Treatment of Tandem Common Carotid Artery Origin and Distal Intracranial Occlusion in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Gregory M; Feroze, Rafey; Panczykowski, David M; Aghaebrahim, Amin; Ares, William; Agarwal, Nitin; Enis, John; Zhu, Xiao; Ducruet, Andrew F

    2017-01-01

    Tandem occlusion resulting in acute ischemic stroke is associated with high morbidity and mortality and a poor response to thrombolytic therapy. The use of endovascular strategies for tandem stroke cases results in an improved outcome for this subgroup of patients. We present 2 cases with a pattern of tandem occlusion consisting of proximal obstruction at the origin of the common carotid artery (CCA) with concomitant intracranial occlusion treated by endovascular techniques. The 2 patients presented each with occlusion at the left CCA origin and ipsilateral intracranial vessel (left middle cerebral artery and carotid terminus, respectively). A transfemoral anterograde approach was used to deliver a balloon-mounted stent across the proximal CCA origin occlusion to gain access to the distal cerebral vasculature. Subsequently, a stent retriever assisted mechanical aspiration thrombectomy was used to revascularize the intracranial occlusion. Complete revascularization with Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scores of 2b and improvement in neurologic deficits occurred in both cases. Good clinical outcome was achieved for both patients at 3-month follow-up. An anterograde transfemoral approach should be considered in cases of tandem occlusion of the proximal CCA and middle cerebral artery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bilateral vs single internal thoracic artery grafting for left main coronary artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Otaki, M; Lust, R M; Sun, Y S; Norton, T O; Spence, P A; Zeri, R S; Hopson, S B; Chitwood, R

    1994-10-01

    This study was conducted to compare the coronary flow distributed by single and bilateral internal thoracic artery (ITA) grafts in the setting of the left main coronary occlusion. Ten dogs underwent coronary artery bypass grafting through a left thoracotomy, off pump, using a brief local occlusion to perform the anastomosis. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either a single left ITA (LITA) graft to the circumflex coronary artery (CFX), or bilateral ITA grafts, with additional placement of the right ITA (RITA) to the left anterior descending artery (LAD). After the grafts were placed, the left main coronary artery was ligated. Electromagnetic flows were obtained in the LAD and the CFX proximally and distally to ITA grafts in both groups before grafting and after grafting. ITA flow in situ was also measured before rotation from the chest wall. Total left ventricular flow requirements were satisfied equally well by either a single LITA graft (116.7 +/- 11.6 mL/min) or bilateral ITA grafts (total, 116.8 +/- 9.6 mL/min divided as LITA, 55.9 +/- 7.4 mL/min; RITA, 60.9 +/- 12.0 mL/min). When two grafts were replaced, competitive flow in the proximal regions of both native vessels was noted, although basal flow requirements were maintained. When an individual graft was occluded in the bilaterally grafted system, the remaining graft immediately recruited the additional flow, demonstrating that either right or left ITA can support flow demands five to six times higher than in situ chest wall flow (RITA, 21.9 +/- 3.1 mL/min; LITA, 22.3 +/- 4.9 mL/min). These data suggest that in this canine model, a single ITA graft can support the entire flow requirements of the left ventricle. Assuming no intervening stenosis is present in native coronary systems, bilateral ITA grafting may provide a margin of safety, but under resting conditions, provides no perfusion advantages over a single ITA graft.

  14. Contemporary therapeutic strategies for occlusion of the artery of Percheron: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Xintong; Agarwal, Nitin; Hansberry, David R; Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Gandhi, Chirag D

    2015-02-01

    The artery of Percheron (AOP) is a rare anatomic variant of the paramedian thalamic-mesencephalic arterial supply, arising as a solitary arterial trunk from the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery. Its occlusion, commonly caused by cardioembolism, leads to distal bilateral paramedian thalamic ischemia, oftentimes affecting the midbrain and/or the anterior thalamus. AOP occlusion presents with a clinical triad of altered mental status, vertical gaze palsy, and memory impairment, along with other associated symptoms. Digital subtraction angiography is effective for detecting AOP, while diffusion weighted MRI is best for diagnosis of its occlusion. Our extensive literature search sought to determine the best forms of treatment for uncomplicated AOP occlusion, with the inclusion criterion of implementation of medical treatment or other forms of therapy in patient recovery from this condition. We conclude that intravenous heparin and thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator are effective firstline treatment options for emergent AOP occlusion followed by a prescription of long term anticoagulants, while non-emergent cases without midbrain involvement could be treated through rehabilitation and continual monitoring by medical staff. Clinical trials of higher power are needed for a more comprehensive analysis of the treatment options for AOP occlusion.

  15. Middle Cerebral Artery, Ophthalmic Artery, and Multibranch Retinal Vessel Occlusion After Cosmetic Autologous Fat Transfer to Forehead.

    PubMed

    Roshandel, Danial; Soheilian, Masoud; Pakravan, Mohammad; Aghayan, Sara; Peyman, Gholam A

    2015-05-01

    A 65-year-old woman with left hemiparesis and sudden loss of visual acuity in her right eye presented a few hours after cosmetic injection of autologous fat to her forehead. Right eye visual acuity was no light perception. Funduscopy revealed widespread retinal whitening and multibranch retinal vessel occlusion. Fluorescein angiography showed markedly delayed choroidal and retinal filling together with occlusion of multiple branches of retinal arteries and veins. On magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, multiple lesions compatible with recent infarction were detected. The authors diagnosed multibranch retinal artery and vein occlusion in the right ophthalmic and middle cerebral arteries due to fat emboli. This case emphasizes the need to reevaluate the safety of such aesthetic procedures, particularly in the facial zone to prevent devastating complications.

  16. Incidence and outcome of radial artery occlusion following transradial artery coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Stella, P R; Kiemeneij, F; Laarman, G J; Odekerken, D; Slagboom, T; van der Wieken, R

    1997-02-01

    Coronary angioplasty with 6F guiding catheters via the radial artery is associated with a minimal risk for major entry site-related complications. Although the incidence of radial artery occlusion (RAO) in the literature is approximately 30% after prolonged cannulations, little is known about the incidence and its clinical consequences of RAO following transradial percutaneous coronary angioplasty. In a prospective study, 563 patients with a normal Allen test were evaluated on patency and function of the radial artery after transradial angioplasty, by physical and ultrasound examination at discharge, and at 1 month follow-up. At discharge, 30 patients (5.3%) had clinical evidence of RAO. At follow-up, persistent RAO was found in 16 patients (2.8%). In this study we found a low incidence of RAO after transradial percutaneous coronary angioplasty. None of the patients with temporary or persistent RAO had any major clinical symptoms. Therefore, the occurrence of RAO can be considered a minor complication in patients with a previously good double blood supply to the hand.

  17. Influence of arterial occlusion on outcome after intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Medlin, Friedrich; Amiguet, Michael; Vanacker, Peter; Michel, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the interaction between intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and arterial occlusion on acute cervicocerebral computed tomographic angiography on the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Patients from the Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL) registry with onset-to-door-time ≤4 hours, acute cervicocerebral computed tomographic angiography, a premorbid modified Rankin Scale ≤2, and a National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) >4 were selected. Patients with significant intracranial arterial obstruction (≥50%-99%) and undergoing acute endovascular treatment were excluded. An interaction analysis of IVT and initial arterial occlusion for favorable 3 months outcome (modified Rankin Scale <3) were performed with adjustment for potential confounders. Among 654 included patients, 382 (58%) showed arterial occlusion, of whom 263 (69%) received IVT. Two hundred seventy-two showed no/minimal obstruction of whom 139 (51%) received IVT. In the adjusted interaction analysis, there was a trend in favor of the arterial occlusion group (odds ratio [OR]=3.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-18.97; P=0.08). IVT (versus no IVT) was associated with better outcome in patients with occlusion (adjusted OR for favorable outcome, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.10-8.28) but not in patients with no/minimal obstruction (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.21-2.74). Conversely, patients with occlusion had a similar rate of favorable outcome as no/minimal obstruction when thrombolysed (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.17-1.47) but had a less favorable outcome without thrombolysis (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.04-0.44). In this retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, there was a trend for more favorable outcomes with IVT in the setting of initial arterial occlusion than in the setting of no/minimal obstruction. Before confirmation in randomized controlled studies, this information should not influence thrombolysis decisions, however. © 2014 American Heart

  18. Retrievable Stent-Assisted Coiling Technique Using a Solitaire Stent: Treatment of Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm Associated With Celiac Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Bekir; Nas, Omer Fatih; Hacikurt, Kadir; Hakyemez, Bahattin; Erdogan, Cuneyt

    2016-02-01

    True aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal arcade (PDA) is usually accompanied by stenosis or occlusion of celiac trunk (CeT). The up-to-date and first choice treatment modality of PDA aneurysm is the endovascular approach in nearly all cases except few selected ones necessitating surgery. The main approach in endovascular treatment is embolization of the aneurysm by preserving the parent artery. A case with concomitant CeT occlusion and PDA aneurysm was treated with coil embolization by preserving inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery with retrievable Solitaire(®) stent. In our knowledge, this is the first case with PDA aneurysm treated with this technique.

  19. Ophthalmic artery aneurysm treated by surgical clipping and balloon-assisted temporary carotid occlusion.

    PubMed

    Dehdashti, Amir R

    2015-07-01

    A 29-year-old woman is diagnosed with a large broad-base right ophthalmic artery aneurysm. Despite an intact visual field, she complained of mild right visual blurriness. Between endovascular and surgical treatments, surgery was favored due to her young age. It was decided to perform the surgery with simultaneous endovascular temporary carotid balloon occlusion. A right pterional craniotomy and intradural anterior clinoidectomy were performed, the balloon was positioned in the petrous carotid, and the distal durai ring was opened exposing the proximal neck. Under temporary proximal carotid balloon occlusion and distal carotid clip occlusion, the aneurysm was fully dissected and clipped. Intraoperative angiogram confirmed complete aneurysm occlusion and patency of the ophthalmic artery. The patient's neurological exam remained unchanged. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/BIQKTl9bDqA .

  20. Uterine Artery Embolization Versus Laparoscopic Uterine Artery Occlusion: The Outcomes of a Prospective, Nonrandomized Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, Michal; Kubinova, Kristyna; Maskova, Jana; Horak, Petr; Belsan, Tomas; Kuzel, David

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare outcomes of two different types of occlusive therapy of uterine fibroids. Methods: Women with fibroid(s) unsuitable for laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) were treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE) or laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion (LUAO). Results: Before the procedure, patients treated with UAE (n = 100) had a dominant fibroid greater in size (68 vs. 48 mm) and a mean age lower (33.1 vs. 34.9 years) than surgically treated patients (n = 100). After 6 months, mean shrinkage of fibroid volume was 53 % after UAE and 39 % after LUAO (p = 0.063); 82 % of women after UAE, but only 23 % after LUAO, had complete myoma infarction (p = 0.001). Women treated with UAE had more complications (31 vs. 11 cases, p = 0.006) and greater incidence of hysteroscopically verified intrauterine necrosis (31 vs. 3 %, p = 0.001). Both groups were comparable in markers of ovarian functions and number of nonelective reinterventions. The groups did not differ in pregnancy (69 % after UAE vs. 67 % after LUAO), delivery (50 vs. 46 %), or abortion (34 vs. 33 %) rates. The mean birth weight of neonates was greater (3270 vs. 2768 g, p = 0.013) and the incidence of intrauterine growth restriction lower (13 vs. 38 %, p = 0.046) in post-UAE patients. Conclusion: Both methods are effective in the treatment of women with future reproductive plans and fibroids not suitable for LM. UAE is more effective in causing complete ischemia of fibroids, but it is associated with greater risk of intrauterine necrosis. Both methods have low rate of serious complications (except for a high abortion rate).

  1. Detection of underdiagnosed concurrent branch retinal artery occlusion in a patient with central retinal vein occlusion using spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Karapetyan, Anushavan; Ouyang, Pingbo; Tang, Luo Sheng; Zeng, Jiexi; Ying, Michele Dominique Li

    2014-07-12

    Combined branch retinal artery and central retinal vein occlusion is a rare condition that has been infrequently reported. This case report, aside from reporting the above-mentioned condition, highlights the importance of performing spectral domain optical coherence tomography in establishing a complete diagnosis, especially in uncertain and complicated cases. We also present spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings of a case of combined unilateral simultaneous central retinal vein and branch retinal artery occlusion. We present a single case of an initially missed, unilateral branch retinal artery occlusion combined with central retinal vein occlusion in a 51-year-old female Chinese patient without a significant past medical history, who experienced sudden, painless vision diminution in her right eye eleven days prior to presentation. She eventually recovered visual acuity to 0.60, despite having presented with poor vision. Combined unilateral central retinal vein and branch retinal artery occlusion may occur in patients with no medical history of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus and can achieve a relatively good visual outcome. This case reaffirms the significance of performing a spectral domain optical coherence tomography examination in patients suffering from central retinal vein occlusion with suspicion of unilateral simultaneous branch retinal artery occlusion to identify the affected pathological areas.

  2. Evaluation of Rotational Vertebral Artery Occlusion Using Ultrasound Facilitates the Detection of Arterial Dissection in the Atlas Loop.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Y; Ichikawa, Y; Morita, A

    2015-01-01

    Head rotation can cause occlusion of the vertebral artery most commonly at the atlas loop, and repetitive compression from head turning induces vertebral artery dissection (VAD). Although ultrasound examinations are useful in diagnosis, dissected lesions unaccompanied by hemodynamic changes can be overlooked. Because the narrowed, dissected vessel in the atlas loop may cause rotational occlusion, we confirmed whether adding submaximal head rotation to a cervical ultrasound examination would facilitate the detection of VAD in the atlas loop. We investigated 7 patients who developed infarction in the posterior circulation and were clinically suspected of VAD. Using a 7.5-MHz linear probe, we recorded the waveform of the vertebral artery at the C4-C6 level and diagnosed rotational vertebral artery occlusion (RVAO) when head rotation induced the disappearance of end-diastolic flow. All 3 patients with VAD in the atlas loop demonstrated RVAO of the dissected vertebral arteries in the acute stroke phase. RVAO was not observed in the dissected vertebral arteries excepting the atlas loop, nor in the nondissected vertebral arteries of any patients. For posterior circulation stroke patients, adding submaximal head rotation to the cervical ultrasound examination facilitated the detection of VAD in the atlas loop. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  3. Cerebral blood flow response pattern during balloon test occlusion of the internal carotid artery

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, J.P.; Yonas, H.; Jungreis, C.

    1994-05-01

    To evaluate the risk of temporary or permanent internal carotid artery occlusion. In 156 patients intraarterial balloon test occlusion in combination with a stable xenon-enhanced CT cerebral blood flow study was performed before radiologic or surgical treatment. All 156 patients passed the clinical balloon test occlusion and underwent a xenon study in combination with a second balloon test. Quantitative flow data were analyzed for absolute changes as well as changes in symmetry. Fourteen patients exhibited reduced flow values between 20 and 30 mL/100 g per minute, an absolute decrease in flow, and significant asymmetry in the middle cerebral artery territory during balloon test occlusion. These patients would be considered at high risk for cerebral infarction if internal carotid artery occlusion were to be performed. With one exception they belonged to a group (class I) of 61 patients who showed bilateral or ipsilateral flow decrease and significant asymmetry with lower flow on the side of occlusion. The other 95 patients, who showed a variety of cerebral blood flow response patterns including ipsilateral or bilateral flow increase, were at moderate (class II) or low (class III) stroke risk. In contrast to these findings, exclusively qualitative flow analysis failed to identify the patients at high risk: a threshold with an asymmetry index of 10% revealed only 16% specificity whereas an asymmetry index of 45% showed only 61% sensitivity for detection of low flow areas (<30 mL/100 g per minute). For achieving a minimal hemodynamic related-stroke rate associated with permanent clinical internal carotid artery occlusion we suggest integration of a thorough analysis of quantitative cerebral blood flow data before and during balloon test occlusion. 68 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. [Superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis in a patient of temporal arteritis with internal carotid artery occlusion: a case report].

    PubMed

    Abiko, Masaru; Nakano, Shigeki; Nishizaki, Takafumi; Ikeda, Norio; Sakakura, Takanori; Okamura, Tomohiro; Abiko, Seisho

    2012-01-01

    Temporal arteritis is a rare systemic autoimmune disease and the arteritic process in this case of temporal arteritis involved large and medium-size arteries. Temporal arteritis with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion is very rare. We report a case of temporal arteritis with ICA occlusion following superficial temporal artery (STA) -middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis, together with steroid therapy. A 73-year-old female presented with a headache, visual disturbance of left side, and suppression of activity. Left STA was inflammatory and overswelling. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and angiography revealed occlusion of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) at the cervical portion and lowering of vascular reserve on PAO SPECT. Diagnosis as temporal arteritis was conclusive due to the clinical presentation, laboratory studies, and left temporal artery biopsy, so steroid pulse therapy was initiated. Inflammation of left STA disappeared after steroid therapy, but left ICA occlusion on angiography and lowering of vascular reserve on SPECT remained for 3 months afterwards. Because of this, STA-MCA anastomosis was performed. There were no complications after the operation and the donor artery has been patent for two years. Temporal arteritis with ICA occlusion that requires extracranial-intracranial bypass (EC-IC bypass) is very rare. STA-MCA anastomosis with steroid therapy is effective for the prevention of cerebral infarction.

  5. A comparison of pulmonary arterial occlusion algorithms for estimation of pulmonary capillary pressure.

    PubMed

    Pellett, A A; Johnson, R W; Morrison, G G; Champagne, M S; deBoisblanc, B P; Levitzky, M G

    1999-07-01

    Using the arterial occlusion method, we compared five literature-based estimates of pulmonary capillary pressure (Ppc) with the corresponding double occlusion pressures (Pdo) in anesthetized dogs whose chests had been closed after sternotomy for instrumentation. Arterial occlusions were performed with a balloon-tipped pulmonary artery catheter that housed pressure transducers immediately proximal and distal to the balloon. Separation of the proximal and distal pressure waveforms during balloon inflation allowed us to precisely define the moment of occlusion. We fit a monoexponential curve to pressure data beginning 200 ms after the onset of occlusion and a biexponential curve to data beginning at the instant of occlusion, with data obtained over a range of vascular states (control, serotonin infusion, histamine infusion). In addition, we investigated the use of sampling of the raw data to estimate capillary pressure. Three of the five literature-based estimates of Ppc yielded values similar to Pdo. The optimal (least average difference from Pdo) interpolation/extrapolation time points of the curve fits varied, depending on the type of curve fitting and the state of the pulmonary vasculature. We also determined that a close approximation of Pdo may be derived from the raw data, as an alternative to exponential curve fitting.

  6. Subclavian Artery Occlusion and Pseudoaneurysm Caused by Lung Apex Mucormycosis: Successful Treatment with Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Economopoulos, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Dimitris; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Kontopoulou, Christina; Brountzos, Elias N.

    2007-02-15

    Subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm and occlusion in young patients are usually post-traumatic. We report the case of a 33-year-old diabetic woman with subclavian artery occlusion and pseudoaneurysm formation caused by pulmonary mucormycosis infection. The patient presented with diabetic ketoacidosis, Horner's syndrome, and absent left arm pulses. A cystic lesion of the left lung apex was found by imaging, was surgically resected, and was histologically diagnosed as mucormycosis infection. Magnetic resonance angiography depicted a left subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm and occlusion adjacent to the mucormycosis lesion. To protect against thromboembolic complications and rupture, the pseudoaneurysm was embolized with coils. The patient is clinically well 1 year after the intervention with no perfusion of the pseudoaneurysm.

  7. Successful Recanalization of a Longstanding Right Common Iliac Artery Occlusion with a Radiofrequency Guidewire

    SciTech Connect

    Tapping, C. R.; Uri, I. F.; Dixon, S.; Bratby, M. J.; Anthony, S.; Uberoi, R.

    2012-10-15

    We describe a case of successful recanalization of a longstanding right common iliac occlusion with a radiofrequency (RF) guidewire. The patient had been symptomatic with claudication for 3 years, and a preliminary attempt to cross the lesion using conventional techniques proved unsuccessful. Using low and medium intensity RF pulses and a PowerWire, a tract through the occlusion was established, which allowed subsequent stenting with an excellent angiographic result and a good immediate clinical response. We propose this as a useful technique in the peripheral arterial system for occlusive lesions not amenable to traditional recanalization techniques.

  8. Circle of Willis Collateral During Temporary Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion II: Observations From Computed Tomography Angiography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bill Hao; Leung, Andrew; Lownie, Stephen P

    2016-07-01

    The Circle of Willis (CoW) is the most effective collateral circulation to the brain during internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. Carotid stump pressure (CSP) is an established surrogate measure of the cerebral collateral circulation. This study aims to use hemodynamic and computed tomography angiography measurements to determine the strongest influences upon the dependent variable, CSP. These findings could help clinicians noninvasively assess the adequacy of the collateral circulation and facilitate surgical risk assessment in an outpatient setting. CSP and mean arterial pressure were measured during carotid endarterectomy or during carotid balloon test occlusion in 92 patients. Intracranial arterial diameters were measured on computed tomography angiography at 16 different locations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the key factors associated with CSP. In a subgroup of individuals (n=27) with severe (>70% North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial) contralateral stenosis or occlusion, the same analysis was performed. The contralateral anterior cerebral artery proximal to anterior communicating artery (A1) of the CoW had the strongest influence upon CSP, followed by the mean arterial pressure, the contralateral ICA diameter, and the anterior communicating artery diameter (R 2=0.364). In the subgroup with high-grade contralateral ICA stenosis, the ipsilateral posterior communicating artery exerted the strongest influence (R 2=0.620). During ICA occlusion, the anterior CoW dominates in preserving collateral flow, especially the contralateral A1 segment. In individuals with high-grade contralateral carotid stenosis, the posterior communicating artery calibre becomes a dominant influence. The most favourable anatomy consists of large contralateral A1 and anterior communicating arteries, and no contralateral carotid stenosis.

  9. [Management of peripheral vascular disease based on current guidelines. Peripheral artery occlusive disease of the iliac and femoral arteries and carotid artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Grebe, M T; Sternitzky, R

    2013-12-01

    The article summarizes the recommendations of current European and American guidelines concerning the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease and carotid artery stenosis. In comparison to older recommendations, current guidelines concerning endovascular treatment and concomitant medical therapy have been changed in recent years. With the exception of very complex and long lesions, endovascular methods are seen as the therapy of choice for revascularization of the iliac and femoral arteries. For cardiovascular risk reduction, patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease and stenosis of the carotid arteries should receive antiplatelet as well as statin therapy and should not be treated different from patients with coronary artery disease.

  10. Technique, Complication, and Long-Term Outcome for Endovascular Treatment of Iliac Artery Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, Ugur Oguzkurt, Levent; Tercan, Fahri

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this study was to report technical details, procedure-related complications, and results of endovascular treatment in chronic iliac artery occlusion. Between 2001 and 2008, endovascular treatments of 127 chronic iliac artery occlusions in 118 patients (8 women and 110 men; mean age, 59 years) were retrospectively reviewed. The study was based on Ad Hoc Committee on Reporting Standards (Society for Vascular Surgery/International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery Standards). All occlusions were treated with stent placement with or without preliminary balloon angioplasty. Kaplan-Meier estimators were used to determine patency rates. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine variables affecting successful recanalization, major complications, early stent thrombosis ({<=}30 days), and primary and secondary patency rates. Initial technical success was achieved in 117 (92%) procedures. Successful recanalization was obtained by antegrade approach in 69 of 77 (90%) procedures and by retrograde approach in 52 of 105 (50%) procedures (p < 0.001). Complications were encountered in 28 (24%) patients [minor in 7 patients (6%) and major in 22 patients (19%)]. One death occurred in the operative period secondary to iliac artery rupture. Early stent thrombosis was seen in eight (7%) patients. Presence of critical limb ischemia (p = 0.03), subintimal recanalization (p = 0.03), and major complication (p = 0.02) were the independent predictors of early stent thrombosis on multivariate analysis. Primary and secondary patency rates at 5 years were 63 and 93%, respectively. Presence of critical limb ischemia, TASC type C iliac lesions, combined occlusions of both common and external iliac arteries, and major complications were associated with decreased patency rates on univariate analysis, whereas these factors were not independent predictors of stent patency on multivariate analysis. In conclusion, endovascular treatment of iliac artery occlusion has a

  11. Internal carotid artery pseudo occlusion with embolic cerebral ischemia and low flow in the central retinal artery: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Röhrer, Christoph; Ertl, Michael; Altmann, Mathias; Kasprzak, Piotr; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Schuierer, Gerhard; Schlachetzki, Felix

    2011-07-01

    We present a rare case of internal carotid artery pseudoocclusion (ICAPO) in a 60-year-old male Caucasian patient who experienced a reversible sudden loss of vision of the right eye for 10 min followed by recurrent blurring of vision as well as dysarthria and numbness in the left face. The referring ophthalmologist admitted the patient for suspicious occlusion of the internal carotid artery causing anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION).

  12. Efficacy of Early Superficial Temporal Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery Double Anastomoses for Atherosclerotic Occlusion in Patients with Progressing Stroke.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Akihiro; Kohno, Kanehisa; Iwata, Shinji; Ohue, Shiro; Ozaki, Saya; Ninomiya, Satoko; Tomita, Hitomi; Kamogawa, Kenji; Okamoto, Kensho; Fukumoto, Shinya; Ichikawa, Haruhisa; Onoue, Shinji; Nakamura, Yawara; Okuda, Bungo

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the efficacy of early superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) double anastomoses for patients with progressing stroke due to atherosclerotic occlusion. Nine consecutive patients who underwent early STA-MCA double anastomoses were enrolled. All patients presented with progressing stroke despite maximal medical treatment. Cerebral blood flow in 7 patients was analyzed by single-photon emission tomography. Clinical outcomes were investigated postoperatively, and we evaluated the utility of early STA-MCA double anastomoses. Nine patients in the present study included those with middle cerebral artery occlusion (n = 6) and internal carotid artery occlusion (n = 3). The mean age was 58.4 years. Subjects comprised 1 female (11.1%) and 8 males (88.9%). The cause was low perfusion ischemia due to atherosclerotic occlusion with a small infarct. The mean regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) ratio in the middle cerebral artery territory compared to the normal side was 69.6 ± 5.3%. The duration from onset to surgery was 1-8 days (median, 3.11 days). All patients underwent early STA-MCA double anastomoses, and no reperfusion-induced hemorrhage occurred. All of them slowly achieved obvious remission compared to symptoms on admission and achieved a good functional outcome. Early STA-MCA double anastomoses were safe and effective, and early revascularization resulted in rapid neurological improvement. We recommend this procedure for patients with progressive ischemia due to main trunk artery occlusion, when the rCBF flow ratio with the normal side was 70 ± 10%, even at the subacute stage. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thirty Years Later: Evolution of Treatment for Acute Left Main Coronary Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Dov, Nissan; Karkabi, Basheer; Jaffe, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Acute occlusion of left main coronary artery is a catastrophic event. We describe two patients with acute occlusion of the left main coronary artery treated thirty years apart. The first patient was treated in 1982 and survived the event without revascularization but developed severe heart failure. His survival was so unusual that it merited a case report at that time. The second patient was treated at the end of 2015. Early revascularization resulted in myocardial reperfusion and near normal left ventricular function. These patients exemplify the progress in therapeutic cardiology over the last 30 years. PMID:28078145

  14. Effect of endovascular reperfusion in relation to site of arterial occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Scott A.; Liebeskind, David S.; Tomsick, Tom A.; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Nogueira, Raul G.; Marks, Michael P.; Jahan, Reza; Gralla, Jan; Yoo, Albert J.; Yeatts, Sharon D.; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Pereira, Vitor M.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Albers, Gregory W.; Lansberg, Maarten G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether the association between reperfusion and improved clinical outcomes after stroke differs depending on the site of the arterial occlusive lesion (AOL). Methods: We pooled data from Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy (SWIFT), Solitaire FR Thrombectomy for Acute Revascularisation (STAR), Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution Study 2 (DEFUSE 2), and Interventional Management of Stroke Trial (IMS III) to compare the strength of the associations between reperfusion and clinical outcomes in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA), proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) (M1), and distal MCA (M2/3/4) occlusions. Results: Among 710 included patients, the site of the AOL was the ICA in 161, the proximal MCA in 389, and the distal MCA in 160 patients (M2 = 131, M3 = 23, and M4 = 6). Reperfusion was associated with an increase in the rate of good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0–2) in patients with ICA (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–7.2) and proximal MCA occlusions (OR 6.2, 95% CI 3.8–10.2), but not in patients with distal MCA occlusions (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8–2.6). Among patients with M2 occlusions, a subset of the distal MCA cohort, reperfusion was associated with excellent functional outcome (mRS 0–1; OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0–4.7). Conclusions: The association between endovascular reperfusion and better clinical outcomes is more profound in patients with ICA and proximal MCA occlusions compared to patients with distal MCA occlusions. Because there are limited data from randomized controlled trials on the effect of endovascular therapy in patients with distal MCA occlusions, these results underscore the need for inclusion of this subgroup in future endovascular therapy trials. PMID:26802090

  15. Nettleship collaterals: circumpapillary cilioretinal anastomoses after occlusion of the central retinal artery.

    PubMed Central

    Ragge, N K; Hoyt, W F

    1992-01-01

    In extremely rare cases, after occlusion of the central retinal artery, a complete ring of peripapillary anastomotic channels develops. One such case is described and a proposed term given to these channels--'Nettleship collaterals'--after the man who first described them. These collaterals are dilated pathways within the terminal capillary networks of the posterior ciliary arteries and the branches of the central retinal artery. Formation of the channels is believed to be promoted by prelaminar obstruction of the central retinal artery. Images PMID:1540571

  16. Percutaneous treatment of early occlusion of a complex arterial coronary graft: a case report.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Davide; Tavasci, Emanuela; Savasta, Carlo; Passaretti, Bruno; Sganzerla, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    The internal mammary arteries are now widely used for surgical myocardial revascularization. Because of its excellent long-term patency rates, re-do surgery is rarely requested and transluminal percutaneous angioplasty of these arterial grafts is still relatively infrequent. This procedure is performed mainly at the distal anastomotic site but also at the origin of the vessel from the subclavian artery, frequently just to treat a local traumatic dissection due to the catheter. We here report the case of a successful angioplasty and stenting of the body of the graft for an early total occlusion of a complex, bifurcated arterial bypass to the left coronary system.

  17. Treatment of acute embolic occlusions of the subclavian and axillary arteries using a rotational thrombectomy device.

    PubMed

    Zeller, T; Frank, U; Bürgelin, K; Sinn, L; Horn, B; Schwarzwälder, U; Roskamm, H; Neumann, F J

    2003-05-01

    Acute embolic or local thrombotic ischaemia of the upper limbs can be treated by embolectomy or by endovascular techniques. We report here on the endovascular thrombectomy of acute embolic occlusions of subclavian and axillary arteries in two patients using a rotational thrombectomy device and give an overview about the actual literature. Two female patients, each with a history of multivessel coronary disease and intermittent atrial fibrillation, complained of sudden onset of pain at rest and paleness of the left and right arm, respectively. Duplex ultrasound showed a localized embolic occlusion of the left subclavian artery and the bifurcation of the brachial artery in the first patient and a localized embolic occlusion of the distal right subclavian and axillary artery in the second patient. In the first patient, the left subclavian artery was reopened using a 8F-Rotarex device via the femoral access, while the bifurcation of the brachial artery was reopened by local thrombolysis using 25 mg rt-PA because of the insufficient length of the thrombectomy device of 80 cm. In the second patient, the right subclavian and axillary arteries were reopened using a 6F-Rotarex device. Follow-up examinations before discharge and after 6 months showed normalized perfusion of the arms of both patients.

  18. Subintimal Recanalization of Long Superficial Femoral Artery Occlusions Through the Retrograde Popliteal Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, Saim; Sindel, Timur; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Lueleci, Ersin

    2001-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the value of the retrograde popliteal artery approach for the percutaneous intentional extraluminal recanalization (PIER) of long superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusions.Methods: During a period of 17 months, PIER through ultrasound-guided retrograde popliteal artery puncture was performed for 39 long SFA occlusions in 37 patients. In six patients, six additional iliac artery stenoses were also treated via the popliteal approach.Results: The procedure was technically successful in 32 (82%) of 39 SFA occlusions; in 29, lesions were treated with balloon angioplasty alone, and in three, stents were also used. Cumulative patency rate was 66% at 6 months, 62% at 1 year, and 59% at 18 months. Additional iliac artery stenoses were successfully treated in the same session. Complications included two minor hematomas and two SFA ruptures, which required no treatment.Conclusion: PIER through retrograde popliteal puncture is a safe and effective method in the treatment of long femoropopliteal occlusions, with a high technical success, low complication rate and a reasonable short-term patency rate. The technique offers an alternative in cases where standard PIER is unsuccessful or contraindicated.

  19. [Intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery after minor closed head injury].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, S; Tomokiyo, M; Koga, H; Furukawa, Y; Nomura, S; Shimokawa, S; Nakagawa, S; Anegawa, S; Hayashi, T

    2001-10-01

    Thrombosis of the extracranial portion of the internal carotid artery as a result of nonpenetrating head and neck injury is not uncommon. However, intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery after minor head and neck injury without skull fracture is rare. We report a case of 14-year-old male who suffered a minor head injury during an athletic meeting of his school and developed a right hemiparesis and a lethargy state resulting from thrombosis of the supraclinoid portion of the left internal carotid artery. On admission, skull films and a CT scan revealed no abnormality. One hour later, he fully recovered. One day later, no definite lesions were detected on T1-weighted and T2-weighted image of MRI, but an abnormal high signal lesion in the left frontal lobe was detected on diffusion-weighted image of MRI. On additional MR angiography, intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery due to dissection was demonstrated.

  20. Diagnosis and management of ileocolic pseudoaneurysms.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sapan S; Dua, Anahita; Shortell, Cynthia K; Thacker, Julie K

    2012-09-01

    Ileocolic pseudoaneurysmal disease is a rare splanchnic aneurysm that affects 3 out of 100 000 patients, and only 7 cases have been described in the past 40 years in patients without preexisting connective tissue disorders. Abdominal pain is the most common presenting symptom and nearly 30% of patients present with hemorrhage. Ileocolic pseudoaneurysms are diagnosed by contrasted computed tomography scans and verified by arteriography. We present a case report and review of the literature in which a patient was initially managed by coil embolization, followed by laparotomy and suture ligation due to pseudoaneurysm rupture.

  1. Visual recovery and OCT evolution following central retinal artery occlusion treated with intra-arterial verapamil and alteplase infusion.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Jaclyn L; Mason, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A 69-year-old woman presented with a "veil" over the left eye. Clinical examination demonstrated signs of central retinal artery occlusion. Visual acuity was compromised to 1/200 E in the left eye. Ocular massage and anterior chamber paracentesis failed to improve vision. An emergent intra-arterial catheterization with verapamil and alteplase infusion was performed less than 12 hours following symptom onset. Initial optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed inner retinal edema. One year later, OCT revealed relatively minor thinning, which could explain the patient's visual recovery to 20/40. This may be the first article to report OCT changes following this treatment for central retinal artery occlusion. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Thrombectomy using a stent retriever with artificially induced vertebral artery vasospasm in a patient with acute basilar artery occlusion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghyeon; Choi, Jae-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    An acute basilar artery occlusion is not an uncommon cause of stroke. It represents 6–10% of large vessel strokes and has been associated with poor clinical outcomes. Multimodal treatments have been introduced to recanalise a basilar artery occlusion successfully. However, all mechanical thrombectomy devices are not always usable in an emergent situation. We present a case of basilar artery occlusion treated with a stent retriever assisted by a vertebral artery vasospasm. We attempted thrombectomy with a stent retriever several times. However, the captured thrombus was not pulled out and migrated to the distal basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery due to anterograde flow of the vertebral artery. We carefully advanced the catheter into the distal vertebral artery and generated a vasospasm. The vertebral artery vasospasm reduced the forward flow significantly like a balloon-guided catheter. The thrombus was pulled out with the stent. PMID:26678752

  3. Persistent middle cerebral artery occlusion associated with lower body temperature on admission.

    PubMed

    Kvistad, Christopher Elnan; Øygarden, Halvor; Thomassen, Lars; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Naess, Halvor

    2013-01-01

    Low body temperature is considered neuroprotective in ischemic stroke, yet some studies suggest that low body temperature may also inhibit clot lysis and recanalization. We hypothesized that low body temperature was associated with persistent proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke presenting with symptoms of proximal MCA occlusion, suggesting a possible detrimental effect of low body temperature on recanalization. All patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to our Stroke Unit between February 2006 and August 2012 were prospectively registered in a database. Computed tomography (CT) angiography was performed in patients admitted <6 hours after stroke onset. Based on presenting symptoms, patients were classified according to the Oxford Community Stroke Project classification (OCSP). Patients with symptomatic proximal MCA occlusion were compared to patients with total anterior circulation infarct (TACI) without MCA occlusion on CT angiography. During the study period, 384 patients with acute ischemic stroke were examined with CT angiography. A total of 79 patients had proximal MCA occlusion and 31 patients had TACI without MCA occlusion. Median admission body temperatures were lower in patients with MCA occlusion compared to patients without occlusion (36.3°C versus 36.7°C, P = 0.027). Admission body temperature <36.5°C was independently associated with persistent MCA occlusion when adjusted for confounders in multivariate analyses (odds ratio 3.7, P = 0.007). Our study showed that low body temperature on admission was associated with persistent proximal MCA occlusion. These results may support a possible detrimental effect of low body temperature on clot lysis and recanalization.

  4. Persistent middle cerebral artery occlusion associated with lower body temperature on admission

    PubMed Central

    Kvistad, Christopher Elnan; Øygarden, Halvor; Thomassen, Lars; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Naess, Halvor

    2013-01-01

    Background Low body temperature is considered neuroprotective in ischemic stroke, yet some studies suggest that low body temperature may also inhibit clot lysis and recanalization. We hypothesized that low body temperature was associated with persistent proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke presenting with symptoms of proximal MCA occlusion, suggesting a possible detrimental effect of low body temperature on recanalization. Methods All patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to our Stroke Unit between February 2006 and August 2012 were prospectively registered in a database. Computed tomography (CT) angiography was performed in patients admitted <6 hours after stroke onset. Based on presenting symptoms, patients were classified according to the Oxford Community Stroke Project classification (OCSP). Patients with symptomatic proximal MCA occlusion were compared to patients with total anterior circulation infarct (TACI) without MCA occlusion on CT angiography. Results During the study period, 384 patients with acute ischemic stroke were examined with CT angiography. A total of 79 patients had proximal MCA occlusion and 31 patients had TACI without MCA occlusion. Median admission body temperatures were lower in patients with MCA occlusion compared to patients without occlusion (36.3°C versus 36.7°C, P = 0.027). Admission body temperature <36.5°C was independently associated with persistent MCA occlusion when adjusted for confounders in multivariate analyses (odds ratio 3.7, P = 0.007). Conclusion Our study showed that low body temperature on admission was associated with persistent proximal MCA occlusion. These results may support a possible detrimental effect of low body temperature on clot lysis and recanalization. PMID:23807851

  5. Marvels, Mysteries, and Misconceptions of Vascular Compensation to Peripheral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    ZIEGLER, MATTHEW A.; DISTASI, MATTHEW R.; BILLS, RANDALL G.; MILLER, STEVEN J.; ALLOOSH, MOUHAMAD; MURPHY, MICHAEL P.; AKINGBA, A. GEORGE; STUREK, MICHAEL; DALSING, MICHAEL C.; UNTHANK, JOSEPH L.

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a major health problem and there is a significant need to develop therapies to prevent its progression to claudication and critical limb ischemia. Promising results in rodent models of arterial occlusion have generally failed to predict clinical success and led to questions of their relevance. While sub-optimal models may have contributed to the lack of progress, we suggest that advancement has also been hindered by misconceptions of the human capacity for compensation and the specific vessels which are of primary importance. We present and summarize new and existing data from humans, Ossabaw miniature pigs, and rodents which provide compelling evidence that natural compensation to occlusion of a major artery (i) may completely restore perfusion, (ii) occurs in specific pre-existing small arteries, rather than the distal vasculature, via mechanisms involving flow-mediated dilation and remodeling (iii) is impaired by cardiovascular risk factors which suppress the flow-mediated mechanisms and (iv) can be restored by reversal of endothelial dysfunction. We propose that restoration of the capacity for flow-mediated dilation and remodeling in small arteries represents a largely unexplored potential therapeutic opportunity to enhance compensation for major arterial occlusion and prevent the progression to critical limb ischemia in the peripheral circulation. PMID:20141596

  6. Rescue AVE Stent Placement for Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Occlusion During Diagnostic Angiography.

    PubMed

    van Dijk D; Ernst; Six; Plokker

    1996-06-01

    In a 65-year-old male with coronary artery disease a proximal occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery occurred during diagnostic coronary angiography. The most likely cause was an occlusive dissection. This resulted in acute myocardial ischemia and immediate cardiogenic shock. The decision was made to proceed to emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). After balloon dilatation, a 3.5 mm AVE stent was deployed successfully at the site of the lesion. This resulted in a satisfactory angiographic result and an immediate improvement of the clinical picture. We conclude that placement of an AVE stent can provide a means for restoring flow in case of acute occlusive dissection during coronary angiography.

  7. Total knee arthroplasty after ipsilateral peripheral arterial bypass graft: acute arterial occlusion is a risk with or without tourniquet use.

    PubMed

    Turner, N S; Pagnano, M W; Sim, F H

    2001-04-01

    A retrospective review was done of the total joint registry at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, which contains the computerized records of 19,808 consecutive total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) including primary and revision that were performed from 1970 to 1997. From that database, 9 patients were found to have had a TKA after an ipsilateral peripheral arterial reconstruction. One patient had had bilateral peripheral arterial reconstruction followed by bilateral TKA, and 10 TKAs were reviewed. The medical records were reviewed retrospectively with particular attention given to the type of peripheral bypass surgery performed, the bypass graft source, the timing of the bypass surgery relative to TKA, the use of a tourniquet at the time of TKA, and the occurrence of complications after TKA. Of the 10 TKAs, 2 patients had acute arterial occlusion. One patient had a tourniquet, and the other patient did not. There was not a statistical correlation between graft type, tourniquet use, timing of surgery, postoperative anticoagulation, and occurrence of arterial occlusion. There is a marked risk of acute thrombosis of an ipsilateral arterial bypass graft after TKA that cannot be eliminated by performing the TKA without a tourniquet. Careful monitoring of the vascular status of the limb is required in the early postoperative period to detect arterial compromise. Should limb ischemia be suspected, an emergent vascular surgery consultation is required, and arterial flow to the lower extremity must be re-established.

  8. Stent-assisted mechanical recanalization for symptomatic subacute or chronic middle cerebral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong; Ma, Ji; Li, Teng-Fei; Zhu, Ming; Han, Xin-Wei; Shui, Shao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and short-term effects of treating patients with subacute or chronic middle cerebral artery (M1) occlusion by stent-assisted mechanical recanalization. Six patients with cerebral arteries occlusion underwent surgery. Six cerebral arteries occlusion in 5 patients were successfully recanalized. On postoperative day 1, four patients’ symptoms were relieved and two patients’ symptoms were exacerbated, of which one was significantly improved after 3 days, the other one’s symptoms were recovered to preoperative levels in 2 weeks. No patients died after surgery. No stroke or transient ischemic attack occurred. The average follow-up of was 4.2 months, no worsening of condition, recurrence or death occurred. The results indicate that for patients with subacute or chronic middle cerebral artery (M1) occlusion, mechanical recanalization was technically feasible under the premise of strict case screening. Mechanical recanalization is able to improve ischemic symptoms and promote dysfunction restoration. But its long-term effect remains to be evaluated by further large samples, long-term follow-up studies. PMID:26885148

  9. Effective intraluminal shunt in carotid endarterectomy for carotid artery near occlusion: A technical report.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yoichiro; Maruyama, Daisuke; Akagi, Yojiro; Iihara, Koji

    2017-07-21

    Carotid artery near occlusion is a critical degree of stenosis whereby blood flow is decreased and the distal cervical and intracranial internal carotid arteries (ICAs) are prone to collapse. Considering the diminished perfusion and the risk of progression to total occlusion and periocclusive embolism, we performed carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for carotid artery near occlusion. Accurate evaluation of tandem stenosis or patency of the post-stenotic ICA in carotid artery near occlusion is often difficult preoperatively. Thus, we performed CEA in a hybrid operating room where intraoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and endovascular angioplasty or stenting for distal lesions can be performed if necessary. In addition, to evaluate the distal ICA intraoperatively, we used an intraluminal shunt for shunt angiography, with injection of contrast material through the shunt tube, as a replacement for conventional DSA. Furthermore, an intraluminal shunt held the collapsed lumen open and provided a scaffold for suturing, which prevented postoperative stenosis of the distal ICA. The present report is intended to underline the merits of intraluminal shunt as a replacement for conventional DSA and as a scaffold for suturing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Total left main coronary artery occlusion after aortic aneurysm repair and valve replacement.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Lemole, G M; Wolf, N W; Dowinsky, S; Untereker, W; Spagna, P M

    1991-02-01

    A 38-year-old woman with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery secondary to cannulation during aortic valve replacement is presented. The clinical course was characterized by progressive left ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure. Recognition of this potential problem when it occurs is important as to institute therapeutic measures which may interrupt a patient's progressive clinical deterioration.

  11. Memory Dysfunction in Caudate Infarction Caused by Heubner's Recurring Artery Occlusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizuta, Hideko; Motomura, Naoyasu

    2006-01-01

    We report five cases with caudate infarction due to Heubner's recurring artery occlusion, in which we conducted detailed memory examinations in terms of explicit memory and implicit memory. We performed the auditory verbal learning test as explicit memory tasks, and motor and cognitive procedural memory tasks, developed by Komori, as implicit…

  12. Memory Dysfunction in Caudate Infarction Caused by Heubner's Recurring Artery Occlusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizuta, Hideko; Motomura, Naoyasu

    2006-01-01

    We report five cases with caudate infarction due to Heubner's recurring artery occlusion, in which we conducted detailed memory examinations in terms of explicit memory and implicit memory. We performed the auditory verbal learning test as explicit memory tasks, and motor and cognitive procedural memory tasks, developed by Komori, as implicit…

  13. Surgical management of peritonitis secondary to acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute arterial mesenteric ischemia in the early stages is now possible using modern computed tomography with intravenous contrast enhancement and imaging in the arterial and/or portal phase. Most patients have acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion, and a large proportion of these patients will develop peritonitis prior to mesenteric revascularization, and explorative laparotomy will therefore be necessary to evaluate the extent and severity of intestinal ischemia, and to perform bowel resections. The establishment of a hybrid operating room in vascular units in hospitals is most important to be able to perform successful intestinal revascularization. This review outlines current frontline surgical strategies to improve survival and minimize bowel morbidity in patients with peritonitis secondary to acute SMA occlusion. Explorative laparotomy needs to be performed first. Curative treatment is based upon intestinal revascularization followed by bowel resection. If no vascular imaging has been carried out, SMA angiography is performed. In case of embolic occlusion of the SMA, open embolectomy is performed followed by angiography. In case of thrombotic occlusion, the occlusive lesion can be recanalized retrograde from an exposed SMA, the guidewire snared from either the femoral or brachial artery, and stented with standard devices from these access sites. Bowel resections and sometimes gall bladder removal due to transmural infarctions are performed at initial laparotomy, leaving definitive bowel reconstructions to a planned second look laparotomy, according to the principles of damage control surgery. Patients with peritonitis secondary to acute SMA occlusion should be managed by both the general and vascular surgeon, and a hybrid revascularization approach is of utmost importance to improve outcomes. PMID:25110423

  14. Carotid artery stenting: clinical and procedural implications for near-occlusion stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Salmerón, R J; Gamero, M A; Carrascosa, C; Pérez, S; de Araujo, D; Marcos, F; Rodríguez de Leiras, S; Vizcaíno, M; Caparrós, C; Izquierdo, G

    2013-01-01

    The advisability of implanting a stent in carotid near-occlusion stenosis is a controversial topic. We have assessed procedural and clinical implications of stent implantation for carotid artery disease with near occlusion. We included 205 patients who underwent carotid artery revascularisation with a stent. The group of patients with near-occlusion stenosis (n=54)was compared to the rest of the population (n=151). No differences were found between groups for age, sex, and the percentage of symptomatic patients (three-quarters of the population). Carotid stent revascularisation for near-occlusion stenosis presented a high procedural success rate (96%) similar to that of revascularisation processes for other lesions (98%). Stenting in cases of near-occlusion stenosis required increased use of proximal protection (54% vs. 20.5%, P<.001) and predilation (33% vs. 17%, P=.01). The process to repair near-occlusion stenosis cause increased detachment of plaque, as shown by higher percentages of macroscopic plaque captured by protection devices (18.5% vs. 7%, P=.01) and of perioperative ischaemic brain lesions (47% vs 31%, P = .07). At 30 days of follow-up, the tendency toward adverse neurological events (death, major and minor stroke) was higher in the near-occlusion group (9.2% vs. 3.2%, P=.08). Stent revascularisation for near-occlusion carotid stenosis has a high procedural success rate; however, its higher plaque load was responsible for the increased rate of ischaemic brain lesions and adverse neurovascular events at 30 days post-procedure. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Early detection and differentiation of venous and arterial occlusion in skin flaps using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and autofluorescence spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Caigang; Chen, Shuo; Chui, Christopher Hoe-Kong; Tan, Bien-Keem; Liu, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Our previous preclinical study demonstrated that both visible diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence spectroscopy, each of which yields a different set of physiological information, can predict skin flap viability with high accuracy in a MacFarlane rat dorsal skin flap model. In this report, we further evaluated our technique for the early detection and differentiation of venous occlusion and arterial occlusion in a rat groin flap model. We performed both diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence measurements on the skin flap model and statistically differentiated between flaps with and without occlusions as well as between flaps with venous occlusion and those with arterial occlusion based on these non-invasive optical measurements. Our preliminary results suggested that visible diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence spectroscopy can be potentially used clinically to detect both venous and arterial occlusion and differentiate one from the other accurately at an early time point. PMID:26977363

  16. Early detection and differentiation of venous and arterial occlusion in skin flaps using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and autofluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Caigang; Chen, Shuo; Chui, Christopher Hoe-Kong; Tan, Bien-Keem; Liu, Quan

    2016-02-01

    Our previous preclinical study demonstrated that both visible diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence spectroscopy, each of which yields a different set of physiological information, can predict skin flap viability with high accuracy in a MacFarlane rat dorsal skin flap model. In this report, we further evaluated our technique for the early detection and differentiation of venous occlusion and arterial occlusion in a rat groin flap model. We performed both diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence measurements on the skin flap model and statistically differentiated between flaps with and without occlusions as well as between flaps with venous occlusion and those with arterial occlusion based on these non-invasive optical measurements. Our preliminary results suggested that visible diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence spectroscopy can be potentially used clinically to detect both venous and arterial occlusion and differentiate one from the other accurately at an early time point.

  17. High frequency rotational ablation: an alternative in treating coronary artery stenoses and occlusions.

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, U; Erbel, R; Rupprecht, H J; Weidmann, S; Meyer, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To prove the safety and effectiveness of high frequency rotational ablation of coronary artery stenoses and occlusion in humans. SUBJECTS--106 patients with symptoms (91 men, 15 women) who had 67 significant stenoses, mainly types B and C, and 46-chronic occlusions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mean change in diameter stenosis after rotational angioplasty alone and in combination with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty immediately after treatment and 24 hours and six months later; restenosis rates at six months; complication of treatment. RESULTS--Rotational ablation could not be used in five stenoses and 16 chronic occlusions because of inability to reach or cross the lesion with the Rotablator guide wire. In four cases rotational ablation failed. Initial angiographic and clinical success by rotational ablation was achieved in 40 of the 67 stenoses (60%) and in 18 of the 46 chronic occlusions (39%). Additional balloon angioplasty was performed in 45 patients, increasing the success rates to 79% and 54%, respectively. In the 62 stenoses treated by rotational ablation the angiographic diameter stenoses were reduced from 76% (SD 14%) to 32% (14%) after Rotablator treatment alone and from 75% (11%) to 33% (17%) with additional balloon angioplasty. In the 30 chronic occlusions treated by rotational ablation the angiographic diameter stenoses were reduced to 38% (18%). At six months angiographic restenosis was evident in nine of the 25 (36%) stenoses treated with rotational ablation alone, in seven of the 22 (32%) stenoses treated with rotational and balloon angioplasty, and in 14 of the 24 (58%) chronic occlusions. There were no procedural deaths and two patients (2%) underwent emergency coronary artery bypass grafting. Although no transmural infarction occurred, there were five (6%) non-Q wave infarctions (two embolic side branch occlusions, two subacute occlusions, and one acute occlusion). Clinically insignificant slight increases in creatine kinase

  18. Paraplegia after aortic and superior mesenteric artery stenting for occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Hans, Sachinder S; Ngo, William; McAllister, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Paraplegia after endovascular therapy for aortic and visceral artery occlusive disease is an extremely uncommon occurrence. Two cases of paraplegia after placement of an aortic covered stent for infrarenal aortic stenosis and a superior mesenteric artery stent for chronic visceral ischemia are presented. In both patients, embolization of the arterial supply to the spinal cord was the presumed cause. One patient had a slight recovery after intense physical therapy and rehabilitation. The second patient did not have any recovery from her paraplegia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Suction Thrombectomy of Thrombotic Occlusion of the Subclavian Artery in a Case of Takayasu's Arteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Purkayastha, Sukalyan; Jayadevan, E.R.; Kapilamoorthy, T.R.; Gupta, A.K. E-mail: gupta@sctimst.ac.in

    2006-04-15

    Takayasu's arteritis, also known as pulseless disease, is a chronic inflammatory arteritis affecting large vessels, predominantly the aorta and its main branches. Vessel inflammation leads to wall thickening, fibrosis, stenosis, and thrombus formation. Percutaneous removal of arterial thrombus with the use of several devices has been reported, with mixed results. We present a case of Takayasu's arteritis with thrombotic occlusion of the subclavian artery in which pulsed urokinase injection and suction thrombectomy were used to revascularize a threatened limb and to establish the sole arterial supply to the brain.

  20. Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm Associated with Celiac Axis Occlusion Treated Using Endovascular Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Biswajit; Kuhan, Ganesh; Johnson, Brian; Nicholson, Anthony A.; Ettles, Duncan F.

    2006-10-15

    The case of a 30-year-old woman with a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery and associated celiac axis occlusion is presented. The patient was successfully treated with celiac artery recanalization and placement of a covered stent within the superior mesenteric artery. Follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months and 3 years demonstrated patency of the covered stent and continued exclusion of the aneurysm. Although the long-term success of this procedure is unknown this management option should be considered where facilities are available, to reduce the increased morbidity associated with open surgical procedure.

  1. Occlusion of the artery of Adamkiewicz after hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mutch, Jennifer A J; Johansson, Joyce E

    2011-04-01

    The artery of Adamkiewicz is the most significant tributary of the anterior spinal artery in the midthoracic region; the occlusion of this artery results in a well-described phenomenon consisting of paraplegia with loss of the sensation of pain, temperature, and touch as well as loss of sphincter control. Proprioception and vibration sense are typically preserved. Although this phenomenon has been associated with several surgeries as well as preexisting aortic abnormalities, the literature thus far has not reported this as a complication of hip or knee arthroplasty. Two case histories are presented.

  2. Posterior cerebral artery laterality on magnetic resonance angiography predicts long-term functional outcome in middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Masahiko; Miki, Kazunori; Ishibashi, Satoru; Tomita, Makoto; Kamata, Tomoyuki; Fujigasaki, Hiroto; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2013-02-01

    Prominent posterior cerebral artery (PCA) laterality upon 3-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography is often encountered in patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion. We hypothesized that this sign is correlated with improved functional outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Fifty acute ischemic stroke patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion were treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator from April 2007 to October 2009. All patients routinely underwent initial (first 3 hours) magnetic resonance scans on admission, and additional follow-up (14-21 days after stroke onset) computed tomography scans. Two film readers blinded to all clinical information assessed the presence or absence of PCA laterality on magnetic resonance angiography. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and radiologic data on all patients. Out of 50 patients, 20 showed PCA laterality on magnetic resonance angiography. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score 7 days after stroke onset was significantly lower (P=0.007), and infarct volume on follow-up computed tomography was significantly smaller (P=0.009) in patients with PCA laterality than in patients without this sign. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed an adjusted odds ratio of 8.49 for a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 at 6 months) in patients with PCA laterality (95% CI: 1.82 to 55.8, P=0.005). The presence of PCA laterality on magnetic resonance angiography before intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator can be used as a predictor of favorable functional outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion, probably due to improvement of recanalization rate.

  3. Distinctive patterns on CT angiography characterize acute internal carotid artery occlusion subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji Man; Lee, Sung Eun; Lee, Seong-Joon; Lee, Jin Soo; Demchuk, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Noninvasive computed tomography angiography (CTA) is widely used in acute ischemic stroke, even for diagnosing various internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion sites, which often need cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) confirmation. We evaluated whether clinical outcomes vary depending on the DSA-based occlusion sites and explored correlating features on baseline CTA that predict DSA-based occlusion site. We analyzed consecutive patients with acute ICA occlusion who underwent DSA and CTA. Occlusion site was classified into cervical, cavernous, petrous, and carotid terminus segments by DSA confirmation. Clinical and radiological features associated with poor outcome at 3 months (3–6 of modified Rankin scale) were analyzed. Baseline CTA findings were categorized according to carotid occlusive shape (stump, spearhead, and streak), presence of cervical calcification, Willisian occlusive patterns (T-type, L-type, and I-type), and status of leptomeningeal collaterals (LMC). We identified 49 patients with occlusions in the cervical (n = 17), cavernous (n = 22), and carotid terminus (n = 10) portions: initial NIH Stroke Scale (11.4 ± 4.2 vs 16.1 ± 3.7 vs 18.2 ± 5.1; P < 0.001), stroke volume (27.9 ± 29.6 vs 127.4 ± 112.6 vs 260.3 ± 151.8 mL; P < 0.001), and poor outcome (23.5 vs 77.3 vs 90.0%; P < 0.001). Cervical portion occlusion was characterized as rounded stump (82.4%) with calcification (52.9%) and fair LMC (94.1%); cavernous as spearhead occlusion (68.2%) with fair LMC (86.3%) and no calcification (95.5%); and terminus as streak-like occlusive pattern (60.0%) with poor LMC (60.0%), and no calcification (100%) on CTA. Our study indicates that acute ICA occlusion can be subtyped into cervical, cavernous, and terminus. Distinctive findings on initial CTA can help differentiate ICA-occlusion subtypes with specific characteristics. PMID:28151850

  4. Branch retinal artery occlusion in a patient with one eye. Laser Nd:YAG approach.

    PubMed

    Solans Pérez-Larraya, A M; Ortega-Molina, J M; Salgado-Miranda, A D; García-Serrano, J L

    2016-06-01

    An 82-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department complaining of a sudden painless visual loss in his left eye (OS). He was diagnosed with branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) with a visible embolus. In 2012, he had a central artery occlusion (CRAO) in his right eye (OD). An embolysis with Nd:YAG laser was attempted, the retinal arterial blood flow was restored completely and the visual field was improved, with no secondary complications. Nd:YAG laser embolysis is a treatment to be considered in patients with BRAO with a visible embolus. The risks and benefits of the procedure should be evaluated, comparing it with possible permanent loss of visual acuity and other vascular complications caused by BRAO. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypereosinophilic syndrome accompanying gangrene of the toes with peripheral arterial occlusion--a case report.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Satoru; Masaki, Ichiro; Furuyama, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    The authors herein report the case of a teenage boy who presented with peripheral arterial occlusion of both upper and lower extremities associated with hypereosinophilia. During a 10-year follow-up, corticosteroid therapy was continued for the treatment of hypereosinophilia. The patient underwent bilateral lumbar sympathectomies because of severe ischemia of the bilateral lower extremities with gangrene of the toes. Based on the progress of his disease over the past 10 years, he was suspected to have idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) accompanied by peripheral arterial obstruction. Idiopathic HES is a disease characterized by unexpected hypereosinophilia, which may lead to organ damage. This is a very rare case of peripheral arterial occlusion associated with idiopathic HIS.

  6. Complete occlusion of the proximal subclavian artery post-CABG: Presentation and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Mouhannad M; Ravindran, Aravindhan; Marcuzzi, Daniel W; Chisholm, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic disease of the proximal left subclavian artery is an uncommon cause of angina in the post-coronary artery bypass graft patient, and is termed coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. Typical manifestations include cardiac symptoms of angina and noncardiac symptoms of lightheadedness, left arm numbness or weakness, and a difference in blood pressure of more than 20 mmHg between both arms. A case of complete proximal occlusion of the subclavian artery is reported. The clinical picture, investigations and treatment are described. Historical treatments of occlusive disease include surgical bypass graft and, more recently, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. The patient underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting by a retrograde approach, with an excellent short-term response, but ultimately required a carotid subclavian bypass due to restenosis. PMID:18612504

  7. A Lumped Parameter Method to Calculate the Effect of Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion on Anterior Cerebral Artery Pressure Waveform.

    PubMed

    Abdi, M; Navidbakhsh, M; Razmkon, A

    2016-03-01

    Numerical modeling of biological structures would be very helpful tool to analyze hundreds of human body phenomena and also diseases diagnosis. One physiologic phenomenon is blood circulatory system and heart hemodynamic performance that can be simulated by utilizing lumped method. In this study, we can predict hemodynamic behavior of one artery of circulatory system (anterior cerebral artery) when disease such as internal carotid artery occlusion is occurred. Pressure-flow simulation is one the leading common approaches for modeling of circulatory system behavior and forecasts of hemodynamic in numerous physiological conditions. In this paper, by using lumped model (electrical analogy), CV system is simulated in MATLAB software (SIMULINK environment). The performance of healthy blood circulation and heart is modeled and the obtained results used for further analyses. The stenosis of internal carotid artery at different rates was, then, induced in the circuit and the effects are studied. In stenosis cases, the effects of internal carotid artery occlusion on  left anterior cerebral artery pressure waveform are investigated. The findings of this study may have implications not only for understanding the behavior of human biological system at healthy condition but also for diagnosis of diseases in circulatory and cardiovascular system of human body.

  8. Complex neurological symptoms in bilateral thalamic stroke due to Percheron artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Paola; Manganotti, Paolo; Moretti, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The artery of Percheron is a rare anatomical variant where a single thalamic perforating artery arises from the proximal posterior cerebral artery (P1 segment) between the basilar artery and the posterior communicating artery and supplies the rostral mesencephalon and both paramedian territories of the thalami. Almost one-third of human brains present this variant. Occlusion of the artery of Percheron mostly results in a bilateral medial thalamic infarction, which usually manifests with altered consciousness (including coma), vertical gaze paresis, and cognitive disturbance. The presentation is similar to the “top of the basilar syndrome”, and early recognition should be prompted. We describe the case of a young female with this vessel variant who experienced a bilateral thalamic stroke. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated bilateral thalamic infarcts and a truncated artery of Percheron. Occlusion of the vessel was presumably due to embolism from a patent foramen ovale. Thrombolysis was performed, with incomplete symptom remission, cognitive impairment, and persistence of speech disorders. Early recognition and treatment of posterior circulation strokes is mandatory, and further investigation for underlying stroke etiologies is needed. PMID:28053539

  9. The Characteristics of Retinal Emboli and its Association With Vascular Reperfusion in Retinal Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwan Hyuk; Ahn, Seong Joon; Cho, Joon Hee; Jung, Cheolkyu; Han, Moon-Ku; Park, Sang Jun; Park, Kyu Hyung; Woo, Se Joon

    2016-09-01

    To analyze the characteristics of retinal emboli and their association with vascular reperfusion in retinal artery occlusion (RAO). In this retrospective comparative case series, we analyzed emboli in patients with acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) or branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) and visible emboli, and analyzed vascular reperfusion in patients with visible emboli causing blockage of perfusion. The patients were divided into emboli "movement" and "no movement" groups and their vascular reperfusion states were compared. There were 52/248 (21%) eyes with RAO and visible retinal emboli (31/187 [17%] eyes with CRAO and 21/61 [34%] eyes with BRAO) showing various embolic features. Platelet-fibrin emboli were observed most commonly, and showed the earliest and highest rate of movement. In the movement group, which comprised platelet-fibrin (60%) and cholesterol (40%) emboli, early complete reperfusion was observed in 80% of eyes; however, 67% of eyes in the no movement group, comprising cholesterol (67%) and calcific (33%) emboli, showed late incomplete reperfusion. There were no cases of permanent vascular blockage. The mechanisms of vascular reperfusion could be summarized as complete degradation, peripheral migration, partial dislodgement, angiophagy, and collateral circulation. Retinal emboli in RAO patients have various characteristics that affect their movement. Movement of emboli may affect vascular reperfusion. Various mechanisms are associated with vascular reperfusion, including in cases without movement of emboli. These mechanisms may apply to cerebrovascular occlusion and stroke in general.

  10. Posterior Ciliary Artery Occlusion Caused by Hyaluronic Acid Injections Into the Forehead: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiu Zhuo; Hu, Jun Yan; Wu, Peng Sen; Yu, Sheng Bo; Kikkawa, Don O; Lu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Although cosmetic facial soft tissue fillers are generally safe and effective, improper injections can lead to devastating and irreversible consequences. We represent the first known case of posterior ciliary artery occlusion caused by hyaluronic acid. A 41-year-old female presented with right visual loss 7 hours after receiving cosmetic hyaluronic acid injections into her forehead. Examination revealed no light perception in the right eye and multiple dark ischemic area of injection over the forehead and nose. The right fundus revealed a pink retina with optic nerve edema. Fluorescein angiogram showed several filling defects in the choroidal circulation and late hyperfluorescence in the choroid. A right posterior ciliary artery occlusion and embolic occlusion of facial artery braches was diagnosed. With hyaluronidase injection, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, oral aspirin, oral acetazolamide and dexamethasone venotransfuse treatment, the patient's forehead and nasal skin improved and vision recovered to hand movements. With proper technique, vascular occlusion is rare following facial filler injection. Vision consequences can be severe if filler emboli enter the ocular circulation. Physicians should be aware of this potential side effect, recognize its presentation, and be knowledgeable of effective management.

  11. Partial aortic occlusion and cerebral venous steal: venous effects of arterial manipulation in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Pranevicius, Osvaldas; Pranevicius, Mindaugas; Liebeskind, David S

    2011-05-01

    Acute ischemic stroke therapy emphasizes early arterial clot lysis or removal. Partial aortic occlusion has recently emerged as an alternative hemodynamic approach to augment cerebral perfusion in acute ischemic stroke. The exact mechanism of cerebral flow augmentation with partial aortic occlusion remains unclear and may involve more than simple diversion of arterial blood flow from the lower body to cerebral collateral circulation. The cerebral venous steal hypothesis suggests that even a small increase in tissue pressure in the ischemic area will divert blood flow to surrounding regions with lesser tissue pressures. This may cause no-reflow (absence of flow after restoration of arterial patency) in the ischemic core and "luxury perfusion" in the surrounding regions. Such maldistribution may be reversed with increased venous pressure titrated to avoid changes in intracranial pressure. We propose that partial aortic occlusion enhances perfusion in the brain by offsetting cerebral venous steal. Partial aortic occlusion redistributes blood volume into the upper part of the body, manifested by an increase in central venous pressure. Increased venous pressure recruits the collapsed vascular network and, by eliminating cerebral venous steal, corrects perifocal perfusion maldistribution analogous to positive end-expiratory pressure recruitment of collapsed airways to decrease ventilation/perfusion mismatch in the lungs.

  12. Influence of Puncture Site on Radial Artery Occlusion After Transradial Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xi-Le; Fu, Xiang-Hua; Gu, Xin-Shun; Wang, Yan-Bo; Li, Wei; Wei, Li-Ye; Fan, Yan-Ming; Bai, Shi-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of radial artery occlusion (RAO) needs particular attention in transradial intervention (TRI). Therefore, reducing vascular occlusion has an important clinical significance. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate puncture site during TRI through comparing the occurrence of RAO between the different puncture sites to reduce the occurrence of RAO after TRI. Methods: We prospectively assessed the occurrence of RAO in 606 consecutive patients undergoing TRI. Artery occlusion was evaluated with Doppler ultrasound in 2 days and 1 year after the intervention. Risk factors for RAO were evaluated using a multivariate model analysis. Results: Of the 606 patients, the RAO occurred in 56 patients. Compared with TRI at 2–5 cm away from the radius styloid process, the odds ratio (OR) for occlusion risk at 0 cm and 1 cm were 9.65 (P = 0.033) and 8.90 (P = 0.040), respectively. The RAO occurred in the ratio of the arterial diameter to the sheath diameter ≤1 (OR = 2.45, P = 0.004). Conclusion: Distal puncture sites (0–1 cm away from the radius styloid process) can lead to a higher rate of RAO. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01979627; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01979627?term = NCT01979627 and rank = 1. PMID:27064032

  13. [Protective action of 21-aminosteroids in post-ischemic shock (splanchnic artery occlusion). Experimental model].

    PubMed

    Mangione, S; Spoto, M R; D'Alessandro, N

    1992-10-01

    In anesthetized Wistar female rats a post-ischemic shock have been induced by splanchnic artery occlusion (S.A.O.). In these condition all animals died at 90 min., past release of occlusion and splanchnic reperfusion. 100% of pretreated rats with 21-Aminosteroids (U74389F) at doses of 1.5 mg.kg-1 survive over 3-6 hours, and 50% over 12 hours. Moreover, TNF alpha in these animals decrease significantly (p < 0.05). These results shown that 21-Aminosteroids can cause protective activity on lipoperoxidative damage in post-ischemic shock.

  14. Small bowel volvulus in pregnancy with associated superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Esterson, Yonah B; Villani, Robert; Dela Cruz, Ronald A; Friedman, Barak; Grimaldi, Gregory M

    Here we report the case of a pregnant 28-year-old who presented with acute upper abdominal pain. CT demonstrated midgut volvulus with short segment occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Emergent detorsion of the small bowel was performed, at which time underlying intestinal malrotation was discovered. Following detorsion, the SMA had a bounding pulse and did not require thrombectomy or revascularization. Fewer than 25 cases of midgut volvulus during pregnancy have been reported over the past 20years. To our knowledge, this is the first report of maternal midgut volvulus in which imaging captures the resultant occlusion of the SMA.

  15. [The Application of Internal Iliac Artery Balloon Occlusion in Pernicious Placenta Previa].

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Xing-Hui; You, Yong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhou, Rong; Xing, Ai-Yun; Zhang, Li; Ning, Gang; Zhao, Fu-Min; Li, Kai-Ming

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical application value of internal iliac artery balloon occlusion in pernicious placenta previa. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the patients of pernicious placenta previa in a single center from Jan, 2010 to Jan, 2015. The patients were divided into two groups, internal iliac artery balloon occlusion group and the control group without endovascular intervention. Blood loss in operation, volume of transfused blood products, caesarean hysterectomy, operating time, hospital days after operation and postoperative morbidity were compared between the two groups. The balloon occlusion group had significantly less blood loss, the volume of transfused blood products, caesarean hysterectomy, hospital day after operation than the control group had. There was no statistical difference in operating time, intensive care units (ICU), hypotension, infection, hypoxemia, bladder injury, bowel obstruction, neonatal asphyxia between the two groups. The balloon occlusion group had significantly higher rate in coagulopathy, hypoalbuminemia, electrolyte imbalance. Among the patients whose uterus were preserved, the blood loss was not significantly difference between the two groups. Among the patients with the complication of placenta accreta, caesarean hysterectomy was less in balloon group, and blood loss between the two groups was not significantly different. Among the patients without placenta accrete, the blood loss was less in balloon group, and caesarean hysterectomy between the two groups was not significantly different. The risk of hysterectomy in balloon group was related to placenta accreta, uterine arteries engorgement, placental invasive serosa, taking placenta by hand, placental invasive bladder, barrel-shaped thickening of lower uterine segment, unable to remove placenta. Internal iliac artery balloon occlusion is an effective treatment for pernicious placenta previa.

  16. Cerebral Arterial Calcification Is an Imaging Prognostic Marker for Revascularization Treatment of Acute Middle Cerebral Arterial Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Joon; Hong, Ji Man; Lee, Manyong; Huh, Kyoon; Choi, Jin Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose To study the significance of intracranial artery calcification as a prognostic marker for acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing revascularization treatment after middle cerebral artery (MCA) trunk occlusion. Methods Patients with acute MCA trunk occlusion, who underwent intravenous and/or intra-arterial revascularization treatment, were enrolled. Intracranial artery calcification scores were calculated by counting calcified intracranial arteries among major seven arteries on computed tomographic angiography. Patients were divided into high (HCB; score ≥3) or low calcification burden (LCB; score <3) groups. Demographic, imaging, and outcome data were compared, and whether HCB is a prognostic factor was evaluated. Grave prognosis was defined as modified Rankin Scale 5-6 for this study. Results Of 80 enrolled patients, the HCB group comprised 15 patients, who were older, and more commonly had diabetes than patients in the LCB group. Initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores did not differ (HCB 13.3±2.7 vs. LCB 14.6±3.8) between groups. The final good reperfusion after revascularization treatment (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2b-3, HCB 66.7% vs. LCB 69.2%) was similarly achieved in both groups. However, the HCB group had significantly higher NIHSS scores at discharge (16.0±12.3 vs. 7.9±8.3), and more frequent grave outcome at 3 months (57.1% vs. 22.0%) than the LCB group. HCB was proven as an independent predictor for grave outcome at 3 months when several confounding factors were adjusted (odds ratio 4.135, 95% confidence interval, 1.045-16.359, P=0.043). Conclusions Intracranial HCB was associated with grave prognosis in patients who have undergone revascularization for acute MCA trunk occlusion. PMID:25692109

  17. [The choice of operative method for the arterial occlusion in the femoro-popliteo-tibial segment].

    PubMed

    Nikul'nikov, P I; Guch, A A; Bytsaĭ, A N; Akhmad, D; Danilets, A O

    2006-10-01

    The results of surgical treatment of 198 patients suffering atherosclerotic occlusion of the femoro-popliteo-tibial segment arteries were analyzed, of them endarterectomy from superficial femoral artery was performed in 75 (37.9%) patients, femoro-popliteal shunting using autovena--in 93 (47%), synthetic prosthesis--in 17 (8.6%), in 4 (2%)--distal anastomosis was formatted with "hanged" segment of popliteal artery, revascularization of the limb via the deep femoral artery system was done in 9 (4.5%) patients. Good immediate result was noted in 86.4% patients, in 2 years and more--in 68.6%. Comparative analysis of methods of the femoro-popliteo-tibial segment arteries reconstruction had trusted, that more stable indices of hemodynamics were achieved after performance of autovenous shunting with formation of distal anastomosis via proximally than the knee joint fissure localisation.

  18. Treatment of three pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms associated with coeliac artery occlusion and splenic artery aneurysm: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jibiki, M; Inoue, Y; Iwai, T; Sugano, N; Igari, T; Koike, M

    2005-02-01

    A case of three pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDA) aneurysms associated with coeliac artery occlusion and a concomitant splenic arterial aneurysm is described. Surgical treatment was used because it was anticipated that the hepatic blood supply would be obstructed completely if percutaneous transluminal embolization for three PDA aneurysms were performed. Splenectomy in continuity with the splenic artery aneurysm and PDA aneurysmectomies were performed, and infrarenal abdominal aorto-splenic artery bypass was accomplished using a 6mm ringed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. The postoperative course was uneventful. Graft patency and successful aneurysm ablation were confirmed using MRA and intravenous DSA. Arterial histology revealed segmental arterial mediolysis. At 2-year follow-up, the patient was well and asymptomatic. A literature review of PDA aneurysms is presented.

  19. Dissection of Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery Due to Balloon Guiding Catheter Resulting in Asymptomatic Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Suha; Yilmaz, Guliz

    2016-01-01

    Dissection of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare condition that accounts for a significant proportion of ischemic strokes in young adults. Iatrogenic dissection as a complication of neurointerventional procedures is a traumatic dissection which has been reported relatively rare in the literature. In this report, a case of dissection of the ICA is reported that was caused by repetitive movement of the balloon guiding catheter during stent-assisted thrombectomy (SAT), resulting in occlusion of the ICA. PMID:27853491

  20. Unusual Combination of Total Occlusion of Left Main Coronary Artery and Heart Failure with Pulmonary Hemosiderosis: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Elayda, MacArthur A.; Mathur, Virendra S.; Hall, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    A case of total occlusion of the left main coronary artery, congestive heart failure, and pulmonary hemosiderosis in a 54-year-old man is reported. Cardiac catheterization showed total occlusion of the left main coronary artery, subtotal occlusion of the right coronary artery, severely deranged hemodynamics, and an akinetic left ventricle except for a hypokinetic posterobasal segment. A radionuclide left ventricular performance study revealed an ejection fraction of 0.16 with diffuse biventricular hypokinesis and dilatation. Despite all the risk factors, the patient underwent a total of six saphenous vein grafts without perioperative or immediate postoperative complications. Images PMID:15227138

  1. [Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion secondary to cataract surgery in a patient with persistent hyaloid artery].

    PubMed

    Doménech-Aracil, N; Montero-Hernández, J; Gracia-García, A; Cervera-Taulet, E

    2014-04-01

    A 72 year-old woman referred for cataract surgery in her right eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a retrocapsular fibrotic tissue in communication with the optic nerve, suggesting a persistent hyaloid artery (PAH). A posterior capsule rupture unexpectedly occurred during lens hydrodissection. One day after surgery, fundus examination showed a combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion. PAH is uncommon, but its presence may alert us of this possible complication during cataract surgery. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Posttraumatic innominate artery aneurysm with occlusion of the common carotid artery at its origin by an intimal flap.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J D; Sapienza, P; Lefkowitz, D M; Thorpe, P E; McGregor, P E; Agrawal, D K; Samocha, M S

    1993-07-01

    Blunt trauma involving the innominate and carotid arteries is a rare occurrence that can be lethal or have serious neurologic sequelae. To our knowledge this is the first reported case in the international literature describing the association of posttraumatic innominate artery aneurysm with total occlusion and thrombosis of the common carotid artery at its origin by an intimal flap. The diagnostic problems created by this unusual injury are discussed. In this case the patency of the distal portion of the common and internal carotid arteries was demonstrated by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), whereas color duplex and digital arteriographic studies were unsuccessful. This demonstration was crucial to patient management. Since no studies are available comparing color duplex imaging, conventional arteriography, and MRA in the evaluation of blunt carotid trauma, this case study is presented to demonstrate the utility of MRA in emergency situations. In addition, we analyze the possible pathogenesis and discuss the surgical treatment.

  3. Acute occlusion of the retinal arteries: current concepts and recent advances in diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, S; Eong, K

    2000-01-01

    Purpose/Background—Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is usually a blinding event, and is not an infrequent presentation to the accident and emergency (A&E) department. The evidence-base in support of current treatment options is weak. Methods—This paper reviewed the literature germane to the diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic aspects of retinal arterial occlusive disease. Results—The visual prognosis associated with CRAO remains poor, and current therapeutic practices are of unproven benefit. The non-ophthalmologist in the A&E department should lie the patient flat and give a stat dose of intravenous acetazolamide in an attempt to improve the retinal perfusion pressure. Conclusion—The management of acute occlusion of the central retinal artery has not changed over the past 30 years, although the potential benefits of superselective intra-arterial fibrinolytic therapy warrant evaluation in a randomised controlled trial. The identification of underlying pathology is an essential component of medical care, and all cases should be followed up by an ophthalmologist because of the possibility of ocular rubeosis. PMID:11005400

  4. Percutaneous Management of Occlusive Arterial Disease Associated with Vasculitis: A Single Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Both, M.; Jahnke, T.; Reinhold-Keller, E.; Reuter, M.; Grimm, J.; Biederer, J.; Brossmann, J.; Gross, W.L.; Heller, M.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, S.

    2003-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for occlusive arterial disease associated with vasculitis. Eleven patients(10 women, 1 man; ages 35-82 years) with the diagnosis of vasculitis of the large vessels underwent interventional treatment during intraarterial angiography. The causes included giant cell arteritis(n = 8) and Takayasu arteritis (n = 3).Thirty-three occlusive lesions (including brachiocephalic and renalarteries, and arteries of upper and lower extremities) were treated with balloon angioplasty and/or stent placement. Follow-up included clinical examination, angiography, and color duplex ultrasound.Technical success was 100% (25/25) for stenoses and 50% (4/8) for occlusive lesions, representing all lesions combined from different anatomic locations. Dissection (n = 3) and arterial rupture with retroperitoneal hematoma (n = 1) was found in three patients. During follow-up (mean 12 months), restenoses(n = 8) and re-restenoses (n = 1)occurred in 8 vascular areas. Three of these lesions were treated with repeated PTA (n = 4). The cumulative primary clinical success rate was 67.6%, cumulative secondary success rate 74.4%, and cumulative tertiary success rate 75.9%. Interventional therapy in systemic vasculitis provides promising results in technical success rates and followup. Angioplasty may result in arterial injury, but the rate of complications is low.

  5. Central Retinal and Posterior Ciliary Artery Occlusion After Intralesional Injection of Sclerosant to Glabellar Subcutaneous Hemangioma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this study is to describe vision loss caused by central retinal artery and posterior ciliary artery occlusion as a consequence of sclerotherapy with a polidocanol injection to a glabellar hemangioma. An 18-year-old man underwent direct injection with a 23-gauge needle of 1 mL of a polidocanol-carbon dioxide emulsion into the glabellar subcutaneous hemangioma under ultrasound visualization of the needle tip by radiologists. He developed lid swelling the next day, and 3 days later at referral, the visual acuity in the left eye was no light perception. Funduscopy revealed central retinal artery occlusion and fluorescein angiography disclosed no perfusion at all in the left fundus, indicating concurrent posterior ciliary artery occlusion. The patient also showed mydriasis, blepharoptosis, and total external ophthalmoplegia on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the swollen medial rectus muscle. In a month, blepharoptosis and ophthalmoplegia resolved but the visual acuity remained no light perception. Sclerosing therapy for facial hemangioma may develop a severe complication such as permanent visual loss.

  6. Percutaneous Recanalization of Acute Internal Carotid Artery Occlusions in Patients with Severe Stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Dabitz, Rainer; Triebe, Stefan; Leppmeier, Ullrich; Ochs, Guenther; Vorwerk, Dierk

    2007-02-15

    Background. Sudden symptomatic occlusions of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) resulting in severe middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemia and stroke are usually not accessible by rt-PA thrombolysis and the prognosis is usually very poor. Mechanical recanalization of the proximal ICA combined with intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis was therefore used as a rescue procedure. Methods. Ten patients (9 men, 1 woman; mean age 56.1 years) were treated with emergency recanalization of the proximal carotid artery by using stents and/or balloon angioplasty as a rescue procedure. Three patients showed dissection, and 7 had atherothrombotic occlusions. Nine of 10 presented with an initial modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 5, the remaining patient with mRS 4 (average NIHSS 21.4). After sonographic confirmation of ICA with associated MCA/distal ICA occlusion and bridging with rt-PA (without abciximab) an emergency angiography was performed with subsequent mechanical recanalization by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) (n = 1) or primary stenting (n = 9) using self-expanding stents. Distal protection was used in 1 of 10 patients. Results. Recanalization of the proximal ICA was achieved in all. At least partial recanalization of the intracerebral arteries was achieved in all, and complete recanalization in 5. In 4 of 10 patients limited hemorrhage was detected during CT controls. Major complications included 2 patients who had to undergo hemicraniectomy. One patient died from malignant infarction. At the time of discharge from the stroke unit 9 of 10 patients had improved markedly, 5 patients having an mRS of {<=}2, and 3 patients a mRS of 3. At control after a mean of 20 weeks, 7 of 8 (88%) patients had a mRS {<=}2, and 1 a mRS of 3. Conclusions. Primary mechanical recanalization of ICA occlusions by stent and PTA combined with fibrinolysis and/or GPIIb/IIIa-receptor antagonists seems to be feasible to improve patient outcome significantly.

  7. [A case of middle cerebral artery occlusion caused by dissecting aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Fu, Y; Komiyama, M; Inoue, T; Ohata, K; Matsuoka, Y; Hakuba, A

    1996-10-01

    We reported a case of middle cerebral artery occlusion caused by a dissecting aneurysm that was successfully treated by intra-arterial fibrinolysis. A 38-year-old man suddenly developed left hemiparesis and became confused. He was transferred to our hospital one hour and 27 minutes after the ictus. Right carotid angiogram (CAG) revealed aneurysmal dilatation of the horizontal portion of the middle cerebral artery and occlusion of the anterior trunk. Twelve million IU of tissue plasminogen activator was injected to fibrinolyze the thrombus of the occlusion site through a microcatheter. After this, the patient became alert and hemiparesis disappeared. It took three hours and 30 minutes to gain recanalization after the ictus. Right CAG obtained the next day demonstrated the patency of the anterior trunk and the characteristic finding of the dissecting aneurysm viz "double lumen" as a result of fibrinolysis of the thrombus in the false lumen. Right CAG obtained two weeks later demonstrated "string and pearl sign" instead of the "double lumen" as a result of partial thrombosis in the false lumen. Follow-up CAG obtained nine months after the ictus demonstrated marked reduction of the aneurysmal size as the result of progressing thrombosis of the false lumen. The characteristic angiographic findings of the dissecting aneurysm such as "double lumen" and "string and pearl sign" seemed to be mostly influenced by the status of the thrombus in the false lumen. In case of major cerebral arterial occlusion caused by the embolus or thrombus from the dissecting aneurysm, intra-arterial fibrinolysis seems to be a possible treatment modality, even though it is accompanied by the risk of giving rise to subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen for the treatment of the rare combination of central retinal vein occlusion and cilioretinal artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, Ugur Emrah; Cosar, C Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2016-03-01

    A 43-year-old male presented with sudden onset of painless, blurred vision in his left eye. Dilated fundoscopic examination showed signs consistent with the diagnosis of a combination of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO). He received daily 2-h sessions of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), 253 kPa for 14 days. At the end of the HBOT course, the patient's left visual acuity had improved from 20/200 to 20/20. Dilated fundoscopic examination showed that the intra-retinal haemorrhages in the entire retina and the retinal whitening along the course of the CLRA seen at presentation had completely resolved. The combination of CLRAO and CRVO comprises a discrete clinical entity. Even though there are many hypotheses concerning this condition, it is most likely the result of elevated intraluminal pressure in the retinal capillaries due to CRVO that exceeds the pressure in the CLRA. HBOT may be an effective treatment for CRVO-associated CLRAO.

  9. Tibiopedal Access for Crossing of Infrainguinal Artery Occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Craig M.; Mustapha, Jihad; Zeller, Thomas; Schmidt, Andrej; Montero-Baker, Miguel; Nanjundappa, Aravinda; Manzi, Marco; Palena, Luis Mariano; Bernardo, Nelson; Khatib, Yazan; Beasley, Robert; Leon, Luis; Saab, Fadi A.; Shields, Adam R.; Adams, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report a prospective, multicenter, observational study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01609621) of the safety and effectiveness of tibiopedal access and retrograde crossing in the treatment of infrainguinal chronic total occlusions (CTOs). Methods: Twelve sites around the world prospectively enrolled 197 patients (mean age 71±11 years, range 41-93; 129 men) from May 2012 to July 2013 who met the inclusion criterion of at least one CTO for which a retrograde crossing procedure was planned or became necessary. The population consisted of 64 (32.5%) claudicants (Rutherford categories 2/3) and 133 (67.5%) patients with critical limb ischemia (Rutherford category ≥4). A primary antegrade attempt to cross had been made prior to the tibiopedal attempt in 132 (67.0%) cases. Techniques used for access, retrograde lesion crossing, and treatment were at the operator’s discretion. Follow-up data were obtained 30 days after the procedure. Results: Technical tibiopedal access success was achieved in 184 (93.4%) of 197 patients and technical occlusion crossing success in 157 (85.3%) of the 184 successful tibial accesses. Failed access attempts were more common in women (9 of 13 failures). The rate of successful crossing was roughly equivalent between sexes [84.7% (50/59) women compared to 85.6% (107/125) men]. Technical success did not differ significantly based on a prior failed antegrade attempt: the access success rate was 92.4% (122/132) after a failed antegrade access vs 95.4% (62/65) in those with a primary tibiopedal attempt (p=0.55). Similarly, crossing success was achieved in 82.8% (101/122) after a failed antegrade access vs 90.3% (56/62) for patients with no prior antegrade attempt (p=0.19). Minor complications related to the access site occurred in 11 (5.6%) cases; no patient had access vessel thrombosis, compartment syndrome, or surgical revascularization. Conclusion: Tibiopedal access appears to be safe and can be used effectively for the

  10. Probe exchange catheter used for angioplasty of total coronary artery occlusions.

    PubMed

    Kiemeneij, F; Suwarganda, J S; van der Wieken, L R

    1990-04-01

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for total occlusions frequently fails, because the guidewire fails to pass the occlusion. With the use of the Probe exchange catheter (PEC), however, stiffness of the guidewire is increased and a higher pushability is obtained in order to manipulate the guidewire beyond the lesion. Once the guidewire has passed, the PEC is advanced and a non-over-the-wire dilatation catheter can be introduced through the PEC. This paper describes the technique in a representative case. The results of this technique in 19 consecutive patients with class III-IV/IV(NYHA) angina due to an occluded coronary artery are presented. In 16 patients the PEC reached the lesion (84%) and in all these patients the guidewire could pass the occlusion. A successful PTCA was performed in 14 patients (74%).

  11. [Disseminated arterial occlusions revealing bilateral venous thrombosis with paradoxical embolisms].

    PubMed

    Elsendoorn, A; Desport, E; Vialle, R; Frat, J-P; Bridoux, F; Touchard, G

    2009-06-01

    Paradoxical embolism is a diagnosis of exclusion. Clinical triad associates deep venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, arterial embolism, and intracardiac communication with right-to-left shunt. The intracardiac communication is generally related to a patent foramen ovale (PFO). We report a 75-year-old patient, who presented with bilateral deep venous thrombosis of the legs, complicated by massive pulmonary embolism and paradoxical embolisms through a PFO. This resulted in cerebral, mesenteric, splenic and bilateral kidney infarctions. A promptly initiated anticoagulant treatment allowed a favourable outcome.

  12. Vibrational angioplasty in recanalization of chronic femoropopliteal arterial occlusions: single center experience.

    PubMed

    Kapralos, Ioannis; Kehagias, Elias; Ioannou, Christos; Bouloukaki, Izolde; Kostas, Theodoros; Katsamouris, Asterios; Tsetis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study aims to present the overall success rate, safety and long-term outcome of vibrational angioplasty technique, in the treatment of chronic total femoropopliteal occlusions in our institute. Between October 2000 and December 2008, patients with chronic total femoropoliteal arterial occlusions, treated with vibrational angioplasty during the same session after a failed attempt with conventional recanalization technique, were included. Patient's follow up included serial ankle-brachial index measurements and arterial duplex ultrasound examinations at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. Twenty-seven patients (16 males and 11 females) and twenty-eight lesions were included in our study. Twenty-five lesions (89.3%) were successfully recanalized. Pain relief was noticed in twenty-one cases. From ten lesions with tissue loss (ulcer or gangrene) in successfully recanalized occlusions, six healed without major, or minor amputation. One non-healing amputation stump was healed after recanalization, without further complications. Four limbs underwent amputation (one minor and three major) despite successful recanalization, however all had an excellent healing of the amputation stump without further complications. The Kaplan-Meier test demonstrated 90%, 85% and 70% amputation-free survival rate at 12, 24 and 36 months, respectively. No major or minor complications were encountered. Vibrational angioplasty is a safe, effective and durable endovascular technique for the treatment of chronic total occlusions in patients with limb ischemia that would be difficult to recanalize using conventional intraluminal techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Technical Failure of Giant Supraclinoid Aneurysm after Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Lv, Ming; Li, Youxiang; Yang, Xinjian; Wu, Zhongxue

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe three cases of technical failure in patients with giant supraclinoid aneurysm treated with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. Case 1 was a 65-year-old woman who presented with a two-month history of headache accompanied by blurred vision of the left eye. Case 2 was a 43-year-old woman who presented with a six-month history of headache accompanied by blurred vision of the right eye. Case 3 was a 21-year-old man admitted due to headache and blurred vision of the left eye, accompanied by left oculomotor nerve palsy for three months. Cerebral angiography revealed giant supraclinoid aneurysms in these patients. All of them were treated with ICA occlusion. One case had recurrent headache symptoms after the first procedure and was retreated. Two cases suffered from post-procedural intracranial hemorrhagic complications. Before ICA occlusion for giant supraclinoid aneurysm, balloon occlusion test was used to evaluate the collateral anastomosis between the external carotid artery (ECA) and the ICA, and still plays an important role in preventing treatment failure. PMID:25496684

  14. Transneuronal Degeneration of Thalamic Nuclei following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Postinfarction transneuronal degeneration refers to secondary neuronal death that occurs within a few days to weeks following the disruption of input or output to synapsed neurons sustaining ischemic insults. The thalamus receives its blood supply from the posterior circulation; however, infarctions of the middle cerebral arterial may cause secondary transneuronal degeneration in the thalamus. In this study, we presented the areas of ischemia and associated transneuronal degeneration following MCAo in a rat model. Materials and Methods. Eighteen 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery for 1, 7, and 14 days. Cerebral atrophy was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium hydrochloride staining. Postural reflex and open field tests were performed prior to animal sacrifice to assess the effects of occlusion on behavior. Results. Myelin loss was observed at the lesion site following ischemia. Gliosis was also observed in thalamic regions 14 days following occlusion. Differential degrees of increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression were observed at each stage of infarction. Increases in myelin basic protein levels were also observed in the 14-day group. Conclusion. The present rat model of ischemia provides evidence of transneuronal degeneration within the first 14 days of occlusion. The observed changes in protein expression may be associated with self-repair mechanisms in the damaged brain. PMID:27597962

  15. [Stroke due to acute occlusion of the basilar artery : Diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Nagel, S

    2017-09-13

    Acute occlusion of the basilar artery is a rare and, if left untreated, severe neurovascular condition with a high mortality. The clinical presentation is often atypical and hence diagnosis may be delayed. Because of the devastating natural course, recanalization strategies were often more aggressive than in patients with occlusions in the anterior circulation. To date, there is no evidence-based therapy, and recent larger registry studies and meta-analyses do not show a clear superiority of endovascular approaches over systemic thrombolysis alone. The current review aims to provide an overview of the most critical aspects in clinical and radiological diagnosis and treatment of basilar artery thrombosis.

  16. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in two patients with basilar artery occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    Herderscheê, D; Limburg, M; Hijdra, A; Koster, P A

    1991-01-01

    Two patients with angiographically proved basilar artery occlusion were treated with systemic recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) according to protocol. The first patient was in a locked-in state and gradually deteriorated. On repeat angiography the basilar artery remained occluded. He died and necropsy revealed a pontine haemorrhagic infarction. The second patient, who was comatose and with decerebrate posturing, made a remarkable recovery. Angiography showed reperfusion. Therapy was initiated in the first patient after six hours and in the second after two hours. Treatment with rtPA is promising but probably not feasible for every patient. Success may depend on duration of occlusion and composition of occluding thrombus. Images PMID:1901349

  17. [Diagnostic image (162) A woman with temporary hemiplegia. Temporary embolic occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery by a thrombus].

    PubMed

    Groeneveld, G J; van der Schaaf, I C

    2003-10-25

    A 48-year-old woman with right-sided hemiplegia by embolic occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery was treated with alteplase. A pre- and post-treatment CT angiography scan showed the vanishing blood clot.

  18. TRPA1 Function in Skeletal Muscle Sensory Neurons Following Femoral Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jihong; Li, Jianhua

    2017-08-17

    Transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) is engaged in amplified autonomic responses evoked by stimulation of muscle afferent nerves in rats with experimental peripheral arterial disease. The purposes of this study were to characterize current responses induced by activation of TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of control limbs and limbs with femoral artery occlusion. DRG neurons from rats were labeled by injecting the fluorescence tracer DiI into the hindlimb muscles and whole-cell patch clamp experiments were performed to determine TRPA1 currents. Data show that AITC (a TRPA1 agonist) from the concentrations of 50 µM to 200 µM produces a dose-dependent increase of amplitudes of inward current responses. Notably, the peak current amplitude induced by AITC is significantly larger in DRG neurons of ligated limbs than that in control limbs. AITC-induced current responses are observed in small and medium size DRG neurons, and there is no difference in size distribution of DRG neurons between control limbs and ligated limbs. However, femoral occlusion increases the percentage of the AITC-sensitive DRG neurons as compared to control. AITC-induced currents in DRG neurons are significantly attenuated by exposure to 10 µM of HC-030031, a potent and selective inhibitor of TRPA1, in both control and femoral occlusion groups. In addition, capsaicin (a TRPV1 agonist) evokes a greater increase in the amplitude of AITC-currents in DRG neurons of ligated limbs than that in control limbs. A greater current response with activation of TRPA1 is developed in muscle afferent nerves when hindlimb arterial blood supply is deficient under ischemic conditions; and TRPV1 is partly responsible for augmented TRPA1 responses induced by arterial occlusion. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. [X-shaped macular hemorrhage disclosing mixed occlusion of the cilioretinal artery and central retinal vein].

    PubMed

    Weber, M; Kerrand, E; Speeg-Schatz, C; Flament, J

    1994-01-01

    A case of a stellate hemorrhage of the macula occurring in a young man is reported. Analysis of this rare clinical entity allowed us to link it to combined occlusion of the central retinal vein and cilioretinal artery. With regard to this case and to a review of the literature, clinical and angiofluorographic features of this syndrome are recalled. The usually good prognosis of this disease was not observed in our case. Finally, the controversial pathophysiological data are discussed.

  20. Cerebral Perfusion After Repair of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia with Common Carotid Artery Occlusion After ECMO Therapy.

    PubMed

    Henzler, Claudia; Zöllner, Frank G; Weis, Meike; Zimmer, Fabian; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Zahn, Katrin; Schaible, Thomas; Neff, K Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate cerebral perfusion after repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and right-common-carotid-artery (rCCA) occlusion after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy. A total of 29 2-year-old-children with a history of CDH repair underwent cerebral magnetic resonance perfusion imaging. In 14 patients, the rCCA was occluded after ECMO therapy. Fifteen patients with CDH without ECMO served as controls. Regional cerebral-blood-flow (rCBF) was measured cortically and subcortically in both hemispheres and compared intra-individually and between both groups. Patients with rCCA-occlusion showed intra-individual side differences between hemispheres, with significantly lower subcortical perfusion of the right hemisphere and reduced cortical perfusion. In one-third of patients with rCCA-occlusion, rCBF of the right-hemisphere was reduced by more than 20% when compared to the left hemisphere. Despite intra-individual side differences, mean rCBF in patients with rCCA occlusion was not reduced compared to controls. Beside intra-individual side differences, overall right hemisphere perfusion is sufficient after rCCA-occlusion due to collateral blood supply. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Congenital Spinal Malformation and Stroke: Aneurysmal Dilatations and Bilateral Rotational Vertebral Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    de la Riva, Patricia; Martínez-Zabaleta, Maria Teresa; Pardo, Edurne; Samprón, Nicolás; Mondragón-Rezola, Elisabet; Arruti González, Maialen; Larrea, Jose Ángel; Martí-Massó, José Félix

    2016-03-01

    A 30-year-old woman suffered from acute vertebrobasilar stroke. Cranial tomography (CT) scans showed multiple vertebral abnormalities suggestive of congenital spine malformation, and angiographic CT revealed aneurysmal dilatations (ADs) at segment V2 of both vertebral arteries (VAs). Dynamic neuroimaging tests including angiography and angio-CT were performed and showed occlusion of both VAs at the point of the ADs with contralateral rotation of the neck. The presence of a bony structure causing the artery compression was excluded and embolic phenomena originating at the AD was proposed as the likely source of stroke. Even if infrequent, the presence of craniocervical anomalies should be considered in vertebrobasilar stroke of indeterminate etiology.

  2. Traumatic occlusion of one limb of an intracranial arterial fenestration: an uncommon cause of stroke.

    PubMed

    Schievink, W I; Hunter, S F; Marsh, W R; Aksamit, A J; Jack, C R

    1996-07-01

    Three weeks after an automobile accident, a 35-year-old man experienced left throat and neck pain, numbness of the left face and tongue, dysphagia, left arm pain and weakness, and left miosis. At age 27, he had suffered an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography at that time had also demonstrated a fenestration of the left intracranial vertebral artery. At the time of the second presentation, angiography showed that one of the limbs of the fenestration had become occluded. Although the vast majority of intracranial arterial fenestrations are asymptomatic, occlusion of one of the limbs of a fenestration may be the cause of stroke.

  3. Endovascular surgery for peripheral arterial occlusive disease. A critical review.

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, S S; Eton, D; Moore, W S

    1992-01-01

    Endovascular surgery is a new multidisciplinary field that applies the recently innovated techniques of angioscopy, intraluminal ultrasound, balloon angioplasty, laser, mechanical atherectomy, and stents. This field can be defined as a diagnostic and therapeutic discipline that uses catheter-based systems to treat vascular disease. As such, it integrates the subspecialties of vascular surgery, interventional radiology, interventional cardiology, and biomedical engineering for the common purpose of improving arterial hemodynamics. Endovascular surgery offers many potential benefits: long incisions are replaced with a puncture wound, the need for postoperative intensive care is significantly reduced, major cardiac and pulmonary complications from general anesthesia are side stepped, and the dollar savings could be dramatic as the need for intensive care unit and in-hospital stay diminishes. Despite these technological advancements, endovascular surgery is still in its infancy and currently has limited applications. This review provides an updated summary of endovascular surgery today and addresses some of the obstacles still preventing its widespread use. PMID:1385944

  4. Central retinal artery occlusion in association with fibromuscular dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Altun, Ahmet; Altun, Gulengul; Olcaysu, Osman Okan; Kurna, Sevda Aydin; Aki, Suat Fazil

    2013-01-01

    A 14 year-old female, whose chief complaint was severe vision loss in the right eye for 2 days, presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital. The patient had been attending follow-up visits for 4 years, following a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia by the Clinic of Pediatrics. The patient underwent a complete ophthalmo-logic, angiographic, hematologic, and systemic evaluation. Fundus fluorescein angiography was performed immediately, because of the cherry-red spot sign in the macula of the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed evidence of marked stasis of the retinal arterial circulation in the right eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/400 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. PMID:24293990

  5. Central retinal artery occlusion in association with fibromuscular dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Altun, Ahmet; Altun, Gulengul; Olcaysu, Osman Okan; Kurna, Sevda Aydin; Aki, Suat Fazil

    2013-01-01

    A 14 year-old female, whose chief complaint was severe vision loss in the right eye for 2 days, presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital. The patient had been attending follow-up visits for 4 years, following a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia by the Clinic of Pediatrics. The patient underwent a complete ophthalmo-logic, angiographic, hematologic, and systemic evaluation. Fundus fluorescein angiography was performed immediately, because of the cherry-red spot sign in the macula of the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed evidence of marked stasis of the retinal arterial circulation in the right eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/400 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye.

  6. Intravenous Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke due to Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Leonard L L; Kong, Wan Yee; Paliwal, Prakash; Teoh, Hock L; Seet, Raymond C; Soon, Derek; Rathakrishnan, Rahul; Ong, Venetia; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Wong, Ho-Fai; Chan, Bernard P L; Leow, Wee Kheng; Yuan, Cheng; Ting, Eric; Gopinathan, Anil; Tan, Benjamin Y Q; Sharma, Vijay K

    2016-10-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions are poorly responsive to intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Most study populations have combined intracranial and extracranial ICA occlusions for analysis; few have studied purely cervical ICA occlusions. We evaluated AIS patients with acute cervical ICA occlusion treated with IV-tPA to identify predictors of outcomes. We studied 550 consecutive patients with AIS who received IV-tPA and identified 100 with pure acute cervical ICA occlusion. We evaluated the associations of vascular risk factors, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and leptomeningeal collateral vessel status via 3 different grading systems, with functional recovery at 90 days, mortality, recanalization of the primary occlusion, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH). Modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 was defined as an excellent outcome. The 100 patients had mean age of 67.8 (range 32-96) and median NIHSS score of 19 (range 4-33). Excellent outcomes were observed in 27% of the patients, SICH in 8%, and mortality in 21%. Up to 54% of the patients achieved recanalization at 24 hours. On ordinal regression, good collaterals showed a significant shift in favorable outcomes by Maas, Tan, or ASPECTS collateral grading systems. On multivariate analysis, good collaterals also showed reduced mortality (OR .721, 95% CI .588-.888, P = .002) and a trend to less SICH (OR .81, 95% CI .65-1.007, P = .058). Interestingly, faster treatment was also associated with favorable functional recovery (OR 1.028 per minute, 95% CI 1.010-1.047, P = .001). Improved outcomes are seen in patients with early acute cervical ICA occlusion and better collateral circulation. This could be a valuable biomarker for decision making. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Primary Stent Placement for Recanalization of Iliac Artery Occlusions: Using a Self-Expanding Spiral Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Yun-Hyeon; Chung, Sang-Yeung; Kang, Heoung-Keun

    1999-07-15

    Purpose: To report the clinical results for recanalizations of an occluded iliac artery by a self-expanding spiral stent. Methods: We attempted to recanalize 36 iliac artery occlusions in 34 patients [33 men, 1 woman, aged 51-75 years (average 61.6 years)]. The average lesion length was 6.92 cm (range 1-14 cm). The patients' chief complaints were intermittent claudication and resting pain. Fontaine classification was assigned before and after the procedure. Technical and clinical success were also analyzed. Results: Forty-five stents were successfully deployed in 34 patients. All 36 lesions (13 in the external iliac artery, 12 in the common iliac artery, and 11 in both) were patently recanalized on angiography. The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 36 months (mean 11.9 months). Fourteen stents (39%) with incomplete expansion were dilated with a balloon catheter. Good technical (100%) and clinical (94%) results were obtained. The only complication was one hematoma at the puncture site. Reocclusions were noted in two lesions (5%) at 1 week and 15 months, respectively. Conclusion: A self-expanding spiral stent is a safe and effective device for recanalization of an iliac artery occlusion as the primary stent without any previous intervention.

  8. Adult ileocolic intussusception caused by Burkitt lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Daniele; Asti, Emanuele; Bonavina, Luigi

    2016-12-05

    Ileocolic intussusception due to Burkitt lymphoma is extremely rare in adults. A man aged 17 years presented with a history of recurrent abdominal pain over the past 3 weeks. The abdomen was distended with diffuse tenderness, and bowel sounds were present. Abdominal ultrasound and CT scans showed evidence of small bowel obstruction with marked wall thickening in the ileocecal region and 'target' signs suggestive for intussusception. At laparoscopy, a mass involving the caecum and the terminal ileum was found, along with multiple locoregional nodes, which was highly suggestive of malignancy. A typical en bloc right colectomy with intracorporeal ileocolic anastomosis was performed. Histopathological examination showed a high-grade B-cell Burkitt lymphoma that was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The patient was subsequently treated with adjuvant combination chemotherapy and is alive and disease-free at the 3-year follow-up. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Cerebral hemodynamics in patients with carotid artery occlusion and contralateral moderate or severe internal carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Vernieri, F; Pasqualetti, P; Diomedi, M; Giacomini, P; Rossini, P M; Caltagirone, C; Silvestrini, M

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics in patients suffering from occlusion of the carotid artery (CA) and contralateral CA stenosis. Using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, the cerebrovascular reactivity to hypercapnia in the middle cerebral arteries was evaluated by calculating the breath-holding index (BHI) of 69 symptomatic patients suffering from internal CA (ICA) occlusion and moderate or severe contralateral ICA stenosis. To evaluate which variables influenced BHIs ipsilateral to the site of ICA occlusion, a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was performed that included the following factors: patient age, percentage of contralateral ICA stenosis, contralateral BHI, number of collateral pathways, and presence of hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and hyperlipidemia. An analysis of variance was conducted to evaluate the impact of the type of collateral vessels on the BHI. A regression analysis showed that the BHI ipsilateral to the site of ICA occlusion could be accounted for by the contralateral BHI (which was entered at the first step of the analysis, p < 0.001) and by the number of collateral pathways (which was entered at the second step, p = 0.033). Neither the degree of contralateral ICA stenosis nor the other variables could be added to improve the model. The analysis demonstrated that the absence of collateral pathways and the presence of the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) alone were associated with lower BHI values than those found in the presence of two or three collateral vessels, regardless of the presence of an anterior collateral pathway. On the basis of these data one can infer that the cerebral hemodynamic status of patients with occlusive disease of the CA is influenced by individual anatomical and functional characteristics. Because improvement in contralateral hemodynamics after surgical correction of an ICA stenosis can only be expected in the presence of an ACoA, the planning of strategies for

  10. Microballoon Occlusion Test to Predict Colonic Ischemia After Transcatheter Embolization of a Ruptured Aneurysm of the Middle Colic Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Inokuchi, Hiroyuki; Irie, Hiroyuki; Nishie, Akihiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ishigami, Kousei; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Daisuke; Honda, Hiroshi; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Morita, Masaru; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2008-07-15

    A 76-year-old woman presented with sudden massive melena, and superior mesenteric arteriography showed an aneurysm in the middle colic artery (MCA). Because she had a history of right hemicolectomy and ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) during open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, embolization of the MCA aneurysm was considered to pose a risk comparable to that of colonic ischemia. A microballoon occlusion test during occlusion of the MCA confirmed retrograde visualization of the IMA branches through the collateral arteries by way of the left internal iliac artery, and embolization was successfully performed using microcoils. No colonic ischemia or aneurysm rupture occurred after embolization.

  11. The contralateral carotid disease in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lovrencić-Huzjan, Arijana; Strineka, Maja; Aiman, Drazen; Strbe, Sanja; Sodec-Simicević, Darja; Demarin, Vida

    2009-09-01

    The one-year incidence of carotid occlusion is 6/100 000 inhabitants in general population. Stroke incidence and mortality rate in these patients vary. Patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy (CES) are at a higher risk of progression of contralateral carotid stenosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the management and natural history of the contralateral internal carotid artery disease in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO). During one year, 297 patients with ICAO were investigated. Follow up examinations were retrospectively analyzed and patients were divided into groups according to contralateral carotid disease. Out of 297 patients, only one investigation was performed in 90 patients with carotid occlusion. Thirty three patients were followed up due to postoperative ICAO. In 14 patients, ICAO developed during ultrasonographic follow up. In this group of patients, 9 had unchanged contralateral findings, whereas in 5 patients disease progression was observed. Out of 44 patients with ICAO and contralateral subtotal stenosis at initial investigation, 42 underwent carotid surgery. Postoperatively, 32 patients had normal findings, 6 developed mild carotid stenosis, 2 developed moderate carotid stenosis, and 2 had postoperative carotid occlusion. Two patients were followed-up without intervention. Nine patients with bilateral ICAO were followed-up for years. Follow up was continued in 106 patients with ICAO and contralateral mild to moderate changes. The finding was unchanged in 68 patients. In 21 (30%) patients the disease progressed to subtotal stenosis and 18 patients underwent carotid surgery. Accordingly, contralateral carotid disease progression was observed in one third of patients with carotid occlusion. Additional studies on the issue are needed.

  12. Retrograde Popliteal Access to Percutaneous Peripheral Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion of Superficial Femoral Arteries.

    PubMed

    Dumantepe, Mert

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to present our initial experience with the use of the retrograde popliteal artery access in patients with chronic total occlusions of superficial femoral artery (SFA). From July 2012 to May 2014, a total of 28 patients (20 men, mean age 61.2 ± 11.5 years) with total occlusion of the SFA and good distal runoff were treated with percutaneous atherectomy, balloon angioplasty, and stenting (mean length 165.3 ± 57.5 mm, range 72-336 mm). All patients had severe claudication or critical limb ischemia, and most of the lesions were TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus classification type D (n = 21). Technical success was achieved in all cases. In majority (26, 92.8%) of the patients, endoluminal recanalization was possible from the popliteal access; SFA recanalization in the other 2 cases was obtained through the subintimal space. During a mean follow-up of 12.9 ± 2.5 months, claudication, severity, rest pain, and toe ulcers improved significantly. Ankle-brachial index changed from 0.54 ± 0.11 to 0.91 ± 0.2 at 1 year after intervention ( P < .001), and patency rates at 1, 6, and 12 months after interventions were 100%, 92.8%, and 85.7%, respectively. One pseudoaneurysm and 1 arteriovenous fistula were found in the popliteal region on duplex examinations. There were 2 in-stent restenosis and 3 occlusions during the 12-month follow-up. These occlusions were treated with reendovascular procedures. Our secondary patency rate was 96.4%. No stent fracture was observed. The retrograde popliteal artery approach under duplex guidance can be considered as safe, efficient, and the primary SFA recanalization strategy in carefully selected patients, with competitive immediate and mid-term results.

  13. Does a contralateral carotid occlusion adversely impact carotid artery stenting outcomes?

    PubMed

    Keldahl, Mark L; Park, Michael S; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Wang, Chih-Hsiung E; Kibbe, Melina R; Rodriguez, Heron E; Morasch, Mark D; Eskandari, Mark K

    2012-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has grown as a possible alternative for the treatment of extracranial cerebrovascular disease in the past decade. A preexisting contralateral carotid artery occlusion has been described as a risk factor for inferior outcomes after carotid endarterectomy, but its impact on CAS outcomes is less understood. A retrospective review of 417 CAS procedures performed between May 2001 and July 2010 at a single center using self-expanding nitinol stents and mechanical embolic protection devices was conducted. Patients were divided into two groups, those with a preexisting contralateral carotid occlusion (group A, n = 39) versus those without a contralateral occlusion (group B, n = 378). Patient demographics and comorbidities as well as 30-day and late death, stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI) rates were analyzed. Mean follow-up was 4 years (range: 0-9.4 years). Overall, mean age of the 314 men and 103 women was 70.5 years. In group A, there were two (5.1%) octogenarians and nine patients (23.1%) with symptomatic disease as compared with group B with 53 (14%) octogenarians and 121 (32%) patients with symptomatic disease. The overall 30-day death, stroke, and MI rates were 0.5%, 1.9%, and 0.7%, respectively. When comparing group A with group B, these results were not significantly different: death (0% vs. 0.5%), stroke (2.6% vs. 1.9%), and MI (0% vs. 0.8%). Long-term outcomes for groups A and B were also not significantly different: death (25.6% vs. 22.2%), stroke (5.3% vs. 3.4%), and MI (15.4% vs. 14%) (p = nonsignificant). A preexisting contralateral carotid artery occlusion does not seem to adversely impact CAS outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Natural history of patients with chronic occlusion of the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Nader, J; Bogousslavsky, J

    1993-01-01

    Although 3% of the elderly population may have asymptomatic unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO), between 10% and 20% of patients with initial stroke in the carotid territory have appropriate ipsilateral extracranial ICAO. In the latter instance, it is often difficult to establish whether ICAO is (a) an acute thrombotic process on an underlying atheromatous stenosis; (b) an acute embolic ICAO (from heart or aorta); or (c) an old ICAO that was previously asymptomatic. Intracranial studies show that the first stroke ipsilateral to ICAO is usually associated with occlusions distal to ICAO, which suggest artery-to-artery embolism. On the other hand, the follow-up of stroke patients with ICAO shows that delayed cerebral infarction distal to the established ICAO often involves watershed areas and may correspond to hemodynamic disturbances. Because the international extracranial/intracranial arterial bypass study did not show any surgical benefit, current management is mainly directed to stabilization of associated causes of hemodynamic failure (hypotension, bradycardia, etc.). Attempts to find subgroups that may benefit from bypass surgery are still ongoing. However, the prognosis of these patients is negatively influenced by a particularly high risk of cardiac death.

  15. A protocol for characterizing the impact of collateral flow after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    DeFazio, R. Anthony; Levy, Sean; Morales, Carmen L.; Levy, Rebecca V.; Dave, Kunjan R.; Lin, Hung W.; Abaffy, Tatjana; Watson, Brant D.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.; Ohanna, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    I. SUMMARY In humans and in animal models of stroke, collateral blood flow between territories of the major pial arteries has a profound impact on cortical infarct size. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the genetic determinants of collateral formation and flow, as well as the signaling pathways and neurovascular interactions regulating this flow. Previous studies have demonstrated that collateral flow between branches of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA) can protect mouse cortex from infarction after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Because the number and diameter of collaterals varies among mouse strains and after transgenic manipulations, a combination of methods is required to control for these variations. Here, we report an inexpensive approach to characterizing the cerebrovascular anatomy, and in vivo monitoring of cerebral blood flow as well. Further, we introduce a new, minimally invasive method for the occlusion of distal MCA branches. These methods will permit a new generation of studies on the mechanisms regulating collateral remodeling and cortical blood flow after stroke. PMID:21593993

  16. Cerebellar infarction resulting from vertebral artery occlusion associated with a Jefferson fracture.

    PubMed

    Muratsu, Hirotsugu; Doita, Minoru; Yanagi, Toshihide; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Nishida, Kotaro; Tomioka, Masao; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2005-06-01

    Neurologic deficit secondary to a Jefferson fracture is rare, as the fracture fragments tend to spread outward. To the authors' knowledge, only five cases of vertebral artery injury associated with C1 fracture have been reported. A 75-year-old man with diffuse spinal hyperostosis hit the top of his head and sustained a Jefferson fracture. The patient presented with vertigo and slurred speech. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated cerebellar infarction, and MR angiography (MRA) showed bilateral vertebral artery occlusion associated with a Jefferson fracture. The patient was placed in a halo vest for a total of 11 weeks and treated with anticoagulant therapy. Vertigo gradually improved, and the patient was able to walk with a cane. Previously slurred speech was completely resolved. This case demonstrates that a Jefferson fracture can cause vertebral artery occlusion, resulting in cerebellar infarction. The clinician should be aware of the possibility and implications of vertebral artery injuries, especially if a fracture involving the foramen transversarium with displacement is documented or if there is a neurologic deficit above the level of injury. Advances in noninvasive imaging such as MRA will facilitate accurate evaluation of these potentially life-threatening vascular injuries.

  17. MR imaging of middle cerebral artery stenosis and occlusion: Value of MR angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Norihiko; Sato, Tadayuki ); Hirabuki, Norio; Fujii, Keiko; Hashimoto, Tsutomu; Miura, Takashi; Kozuka, Takahiro )

    1994-02-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of MR angiography in conjunction with spin-echo imaging for evaluating vascular patency in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis or occlusion. Seven patients with MCA stenosis or occlusion, verified with contrast angiography in five and correlated with transcranial Doppler sonography in two, were examined using two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiographic techniques as well as conventional spin-echo imaging. Of the seven patients, six demonstrated basal ganglionic and/or cortical infarct in the MCA territory. Except one case with minimal stenosis immediately distal to the MCA origin, all six cases with either severe stenosis or occlusion of the main trunk of the MCA showed the absence of normal flow voids using spin-echo imaging in the sylvian fissure on the affected side. However, it was not possible to discriminate between stenosis and occlusion. Although different mechanisms (i.e., flow-induced spin dephasing for the 2-D technique and progressive spin saturation for the 3-D technique) were predominantly responsible for the loss of signal through the area of stenosis, both the 2-D and 3-D MR angiograms clearly depicted the compromised flow of the MCA: a focal discontinuity with decreased vessel caliber corresponded to stenosis, and nonvisualization of distal MCA branches represented occlusion. Either 2-D or 3-D time-of-flight MR angiography is a useful adjunct to conventional parenchymal spin-echo imaging for evaluating vascular patency in patients with MCA stenosis or occlusion, although it is important to recognize that each technique has a different basis for the loss of signal through the area of stenosis. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with celiac axis occlusion using pancreaticoduodenal arcade as a challenging alternative route.

    PubMed

    Attia, Noha M; Othman, Moustafa H M

    2017-01-01

    Celiac axis occlusion is a challenging condition when catheterization of the hepatic artery is required for chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As a result, the hepatic artery has to be catheterized through the pancreaticoduodenal arcades (PDA) and the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) which is a tortuous course with acute angles and small caliber branches. To assess new techniques for facilitating catheterization of the tortuous PDA and the GDA to reach the proper hepatic artery (PHA) and tumor-feeding branches in patients with celiac axis occlusion undergoing chemoembolization of HCC. The study included eleven patients all admitted to do transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for treatment of unresectable HCC. During angiography occlusion of the celiac axis was diagnosed and hypertrophied PDA and GDA was noted in SMA angiography. Catheterization of the PDA was performed by preshaping of the micro-guide wire into a wide curve. Catheterization of the PHA was a challenge and was achieved by reshaping of the micro-guide wire or by looping technique. TACE was done after super selective catheterization of the tumor feeding artery using a mixture of 50 mg of adriamycin, 7cc of lipiodol and gelfoam. In the eleven patients with celiac artery occlusion, DSA showed complete celiac axis occlusion in all patients. Collateral arteries supplying the liver were readily evident via PDA and GDA from SMA. Successful catheterization of the PHA was achieved in all patients. Chemoembolization was performed to all patients after super selective catheterization of the feeding artery. Follow-up triphasic CT was performed in all patients, 9 patients showed good lipiodol trapping with no residual tumor enhancement. Two patients required another session of TACE. Chemoembolization of HCC through the PDA and the GDA using micro-guide wire preshaping technique and the microcatheter looping technique in patients with celiac axis

  19. The efficiency analysis of thrombolytic rt-PA combined with intravascular interventional therapy in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Xianxian, Zhao; Chengsong, Yue; Qiang, Mei; Fei, Wei; Lin, Shen; Huiyan, Ding; Zili, Gong

    2017-01-01

    In order to further optimize the treatment strategy for the patients with acute basilar artery occlusion, we were dedicated to study the therapeutic effects and influential factors in the process of treated basilar artery occlusion with thrombolytic combined vascular interventional therapy. 75 patients with acute basilar artery occlusion treated with arterial thrombolytic therapy were analyzed retrospectively. In accordance with the discharge records of patients, their short-term curative effect with 24-hour treatment and 14-days treatment were evaluated. Our data showed that the survival condition of the patients with acute acute basilar artery occlusion were visibly improved by combination thrombolytic and interventional therapy. Moreover, their BI scores were remarkably improved, while NIHSS and mRS scores were evidently reduced. These data proved that our treatment strategy was able to improve the survival condition of patients with acute basilar artery occlusion. Furthermore, our data showed that coagulation related factors remarkably improved in the patients, when they treated by combination thrombolytic therapy with interventional therapy. In addition, our results suggested that the patients' bilateral Babinski(+), revascularization and coma symptom were closely related to their prognosis after treated the patients with combination thrombolytic and vascular interventional therapy, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05, p<0.05, p<0.05). Besides, our data also displayed that the with stent assisted angioplasty was significantly superior to the patients with balloon angioplasty, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Anyhow, combination thrombolytic with interventional therapy can effectively promote the prognosis of the patients with acute basilar artery occlusion. The coma symptom, bilateral Babinski(+), and revascularization in the patients with acute basilar artery occlusion have an appreciable impact on the patients

  20. Radial artery occlusion after percutaneous coronary interventions – an underestimated issue

    PubMed Central

    Kubler, Piotr; Szczepański, Andrzej; Piątek, Joanna; Stępkowski, Michał; Reczuch, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The femoral approach is the most common arterial access for percutaneous coronary artery interventions. Despite the convenience and simplicity of this approach, it is burdened with a high risk of arterial puncture bleeding, which worsens the prognosis of the patient. An alternative approach through the radial artery has been gaining more and more popularity in recent years. This is due to a significant reduction of local bleeding complications as compared with the femoral artery approach. The use of the radial approach in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction improves outcome, reducing the risk of death, subsequent myocardial infarction and stroke, and is the preferred approach according to the latest ESC guidelines. In addition to improving safety, it is beneficial for improving patient comfort, with a shorter recovery after the procedure, shorter hospitalization and lower medical costs. One of the major complications of procedures performed through the radial approach is radial artery occlusion (RAO). Although it usually has an asymptomatic course, RAO eliminates the ability to use the radial artery as an access in the future. A number of factors that contribute to the occurrence of RAO have been identified, such as the size of the sheath and the catheter, diameter ratio of the sheath to the diameter of the radial artery, insufficient anticoagulation and, above all, the way of obtaining hemostasis at the puncture site: the duration of artery compression after sheath removal and the preservation of artery patency during compression (so-called patent hemostasis). This paper presents the current state of the art about the factors that contribute to the occurrence of RAO and methods for preventing this complication. PMID:24570753

  1. Profunda Anchor Technique for Ipsilateral Antegrade Approach in Endovascular Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Ostial Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei

    2015-04-15

    Endovascular treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is challenging in the presence of flush ostial occlusion. One of the main challenges is the availability of access sites for intervention. Contralateral retrograde femoral access followed by cross-over and antegrade intervention while commonly used, may not be feasible in cases of altered iliac anatomy (e.g. kissing iliac stents). Ipsilateral antegrade intervention using common femoral artery (CFA) access in these instances while possible is typically challenging due to inadequate working length of the CFA for interrogation of the SFA ostium, compounded by the lack of sheath stability. The “profunda anchor” technique uses a buddy wire in the profunda femoris artery (PFA) to stabilize the sheath and allow catheter manipulation for antegrade intervention at the level of the SFA ostium. The PFA is further used as a conduit for deployment of closure device to avoid interference with the treated SFA.

  2. Sphingosine-1-phosphate is involved in the occlusive arteriopathy of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sachindra R.; Bastola, Mrigendra M.; McLendon, Jared M.; Oka, Masahiko; Fagan, Karen A.; McMurtry, Ivan F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite several advances in the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Current therapy improves symptoms but has disappointing effects on survival. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid synthesized by sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) and SphK2. Considering the regulatory roles of S1P in several tissues leading to vasoconstriction, inflammation, proliferation, and fibrosis, we investigated whether S1P plays a role in the pathogenesis of PAH. To test this hypothesis, we used plasma samples and lung tissue from patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH) and the Sugen5416/hypoxia/normoxia rat model of occlusive PAH. Our study revealed an increase in the plasma concentration of S1P in patients with IPAH and in early and late stages of PAH in rats. We observed increased expression of both SphK1 and SphK2 in the remodeled pulmonary arteries of patients with IPAH and PAH rats. Exogenous S1P stimulated the proliferation of cultured rat pulmonary arterial endothelial and smooth-muscle cells. We also found that 3 weeks of treatment of late-stage PAH rats with an SphK1 inhibitor reduced the increased plasma levels of S1P and the occlusive pulmonary arteriopathy. Although inhibition of SphK1 improved cardiac index and the total pulmonary artery resistance index, it did not reduce right ventricular systolic pressure or right ventricular hypertrophy. Our study supports that S1P is involved in the pathogenesis of occlusive arteriopathy in PAH and provides further evidence that S1P signaling may be a novel therapeutic target. PMID:27683614

  3. Simultaneous occlusion of three cilioretinal arteries following scleral buckling surgery under local anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Cuccu, Alberto; Farci, Roberta; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background Cilioretinal artery (CRA) occlusions are rare in young patients. In these cases, the most commonly associated causes are considered to be the same as those implicated in central retina artery occlusions, such as vasculitic processes, migraine, cardiac disorder, and coagulation abnormality. The aim of this article was to report for the first time the medical records and investigational results of an unusual case of simultaneous occlusion of three CRAs after scleral buckling surgery under local anesthesia. Methods A complete ophthalmic examination, including color fundus image, fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, visual field, as well as systemic and laboratory assessments, was performed. Results A case of contemporaneous blockage of three CRAs after ab externo surgery for retinal detachment in a 29-year-old Caucasian woman was reported. The interdisciplinary approach and the imaging results have allowed us the clinical definition of such a very rare case. Conclusion Here, we reported that optical coherence tomography is an indispensable tool to better delineate the pathological process and follow atrophic changes in the macula, especially in cases in which fundus fluorescein angiography and systemic tests may be poorly informative. PMID:27695367

  4. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (176). Acute embolic occlusion of the coeliac artery.

    PubMed

    Appuhamy, Chinthaka; Kwan, Justin; H'ng, Martin Weng Chin; Narayanan, Sriram; Punamiya, Sundeep

    2017-04-01

    A 52-year-old man, who had a background of chronic heart disease and atrial fibrillation, as well as non-compliance with warfarin therapy, presented with a two-week history of worsening upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography mesenteric angiography showed complete embolic occlusion of the coeliac artery with resultant segmental splenic infarction, and thrombus within the left ventricle. A decision was made to proceed with catheter-directed thrombolysis. Subsequent follow-up angiogram at 12 hours showed successful treatment with complete dissolution of the coeliac embolus. The patient's symptoms resolved during his hospitalisation and he was subsequently discharged well on long-term oral anticoagulation therapy. Isolated acute embolic occlusion of the coeliac axis is a rare occurrence that may result in end-organ infarction. Treatment options include systemic anti-coagulation, mechanical thrombectomy, catheter thrombolysis or open surgery. Catheter-directed thrombolysis therapy is a feasible and effective option for treating acute thromboembolic occlusion of the coeliac artery. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  5. Sequential neuronal and astrocytic changes after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Chopp, M; Schultz, L; Bodzin, G; Garcia, J H

    1993-09-01

    The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of ischemic cell injury was investigated after transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Male Wistar rats (n = 61) were subjected to 2 h of MCA occlusion induced by advancing a nylon monofilament into the right internal carotid artery. Animals were killed after different durations of reperfusion, ranging from 4 to 166 h (n = 6-11 for each group). Neuronal injury and astrocytic reaction were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry, respectively. Eosinophilic neurons were detected at 4 h of reperfusion in the basal ganglia, and at 10 h of reperfusion in the cortex. Focal brain infarct developed by 46 h of reperfusion, both in the cortex and the basal ganglia, and the volume remained constant between 46 and 166 h of reperfusion. Significant differences in astrocytic reaction were detected between the lesion and the periphery of the lesion at reperfusion times from 46 to 166 h; GFAP staining decreased in the core of the lesion and increased in the peripheral areas. Our data suggest that, after 2 h of MCA occlusion, brain tissue progresses from isolated neuronal injury to infarct with a time course dependent on anatomical site; and astrocytic reactivity, expressed by GFAP staining, reflects the outcome of the ischemic injury.

  6. The Effect of Endovascular Revascularization of Common Iliac Artery Occlusions on Erectile Function

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, Serkan; Ozkan, Ugur; Onder, Hakan; Tekbas, Gueven; Oguzkurt, Levent

    2013-02-15

    To determine the incidence of erectile dysfunction in patients with common iliac artery (CIA) occlusive disease and the effect of revascularization on erectile function using the sexual health inventory for males (SHIM) questionnaire. All patients (35 men; mean age 57 {+-} 5 years; range 42-67 years) were asked to recall their sexual function before and 1 month after iliac recanalization. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine variables effecting improvement of impotence. The incidence of impotence in patients with CIA occlusion was 74% (26 of 35) preoperatively. Overall 16 (46%) of 35 patients reported improved erectile function after iliac recanalization. The rate of improvement of impotence was 61.5% (16 of 26 impotent patients). Sixteen patients (46%), including seven with normal erectile function before the procedure, had no change. Three patients (8%) reported deterioration of their sexual function, two of whom (6%) had normal erectile function before the procedure. The median SHIM score increased from 14 (range 4-25) before the procedure to 20 (range 1-25) after the procedure (P = 0.005). The type of recanalization, the age of the patients, and the length of occlusion were related to erectile function improvement in univariate analysis. However, these factors were not independent factors for improvement of erectile dysfunction in multivariate analysis (P > 0.05). Endovascular recanalization of CIA occlusions clearly improves sexual function. More than half of the patients with erectile dysfunction who underwent endovascular recanalization of the CIA experienced improvement.

  7. Forced arterial suction thrombectomy with the penumbra reperfusion catheter in acute basilar artery occlusion: a retrospective comparison study in 2 Korean university hospitals.

    PubMed

    Eom, Y-I; Hwang, Y-H; Hong, J M; Choi, J W; Lim, Y C; Kang, D-H; Kim, Y-W; Kim, Y-S; Kim, S Y; Lee, J S

    2014-12-01

    A performance of forced arterial suction thrombectomy was not reported for the treatment of acute basilar artery occlusion. This study compared revascularization performance between intra-arterial fibrinolytic treatment and forced arterial suction thrombectomy with a Penumbra reperfusion catheter in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion. Fifty-seven patients with acute basilar artery occlusion were treated with intra-arterial fibrinolysis (n = 25) or forced arterial suction thrombectomy (n = 32). Baseline characteristics, successful revascularization rate, and clinical outcomes were compared between the groups. Baseline characteristics, the frequency of patients receiving intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, and mean time interval between symptom onset and femoral puncture did not differ between groups. The forced arterial suction thrombectomy group had a shorter procedure duration (75.5 minutes versus 113.3 minutes, P = .016) and higher successful revascularization rate (88% versus 60%, P = .017) than the fibrinolysis group. Fair outcome, indicated by a modified Rankin Scale 0-3, at 3 months was achieved in 34% of patients undergoing forced arterial suction thrombectomy and 8% of patients undergoing fibrinolysis (P = .019), and the mortality rate was significantly higher in the fibrinolysis group (25% versus 68%, P = .001). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified the forced arterial suction thrombectomy method as an independent predictor of fair outcome with adjustment for age, sex, initial NIHSS score, and the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (odds ratio, 7.768; 95% CI, 1.246-48.416; P = .028). In acute basilar artery occlusion, forced arterial suction thrombectomy demonstrated a higher revascularization rate and improved clinical outcome compared with traditional intra-arterial fibrinolysis. Further clinical trials with the newer Penumbra catheter are warranted. © 2014 by American Journal of

  8. Novel Risk Factors for Premature Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease in Non-Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bedel, Aurélie; Le Trequesser, Rémi; Freyburger, Geneviève; Nurden, Alan; Colomer, Sylvie; Guérin, Viviane; Vergnes, Marie-Christine; Becker, François; Camelot, Gabriel; Bressolette, Luc; Lacroix, Philippe; Cambou, Jean-Pierre; Bura-Rivière, Alessandra; Emmerich, Joseph; Darmon, Michel; Deletraz, Anne-Marie; Mesli, Samir; Colombies, Brigitte; Vanbrugghe, Virginie; Conri, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genetic and environmental vascular risk factors in non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease, either peripheral arterial occlusive disease or thromboangiitis obliterans, the two main entities of peripheral arterial disease, and to established whether some of them are specifically associated with one or another of the premature peripheral arterial disease subgroups. Methods and Results This study included 113 non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease (diagnosis <45-year old) presenting either a peripheral arterial occlusive disease (N = 64) or a thromboangiitis obliterans (N = 49), and 241 controls matched for age and gender. Both patient groups demonstrated common traits including cigarette smoking, low physical activity, decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A–I, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (active form of B6 vitamin) and zinc. Premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease was characterized by the presence of a family history of peripheral arterial and carotid artery diseases (OR 2.3 and 5.8 respectively, 95% CI), high lipoprotein (a) levels above 300 mg/L (OR 2.3, 95% CI), the presence of the factor V Leiden (OR 5.1, 95% CI) and the glycoprotein Ia807T,837T,873A allele (OR 2.3, 95% CI). In thromboangiitis obliterans group, more patients were regular consumers of cannabis (OR 3.5, 95% CI) and higher levels in plasma copper has been shown (OR 6.5, 95% CI). Conclusions According to our results from a non exhaustive list of study parameters, we might hypothesize for 1) a genetic basis for premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease development and 2) the prevalence of environmental factors in the development of thromboangiitis obliterans (tobacco and cannabis). Moreover, for the first time, we demonstrated that the 807T/837T/873A allele of platelet glycoprotein Ia may confer an additional risk for development of peripheral

  9. Novel risk factors for premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease in non-diabetic patients: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bérard, Annie M; Bedel, Aurélie; Le Trequesser, Rémi; Freyburger, Geneviève; Nurden, Alan; Colomer, Sylvie; Guérin, Viviane; Vergnes, Marie-Christine; Becker, François; Camelot, Gabriel; Bressolette, Luc; Lacroix, Philippe; Cambou, Jean-Pierre; Bura-Rivière, Alessandra; Emmerich, Joseph; Darmon, Michel; Deletraz, Anne-Marie; Mesli, Samir; Colombies, Brigitte; Vanbrugghe, Virginie; Conri, Claude; Constans, Joël

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genetic and environmental vascular risk factors in non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease, either peripheral arterial occlusive disease or thromboangiitis obliterans, the two main entities of peripheral arterial disease, and to established whether some of them are specifically associated with one or another of the premature peripheral arterial disease subgroups. This study included 113 non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease (diagnosis <45-year old) presenting either a peripheral arterial occlusive disease (N = 64) or a thromboangiitis obliterans (N = 49), and 241 controls matched for age and gender. Both patient groups demonstrated common traits including cigarette smoking, low physical activity, decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (active form of B6 vitamin) and zinc. Premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease was characterized by the presence of a family history of peripheral arterial and carotid artery diseases (OR 2.3 and 5.8 respectively, 95% CI), high lipoprotein (a) levels above 300 mg/L (OR 2.3, 95% CI), the presence of the factor V Leiden (OR 5.1, 95% CI) and the glycoprotein Ia(807T,837T,873A) allele (OR 2.3, 95% CI). In thromboangiitis obliterans group, more patients were regular consumers of cannabis (OR 3.5, 95% CI) and higher levels in plasma copper has been shown (OR 6.5, 95% CI). According to our results from a non exhaustive list of study parameters, we might hypothesize for 1) a genetic basis for premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease development and 2) the prevalence of environmental factors in the development of thromboangiitis obliterans (tobacco and cannabis). Moreover, for the first time, we demonstrated that the 807T/837T/873A allele of platelet glycoprotein Ia may confer an additional risk for development of peripheral atherosclerosis in premature peripheral arterial occlusive

  10. [Conservative management of a ruptured inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with celiac artery occlusion].

    PubMed

    Kidogawa, Hideo; Okamoto, Kohji; Yamayoshi, Takatomo; Noguchi, Junya

    2013-10-01

    A 45-year-old female presented at our hospital with a one-day history of upper abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed that the root of the celiac artery was obstructed and that a large hematoma was present in the retroperitoneum. The patient was diagnosed with retroperitoneal hemorrhage associated with the rupture of an inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm, which was caused by increased blood flow in the pancreaticoduodenal arterial arcade. Because the patient's general condition was stable, she was managed conservatively and discharged on achieving remission after a month. Follow-up CT revealed spontaneous resolution of the celiac artery obstruction and aneurysm. The celiac artery obstruction in this case was assumed to be caused by segmental arterial mediolysis.

  11. The missing button sign as a tool for detecting proximal internal carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Ho Sung; Joo, In Soo; Huh, Kyoon; Lee, Phil Hyu; Heo, Ji Hoe; Nam, Hyo Suk

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable sign for detecting proximal internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) using conventional CT scanning. The missing button sign (MBS) is defined as the absence of the ICA at the level of the foramen magnum on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) scans. Two raters independently reviewed random CECT samples from consecutive patients with acute ischaemic stroke. A total of 399 patients with 798 carotid arteries were analysed. Rater A identified the MBS in 41 (5%) of the carotid arteries, and did not identify the MBS in 735 (92%) carotid arteries. Rater B identified the MBS in 45 (6%) of the arteries, and lack of the MBS in 731 (91%) arteries. The kappa value for agreement was 0.90 (95% CI 0.84-0.95). Compared with CT angiography, Rater A's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for detecting proximal ICAO were 85%, 100%, 100%, and 99%, respectively, while Rater B's values were 87%, 99%, 93%, and 99%, respectively. This study indicated that the MBS on CECT scanning is both a consistent and specific tool for the early identification of proximal ICAO.

  12. Multi-modal assessment of neurovascular coupling during cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion using remote middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Brad A; Fordsmann, Jonas C; Martin, Chris; Neuhaus, Ain A; Witgen, Brent M; Piilgaard, Henning; Lønstrup, Micael; Couch, Yvonne; Sibson, Nicola R; Lauritzen, Martin; Buchan, Alastair M

    2017-07-01

    Hyperacute changes in cerebral blood flow during cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion are important determinants of injury. Cerebral blood flow is regulated by neurovascular coupling, and disruption of neurovascular coupling contributes to brain plasticity and repair problems. However, it is unknown how neurovascular coupling is affected hyperacutely during cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion. We have developed a remote middle cerebral artery occlusion model in the rat, which enables multi-modal assessment of neurovascular coupling immediately prior to, during and immediately following reperfusion. Male Wistar rats were subjected to remote middle cerebral artery occlusion, where a long filament was advanced intraluminally through a guide cannula in the common carotid artery. Transcallosal stimulation evoked increases in blood flow, tissue oxygenation and neuronal activity, which were diminished by middle cerebral artery occlusion and partially restored during reperfusion. These evoked responses were not affected by administration of the thrombolytic alteplase at clinically used doses. Evoked cerebral blood flow responses were fully restored at 24 h post-middle cerebral artery occlusion indicating that neurovascular dysfunction was not sustained. These data show for the first time that the rat remote middle cerebral artery occlusion model coupled with transcallosal stimulation provides a novel method for continuous assessment of hyperacute neurovascular coupling changes during ischaemia and reperfusion, and offers unique insight into hyperacute ischaemic pathophysiology.

  13. Evaluation of Endarterectomy Recanalization under Ultrasound Guidance in Symptomatic Patients with Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yumei; Jia, Lingyun; Liu, Beibei; Meng, Xiufeng; Yang, Jie; Li, Jingzhi; Zhou, Yinghua; Jiao, Liqun; Hua, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous screening and good imaging would help perform surgery on carotid artery occlusion CAO safely and effectively. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate carotid endarterectomy (CEA) recanalization in patients with common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) or internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) with color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI). A total of 59 patients undergoing CEA were enrolled. According to the results of CEA, the patients were divided into successful recanalization (group A) and unsuccessful recanalization (group B) groups. The original diameter, lesion length, proximal-to-distal diameter ratio and echo characteristics of the lesion within the lumen of the carotid artery were recorded before CEA and compared between the two groups. In regards to the achievement of repatency by CEA, the overall success rate was 74.6% (44/59), the success rate in CCAO patients was 75.9% (22/29) and the success rate in ICAO patients was 73.3% (22/30). There was no significant difference in the success rates between the CCAO and ICAO patients (χ2 = 0.050, P = 0.824). The overall rate of stroke and death within 30 postoperative days was 5.1% (3/59). For the CCAO patients, the lesion length in group A was shorter than that in group B (t = 3.221, P = 0.004). For the ICAO patients, the original diameter of the distal ICA was broader (t = 6.254, P = 0.000) and the proximal-to-distal ICA diameter ratio was smaller (t = 8.036, P = 0.000) in group A than in group B. The rate of recanalization for lumens with a homogeneous echo pattern (hypoecho or isoecho) was significantly higher than that for lumens with echo heterogeneity for both the CCAO and ICAO patients (χ2 = 14.477, P = 0.001; χ2 = 10.519, P = 0.003). However, for both the CCAO and ICAO patients, there was no difference in the rate of recanalization between patients with hypoecho and isoecho lesions (χ2 = 0.109, P = 0.742; χ2 = 0.836, P = 0.429). The original diameter, proximal-to-distal ICA

  14. Evaluation of Endarterectomy Recanalization under Ultrasound Guidance in Symptomatic Patients with Carotid Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yumei; Jia, Lingyun; Liu, Beibei; Meng, Xiufeng; Yang, Jie; Li, Jingzhi; Zhou, Yinghua; Jiao, Liqun; Hua, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous screening and good imaging would help perform surgery on carotid artery occlusion CAO safely and effectively. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate carotid endarterectomy (CEA) recanalization in patients with common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) or internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) with color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI). A total of 59 patients undergoing CEA were enrolled. According to the results of CEA, the patients were divided into successful recanalization (group A) and unsuccessful recanalization (group B) groups. The original diameter, lesion length, proximal-to-distal diameter ratio and echo characteristics of the lesion within the lumen of the carotid artery were recorded before CEA and compared between the two groups. In regards to the achievement of repatency by CEA, the overall success rate was 74.6% (44/59), the success rate in CCAO patients was 75.9% (22/29) and the success rate in ICAO patients was 73.3% (22/30). There was no significant difference in the success rates between the CCAO and ICAO patients (χ2 = 0.050, P = 0.824). The overall rate of stroke and death within 30 postoperative days was 5.1% (3/59). For the CCAO patients, the lesion length in group A was shorter than that in group B (t = 3.221, P = 0.004). For the ICAO patients, the original diameter of the distal ICA was broader (t = 6.254, P = 0.000) and the proximal-to-distal ICA diameter ratio was smaller (t = 8.036, P = 0.000) in group A than in group B. The rate of recanalization for lumens with a homogeneous echo pattern (hypoecho or isoecho) was significantly higher than that for lumens with echo heterogeneity for both the CCAO and ICAO patients (χ2 = 14.477, P = 0.001; χ2 = 10.519, P = 0.003). However, for both the CCAO and ICAO patients, there was no difference in the rate of recanalization between patients with hypoecho and isoecho lesions (χ2 = 0.109, P = 0.742; χ2 = 0.836, P = 0.429). The original diameter, proximal-to-distal ICA

  15. Neurologic Examination at 24 to 48 Hours Predicts Functional Outcomes in Basilar Artery Occlusion Stroke.

    PubMed

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Jovin, Tudor G; Frankel, Michael; Schonewille, Wouter J; Algra, Ale; Kappelle, L Jaap; Nogueira, Raul G

    2016-10-01

    Accurate long-term outcome prognostication in basilar artery occlusion strokes may guide clinical management in the subacute stage. We determine the prognostic value of the follow-up neurological examination using the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) and identify 24- to 48-hour NIHSS risk categories in basilar artery occlusion patients. Participants of an observational registry of radiologically confirmed acute basilar artery occlusion (BASICS [Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study]) with prospectively collected 24- to 48-hour NIHSS and 1-month modified Rankin scale scores were included. Uni- and multivariable modeling were performed to identify independent predictors of poor outcome. Predictive powers of baseline and 24- to 48-hour NIHSS for poor outcome (modified Rankin scale, 4-6) and 1-month mortality were determined by receiver operating characteristic analyses. Classification and regression tree analysis was performed to identify risk groups. Three hundred seventy-six of 619 BASICS participants were included, of whom 65.4% had poor outcome. In multivariable analyses, 24- to 48-hour NIHSS (odds ratio=1.28 [1.21-1.35]), history of minor stroke (odds ratio=2.64 [1.04-6.74], time to treatment >6 hours (odds ratio=3.07 [1.35-6.99]), and age (odds ratio=1.02 [0.99-1.04]) were retained in the final model as predictors of poor outcome. Prognostic power of 24- to 48-hour NIHSS was higher than baseline NIHSS for 1-month poor outcome (area under the curve, 0.92 versus 0.75) and mortality (area under the curve, 0.85 versus 0.72). Classification and regression tree analysis identified five 24- to 48-hour NIHSS risk categories with poor outcome rates of 9.4% (NIHSS 0-4), 36% (NIHSS 5-11), 84.3% (NIHSS 12-22), 96.1% (NIHSS 23-27), and 100% (NIHSS≥28). Twenty-four- to 48-hour NIHSS accurately predicts 1-month poor outcome and mortality and represents a clinically valuable prognostic tool for the care of basilar artery occlusion patients. © 2016

  16. Percutaneous laser thermal angioplasty: initial clinical results with a laser probe in total peripheral artery occlusions.

    PubMed

    Cumberland, D C; Sanborn, T A; Tayler, D I; Moore, D J; Welsh, C L; Greenfield, A J; Guben, J K; Ryan, T J

    1986-06-28

    A metal-tipped laser fibre was used during percutaneous angioplasty of femoral/popliteal or iliac artery occlusions in 56 patients. Primary success was achieved in 50 (89%) of these total occlusions, providing a channel for subsequent balloon dilatation. Before the procedure, 18 lesions had been judged untreatable by conventional angioplasty and four of the six failures were in these. Complications directly attributable to the laser probe were one case of vessel perforation and two cases of entry into vessel walls; these had no sequelae. Other acute complications were a distal thrombosis in a non-heparinised patient, requiring local streptokinase treatment, and two reocclusions and one transient peripheral embolic episode in the first 24 hours. The laser probe technique has potential for increasing the proportion of patients suitable for angioplasty.

  17. Spontaneous central retinal artery occlusion in a teenager with sickle cell trait.

    PubMed

    Pai, Sivakami A; Hebri, Sudhira Pai; Dekhain, Moza A

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell trait (SCT) is traditionally considered a benign condition by ophthalmologists. Several studies have reported ocular complications in SCT, but these complications have been described as a consequence of trauma, exertion, and associated systemic disorders. We here in the report a case of an Arab teen boy, who presented with a sudden loss of vision in his left eye of 1 h duration. The ocular examination revealed acute central retinal artery occlusion. He underwent a series of laboratory and radiological investigations. The blood investigations revealed SCT and abnormal partial thromboplastin time. The fundus fluorescein angiography revealed abnormal retinal vascular perfusion. Marked blood rheological impairment and activation of the coagulation pathway can occur without any contributing factors in SCT leading to severe ocular complications. This is one of the young patients with spontaneous vascular occlusion in SCT.

  18. Influence of the site of arterial occlusion on multiple baseline hemodynamic MRI parameters and post-thrombolytic recanalization in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Derex, L; Hermier, M; Adeleine, P; Pialat, J B; Wiart, M; Berthezène, Y; Froment, J C; Trouillas, P; Nighoghossian, N

    2004-11-01

    In this prospective MRI study, we evaluated the impact of the site of occlusion on multiple baseline perfusion parameters and subsequent recanalization in 49 stroke patients who were given intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Pretreatment magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed an arterial occlusion in 47 patients: (1) internal carotid artery (ICA) + M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (n=12); (2) M1 MCA occlusion (n=19); (3) M2 MCA, distal branches of the MCA and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) occlusion (n=16). Patients with ICA occlusion had significantly larger DWI, PWI and mismatch lesion volume on pretreatment MRI compared to patients with other sites of occlusion. The differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and peak height were significantly higher in patients with ICA occlusion compared to patients with other sites of occlusion (P=0.03 and P=0.04, respectively). Day 1 MRA showed recanalization in 28 patients (60%). The rate of recanalization was significantly different depending on the site of occlusion: 33% in ICA + M1 MCA occlusion, 63% in M1 MCA occlusion and 81% in either M2 MCA, distal branches of the MCA or ACA occlusion (P=0.002). Our data suggest that CBF and peak height are the most relevant MRI parameters to assess the severity of hemodynamic impairment in regard to the site of occlusion.

  19. Predictive Value of Balloon Test Occlusion of the Internal Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Segal, David H.; Sen, Chandranath; Bederson, Joshua B.; Catalano, Peter; Sacher, Michael; Stollman, Aryeh L.; Lorberboym, Mordechai

    1995-01-01

    Balloon test occlusion (BTO) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is used in conjunction with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging to assess the cerebrovascular collateral reserve prior to surgical manipulation of the artery. The present report reviews 56 consecutive patients with tumors or vascular lesions at the base of the skull who underwent BTO and subsequent treatment on that basis within a 3-year period. Four patients underwent carotid sacrifice, since they tolerated the BTO and had normal SPECT imaging. Postoperatively, one patient had patchy infarcts in the frontal lobe, another a middle cerebral artery territory infarction, a third had a lacunar infarct, and the fourth had an impending stroke and was treated with an emergent revascularization procedure. There were 15 patients who underwent saphenous vein bypass grafting, of these there were three graft occlusions, one of which resulted in an infarction. There were two other infarctions due to technical difficulties, one being related to the revascularization procedure. Based on these results, we suggest that passing BTO with a normal SPECT study does not necessarily indicate that the patient is immune to stroke following carotid sacrifice. Revascularization should be considered, when ICA sacrifice is deemed necessary to treat the pathologic condition adequately, to minimize the likelihood of a stroke. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:17171183

  20. Surgical salvage of acute renal artery occlusion in the setting of a solitary kidney.

    PubMed

    Stone, Patrick; Mossalllati, Adam S; Schlarb, Haley; Schlarb, Chris

    2014-04-01

    Management of acute renal artery occlusion in patients with a solitary kidney has a poorly defined prognosis. Loss of renal function is reported by some when acute warm ischemia reaches 2 hours. We report a unique case of a patient that had a 24-hour onset of anuria and acute renal failure upon arrival to the hospital. Nuclear imaging showed trace uptake of the right kidney, without evidence of excretion. Conventional digital subtraction angiography was performed; however, evidence of nephrogram or distal filling of the renal artery was not demonstrated. Secondary to conflicting studies, a computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous contrast revealed only minimal cortical perfusion despite complete occlusion of the previously grafted right renal artery. Patient was taken for urgent hepatorenal bypass surgery. Intraoperative return of urine output occurred immediately after completion of the bypass. Hemodialysis, which was required preoperatively, was stopped after <30 days of bypass procedure. Over 2 years following successful renal salvage, the patient has maintained a normal glomerular filtration rate and patency of her bypass by duplex follow-up.

  1. Central retinal artery occlusion following laser treatment for ocular ischemic aortic arch syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Payal J.; Ellis, Brian; DiGiovine, Lauren R.; Hogg, Jeffery P.; Leys, Monique J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Ocular ischemic syndrome is a rare blinding condition generally caused by disease of the carotid artery. We describe a 69-year-old female with a 50 pack-year smoking history with aortic arch syndrome causing bilateral ocular ischemic syndrome. Methods: The patient presented with progressive visual loss and temple pain. Slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed bilateral iris neovascularization. This finding prompted a cardiovascular work up. Panretinal photocoagulation with retrobulbar block was performed in the right eye. Results: A temporal artery biopsy was negative. The carotid duplex ultrasound showed only a 1–39% stenosis. MRA revealed a more proximal occlusion of the aortic branch for which she underwent subclavian carotid bypass surgery. At the one month follow up, the right eye suffered profound vision loss secondary to a central retinal artery occlusion. Conclusion: Ocular neovascularization may be one of the clinical manifestations of aortic arch syndrome. This case also illustrates the limitations of relying solely on carotid duplex ultrasound testing. We caution against overly aggressive panretinal photocoagulation utilizing retrobulbar anesthesia. PMID:27625958

  2. Regional myocardial functional and electrophysiological alterations after brief coronary artery occlusion in conscious dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Heyndrickx, G R; Millard, R W; McRitchie, R J; Maroko, P R; Vatner, S F

    1975-01-01

    The time relationship for recovery of mechanical function, the intramyocardial electrogram and coronary flow after brief periods of regional myocardial ischemia, was studied in conscious dogs. Total left vemtricular (LV) function was assessed with measurements of LV systolic and diastolic pressures, rate of change of LV pressure (dP/dt), and dP/dt/P. Regional LV function was assessed with measurements of regional segment length and velocity of shortening. An implanted hydraulic occluder on either the left anterior descending or circumflex coronary artery was inflated for 5- and 15-min periods on separate days. A 5-min occlusion depressed overall LV function transiently, but just before release of occlusion overall function had nearly returned to control. At this time regional function in the ischemic zone was still depressed to the point of absent shorteining or paradoxical motion during systole and was associated with marked ST segment elevation (+ 10 +/- 2.2 mV) at the site where function was measured. With release of occlusion and reperfusion the intramyocardial electrogram returned to normal within 1 min, and reactive hyperemia subsided by 5-10 min. In contrast to the rapid return to preocclusion levels for coronary flow and the electrogram, regional mechanical function remained depressed for over 3 h. A 15-min coronary occlusion resulted in an even more prolonged (greater than 6 h) derangement of function in the ischemic zone. Thus, brief periods of coronary occlusion result in prolonged impairement of regional myocardial function which could not have been predicted from the rapid return of the electrogram and coronary flow. These observations indicate that brief interruptions of coronary flow result either in a prolonged period of local ischemia or that alterations of mechanical induced by ischemia far outlast the repayment of the oxygen debt. PMID:1159098

  3. Incidence and Clinical Features of Neovascularization of the Iris following Acute Central Retinal Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Ho; Ahn, Seong Joon; Hong, Jeong-Ho; Park, Kyu Hyung; Han, Moon-Ku; Jung, Cheolkyu; Woo, Se Joon

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the incidence of neovascularization of the iris (NVI) and clinical features of patients with NVI following acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). A retrospective review of 214 consecutive CRAO patients who visited one tertiary hospital between January 2009 and January 2015 was conducted. In total, 110 patients were eligible for this study after excluding patients with arteritic CRAO, a lack of follow-up, iatrogenic CRAO secondary to cosmetic filler injection, or NVI detected before CRAO attack. Fluorescein angiography (FA) was applied until retinal arterial reperfusion was achieved, typically within 1 to 3 months. The incidence of NVI was 10.9% (12 out of 110 patients). Neovascular glaucoma was found in seven patients (6.4%). The mean time to NVI diagnosis after CRAO events was 3.0 months (range, 1 week to 15 months). The cumulative incidence was 5.5% at 3 months, 7.3% at 6 months, and 10.9% at 15 months. Severely narrowed ipsilateral carotid arteries were observed in only three patients (27.3%). The other nine patients (75.0%) showed no predisposing conditions for NVI, such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy or central retinal vein occlusion. Reperfusion rate and prevalence of diabetes were significantly different between patients with NVI and patients without NVI (reperfusion: 0% [NVI] vs. 94.7% [no NVI], p < 0.001; diabetes: 50.0% [NVI] vs. 17.3% [no NVI], p = 0.017). CRAO may lead to NVI and neovascular glaucoma caused by chronic retinal ischemia from reperfusion failure. Our results indicate that follow-up fluorescein angiography is important to evaluate retinal artery reperfusion after acute CRAO events, and that prophylactic treatment such as panretinal photocoagulation should be considered if retinal arterial perfusion is not recovered.

  4. Progression from ischemic injury to infarct following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, J. H.; Yoshida, Y.; Chen, H.; Li, Y.; Zhang, Z. G.; Lian, J.; Chen, S.; Chopp, M.

    1993-01-01

    Focal brain ischemia induced in rats by occlusion of an intracranial artery is a widely used paradigm of human brain infarct. Details of the structural changes that develop in either the human or the rat brain at various times after occlusion of an intracranial artery are incompletely characterized. We studied, in 48 adult Wistar rats, structural alterations involving the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to an arterial occlusion, at intervals ranging from 30 min to 7 days. Microscopic changes developed over time in separate areas of the corresponding cerebral hemisphere in a predictable pattern, appearing as small lesions in the preoptic area (30 minutes), enlarging to involve the striatum, and finally involving the cerebral cortex. Two types of neuronal responses were noted according to the time elapsed; acute changes (up to 6 hours) included scalloping, shrinkage, and swelling, whereas delayed changes (eosinophilia and karyolysis) appeared later (> or = 12 hours). Three types of astrocytic responses were noted. 1) Cytoplasmic disintegration occurred in the preoptic area at a time and in a place where neurons appeared minimally injured. 2) Nuclear and cytoplasmic swelling were prominent responses in the caudoputamen and cerebral cortex at a time when neurons showed minimal alterations. 3) Increased astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein reactivity was noted at the interface between the lesion and the surrounding brain tissue after 4 to 6 hours. The gross pattern of the brain lesion and the maturation of neuronal changes typical of a brain infarct have a predictable progression. Focal brain ischemia of up to 6-hour duration does not induce coagulation necrosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8434652

  5. [Mechanical thrombectomy using Solitaire AB stent for acute middle cerebral artery occlusion with atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xucheng; Peng, Ya; Xuan, Jinggang; Chen, Ronghua; Shao, Huaming; Cao, Jie; Yang, Yilin

    2015-10-20

    To investigate the endovascular management strategy of mechanical thrombectomy using Solitaire AB stent for acute middle cerebral artery occlusion with atrial fibrillation and assess the safety and efficacy. From June 2012 to Dec 2013, 40 patients of acute middle cerebral artery occlusion with atrial fibrillation admitted to our institutes were treated by Solitaire AB stent.Clinical status was evaluated by the score of National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) before and 72 hours after treatment, immediate scale of thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) after thrombectomy, the 90 d score of Modified Rankin Scale (mRS).The patients were classified into good result group (mRS≤2) and bad result group (mRS>2) according to the mRS score. Out of 40 cases, there were 28 cases caused by cardiogenic embolism. Recanalization was successful (TICI score 2b or 3) in 37 out of 40 (92.5%). 90 d follow-up mRS was 0-2 in 19 of 40 patients (47.5%). 3-5 in 21 patients (52.5%). 5 patients died (12.5%).Symptomatic hemorrhagic transform developed in 6 patients (15%).No complications related to the Solitaire AB thrombectomy occurred.Mean time from symptom onset to recanalization (312±52 min vs 370±68 min, P<0.05) and initial NIHSS score (17.0±0.4 vs 18.6±0.4, P<0.05) were of significant difference between good result group and bad result group. These results confirm that mechanical thrombectomy using solitaire AB stent for acute middle cerebral artery occlusion with atrial fibrillation is safe and effective.

  6. Results of iliac stenting and aortofemoral grafting for iliac artery occlusions.

    PubMed

    Sachwani, Gul R; Hans, Sachinder S; Khoury, Michael D; King, Thomas F; Mitsuya, Mayo; Rizk, Youssef S; Zachwieja, Julie A; Sayed, Luay

    2013-04-01

    To compare long-term results of percutaneous iliac artery stenting (PCIS) with aortobifemoral (ABF) grafting for patients with symptomatic iliac artery occlusions. A retrospective review of 229 patients (January 2000 to December 2011) with symptomatic iliac artery occlusions was performed. In 100 patients, 103 PCIS procedures were performed, and 101 patients underwent ABF grafting. Outcome data including periprocedural complications, improvement in ankle-brachial index, morbidity, and mortality were collected in a vascular registry. Kaplan-Meier estimates for patency and survival were analyzed. Univariate (Fisher exact test) and multivariate analyses of variables associated with the loss of primary patency were performed. Patients in the ABF grafting group were younger (60 ± 0.9 years old vs 65 ± 1.2 years old; P = .002) and more commonly had a history of nicotine abuse (97% vs 86%; P = .002), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (85% vs 70%; P = .02), and a greater incidence of superficial femoral artery disease (45% vs 24%; P = .001). The most common presenting symptoms in both groups consisted of intermittent claudication (66% ABF vs 71% PCIS), rest pain (20% ABF vs 17% PCIS), and ulceration or gangrene of toes (14% ABF vs 15% PCIS). At 72 months, the primary patency for ABF bypass was greater than for PCIS (91% vs 73%; P = .010). Secondary patency rates were equivalent in both groups (98% ABF vs 85% PCIS). Survival in the ABF bypass group was significantly greater than in the PCIS group (76% vs 68%; P = .013). Hyperlipidemia (hazard ratio, 2.55; P = .049) and concurrent superficial femoral artery lesion (hazard ratio, 2.61; P = .026) were factors associated with the loss of primary patency for the entire cohort. The average hospital stay was 7 ± 2 days in the ABF group and 1 ± 0.3 days in the PCIS group (P = .0001). There were no periprocedural deaths in the PCIS group; there were four deaths in the ABF group (P = .058). In the PCIS group, ankle

  7. Differentiation of chronic total occlusion and subtotal occlusion of the femoropopliteal artery-role of retrograde flow sign and collateral circulation on CT angiography images.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujun; Su, Yanfei; Chen, Haisong

    2017-08-01

    To study the value of a retrograde flow sign and the collateral circulation on CT angiography (CTA) for the differential diagnosis of chronic total occlusion from subtotal occlusion of the femoropopliteal artery (FPA). 50 patients with obstruction of the FPA underwent CTA and digital subtraction angiography examinations of the lower limbs. The frequency of a retrograde flow sign and collateral circulation on CTA in chronic total and subtotal occlusion was noted and analyzed, with the results of digital subtraction angiography as a standard to judge total or subtotal occlusion. The decreasing CT value from the distal to proximal direction on CTA suggests the existence of retrograde flow. There were significant differences in the occurrence rates of a retrograde flow sign on CTA in the chronic total and subtotal obstruction groups (X(2) = 13.1, p < 0.05), as well as a collateral circulation sign (X(2) = 13.5, p < 0.05). Employing both the retrograde flow sign and the collateral circulation sign to diagnose chronic total obstruction of the FPA had a sensitivity of 92.3% and specificity of 89.8%. The retrograde flow sign combined with a collateral circulation sign is of great clinical value for differentiation of chronic total stenosis from severe stenosis (subtotal occlusion) of the FPA. Advances in knowledge: A retrograde flow sign combined with a collateral circulation sign is of great clinical value to differentiate between chronic total stenosis and severe stenosis (subtotal occlusion) of the FPA.

  8. [Iliac artery occlusion balloons for suspected placenta accreta during cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Burgos Frías, N; Gredilla, E; Guasch, E; Gilsanz, F

    2014-02-01

    Massive obstetric hemorrhage still remains a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. The risk factors associated with this pathology must be identified in order to schedule the appropriate delivery with the necessary resources. A case is presented of an iliac artery occlusion with intravascular balloons for suspected placenta accreta during cesarean section. The perioperative treatment, as well as an analysis of the treatment options is described, along with their advantages and disadvantages, from the use of postpartum hemorrhage protocols, blood transfusion and procoagulant factors, and other maneuvers to control bleeding, until the hysterectomy.

  9. Case report of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome with retinal arterial and venous occlusion treated with eculizumab

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Gregory T

    2015-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disease caused by chronic, uncontrolled activation of the alternative complement pathway, leading to thrombotic microangiopathy. Renal impairment and progression to end-stage renal disease are common in untreated patients with aHUS, and extrarenal manifestations are being increasingly characterized in the literature. Ocular involvement remains rare in aHUS. This report describes a patient with aHUS with bilateral central retinal artery and vein occlusion, vitreous hemorrhage, and blindness in addition to renal impairment. The patient’s hematologic and renal parameters and ocular manifestation improved following initiation of eculizumab therapy. PMID:26508891

  10. Branch retinal artery occlusion with visual field and multifocal erg in Susac syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    van Winden, Marianne; Salu, Paul

    2010-12-01

    A 19-year-old woman presented with subacute encephalopathy and subsequently developed hearing loss and occlusions of branches of the central retinal artery. The triad of microangiopathy of the brain, retina and cochlea is typical for Susac syndrome. The etiology of this syndrome is still unknown, but the prognosis is good in most cases. Spontaneous resolution usually occurs, but early treatment minimizes the risk of sequelae. Multifocal ERG may be useful to assess subclinical retinal dysfunction after recovery of subjective symptoms of BRAO in Susac syndrome.

  11. Death after closed adolescent knee injury and popliteal artery occlusion: a case report and clinical review.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jeremy J; Kremen, Thomas J; Oppenheim, William L

    2013-11-01

    A healthy adolescent male soccer player sustained a radiograph-negative, effusion-negative physeal injury of the proximal tibia from a ground-level fall with traumatic occlusion of the popliteal artery. Orthopaedic evaluation and arteriography were delayed for 72 hours after the injury. He arrived at a tertiary referral center in multisystem organ failure secondary to lower extremity ischemic necrosis, septic pulmonary thromboembolism, and systemic shock. Emergent medical evaluation, a high index of suspicion, and a careful neurovascular examination are imperative after every closed knee injury in the young athlete.

  12. Tirofiban combined with urokinase selective intra-arterial thrombolysis for the treatment of middle cerebral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    FENG, LEI; LIU, JUN; LIU, YUNZHEN; CHEN, JIAN; SU, CHUNHAI; LV, CHUANFENG; WEI, YUZHEN

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a model of embolic stroke in rabbits and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intra-arterially administered tirofiban combined with urokinase thrombolysis. The middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) of embolic stroke was established in New Zealand rabbits via an autologous clot. The model rabbits were allocated at random into four groups: Tirofiban group (T group), urokinase group (UK group), tirofiban and urokinase group (T + UK group) and the control group (C group). The recanalization rate, relative-apparent diffusion coefficient (rADC) and neurological function deficit score (NFDS) values were compared among the four groups. The recanalization rate, rADC and NFDS values were improved in the T + UK group compared with the other groups. In summary, the intra-arterial administration of tirofiban combined with urokinase thrombolysis was a more effective intervention in an MCAO model compared with intra-arterial urokinase alone, and may promote reperfusion and reduce infarct volume. PMID:26998029

  13. Utilizing a cranial window to visualize the middle cerebral artery during endothelin-1 induced middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Regenhardt, Robert W; Ansari, Saeed; Azari, Hassan; Caldwell, Kenneth J; Mecca, Adam P

    2013-02-22

    Creation of a cranial window is a method that allows direct visualization of structures on the cortical surface of the brain(1-3). This technique can be performed in many locations overlying the rat cerebrum, but is most easily carried out by creating a craniectomy over the readily accessible frontal or parietal bones. Most frequently, we have used this technique in combination with the endothelin-1 middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic stroke to quantify the changes in middle cerebral artery vessel diameter that occur with injection of endothelin-1 into the brain parenchyma adjacent to the proximal MCA(4, 5). In order to visualize the proximal portion of the MCA during endothelin -1 induced MCAO, we use a technique to create a cranial window through the temporal bone on the lateral aspect of the rat skull (Figure 1). Cerebral arteries can be visualized either with the dura intact or with the dura incised and retracted. Most commonly, we leave the dura intact during visualization since endothelin-1 induced MCAO involves delivery of the vasoconstricting peptide into the brain parenchyma. This bypasses the need to incise the dura directly over the visualized vessels for drug delivery. This protocol will describe how to create a cranial window to visualize cerebral arteries in a step-wise fashion, as well as how to avoid many of the potential pitfalls pertaining to this method.

  14. Aneurysms of Peripancreatic Arterial Arcades Coexisting with Celiac Trunk Stenosis or Occlusion: Single Institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Antoniak, Robert; Grabowska-Derlatka, Laretta; Nawrot, Ireneusz; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. True aneurysms of peripancreatic arterial arcades (PAAAs) are rare. Most of them coexist with celiac axis stenosis/occlusion due to median arcuate ligament (MAL) compression or atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cause of celiac axis lesion and characterize the anatomy of the aneurysms. These findings may have important management implications. Material and Methods. A retrospective analysis of 15 patients with true PAAAs was performed. The diagnosis was established by contrast-enhanced CT, using a 64-MDCT scanner. We evaluated the most probable cause of celiac axis lesion. Aneurysms were characterized by their number, location, size, and morphology. Location of the aneurysms was classified either as pancreaticoduodenal arteries (PDA) or as dorsal pancreatic arteries (DPA) as they may represent different collateral pathways between superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk. Results. A total of 32 true PAAAs were identified. Celiac trunk was occluded in 12 patients and critically narrowed in 3 patients. Celiac axis lesion was categorized as secondary to MAL compression in 14 cases and due to atherosclerosis in 1 case. The most common location of the aneurysms was inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries. Only in 1 case aneurysms involved both PDA and DPA. Conclusions. Coexistence of PAAAs with celiac axis compression as well as involvement of either PDAs or DPAs has important therapeutic implications. The uninvolved collateral pathway may be sufficient to preserve effective circulation in celiac trunk branches in case of resection or embolization of the aneurysms. However, further studies are crucial to confirm our findings.

  15. Histomorphological evaluation of atherosclerotic lesions in patients with peripheral artery occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Alexander; Senner, Simon; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Pelisek, Jaroslav

    2015-09-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is mainly caused by atherosclerosis of the vessel wall. These pathological changes are classified into different stages and are well described for carotid and coronary vessels, but not for PAOD. The aim of our study was to analyze plaque morphology of femoral arteries in patients with intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. In this retrospective study 85 atherosclerotic plaques (common and superficial femoral artery) of 71 patients with a clinical symptomatic PAOD were analyzed, by histology (01/2009-07/2010). Atherosclerotic lesions were classified according to Stary (type I-VIII). For further characterization, plaques were evaluated for the presence of collagen, elastin, calcifications, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, leucocytes, and cellularity. The majority (91%) of atherosclerotic lesions were of advanced types according to Stary (V-VII). Atherosclerotic lesion type VI was associated with significant higher amount of inflammatory cells in comparison to all other atherosclerotic plaque types (CD45: p<0.001; CD68: p=0.013). In addition, atherosclerotic plaques with a pronounced neovascularization contained a higher amount of CD45 (p=0.015; rho=0.273) and CD68 (p=0.016; rho=0.275) positive cells. Atherosclerotic lesions of femoral arteries show similar morphological changes as coronary or carotid arteries. But inflammatory cells had a higher impact on plaque progression and destabilization than any other factor. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Aneurysms of Peripancreatic Arterial Arcades Coexisting with Celiac Trunk Stenosis or Occlusion: Single Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Antoniak, Robert; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. True aneurysms of peripancreatic arterial arcades (PAAAs) are rare. Most of them coexist with celiac axis stenosis/occlusion due to median arcuate ligament (MAL) compression or atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cause of celiac axis lesion and characterize the anatomy of the aneurysms. These findings may have important management implications. Material and Methods. A retrospective analysis of 15 patients with true PAAAs was performed. The diagnosis was established by contrast-enhanced CT, using a 64-MDCT scanner. We evaluated the most probable cause of celiac axis lesion. Aneurysms were characterized by their number, location, size, and morphology. Location of the aneurysms was classified either as pancreaticoduodenal arteries (PDA) or as dorsal pancreatic arteries (DPA) as they may represent different collateral pathways between superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk. Results. A total of 32 true PAAAs were identified. Celiac trunk was occluded in 12 patients and critically narrowed in 3 patients. Celiac axis lesion was categorized as secondary to MAL compression in 14 cases and due to atherosclerosis in 1 case. The most common location of the aneurysms was inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries. Only in 1 case aneurysms involved both PDA and DPA. Conclusions. Coexistence of PAAAs with celiac axis compression as well as involvement of either PDAs or DPAs has important therapeutic implications. The uninvolved collateral pathway may be sufficient to preserve effective circulation in celiac trunk branches in case of resection or embolization of the aneurysms. However, further studies are crucial to confirm our findings. PMID:28286755

  17. The Effect of PAI-1 4G/5G Polymorphism and Clinical Factors on Coronary Artery Occlusion in Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Parpugga, Tajinder Kumar; Tatarunas, Vacis; Skipskis, Vilius; Kupstyte, Nora; Zaliaduonyte-Peksiene, Diana; Lesauskaite, Vaiva

    2015-01-01

    Data on the impact of PAI-1-675 4G/5G genotype for fibrinolysis during myocardial infarction are inconsistent. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of clinical and genetic (PAI-1-675 4G/5G polymorphism) factors with coronary artery occlusion in patients with myocardial infarction. PAI-1-675 4G/5G detection was achieved by using Sanger sequencing in a sample of patients hospitalized for stent implantation due to myocardial infarction. We categorized the patients into two groups: patients with coronary artery occlusion and patients without coronary artery occlusion according to angiographic evaluation. We identified n = 122 (32.4%) 4G/4G, n = 186 (49.5%) 4G/5G, and n = 68 (18.1%) 5G/5G PAI-1 genotype carriers. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that only the 4G/5G genotype was associated with coronary artery occlusion (OR: 1.656 and 95% CI: 1.009-2.718, p = 0.046). Our results showed that carriers of PAI-1 4G/5G genotype with myocardial infarction have increased odds of coronary artery occlusion more than 1.6 times in comparison to the carriers of homozygous genotypes.

  18. The Effect of PAI-1 4G/5G Polymorphism and Clinical Factors on Coronary Artery Occlusion in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Parpugga, Tajinder Kumar; Tatarunas, Vacis; Skipskis, Vilius; Kupstyte, Nora; Zaliaduonyte-Peksiene, Diana; Lesauskaite, Vaiva

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Data on the impact of PAI-1-675 4G/5G genotype for fibrinolysis during myocardial infarction are inconsistent. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of clinical and genetic (PAI-1-675 4G/5G polymorphism) factors with coronary artery occlusion in patients with myocardial infarction. Materials and Methods. PAI-1-675 4G/5G detection was achieved by using Sanger sequencing in a sample of patients hospitalized for stent implantation due to myocardial infarction. We categorized the patients into two groups: patients with coronary artery occlusion and patients without coronary artery occlusion according to angiographic evaluation. Results. We identified n = 122 (32.4%) 4G/4G, n = 186 (49.5%) 4G/5G, and n = 68 (18.1%) 5G/5G PAI-1 genotype carriers. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that only the 4G/5G genotype was associated with coronary artery occlusion (OR: 1.656 and 95% CI: 1.009–2.718, p = 0.046). Conclusions. Our results showed that carriers of PAI-1 4G/5G genotype with myocardial infarction have increased odds of coronary artery occlusion more than 1.6 times in comparison to the carriers of homozygous genotypes. PMID:26273123

  19. [Bilateral pulmonary artery occlusion due to primary pulmonary artery sarcoma; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Shingaki, Masami; Kobayashi, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    60-year-old female who complained of severe dyspnea was admitted with a diagnosis of massive pulmonary embolism. An emergency operation was undertaken due to right side heart failure. Under extracorporeal circulation with beating heart, large, white and smooth surface mass which was originated from right pulmonary artery was removed. Pathology of the mass showed low differentiated sarcoma. No evidence of other primary lesion by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) suggested primary pulmonary artery sarcoma. We scheduled total resection of the right lung, however postoperative CT showed large mass occupying from right pulmonary artery to main pulmonary trunk. Palliative chemo radiation therapy was introduced. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking pulmonary thromboembolism is so malignant that the diagnosis and treatment should not be delayed.

  20. Combined use of stent angioplasty and mechanical thrombectomy for acute tandem internal carotid and middle cerebral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Joyce Lo, WaiTing; Sun, Xuan; Xu, XiaoTong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Tandem internal carotid and middle cerebral artery occlusion carries a grave prognosis, with intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolytics having low efficacy. Currently, endovascular therapy is a promising means for treatment in which the proximal carotid lesion can be treated with angioplasty and stenting, whilst mechanical thrombectomy can be used for the treatment of the distal occlusion. Two approaches can be used – the antegrade (proximal-to-distal) approach or the retrograde (distal-to-proximal) approach, although there has not yet been any consensus on which is the better approach. Case report We present two patients with tandem occlusions, one treated using the antegrade and one using the retrograde approach, with different revascularization outcomes, despite having similar functional outcome on follow-up. Conclusion The combined use of stent angioplasty and mechanical thrombectomy can be used to treat tandem occlusions, and with procedural modifications, the antegrade approach may more easily achieve technical success. PMID:26246102

  1. A method for evaluating drug effects on intermittent claudication using a treadmill in rats with unilateral hindlimb artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Orito, Kensuke; Kishi, Masami; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Nakazawa, Toru; Imaizumi, Takashi; Kimura, Yukio; Mori, Toyoki; Kambe, Toshimi

    2004-01-01

    We have developed an in vivo experimental model for evaluating peripheral arterial insufficiency and predicting the efficacy of drugs on intermittent claudication (IC). We found that rats that had been running normally on a treadmill developed a gait disturbance when a hindlimb artery was unilaterally occluded. We hypothesized that the distance run before gait disturbance developed (DGD) in rats with occlusion of a hindlimb artery might be an appropriate index of the severity of peripheral insufficiency, and that the model might serve as a test bed for evaluating drug efficacy. To prove this hypothesis, we examined whether DGD was determined by severity of hindlimb ischemia. Furthermore, we also examined whether cilostazol, which has been proved to have ameliorative effects in patients with IC, increased DGD. To vary the severity of ischemia, either the superficial femoral artery, the distal portion of the iliac artery, or the proximal portion of iliac artery was unilaterally occluded. After a recovery period, these rats were subjected to a treadmill test (15 m/min and 15% incline) to determine DGD and examine the effect of cilostazol on DGD. DGD was the longest and shortest in rats with superficial femoral artery and proximal portion of iliac artery occlusion, respectively. Intermediate DGD was observed in rats with distal portion of iliac artery occlusion. These data suggest that DGD is correlated with the severity of hindlimb ischemia. Two weeks or longer administration of cilostazol 30 and 100 mg/kg twice a day evoked a significant increase in DGD. Peripheral arterial insufficiency and its modulation by drugs can be evaluated in rats with unilateral hindlimb artery occlusion, on a treadmill, by measuring DGD.

  2. Middle cerebral artery occlusion 25 years after cranial radiation therapy in acromegaly: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maffei, P; Albano, I; Martini, C; Barban, M; Manara, R; Meneghetti, G; Sicolo, N

    2009-10-01

    We report a case of ischemic stroke in a 43 year-old woman with no traditional cardiovascular risk factors and a history of cranial surgery and cranial radiation therapy (CRT) for a GH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma. The neurological work-up on this patient disclosed several cerebral ischemic lesions and demonstrated the occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery together with the narrowing of the right carotid artery; post-radiation brain damage was also visible by nuclear magnetic resonance. We postulate the existence in this patient of a radiation-induced vascular damage, which is a well recognized process thoroughly described in in vitro studies. We remark that life-long follow-up of acromegalic patients receiving CRT is essential so that early diagnosis of radiation-induced vascular injury can be made.

  3. Percutaneous transluminal excimer laser angioplasty in total peripheral artery occlusion in man

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenek, G.; Laufer, G.; Grabenwoeger, F.

    1988-01-01

    Laser angioplasty and laser-assisted angioplasty have become a clinical reality. Producing sharply defined borders of the ablated area with minimal adjacent thermal damage, excimer lasers offer several proven and some potential advantages over conventional systems. To evaluate the feasibility of excimer laser angioplasty, we have treated one patient using 308-nm radiation via a bare fiber in direct contact with the total occlusion of a right femoral artery. The lesion was successfully recanalized, thus allowing easy passage of the balloon catheter and subsequent dilatation. This percutaneous laser recanalization of an occluded peripheral artery is one of the first to be done in man using excimer laser radiation, thus demonstrating that the technique is feasible and the system is potentially useful.

  4. Operative indications in recurrent ileocolic intussusception.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jeremy G; Sparks, Eric A; Turner, Christopher G B; Klein, Justin D; Pennington, Elliot; Khan, Faraz A; Zurakowski, David; Durkin, Emily T; Fauza, Dario O; Modi, Biren P

    2015-01-01

    Air-contrast enema (ACE) is standard treatment for primary ileocolic intussusception. Management of recurrences is less clear. This study aimed to delineate appropriate therapy by quantifying the relationship between recurrence and need for bowel resection, pathologic lead points (PLP), and complication rates. After IRB approval, a single institution review of patients with ileocolic intussusception from 1997 to 2013 was performed, noting recurrences, outcomes, and complications. Fisher's exact and t-tests were used. Of 716 intussusceptions, 666 were ileocecal. Forty-four underwent bowel resection, with 29 PLPs and 9 ischemia/perforation. Recurrence after ACE occurred in 96 (14%). Recurrence did not predict PLP (P=0.25). Recurrence (≥3) was associated with higher resection rate (P=0.03), but not ischemia/perforation (P=0.75). ACE-related complications occurred in 4 (0.5%) patients. Successful initial ACE had 98% negative predictive value for resection and PLP (e.g., after successful ACE, 2% had resections, 2% PLP). After failed initial ACE, 36% received resection, and 23% had PLP (P<0.001). Recurrence is associated with a greater risk of resection but not PLP or ACE-complication. Failed ACE is associated with increased risk for harboring PLP and receiving resection. ACE should be the standard treatment in recurrent intussusception, regardless of number of recurrences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Murine Ileocolic Bowel Resection with Primary Anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Troy; Borowiec, Anna; Dicken, Bryan; Fedorak, Richard; Madsen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal resections are frequently required for treatment of diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, with Crohn’s disease and colon cancer being two common examples. Despite the frequency of these procedures, a significant knowledge gap remains in describing the inherent effects of intestinal resection on host physiology and disease pathophysiology. This article provides detailed instructions for an ileocolic resection with primary end-to-end anastomosis in mice, as well as essential aspects of peri-operative care to maximize post-operative success. When followed closely, this procedure yields a 95% long-term survival rate, no failure to thrive, and minimizes post-operative complications of bowel obstruction and anastomotic leak. The technical challenges of performing the procedure in mice are a barrier to its wide spread use in research. The skills described in this article can be acquired without previous surgical experience. Once mastered, the murine ileocolic resection procedure will provide a reproducible tool for studying the effects of intestinal resection in models of human disease. PMID:25406841

  6. The Benefits of Internal Thoracic Artery Catheterization in Patients With Chronic Abdominal Aortic Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ilic, Nikola Davidovic, Lazar; Koncar, Igor; Dragas, Marko; Markovic, Miroslav; Colic, Momcilo; Cinara, Ilijas

    2011-04-15

    Occlusion of the abdominal aorta may be caused by an embolic lesion, but more commonly by thrombotic disease at the aortoiliac area, progressing retrograde. However, the visualization of the distal run-off via internal thoracic-epigastric inferior artery collateral channel may be a very important diagnostic tool, especially in countries with poor technical equipment. This study was designed to show the benefit of the selective internal thoracic angiography in cases with complete aortic occlusion. We present 30 patients with chronic aortic abdominal occlusion who were submitted to the transaxillary aortography and selective ITA angiography with purpose of distal run off evaluation. Angiographic evaluation was performed by two independent radiologists according to previously defined classification. Good angiographic score via internal thoracic angiography by first observer was achieved in 19 (63.3%) patients and in 18 (60%) by a second observer. Transaxillary aortography showed inferior results: good angiographic score by the first observer in six (20%) patients and by the second observer in three (3%) patients. Low extremity run-off is better visualized during internal thoracic angiography than during transaxillary aortography.

  7. Low-energy shock wave preconditioning reduces renal ischemic reperfusion injury caused by renal artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuquan; Xu, Zhibin; Chen, Haiwen; Gan, Weimin; Chong, Tie

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate whether low energy shock wave preconditioning could reduce renal ischemic reperfusion injury caused by renal artery occlusion. The right kidneys of 64 male Sprague Dawley rats were removed to establish an isolated kidney model. The rats were then divided into four treatment groups: Group 1 was the sham treatment group; Group 2, received only low-energy (12 kv, 1 Hz, 200 times) shock wave preconditioning; Group 3 received the same low-energy shock wave preconditioning as Group 2, and then the left renal artery was occluded for 45 minutes; and Group 4 had the left renal artery occluded for 45 minutes. At 24 hours and one-week time points after reperfusion, serum inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), creatinine (Cr), and cystatin C (Cys C) levels were measured, malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney tissue was detected, and changes in nephric morphology were evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, serum iNOS, NGAL, Cr, Cys C, and MDA levels in Group 3 were significantly lower than those in Group 4; light and electron microscopy showed that the renal tissue injury in Group 3 was significantly lighter than that in Group 4. One week after reperfusion, serum NGAL, KIM-1, and Cys C levels in Group 3 were significantly lower than those in Group 4. Low-energy shock wave preconditioning can reduce renal ischemic reperfusion injury caused by renal artery occlusion in an isolated kidney rat model.

  8. Experience with A Direct Aspiration First Pass Technique (ADAPT) for Thrombectomy in Distal Cerebral Artery Occlusions Causing Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jan; Spiotta, Alex M; Fargen, Kyle; Turner, Raymond D; Chaudry, Imran; Turk, Aquilla

    2017-03-01

    Thromboembolic occlusion of distal branches in anterior and posterior circulation may produce severe clinical deficits. A Direct Aspiration at first Pass Technique (ADAPT) is a simple, fast method for achieving good angiographic and clinical outcomes using large-bore catheters in large vessel occlusions. We present our results using ADAPT with distal cerebral artery occlusions. ADAPT was used to treat 35 patients (14 women, 21 men; average age 65.5 years ± 12.6) with acute ischemic stroke with thrombus in the distal middle cerebral artery, anterior cerebral artery, or posterior cerebral artery. Patients presented with a mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 14.1 ± 6.9; 15 patients received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. Mean time from onset to puncture was 7.1 hours ± 5.1. Of patients, 28 (80%) presented with isolated M2 segment occlusions, 1 (2.9%) presented with isolated A3 segment occlusion, and 6 (17.1%) presented with tandem occlusions. Mean time to recanalization was 35.7 minutes ± 26.4. A thrombolysis in cerebral infarction grade 2B or better was achieved in 34 patients (97.1%), with 15 achieving a thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3. Aspiration alone was successful in 26 cases (77.1%), whereas 7 (20%) required additional techniques. A 90-day modified Rankin Scale score was available in 32 patients; 59.4% had a 90-day score of 0-2. No patients had a modified Rankin Scale score of 6. Acute distal anterior circulation thromboembolic occlusions may be treated safely with intraarterial thrombectomy. Prior studies have demonstrated the success of ADAPT in proximal large vessel occlusions. This series suggests that ADAPT is an effective, safe method for performing thrombectomy in distal branches of anterior and posterior circulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bradykinin B2 receptor contributes to the exaggerated muscle mechanoreflex in rats with femoral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian; Xing, Jihong

    2013-01-01

    Static muscle contraction activates the exercise pressor reflex, which in turn increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and blood pressure (BP). Bradykinin (BK) is considered as a muscle metabolite responsible for modulation of the sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to muscle contraction. Prior studies have suggested that kinin B2 receptor mediates the effects of BK on the reflex SNA and BP responses during stimulation of skeletal muscle afferents. In patients with peripheral artery disease and a rat model with femoral artery ligation, amplified SNA and BP responses to static exercise were observed. This dysfunction of the exercise pressor reflex has previously been shown to be mediated, in part, by muscle mechanoreflex overactivity. Thus, in this report, we determined whether kinin B2 receptor contributes to the augmented mechanoreflex activity in rats with 24 h of femoral artery occlusion. First, Western blot analysis was used to examine protein expression of B2 receptors in dorsal root ganglion tissues of control limbs and ligated limbs. Our data show that B2 receptor displays significant overexpression in ligated limbs as compared with control limbs (optical density: 0.94 ± 0.02 in control and 1.87 ± 0.08 after ligation, P < 0.05 vs. control; n = 6 in each group). Second, mechanoreflex was evoked by muscle stretch and the reflex renal SNA (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to muscle stretch were examined after HOE-140, a B2 receptors blocker, was injected into the arterial blood supply of the hindlimb muscles. The results demonstrate that the stretch-evoked reflex responses were attenuated by administration of HOE-140 in control rats and ligated rats; however, the attenuating effects of HOE-140 were significantly greater in ligated rats, i.e., after 5 μg/kg of HOE-140 RSNA and MAP responses evoked by 0.5 kg of muscle tension were attenuated by 43% and 25% in control vs. 54% and 34% in ligation (P < 0.05 vs. control group; n = 11 in

  10. The significance of the extracranial-intracranial anastomoses of carotid system in occlusion of internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Kulenović, Amela; Dilberović, Faruk

    2004-05-01

    The existence of collateral circulation in patients with impaired intracranial circulation was studied. We analysed angiograms of 35 patients of the Neurology Clinic of Clinical Centre in Sarajevo with occlusion of internal carotid artery. In majority cases collateral circulation was not established. In patients with occlusion of internal carotid artery, extracranial-intracranial anastomoses were established in some cases, with results of surviving and patients recovery. Collateral circulation based on blood vessels which are formed in the early stages of fetal life. Some embryonal arteries undergo an involution process, while the other part of blood vessels stay unfunctional during life, until cerebrovascular disease appearence, when it comes to their activation. Establishing of the collateral circulation in post-occlusiv status depend on great number of factors: number of anastomoses, their calibre,velocity of occlusion and complete vascular status of patients.

  11. Acute effects of exercise on muscle MRI in peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, H; Anno, I; Kuramoto, K; Matsumoto, K; Jikuya, T; Itai, Y

    1995-01-01

    The midcalf muscles of eight patients who had peripheral arterial occlusive disease were evaluated by exercise MRI before and after bypass surgery or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. MRI showed a high intensity of these muscles, especially the posterior muscles, after exercise in all patients before intervention. The mean T2 relaxation time was maximal immediately after exercise (tibialis anterior, T2 = 30.8 ms; soleus, T2 = 36.2 ms; gastrocnemius, T2 = 32.8 ms) and then gradually decreased to the preexercise level. The difference in the T2 relaxation time of the soleus between immediately after exercise and at rest was smaller along with improvement of ankle pressure indices (API) after successful intervention (mean T2 difference: 4.91 and 0.72 ms (p < .001); mean API: 0.54 and 0.86 (p < .001) before and after intervention, respectively). The mean resting midcalf T2 relaxation time was significantly higher after intervention (tibialis anterior, T2 = 28.4 and 29.5 ms (p < .05); soleus, T2 = 31.4 and 32.9 ms (p < .05); gastrocnemius, T2 = 29.5 and 31.1 ms (p < .01) before and after intervention, respectively). T2 relaxation time may be a useful quantitative parameter in peripheral arterial occlusive disease as well as in other muscle studies.

  12. Clinical Outcome of Surgical Endarterectomy for Common Femoral Artery Occlusive Disease.

    PubMed

    Kuma, Sosei; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Ohmine, Takahiro; Morisaki, Koichi; Kodama, Akio; Guntani, Atsushi; Ishida, Masaru; Okazaki, Jin; Mii, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    Although common femoral artery endarterectomy (CFE) is the standard treatment for occlusive disease of the common femoral artery (CFA), several studies have noted encouraging results for endovascular therapy in this anatomical area.  A retrospective multi-center study of 118 consecutive limbs from 111 symptomatic patients undergoing CFE between April 1998 and December 2014 was performed. Seventy-five CFE were performed on limbs for intermittent claudication and 43 CFE were performed for critical limb ischemia (CLI). The prevalence of perioperative complications was higher in patients with CLI than in the claudication patients. The technical success rate was 99% in all cases. The 1- and 5-year primary patency rates were 100% and 100% for claudication and 95% and 95% for CLI, respectively. The assisted-primary patency rates were 100% at both time points in both groups. Freedom from major amputation at 1 and 5 years was 100% and 100% in the claudication patients and 93% and 82% in the CLI patients, respectively. The 1- and 5-year overall survival rates were 97% and 89% in the claudication patients and 69% and 33% in the CLI patients, respectively. CFE is a safe, effective and durable procedure for occlusive disease of the CFA. This procedure should remain the standard treatment for this anatomical region.

  13. Stroke outcomes of Japanese patients with major cerebral artery occlusion in the post-alteplase, pre-MERCI era.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kaoru; Koga, Masatoshi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Furui, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Okada, Yasushi; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Hyogo, Toshio; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Nagashima, Hisashi; Fujinaka, Toshiyuki; Hyodo, Akio; Terada, Tomoaki; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2013-08-01

    This study examined outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with major cerebral artery occlusion after the approval of intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA) but before approval of the MERCI retriever. We retrospectively enrolled 1170 consecutive patients with AIS and major cerebral artery occlusion (496 women; mean age, 73.9 ± 12.3 years) who were admitted within 24 hours after the onset of symptoms to 12 Japanese stroke centers between October 2005 and June 2009. Cardioembolism was a leading cause of AIS in this group (68.2%). The occlusion sites of the major cerebral arteries included the common carotid artery and internal carotid artery (ICA; 29.6%), middle cerebral artery (52.2%), and basilar artery (7.6%). Recanalization therapy (RT) was performed in 32.0% of patients (IV rt-PA, 20.0%; neuroendovascular therapy, 9.4%; combined, 2.5%). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage within 36 hours with a ≥ 1-point increase in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score occurred in 5.3% of the patients. At 3 months (or at hospital discharge), 29.3% of the patients had a favorable outcome (based on a modified Rankin scale score of 0-2), 23.8% were bedridden, and 15.6% died. After multivariate adjustment, RT was positively associated with a favorable outcome and negatively associated with death, whereas age, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and ICA occlusion were negatively associated with a favorable outcome and positively associated with death. One-third of the patients with AIS and major cerebral artery occlusion were treated with RT, which was independently associated with favorable outcomes and death. However, 40% of the patients became bedridden or died during the post-alteplase, pre-MERCI era in Japan.

  14. Balloon-Assisted Occlusion of the Internal Iliac Arteries in Patients with Placenta Accreta/Percreta

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, Leonard J.; Nosher, John L. Gribbin, Christopher; Siegel, Randall L.; Beale, Stephanie; Scorza, William

    2006-06-15

    Background. Placenta accreta/percreta is a leading cause of third trimester hemorrhage and postpartum maternal death. The current treatment for third trimester hemorrhage due to placenta accreta/percreta is cesarean hysterectomy, which may be complicated by large volume blood loss. Purpose. To determine what role, if any, prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion and transcatheter embolization of the anterior division of the internal iliac arteries plays in the management of patients with placenta accreta/percreta. Methods. The records of 28 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of placenta accreta/percreta were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups. Six patients underwent prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion, followed by cesarean section, transcatheter embolization of the anterior division of the internal iliac arteries and cesarean hysterectomy (n = 5) or uterine curettage (n = 1). Twenty-two patients underwent cesarean hysterectomy without endovascular intervention. The following parameters were compared in the two groups: patient age, gravidity, parity, gestational age at delivery, days in the intensive care unit after delivery, total hospital days, volume of transfused blood products, volume of fluid replacement intraoperatively, operating room time, estimated blood loss, and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Results. Patients in the embolization group had more frequent episodes of third trimester bleeding requiring admission and bedrest prior to delivery (16.7 days vs. 2.9 days), resulting in significantly more hospitalization time in the embolization group (23 days vs. 8.8 days) and delivery at an earlier gestational age than in those in the surgical group (32.5 weeks). There was no statistical difference in mean estimated blood loss, volume of replaced blood products, fluid replacement needs, operating room time or postoperative recovery time. Conclusion. Our findings do not support the contention that in patients with

  15. Nylon filament coated with paraffin for intraluminal permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xia-Lin; Wu, Ping; Ji, Ai-Min

    2012-06-21

    A variety of intraluminal nylon filament has been used in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models. However the lesion extent and its reproducibility vary among laboratories. The properties of nylon filament play a part of reasons for these variations. In the present study, we used paraffin-coated nylon filament for rat MCAO model, tested the effects and advanced improvement for making the rat MCAO. Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into two groups, MCAO with traditional uncoated nylon filament (uMCAO) and MCAO with paraffin-coated nylon filament (cMCAO), three rats as normal group and sham group respectively. Assessment included mortality rates, model success rates, neurological deficit evaluation, and infarct volume. The study showed two rats died in uMCAO group, no rat died in cMCAO group within the 12h. The model success rate of uMCAO was 100%, while the uMCAO group was 55% (n=20, two died within 12h, seven rats were excluded as the brain slices showed no TTC staining due to subarachanoid hemorrhage). Neurological evaluation demonstrated group cMCAO had more worse neurological outcomes than group uMCAO, and the difference was statistically signification (p<0.05). TTC staining cMCAO group had significantly larger infarct volumes than uMCAO group, and also showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05). The result demonstrated that the paraffin-coated nylon filament intraluminal occlusion provide better occlusion of middle cerebral artery than the uncoated nylon filament, improve the consistent of model, and raise the success rate to reduce the number of experimental animals. These positive results are much encouraging and interesting.

  16. Systemic thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke and Internal Carotid ARtery Occlusion: the ICARO study.

    PubMed

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Balucani, Clotilde; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Caso, Valeria; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Grotta, James C; Demchuk, Andrew M; Sohn, Sung-Il; Orlandi, Giovanni; Leys, Didier; Pezzini, Alessandro; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Silvestrini, Mauro; Fofi, Luisa; Barlinn, Kristian; Inzitari, Domenico; Ferrarese, Carlo; Tassi, Rossana; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Consoli, Domenico; Baldi, Antonio; Bovi, Paolo; Luda, Emilio; Galletti, Giampiero; Invernizzi, Paolo; DeLodovici, Maria Luisa; Corea, Francesco; Del Sette, Massimo; Monaco, Serena; Marcheselli, Simona; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Macellari, Federica; Lanari, Alessia; Previdi, Paolo; Gonzales, Nicole R; Pandurengan, Renganayaki K; Vahidy, Farhaan S; Sline, Melvin; Bal, Simerpreet S; Chiti, Alberto; Gialdini, Gino; Dumont, Frederic; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Debette, Stéphanie; Padovani, Alessandro; Cerqua, Raffaella; Bodechtel, Ulf; Kepplinger, Jessica; Nesi, Mascia; Nencini, Patrizia; Beretta, Simone; Trentini, Claudia; Martini, Giuseppe; Piperidou, Charitomeni; Heliopoulos, Ioannis; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Cappellari, Manuel; Donati, Edoardo; Bono, Giorgio; Traverso, Elisabetta; Toni, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial effect of intravenous thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke attributable to internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in these patients. ICARO was a case-control multicenter study on prospectively collected data. Patients with acute ischemic stroke and ICA occlusion treated with intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator within 4.5 hours from symptom onset (cases) were compared to matched patients with acute stroke and ICA occlusion not treated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (controls). Cases and controls were matched for age, gender, and stroke severity. The efficacy outcome was disability at 90 days assessed by the modified Rankin Scale, dichotomized as favorable (score of 0-2) or unfavorable (score of 3-6). Safety outcomes were death and any intracranial bleeding. Included in the analysis were 253 cases and 253 controls. Seventy-three cases (28.9%) had a favorable outcome as compared with 52 controls (20.6%; adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.15; P=0.037). A total of 104 patients died, 65 cases (25.7%) and 39 controls (15.4%; adjusted OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.36-3.22; P=0.001). There were more fatal bleedings (2.8% versus 0.4%; OR, 7.17; 95% CI, 0.87-58.71; P=0.068) in the cases than in the controls. In patients with stroke attributable to ICA occlusion, thrombolytic therapy results in a significant reduction in the proportion of patients dependent in activities of daily living. Increases in death and any intracranial bleeding were the trade-offs for this clinical benefit.

  17. Retriever wire supported carotid artery revascularization (ReWiSed CARe) in acute ischemic stroke with underlying tandem occlusion caused by an internal carotid artery dissection: Technical note.

    PubMed

    Behme, Daniel; Knauth, Michael; Psychogios, Marios-Nikos

    2017-01-01

    We hereby report a novel technical approach for the treatment of acute stroke with underlying tandem occlusion. The so-called retriever wire supported carotid artery revascularization (ReWiSed CARe) technique, utilizing the wire of a stent-retriever as a guiding wire for carotid artery stenting, is technically feasible in tandem occlusions caused by an internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection or high grade ICA stenosis. This technique eliminates the need to use a long microwire in order to maintain the position inside the true lumen of a dissection. Additionally, it leads to anterograde perfusion through the released stent-retriever during the time of ICA stenting, which is favorable in all tandem occlusion cases.

  18. Kissing iliac artery stent technique for salvage of a total occlusion of a jailed common iliac artery.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Shuichi; Habara, Maoto; Nasu, Kenya

    2014-03-01

    A 70-year-old female was admitted to our hospital due to claudication of the left leg. The patient was diagnosed with peripheral artery disease and received endovascular therapy (EVT) with a stent implanted in the right common iliac artery (CIA) at another hospital 3 months earlier. The left CIA was jailed by the stent. We performed EVT for the chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the jailed left CIA. A kissing-stent strategy was selected because the strut could not be fully opened. The wire was crossed through the stent strut, since passing the wire outside of the stent was problematic. A balloon was dilated at the stent strut and further inserted while dilated in order to create a space between the implanted stent and opposite aorta wall. Finally, a wire was successfully crossed outside of the stent in this space. A balloon-expandable stent was implanted at the aorta to left CIA in order to perform the kissing-stent technique. Additionally, a self-expandable stent was deployed at the left external iliac artery. To facilitate kissing-stent technique for a jailed CIA CTO lesion, inserting the balloon while inflated at the bifurcation was useful to create space for advancing the guidewire along the stent.

  19. A novel embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion model induced by thrombus formed in common carotid artery in rat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yin-Zhong; Li, Li; Song, Jun-Ke; Niu, Zi-Ran; Liu, Hai-Feng; Zhou, Xiang-Shan; Xie, Fu-Sheng; Du, Guan-Hua

    2015-12-15

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. However, treatment options to date are very limited. To meet the need for validating the novel therapeutic approaches and understanding the physiopathology of the ischemic brain injury, experimental stroke models were critical for preclinical research. However, commonly used embolic stroke models are reluctant to mimic the clinical situation and not suitable for thrombolytic timing studies. In this paper, we established a standard method for producing a rat embolic stroke model with autologous thrombus formed within the common carotid artery (CCA) by constant galvanic stimulation. Then the thrombus was shattered and channeled into the origin of the MCA and small (lacunar) artery. To identify the success of MCA occlusion, regional cerebral blood flow was monitored, neurological deficits and infarct volumes were measured at 2, 4 and 6h postischemia. This model developed a predictable infarct volume (38.37 ± 2.88%) and gradually reduced blood flow (20% of preischemic baselines) within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. The thrombus occluded in the MCA was able to be lysed by a tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) within 4h postischemia. The techniques presented in this paper would help investigators to overcome technical problems for stroke research.

  20. Endovascular Treatment of In-Stent Occlusion: New Technique for Recanalization of Long Superficial Femoral Artery Occlusion (Direct Stent Puncture Technique)

    SciTech Connect

    Palena, Luis Mariano Cester, Giacomo; Manzi, Marco

    2012-04-15

    In-stent reocclusion is a frequent complication of endovascular treatment and stenting, especially in the superficial femoral artery. Neointimal hyperplasia is the main cause of this problem, but in many cases, it occurs as a result of the presence of stent strut fractures. The two treatment options are endovascular and surgical intervention. The effectiveness of endovascular interventions in patients with critical limb ischemia has been well established, but in some cases, crossing the occluded stent is difficult. We describe a new technique to recanalize long in-stent superficial femoral artery occlusions characterized by direct stent puncture, followed by retrograde-antegrade recanalization after antegrade failures.

  1. Endovascular treatment of in-stent occlusion: new technique for recanalization of long superficial femoral artery occlusion (direct stent puncture technique).

    PubMed

    Palena, Luis Mariano; Cester, Giacomo; Manzi, Marco

    2012-04-01

    In-stent reocclusion is a frequent complication of endovascular treatment and stenting, especially in the superficial femoral artery. Neointimal hyperplasia is the main cause of this problem, but in many cases, it occurs as a result of the presence of stent strut fractures. The two treatment options are endovascular and surgical intervention. The effectiveness of endovascular interventions in patients with critical limb ischemia has been well established, but in some cases, crossing the occluded stent is difficult. We describe a new technique to recanalize long in-stent superficial femoral artery occlusions characterized by direct stent puncture, followed by retrograde-antegrade recanalization after antegrade failures.

  2. The use of an occlusion perfusion catheter to deliver paclitaxel to the arterial wall.

    PubMed

    Atigh, Marzieh K; Turner, Emily; Christians, Uwe; Yazdani, Saami K

    2017-08-01

    Nonstent drug delivery platforms have recently emerged as an alternative treatment of peripheral arterial disease. Perfusion catheters have the potential to directly deliver antiproliferative agents to the medial arterial layer to prevent restenosis. The purpose of this study was to therefore determine the effectiveness of a perfusion catheter to deliver paclitaxel, a proven antiproliferative agent, to combat restenosis. A benchtop model was utilized to determine the varying parameters of a novel occlusion perfusion catheter to maximize paclitaxel delivery using pharmacokinetic evaluation and fluorescent microscopy. Parameters tested included concentration of paclitaxel, delivery pressure, duration of delivery, and the use of an excipient. In addition, bilateral rabbit iliac arteries were treated with the perfusion catheter and pharmacokinetic evaluation performed at 1 hour, 1 day and 3 days. Benchtop testing demonstrated uniform and circumferential penetration of paclitaxel within the treated arteries. The results of the ex vivo test identified two groups with and without an excipient with similar loading conditions (with excipient: 15.4±8.6 ng/mg vs without excipient: 8.9±6.9 ng/mg, P=.77). The in vivo pharmacokinetic analysis of these two groups demonstrated the use of contrast agent increased arterial paclitaxel levels and maintained initial paclitaxel dosing up to 3 days (With excipient: 1 hour: 107±62 ng vs 3 days: 40±23 ng, P=.824; No excipient: 1 hour: 247±120 ng vs 3 days: 2.92±2.9 ng, P=.009). These results demonstrate the feasibility to deliver paclitaxel directly to the medial layer of an artery via a perfusion catheter. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Primary Stenting of Subclavian and Innominate Artery Occlusive Disease: A Single Center's Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Brountzos, E. N. Petersen, B.; Binkert, C.; Panagiotou, I.; Kaufman, J. A.

    2004-11-15

    Purpose: To review immediate and midterm results of primary stenting for innominate and subclavian artery occlusive lesions. Methods: Retrospective data were collected from 48 consecutive symptomatic patients (27 men and 21 women, median age 64 years) having 49 subclavian and innominate artery lesions treated with stenting. Of the patients 52% had concomitant ischemic heart disease, and 30% had carotid and/or vertebral artery disease. Indication for treatment was vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) in 16.6% of the patients; upper limb ischemia (ULI) in 31.3%; VBI and ULI in 12.5%; transient ischemic attack in 16.7%; angina in 12.5% before or after left internal mammary artery-to-coronary artery bypass grafting; and leg claudication in 10.4% before or after axillofemoral bypass grafting. Balloon-expandable stents were used in 44 lesions and self-expandable stents in 5 lesions. In total, 53 stents were placed in 48 patients. Results: Technical success was 96%, and clinical success 94%. We encountered four complications (two puncture site hematomas, one distal hand embolization and one transient cerebral ischemia). Two patients died within 30 days from other causes, and seven patients were lost to follow-up. Mean follow-up time was 16.7 months (range 0.3 to 68.2). Five patients had recurrent lesions treated by surgical (n = 2) or endovascular (n = 3) means. Cumulative primary patency rate was 91.7% and 77% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Cumulative secondary patency rate was 96.5% and 91.7% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Conclusion: Stenting of subclavian and innominate artery lesions resulted in immediate resolution of patients' symptoms with durable midterm effect and few complications in a larger patient group with serious comorbid conditions.

  4. Percutaneous Thrombin Injection of a Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysm with Simultaneous Venous Balloon Occlusion of a Communicating Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Mittleider, Derek Cicuto, Kenneth; Dykes, Thomas

    2008-07-15

    An 82-year-old woman developed acute occlusion of her right coronary artery. She underwent percutaneous coronary stent placement and aortic balloon pump installation. In the postprocedural period, she developed a common femoral artery pseudoaneurysm (PSA) that communicated with the common femoral vein via an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). After unsuccessful ultrasound-guided compression, ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of the PSA was performed, with simultaneous balloon occlusion of the common femoral vein at the level of the AVF. There was complete thrombosis of the PSA and AVF.

  5. Bilateral internal carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections with retinal artery occlusion after a roller coaster ride - case report and a review.

    PubMed

    Ozkan Arat, Yonca; Volpi, John; Arat, Anıl; Klucznik, Richard; Diaz, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    We present the first case of a woman with no significant medical history who developed dissections of bilateral carotid and bilateral vertebral arteries, as well as a retinal artery occlusion, after a roller coaster ride. A 35-year-old woman developed right-sided neck pain followed by a frontal headache immediately after a roller coaster ride. Five days after the incident, she developed complete loss of vision in her right eye for two hours. Subsequently, the vision improved but remained significantly decreased. On presentation, her visual acuity was 20/200 in the right and 20/20 in the left eye. Her fundus exam revealed retinal edema in the superotemporal retinal artery distribution without any visible emboli. Her neurological exam was otherwise normal. The cerebral angiogram showed bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissections. The patient remained stable with conservative therapy without further worsening of vision or any new neurological deficits. Outcomes for cervicocephalic arterial dissection are usually favorable, but early diagnosis is critical for initiation of appropriate treatment of possible complications. Physicians must have a high index of suspicion for arterial dissection when patients note any headache, neck pain or vertigo triggered by violent motion after leisure activities such as roller coaster rides.

  6. Reduction by cobra venom factor of myocardial necrosis after coronary artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Maroko, P R; Carpenter, C B; Chiariello, M; Fishbein, M C; Radvany, P; Knostman, J D; Hale, S L

    1978-03-01

    Components of the complement system are known to play an important role in the cytolytic process and in chemotaxis of leukocytes. Cobra venom factor specifically cleaves C3 activity via activation of the alternative (properdin) complement pathway. It does not act directly on C3. If C3 is involved in tissue necrosis after ischemic injury, cobra venom factor might reduce tissue damage after acute coronary occlusion. Accordingly, in 14 control dogs occlusion of the left anterior descending artery was carried out for 24 h. Epicardial electrograms were recorded 15 min after occlusion, and 24 h later transmural specimens for creatine phosphokinase activity (CPK) and for histological analysis were obtained from the same sites. In another 14 experimental dogs, 20 U/kg cobra venom factor was given intravenously 30 min after occlusion. Serum complement levels fell within 2-4 h to <20% of normal. In the control dogs, the relationship between ST-segment elevation and CPK activity 24 h later was: log CPK = -0.06 ST + 1.48 (n = 111 specimens, 14 dogs, r = 0.77). In the experimental dogs, log CPK = -0.024 ST + 1.46 (n = 111 specimens, 14 dogs, r = 0.60), showing significantly different slopes (P < 0.001), i.e., less CPK depression for any level of ST-segment elevation. Histologically, 69 of 71 sites (97%) with ST-segment elevation exceeding 2 mV in the control dogs showed signs of necrosis 24 h later, whereas in the experimental group only 43 of 79 sites (54%) with abnormal ST-segment elevations showed signs of necrosis (P < 0.0005). At the same time, it was shown that the administration of cobra venom factor did not alter cardiac performance, collateral blood flow to the ischemic myocardium or the clotting system, but infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into the myocardium was decreased. It is concluded that cobra venom factor, by reducing the amount of C3 and C5 substrate available for chemotactic factor generation, or other as yet undefined mechanisms, protects the

  7. Successful Treatment of Resistant Hypertension by Means of Chronic Renal Artery Occlusion Revascularization in a Fragile Patient

    PubMed Central

    Spezia, Laura; Perandini, Simone; Augelli, Raffaele; Puppini, Giovanni; Montemezzi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Renal artery stenosis is a common cause of secondary hypertension refractory to medical therapy. Percutaneous angioplasty along with metallic stent placement has been described as an effective treatment for revascularization of the renal artery. Case Report A 54-year-old woman affected by paranoid schizophrenia with a history of hypertension and chronic renal failure due to renal artery occlusion was treated by endovascular recanalization and stent placement that resulted in improvement of renal function and control of hypertension. Laboratory studies 4 months after the revascularization revealed blood creatinine decrease gradually from 8.57 mg/dL to 3 mg/dL. Conclusions Revascularization with stenting has proven to be a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of total renal artery occlusion which also led to a significant relief at a psychological level. PMID:27882189

  8. Early retinal inflammatory biomarkers in the middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ritzel, Rodney M; Pan, Sarah J; Verma, Rajkumar; Wizeman, John; Crapser, Joshua; Patel, Anita R; Lieberman, Richard; Mohan, Royce; McCullough, Louise D

    2016-01-01

    The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke is one of the most commonly used models to study focal cerebral ischemia. This procedure also results in the simultaneous occlusion of the ophthalmic artery that supplies the retina. Retinal cell death is seen days after reperfusion and leads to functional deficits; however, the mechanism responsible for this injury has not been investigated. Given that the eye may have a unique ocular immune response to an ischemic challenge, this study examined the inflammatory response to retinal ischemia in the MCAO model. Young male C57B/6 mice were subjected to 90-min transient MCAO and were euthanized at several time points up to 7 days. Transcription of inflammatory cytokines was measured with quantitative real-time PCR, and immune cell activation (e.g., phagocytosis) and migration were assessed with ophthalmoscopy and flow cytometry. Observation of the affected eye revealed symptoms consistent with Horner's syndrome. Light ophthalmoscopy confirmed the reduced blood flow of the retinal arteries during occlusion. CX3CR1-GFP reporter mice were then employed to evaluate the extent of the ocular microglia and monocyte activation. A significant increase in green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive macrophages was seen throughout the ischemic area compared to the sham and contralateral control eyes. RT-PCR revealed enhanced expression of the monocyte chemotactic molecule CCL2 early after reperfusion followed by a delayed increase in the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Further analysis of peripheral leukocyte recruitment by flow cytometry determined that monocytes and neutrophils were the predominant immune cells to infiltrate at 72 h. A transient reduction in retinal microglia numbers was also observed, demonstrating the ischemic sensitivity of these cells. Blood-eye barrier permeability to small and large tracer molecules was increased by 72 h. Retinal microglia exhibited enhanced phagocytic activity following

  9. Validity of Laser Doppler Flowmetry in Predicting Outcome in Murine Intraluminal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hedna, Vishnumurthy Shushrutha; Ansari, Saeed; Shahjouei, Shima; Cai, Peter Y.; Ahmad, Abdullah Shafique; Mocco, J; Qureshi, Adnan I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) can reliably reflect brain perfusion in experimental stroke by monitoring both the degree and the duration of relative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Variation in rCBF was continuously monitored in 68 mice undergoing middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 25 mice undergoing sham-operation and documented as LDF (%). Transcranial LDF changes in the territory of right middle cerebral artery during MCAO procedure were correlated with corrected infarct volume (CIV) and neurological deficit score (NDS). Methods Ninety-three C57BL/6 mice (Harlan Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN) between 9 and 11 weeks old were randomly selected and assigned to either MCAO for 45 minutes (n = 68) or sham group (n = 25). Ischemia was induced using the transient intraluminal filament model of MCAO based on Koizumi’s method and transcranial LDF was used to measure CBF during the procedure. Neurological deficits were measured at 2 and 23 hours after MCA reperfusion with NDS and 2% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of carefully dissected brains was performed at 23 hours after reperfusion to determine infarct area. Results After common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO), there was a negative association between LDF drop from base line and NDS at 2 hours (r = −0.43, P = 0.038) and 23 hours (r = −0.61, P = 0.003). Also, a negative correlation was noted between MCA reperfusion LDF and NDS at 23 hours (r = −0.53, P = 0.001). Moreover, post-MCA reperfusion LDF had a positive association with initial CCAO LDF (r = 0.761, P = 0.000) and MCA occlusion LDF (r = 0.31, P = 0.036) in predicting neurological outcome. NDS at 23 hours corresponded well with the infarct volume (r = 0.31, P = 0.005). Conclusions Greater augmentation of rCBF after MCA reperfusion was associated with improved neurological deficit scoring. Interestingly, greater reduction of regional cerebral blood flow after CCAO was also associated with improved neurological

  10. Early retinal inflammatory biomarkers in the middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ritzel, Rodney M.; Pan, Sarah J.; Verma, Rajkumar; Wizeman, John; Crapser, Joshua; Patel, Anita R.; Lieberman, Richard; Mohan, Royce

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke is one of the most commonly used models to study focal cerebral ischemia. This procedure also results in the simultaneous occlusion of the ophthalmic artery that supplies the retina. Retinal cell death is seen days after reperfusion and leads to functional deficits; however, the mechanism responsible for this injury has not been investigated. Given that the eye may have a unique ocular immune response to an ischemic challenge, this study examined the inflammatory response to retinal ischemia in the MCAO model. Methods Young male C57B/6 mice were subjected to 90-min transient MCAO and were euthanized at several time points up to 7 days. Transcription of inflammatory cytokines was measured with quantitative real-time PCR, and immune cell activation (e.g., phagocytosis) and migration were assessed with ophthalmoscopy and flow cytometry. Results Observation of the affected eye revealed symptoms consistent with Horner’s syndrome. Light ophthalmoscopy confirmed the reduced blood flow of the retinal arteries during occlusion. CX3CR1-GFP reporter mice were then employed to evaluate the extent of the ocular microglia and monocyte activation. A significant increase in green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive macrophages was seen throughout the ischemic area compared to the sham and contralateral control eyes. RT–PCR revealed enhanced expression of the monocyte chemotactic molecule CCL2 early after reperfusion followed by a delayed increase in the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Further analysis of peripheral leukocyte recruitment by flow cytometry determined that monocytes and neutrophils were the predominant immune cells to infiltrate at 72 h. A transient reduction in retinal microglia numbers was also observed, demonstrating the ischemic sensitivity of these cells. Blood–eye barrier permeability to small and large tracer molecules was increased by 72 h. Retinal microglia exhibited enhanced

  11. Blood fluidity, fibrinogen, and cardiovascular risk factors of occlusive arterial disease: results of the Aachen study.

    PubMed

    Koscielny, J; Jung, E M; Mrowietz, C; Kiesewetter, H; Latza, R

    2004-01-01

    In the Aachen study the prevalence of arterial disease was established in 346 out of a cohort of 2821 subjects between 45 and 65 years of age. Rheological variables and risk factor profile for patients with peripheral occlusive arterial disease (POAD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular insufficiency (CI) in comparison to a control group are given. Significantly elevated are hematocrit in males, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation and fibrinogen. It is evident that plasma viscosity is the rheological parameter most often elevated in patients with arterial disease (70.8%). In patients with CI (80.6%) plasma viscosity is elevated about four times more often than in healthy subjects. While 85.8% of healthy volunteers show no or only one elevated rheological parameter only 44.5% of the patients have this constellation. Risk factors are bundled in patients compared to healthy volunteers. 84.2% of the healthy volunteers have no or only one risk factor whereas patients with OAD show this constellation in only 30.9% (32.4% in POAD, 16.1% in CI and 32.4% in CHD).

  12. Ventricular tachycardic storm with a chronic total coronary artery occlusion treated with percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old man with a history of coronary artery disease was evaluated due to ventricular tachycardic (VT) storm. The patient continued to have frequent recurrences of VT despite treatment with amiodarone and lidocaine. Since the ventricular arrhythmia could be related to myocardial ischemia related to a chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the right coronary artery, the patient underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention of the CTO, followed by implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation. He had no further episodes of VT during his hospital stay. After 9 months of follow-up, he had no further chest pain or clinically apparent recurrent ischemia. Interrogation of his defibrillator has shown brief nonsustained episodes of ventricular tachycardia, but the patient has not required delivery of a shock. The temporal association between treatment of the CTO and resolution of the VT, as well as the lack of recurrence of sustained VT, suggest a causative link between underlying ischemia produced by a chronically occluded coronary artery and provocation of VT and lend supportive evidence to this treatment approach. PMID:25829653

  13. Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model of Stroke in Rodents: A Step-by-Step Approach

    PubMed Central

    Shahjouei, Shima; Cai, Peter Y.; Ansari, Saeed; Sharififar, Sharareh; Azari, Hassan; Ganji, Sarah; Zand, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and an immense amount of medical care resources are devoted to combat the poststroke debilitating consequences. The key to develop effective and clinically applicable treatment methodologies is a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, including the root causes and targets for pharmacology. Developing these foundations requires the use of standard animal models that mimic the physicochemical process of the diseases that can reliably replicate results in order to test and fine-tune therapeutic modalities. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), endothelin-1-induced ischemic stroke, photothrombosis, devascularization, embolization, and spontaneous infarction using hemorrhage are some examples of different animal models. Reliability of MCAO has been proved and due to the ability to induce reperfusion similar to tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) therapy, this model is widely used in preclinical studies. Here, we describe a detailed methodology on how to develop MCAO stroke in rodents using intra-arterial insertion of filament to occlude the middle cerebral artery. This approach allows for the study of a wide array of basic pathophysiology mechanisms, regenerative medicine and rehabilitation therapy. PMID:26958146

  14. Conus artery occlusion causing isolated right ventricular outflow tract infarction: novel application of cardiac magnetic resonance in anterior STEMI

    PubMed Central

    Lyle, Melissa; Tweet, Marysia; Young, Phillip M.; Best, Patricia J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute ST elevation in the anterior precordial leads typically suggests an anteroseptal infarction due to left anterior descending coronary artery obstruction, but the differential can be broad. Conus branch artery occlusion is a potentially overlooked cause of anteroseptal ST elevation myocardial infraction. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is an emerging technology which can differentiate the etiology of anterior ST elevation in patients with no apparent coronary abnormalities on coronary angiography and normal echocardiography. PMID:27280090

  15. Retrograde approach to an ostial left anterior descending chronic total occlusion through a left internal mammary artery graft.

    PubMed

    Hari, Pawan; Kirtane, Ajay J; Bangalore, Sripal

    2016-05-01

    Retrograde approach to chronic total occlusions (CTO) has been described via saphenous vein grafts, septal and epicardial collaterals. We report for the first time a successful retrograde approach to an ostial left anterior descending (LAD) artery CTO through a failed left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to LAD anastamosis. This case demonstrates the technical aspects of using a LIMA conduit as a retrograde approach to CTO. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Temporary balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries to prevent massive hemorrhage during cesarean delivery among patients with placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Broekman, Evelien A; Versteeg, Henneke; Vos, Louwerens D; Dijksterhuis, Marja G; Papatsonis, Dimitri N

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of temporary balloon occlusion of the internal iliac artery before uterine incision to prevent massive obstetric hemorrhage during cesarean delivery among patients with anterior placenta previa. In a retrospective cohort study conducted at Amphia Hospital Breda (Breda, Netherlands), data were analyzed from women with anterior placenta previa who delivered by cesarean between January 1, 2001, and September 30, 2012. Cases with and without balloon occlusion of the internal iliac artery were included. The primary outcomes were the amount of blood loss during cesarean delivery, drop of hemoglobin level, and blood loss of more than 1000 mL. Of 68 eligible women, 42 (62%) had temporary balloon occlusion and 26 (38%) had no balloon occlusion. Median blood loss was 800 mL (interquartile range [IQR] 488-1113) in the balloon group and 1000 mL (IQR 694-1307) in the no balloon group (P=0.06). Blood loss of 1000 mL or more was recorded in 16 (38%) women in the balloon group and 18 (69%) in the no balloon group (P=0.01). Temporary balloon occlusion of the internal iliac artery before uterine incision during cesarean delivery could potentially reduce blood loss among patients with anterior placenta previa. Large, randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the results. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reversible occlusion of donor vessel caused by mouth opening after superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis in adult moyamoya patients.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Toshiro; Abe, Hiroshi; Miki, Koichi; Inoue, Tooru

    2015-09-01

    The authors experienced an intriguing phenomenon in 2 adult patients with moyamoya disease. Mouth opening caused reversible occlusion of the donor superficial temporal artery (STA), and the patients exhibited transient cerebral ischemic symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of such occlusion and the mechanism of this phenomenon. Twelve consecutive adult patients with moyamoya disease (15 affected sides) who underwent STA-middle cerebral artery anastomosis were included in this study. Ultrasound examination was performed more than 3 months postoperatively to determine whether mouth opening affected blood flow of the donor STA and led to any ischemic symptoms within 1 minute. Computed tomography angiography was performed during both mouth opening and mouth closing, when blood flow changes of the donor STA were recognized. Under wide mouth opening, steno-occlusion of the donor STA occurred in 5 of 15 sides (33.3%). On 1 side (6.7%), complete occlusion induced ischemic symptoms. Steno-occlusion occurred by at least 2 mechanisms: either the stretched temporalis muscle pushed the donor STA against the edge of the bone window, or the redundant donor STA kinked when the muscle was stretched. Even with temporary occlusion of the donor STA, ischemic symptoms seem to rarely occur. However, to avoid the "big bite ischemic phenomenon," the authors recommend securing a sufficient distance between the donor STA and the edge of the bone window and avoiding a redundant course of the donor STA within the muscle layer.

  18. Association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR-677 and MTHFR-1298) Genetic Polymorphisms with Occlusive Artery Disease and Deep Venous Thrombosis in Macedonians

    PubMed Central

    Spiroski, Igor; Kedev, Sashko; Antov, Slobodan; Arsov, Todor; Krstevska, Marija; Dzhekova-Stojkova, Sloboda; Kostovska, Stojanka; Trajkov, Dejan; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Strezova, Ana; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Spiroski, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Aim To analyze the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms (MTHFR-677 and MTHFR-1298) with occlusive artery disease and deep venous thrombosis in Macedonians. Methods We examined 83 healthy respondents, 76 patients with occlusive artery disease, and 67 patients with deep venous thrombosis. Blood samples were collected and DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes. Identification of MTHFR mutations was done with CVD StripAssay (ViennaLab, Labordiagnostika GmbH, Vienna, Austria) and the population genetics analysis package, PyPop, was used for the analysis. Pearson P values, crude odds ratio, and Wald’s 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results The frequency of C alleles of MTHFR-677 was 0.575 in patients with deep venous thrombosis, 0.612 in patients with occlusive artery disease, and 0.645 in healthy participants. The frequency of T allele of MTHFR-677 was lower in healthy participants (0.355) than in patients with occlusive artery disease (0.388) and deep venous thrombosis (0.425). The frequency of A allele for MTHFR-1298 was 0.729 in healthy participants, 0.770 in patients with occlusive artery disease, and 0.746 in patients with deep venous thrombosis. The frequency of C allele of MTHFR-1298 was 0.271 in healthy participants, 0.230 in patients with occlusive artery disease, and 0.425 in patients with deep venous thrombosis. No association of MTHFR-677 and MTHFR-1289 polymorphisms with occlusive artery disease and deep venous thrombosis was found, except for the protective effect of MTHFR/CA:CC diplotype for occlusive artery disease. Conclusion We could not confirm a significant association of MTHFR-677 and MTHFR-1289 polymorphisms with occlusive artery disease or deep venous thrombosis in Macedonians, except for the protective effect of MTHFR/CA:CC diplotype against occlusive artery disease. PMID:18293456

  19. External carotid artery angioplasty and stenting to augment cerebral perfusion in the setting of subacute symptomatic ipsilateral internal carotid artery occlusion. Case report.

    PubMed

    Adel, Joseph G; Bendok, Bernard R; Hage, Ziad A; Naidech, Andrew M; Miller, Jeffery W; Batjer, H Hunt

    2007-12-01

    The authors performed external carotid artery (ECA) angioplasty and stenting in a 45-year-old man who had presented with right hemispheric crescendo ischemic symptoms stemming from acute right internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO). This unique application of ECA angioplasty and stenting augmented cerebral perfusion and improved clinical symptoms. In certain situations, ECA stenting can increase cerebral perfusion in the setting of ICAO and ECA stenosis. The authors are the first to describe this approach in this context.

  20. Retrograde access via the popliteal artery to facilitate the re-entry technique for recalcitrant superficial femoral artery chronic total occlusions.

    PubMed

    Pappy, Reji; Hennebry, Thomas A; Abu-Fadel, Mazen S

    2011-10-01

    Subintimal recanalization is beneficial in selected patients with peripheral chronic total occlusions (CTO). However, in complex cases, re-entry into the true arterial lumen may prove to be unsuccessful with a conventional guidewire or a re-entry catheter when using standard femoral artery access. Our case series describes these technical dilemmas along with strategies that can be utilized to overcome these challenges. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Combined occlusion of the central retinal artery and central retinal vein following blunt ocular trauma: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Noble, M J; Alvarez, E V

    1987-01-01

    A healthy young woman suffered complete loss of the vision of one eye following a blunt ocular injury. She sustained a combined occlusion of the central retinal artery and central retinal vein of the affected eye. Initially few retinal haemorrhages were present, but they increased considerably in number and size during the day following injury. Images PMID:3689734

  2. Allopurinol and dimethylthiourea reduce brain infarction following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Martz, D; Rayos, G; Schielke, G P; Betz, A L

    1989-04-01

    Free radicals have been shown to play an important role in ischemia-reperfusion injury in several organ systems; however, the role of free radicals in central nervous system ischemia has been less well studied. Many potential free radical-generating systems exist. The primary products of these reactions, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, may combine to produce hydroxyl radicals. Of the many potential sources of free radical generation, the enzyme xanthine oxidase has been shown to be important in ischemia in noncerebral tissue. We investigated the effect of the hydroxyl radical scavenger dimethylthiourea and the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol on infarct volume in a model of continuous partial ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with dimethylthiourea or allopurinol before middle cerebral artery occlusion. Infarct volume was measured by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining of brains removed 3 or 24 hours after occlusion. Stroke volume was reduced by 30% after dimethylthiourea treatment and by 32-35% after allopurinol treatment. At 24 hours after stroke, cortical tissue was more effectively protected than caudate tissue with both agents. Pretreatment with dimethylthiourea and allopurinol also significantly reduced cerebral edema formation and improved blood-brain barrier function as measured by fluorescein uptake. Our results imply that hydroxyl radicals are important in tissue injury secondary to partial cerebral ischemia and that xanthine oxidase may be the primary source of these radicals.

  3. [Combined central retinal vein and artery occlusion after retrobulbar anesthesia--report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Torres, Rogil José de Almeida; Luchini, Andréa; Weis, Wilma; Frecceiro, Paulo Roberto; Casella, Marcelo

    2005-01-01

    Two cases of combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion after intraocular surgery are described. Both patients were submitted to peribulbar anesthesia. Due to the painful sensation and ocular mobility retrobulbar anesthesia was necessary. At the end of the surgery both patients received a subconjunctival injection of gentamicin associated with dexamethasone. On the very first day after the surgery the two patients showed pupillary areflexia and visual acuity of luminous perception when they were referred to our service. The confirmation of the diagnosis of combined vascular occlusion of the retina was obtained by fluorescein angiography test. The two patients never showed, any neurological alteration. However visual loss was severe and permanent. By means of surgical description, clinical history, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography we are able to discuss the possible causes of this severe retinal vascular injury emphasizing the presumed anesthesic injection that was given into the optical nerve during retrobulbar anesthesia. At the same time we discuss preventive measures to avoid such problem.

  4. Selective occlusion of lumbar arteries as a spinal cord ischemia model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Tomoyuki; Mori, Koichi; Shiraishi, Yoshimitsu; Tatebayashi, Kyoko; Kawai, Yasuaki

    2003-02-01

    Paraplegia is a devastating complication of operations requiring transient occlusion of the descending thoracic aorta. Many animal models of spinal cord ischemia have been utilized to examine the efficacy of various neuroprotective methods. In this study, we establish a rabbit model of spinal cord ischemia by selective temporary occlusion of lumbar arteries and examine the protective effects of systemic mild hypothermia in this model. Animals were divided into the following four groups: sham group (group A, n = 6); 10 min ischemia, normothermia (39 degrees C) (group B, n = 6); 20 min ischemia, normothermia (group C, n = 6); and 30 min ischemia, mild hypothermia (35 degrees C) (group D, n = 6). After 7 d of reperfusion, three rabbits in group B and five rabbits in group C developed paraplegia (Tarlov's score = 0). In contrast, all rabbits preserved hindlimb motor function (Tarlov's score = 4) in groups A and D. Histological findings indicated that the number of motor neurons in the anterior horns in group C were significantly fewer than in group A. A large number of motor neurons were preserved in group D. Hypothermia is known to be an effective and reliable method of neuroprotection, but the risk of complications rises at deep hypothermia. Our current results confirm that systemic, mild hypothermia is a safe and effective neuroprotective method during ischemia-reperfusion injury of the spinal cord.

  5. Impaired motor activity and motor learning function in rat with middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuchuan; Zhou, Yandong; Lai, Qin; Li, Jie; Park, Hun; Diaz, Fernando G

    2002-04-15

    The poor quality of life after a stroke is largely attributed to deficits in cognitive-motor functioning. The goals of this study were to detect if damaged motor learning function were attributed to motor deficits in rats following a transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Stroke was induced by a 2-h occlusion of the MCA using an intraluminal filament. Motor functions were evaluated from 5 up to 28 days after reperfusion in ischemic and control rats. Motor function was detected by a series of motor tests (runway traversing and beam balancing, as well as foot fault placing, parallel bar crossing, rope and ladder climbing), and motor learning behavior was determined by analyzing the rate of improvement of impaired function during performance of the motor tasks. Significant (P<0.001) motor deficits were detected in the stroke group (n=10) while performing motor tasks that involve extensive coordination, in comparison to the controls (n=12). Although motor behavior was improved with repeated behavior testing, unparalleled rate of improvement of motor performance on rope and ladder climbing tests was found between the two groups, suggesting an impaired motor learning function. Brain tissue damage was detected in the ischemic animals 28 days after surgery, demonstrated by 40% infarct volume of contralateral hemisphere. Both motor learning and motor function were impaired in ischemic rats. The motor tests used in this study are sensitive, semi-quantitative, and reproducible measurements of functional impairment in rats following an ischemic stroke.

  6. Neurocognitive Improvement in Patients Undergoing Carotid Endarterectomy for Atherosclerotic Occlusive Carotid Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Muhammad; Haq, Imran Ul; Memon, Amir Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the improvement in neurocognitive functions after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) under local anesthesia (LA) in patients with carotid bifurcation occlusive disease. Place and duration of study: Department of Vascular Surgery, Combined Military Hospital Lahore from January 2013 to January 2015. Patients and Methods: A total of 79 patients with carotid artery occlusive disease, having no history of major stroke, depression, or dementia underwent CEA under LA. Cognitive functions were assessed 3 days before surgery and then 4 weeks and 12 weeks after the surgery using the Addenbrookes cognitive examination (ACE) score and General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG) Score. Results: In ACE score, Attention, Memory, Fluency, Language, and Visuospatial orientation improved by 33.3%, 30.7%, 21.4%, 38.4%, and 31.2%, respectively, by the end of 12 weeks. An overall improvement in neurocognition was 32% (P = 0.03). In GPCOG score, Orientation, Recall, and Memory improved by 33%, 20%, and 100%, respectively, with an overall improvement of 33.3% at the end of 12 weeks (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Both scoring systems show an overall improvement in neurocognition as well as improvements in all the subcategories in each system. Hence, we conclude statistically significant improvement in neurocognitive functions after CEA. PMID:28018503

  7. Central retinal artery occlusion after phacoemulsification under peribulbar anaesthesia: Pathogenic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Villa, S; Salazar Méndez, R; Cubillas Martín, M; Cuesta García, M

    2016-01-01

    A 77-year-old patient had uneventful cataract surgery in the right eye under peribulbar anaesthesia. The next day, a severe and progressive eyelid swelling was noted, caused by an unknown allergic reaction to povidone-iodine. The allergic signs dissapeared by the fifth day, but amaurosis and a cherry-red spot were detected. Doppler ultrasound and CT angiography confirmed an 80% ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis. Retinal vascular occlusion after orbital loco-regional anaesthesia is rare. When this complication occurs, carotid disease, and local or systemic factors, should be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Intraoperative laser speckle contrast imaging improves the stability of rodent middle cerebral artery occlusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lu; Li, Yao; Li, Hangdao; Lu, Hongyang; Tong, Shanbao

    2015-09-01

    Rodent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model is commonly used in stroke research. Creating a stable infarct volume has always been challenging for technicians due to the variances of animal anatomy and surgical operations. The depth of filament suture advancement strongly influences the infarct volume as well. We investigated the cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the affected cortex using laser speckle contrast imaging when advancing suture during MCAO surgery. The relative CBF drop area (CBF50, i.e., the percentage area with CBF less than 50% of the baseline) showed an increase from 20.9% to 69.1% when the insertion depth increased from 1.6 to 1.8 cm. Using the real-time CBF50 marker to guide suture insertion during the surgery, our animal experiments showed that intraoperative CBF-guided surgery could significantly improve the stability of MCAO with a more consistent infarct volume and less mortality.

  9. Neuroprotective effects of progesterone after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Chopp, M; Li, Y

    1999-12-01

    Treatment of focal cerebral ischemia in the rat with intraperitoneal administration of progesterone dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy. In the present study we test whether iv administration of water soluble progesterone 2 h after the onset of middle cerebral artery occlusion provides therapeutic benefit for the treatment of stroke. In addition, we perform a battery of functional tests: rotarod, adhesive-backed somatosensory, and neurological score, as well as a dose-response study. The data indicate that iv administration of progesterone at a dose of 8 mg/kg significantly reduces the volume of cerebral infarction and significantly improves outcome on the array of functional measures employed. Treatment with 4 mg/kg or 32 mg/kg of progesterone failed to provide any therapeutic benefit. Progesterone, a non toxic, clinically employed, pluripotent therapeutic agent which targets both neuroprotective as well as neuroregenerative strategies, may have important therapeutic benefits for the treatment of stroke.

  10. Ocelot catheter for the recanalization of lower extremity arterial chronic total occlusion.

    PubMed

    Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos; Lendel, Vasili; Cawich, Ian; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a growing clinical condition affecting more than 10 million patients in the United States and it is responsible for more than 120,000 amputations annually. The presence of chronic total occlusions (CTO) increases the complexity of endovascular procedures and open surgery may often be the preferred approach. Despite the optimization of the CTO devices and technique, percutaneous CTO revascularization remains a challenging procedure even for experienced operators with important complication rates. The Ocelot(TM) system is a novel CTO device to use real-time optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging guidance for the recanalization of peripheral CTOs. We review the mechanism of the Ocelot system, the initial results from the multi-center Connect-II trial and two cases of Ocelot-assisted CTO recanalization. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating the Radiation Dose to the Fetus in Prophylactic Internal Iliac Artery Balloon Occlusion: Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Kentaro; Hamada, Tomohiro; Yuge, Akitoshi; Kiyosue, Hiro; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Nasu, Kaei; Narahara, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although radiation exposure is of great concern to expecting patients, little information is available on the fetal radiation dose associated with prophylactic internal iliac artery balloon occlusion (IIABO). Here we estimated the fetal radiation dose associated with prophylactic IIABO in Caesarean section (CS). Cases. We report our experience with the IIABO procedure in three consecutive patients with suspected placenta previa/accreta. Fetal radiation dose measurements were conducted prior to each CS by using an anthropomorphic phantom. Based on the simulated value, we calculated the fetal radiation dose as the absorbed dose. We found that the fetal radiation doses ranged from 12.88 to 31.6 mGy. The fetal radiation dose during the prophylactic IIABOs did not exceed 50 mGy. Conclusion. The IIABO procedure could result in a very small increase in the risk of harmful effects to the fetus. PMID:26180648

  12. Regional block anesthesia in a patient with factor V Leiden mutation and axillary artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Erkalp, Kerem; Comlekci, Mevlut; Inan, Bekir; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozdemir, Haluk; Saidoglu, Leyla

    2011-01-01

    Anesthetic management of patients with coagulation disorders presents safety and technical challenges. This case describes a 58-year-old woman with factor V Leiden mutation who required distal saphenous vein harvest and axillo-brachial bypass to treat axillary artery occlusion. The patient underwent surgery with satisfactory anesthesia using infraclavicular brachial plexus block, thoracic paravertebral block, and unilateral subarachnoid block. These three regional anesthetic interventions were performed in lieu of general anesthesia to minimize risks of thrombotic events, pain, and to decrease recovery time. Despite higher failure rates of regional anesthesia, longer time required for procedures, and added discomforts during surgery, the benefits may outweigh risks for selected high-risk patients, including those with factor V Leiden mutations. PMID:22915885

  13. Indications for the use of temporary arterial occlusion during aneurysm repair: an institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Behzad; Morgan, Michael Kerin

    2011-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine variables that could predict, in the preoperative period, the likelihood for the need for intraoperative temporary arterial occlusion using clips (temporary clipping) when surgically repairing intracranial aneurysms. Data collected prospectively between October 1989 and March 2010 of 1129 unruptured intracranial aneurysms in 934 patients who were managed surgically was examined retrospectively. Temporary clipping was used in 400 patients (35.4%). Regression analysis of putative predictive variables revealed that aneurysms of a larger size, irregular fundus shape or midline location were more likely to be treated with temporary clipping. Basilar caput aneurysms larger than 10mm were always managed with temporary clipping. There was no combination of factors studied that consistently predicted that temporary clipping would not be needed. Therefore, the potential need for temporary clipping must be considered for every patient with an aneurysm.

  14. Scuba diving, acute left anterior descending artery occlusion and normal ECG.

    PubMed

    Doll, Sébastien Xavier; Rigamonti, Fabio; Roffi, Marco; Noble, Stéphane

    2013-01-31

    We report the case of an acute proximal occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary (LAD) artery following a scuba diving decompression accident and associated with normal ECG. Following uneventful thromboaspiration and coronary stenting, the patient was discharged on day 4 with secondary preventative therapies. A transthoracic echocardiography performed at this point showed a complete recovery compared with an initial localised akinesia involving the anterior and apical portion of the left ventricle upon admission. This case highlights that significant acute coronary lesions involving the LAD can occur without any ECG anomaly. The presence of acute and persistent angina associated with troponin elevation should prompt physicians to consider coronary angiography without delay, independently of the ECG results.

  15. A SPECT study in internal carotid artery occlusion: Discrepancies between flow image and neurologic deficits

    SciTech Connect

    Moriwaki, H.; Hougaku, H.; Matsuda, I.; Kusunoki, M.; Shirai, J. )

    1989-08-01

    A SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) study in internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion was performed in 6 patients. The validity of iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT study in the evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) or neurologic function is still controversial. In this study, the authors showed several cases in whom SPECT images of brain were not compatible with their neurologic deficits. In 2 typical cases, a large low-density area was observed in the non-dominant hemisphere in computed tomography (CT) scan, but no apparent motor-sensory deficits in left limbs were present. In these patients, SPECT study also revealed flow reduction in the affected side of the brain. So there was a possibility that an IMP brain image could not always reflect CBF, which maintains neurologic function of the brain.

  16. Ruptured aneurysm at the cortical segment of the distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery associated with hemodynamic stress after basilar artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Marutani, Akiko; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Park, Hun Soo; Tamura, Kentaro; Motoyama, Yasushi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: A distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) de novo aneurysm at the cortical segment after atherosclerotic basilar artery occlusion is extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a ruptured distal PICA de novo aneurysm 8 years after basilar artery occlusion. Case Description: A 75-year-old man experienced sudden disturbance of consciousness; computed tomography demonstrated cerebellar and subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured distal PICA aneurysm. Neck clipping of the aneurysm prevented re-rupture initially, and superficial temporal artery-superior cerebellar artery (STA-SCA) bypass was performed 3 months after admission. Postoperative angiography confirmed patency of the bypass, and the patient was discharged without any new neurological deficits. Conclusion: This report describes a case of de novo development of a saccular distal PICA aneurysm after atherosclerotic basilar artery occlusion. We believe that increased hemodynamic stress at the PICA might have contributed to the occurrence and rupture of the aneurysm. STA-SCA bypass, introduced in the territory of the cerebellar hemisphere, reduces hemodynamic stress, which would prevent the occurrence of de novo aneurysm and recurrent bleeding. PMID:28144485

  17. Different Imaging Strategies in Patients With Possible Basilar Artery Occlusion: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Sebastian E; Hunink, Myriam G; Schöberl, Florian; von Baumgarten, Louisa; Petersen, Steffen E; Dichgans, Martin; Janssen, Hendrik; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Reiser, Maximilian F; Sommer, Wieland H

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different noninvasive imaging strategies in patients with possible basilar artery occlusion. A Markov decision analytic model was used to evaluate long-term outcomes resulting from strategies using computed tomographic angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance imaging, nonenhanced CT, or duplex ultrasound with intravenous (IV) thrombolysis being administered after positive findings. The analysis was performed from the societal perspective based on US recommendations. Input parameters were derived from the literature. Costs were obtained from United States costing sources and published literature. Outcomes were lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, and net monetary benefits, with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000 per QALY. The strategy with the highest net monetary benefit was considered the most cost-effective. Extensive deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the effect of varying parameter values. In the reference case analysis, CTA dominated all other imaging strategies. CTA yielded 0.02 QALYs more than magnetic resonance imaging and 0.04 QALYs more than duplex ultrasound followed by CTA. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000 per QALY, CTA yielded the highest net monetary benefits. The probability that CTA is cost-effective was 96% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000/QALY. Sensitivity analyses showed that duplex ultrasound was cost-effective only for a prior probability of ≤0.02 and that these results were only minimally influenced by duplex ultrasound sensitivity and specificity. Nonenhanced CT and magnetic resonance imaging never became the most cost-effective strategy. Our results suggest that CTA in patients with possible basilar artery occlusion is cost-effective. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. Dual-Source Computed Tomography for Chronic Total Occlusion of Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Navreet; Gulati, Gurpreet S; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Kumar, Guresh; Sharma, Sanjiv; Bahl, Vinay K

    2016-10-01

    We compared dual-source CT (DSCT) and conventional angiography (CA) in evaluation of chronic total occlusion (CTO) of coronary arteries. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in CTO is technically difficult and has comparatively lower success rate than intervention in non-occluded artery. Accurate assessment of lesion morphology is an important determinant of PCI success in CTO. Nineteen symptomatic patients (18 men, age: 58.6 ± 10.6 years) with a CTO on CA were subjected to a DSCT (Definition, Siemens, Germany). Heart rate (HR) control was not performed. Dedicated post-processing software was used for lesion analysis on both modalities. Presence of bridging collaterals, stump morphology, calcification, side branch, proximal tortuosity, occlusion length, distal vessel interpretability, and distal lesions were statistically compared. There were 20 CTOs. HR during DSCT ranged from 53 to 131 bpm. Bridging collaterals were seen in 3/20 (15%) lesions on CA and in none on DSCT. Stump anatomy and side branch were identified equally well. Plaque calcification was identified in 5/20 (25%) lesions on CA and in 12/20 (60%) lesions on DSCT (P = 0.025). Nature and extent of calcification were better visualized on DSCT. No proximal tortuosity was noted. Distal vessel was better interpretable on DSCT (15/20; 75%) compared to CA (9/20; 45%) (P = 0.05). No significant difference in lesion length was noted. DSCT performs as well as CA for most features of CTO. Avoidance of need to control HR, ability to better detect and characterize calcium and to interpret distal vessels make it a useful pre-intervention investigation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Screen-imaging guidance using a modified portable video macroscope for middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xingbao; Luo, Junli; Liu, Yun; Chen, Guolong; Liu, Song; Ruan, Qiangjin; Deng, Xunding; Wang, Dianchun; Fan, Quanshui; Pan, Xinghua

    2012-04-25

    The use of operating microscopes is limited by the focal length. Surgeons using these instruments cannot simultaneously view and access the surgical field and must choose one or the other. The longer focal length (more than 1 000 mm) of an operating telescope permits a position away from the operating field, above the surgeon and out of the field of view. This gives the telescope an advantage over an operating microscope. We developed a telescopic system using screen-imaging guidance and a modified portable video macroscope constructed from a Computar MLH-10 × macro lens, a DFK-21AU04 USB CCD Camera and a Dell laptop computer as monitor screen. This system was used to establish a middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. Results showed that magnification of the modified portable video macroscope was appropriate (5-20 ×) even though the Computar MLH-10 × macro lens was placed 800 mm away from the operating field rather than at the specified working distance of 152.4 mm with a zoom of 1-40 ×. The screen-imaging telescopic technique was clear, life-like, stereoscopic and matched the actual operation. Screen-imaging guidance led to an accurate, smooth, minimally invasive and comparatively easy surgical procedure. Success rate of the model establishment evaluated by neurological function using the modified neurological score system was 74.07%. There was no significant difference in model establishment time, sensorimotor deficit and infarct volume percentage. Our findings indicate that the telescopic lens is effective in the screen surgical operation mode referred to as "long distance observation and short distance operation" and that screen-imaging guidance using an modified portable video macroscope can be utilized for the establishment of a middle cerebral artery occlusion model and micro-neurosurgery.

  20. A Comparison between Mechanical Thrombectomy and Intra-arterial Fibrinolysis in Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion: Single Center Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seunguk; Jung, Cheolkyu; Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byung Se; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Chang, Jun Young; Kim, Beom Joon; Han, Moon-Ku; Bae, Hee-Joon; Kwon, Bae Ju; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recent advances in intra-arterial techniques and thrombectomy devices lead to high rate of recanalization. However, little is known regarding the effect of the evolvement of endovascular revascularization therapy (ERT) in acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We compared the outcome of endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) versus intra-arterial fibrinolysis (IAF)-based ERT in patients with acute BAO. Methods After retrospectively reviewed a registry of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent ERT from September 2003 to February 2015, 57 patients with acute BAO within 12 hours from stroke onset were enrolled. They were categorized as an IAF group (n=24) and EMT group (n=33) according to the primary technical option. We compared the procedural and clinical outcomes between the groups. Results The time from groin puncture to recanalization was significantly shorter in the EMT group than in the IAF group (48.5 [25.3 to 87.8] vs. 92 [44 to 179] minutes; P=0.02) The rate of complete recanalization was significantly higher in the EMT group than in the IAF group (87.9% vs 41.7%; P<0.01). The good outcome of the modified Rankin Scale score≤2 at 3 months was more frequent in the EMT group than in the IAF group, but it was not statistically significant (39.4% vs 16.7%; P=0.06). Conclusions EMT-based ERT in patients with acute BAO is superior to IAF-based ERT in terms of the reduction of time from groin puncture to recanalization and the improvement of the rate of complete recanalization. PMID:27283281

  1. Severity of middle cerebral artery occlusion determines retinal deficits in rats

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Rachael S.; Sayeed, Iqbal; Cale, Heather A.; Morrison, Katherine C.; Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Pardue, Machelle T.; Stein, Donald G.

    2014-01-01

    Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using the intraluminal suture technique is a common model used to study cerebral ischemia in rodents. Due to the proximity of the ophthalmic artery to the middle cerebral artery, MCAO blocks both arteries, causing both cerebral and retinal ischemia. While previous studies have shown retinal dysfunction at 48 hours post-MCAO, we investigated whether these retinal function deficits persist until 9 days and whether they correlate with central neurological deficits. Rats received 90 minutes of transient MCAO followed by electroretinography at 2 and 9 days to assess retinal function. Retinal damage was assessed with cresyl violet staining, immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamine synthetase, and TUNEL staining. Rats showed behavioral deficits as assessed with neuroscore that correlated with cerebral infarct size and retinal function at 2 days. Two days after surgery, rats with moderate MCAO (neuroscore < 5) exhibited delays in electroretinogram implicit time, while rats with severe MCAO (neuroscore ≥ 5) exhibited reductions in amplitude. Glutamine synthetase was upregulated in Müller cells 3 days after MCAO in both severe and moderate animals, however, retinal ganglion cell death was only observed in MCAO retinas from severe animals. By 9 days after MCAO, both glutamine synthetase labeling and electroretinograms had returned to normal levels in moderate animals. Early retinal function deficits correlated with behavioral deficits. However, retinal function decreases were transient and selective retinal cell loss was observed only with severe ischemia, suggesting that the retina is less susceptible to MCAO than the brain. Temporary retinal deficits caused by MCAO are likely due to ischemia-induced increases in extracellular glutamate that impair signal conduction, but resolve by 9 days after MCAO. PMID:24518488

  2. Accuracy of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale Score in Predicting the Site of Arterial Occlusion in Acute Stroke: A Transcranial Doppler Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Sharma, Arvind; Uchino, Ken; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Khan, Khurshid; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Saqqur, Maher

    2016-09-01

    In acute stroke, it is crucial to assess for intracranial large-vessel occlusion and site of occlusion. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSSS) is the frequently used clinical tool to predict the site of arterial occlusion. In this study we aimed to determine the following: (1) if there is a correlation between the site of occlusion and the NIHSSS at presentation (bNIHSSS); and (2) if there is a bNIHSSS cutoff which can distinguish proximal occlusions (PO) from distal occlusions (DO). Up to 313 patients from CLOTBUST data bank with demonstrable intracranial arterial occlusion and having received intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) were included. Occlusions were classified as PO (terminal internal carotid artery, M1 segment of middle cerebral artery [M1 MCA], and basilar artery) or DO (M2 MCA, anterior cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, and vertebral artery). By univariate analysis, bNIHSSS, thrombolysis in brain ischemia (TIBI) flow grade before rt-PA, degree of recanalization after rt-PA, and modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months were significantly different between various sites of occlusion. By univariate analysis, a higher bNIHSSS, lower TIBI flow grade, and lower ASPECTS (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score) differentiated PO from DO. Lower TIBI flow grade and higher bNIHSSS differentiated PO from DO by logistic regression analysis. No single NIHSSS cutoff with acceptable sensitivity and specificity could be derived to differentiate PO from DO. Although NIHSSS are higher in PO, there is no satisfactory NIHSSS cutoff which differentiates PO from DO. A vascular imaging or transcranial doppler should be obtained to determine the site of arterial occlusion in acute stroke. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Large artery occlusion diagnosed by computed tomography angiography in acute ischaemic stroke: frequency, predictive factors, and safety.

    PubMed

    Matias-Guiu, J A; Serna-Candel, C; Espejo-Domínguez, J M; Fernández-Matarrubia, M; Simal, P; Matias-Guiu, J

    2014-06-01

    Demonstrating artery occlusion in ischaemic stroke has gained importance due to the increasing availability of endovascular therapies. This study evaluates the frequency of artery occlusion, its associated factors, and complications following the use of CT-angiography in acute stroke. We retrospectively analysed a cohort of patients who suffered acute ischaemic stroke between July and-December 2011. We included 157 patients (mean age, 74±11; mean NIHSS score, 5 [2-13]). Of that total, 56.7% of the patients were admitted to hospital during the first 8hours. CT-angiography was performed in 71 cases (45.2%); arterial large-vessel occlusion was detected in 37 (52.1%) of these cases, and the most frequent site was M1 (40%). Univariate analysis showed that the NIHSS score (17 vs 7, P<.001) and atrial fibrillation (64% vs 32%, P=.006) were associated with artery occlusion. A logistic regression analysis was performed subsequently, confirming these associations. There were no cases of contrast-induced nephropathy. Door-to-needle time for intravenous thrombolysis was 61.2±24.5minutes in patients who underwent CT-angiography, and 53.5±34.3minutes in those who did not (P=.495). Arterial occlusions are seen in 23.6% of patients, especially in those who are admitted during the first few hours. NIHSS score serves as a useful predictive factor. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroprotective effects of argon in an in vivo model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Ryang, Yu-Mi; Fahlenkamp, Astrid V; Rossaint, Rolf; Wesp, Dominik; Loetscher, Philip D; Beyer, Cordian; Coburn, Mark

    2011-06-01

    The neuroprotective effects of the noble gas xenon are well known. Argon, in contrast to xenon, is abundant, inexpensive, and therefore widely applicable. In this study, we analyzed the possible neuroprotective role of argon in an in vivo rat model of acute focal cerebral ischemia. Controlled laboratory study. Academic research laboratory. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Twenty-two rats underwent 2 hrs of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion using the endoluminal thread model. One hr after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion induction, spontaneously breathing rats received either 50 vol % argon/50 vol % O2 (argon group, n = 11) or 50 vol % N2/50 vol % O2 (control group, n = 11) for 1 hr through a face mask. Twenty-four hrs after reperfusion, rats were neurologically and behaviorally tested and euthanized. Rat brains were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and infarct volumes determined by planimetry. After 2 hrs of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat, we found in the argon group a significant reduction in the overall (p = .004) and after subdivision in the cortical (p = .007) and the basal ganglia (p = .02) infarct volumes. Argon treatment resulted in a significant improvement of the composite adverse outcome (p = .034). However, there was no advantage in acute survival 24 hrs after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (p = .361). We were able to demonstrate argon's neuroprotective effects in an in vivo experimental rat model of acute focal cerebral ischemia. Animals breathing spontaneously 50 vol % argon 1 hr after induction of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 hr by face mask showed significantly reduced infarct volumes and composite adverse outcomes.

  5. Open Abdomen Improves Survival in Patients With Peritonitis Secondary to Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ding, Weiwei; Wang, Kai; Liu, Baochen; Fan, Xinxin; Wang, Shikai; Cao, Jianmin; Wu, Xingjiang; Li, Jieshou

    2017-10-01

    Damage control surgery and open abdomen (OA) have been extensively used in the severe traumatic patients. However, there was little information when extended to a nontrauma setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the liberal use of OA as a damage control surgery adjunct improved the clinical outcome in acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion patients. A single-center, retrospective cohort review was performed in a national tertiary surgical referral center. Forty-four patients received OA (OA group) and 65 patients had a primary fascial closure (non-OA group) after diagnosed as peritonitis secondary to acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion from January, 2005 to June, 2016. Revascularization was achieved through endovascular aspiration embolectomy, open embolectomy, or percutaneous stent. No difference of bowel resection length was found between groups in the first emergency surgery. However, more non-OA patients (35.4%) required a second-look enterectomy to remove the residual bowel ischemia than OA patients (13.6%, P<0.05). OA was closed within a median of 7 days (4 to 15 d). There was a mean of 134 cm residual alive bowel in OA, whereas 96 cm in non-OA. More non-OA patients suffered from intra-abdominal sepsis (23.1% vs. 6.8%, P<0.01), intra-abdominal hypertension (31% vs. 0, P<0.01), and acute renal failure (53.8% vs. 31.8%, P<0.05) than OA group after surgery. Short-bowel syndrome occurred infrequently in OA than non-OA patients (9.1% vs. 36.9%, P<0.01). OA significantly decreased the 30-day (27.3% vs. 52.3%, P<0.01) and 1-year mortality rate (31.8 % vs. 61.5%, P<0.01) compared with non-OA group. Liberal use of OA, as a damage control adjunct avoided the development of intra-abdominal hypertension, reduced sepsis-related complication, and improved the clinical outcomes in peritonitis secondary to acute SMA occlusion.

  6. Prognostic impact of chronic total occlusion in a nonculprit artery in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Solé, Albert; Teruel, Luis; di Marco, Andrea; Lorente, Victòria; Sánchez-Salado, José C; Sánchez-Elvira, Guillermo; Romaguera, Rafael; Gómez-Lara, Josep; Gómez-Hospital, Joan A; Cequier, Angel

    2014-05-01

    The prognostic value of chronic total occlusion in nonculprit coronary arteries in patients with myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty remains controversial. Several publications have described different methodologies and conflicting findings. In addition, causes of death were not reported. Our aim is to analyze the prognostic impact of chronic total occlusion in nonculprit coronary arteries and the role of left ventricular ejection fraction in this analysis. Prospective inclusion of consecutive patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent primary angioplasty. We recorded baseline characteristics, in-hospital clinical course, and mortality and its causes during follow-up. We assessed the impact of chronic total occlusion on mortality using Cox regression analysis. Chronic total occlusion in nonculprit arteries was present in 125 of 1176 patients (10.6%); in 79 of these 125 patients, chronic total occlusion was present in the proximal segments. The mean follow-up was 339 days; 64 (5.8%) patients died during the first 6 months. Patients with chronic total occlusions had more comorbidities, poorer ventricular function, and higher mortality (hazard ratio=2.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.71-4.56). Chronic total occlusion was also associated with noncardiac death (hazard ratio=3.83; 95% confidence interval, 2.10-7.01). Chronic total occlusion in proximal segments was associated with both cardiac (hazard ratio=3.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-7.30) and noncardiac deaths (hazard ratio=3.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.67-7.06). The multivariate analysis performed without including left ventricular ejection fraction showed a significant association between chronic total occlusion and mortality. However, when left ventricular ejection fraction was included in the analysis, this association was nonsignificant (hazard ratio=1.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-3.65; P=.166). Chronic total occlusion in this clinical setting identified

  7. Intraoperative Endovascular Stent-graft Repair of a Popliteal Artery Laceration and Occlusion during Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kehagias, Elias; Ioannou, Christos V; Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Balalis, Constatinos; Tsetis, Dimitrios

    2015-10-01

    Injury to the popliteal vessels during total knee arthroplasty is a rare but serious complication that can cause permanent loss of function. Its incidence has been reported to be on the rise with an incidence ranging from 0.03% to 0.51%. Although rare, these complications deserve attention as they may have dire consequences, with mortality reaching 7%, amputation in up to 42%, and other morbidities such as ischemic nerve injury (foot drop). We present a case of a 78-year-old female with a pulseless limb after intraoperative injury of the popliteal artery during total knee replacement surgery who was immediately investigated with digital subtraction angiography and found to have a popliteal artery laceration with significant bleeding and a distal occlusion of the artery that was repaired endovascularly. A covered stent graft was used to simultaneously exclude the arterial laceration and to recanalize the localized popliteal occlusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an iatrogenic popliteal artery laceration and occlusion treated endovascularly in the intraoperative time.

  8. The isolated occlusion of the angular gyri artery. A correlative neurological and anatomical study--case report.

    PubMed

    Marinkovic, S V; Kovacevic, M S; Kostic, V S

    1984-01-01

    We examined a patient who had signs of a cerebral hemisphere lesion: right hemiparesis, facial weakness, right hemianopsy, acustico-mnestic dysphasia, "empty speech," acalculia, visuo-spatial agnosia and constructional apraxia, but without changes in consciousness. Taking into account clinical signs, computed tomography and carotid angiography findings, we concluded that our patient had an infarction zone in the left temporo-parieto-occipital region, as a consequence of the isolated angular gyri artery (ANG) occlusion. Some clinical signs were a direct effect of the ANG's occlusion. Namely, this artery supplies the cortical regions of great functional significance: the planum polare and temporale, the transverse temporal gyri, the superior and middle temporal gyri, the angular and supramarginal gyri, as well as the superior, middle and inferior occipital gyri. But the other symptoms and signs could be explained by the pathophysiological effect of the cerebral edema on regions supplied by the non-occluded branches of the middle cerebral artery.

  9. Krypton laser-induced photothrombotic distal middle cerebral artery occlusion without craniectomy in mice.

    PubMed

    Sugimori, Hiroshi; Yao, Hiroshi; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Ibayashi, Setsuro; Iida, Mitsuo

    2004-08-01

    Recent advances in genetical engineering of the mouse have highlighted the importance of reproducible and less invasive models of cerebral ischemia in mice. In this paper, we developed minimally invasive and reproducible model of distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in mice using krypton (Kr) laser-induced photothrombosis. C57BL/6 or BALB mice (n=8 each) were anesthetized with halothane. The skin was cut, the temporal muscle was retracted, and the right distal MCA was observed through the skull. A Kr laser beam of wavelength 568 nm was focused onto the MCA over the intact skull. Upon laser irradiation, intravenous administration of a rose bengal solution was begun. After 4 min of irradiation, the laser beam was refocused on the MCA just proximal to the first spot, and another 4-min irradiation was performed. Then, the right common carotid artery (CCA) was ligated. Three days later, the brain was removed, and infarct volume was determined. Infarction confined almost solely to the cortical area was produced in each mouse. Mean infarct volume in C57BL/6 mice was 25.2+/-13.7 mm3. The BALB mice group showed significantly larger and more reproducible infarction (44.1+/-5.2 mm3; the coefficient of variation was 12%) than did C57BL/6 mice (P<0.005). Our photothrombosis model of stroke in mice can be performed without craniectomy, and its reproducibility is satisfactory when using BALB mice.

  10. Extracerebral Tissue Damage in the Intraluminal Filament Mouse Model of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Vaas, Markus; Ni, Ruiqing; Rudin, Markus; Kipar, Anja; Klohs, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Middle cerebral artery occlusion is the most common model of focal cerebral ischemia in the mouse. In the surgical procedure, the external carotid artery (ECA) is ligated; however, its effect on the tissue supplied by the vessel has not been described so far. C57BL/6 mice underwent 1 h of transient MCAO (tMCAO) or sham surgery. Multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography was employed at 30 min after surgery to assess oxygenation in the temporal muscles. Microstructural changes were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging and histological examination at 24 h and 48 h after surgery. Ligation of the ECA resulted in decreased oxygenation of the left temporal muscle in most sham-operated and tMCAO animals. Susceptible mice of both groups exhibited increased T2 relaxation times in the affected muscle with histological evidence of myofibre degeneration, interstitial edema, and neutrophil influx. Ligatures had induced an extensive neutrophil-dominated inflammatory response. ECA ligation leads to distinct hypoxic degenerative changes in the tissue of the ECA territory and to ligature-induced inflammatory processes. An impact on outcome needs to be considered in this stroke model. PMID:28348545

  11. Internal Carotid Artery Reconstruction Using Multiple Fenestrated Clips for Complete Occlusion of Large Paraclinoid Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Kook

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although surgical techniques for clipping paraclinoid aneurysms have evolved significantly in recent times, direct microsurgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms remains a formidable surgical challenge. We review here our surgical experiences in direct surgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms, especially in dealing with anterior clinoidectomy, distal dural ring resection, optic canal unroofing, clipping techniques, and surgical complications. Methods Between September 2001 and February 2012, we directly obliterated ten large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms. In all cases, tailored orbito-zygomatic craniotomies with extradural and/or intradural clinoidectomy were performed. The efficacy of surgical clipping was evaluated with postoperative digital subtraction angiography and computed tomographic angiography. Results Of the ten cases reported, five each were of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. Five aneurysms occurred in the carotid cave, two in the superior hypophyseal artery, two in the intracavernous, and one in the posterior wall. The mean diameter of the aneurysms sac was 18.8 mm in the greatest dimension. All large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms were obliterated with direct neck clipping without bypass. With the exception of the one intracavenous aneurysm, all large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms were occluded completely. Conclusion The key features of successful surgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms include enhancing exposure of proximal neck of aneurysms, establishing proximal control, and completely obliterating aneurysms with minimal manipulation of the optic nerve. Our results suggest that internal carotid artery reconstruction using multiple fenestrated clips without bypass may potentially achieve complete occlusion of large paraclinoid aneurysms. PMID:24527189

  12. Update on the Management of Chronic Total Occlusions in Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Kathleen; Hira, Ravi S; Riley, Robert F; Kalyanasundaram, Arun; Lombardi, William L

    2017-04-01

    Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) are found in about a third of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and can pose a significant challenge during percutaneous revascularization. However, advances in CTO percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategies, devices, and algorithms have led to significant improvements in successful treatment of CTOs. This review summarizes current management of CTOs in the context of modern PCI techniques and current evidence. The hybrid algorithm now provides a standardized, teachable approach to CTO PCI, and success rates are approximately 90% in experienced hands. The first randomized controlled trial in patients with CTOs recently reported that patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and a CTO in the non-culprit vessel showed an improvement in ejection fraction in patients undergoing CTO PCI of the LAD, but not other vessels. Updated data from the SYNTAX trial showed a benefit with complete revascularization in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Incomplete revascularization of CTOs in the PCI group may explain some of the benefit seen with CABG over PCI in patients with complex coronary disease. Contemporary CTO registries have reported success rates of approximately 90%, and the OPEN-CTO registry updates our understanding of CTO PCI complication rates and outcomes. The available evidence highlights the potential benefits of CTO PCI in patients with an indication for revascularization. Technological advancements have paved the way for success rates approaching 90% at high-volume centers, but further studies evaluating outcomes following CTO PCI are needed, with several currently underway.

  13. Environmental reduplication in a patient with right middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Likitcharoen, Yuthachai; Phanthumchinda, Kammant

    2004-12-01

    Environmental reduplication or reduplicative paramnesia is one of the content-specific delusions (CSD) which is characterized by reduplication of places. CSD has been reported in focal and diffuse cerebral disorders. A focal lesion such as frontal lobes and the right hemispheric lesion have been documented The authors describe a 66 year-old woman who had a delusion of misidentification for place one month after right middle cerebral artery occlusion. The patient did not have any history of schizophrenia or other psychiatric diseases. The patient believed that her car, furniture and house were duplicated. She also mentioned that her son and friends tried to takeover all of her properties and told everyone that she was insane. The prominent cortical signs were tactile and visual neglect. Neuropsychological assessments revealed poor attention but she had neither confusion nor dementia. Clock drawing and construction tests revealed visuospatial impairment which was compatible with non-dominant hemispheric abnormality. MRI showed evidence of cerebral infarction in the right middle cerebral artery territory. Only one similar patient who had an intracerbral hematoma of the right frontal lobe has been reported in the literature. The role of occipito-parietal and fronto-temporal lobes or their connections in environmental reduplication is proposed.

  14. Pedal angiography in peripheral arterial occlusive disease: first-pass i.v. contrast-enhanced MR angiography with blood pool contrast medium versus intraarterial digital subtraction angiography.

    PubMed

    Kos, Sebastian; Reisinger, Clemens; Aschwanden, Markus; Bongartz, Georg M; Jacob, Augustinus L; Bilecen, Deniz

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate first-pass i.v. gadofosveset-enhanced MR angiography in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease for visualization of the pedal arteries and stenosis or occlusion of those arteries with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography as the reference standard. Twenty patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (nine women, 11 men; age-range 58-83 years) were prospectively enrolled. Gadofosveset first-pass contrast-enhanced MR angiography was performed with a 1.5-T system, a dedicated foot coil, and cuff compression to the calf. Arterial segments were assessed for degree of arterial stenosis, arterial visibility, diagnostic utility, and venous contamination. Detection of vessel stenosis or occlusion was evaluated in comparison with findings at digital subtraction angiography. The unpaired Student's t test was used to test arterial visibility with the two techniques. First-pass MR angiography with gadofosveset had good diagnostic utility in 83.9% of all segments and no venous contamination in 96.8% of all segments. There was no difference between the performance of intraarterial digital subtraction angiography and that of i.v. contrast-enhanced MR angiography in arterial visibility overall (p = 0.245) or in subgroup analysis of surgical arterial bypass targets (p = 0.202). The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of i.v. gadofosveset-enhanced MR angiography for characterization of clinically significant stenosis and occlusion were 91.4%, 96.1%, and 93.9%. In the subgroup analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 85.5%, 96.5%, and 92.1%. Gadofosveset-enhanced MR angiography of the pedal arteries in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease has arterial visibility equal to that of digital subtraction angiography and facilitates depiction of clinically significant stenosis and occlusion.

  15. Femoral Artery Occlusion Increases Muscle Pressor Reflex and Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α in Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Li, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has an important contribution to pathophysiological changes of homeostasis under conditions of oxygen deprivation as well as ischemia. We examined the effects of femoral artery occlusion on HIF-1α expression in sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of rats. Also, we examined cardiovascular responses to static muscle contraction following femoral occlusion. We hypothesized that hindlimb vascular insufficiency increases the levels of sensory nerves’ HIF-1α and augments autonomic responses induced by activation of muscle afferent nerves. In addition, we examined if the reflex cardiovascular responses were altered as HIF-1α was increased in the DRG neurons. Our data show that HIF-1α was significantly increased in the lumbar DRG neurons 6, 24 and 72 hours after femoral artery ligation as compared with sham control. Administration of dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a stabilizer of HIF-α, significantly increased HIF-1α in the lumbar DRG neurons. Furthermore, femoral occlusion enhanced the reflex pressor response to muscle contraction; however, the response was not altered by injection of DMOG. Overall, our results indicate that 1) femoral artery occlusion increases HIF-1α levels of in DRG neurons and contraction-induced pressor response; and 2) an increase in HIF-1α of DRG neurons per se may not alter the muscle pressor reflex. PMID:25346936

  16. A Newly Designed Nitinol Stent: Early Clinical Experience in the Treatment of Iliac Artery Stenoses and Occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Chang Jin; Chung, Jin Wook; Hong, Soon Hyung; Song, Soon Young; Lim, Hyung Gehn; Lee, Yoon Sin

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of the newly designed Niti-S stent in the management of iliac arterial stenoses and occlusions. Materials and Methods Stenoses (n=25) or occlusions (n=5) in the iliac arteries of 25 patients (30 limbs) were treated. The site of the lesions was the common (n=15) or external (n=11) iliac artery, or both (n=4). Eight limbs were treated for diffuse disease, six for highly eccentric lesion, five for occlusive lesion, and 11 for failed angioplasty. Results In all patients, technical success was achieved without major complications. One death, not procedure-related, occurred within 30 days. Ankle-brachial indexes improved from 0.63±0.30 to 0.99±0.21, and ischemic symptoms showed improvement in 22 patients (88%). Fontaine classifications before stenting, namely IIa(n=3), IIb(n=16), III(n=2), and IV(n=4) improved to I(n=17), IIa(n=5), and IV(n=3). Follow-up over a 27 (mean, 19.8±8)-month period showed that cumulative patency rates were 95.8% at 1 year and 86.2% at 2 and 3 years. No significant decrease in the mean ankle-brachial index was observed. Conclusion The Niti-S stent appears to be a safe and effective device for the treatment of iliac stenoses and occlusions. These preliminary results require confirmation with a larger series. PMID:11752985

  17. Patent haemostasis prevents radial artery occlusion in patients with an acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Simon J; Mitchell, Andrew; Gray, Timothy J M; Loh, Hoe Jun; Cruden, Nick L

    2017-08-01

    A haemostatic technique that maintains radial artery flow ("patent haemostasis") following transradial catheterization reduces rates of radial artery occlusion (RAO) in patients with stable coronary disease. It is unclear whether this benefit extends to patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients undergoing inpatient transradial catheterization for an ACS were prospectively enrolled in a consecutive cohort study (n=300). Radial haemostasis was obtained using standard radial compression (cohort 1; n=150) or patent haemostasis (cohort 2; n=150). An end-of-case activated clotting time (ACT) was recorded and radial artery patency assessed within 24 hours of sheath removal by reverse Barbeau's test. The incidence of RAO was 16.0% following standard radial compression and 5.3% following patent haemostasis (p=0.003). Univariate predictors of RAO were patent haemostasis (OR 0.30; [0.13-0.68], p=0.004), hyperlipidaemia (OR 0.46; [0.21-0.98], p=0.04), history of current smoking (OR 2.86; [1.3-6.0], p=0.015) and longer procedure times (OR 1.03/additional minute; [1.01-1.05], p=0.003). There was no association between the end-of-case ACT and RAO (OR 1.00; [0.9-1.01] p=1.00). After adjusting for covariates, patent haemostasis reduced the risk of RAO by 70% compared to standard compression (OR 0.30; [0.12-0.77], p=0.12). The c-statistic for model discrimination was 0.79 (95% CI [0.71-0.86], p<0.001). Inverse probability treatment weighted analysis also confirmed patent haemostasis as an independent predictor of reduced RAO (OR 0.38 [0.15-0.95], p=0.039). Patent haemostasis is highly effective in preventing early RAO in patients with ACS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Heart period and blood pressure characteristics in splanchnic arterial occlusion shock-induced collapse.

    PubMed

    Aletti, Federico; Gambarotta, Nicolò; Penn, Alexander H; Ferrario, Manuela; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2017-02-01

    The nature of hemodynamic instability typical of circulatory shock is not well understood, but an improved interpretation of its dynamic features could help in the management of critically ill patients. The objective of this work was to introduce new metrics for the analysis of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in order to characterize the risk of catastrophic outcome in splanchnic arterial occlusion (SAO) shock. Continuous ABP (fs = 1 kHz) was measured in rats during experimental SAO shock, which induced a fatal pressure drop (FPD) in ABP. The FPD could either be slow (SFPD) or fast (FFPD), with the latter causing cardiovascular collapse. Time series of mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure and heart period were derived from ABP. The sample asymmetry-based algorithm Heart Rate Characteristics was adapted to compute the Heart Period Characteristics (HPC) and the Blood Pressure Characteristics (BPC). Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed by means of a bivariate model. The approach to FPD of the animals who collapsed (FFPD) was characterized by higher BRS in the low frequency band versus SFPD animals (0.36 ± 0.15 vs. 0.19 ± 0.12 ms/mmHg, p value = 0.0196), bradycardia as indicated by the HPC (0.76 ± 0.57 vs. 1.94 ± 1.27, p value = 0.0179) and higher but unstable blood pressure as indicated by BPC (3.02 ± 2.87 vs. 1.47 ± 1.29, p value = 0.0773). The HPC and BPC indices demonstrated promise as potential clinical markers of hemodynamic instability and impending cardiovascular collapse, and this animal study suggests their test in data from intensive care patients.

  19. Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer of the Abdominal Aorta Involving the Celiac Trunk Origin and Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G. Petrocelli, Francesco; Seitun, Sara; Robaldo, Alessandro; Mazzei, Raffaele

    2011-02-15

    We describe a case of endovascular treatment in a 64-year-old woman affected by a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) of the abdominal aorta with a 26-mm pseudoaneurysm involving the celiac trunk (CT) origin and with superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion in the first 30 mm. The patient underwent stenting to treat the SMA occlusion and subsequent deployment of a custom-designed fenestrated endovascular stent-graft to treat the PAU involving the CT origin. Follow-up at 6 months after device placement demonstrated no complications, and there was complete thrombosis of the PAU and patency of the two branch vessels.

  20. Recanalization of a Heavily Calcified Chronic Total Occlusion in a Femoropopliteal Artery Using a Wingman Crossing Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Naoto; Tanaka, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    We present a 77-year-old female with heavily calcified chronic total occlusions (CTO) in a superficial femoral artery treated by endovascular therapy using a Wingman crossing catheter, which is an over-the-wire catheter with a metallic blade, controlled manually. The blade could probe and track the calcified cap of CTO, wherein any hydrophilic guidewires or looped wires could not penetrate. Moreover, the Wingman could proceed through the occlusion and introduce a guidewire into distal intramedial lumen as a support catheter. Finally, wire crossing was achieved using a bi-directional approach. The Wingman can be a simple solution for crossing calcified peripheral CTO. PMID:27375810

  1. Proximal Arterial Occlusion in Acute Ischemic Stroke with Low NIHSS Scores Should Not Be Considered as Mild Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Tae; Park, Man-Seok; Chang, Jane; Lee, Ji Sung; Choi, Kang-Ho; Cho, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background Untreated acute mild stroke patients have substantial 90-day disability rates and worse outcomes than those who are treated with thrombolysis. There is little information regarding which patients with acute mild stroke will benefit from thrombolysis. We sought to investigate factors that are associated with early neurological deterioration (END) and poor prognosis in patients with acute mild stroke. Methods This was a retrospective study of consecutively registered patients with acute mild stroke (NIHSS ≤3) at our tertiary stroke center between October 2008 and December 2011. END was defined as an increase in NIHSS ≥2 points between hospital days 0 and 5. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores of 0–1 at 90 days post-stroke were defined as favorable outcomes. Results A total of 378 (mean age, 65.9±13.0 years) patients were included in this study. END occurred in 55 patients (14.6%). IV-thrombolysis was performed in only 9 patients. Symptomatic arterial occlusion on the initial MRA was independently associated with END (OR, 2.206; 95% CI, 1.219–3.994; p = 0.009) by multivariate logistic regression. Of the 119 patients with symptomatic arterial occlusion, ICA occlusion was independently associated with END (OR, 8.606; 95% CI, 2.312–32.043; p = 0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that symptomatic arterial occlusion may be an important predictor of END in patients with acute mild stroke. It may therefore be important to consider that acute ischemic stroke with symptomatic arterial occlusion and low NIHSS scores may not represent mild stroke in acute periods. PMID:23976971

  2. Outcomes of basilar artery occlusion in patients aged 75 years or older in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study.

    PubMed

    Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Compter, Annette; Tanne, David; Engelter, Stefan T; Audebert, Heinrich; Thijs, Vincent; de Freitas, Gabriel; Algra, Ale; Jaap Kappelle, L; Schonewille, Wouter J

    2012-11-01

    Patients with an acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) have a high risk of long-lasting disability and death. Only limited data are available on functional outcome in elderly patients with BAO. Using data from the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study, we aimed to determine outcomes in patients ≥75 years. Primary outcome measure was poor functional outcome (modified Rankin scale score 4-6). Secondary outcomes were death, insufficient vessel recanalization (defined as thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score 0-1) and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH). Patients were divided into four age-groups, based on quartiles: 18-54, 55-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years. Outcomes were compared between patients ≥75 years and patients aged 18-54 years. Risk ratios with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and Poisson regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR). We included 619 patients [18-54 years n = 153 (25 %), 55-64 years n = 133 (21 %), 65-74 years n = 171 (28 %), and ≥75 years n = 162 (26 %)]. Compared with patients aged 18-54 years, patients ≥75 years were at increased risk of poor functional outcome [aRR 1.33 (1.14-1.55)] and death [aRR 2.47 (1.75-3.51)]. Nevertheless, 35/162 (22 %, 95 % CI 15-28 %) of patients ≥75 years had good functional outcome. No significant differences between age groups were observed for recanalization rate and incidence of SICH. Although patients ≥75 years with BAO have an increased risk of poor outcome compared with younger patients, a substantial group of patients ≥75 years survives with a good functional outcome.

  3. Intracranial haemodynamics during vasomotor stress test in unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion estimated by 3-D transcranial Doppler scanner.

    PubMed

    Zbornikova, V; Lassvik, C; Hillman, J

    1995-04-01

    Seventeen patients, 14 males and 3 females, mean age 64 years (range 45-77 years) with longstanding unilateral occlusion of the internal carotid artery and minimal neurological deficit, were evaluated in order to find criteria for potential benefit of extracranial-intracranial by-pass surgery. 3-D transcranial Doppler was used for estimation of mean velocities and pulsatility index in the middle cerebral artery, anterior cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery before and after iv injection of 1 g acetazolamide. The anterior cerebral artery was the supplying vessel to the occluded side in 16 patients and mean velocities were significantly (p < 0.001) faster on the occluded (59.3 +/- 14.5 cm sec-1) and nonoccluded (91.6 +/- 29.6 cm sec-1, p < 0.05)) side than those found in the middle cerebral artery (39.2 +/- 13.7 and 50.9 +/- 8.5 cm sec-1). In two patients a decrease of mean velocity after acetazolamide was noted in middle cerebral artery indicating 'steal' effect. In another 4 patients, poor vasomotor response was seen with less than 11% of mean velocity increase in the middle cerebral artery. Differences between posterior cerebral artery on the occluded and nonoccluded side were insignificant as well as those between middle and posterior on the occluded side. Resting values of pulsatility index differed significantly (p < 0.01) only between anterior and posterior cerebral artery on the nonoccluded side.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Ileocolitis Associated with Anaerobiospirillum in Cats†

    PubMed Central

    De Cock, H. E. V.; Marks, S. L.; Stacy, B. A.; Zabka, T. S.; Burkitt, J.; Lu, G.; Steffen, D. J.; Duhamel, G. E.

    2004-01-01

    Ileocolitis associated with spiral bacteria identified as an Anaerobiospirillum sp. was found in six cats. Two cats had acute onset of gastrointestinal signs characterized by vomiting and diarrhea in one cat and vomiting in another cat, one cat had chronic diarrhea that was refractory to medical therapy; one cat had acute onset of anorexia and lethargy, and two cats had clinical signs that were not related to the gastrointestinal tract. The presence of an Anaerobiospirillum sp. was demonstrated on the basis of ultrastructural morphology of spiral bacteria associated with intestinal lesions and PCR amplification of a genus-specific 16S rRNA gene from affected tissues from each cat. The colons of three clinically healthy cats without lesions and one cat with mild colitis not associated with spiral bacteria were negative for Anaerobiospirillum spp. in the same assay. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of cloned PCR products from three affected cats further suggested that the spiral bacteria were closely related to Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens. PMID:15184462

  5. Comparison of optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with central retinal artery occlusion in one eye and end-stage glaucoma in the fellow eye.

    PubMed

    Greene, Daniel P; Richards, Charles P; Ghazi, Nicola G

    2012-01-01

    This case describes a patient with chronic central retinal artery occlusion in one eye and end-stage traumatic glaucoma in the fellow eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the macula of the chronic phase of central retinal artery occlusion of the right eye indicated loss of the normal foveal depression, extensive inner retinal atrophy, and marked retinal thinning. In contrast, scans of the left eye with end-stage glaucoma demonstrated an intact foveal depression and limited retinal thinning. The pattern of macular OCT findings in this patient illustrates distinguishing features between chronic central retinal artery occlusion and chronic optic neuropathy due to end-stage glaucoma.

  6. Repeated edaravone treatment reduces oxidative cell damage in rat brain induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Yanagisawa, Makoto; Tak, Nyou Wei; Watanabe, Kazutoshi; Takahashi, Chizuko; Fujisawa, Akio; Kashiba, Misato; Tanaka, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    The free radical scavenger 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (edaravone) has been used to treat acute brain infarction in Japan since 2001. To obtain direct evidence that edaravone serves as an antioxidant in vivo, four groups of rats were prepared: (i) an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group receiving 2 h occlusion-reperfusion of the middle cerebral artery; (ii) a single administration group treated by intravenous infusion of edaravone (3 mg/kg) immediately after I/R; (iii) a repeated treatment group receiving twice daily edaravone administration for 14 days; and (iv) a sham operation group without occlusion. Repeated treatment with edaravone significantly improved the neurological symptoms and impairment of motor function as compared to the I/R group, while single administration demonstrated limited efficacy. No significant differences in plasma antioxidants such as ascorbate, urate, and vitamin E, or in redox status of coenzyme Q(9) were observed among the four groups. In contrast, the plasma content of oleic acid in the total free fatty acids (percentage 18:1) was significantly increased in the I/R group for 7 days as compared to the sham operation group. Oleic acid was produced from stearic acid by the action of stearoyl-CoA desaturase to compensate for the oxidative loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The above results suggest that cellular oxidative damage in the rat brain is evident for at least 7 days after I/R. Repeated treatment suppressed the percentage 18:1 increment, while the single administration did not, which is consistent with the limited efficacy of single administration.

  7. Cognitive impairment and neurovascular function in patients with severe steno-occlusive disease of a main cerebral artery.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Mami; Saito, Haruna; Yamaguro, Tomotaka; Ikoda, Masashi; Ebihara, Akira; Kusaka, Gen; Tanaka, Yuichi

    2016-02-15

    Patients with severe steno-occlusive disease of a main cerebral artery may demonstrate cognitive impairment without identification of causative lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. We investigated whether cognitive impairment in these patients is associated with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), leukoaraiosis, risk factors of atherosclerosis and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR), which shows so-called clinical neurovascular function. In 65 patients with severe steno-occlusive disease of an internal carotid artery or a middle cerebral artery (MCA) and no cerebral infarction (CI), we examined cognitive function with COGNISTAT, grades of leukoaraiosis, and CBF and CVR as calculated by iodine-123-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine single photon emission computed tomography and blood data. We compared such values of the left and right sided diseases. rCBF and CVR on the affected side were compared to other side. Logistic regression analysis revealed that CVR correlated with cognitive impairment. There was no significant difference in rCBF, CVR, or COGNISTAT score when comparing the left and right sided diseases. There were good correlations between CBF or CVR of the ipsilateral MCA area and ipsilateral and contralateral other areas. Cognitive impairment is associated with CVR in the whole brain. Nonselective widespread neurovascular mild dysfunction can be a reason for cognitive impairment in patients with severe steno-occlusive disease of a main cerebral artery and no CI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Case of cerebellar and spinal cord infarction presenting with acute brachial diplegia due to right vertebral artery occlusion].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takayuki; Santa, Yo; Akutagawa, Noriko; Nagano, Sukehisa; Yoshimura, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted for evaluation of sudden onset of dizziness, bilateral shoulder pain, and brachial diplegia. Neurological examination revealed severe bilateral weakness of the triceps brachii, wrist flexor, and wrist extensor muscles. There was no paresis of the lower limbs. His gait was ataxic. Pinprick and temperature sensations were diminished at the bilateral C6-C8 dermatomes. Vibration and position senses were intact. An MRI of the head revealed a right cerebellar infarction and occlusion of the right vertebral artery. An MRI of the cervical spine on T₂ weighted imaging (T₂WI) showed cord compression at the C3/4-C5/6 level secondary to spondylotic degeneration without any intramedullary signal changes of the cord. On the following day, however, high-signal lesions on T₂WI appeared in the C5-C6 spinal cord, suggesting cord infarction. Unilateral vertebral artery occlusion does not usually result in cervical cord infarction because of anastomosis of arteries. Because of the long-term mechanical compression in our case, it was likely that cervical cord ischemia was present before the onset of symptoms. On the basis of chronic cord compression, our case suggests that occlusion of a unilateral vertebral artery could cause cervical cord infarction.

  9. Initial and Long-Term Results of Endovascular Therapy for Chronic Total Occlusion of the Subclavian Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Babic, Srdjan; Sagic, Dragan; Radak, Djordje; Antonic, Zelimir; Otasevic, Petar; Kovacevic, Vladimir; Tanaskovic, Slobodan; Ruzicic, Dusan; Aleksic, Nikola; Vucurevic, Goran

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: To study the initial and long-term results of angioplasty and primary stenting for the treatment of chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the subclavian artery (SA). Materials and Methods: From January 1999 to February 2010, 56 patients (25 men with a mean age of 58 {+-} 8 years) underwent endovascular treatment for CTO of the SA. Duplex scans and arteriograms confirmed occlusion in all cases. Indications for recanalization were subclavian steal syndrome in 33 patients (58.1%), arm claudication in 13 patients (23.2%), and coronary ischemia in 7 patients (12.5%) who had a history of previous coronary artery bypass grafting that included left internal thoracic artery graft. Three patients (5.4%) were treated before the scheduled coronary artery bypass surgery, which included left internal thoracic artery graft. After successful recanalization, all arteries were stented, and all of the patients were followed-up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery and annually thereafter. Results: Successful recanalization of the SA was achieved in 46 patients (82.1%), and the complication rate was 7.1%. During follow-up (mean 40 {+-} 26 months; range 2 to 125), the primary patency rates after 1 and 3 years were 97.9% and 82.7%, respectively. At the end of follow-up, 76% of the arteries showed no evidence of restenosis. Univariate analysis failed to identify any variable predictive of long-term patency of successfully recanalized SA. Conclusion: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting of the complete total occlusion of the SA is a safe and effective procedure associated with low risks and good long-term results.

  10. Endovascular Repair of a Type III Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Patient with Occlusion of Visceral Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Klonaris, Chris Katsargyris, Athanasios; Giannopoulos, Athanasios; Georgopoulos, Sotiris; Tsigris, Chris; Michail, Othon; Marinos, George; Bastounis, Elias

    2007-07-15

    The successful endovascular repair of a type III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) with the use of a tube endograft is reported. A 56-year-old male with a 6.4-cm type III TAAA, a 4.2-cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, and chronic renal insufficiency presented with flank pain, nausea, acute anuria, and serum creatinine of 6.1 mg/dl. Acute occlusion of the left solitary renal artery was diagnosed and emergent recanalization with percutaneus transluminal angioplasty and stenting was performed successfully, with reversal of the serum creatinine level at 1.6 mg/dl. Further imaging studies for TAAA management revealed ostial occlusion of both the celiac artery (CA) and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) but a hypertrophic inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) providing retrograde flow to the aforementioned vessels. This rare anatomic serendipity allowed us to repair the TAAA simply by using a two-component tube endograft without fenestrations (Zenith; William Cook, Bjaeverskov, Denmark) that covered the entire length of the aneurysm, including the CA and SMA origins, since a natural arterial bypass from the IMA to the CA and SMA already existed, affording protection from gastrointestinal ischemic complications. The patient had a fast and uneventful recovery and is currently doing well 6 months after the procedure. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the English literature of successful endovascular repair of a TAAA involving visceral arteries with the simple use of a tube endograft.

  11. Peripheral arterial occlusive disease: diagnostic performance and effect on therapeutic management of 64-section CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Alessandro; Anzidei, Michele; Zaccagna, Fulvio; Cavallo Marincola, Beatrice; Zini, Chiara; Brachetti, Giulia; Cartocci, Gaia; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Catalano, Carlo; Passariello, Roberto

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance and effect on therapeutic management of 64-section computed tomographic (CT) angiography in the assessment of steno-occlusive disease in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), with conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard. The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. A total of 212 patients with symptomatic PAD underwent CT angiography and subsequent DSA. For stenosis analysis (≥ 70% stenosis), the arterial bed was divided into 35 segments and evaluated by three readers. Interobserver agreement was determined with generalized κ statistics. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were calculated. In addition, according to the TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) Document on Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease guidelines, treatment recommendations based on CT angiographic and DSA findings were compared. McNemar test was used to prove significant differences between CT angiographic and DSA findings. A total of 7420 arterial segments were evaluated, with excellent agreement between readers (κ ≥ 0.928). On a segmental basis, both sensitivity and specificity for stenosis of 70% or more were at least 96% (3072 of 3113 segments and 4141 of 4279 segments, respectively), with an accuracy of 98% (7213 of 7392 segments), a PPV of 96% (3072 of 3187 segments), an NPV of 99% (3141 of 3187 segments), a PLR of 36.7, and an NLR of 0.013. There was no significant difference between CT angiographic and DSA findings (P = .62-.87). In accordance with TASC II guidelines, 49 patients were referred for conservative treatment, 87 underwent endovascular procedures, 38 underwent surgery, and 17 received hybrid treatment. Therapy recommendations based on CT angiographic findings

  12. Mapping the dynamics of brain perfusion using functional ultrasound in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Clément; Isabel, Clothilde; Martin, Abraham; Dussaux, Clara; Savoye, Anne; Emmrich, Julius; Montaldo, Gabriel; Mas, Jean-Louis; Baron, Jean-Claude; Urban, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Following middle cerebral artery occlusion, tissue outcome ranges from normal to infarcted depending on depth and duration of hypoperfusion as well as occurrence and efficiency of reperfusion. However, the precise time course of these changes in relation to tissue and behavioral outcome remains unsettled. To address these issues, a three-dimensional wide field-of-view and real-time quantitative functional imaging technique able to map perfusion in the rodent brain would be desirable. Here, we applied functional ultrasound imaging, a novel approach to map relative cerebral blood volume without contrast agent, in a rat model of brief proximal transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to assess perfusion in penetrating arterioles and venules acutely and over six days thanks to a thinned-skull preparation. Functional ultrasound imaging efficiently mapped the acute changes in relative cerebral blood volume during occlusion and following reperfusion with high spatial resolution (100 µm), notably documenting marked focal decreases during occlusion, and was able to chart the fine dynamics of tissue reperfusion (rate: one frame/5 s) in the individual rat. No behavioral and only mild post-mortem immunofluorescence changes were observed. Our study suggests functional ultrasound is a particularly well-adapted imaging technique to study cerebral perfusion in acute experimental stroke longitudinally from the hyper-acute up to the chronic stage in the same subject.

  13. A framework for retinal layer intensity analysis for retinal artery occlusion patient based on 3D OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jianping; Chen, Haoyu; Zhou, Chunlei; Chen, Xinjian

    2014-03-01

    Occlusion of retinal artery leads to severe ischemia and dysfunction of retina. Quantitative analysis of the reflectivity in the retina is very needed to quantitative assessment of the severity of retinal ischemia. In this paper, we proposed a framework for retinal layer intensity analysis for retinal artery occlusion patient based on 3D OCT images. The proposed framework consists of five main steps. First, a pre-processing step is applied to the input OCT images. Second, the graph search method was applied to segment multiple surfaces in OCT images. Third, the RAO region was detected based on texture classification method. Fourth, the layer segmentation was refined using the detected RAO regions. Finally, the retinal layer intensity analysis was performed. The proposed method was tested on tested on 27 clinical Spectral domain OCT images. The preliminary results show the feasibility and efficacy of the proposed method.

  14. Comparison of pathology of chronic total occlusion with and without coronary artery bypass graft

    PubMed Central

    Sakakura, Kenichi; Nakano, Masataka; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Kutys, Robert; Ladich, Elena; Finn, Aloke V.; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Virmani, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim of our study was to investigate chronic total occlusion (CTO) in human coronary arteries to clarify the difference between CTO with prior coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and those without prior CABG. Methods and results A total of 95 CTO lesions from 82 patients (61.6 ± 14.0 years, male 87.8%) were divided into the following three groups: CTO with CABG (n = 34) (CTO+CABG), CTO without CABG—of long-duration (n = 49) (LD-CTO) and short-duration (n = 12) (SD-CTO). A histopathological comparison of the plaque characteristics of CTO, proximal and distal lumen morphology, and negative remodelling between groups was performed. A total of 1127 sections were evaluated. Differences in plaque characteristics were observed between groups as follows: necrotic core area was highest in SD-CTO (18.6%) (LD-CTO: 7.8%; CTO+CABG: 4.5%; P = 0.02); calcified area was greatest in CTO+CABG (29.2%) (LD-CTO: 16.8%; SD-CTO: 12.1%; P = 0.009); and negative remodelling was least in SD-CTO [remodelling index (RI) 0.86] [CTO+CABG (RI): 0.72 and LD-CTO (RI): 0.68; P < 0.001]. Approximately 50% of proximal lumens showed characteristics of abrupt closure, whereas the majority of distal lumen patterns were tapered (79%) (P < 0.0001). Conclusion These pathological differences in calcification, negative remodelling, and presence of necrotic core along with proximal and distal tapering, which has been associated with greater success, help explain the differences in success rates of percutaneous coronary intervention in CTO patients with and without CABG. PMID:24126875

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors for the Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ae; Kim, Eun Su; Hwang, Ho Kyeong; Lee, Kyung Bok; Lee, Sol; Jung, Ji Woong; Kwon, Yu Jin; Cho, Dong Hui; Park, Sang Su; Yoon, Jin; Jang, Yong-Seog

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is known as a major contributor of the worsening of ischemic symptoms and the foot ulceration in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). However, there are few studies reporting the prevalence and risk factors for PN in PAOD. This study aimed to evaluate these issues for PN and to establish the importance of screening as additional treatment target for PN in PAOD. Materials and Methods: A total of 52 limbs with PAOD were enrolled from January 2011 to December 2012. PN was divided into radiculopathy, ischemic PN (IPN), and diabetic PN (DPN), based on electromyographic findings. We investigated the prevalence of overall PN and subtypes of PN and then analyzed the risk factors. Results: The prevalence of overall PN in PAOD was 43 of 52 limbs (82.7%). In terms of subtypes of PN, the prevalence rate of radiculopathy and IPN was 30.8% and 23.1%, respectively. DPN showed in 22 limbs (73.3%) among 30 diabetic limbs. There was no significant correlation between each type of PN and ischemic symptoms. Our analysis showed that coronary artery disease (CAD) was a significant risk factor (P=0.01) for IPN, however, did not identify any significant risk factors for DPN. Conclusion: This present study indicated that most patients with PAOD had PN and CAD was a risk factor for IPN. In particular, PAOD with diabetes represented a higher prevalence for DPN. Our study suggests that PN should be evaluated and considered as another treatment target in patients with PAOD. PMID:26217631

  16. Venous stasis retinopathy in symptomatic carotid artery occlusion: prevalence, cause, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Klijn, Catharina J M; Kappelle, L Jaap; van Schooneveld, Mary J; Hoppenreijs, Vincent P T; Algra, Ale; Tulleken, Cornelis A F; van Gijn, Jan

    2002-03-01

    Chronic ocular ischemia is a rare form of ischemia of the eye in patients with carotid artery occlusion (CAO). The early and often asymptomatic stage of chronic ocular ischemia is referred to as venous stasis retinopathy (VSR). The aim of this study was to gain insight into the prevalence, cause, and outcome of VSR in patients with symptomatic CAO. In 110 patients with symptomatic CAO, we prospectively investigated the frequency of VSR, the association between the presence of VSR and impaired cerebral blood flow, and the proportion of patients who developed clinically manifest chronic ocular ischemia with ischemia of the anterior eye segment or blindness. At study entry, VSR was found in 32 patients (29%; 95% CI, 21 to 38), particularly in those with symptoms classically associated with a hemodynamic cause, such as limb shaking (relative risk, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0 to 5.9). Patients with VSR had lower pulsatility indexes in the ophthalmic artery in case of reversed flow, lower cerebral CO2 reactivity, and lower cerebropetal blood flow than patients without VSR. On follow-up (mean, 29 months), clinically manifest chronic ocular ischemia developed in 4 patients (annual rate, 1.5%; 95% CI, 0.4 to 3.8); it tended to occur more often in patients in whom VSR was present at study entry (relative risk, 7.3; 95% CI, 0.8 to 68). One third of patients with symptomatic CAO has VSR on ophthalmoscopy. VSR is associated with an impaired flow state of the brain. Development of clinically manifest chronic ocular ischemia is rare.

  17. Risk of Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ya-Wen; Yu, Mei-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yu, Tung-Min; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with atherosclerosis, but the relationship between SLE and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) remains unclear. We sought to investigate this relationship by comparing cardiovascular complications in patients with and without SLE. Data on patients from 2000 to 2011 were collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The SLE cohort was frequency-matched according to age, sex, and history of diabetes mellitus (DM) with patients without SLE (control cohort). We evaluated the risk of cardiovascular complications, including hypertension, DM, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, coronary artery disease, and hyperlipidemia. The study included 10,144 patients with SLE and 10,144 control patients. The incidence of PAOD was 9.39-fold higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.70–11.15) in the SLE cohort than in the non-SLE cohort. Moreover, SLE was an independent risk factor for PAOD. The adjusted risk of PAOD was highest in patients with SLE who were aged ≤34 years (hazard ratio = 47.6, 95% CI = 26.8–84.4). The risk of PAOD was highest during the first year of follow-up and decreased over time. Patients with SLE exhibit a higher incidence and an independently higher risk of PAOD compared with the general population. The PAOD risk is markedly elevated in patients with SLE who are young and in whom the disease is at an early stage. PMID:26579830

  18. Twelve months follow-up after retrograde recanalization of superficial femoral artery chronic total occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Wojtasik-Bakalarz, Joanna; Arif, Salech; Chyrchel, Michał; Rakowski, Tomasz; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Dudek, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fifty percent of cases of peripheral artery disease are caused by chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Ten–fifteen percent of percutaneous SFA recanalization procedures are unsuccessful. In those cases the retrograde technique can increase the success rate of the procedure, but the long-term follow-up of such procedures is still unknown. Aim To assess the efficacy and clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up after retrograde recanalization of the SFA. Material and methods We included patients after at least one unsuccessful percutaneous antegrade recanalization of the SFA. Patients were evaluated for the procedural and clinical follow-up of mean time 13.9 months. Results The study included 17 patients (7 females, 10 males) who underwent percutaneous retrograde recanalization of the SFA from June 2011 to June 2015. The mean age of patients was 63 ±7 years. Retrograde puncture of the distal SFA was successful in all cases. A retrograde procedure was performed immediately after antegrade failure in 4 (23.5%) patients and after a previously failed attempt in 13 (76.5%) patients. The procedure was successful in 15 (88.2%) patients, and unsuccessful in 2 (11.8%) patients. Periprocedural complications included 1 peripheral distal embolization (successfully treated with aspiration thrombectomy), 1 bleeding event from the puncture site and 7 puncture site hematomas. During follow-up the all-cause mortality rate was 5.8% (1 patient, non-cardiac death). The primary patency rate at 12 months was 88.2% and secondary patency 100%. Conclusions The retrograde SFA puncture seems to be a safe and successful technique for CTO recanalization and is associated with a low rate of perioperative and long-term follow-up complications. PMID:28344617

  19. Successful Cross-circulation Stent-Retriever Embolectomy Through Posterior Communicating Artery for Acute MCA Occlusion by Using Trevo XP ProVue

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul Kee; Baek, Byung Hyun; Heo, Tae Wook

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke due to embolic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in patients with chronic ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion is quite rare. Several previous reports demonstrated that intra-arterial (IA) thrombolytic therapy or aspiration thrombectomy using the cross-circulation technique via an alternative collateral pathway is feasible in acute stroke patients with an unfavorable direct route to the occluded sites. However, stent-retriever embolectomy via the cross-circulation approach has not been reported in the literature. The present paper reports the first case of successful stent-retriever embolectomy for acute MCA occlusion via the patent posterior communicating artery (PComA) by using Trevo XP ProVue stent-retriever in a patient with acute MCA stroke and chronic occlusion at the origin site of the ipsilateral ICA. PMID:26958415

  20. Laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion before cervical curettage in cervical ectopic pregnancy: Safe and effective for preventing massive bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hong-Seok; Kim, Na-Young

    2015-01-01

    Cervical ectopic pregnancy is associated with high risk for massive bleeding conditions. Cervical ectopic pregnancy can usually be treated by methotrexate injection or surgery. We present 4 cases of cervical ectopic pregnancy that were treated successfully with different uterine-conserving methods. By comparing our experience of 4 cases managed in different ways, we found that laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion before cervical curettage is more effective method for preventing massive bleeding. PMID:26430673

  1. Rapidly progressive dementia due to bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion with infarction of the total length of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Romano, Jose G; Forteza, Alejandro M; Koch, Sebastian

    2004-04-01

    The authors report a patient with rapidly progressive cognitive decline due to bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) resulting in multiple pathologically proven cerebral infarctions including the entire length of the corpus callosum. The gradual evolution of the deficits was suggestive of hemodynamic ischemia. Bilateral ICAO should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with rapidly cognitive decline. Although ICAO commonly spares the splenium, complete callosal infarction is possible in the presence of bilateral ICAO.

  2. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist decreases the number of necrotic neurons in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, J. H.; Liu, K. F.; Relton, J. K.

    1995-01-01

    Marked increases in the brain expression of interleukin (IL)-1 have been reported in rats after permanent occlusion of a large cerebral artery. Interactions between endothelial cells and leukocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several types of ischemic injury to the myocardium and other organs. In this study we asked whether inhibiting the effects of IL-1 would affect the outcome of an experimental brain infarct. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 13) with permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery were given IL-1 receptor antagonist. A second group (n = 13) with the same type of brain injury was given a placebo. A third group, subjected to a sham operation, was given either IL-1 receptor antagonist (n = 2) or a placebo (n = 2). Experiments were terminated after either 24 hours or 7 days. Compared with the control group, animals treated with IL-1 receptor antagonist improved their neurological score (P < 0.05), experienced less pronounced changes in body weight (P < 0.05), and had fewer necrotic neurons (P < 0.001) and fewer leukocytes in the ischemic hemisphere (P < 0.001) as well as a smaller area of pallor (P < 0.05) in the ischemis hemisphere. The results suggest that inhibiting the proinflammatory effects of IL-1 with a receptor antagonist is an effective way of influencing the leukocyte responses elicited by an arterial occlusion. Such leukocyte inhibition seemingly attenuates the number of necrotic neurons resulting from the occlusion of a large brain artery. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:7485410

  3. Anchor technique: Use of stent retrievers as an anchor to advance thrombectomy catheters in internal carotid artery occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Stacey Q; Janjua, Rashid M; Hedayat, Hirad; Burnette, Christofer

    2015-01-01

    In three recent cases of acute complete internal artery occlusions, we used stent retriever deployed through the mechanical aspiration/distal access catheters to achieve recanalization. In all cases the stent retriever was used as an anchor and supplemented mechanical thrombectomy. This report describes the technical details of the procedure and presents an alternative plan of action in difficult cases when standard thrombectomy techniques do not work. PMID:26494404

  4. The Effect of Photoluminescence of Bioceramic Irradiation on Middle Cerebral Arterial Occlusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Chan, Paul; Liu, Zhong-Min; Hwang, Ling-Ling; Lin, Kuo-Chi; Chan, Wing P.; Leung, Ting-Kai; Choy, Cheuk Sing

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the possible effect of photoluminescence of bioceramic (PLB) on ischemic cerebral infarction (stroke), by using an animal model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce MCAO to block the origin of the left MCAO; three months later, the positive chronic stroke rats were selected by running tunnel maze; the MCAO rats with significant chronic stroke and neurological defects were used for treadmill experiments with varying speed settings to test their capability for restoration after muscular fatigue under conditions of with and without PLB irradiation. As a result, PLB irradiation could improve exercise completion rate and average running speed during slow and fast treadmill settings. After PLB irradiation, the selected MCAO rats successfully completed all the second-round treadmill exercises at the maximum speed setting, and they had better restoration from muscular fatigue. An in vitro cell study on astrocytes of rats by bioceramic irradiation further demonstrated increased intracellular nitric oxide. To explain these results, we suggest that cortical brain stimulation of microcirculation and enhancement of peripheral muscular activity are the main causes of the improved exercise performance in MCAO rats by PLB. PMID:27375765

  5. Protective effects of allicin against ischemic stroke in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Benping; Li, Feng; Zhao, Weijiang; Li, Jiebing; Li, Qingsong; Wang, Weizhi

    2015-09-01

    Allicin, a molecule predominantly responsible for the pungent odor and the antibiotic function of garlic, exhibits various pharmacological activities and has been suggested to be beneficial in the treatment of various disorders. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of allicin in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Rats were subjected to 1.5 h of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Rats were randomly assigned to the sham surgery group, the MCAO group and the MCAO + allicin group. Neurological score, cerebral infarct size, brain water content, neuronal apoptosis, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. The results suggested that allicin reduced cerebral infarction area, brain water content, neuronal apoptosis, TNF‑α levels and MPO activity in the serum. The results of the present study indicated that allicin protects the brain from cerebral I/R injury, which may be ascribed to its anti‑apoptotic and anti‑inflammatory effects.

  6. Association between peripheral arterial occlusive disease and cardiothoracic ratio in patients on chronic hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Kang-Yi; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Fang, Yu-Wei; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Tsai, Ming-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    The cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) are related to mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, data on the association between PAOD and CTR are limited. In this study, we aim to elucidate this relationship in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Using a retrospective cross-sectional study of 622 Taiwanese patients, we investigated the association of PAOD and CTR. PAOD was significantly associated with CTR in the crude analysis. The odds ratio (OR) for CTR >0.5 was 1.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32–2.37], and the odds ratio for CTR >0.6 was 2.18 [95% CI, 1.44–3.30]. After adjusting for confounding variables, this difference continued to exhibit significant predictive power for CTR >0.6 (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.14–3.11), but the predictive power for CTR >0.5 was attenuated (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.98–2.03). In the subgroup analysis, PAOD was an independent factor for CTR >0.6, particularly in elderly and female patients or patients with hemoglobin >10 mg/dl and with no history of cardiovascular disease. In this research, we showed that the detection of PAOD was independently associated with CTR >0.6 in patients on chronic hemodialysis. PMID:27918569

  7. Cerebroprotective Effect of Moringa oleifera against Focal Ischemic Stroke Induced by Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Wannanon, Panakaporn; Jittiwat, Jinatta

    2013-01-01

    The protection against ischemic stroke is still required due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. Based on the role of oxidative stress in stroke pathophysiology, we determined whether Moringa oleifera, a plant possessing potent antioxidant activity, protected against brain damage and oxidative stress in animal model of focal stroke. M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg·kg−1 was orally given to male Wistar rats (300–350 g) once daily at a period of 2 weeks before the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO) and 3 weeks after Rt.MCAO. The determinations of neurological score and temperature sensation were performed every 7 days throughout the study period, while the determinations of brain infarction volume, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px were performed 24 hr after Rt.MCAO. The results showed that all doses of extract decreased infarction volume in both cortex and subcortex. The protective effect of medium and low doses of extract in all areas occurred mainly via the decreased oxidative stress. The protective effect of the high dose extract in striatum and hippocampus occurred via the same mechanism, whereas other mechanisms might play a crucial role in cortex. The detailed mechanism required further exploration. PMID:24367723

  8. A framework for classification and segmentation of branch retinal artery occlusion in SD-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingyun; Shi, Fei; Zhu, Weifang; Chen, Haoyu; Chen, Xinjian

    2016-03-01

    Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) is an ocular emergency which could lead to blindness. Quantitative analysis of BRAO region in the retina is very needed to assessment of the severity of retinal ischemia. In this paper, a fully automatic framework was proposed to classify and segment BRAO based on 3D spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first automatic 3D BRAO segmentation framework. First, a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier is designed to differentiate BRAO into acute phase and chronic phase, and the two types are segmented separately. To segment BRAO in chronic phase, a threshold-based method is proposed based on the thickness of inner retina. While for segmenting BRAO in acute phase, a two-step segmentation is performed, which includes the bayesian posterior probability based initialization and the graph-search-graph-cut based segmentation. The proposed method was tested on SD-OCT images of 23 patients (12 of acute and 11 of chronic phase) using leave-one-out strategy. The overall classification accuracy of SVM classifier was 87.0%, and the TPVF and FPVF for acute phase were 91.1%, 5.5%; for chronic phase were 90.5%, 8.7%, respectively.

  9. Undiagnosed patent foramen ovale as a rare cause for branch retinal artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chatziralli, Irini P; Parikakis, Efstratios A; Mitropoulos, Panagiotis G

    2015-07-30

    To present the case of a man with branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) and concomitant patent foramen ovale (PFO), which was first diagnosed during the evaluation of BRAO. A 35-year-old man presented with blurred vision in the left eye for 2 days. His best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 6/6 in the right eye and 6/12 in the left eye. He had no ophthalmic or medical history. Ophthalmologic examination revealed a left inferior BRAO, confirmed by fluorescein angiography. The patient underwent a thorough diagnostic workup. Cardiologic examination with transesophageal echocardiography revealed a right-to-left shunt across a PFO. The patient was treated with clopidogrel and at the 15-day review, BCVA in his left eye was 6/7.5 and the retinal edema was resolved, as detected on optical coherence tomography, but relative afferent pupillary defect was persistent. The patient had developed no other embolic event at the 9-month follow-up, having undergone an operation for PFO repair. Patent foramen ovale, although usually asymptomatic, should be considered among the potential causes of BRAO, especially in young patients. Prompt diagnosis and liaison with cardiologists is important to help prevent ocular or systemic embolic events and associated morbidity.

  10. Neurological sequelae and long-term behavioural assessment of rats with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Modo, M; Stroemer, R P; Tang, E; Veizovic, T; Sowniski, P; Hodges, H

    2000-12-15

    Animal models of stroke, notably transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), are used to assess the efficacy of pharmacological and transplant treatments. Long-term studies (>1 month) of the functional effects of treatments in animal models are required to predict treatments likely to improve dysfunctions associated with stroke damage. These pre-clinical studies require (1) optimum post-operative care to ensure long-term survival, (2) methods for assignment of rats to groups with equivalent impairments to reduce variability and enhance detection of treatment effects, and (3) behavioural tests that detect long-term stable deficits. For long-term functional assessment, a battery of behavioural tests sensitive to a range of deficits observed after MCAo was developed. The bilateral asymmetry test evaluated the time course of sensory neglect. Deficits of motor integration were examined in the footfault test, and motor bias was assessed by pharmacological stimulation of rotation. The water maze was used to detect long-term deficits in spatial information processing. Long-term differences between control and MCAo animals in this battery of tests indicate that the protocol provides an efficient assessment suitable for evaluating treatment outcomes in pre-clinical studies of stroke, and that the post-operative care procedure and method of assignment to groups were effective.

  11. Popliteal Retrograde Approach is Effective and Safe for Superficial Femoral Artery Chronic Total Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ashikaga, Takashi; Shimura, Tsukasa; Hatano, Yu; Sasaoka, Taro; Kurihara, Ken; Yoshikawa, Shunji; Maejima, Yasuhiro; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Endovascular treatment (EVT) using a popliteal approach is effective for superficial femoral artery (SFA) chronic total occlusion (CTO); however, its effectiveness, safety, and consequent complications are unclear. Materials and Methods: We studied 324 consecutive EVTs (in 187 patients) performed at three centers between April 2008 and March 2013, and selected all EVTs that included SFA CTO regions. A total of 91 EVTs (in 65 patients) were included and divided into two groups; “with popliteal approach” (WPA) and “without popliteal approach” (WOPA). Results: Despite higher rates of hypertension (WPA, 88.9% vs. WOPA, 69.1%; p = 0.04) and CTO length >200 mm (55.6% vs. 28.3%, respectively; p <0.01), the primary success rate was better in the WPA group (97.2% vs. 78.2%, respectively; p <0.01); however, both total complication rate and major complication rate were not significantly different. We compared popliteal puncture using a sheath and using a microcatheter alone. There were no significant differences between sheath and microcatheter use in terms of primary success rates (95.5% vs. 100%, respectively; p = 0.61) and puncture site complications (22.7% vs. 14.2%, respectively; p = 0.53). Conclusion: A popliteal approach improved the primary success rate of EVT for SFA CTO. PMID:26421071

  12. The Effect of Photoluminescence of Bioceramic Irradiation on Middle Cerebral Arterial Occlusion in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Chan, Paul; Liu, Zhong-Min; Hwang, Ling-Ling; Lin, Kuo-Chi; Chan, Wing P; Leung, Ting-Kai; Choy, Cheuk Sing

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the possible effect of photoluminescence of bioceramic (PLB) on ischemic cerebral infarction (stroke), by using an animal model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce MCAO to block the origin of the left MCAO; three months later, the positive chronic stroke rats were selected by running tunnel maze; the MCAO rats with significant chronic stroke and neurological defects were used for treadmill experiments with varying speed settings to test their capability for restoration after muscular fatigue under conditions of with and without PLB irradiation. As a result, PLB irradiation could improve exercise completion rate and average running speed during slow and fast treadmill settings. After PLB irradiation, the selected MCAO rats successfully completed all the second-round treadmill exercises at the maximum speed setting, and they had better restoration from muscular fatigue. An in vitro cell study on astrocytes of rats by bioceramic irradiation further demonstrated increased intracellular nitric oxide. To explain these results, we suggest that cortical brain stimulation of microcirculation and enhancement of peripheral muscular activity are the main causes of the improved exercise performance in MCAO rats by PLB.

  13. Blockage of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 inhibits brain edema in middle cerebral artery occlusion mice.

    PubMed

    Jie, Pinghui; Tian, Yujing; Hong, Zhiwen; Li, Lin; Zhou, Libin; Chen, Lei; Chen, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Brain edema is an important pathological process during stroke. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) causes an up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in lung tissue. MMP can digest the endothelial basal lamina to destroy blood brain barrier, leading to vasogenic brain edema. Herein, we tested whether TRPV4-blockage could inhibit brain edema through inhibiting MMPs in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mice. We found that the brain water content and Evans blue extravasation at 48 h post-MCAO were reduced by a TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047. The increased MMP-2/9 protein expression in hippocampi of MCAO mice was attenuated by HC-067046, but only the increased MMP-9 activity was blocked by HC-067047. The loss of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin protein in MCAO mice was also attenuated by HC-067047. Moreover, MMP-2/9 protein expression increased in mice treated with a TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A, but only MMP-9 activity was increased by GSK1016790A. Finally, ZO-1 and occludin protein expression was decreased by GSK1016790A, which was reversed by an MMP-9 inhibitor. We conclude that blockage of TRPV4 may inhibit brain edema in cerebral ischemia through inhibiting MMP-9 activation and the loss of tight junction protein.

  14. Carvacrol Exerts Neuroprotective Effects Via Suppression of the Inflammatory Response in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenlan; Hua, Cong; Pan, Xiaoqiang; Fu, Xijia; Wu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that inflammation plays an important role in cerebral ischemia. Carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol, is naturally occurring in various plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae and exerts protective effects in a mice model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by reducing infarct volume and decreasing the expression of cleaved caspase-3. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms by which carvacrol protect the brain have yet to be fully elucidated. We investigated the effects of carvacrol on inflammatory reaction and inflammatory mediators in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats. The results of the present study showed that carvacrol inhibited the levels of inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of iNOS and COX-2. It also increased SOD activity and decreased MDA level in ischemic cortical tissues. In addition, carvacrol treatment suppressed the ischemia/reperfusion-induced increase in the protein expression of nuclear NF-kB p65. In conclusion, we have shown that carvacrol inhibits the inflammatory response via inhibition of the NF-kB signaling pathway in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Therefore, carvacrol may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia injury.

  15. Accumulation of exogenous 45Ca after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Tomabechi, M; Sako, K; Yonemasu, Y

    1994-02-01

    The distribution of exogenous 45Ca in the focal ischemia rat model (middle cerebral artery occlusion) was studied using 45Ca autoradiography. High 45Ca accumulations were observed in the frontal cortex and caudate-putamen corresponding with morphological damage shown by HE staining. Regional 45Ca concentrations were calculated from the optical density on the 45Ca autoradiograms. Rapid uptake of 45Ca in the ischemic brain occurred during the first 5 hours, and continued more slowly between 5 and 24 hours after ischemia. The area of 45Ca accumulation was also expanded between 5 and 24 hours. An area of low 45Ca concentration around the area of high accumulation developed 5 hours after ischemia, which presumably accumulated 45Ca between 5 and 24 hours after ischemia. The lower concentration of 45Ca in the periphery of ischemia may result from: 1) a decrease in the total amount of calcium due to narrowing of extracellular space accompanied by cytotoxic edema, and 2) delayed accumulation of exogenous 45Ca due to reduced clearance of extracellular fluid.

  16. Lipocalin-2 deficiency attenuates neuroinflammation and brain injury after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Myungwon; Kim, Jong-Heon; Jang, Eunha; Lee, Young Mi; Soo Han, Hyung; Woo, Dong Kyun; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Suk, Kyoungho

    2014-08-01

    Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a secreted protein of the lipocalin family, but little is known about the expression or the role of LCN2 in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated the role of LCN2 in ischemic stroke using a rodent model of transient cerebral ischemia. Lipocalin-2 expression was highly induced in the ischemic brain and peaked at 24 hours after reperfusion. After transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, LCN2 was predominantly expressed in astrocytes and endothelial cells, whereas its receptor (24p3R) was mainly detected in neurons, astrocytes, and endothelial cells. Brain infarct volumes, neurologic scores, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeabilities, glial activation, and inflammatory mediator expression were significantly lower in LCN2-deficient mice than in wild-type animals. Lipocalin-2 deficiency also attenuated glial neurotoxicity in astrocyte/neuron cocultures after oxygen-glucose deprivation. Our results indicate LCN2 has a critical role in brain injury after ischemia/reperfusion, and that LCN2 may contribute to neuronal cell death in the ischemic brain by promoting neurotoxic glial activation, neuroinflammation, and BBB disruption.

  17. Cerebroprotective effect of Moringa oleifera against focal ischemic stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kirisattayakul, Woranan; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Wannanon, Panakaporn; Jittiwat, Jinatta

    2013-01-01

    The protection against ischemic stroke is still required due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. Based on the role of oxidative stress in stroke pathophysiology, we determined whether Moringa oleifera, a plant possessing potent antioxidant activity, protected against brain damage and oxidative stress in animal model of focal stroke. M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg·kg(-1) was orally given to male Wistar rats (300-350 g) once daily at a period of 2 weeks before the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO) and 3 weeks after Rt.MCAO. The determinations of neurological score and temperature sensation were performed every 7 days throughout the study period, while the determinations of brain infarction volume, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px were performed 24 hr after Rt.MCAO. The results showed that all doses of extract decreased infarction volume in both cortex and subcortex. The protective effect of medium and low doses of extract in all areas occurred mainly via the decreased oxidative stress. The protective effect of the high dose extract in striatum and hippocampus occurred via the same mechanism, whereas other mechanisms might play a crucial role in cortex. The detailed mechanism required further exploration.

  18. Effect of mastication on functional recoveries after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, Katsuya; Koshino, Hisashi; Toyoshita, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Maki; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether solid feed is more effective for functional recoveries than liquid feed in rats with ischemic brain injury after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). A total of 36 male Wistar/ST rats were subjected to MCAO or sham surgery. After MCAO or sham surgery, all rats were provided liquid feed for 14 days. Then, all rats were divided into 3 groups: the solid feeding group, the liquid feeding group, and the solid feeding group of sham. Effect of mastication on functional recoveries after permanent MCAO in rats was evaluated by the limb placement test and Morris water maze (MWM) task. After surgery, limb placement test scores were equal in both MCAO groups. In the acquisition trials of MWM task, statistically significant differences in escape latency were observed between the liquid feeding group and sham groups at all days, and between the solid feeding group and sham groups at days 3 and 4 of the trials. In the probe trial, statistically significant differences in time spent were observed between the liquid feeding group and sham group. On day 5 of acquisition trials, the time spent in the periphery of the pool in MWM task was significantly different among the 3 groups. This study suggested that solid diet mastication could be effective for the rehabilitation of sensorimotor and learning/memory dysfunction induced by cerebral infarction. Copyright (c) 2010 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of upper body exercise across different levels of blood flow restriction on arterial occlusion pressure and perceptual responses.

    PubMed

    Mattocks, Kevin T; Jessee, Matthew B; Counts, Brittany R; Buckner, Samuel L; Grant Mouser, J; Dankel, Scott J; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-03-15

    Recent studies have investigated relative pressures that are applied during blood flow restriction exercise ranging from 40%-90% of resting arterial occlusion pressure; however, no studies have investigated relative pressures below 40% arterial occlusion pressure. The purpose of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular and perceptual responses to different levels of pressures. Twenty-six resistance trained participants performed four sets of unilateral elbow flexion exercise using 30% of their 1RM in combination with blood flow restriction inflated to one of six relative applied pressures (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, 90% arterial occlusion pressure). Arterial occlusion pressure was measured before (pre) and immediately after the last set of exercise at the radial artery. RPE and discomfort were taken prior to (pre) and following each set of exercise. Data presented as mean (95% CI) except for perceptual responses represented as the median (25th, 75th percentile). Arterial occlusion pressure increased from pre to post (p<0.001) in all conditions but was augmented further with higher pressures [e.g. 0%: 36 (30-42) mmHg vs. 10%: 39 (34-44) mmHg vs. 90% 46 (41-52) mmHg]. For RPE and discomfort, there were significant differences across conditions for all sets of exercise (p<0.01) with the ratings of RPE [e.g. 0%: 14.5 (13, 17) vs. 10%: 13.5 (12, 17) vs. 90%: 17 (14.75, 19) during last set] and discomfort [e.g. 0%: 3.5 (1.5, 6.25) vs. 10%: 3 (1, 6) vs. 90%: 7 (4.5, 9) during last set] generally being greater at the higher restriction pressures. All of these differences at the higher restriction pressures occurred despite completing a lower total volume of exercise. Applying higher relative pressures results in the greatest cardiovascular response, higher perceptual ratings, and greater decrease in exercise volume compared to lower restriction pressures. Therefore, the perceptual responses from lower relative pressures may be more appealing and provide a safer and

  20. [Cerebral sequelae of stenosing and occlusive diseases of the internal carotid artery. Importance of Doppler transcranial examination. Part 2].

    PubMed

    Rohr-Le Floch, J

    1991-01-01

    The author reports 57 stenosis or occlusions of the internal carotid artery, 13 dissections and 44 atheromatous lesions. She studies the correlation between intracranial collateralisation detected by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) and clinical symptoms as well as lesions seen on cerebral CT-scan. Two types of ischaemic lesions are described: border-zone infarcts, probably haemodynamic in origin and territorial infarcts, probably thromboembolic. TCD lets suppose that strokes in this series have a thromboembolic origin. On the other hand it is possible that collateralisation depending on both anterior and posterior communicating arteries is not sufficient, because such a collateralisation is found above all in the 2 most severe symptomatic groups and in many territorial infarcts. In the atheromatous group, occlusions are often asymptomatic and territorial infarcts less extended, whereas in the dissections group all occlusions determined a territorial infarct, often very important. TCD alone doesn't allow to definitely conclude about pathogeny of ischaemic lesions nor on collateralisation value. The adjunction of CO2 reactivity tests in middle cerebral artery will perhaps give the clues of these problems.

  1. The Use of a Re-Entry Catheter in Recanalization of Chronic Inflow Occlusions of the Common Iliac Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Ramjas, Greg; Thurley, Peter Habib, Said

    2008-05-15

    Endovascular treatment of iliac artery occlusions can be unsuccessful due to a failure to break back into the true lumen, and lesions without a proximal stump can be particularly problematic. True lumen re-entry catheters have not been previously used for this type of lesion. The authors report eight patients, five males and three females, with lifestyle-limiting intermittent claudication referred for endovascular treatment. Imaging demonstrated unilateral chronic total occlusion of the common iliac artery in six patients and two patients with short patent stumps at the origin of the occluded common iliac artery. Endovascular therapy was initially unsuccessful due to an inability to re-enter the true lumen after crossing the occlusion in the subintimal plane. With the assistance of the Outback LTD catheter it was possible to achieve continuity of the dissecting tract with the true lumen, thus facilitating successful primary stenting in all eight patients. To our knowledge this is the first report of the use of the Outback LTD catheter in this type of lesion.

  2. Can a combination of handgrip exercise and prolonged forearm occlusion elicit a maximal brachial artery FMD response?

    PubMed

    Ku, Jennifer; McEvoy, Alana; Pyke, Kyra E

    2014-06-01

    The upper limit of brachial artery (BA) flow-mediated dilation (FMD) has not been thoroughly interrogated, and long duration occlusion + handgrip exercise may create larger shear stress stimuli than previous manipulations. To determine whether novel combinations of occlusion + handgrip exercise can extend the range of FMD stimulus-response relationship characterization and permit identification of a BA-FMD response ceiling. Ten healthy subjects performed eight reactive hyperemia (RH) FMD trials: 5, 10, and 15 min of occlusion (5RH, 10RH, 15RH); 5, 10 and 15 min of occlusion + 3-min ischemic exercise (IE) (5IE, 10IE, 15IE); 10 and 15 min of occlusion + 3-min IE + 4-min post-occlusion exercise (PE) (10IEPE, 15IEPE). Shear stress was estimated as shear rate (SR = blood velocity/BA diameter; (ultrasound assessment)) (SR stimulus = area under the curve (AUC) until peak diameter). Data are mean ± SE. There were no differences in SR-AUC among IE and IEPE trials (p > 0.70), however, IE consistently increased the SR-AUC (IE + IEPE trial average 17,845.1 ± 2,023.3 a.u.) vs. the 5RH and 10RH trials (4,943.0 ± 428.4 a.u., 6,800.6 ± 805.9 a.u.) (p < 0.05). The %FMD ranged from 7.3 ± 0.8% (5RH) to 19.1 ± 2.0% (15IEPE) (p < 0.001) with no differences among IE and IEPE trials (p > 0.16). FMD increased with increasing SR-AUC (all subjects, all trials: r(2) 0.36, p < 0.001) CONCLUSIONS: The stimulus created by brief (5 min) occlusion + ischemic exercise was not significantly enhanced by prolonging occlusion or continuing to exercise post-occlusion. The FMD response did not clearly plateau with increasing stimulus magnitude; however, the FMD capacity was shown to be more than double the FMD magnitude that was elicited with a standard 5-min occlusion test.

  3. Spatiotemporal characterization of brain infarction by sequential multimodal MR imaging following transient focal ischemia in a Rat model of intra-arterial middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Gory, Benjamin; Chauveau, Fabien; Bolbos, Radu; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Labeyrie, Paul-Emile; Signorelli, Francesco; Turjman, Alexis; Turjman, Francis

    2016-12-01

    To assess spatiotemporal brain infarction evolution by sequential multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in an endovascular model of acute stroke in rats. A microwire was selectively placed in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 16 consecutives rats during 90 minutes occlusion. Longitudinal 7-T MR imaging, including angiography, diffusion, and perfusion was performed during ischemia, immediately after reperfusion, 3 h and 24 h after subsequent reperfusion. MCA occlusion was complete in 75 % and partial in 18.7 %. Hypoperfusion (mean ± SD) was observed in all animals during ischemia (-59 ± 18 % of contralateral hemisphere, area 31 ± 5 mm(2)). Infarction volume (mean ± SD) was 90 ± 64 mm(3) during ischemia and 57 ± 67 mm(3) at 24 h. Brain infarction was fronto-parietal cortical in five animals (31 %), striatal in four animals (25 %), and cortico-striatal in seven animals (44 %) at 24 h. All rats survived at 24 h. This model is suitable to neuroprotection studies because of possible acute and close characterization of spatiotemporal evolution of brain infarction by MR imaging techniques, and evidence of ischemic penumbra, the target of neuroprotection agents. However, optimization of the brain infarct reproducibility needs further technical and neurointerventional tools improvements. • Nitinol microwire is MRI compatible allowing spatiotemporal characterization of brain infarction in rats. • Microwire selective placement in middle cerebral artery allows complete artery occlusion in 75 %. • A diffusion/perfusion mismatch during arterial occlusion is observed in 77 % of rats.

  4. Lemierre's Syndrome Associated Mycotic Aneurysm of the External Carotid Artery with Primary Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion in a Previously Healthy 18-Year-Old Female.

    PubMed

    Chamseddin, Khalil H; Kirkwood, Melissa L

    2016-10-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is a rare life-threatening condition characterized by internal jugular vein thrombosis and is typically associated with a gram-negative infection with septic metastasis secondary to a retropharyngeal abscess that involves the vasculature of the head and neck. We report a case of Lemierre's syndrome in an 18-year-old female adolescent who developed an internal carotid artery occlusion and ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA) mycotic aneurysm complicated by fulminant pseudomonal sepsis. The patient was managed with open ligation of the ECA with essentially complete recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. External iliac artery thrombosis after common iliac artery balloon occlusion during cesarean hysterectomy for placenta accreta in cervico-isthmic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Sayaka; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Kondo, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Arisa; Fukushima, Kotaro; Kato, Kiyoko

    2015-11-01

    Although the role of interventional radiology in the field of obstetrical hemorrhage has been widely reported upon recently, the rate of procedure-related complications has not been fully determined. We present the case of a patient who developed an external iliac artery thrombosis, a rarely reported complication associated with prophylactic common iliac artery balloon occlusion (CIABO). After CIABO, we found that the dorsalis pedis artery of the right foot was weak and the foot was cold, despite the fact that the patient had no complaints. Computed tomography demonstrated a linear thrombus in the right external iliac artery. We managed the patient conservatively using a heparin drip without the need for thromboembolectomy. Our experience suggests that it is important to consider the risk of thrombosis formation after CIABO. Physical examination post-procedure is key to identifying this complication early. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Clinical Analysis Comparing Efficacy between a Distal Filter Protection Device and Proximal Balloon Occlusion Device during Carotid Artery Stenting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Hyeok; Sohn, Hee Eon; Chung, Seung Young; Park, Moon Sun; Kim, Seong Min; Lee, Do Sung

    2015-10-01

    The main concern during transfemoral carotid artery stenting (CAS) is preventing cerebral embolus dislodgement. We compared clinical outcomes and intraprocedural embolization rates of CAS using a distal filter protection device or proximal balloon occlusion device. From January 2011 to March 2015, a series of 58 patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis ≥70% were treated with CAS with embolic protection device in single center. All patients underwent post-CAS diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) to detect new ischemic lesions. We compared clinical outcomes and postprocedural embolization rates. CAS was performed in all 61 patients. Distal filter protection success rate was 96.6% (28/29), whose mean age was 70.9 years, and mean stenosis was 81%. Their preprocedural infarction rate was 39% (11/28). Subsequent DW-MRI revealed 96 new ischemic lesions in 71% (20/28) patients. In contrast, the proximal balloon occlusion device success rate was 93.8% (30/32), whose mean age was 68.8 years and mean stenosis was 86%. Preprocedure infarction rate was 47% (14/30). DW-MRI revealed 45 new ischemic lesions in 57% (17/30) patients. Compared with distal filter protection device, proximal balloon occlusion device resulted in fewer ischemic lesions per patient (p=0.028). In each group, type of stent during CAS had no significant effect on number of periprocedural embolisms. Only 2 neurologic events occurred in the successfully treated patients (one from each group). Transfemoral CAS with proximal balloon occlusion device achieves good results. Compared with distal filter protection, proximal balloon occlusion might be more effective in reducing cerebral embolism during CAS.

  7. Recanalization of Acute and Subacute Femoropopliteal Artery Occlusions with the Rotarex Catheter: One Year Follow-up, Single Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Duc, Sylvain R. Schoch, Eric; Pfyffer, Markus; Jenelten, Regula; Zollikofer, Christoph L.

    2005-06-15

    Purpose:To assess the efficacy and safety of a new rotational catheter for percutaneous removal of fresh and organized thrombi in the femoropopliteal artery.Methods:Forty-one limbs in 38 patients (age 56-90 years, mean 75.6 years) with acute, subacute or chronic femoropopliteal occlusions of 1-180 days' duration (mean 31.6 days) were treated with the Rotarex device. The Fontaine stage was mainly IIB (Rutherford 2-3, 22 patients) or III (Rutherford 4, 14 patients). The length of occlusion varied from 2 to 35 cm (mean 13.1 cm). After recanalization percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed if there was a residual stenosis of >25%. Patients were followed up with color Doppler ultrasound at 48 hr and clinically with Doppler pressures and oscillometry at 3, 6, and 12 months.Results:After an average of two passages with the Rotarex catheter all but two limbs required PTA for residual stenosis >25%. Five patients needed additional stenting. Major complications were one groin hematoma requiring blood transfusion and one arteriovenous fistula spontaneously thrombosing after unsuccessful primary prolonged balloon dilation. Distal embolizations occurred in 10 patients; 6 clinically relevant emboli were aspirated. All occlusions were technically successfully recanalised there were 2 early reocclusions after 1 day and two at 2 weeks. Brachial-ankle indices improved from an average of 0.41 before to 0.93 after recanalization. Primary and secondary patency rates were 62% / 84% after 6 months and 39% / 68% after 1 year. The amputation-free survival at 12 months was 100%.Conclusion:The Rotarex mechanical thrombectomy device is an efficient, quick, easy to handle, and safe tool for the treatment of acute, subacute or even chronic peripheral arterial thromboembolic occlusions. It can be used for short or long occlusions with equal success, provided the obstruction is not heavily calcified and has been safely passed with a guidewire first.

  8. Quantification of myocardial injury produced by temporary coronary artery occlusion and reflow with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, D.E.; Corbett, J.R.; Buja, L.M.; Hansen, C.; Ugolini, V.; Parkey, R.W.; Willerson, J.T.

    1987-03-01

    Previously, technetium-99m-stannous pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PPi) has been used to localize and estimate the size of myocardial infarcts in animals after permanent coronary artery occlusion. This study tested the hypothesis that /sup 99m/Tc-PPi accurately sizes myocardial infarctions produced by temporary coronary artery occlusion and reflow in dogs. Three groups of dogs were studied: group A underwent 3 hr of occlusion followed by 2 hr of reperfusion, with /sup 99m/Tc-PPi injected 10 min after reflow (n = 10); group B underwent 3 hr of occlusion followed by 2 hr of reperfusion, with /sup 99m/Tc-PPi injected 90 min after reflow (n = 11); and group C underwent 3 hr of occlusion followed by reflow with /sup 99m/Tc-PPi injected at 10 min and again at 48 hr after reflow (n = 5). Myocardial slices from group A and B dogs were imaged in vitro. Group C dogs were imaged with single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) in vivo, and myocardial slices were imaged in vitro at the conclusion of the study. The extent of myocardial infarction was defined with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and coronary blood flow was estimated with radioactive microspheres. In addition, transmural myocardial tissue samples were taken from the center of the myocardial infarction, the lateral portion of the myocardial infarction, the normal myocardium adjacent to the lateral aspect of the infarcts, and from the normal myocardium and counted for /sup 99m/Tc-PPi activity. A significant correlation was found between infarct size determined by areas of increased /sup 99m/Tc-PPi uptake and that estimated from TTC staining for both group A (r = .89) and group B animals (r = .98).

  9. Intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke with internal carotid artery occlusion: a systematic review of clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mokin, Maxim; Kass-Hout, Tareq; Kass-Hout, Omar; Dumont, Travis M; Kan, Peter; Snyder, Kenneth V; Hopkins, L Nelson; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I

    2012-09-01

    Strokes secondary to acute internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion are associated with extremely poor prognosis. The best treatment approach to acute stroke in this setting is unknown. We sought to determine clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke attributable to ICA occlusion treated with intravenous (IV) systemic thrombolysis or intra-arterial endovascular therapy. Using the PubMed database, we searched for studies that included patients with acute ischemic stroke attributable to ICA occlusion who received treatment with IV thrombolysis or intra-arterial endovascular interventions. Studies providing data on functional outcomes beyond 30 days and mortality and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) rates were included in our analysis. We compared the proportions of patients with favorable functional outcomes, sICH, and mortality rates in the 2 treatment groups by calculating χ(2) and confidence intervals for odds ratios. We identified 28 studies with 385 patients in the IV thrombolysis group and 584 in the endovascular group. Rates of favorable outcomes and sICH were significantly higher in the endovascular group than the IV thrombolysis-only group (33.6% vs 24.9%, P=0.004 and 11.1% vs 4.9%, P=0.001, respectively). No significant difference in mortality rate was found between the groups (27.3% in the IV thrombolysis group vs 32.0% in the endovascular group; P=0.12). According to our systematic review, endovascular treatment of acute ICA occlusion results in improved clinical outcomes. A higher rate of sICH after endovascular treatment does not result in increased overall mortality rate.

  10. Procedural outcomes of revascularization of chronic total occlusion of native coronary arteries (from a multicenter United States registry).

    PubMed

    Michael, Tesfaldet T; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Fuh, Eric; Patel, Vishal G; Mogabgab, Owen; Alomar, Mohammed; Kirkland, Ben L; Lembo, Nicholas; Kalynych, Anna; Carlson, Harold; Banerjee, Subhash; Lombardi, William; Kandzari, David E

    2013-08-15

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) is a rapidly evolving area of interventional cardiology. We sought to examine the immediate procedural and in-hospital clinical outcomes of native coronary artery CTO PCI from a multicenter United States (US) registry. We retrospectively examined the procedural outcomes of 1,361 consecutive native coronary artery CTO PCIs performed at 3 US institutions from January 2006 to November 2011. Mean age was 65 ± 11 years, 85% of patients were men, 40% had diabetes, 37% had previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 42% had previous PCI. The CTO target vessel was the right coronary artery (55%), circumflex (23%), left anterior descending artery (21%), and left main or bypass graft (1%). The retrograde approach was used in 34% of all procedures. The technical and procedural success rates were 85.5% and 84.2%, respectively. The mean procedural time, fluoroscopy time, and contrast utilization were 113 ± 61 minutes, 42 ± 29 minutes, and 294 ± 158 ml, respectively. In multivariate analysis, female gender, no previous coronary artery bypass surgery, and years since initiation of CTO PCI at each center were independent predictors of procedural success. Major complications occurred in 24 patients (1.8%). In conclusion, among selected US-based institutions with experienced operators, native coronary artery CTO PCI can be performed with high success and low major complication rates.

  11. Cerebral Hemodynamics and Vascular Reactivity in Mild and Severe Ischemic Rodent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Stroke Models

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jeongeun; Jo, Areum; Kang, Bok-Man; Lee, Sohee; Bang, Oh Young; Heo, Chaejeong; Jhon, Gil-Ja; Lee, Youngmi

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia can cause decreased cerebral neurovascular coupling, leading to a failure in the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. This study aims to investigate the effect of varying degrees of ischemia on cerebral hemodynamic reactivity using in vivo real-time optical imaging. We utilized direct cortical stimulation to elicit hyper-excitable neuronal activation, which leads to induced hemodynamic changes in both the normal and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) ischemic stroke groups. Hemodynamic measurements from optical imaging accurately predict the severity of occlusion in mild and severe MCAO animals. There is neither an increase in cerebral blood volume nor in vessel reactivity in the ipsilateral hemisphere (I.H) of animals with severe MCAO. The pial artery in the contralateral hemisphere (C.H) of the severe MCAO group reacted more slowly than both hemispheres in the normal and mild MCAO groups. In addition, the arterial reactivity of the I.H in the mild MCAO animals was faster than the normal animals. Furthermore, artery reactivity is tightly correlated with histological and behavioral results in the MCAO ischemic group. Thus, in vivo optical imaging may offer a simple and useful tool to assess the degree of ischemia and to understand how cerebral hemodynamics and vascular reactivity are affected by ischemia. PMID:27358581

  12. Clinical and radiological predictors of recanalisation and outcome of 40 patients with acute basilar artery occlusion treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, M; Nedeltchev, K; Schroth, G; Baumgartner, R; Remonda, L; Loher, T; Stepper, F; Sturzenegger, M; Schuknecht, B; Mattle, H

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To define predictors of recanalisation and clinical outcome of patients with acute basilar artery occlusions treated with local intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT). Methods: Vascular risk factors, severity of the neurological deficit graded by the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS), and radiological findings were recorded at presentation. Outcome was measured using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) three months later and categorised as favourable (mRS 0–2), poor (mRS 3–5), or death (mRS 6). Results: 40 patients were studied. Median NIHSS on admission was 18. Mean time from symptom onset to treatment was 5.5 hours (range 2.3 to 11). Outcome was favourable in 14 patients (35%) and poor in nine (23%); 17 (42%) died. There were two symptomatic cerebral haemorrhages (5%). Recanalisation of the basilar artery was achieved in 32 patients (80%); it was complete (TIMI grade 3) in 20% and partial (TIMI grade 2) in 60%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, low NIHSS score on admission (p = 0.002) and vessel recanalisation (p = 0.005) were independent predictors of favourable outcome. Recanalisation occurred more often with treatment within six hours of symptom onset (p = 0.003) and when admission computed tomography showed a hyperdense basilar artery sign (p = 0.007). In a univariate model, quadriplegia (p = 0.002) and coma (p = 0.004) were associated with a poor outcome or death. Conclusions: Low baseline NIHSS on admission and recanalisation of basilar artery occlusions predict a favourable outcome after intra-arterial thrombolysis. Early initiation of IAT and the presence of a hyperdense basilar artery sign on CT were associated with a higher likelihood of recanalisation. PMID:15146000

  13. Distance to thrombus in acute middle cerebral artery occlusion: a predictor of outcome after intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Benjamin; Gawlitza, Matthias; Schob, Stefan; Hobohm, Carsten; Raviolo, Mariana; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Lobsien, Donald

    2015-03-01

    In patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke, therapeutic decisions are influenced by the location of the occlusion. This study aimed to analyze clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic MCA stroke treated with systemic intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, according to the location of the occlusion. Of 621 patients screened, 136 with acute stroke and MCA occlusion confirmed by CT angiography were retrospectively included in this study. The distance from the carotid T to the thrombus (DT) on coronal maximum intensity projection images and the thrombus length were measured. The correlation between DT and the modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days was analyzed. DT was an independent predictor of clinical outcome in stroke patients treated with IVT. A long DT was significantly correlated with a good clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days ≤2). A poor clinical outcome was exponentially more likely than a good outcome when the DT was <16 mm (P<0.001). The thrombus length was not correlated with the modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days. A long thrombus (>8 mm) occurred significantly more often in the proximal MCA than the distal MCA (P<0.001). DT is an independent predictor of clinical outcome in patients with acute MCA occlusion treated with IVT. In acute stroke with MCA occlusion confirmed by CT angiography and DT <16 mm, the likelihood of a good clinical outcome after treatment with IVT was exponentially <50%. This might warrant the evaluation of other therapy forms than IVT in patients with proximal MCA occlusion. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Early laparoscopy for ileocolic intussusception with multiple recurrences in children.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Tang; Lee, Jui-Ying; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Chiou, Chi-Shu; Lin, Jan-You

    2009-09-01

    The risks of subsequent episodes and a lead point are common problems in ileocolic intussusception with more than two recurrences. To decrease subsequent recurrence and to detect a lead point, an early laparoscopy was performed for children with ileocolic intussusception. This study enrolled six children with multiple recurrences of ileocolic intussusception from January 2004 to August 2007. Using a 5-mm laparoscope and two additional transabdominal wall stab incisions, an appendectomy and an ileocolonic pixie with nonabsorbable sutures were performed simultaneously for all the children after the last successful hydrostatic reduction. The mean operating time was 68.8 +/- 12.6 min (range, 55-86 min). There was no operative morbidity, and no lead point was found in any child. The mean follow-up period was 10.8 +/- 6.7 months (range, 2-20 months). No recurrence was observed during this period. The authors suggest that early intervention should be undertaken for ileocolic intussusception with multiple recurrences in children after the last nonsurgical reduction has been attempted successfully. Under this strategy, laparoscopy is an acceptable approach. It allows differentiation of a specific etiologic lesion, the possibility of incomplete reduction, and additional proximal invaginations. Later complications, such as repeat recurrence and associated surgical morbidity, also can be avoided.

  15. Association of lower urinary tract syndrome with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Yu; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung; Wu, Hsi-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe atherosclerosis may lead to chronic bladder ischemia, eventually resulting in lower urinary tract syndrome (LUTS), and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). We investigated the association of LUTS with PAOD. Methods This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2010; follow-up lasted until the end of 2011. We identified patients with newly diagnosed LUTS by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Results In total, 36,042 and 36,042 patients were enrolled in LUTS and non-LUTS cohorts, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities, the risk of subsequent PAOD was 1.36-fold higher [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.26–1.46] in the LUTS cohort than in the non-LUTS cohort. The adjusted risk of PAOD was the highest in patients with LUTS without any comorbidity [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.54–2.41]. The age-specific relative risk of PAOD was significantly higher in all age groups, particularly in those aged <49 years (aHR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.39–2.34], in the LUTS cohort than in the non-LUTS cohort. Conclusion LUTS is a risk factor for PAOD. Physicians should consider the possibility of underlying PAOD in patients with LUTS aged <49 years and without cardiovascular comorbidities. Additional studies developing strategies for decreasing the risk of PAOD are warranted. PMID:28301517

  16. Endovascular Management of Long-Segmental Petrocavernous Internal Carotid Artery (Carotid S) Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soonchan; Park, Eun Suk; Kwak, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Dong-Geun; Suh, Dae Chul; Kwon, Sun U.; Lee, Deok Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Long-segmental thrombotic occlusion of the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) sparing the cervical segment proximally and the supraclinoid segment distally, which could be termed ’Carotid S occlusion’, has an unusual clinical presentation. However, endovascular management of this lesion is challenging. The purpose of our study is to report our endovascular treatment clinical experience of the disease. Methods From March 2008 to June 2013, we could identify 14 patients (average age: 62.1, median age: 62, range: 50-79) with ‘Carotid S occlusion’, who underwent endovascular recanalization procedures. Patient’s clinical presentations were collected and the imaging findings also analyzed. The technical success rate, 24-hour and follow-up imaging outcome, and the clinical outcome using the 90-day mRS (modified Rankin scale) score were evaluated. Results Patients presented with gradually progressing (n = 8), fluctuating (n = 3), transient ischemic attack (n = 2) and stationary (n = 1) symptoms. DWI showed internal and external border-zone lesions in six patients, only internal ICA border-zone lesions in three patients, and only external border-zone lesions in two patients. Underlying distal ICA stenosis was noted in 12 patients. The technical success rate was 92.8% (13/14). Luminal patency was noted in all patients (100%) after 24 hours and in nine of 10 (90%) on long-term follow-up (median: 6.5, average: 15.1, range: 1-39 months). A 90-day, good functional outcome (mRS ≤ 2) was noted in 13 of 14 patients (92.8%). Conclusions ‘Carotid S occlusion’ usually presented with border-zone infarction and endovascular management of the lesions was feasible. A relatively successful clinical outcome could be achieved after successful revascularization. PMID:26437999

  17. Mildronate treatment improves functional recovery following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Svalbe, Baiba; Zvejniece, Liga; Vavers, Edijs; Pugovics, Osvalds; Muceniece, Ruta; Liepinsh, Edgars; Dambrova, Maija

    2011-09-12

    Mildronate (3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium) propionate) is an inhibitor of l-carnitine biosynthesis and an anti-ischemic drug. In the present study, we investigated the effects of mildronate in rats following focal cerebral ischemia. Male Wistar rats were subjected to transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 90min, followed by the intraperitoneal administration of mildronate at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg 2h after reperfusion and then daily for an additional 14days. The beam-walking, rota-rod and cylinder tests were used to assess sensorimotor function, and vibrissae-evoked forelimb-placing and limb-placing tests examined responses to tactile and proprioceptive stimulation. Following behavioural testing, the infarct volume was measured. The cerebellar concentrations of l-carnitine, γ-butyrobetaine (GBB) and mildronate were also measured. The results showed that saline-treated MCAO rats had minor or no spontaneous recovery in sensorimotor and proprioceptive function up to 14days post-stroke. Treatment with mildronate at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to accelerate recovery of motor and proprioceptive deficits in limb-placing, cylinder and beam-walking tests. Analysis of rat cerebellar tissue extracts revealed that l-carnitine and GBB concentrations changed with mildronate treatment; the concentration of l-carnitine was significantly decreased by mildronate treatment, whereas the concentration of GBB was significantly increased. Cerebellar concentrations of mildronate also increased in a dose-dependent manner following systemic administration. Infarct size did not differ among the experimental groups on post-stroke day 14. The present study suggests that mildronate treatment improves the functional outcome in MCAO rats without influencing infarct size.

  18. Reversibility of retinal ischemia due to central retinal artery occlusion by hyperbaric oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Hadanny, Amir; Maliar, Amit; Fishlev, Gregory; Bechor, Yair; Bergan, Jacob; Friedman, Mony; Avni, Isaac; Efrati, Shai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ischemic retinal damage can be reversed by hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) as long as irreversible infarction damage has not developed. However, the time window till irreversible damage develops is still unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the effect of HBOT and determine possible markers for irreversible retinal damage. Materials and methods Retrospective analysis of 225 patients treated with HBOT for central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) in 1999–2015. One hundred and twenty-eight patients fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria: age >18 years, symptoms <20 hours, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) <0.5 logMAR. Results Time delay from symptoms to treatment was 7.8±3.8 hours. The BCVA was significantly improved after HBOT, from 2.14±0.50 to 1.61±0.78 (P<0.0001). The proportion of patients with clinically meaningful visual improvement was significantly higher in patients without cherry-red spot (CRS) compared to patients with CRS at presentation (86.0% vs 57.6%, P<0.0001). The percentage of patients with final BCVA better than 1.0 was also significantly higher in patients without CRS vs patients with CRS at presentation (61.0% vs 7.1%, P<0.0001). There was no correlation between CRS and the time from symptoms. HBOT was found to be safe, and only 5.5% of patients had minor, reversible, adverse events. Conclusion HBOT is an effective treatment for non-arteritic CRAO as long as CRS has not formed. The fundus findings, rather than the time delay, should be used as a marker for irreversible damage. PMID:28096655

  19. Impact of Diabetes and Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease on the Functional Microcirculation at the Plantar Foot

    PubMed Central

    Kabbani, Mohammad; Rotter, Robert; Busche, Marc; Wuerfel, Waldemar; Jokuszies, Andreas; Knobloch, Karsten; Vogt, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Plastic and reconstructive surgeons are commonly faced with chronic ulcerations and consecutive wound infections of the feet as complications in patients with diabetes and/or peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Microcirculatory changes seem to play an important role. However, the evaluation of functional changes in the soft tissue microcirculation at the plantar foot using combined Laser-Doppler and Photospectrometry System has not yet been performed in patients with DM or PAOD. Methods: A prospective, controlled cohort study was designed consisting of a total of 107 subjects allocated to 1 of 3 groups—group A: healthy subjects (57% males, 63.3 y); group B: patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) (53% males, 59.4 y); and group C: patients with PAOD (81% males, 66.1 y). Microcirculatory data were assessed using a combined Laser-Doppler and Photospectrometry System. Results: Global cutaneous oxygen saturation microcirculation at the plantar foot of healthy individuals was 8.4% higher than in patients with DM and 8.1% higher than in patients with PAOD (both P = 0.033). Patients with diabetes did not show significant differences in global cutaneous blood flow when compared with either healthy subjects or patients suffering from PAOD. Conclusions: Functional microcirculation at the plantar foot differs between healthy subjects and patients suffering from diabetes or PAOD of the same age. Patients with either diabetes or PAOD demonstrate deteriorated cutaneous oxygen saturation with equivalent blood perfusion at the plantar foot. More clinical studies have to be conducted to evaluate therapeutical methods that might ameliorate cutaneous oxygen saturation within diabetic foot disease and PAOD. PMID:25289243

  20. Angiographic Structural Differentiation between Native Arteriogenesis and Therapeutic Synangiosis in Intracranial Arterial Steno-occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cher Ooi, Yinn; Laiwalla, Azim N.; Liou, Raymond; Gonzalez, Nestor R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis has been shown to generate collateral vessels from the extracranial to the intracranial circulation in patients with moyamoya disease and intracranial arterial steno-occlusive disease. The mechanisms involved are not well understood. We hypothesize that angiogenesis is the leading mechanism forming collaterals after encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis as there are no preexisting connections, which should exhibit higher architectural complexity compared to native collaterals. Materials and Methods Pre- and postoperative digital subtraction angiograms were analyzed in patients enrolled in a prospective trial of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis surgery. Branching angioscore, tortuosity index, and local connected fractal dimension were compared between innate and postoperative collaterals. Results 101 angiograms (50 preoperative, 51 postoperative) were analyzed from 44 patients (22 intracranial atherosclerosis and 22 moyamoya disease). There was a significantly higher median branching angioscore (13 vs. 4, p < 0.001) and lower median tortuosity index (1.08 vs. 1.76, p < 0.001) in the encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis collaterals compared to innate collaterals. Higher mean local fractal dimension peaks (1.28 SD 0.1 vs. 1.16 SD 0.11, p < 0.001) were observed in the encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis collaterals compared to innate collaterals for both intracranial atherosclerosis (p < 0.001) and moyamoya disease (p < 0.001) groups. The observed increase in high connectivity was greater in the intracranial atherosclerosis group compared to moyamoya disease cases (p = 0.01). Conclusions The higher median branching angioscore and local connected fractal dimension, along with lower median tortuosity index of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis collaterals are consistent with the greater complexity observed in the process of sprouting and splitting associated with angiogenesis. PMID:26797139

  1. Neuroprotection by pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) in reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yonghua; Feustel, Paul J; Kimelberg, Harold K

    2006-06-13

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a naturally occurring redox cofactor that acts as an essential nutrient, antioxidant, and redox modulator. It has previously been reported to reduce infarct size in 7-day-old rat pups with an in vivo cerebral hypoxia/ischemia model (Jensen et al., 1994). In this study, we tested whether improvement is found in both behavioral measures of protection and by histological measures of infarcted tissue at 72 h after reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (rMCAo) in adult rats. Two-hour rMCAo was induced in adult rats using the intraluminal suture technique. PQQ (10, 3, and 1 mg/kg) was given once by intravenous injection at the initiation, or 3 h after the initiation, of 2 h rMCAo. Neurobehavioral deficits were evaluated daily for 3 days followed by infarct volumes measurements by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. PQQ at 10 mg/kg infused at the initiation, or 3 h after the initiation, of rMCAo was effective in reducing cerebral infarct volumes measured 72 h later. At 3 h after ischemia, a dose of 3 mg/kg significantly reduced infarct volume compared to vehicle-treated animals, but 1 mg/kg was ineffective. Neurobehavioral scores were also significantly better in the PQQ-treated group compared to the vehicle controls when PQQ was given at 10 and 3 mg/kg, but not at 1 mg/kg. Thus, PQQ is neuroprotective when given as a single administration at least 3 h after initiation of rMCAo. These data indicate that PQQ may be a useful neuroprotectant in stroke therapy.

  2. Loss of distal femur combined with popliteal artery occlusion: reconstructive arthroplasty using modular segmental endoprosthesis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shin-Taeg; Hwang, Chan-Ha; Kim, Bo-Hyeon; Sung, Byung-Yoon

    2009-04-01

    Severe injury to the knee and the surrounding area is frequently associated with injury to ligaments of the knee joint and structures in the popliteal fossa. This case involved a popliteal artery occlusion, severe bone loss of distal femur, loss of collateral ligaments, and extensor mechanism destruction of the knee. Initially, prompt recognition and correction of associated popliteal artery injury are important for good results after treatment. After successful revascularization, treatment for severe bone loss of distal femur and injury of the knee joint must be followed. We treated this case by delayed reconstruction using modular segmental endoprosthesis after revascularization of the popliteal artery. This allowed early ambulation. At 36 months after surgery, the patient had good circulation of the lower limb and was ambulating independently.

  3. OUTBACK catheter for treatment of superficial femoral and iliac artery chronic total occlusion: Experience from two centers

    PubMed Central

    Husainy, Mohammad Ali; Suresh, Balla; Fang, Cheng; Ammar, Thoraya; Botchu, Rajesh; Thava, V

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The OUTBACK® catheter is a reentry device that enables reentry into a vessel lumen from the subintimal space during subintimal angioplasty. It is reserved for cases where reentry has not been possible using conventional wire and catheter techniques. We report a two-center experience in recanalization of the chronic total occlusions of the common iliac (CIA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using the OUTBACK® catheter in cases where other techniques were unsuccessful. Material and Methods: All cases where recanalization was performed using the OUTBACK® reentry catheter between January 2010 to January 2015 were retrospectively identified and included in this study. 21 patients were identified. The indication for intervention in these cases included claudication and critical leg ischemia. In all cases, conventional recanalization could not be successfully achieved. Results: The OUTBACK® catheter was used to recanalize 10 SFA occlusion and 9 CIA occlusions. In 19 patients (90%), reentry into true arterial lumen was successfully achieved. 17 patients had their recanalization through the transfemoral approach whereas 2 patients had a transpopliteal artery approach. In 2 patients, reentry into the true lumen could not be achieved using the OUTBACK® catheter due to patient's intolerability for the procedure and severe atherosclerotic calcified plaques. There was 100% patency of the vessel intervened on Duplex ultrasound at 24 months of follow up. 16 patients (84%) remained asymptomatic and 2 patients (10.5%) reported worsening of their symptoms due to the development of new lesions within the arterial system. Conclusion: The OUTBACK® catheter is an effective and safe technique for reentry into the vessel lumen when conventional techniques fail. PMID:27413275

  4. Acute Stroke and Obstruction of the Extracranial Carotid Artery Combined with Intracranial Tandem Occlusion: Results of Interventional Revascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Lescher, Stephanie Czeppan, Katja; Porto, Luciana; Singer, Oliver C.; Berkefeld, Joachim

    2015-04-15

    PurposeDue to high thrombus load, acute stroke patients with tandem obstructions of the extra- and intracranial carotid arteries or the middle cerebral artery show a very limited response to systemic thrombolysis. Interventional treatment with mechanical thrombectomy—often in combination with acute stenting of underlying atherosclerotic stenosis or dissection—is increasingly used. It has been shown that such complex interventions are technically feasible. The lack of optimal management strategies and clinical data encouraged us to review our acute stroke interventions in patient with anterior circulation tandem lesions to determine lesion patterns, interventional approaches, and angiographic or clinical outcomes.Patients and MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed a series of 39 consecutive patients with intracranial vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation simultaneously presenting with high-grade cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis or occlusion.ResultsEmergency ICA stent implantation was technically feasible in all patients, and intracranial recanalization with TICI ≥ 2b was reached in a large number of patients (64 %). Good clinical outcomes (mRS ≤ 2 at 3 months) were achieved in one third of the patients (36 %). Symptomatic hemorrhages occurred in four patients (10 %). Mortality was 10 %.ConclusionEndovascular recanalization of acute cervical carotid artery occlusion was technically feasible in all patients, and resulted in high extra- and intracranial revascularization rates. A trend for favorable clinical outcome was seen in a higher TICI score, younger age, good collateral status, and combined IV rTPA and endovascular therapy.

  5. Effects of BRL 38227, sodium nitroprusside and verapamil on collateral perfusion following acute arterial occlusion in the rabbit isolated ear.

    PubMed Central

    Randall, M. D.; Griffith, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    1. We have used an isolated, buffer-perfused, rabbit ear model of acute arterial occlusion to investigate the effects of the nitrovasodilator sodium nitroprusside, the potassium channel activator BRL 38227 (the active (-)-enantiomer of cromakalim) and the calcium antagonist, verapamil, on collateral perfusion in the absence of pharmacological tone. 2. Verapamil was the most potent vasodilator (EC50 = 72.6 +/- 32.0 nM) of 5-hydroxytryptamine/histamine-induced tone in the rabbit isolated perfused ear. Sodium nitroprusside and BRL 38227 were less potent with respective EC50 values of 488 +/- 75 nM and 296 +/- 40 nM. Following inhibition of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) synthesis, the potency of BRL 38227 was significantly (P less than 0.001) increased with an EC50 of 55.6 +/- 5.0 nM. 3. BRL 38227 at 500 nM and 3 microM induced substantial increases in collateral perfusion following arterial ligation in the absence of pharmacological tone compared to control. Furthermore 3 microM BRL 38227 completely reversed the attenuation of collateral perfusion which followed inhibition of EDRF synthesis with 100 microM NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). 4. Sodium nitroprusside (500 nM and 3 microM) induced modest improvements in collateral perfusion in the early stages after arterial occlusion. 5. Verapamil did not influence collateral perfusion at either of the concentrations used (50 nM and 3 microM), even though it was a potent vasodilator. 6. The results of this study indicate that BRL 38227, and to a much lesser extent sodium nitroprusside, selectively improve collateral perfusion following arterial occlusion, even in the presence of effects of EDRF on acute collateralization, while verapamil has no effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 PMID:1393264

  6. Hemodynamic changes in a rat parietal cortex after endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion monitored by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Ma, Yushu; Dou, Shidan; Wang, Yi; La, Dongsheng; Liu, Jianghong; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-07-01

    A blockage of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) on the cortical branch will seriously affect the blood supply of the cerebral cortex. Real-time monitoring of MCA hemodynamic parameters is critical for therapy and rehabilitation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging modality that can produce not only structural images but also functional information on the tissue. We use OCT to detect hemodynamic changes after MCA branch occlusion. We injected a selected dose of endothelin-1 (ET-1) at a depth of 1 mm near the MCA and let the blood vessels follow a process first of occlusion and then of slow reperfusion as realistically as possible to simulate local cerebral ischemia. During this period, we used optical microangiography and Doppler OCT to obtain multiple hemodynamic MCA parameters. The change trend of these parameters from before to after ET-1 injection clearly reflects the dynamic regularity of the MCA. These results show the mechanism of the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion process after a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and confirm that OCT can be used to monitor hemodynamic parameters.

  7. Endovascular Management of Acute Embolic Occlusion of the Superior Mesenteric Artery: A 12-Year Single-Centre Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Raupach, J. Lojik, M. Chovanec, V. Renc, O.; Strýček, M.; Dvořák, P. Hoffmann, P.; Guňka, I. Ferko, A.; Ryška, P.; Omran, N.; Krajina, A. Čabelková, P.; Čermáková, E.; Malý, R.

    2016-02-15

    PurposeRetrospective evaluation of 12-year experience with endovascular management of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) due to embolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA).Materials and methodsFrom 2003 to 2014, we analysed the in-hospital mortality of 37 patients with acute mesenteric embolism who underwent primary endovascular therapy with subsequent on-demand laparotomy. Transcatheter embolus aspiration was used in all 37 patients (19 women, 18 men, median age 76 years) with embolic occlusion of the SMA. Adjunctive local thrombolysis (n = 2) and stenting (n = 2) were also utilised.ResultsWe achieved complete recanalization of the SMA stem in 91.9 %. One patient was successfully treated by surgical embolectomy due to a failed endovascular approach. Subsequent exploratory laparotomy was performed in 73.0 % (n = 27), and necrotic bowel resection in 40.5 %. The total in-hospital mortality was 27.0 %.ConclusionPrimary endovascular therapy for acute embolic SMA occlusion with on-demand laparotomy is a recommended algorithm used in our centre to treat SMA occlusion. This combined approach for the treatment of AMI is associated with in-hospital mortality rate of 27.0 %.

  8. Endovascular parent-artery occlusion of large or giant unruptured internal carotid artery aneurysms. A long-term single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kampei; Imamura, Hirotoshi; Mineharu, Yohei; Adachi, Hidemitsu; Sakai, Chiaki; Tani, Shoichi; Arimura, Koichi; Beppu, Mikiya; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2017-03-01

    The development of stent-like devices has increased treatment options for complex internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms, but the optimal treatment remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular parent-artery occlusion (PAO) for ICA aneurysms. We retrospectively reviewed 28 patients with unruptured ICA aneurysms ⩾10mm treated with PAO between April 2002 and March 2015 at our institution. Patients who developed neurologic symptoms or with venous-phase delay >2s during balloon test occlusion were not treated by PAO. Patients with venous-phase delays of 1-2s underwent superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass prior to PAO. The median patient age was 65 (range, 26-84)years. Nineteen aneurysms (68%) were located in the cavernous segment. The median aneurysm size was 25 (range 11-40)mm. Venous-phase delay of 1-2s was observed in five patients. Perioperative ischemic complications (N=9, 32%), which occurred within 30days after treatment, were significantly associated with venous-phase delays of 1-2s (p<0.01) and history of hypertension (p<0.01). Six-month morbidity was observed in one (3.6%) patient. Complete occlusion at final follow-up and delayed (i.e. ⩾31days after treatment) ischemic events were observed in 100% and 0% of patients, respectively, over a median period of 63 (range, 6-147) months. Despite the high frequency of perioperative ischemic episodes, endovascular PAO with selective use of STA-MCA bypass showed excellent long-term outcomes in patients with unruptured ICA aneurysms ⩾10mm.

  9. Emergency Extracranial-to-Intracranial Bypass after Thromboembolic Occlusion of the Middle Cerebral Artery Following GDC Embolization of a Ruptured ACoA Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Standhardt, H.; Gruber, A.; Ferraz-Leite, H.; Bavinzski, G.

    2004-01-01

    Summary We report a case of thromboembolic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery after endovascular treatment of a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. When fibrinolytic therapy failed to recanalize the occluded vessel, an emergency extracranial-to-intracranial bypass was performed. This intervention rescued our patient from cerebral infarction. This case demonstrates the importance of the offering this procedure at neurointerventional centers. PMID:20587239

  10. Performing Permanent Distal Middle Cerebral with Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats to Study Cortical Ischemia with Sustained Disability

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Lisa A.; Haenzi, Barbara; Tsai, Shi-Yen; Kartje, Gwendolyn; Beech, John S.; Cash, Diana; Moon, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Stroke typically occurs in elderly people with a range of comorbidities including carotid (or other arterial) atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, obesity and diabetes. Accordingly, when evaluating therapies for stroke in animals, it is important to select a model with excellent face validity. Ischemic stroke accounts for 80% of all strokes, and the majority of these occur in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), often inducing infarcts that affect the sensorimotor cortex, causing persistent plegia or paresis on the contralateral side of the body. We demonstrate in this video a method for producing ischemic stroke in elderly rats, which causes sustained sensorimotor disability and substantial cortical infarcts. Specifically, we induce permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in elderly female rats by using diathermy forceps to occlude a short segment of this artery. The carotid artery on the ipsilateral side to the lesion was then permanently occluded and the contralateral carotid artery was transiently occluded for 60 min. We measure the infarct size using structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 hr and 8 weeks after stroke. In this study, the mean infarct volume was 4.5% ± 2.0% (standard deviation) of the ipsilateral hemisphere at 24 hr (corrected for brain swelling using Gerriet’s equation, n = 5). This model is feasible and clinically relevant as it permits the induction of sustained sensorimotor deficits, which is important for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms and novel treatments. PMID:26967269

  11. Performing Permanent Distal Middle Cerebral with Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats to Study Cortical Ischemia with Sustained Disability.

    PubMed

    Wayman, Christina; Duricki, Denise A; Roy, Lisa A; Haenzi, Barbara; Tsai, Shi-Yen; Kartje, Gwendolyn; Beech, John S; Cash, Diana; Moon, Lawrence

    2016-02-23

    Stroke typically occurs in elderly people with a range of comorbidities including carotid (or other arterial) atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, obesity and diabetes. Accordingly, when evaluating therapies for stroke in animals, it is important to select a model with excellent face validity. Ischemic stroke accounts for 80% of all strokes, and the majority of these occur in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), often inducing infarcts that affect the sensorimotor cortex, causing persistent plegia or paresis on the contralateral side of the body. We demonstrate in this video a method for producing ischemic stroke in elderly rats, which causes sustained sensorimotor disability and substantial cortical infarcts. Specifically, we induce permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in elderly female rats by using diathermy forceps to occlude a short segment of this artery. The carotid artery on the ipsilateral side to the lesion was then permanently occluded and the contralateral carotid artery was transiently occluded for 60 min. We measure the infarct size using structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 hr and 8 weeks after stroke. In this study, the mean infarct volume was 4.5% ± 2.0% (standard deviation) of the ipsilateral hemisphere at 24 hr (corrected for brain swelling using Gerriet's equation, n = 5). This model is feasible and clinically relevant as it permits the induction of sustained sensorimotor deficits, which is important for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms and novel treatments.

  12. Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Vascular Hyperintensity Topography, Novel Imaging Marker for Revascularization in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dezhi; Scalzo, Fabien; Rao, Neal M; Hinman, Jason D; Kim, Doojin; Ali, Latisha K; Saver, Jeffrey L; Sun, Wen; Dai, Qiliang; Liu, Xinfeng; Liebeskind, David S

    2016-11-01

    In acute arterial occlusion, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensity (FVH) has been linked to slow flow in leptomeningeal collaterals and cerebral hypoperfusion, but the impact on clinical outcome is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between FVH topography or FVH-Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) pattern and outcome in acute M1-middle cerebral artery occlusion patients with endovascular treatment. We included acute M1-middle cerebral artery occlusion patients treated with endovascular therapy (ET). All patients had diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery before ET. Distal FVH-ASPECTS was evaluated according to distal middle cerebral artery-ASPECT area (M1-M6) and acute DWI lesion was also reviewed. The presence of FVH inside and outside DWI-positive lesions was separately analyzed. Clinical outcome after ET was analyzed with respect to different distal FVH-ASPECTS topography. Among 101 patients who met inclusion criteria for the study, mean age was 66.2±17.8 years and median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 17.0 (interquartile range, 12.0-21.0). FVH-ASPECTS measured outside of the DWI lesion was significantly higher in patients with good outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score of 0-2; 8.0 versus 4.0, P<0.001). Logistic regression demonstrated that FVH-ASPECTS outside of the DWI lesion was independently associated with clinical outcome of these patients (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.68; P=0.013). FVH-ASPECTS inside the DWI lesion was associated with hemorrhagic transformation (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.51; P=0.019). Higher FVH-ASPECTS measured outside the DWI lesion is associated with good clinical outcomes in patients undergoing ET. FVH-ASPECTS measured inside the DWI lesion was predictive of hemorrhagic transformation. The FVH pattern, not number, can serve as an imaging selection marker for ET in

  13. TRPA1 mediates amplified sympathetic responsiveness to activation of metabolically sensitive muscle afferents in rats with femoral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic responses to activation of mechanically and metabolically sensitive muscle afferent nerves during static contraction are augmented in rats with femoral artery occlusion. Moreover, metabolically sensitive transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) has been reported to contribute to sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (BP) responses evoked by static muscle contraction. Thus, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms by which afferent nerves' TRPA1 plays a role in regulating amplified sympathetic responsiveness due to a restriction of blood flow directed to the hindlimb muscles. Our data show that 24–72 h of femoral artery occlusion (1) upregulates the protein levels of TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tissues; (2) selectively increases expression of TRPA1 in DRG neurons supplying metabolically sensitive afferent nerves of C-fiber (group IV); and (3) enhances renal SNA and BP responses to AITC (a TRPA1 agonist) injected into the hindlimb muscles. In addition, our data demonstrate that blocking TRPA1 attenuates SNA and BP responses during muscle contraction to a greater degree in ligated rats than those responses in control rats. In contrast, blocking TRPA1 fails to attenuate SNA and BP responses during passive tendon stretch in both groups. Overall, results of this study indicate that alternations in muscle afferent nerves' TRPA1 likely contribute to enhanced sympathetically mediated autonomic responses via the metabolic component of the muscle reflex under circumstances of chronic muscle ischemia. PMID:26441669

  14. Vascular growth responses to chronic arterial occlusion are unaffected by myeloid specific focal adhesion kinase (FAK) deletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuslein, Joshua L.; Murrell, Kelsey P.; Leiphart, Ryan J.; Llewellyn, Ryan A.; Meisner, Joshua K.; Price, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    Arteriogenesis, or the lumenal expansion of pre-existing arterioles in the presence of an upstream occlusion, is a fundamental vascular growth response. Though alterations in shear stress stimulate arteriogenesis, the migration of monocytes into the perivascular space surrounding collateral arteries and their differentiation into macrophages is critical for this vascular growth response to occur. Focal adhesion kinase’s (FAK) role in regulating cell migration has recently been expanded to primary macrophages. We therefore investigated the effect of the myeloid-specific conditional deletion of FAK on vascular remodeling in the mouse femoral arterial ligation (FAL) model. Using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, whole mount imaging of vascular casted gracilis muscles, and immunostaining for CD31 in gastrocnemius muscles cross-sections, we found that there were no statistical differences in perfusion recovery, arteriogenesis, or angiogenesis 28 days after FAL. We therefore sought to determine FAK expression in different myeloid cell populations. We found that FAK is expressed at equally low levels in Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo blood monocytes, however expression is increased over 2-fold in bone marrow derived macrophages. Ultimately, these results suggest that FAK is not required for monocyte migration to the perivascular space and that vascular remodeling following arterial occlusion occurs independently of myeloid specific FAK.

  15. Safety and efficacy of the frontrunner XP catheter for recanalization of chronic total occlusion of the femoropopliteal arteries.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Ranjan; Vivek, G; Thakkar, Ashok; Prasad, Rajaram; Pai, Umesh; Nayak, Krishnananda

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the safety and efficacy of the Frontrunner XP CTO (chronic total occlusion) catheter (Cordis Corporation) for recanalization of CTO of femoropopliteal arteries. A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) who underwent femoropopliteal angioplasty for TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) class D lesions between 2009 and 2011 was performed. Twenty-two patients were enrolled with a mean age of 58.9 ± 11.5 years. Patients were enrolled with totally occluded arteries (mean occlusion length, 18.0 ± 10.1 cm) that were treated with the Frontrunner XP CTO catheter. All lesions were complex (TASC D) and 86.4% of the lesions were mildly calcified. A Frontrunner catheter was used to treat 22 CTOs after guidewire failure. Twenty-two of the 33 cases (66.7%) had failed previous attempts of percutaneous intervention with conventional guidewire. The Frontrunner catheter was used to treat 22 CTOs after guidewire failure. The Frontrunner catheter successfully facilitated the placement of a guidewire into the distal true lumen in 21 cases (95.5%). Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 3 flow was achieved in all target vessels after further balloon angioplasty or stenting. The Frontrunner XP CTO catheter is safe and effective for successful recanalization of CTO of femoropopliteal arteries and it should be an alternative method after guidewire failure.

  16. TRPA1 mediates amplified sympathetic responsiveness to activation of metabolically sensitive muscle afferents in rats with femoral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic responses to activation of mechanically and metabolically sensitive muscle afferent nerves during static contraction are augmented in rats with femoral artery occlusion. Moreover, metabolically sensitive transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) has been reported to contribute to sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (BP) responses evoked by static muscle contraction. Thus, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms by which afferent nerves' TRPA1 plays a role in regulating amplified sympathetic responsiveness due to a restriction of blood flow directed to the hindlimb muscles. Our data show that 24-72 h of femoral artery occlusion (1) upregulates the protein levels of TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tissues; (2) selectively increases expression of TRPA1 in DRG neurons supplying metabolically sensitive afferent nerves of C-fiber (group IV); and (3) enhances renal SNA and BP responses to AITC (a TRPA1 agonist) injected into the hindlimb muscles. In addition, our data demonstrate that blocking TRPA1 attenuates SNA and BP responses during muscle contraction to a greater degree in ligated rats than those responses in control rats. In contrast, blocking TRPA1 fails to attenuate SNA and BP responses during passive tendon stretch in both groups. Overall, results of this study indicate that alternations in muscle afferent nerves' TRPA1 likely contribute to enhanced sympathetically mediated autonomic responses via the metabolic component of the muscle reflex under circumstances of chronic muscle ischemia.

  17. A broad diagnostic battery for bedside transcranial Doppler to detect flow changes with internal carotid artery stenosis or occlusion.

    PubMed

    Christou, I; Felberg, R A; Demchuk, A M; Grotta, J C; Burgin, W S; Malkoff, M; Alexandrov, A V

    2001-07-01

    The authors establish accuracy parameters of a broad diagnostic battery for bedside transcranial Doppler (TCD) to detect flow changes due to internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis or occlusion. The authors prospectively studied consecutive patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack referred for TCD. TCD was performed and interpreted at bedside using a standard insonation protocol. A broad diagnostic battery included major criteria: collateral flow signals, abnormal siphon or terminal carotid signals, and delayed systolic flow acceleration in the middle cerebral artery. Minor criteria included a unilateral decrease in pulsatility index (< or = 0.6 or < or = 70% of contralateral side), flow diversion signs, and compensatory velocity increase. Angiography or carotid duplex ultrasound (CDU) was used to grade the degree of carotid stenosis using North American criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of TCD findings were determined. Seven hundred and twenty patients underwent TCD, of whom 517 (256 men and 261 women) had angiography and/or CDU within 8.8 +/- 0.9 days. Age was 63.1 +/- 15.7 years. For a 70% to 99% carotid stenosis or occlusion, TCD had sensitivity of 79.4%, specificity of 86.2%, PPV of 57.0%, NPV of 94.8%, and accuracy of 84.7%. For a 50% to 99% carotid stenosis or occlusion, TCD had sensitivity of 67.5%, specificity of 83.9%, PPV of 54.5%, NPV of 90.0%, and accuracy of 81.6%. TCD detected intracranial carotid lesions with 84.9% accuracy and extracranial carotid lesions with 84.4% accuracy (sensitivity of 88% and 79%, specificity of 85% and 86%, PPV of 24% and 54%, and NPV of 99% and 95%, respectively). The prevalence of the ophthalmic artery flow reversal was 36.4% in patients with > or = 70% stenosis or occlusion. If present, this finding indicated a proximal ICA lesion location in 97% of these patients. In symptomatic patients, bedside TCD can accurately detect flow changes

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopy and transcranial sonography to evaluate cerebral autoregulation in middle cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Oldag, Andreas; Neumann, Jens; Goertler, Michael; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Kupsch, Andreas; Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Kopitzki, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of autoregulatory delay by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been proposed as an alternative technique to assess cerebral autoregulation, which is routinely assessed via transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) in most centers. Comparitive studies of NIRS and TCD, however, are largely missing. We investigated whether cerebrovascular reserve (CVR), as assessed via TCD, correlates with the delay of the autoregulatory response to changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP) as assessed by NIRS, i.e., if impaired upstream vasomotor reactivity is reflected by downstream cortical autoregulation. Twenty patients with unilateral high-grade steno-occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) underwent bilateral multichannel NIRS of the cortical MCA distributions over a period of 6 min while breathing at a constant rate of 6 cycles/min to induce stable oscillations in ABP. The phase shift φ between ABP and cortical blood oxygenation was calculated as a measure of autoregulatory latency. In a subgroup of 13 patients, CO2 reactivity of the MCAs was determined by TCD to assess CVR in terms of normalized autoregulatory response (NAR). Mean phase shift between ABP and blood oxygenation was significantly increased over the hemisphere ipsilateral to the steno-occlusion (n = 20, p = 0.042). The interhemispheric difference Δφ in phase shift was significantly larger in patients with markedly diminished or exhausted CVR (NAR < 10) than in patients with normal NAR values (NAR ≥ 10) (p = 0.007). Within the MCA core distribution territory, a strong correlation existed between Δφ and CO2 reactivity of the affected MCA (n = 13, r = -0.78, p = 0.011). NIRS may provide an alternative or supplementary approach to evaluate cerebral autoregulation in risk assessment of ischemic events in steno-occlusive disease of cerebral arteries, especially in patients with insufficient bone windows for TCD.

  19. Main Trunk and Division Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusions: Differences in Recanalization Times, Number of Stent Retriever Passes and Clinical Outcomes: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Ihtesham A.; Maud, Alberto; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Rodriguez, Gustavo J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose In this article, we present our experience with the recanalization of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), we hypothesize that there are higher rates of recanalization with fewer stent retriever passes and better clinical outcomes in patients with division MCA occlusions. A more complex anatomy at the bifurcation may prevent a faster recanalization in main trunk MCA occlusions. Methods We retrospectively identified consecutive patients admitted with MCA occlusions who underwent mechanical thrombectomy using stent retrievers. We categorized patients into division MCA and main trunk MCA occlusions based on angiography. Variables were compared between the groups. We further analyzed patients with trunk MCA occlusions to identify reasons for delays in recanalization. Results There were 32 MCA occlusions that underwent mechanical thrombectomy and eligible for the analysis during the study period. Of those, 11 were main trunk MCA occlusions. Univariate analysis disclosed a trend toward a lower GP-to-recanalization time (p = 0.05) and a lower number of passes required for recanalization in division MCA occlusions. However, there was a significantly better outcome in patients with division MCA occlusion after multivariate analysis. Analyzing main trunk MCA occlusion data, we found that the need for more than one pass to achieve recanalization led to a trend toward a longer GP-to-recanalization time and a worse outcome. When the stent was placed in the dominant division, the chances of recanalization were significantly higher. Conclusions Division MCA occlusions have higher recanalization rates with fewer stent retriever passes and better clinical outcomes than main trunk MCA occlusions, likely due to a more favorable anatomy. Measures like placing the stent retriever in the dominant division may decrease recanalization times and improve clinical outcomes in main trunk MCA occlusions. PMID:27051403

  20. Impact of contralateral carotid occlusion on in-hospital outcomes of carotid artery stenting: Results from the Carotid Artery Revascularization and Endarterectomy (CARE) Registry

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Nestor; Cohen, David J.; Spertus, John A.; Chan, Paul S.; House, John; Kennedy, Kevin; Brindis, Ralph G.; White, Christopher J.; Rosenfield, Kenneth A.; Marso, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Contralateral carotid artery occlusions (CCO) are associated with adverse neurologic events following carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The characteristics and outcomes of patients with CCO undergoing elective carotid artery stenting (CAS) have not been completely studied. Methods: In-hospital outcomes were examined in patients with and without CCO undergoing elective CAS in the Carotid Artery Revascularization and Endarterectomy (CARE Registry®). A CCO was defined as a 100% occlusion of the contralateral internal carotid artery. The primary endpoint was a composite of in-hospital death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. Results: Between 2005 and 2010, 8,416 patients underwent elective CAS, of whom 900 (12%) had CCO. Patients with CCO were younger (69 vs. 71 years, p<0.001), more often male (68% vs. 61%, p<0.001), more frequently had symptoms due to the target lesion (46% vs. 39%, p<0.001), had a prior neurologic event (56% vs. 45%, p<0.001), and more frequently had restenosis in a target lesion after previous CAS (5% vs. 3%, p<0.001). The primary composite endpoint occurred in 14 (1.6%) and 211 (2.8%) patients with and without CCO, respectively (adjusted OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.33-1.00, p=0.052). Conclusion: In the CARE registry, there was no evidence that the presence of a CCO was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke in patients undergoing elective carotid artery stenting. These findings may have implications on the selection of carotid revascularization procedures for such patients. PMID:23347862

  1. The transient intraluminal filament middle cerebral artery occlusion model as a model of endovascular thrombectomy in stroke.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Brad A; Neuhaus, Ain A; Couch, Yvonne; Balami, Joyce S; DeLuca, Gabriele C; Hadley, Gina; Harris, Scarlett L; Grey, Adam N; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-02-01

    The clinical relevance of the transient intraluminal filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) has been questioned due to distinct cerebral blood flow profiles upon reperfusion between tMCAO (abrupt reperfusion) and alteplase treatment (gradual reperfusion), resulting in differing pathophysiologies. Positive results from recent endovascular thrombectomy trials, where the occluding clot is mechanically removed, could revolutionize stroke treatment. The rapid cerebral blood flow restoration in both tMCAO and endovascular thrombectomy provides clinical relevance for this pre-clinical model. Any future clinical trials of neuroprotective agents as adjuncts to endovascular thrombectomy should consider tMCAO as the model of choice to determine pre-clinical efficacy.

  2. Therapeutic Occlusion of an Internal Carotid Artery with a High-Grade Stenosis Using Guglielmi Detachable Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, Elke A. M. Drescher, Robert; Forsting, Michael; Jaeger, Horst J.; Mathias, Klaus D.

    2006-08-15

    We present a patient with a symptomatic, high-grade stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and contraindication for open surgery. Endovascular treatment was attempted, but stent placement was not possible. In view of good collateral flow to the related hemisphere, embolization of the stenosis of the ICA with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) was performed to occlude the vessel. No complications occurred during the procedure or in the 1-year follow-up period. In cases where open surgery or endovascular treatment of a stenosis of the ICA are contraindicated or not possible, therapeutic occlusion of the stenotic ICA could be an alternative treatment option in patients with good collateral flow.

  3. Is Intravenous Thrombolysis Safe and Effective in Central Retinal Artery Occlusion? A Critically Appraised Topic.

    PubMed

    Dumitrascu, Oana M; Shen, Joanne F; Kurli, Madhavi; Aguilar, Maria I; Marks, Lisa A; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Wingerchuk, Dean M; O'Carroll, Cumara B

    2017-07-01

    Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a neurological and ophthalmologic emergency associated with poor visual recovery. There is a dilemma regarding the appropriate treatment, as formal guidelines are lacking. Despite being considered an ocular equivalent of cerebral infarction, the time window of intravenous (IV) thrombolysis administration for maximum efficacy and safety in CRAO remains uncertain. To critically assess the current evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of IV thrombolysis in the treatment of patients with CRAO. The objective was addressed through the development of a critically appraised topic that included a clinical scenario, structured question, literature search strategy, critical appraisal, assessment of results, evidence summary, commentary, and bottom-line conclusions. Participants included consultant and resident neurologists, a medical librarian, and content experts in the fields of vascular neurology and ophthalmology. A recent patient-level meta-analysis was selected for critical appraisal. The study compared the visual recovery rates after IV thrombolysis in CRAO against the natural history of this illness and conservative therapies (ocular massage, anterior chamber paracentesis, and/or hemodilution). Time to thrombolytic therapy administration had a significant impact on visual recovery in CRAO (P<0.001). IV thrombolysis within the first 4.5 hours after symptom onset resulted in recovery of vision in 50.0% of the patients [95% confidence interval (CI), 32.4%-67.6%]. The rate of visual recovery was nearly 3 times higher than in the natural history cohort [odds ratio, 4.7 (95% CI, 2.3-9.6); P<0.001], with a 32.3% absolute risk reduction and a number needed to treat of 4.0 (95% CI, 2.6-6.6). There was no significant difference in the recovery rate after thrombolysis compared with the natural history cohort for those patients treated after 4.5 hours. No major hemorrhages occurred after alteplase administration in this meta

  4. Incidental occlusion of anterior spinal artery due to Onyx reflux in embolization of spinal type II arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joohyun; Lee, Jang-Bo; Cho, Tai-Hyoung; Hur, Junseok W

    2017-05-01

    Onyx embolization is one of the standard treatments for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and is a promising method for spinal AVMs as well. Its advantages have been emphasized, and few complications have been reported with Onyx embolization in spinal AVMs. Here, we report an incidental anterior spinal artery (ASA) occlusion due to Onyx reflux during embolization of a spinal type II AVM. A 15-year-old boy presented with weakness in both upper and lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging and spinal angiogram revealed a spinal type II AVM with two feeders including the right vertebral artery (VA) and the right deep cervical artery. Onyx embolization was performed gradually from the VA to the deep cervical artery and an unexpected Onyx reflux to the ASA was observed during the latter stage deep cervical artery embolization. Post-operative quadriplegia and low cranial nerves (CN) dysfunction were observed. Rehabilitation treatment was performed and the patient showed marked improvement of neurologic deterioration at 1-year follow-up. Onyx is an effective treatment choice for spinal AVMs. However, due to the small vasculature of the spine compared to the brain, the nidus is rapidly packed with a small amount of Onyx, which allows Onyx reflux to unexpected vessels. Extreme caution is required and dual-lumen balloon catheter could be considered for Onyx embolization in spinal AVMs treatment.

  5. The Use of Below-Knee Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Arterial Occlusive Disease Causing Chronic Critical Limb Ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Loefberg, Ann-Marie; Loerelius, Lars-Erik; Karacagil, Sadettin; Westman, Bo; Almgren, Bo; Berqgvist, David

    1996-09-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy, safety and long-term results of crural artery percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in limbs with chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI). Methods: Patients undergoing crural artery PTA due to CLI were followed at regular clinic visits with ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) measurements. PTA of the crural arteries was attempted either alone (n= 39) or in combination with PTA of the superficial and/or popliteal artery (n= 55) in 86 limbs (82 patients and 94 procedures) presenting with CLI. The ages of patients ranged from 37 to 94 years (mean 72 years). The indications for PTA were rest pain in 10 and ulcer/gangrene in 84 limbs.Results: A technically successful PTA with at least one crural level was achieved in 88% of cases (n= 83). Cumulative primary clinical success rates at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months were 55%, 51%, 36%, and 36%, respectively. Cumulative secondary clinical success and limb salvage rates at 36 months were 44% and 72%, respectively. Conclusion: PTA of the crural arteries might be considered the primary choice of treatment in patients with CLI and distal lesions with localized stenosis or segmental short occlusions.

  6. A modification of intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model for ischemic stroke with laser Doppler flowmetry guidance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qiang; Xu, Gang; Liu, Junhui; Wang, Long; Deng, Gang; Liu, Jun; Chen, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the common causes of death and disability in the world. The intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) model is a “gold standard” in surgical ischemic stroke models. Here, we optimized the procedure of this model by ligating on external carotid artery (ECA) stump and two ligatures prepared on internal carotid artery, which could improve the success and survival rate in mice. The results show that ECA approach was superior to common carotid artery approach. Meanwhile, we found that the exposure of pterygopalatine artery was not an essential step for MCAO/R model in mice. PMID:27843320

  7. Combined Use of an Occlusion Balloon Catheter and a Microcatheter for Embolization of the Unselectable Right Inferior Phrenic Artery Supplying Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Matsui, Osamu; Taki, Keiichi; Minami, Tetsuya; Ito, Chiharu; Shinmura, Rieko; Takamatsu, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Miki; Notsumata, Kazuo

    2004-11-15

    We report the combined use of an occlusion balloon catheter and a microcatheter for transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) fed by the unselectable right inferior phrenic artery (IPA). In one case, HCC was fed by the reconstructed right IPA via a small branch arising from the proximate portion of the celiac artery. In another, the tumor was fed by the right IPA that had been previously embolized with coils. TAE was successfully performed through a microcatheter placed in the celiac artery immediately proximal to the occluding balloon catheter of the celiac trunk and coil embolization of the left gastric artery.

  8. Upper limb artery segmental occlusions due to chronic use of ergotamine combined with itraconazole, treated by thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The ergotamine tartrate associated with certain categories of drugs can lead to critical ischemia of the extremities. Discontinuation of taking ergotamine is usually sufficient for the total regression of ischemia, but in some cases it could be necessary thrombolytic and anticoagulant therapy to avoid amputation. Case report A woman of 62 years presented with a severe pain left forearm appeared 10 days ago, with a worsening trend. The same symptoms appeared after 5 days also in the right forearm. Physical examination showed the right arm slightly hypothermic, with radial reduced pulse in presence of reduced sensitivity. The left arm was frankly hypothermic, pulse less on radial and with an ulnar humeral reduced pulse, associated to a decreased sensitivity and motility. Clinical history shows a chronic headache for which the patient took a daily basis for years Cafergot suppository (equivalent to 3.2 mg of ergotamine). From about ten days had begun therapy with itraconazole for vaginal candidiasis. The Color-Doppler ultrasound shown arterial thrombosis of the upper limbs (humeral and radial bilateral), with minimal residual flow to the right and no signal on the humeral and radial left artery. Results Angiography revealed progressive reduction in size of the axillary artery and right humeral artery stenosis with right segmental occlusions and multiple hypertrophic collateral circulations at the elbow joint. At the level of the right forearm was recognizable only the radial artery, decreased in size. Does not recognize the ulnar, interosseous artery was thin. To the left showed progressive reduction in size of the distal subclavian and humeral artery, determined by multiple segmental steno-occlusion with collateral vessels serving only a thin hypotrophic interosseous artery. Arteriographic findings were compatible with systemic drug-induced disease. The immediate implementation of thrombolysis, continued for 26 hours, with heparin in continuous intravenous

  9. Concurrent Graves' disease and intracranial arterial stenosis/occlusion: special considerations regarding the state of thyroid function, etiology, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Shigeo; Nakagawa, Toru; Murakami, Hideki

    2011-07-01

    Several studies have shown the relation between Graves' disease and stenosis/occlusion of intracranial arteries. To our knowledge, only 31 cases, including our case, of concurrent Graves' disease and moyamoya syndrome or intracranial arterial stenosis/occlusion have been described. The patients were predominantly women, and their ages ranged from 10 to 54 years (mean, 29.3 years). Transient ischemic attacks and cerebral infarction were the common symptoms in these patients. Except one previous case and the present case, all cases showed thyrotoxicity when the cerebral ischemic event occurred. Among the 29 cases, in which the treatment regimen was known, antithyroid therapy was administered in 25 cases, and surgical treatment for cerebral vessel diseases was performed in 11 cases. Most of the patients eventually recovered from the neurological symptoms after medical and/or surgical treatment; one of the patients died, and one patient's condition worsened. Although the mechanism underlying intracranial arterial occlusion or stenosis in patients with Graves' disease has not been elucidated, several hypotheses have been described. Thyroid hormones may augment vascular sensitivity to the sympathetic nervous system and induce pathological changes in the arterial walls. An immune-mediated mechanism may play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Atherosclerosis may be associated with these disorders. Vasculitis induced by antithyroid drugs may cause changes in the intracranial arteries. Finally, the possibility of a mere coincidence of Graves' disease and these vascular changes should also be considered. Cerebrovascular hemodynamic changes induced by thyrotoxicosis were considered to be responsible for the cerebral ischemic events. Excessive thyroid hormone production is considered to increase the cerebral metabolism and oxygen consumption. In addition, thyrotoxicosis-induced hypercoagulability may influence ischemic events. Therefore, the possibility of

  10. Augmented P2X response and immunolabeling in dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating skeletal muscle following femoral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua

    2013-04-01

    The responsiveness of sensory neurons to muscle metabolites is altered under the conditions of insufficient limb blood supply in some diseases, such as peripheral artery disease. The purpose of this study was to examine ATP-induced current with activation of purinergic P2X subtypes P2X₃ and P2X₂/₃ in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of control limbs and limbs with 24 h of femoral artery occlusion using whole cell patch-clamp methods. Also, dual-labeling immunohistochemistry was employed to determine existence of P2X₃ expression in DRG neurons of thin-fiber afferents. DRG neurons from 4- to 6-wk-old rats were labeled by injecting the fluorescence tracer DiI into the hindlimb muscles 4-5 days before the recording experiments. Transient (P2X₃), mixed (P2X₃ and P2X₂/₃), and sustained (P2X₂/₃) current responses to α,β-methylene ATP (a P2X receptor agonist) are observed in small and medium DRG neurons, and size distribution of DRG neurons is similar in control and occluded limbs. However, the peak current amplitude of DRG neuron induced by stimulation of P2X₃ and/or P2X₂/₃ is larger in occluded limbs than that in control limbs. Moreover, the percentage of DRG neurons with P2X₃ transient currents is greater after arterial occlusion compared with control. In addition, a rapid desensitization was observed in DRG neurons with transient currents, but not with sustained currents in control and occluded groups. Furthermore, results from immunofluorescence experiments show that femoral artery occlusion primarily augments P2X₃ expression within DRG neurons projecting C-fiber afferents. Overall, these findings suggest that 1) greater ATP-induced currents with activation of P2X₃ and P2X₂/₃ are developed when hindlimb arterial blood supply is deficient under ischemic conditions and 2) increased P2X₃ expression is largely observed in C-fibers of DRG neurons after hindlimb vascular insufficiency.

  11. Acid-sensing ion channel subtype 3 function and immunolabelling increases in skeletal muscle sensory neurons following femoral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua

    2012-03-01

    Sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure responses to static hindlimb muscle contractions are greater in rats with femoral arteries that were previously ligated (24-72 h earlier) than in control rats. Studies further demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel subtype 3 (ASIC(3)) in thin-fibre muscle afferents contributes to the amplified reflex muscle responses observed in occluded rats, probably due to enhanced ASIC(3) expression in muscle sensory neurons. The purpose of this study was to characterize acid-induced current with activation of ASIC(3) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of control rats and rats with 24 h of femoral occlusion using whole-cell patch clamp methods. Also, immunohistochemistry was employed to examine existence of ASIC(3) expression in DRG neurons of thin-fibre afferents. DRG neurons from 4- to 6-week-old rats were labelled by injecting the fluorescence tracer DiI into the hindlimb muscles 4-5 days prior to the recording experiments. The results of this study show that ∼90% of current responses evoked by pH 6.7 in DRG neurons innervating the hindlimb muscles are ASIC(3)-like. The peak current amplitude to pH 6.7 is significantly attenuated with application of rAPETx2, a specific ASIC(3) antagonist. In addition, ASIC(3)-like current responses to pH 6.7 are observed in small, medium and large DRG neurons, and size distribution of DRG neurons is similar in control and occluded animals. However, the peak current amplitude of DRG neuron response induced by ASIC(3) stimulation is larger in occluded rats than that in control rats. Moreover, the percentage of DRG neurons with ASIC(3)-like currents is greater after arterial occlusion compared with control. Furthermore, results from double immunofluorescence experiments show that femoral artery occlusion mainly augments ASIC(3) expression within DRG neurons projecting C-fibre afferents. Taken together, these data suggest that (1) the majority of current responses to pH 6.7 are ASIC

  12. The Effect of Chronic Hypoxemia on Regional Myocardial Blood Flow in the Conscious Dog After Acute Coronary Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Sanford P.; White, Francis C.; Bloor, Colin M.

    1977-01-01

    Chronic hypoxemia was produced in 16 dogs by surgical transposition of the caudal vena cava to the left atrium to determine if chronic hypoxemia would alter the response of the myocardium to acute ischemia. An electromagnetic aortic flow probe, left atrial tube, and occlusive cuff on the left circumflex coronary artery were permanently implanted in 11 hypoxemic and 26 normal control dogs. The animals were studied in the conscious state after recovery from the surgery. Dogs with hypoxemia had a blood hematocrit value of 54.3 ± 1.0% (SE), arterial PO2 of 43.2 ± 1.4 mm Hg, and 80.2 ± 1.6% oxygen saturation. There was no difference from control animals in the ratio of left ventricular weight to body weight, but the right ventricular weight was significantly decreased in the hypoxemic dogs. Cardiac output from the left ventricle was twice that of the right ventricle. Aortic blood flow was 3.68 ± 0.22 liters/min in hypoxemic animals and 2.64 ± 0.19 liters/min in normal dogs. Myocardial blood flow measured with 15-μ diameter tracer microspheres was increased from 79 ± 10 and 59 ± 8 ml/100 g/min in left ventricular endocardial and epicardial halves, respectively, in normal dogs to 212 ± 48 and 172 ± 39 in dogs with chronic hypoxemia. There were no deaths in 10 hypoxemic dogs within 24 hours after complete circumflex coronary artery occlusion; 7 of 26 (27%) normal dogs died after circumflex coronary artery occlusion during the conscious state. Gross infarct size was extremely variable in both groups. Median infarct size was smaller in dogs with hypoxemia and was directly correlated with arterial PO2 in hypoxemic dogs. There was a mild, but statistically not significant, increase in the anastomotic index of hypoxemic dogs compared with that of normal animals, suggesting that a metabolic adaptive change rather than increased collateral circulation may have been responsible for the decreased mortality and smaller infarct size in hypoxemic dogs. PMID:596417

  13. Abdominal tuberculosis presenting as ileocolic intussusception in an infant.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Dipti; Nigam, Sonu; Kohli, Kavita

    2007-01-01

    Intussusception is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction in children, with a peak in children 5 to 7 months of age. Identifiable causes are found in 90% of adults, whereas in infants and young children the majority are idiopathic. We report a case of abdominal tuberculosis (ATB) presenting as an ileocolic intussusception in an infant. A 6-month-old infant presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction. Peroperatively, ileocolic intussusception was found. Histological examination revealed caseating epitheloid cell granulomas with positivity for acid-fast bacilli. Only 3 cases of ATB presenting as intussusception have been previously reported in the literature, with only 1 case presenting in a child. This appears to be the 2nd case of ATB presenting as an intussusception in a child and also in an infant. Tuberculosis should also be kept in the differential diagnosis of lead point of intussusception, even in the age group in which most cases are idiopathic, especially in endemic areas.

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Common Iliac Occlusion in the Presence of Persistent Sciatic Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Mofidi, R. Macaskill, E. J.; Griffiths, G. D.; Chakraverty, S.

    2008-07-15

    Persistent sciatic artery is a rare congenital anomaly. It is associated with increased incidence of aneurysmal dilatation, thrombosis, distal embolization, and atherosclerotic change. We describe the case of a patient with persistent sciatic artery who presented with a critically ischemic left leg as a result of an occluded left common iliac artery, which was treated by angioplasty and stenting, and discuss the endovascular iliac recanalization in the presence of a persistent sciatic artery.

  15. Laparoscopic Right Hemicolectomy for Ileocolic Intussusception Secondary to Caecal Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, N; Saklani, AP; Davies, M; Chandrasekaran, TV; Khot, U; Beynon, J

    2009-01-01

    Intussusception in adults is a rare cause of abdominal pain. Unlike its paediatric counterpart, intussusception in adults is associated with obvious pathology. We describe a case of ileocolic intussusception extending to the splenic flexure. We were able to reduce the intussusception partially and pedicle was stapled carefully. The specimen was delivered through a small incision and right hemicolectomy was performed adhering to oncological principles. We recommend laparoscopic-assisted surgery is considered for adult intussusceptions. PMID:19909608

  16. Ileocolic intussusception due to Burkitt lymphoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bălănescu, N R; Topor, L; Malureanu, D; Stoica, I

    2013-03-15

    Burkitt lymphoma has many forms of clinical presentations and, in children, it is usually discovered due to the presence of an abdominal mass. This rapidly growing tumor is highly malignant, aggressive, and may cause either indirect symptoms, due to pressure phenomena or direct involvement of the bowel lumen, leading to either intestinal obstruction or intussusception. We describe the case of a 4-year-old girl who exhibited an unusual presentation of ileocolic intussusception on a Burkitt lymphoma lesion of the ileum.

  17. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery occlusion after gamma knife radiosurgery for pituitary adenoma: Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Spatola, Giorgio; Frosio, Laura; Losa, Marco; Del Vecchio, Antonella; Piloni, Martina; Mortini, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery is an effective and safe treatment modality in the management of pituitary adenomas. Internal carotid occlusion is a rare but possible complication of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for lesions within the cavernous sinus. To stress the importance of considering the Internal carotid artery as an organ at risk in cavernous sinus invading adenomas and reduce the dose delivered to this structure whenever possible. We report two cases of asymptomatic occlusion of the intracavernous segment of the internal carotid artery seven years after treatment in acromegalic patients. After trans-sphenoidal surgery, residual tumour was treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. The maximal doses to the affected artery were higher than 40 Gy and the 90% isodose was close to the arterial wall. Every effort should be done to minimize the radiation dose to the internal carotid artery. If not possible, "hot spots" exceeding the 90% isodose close to this vessel should be avoided.

  18. Inferior Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysms Associated with Occlusive Lesions of the Celiac Axis: Diagnosis, Treatment Options, Outcomes, and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Flood, Karen Nicholson, Anthony A.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To describe the presentation, treatment, and outcomes for 14 patients with aneurysms of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries associated with occlusive lesions of the celiac axis, and to review the literature for similar cases. Methods, Over a period of 12 years, 14 patients (10 women and 4 men) ranging in age from 26 to 50 (mean 46) years were demonstrated to have aneurysms of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery origin associated with stenosis or occlusion of the celiac axis. All patients were treated by a combination of surgery and interventional radiology. Results. Outcome data collected between 3 months and 4 years (mean 2 years) demonstrated that all aneurysms remained excluded, and all 14 patients were well. The 49 case reports in the literature confirm the findings of this cohort. Conclusion. In inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm resulting from celiac occlusive disease, endovascular treatment is best achieved by stenting the celiac axis and/or embolizing the aneurysm when necessary.

  19. [Ileocolic intussusception in an adult caused by inverted Meckel's diverticulum].

    PubMed

    Soria-Céspedes, D; Leuchter-Ibarra, J; Ventura-Molina, V; Mora-Constantino, J

    2012-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in 2.00% of the population and is more frequent in children. Invagination is an unusual complication that can cause secondary intestinal intussusception. This event is extremely rare and only a few cases have been reported. We present the case of a 19-year-old male who presented with chronic abdominal pain and weight loss of 23 Kg 6 months prior to hospital admittance. The last episode manifested as intense abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea with a 6-hour progression. Imaging studies established the diagnosis of bowel obstruction and ileocolic intussusception. Laparotomy with ileocolic resection was performed without reducing the intussusception. The histopathologic study reported inverted Meckel's diverticulum at the base of the ileocolic intussusception. Intestinal intussusception in adults, secondary to inverted Meckel's diverticulum is rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with abdominal pain and bowel obstruction. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. The accuracy of transcranial Doppler in the diagnosis of stenosis or occlusion of the terminal internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jose C; Mikulik, Robert; Garami, Zsolt; Alexandrov, Andrei V

    2004-10-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) can detect intracranial stenoses and occlusions that can help in the diagnosis and management of ischemic stroke. The accuracy parameters for lesions located in the terminal internal carotid artery (TICA) are less known, unlike other basal cerebral vessels. The authors studied consecutive patients referred for TCD who underwent contrast angiography or magnetic resonance angiography. They calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), and likelihood ratios. Forty-three patients had TCD and angiography: mean age was 57 +/- 20 years, and 65% were men. Twenty-two patients were diagnosed with TICA stenosis or occlusion on TCD underwent angiography. Four patients had abnormal TCD findings that were not confirmed by angiography. Two of 21 patients with normal TCD showed moderate (< 50%) stenosis of the TICA and cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery at angiography. Accuracy parameters for TCD were as follows: sensitivity = 90% (confidence interval [CI], 63%-96%), specificity = 83% (CI, 61%-94%), PPV = 82%, NPV = 86%, positive likelihood ratio = 5, and negative likelihood ratio = 0.17. TCD is a sensitive screening tool for the lesions in the TICA. Specificity is likely affected by a wide spectrum of the stenosis severity shown at angiography and time lags between the studies.

  1. Measurement of pleural pressure swings with a fluid-filled esophageal catheter vs pulmonary artery occlusion pressure.

    PubMed

    Verscheure, S; Massion, P B; Gottfried, S; Goldberg, P; Samy, L; Damas, P; Magder, S

    2017-02-01

    Pleural pressure measured with esophageal balloon catheters (Peso) can guide ventilator management and help with the interpretation of hemodynamic measurements, but these catheters are not readily available or easy to use. We tested the utility of an inexpensive, fluid-filled esophageal catheter (Peso) by comparing respiratory-induced changes in pulmonary artery occlusion (Ppao), central venous (CVP), and Peso pressures. We studied 30 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery who had pulmonary artery and esophageal catheters in place. Proper placement was confirmed by chest compression with airway occlusion. Measurements were made during pressure-regulated volume control (VC) and pressure support (PS) ventilation. The fluid-filled esophageal catheter provided a high-quality signal. During VC and PS, change in Ppao (∆Ppao) was greater than ∆Peso (bias = -2 mm Hg) indicating an inspiratory increase in cardiac filling. During VC, ∆CVP bias was 0 indicating no change in right heart filling, but during PS, CVP fell less than Peso indicating an inspiratory increase in filling. Peso measurements detected activation of expiratory muscles, development of non-west zone 3 lung conditions during inspiration, and ventilator-triggered inspiratory efforts. A fluid-filled esophageal catheter provides a high-quality, easily accessible, and inexpensive measure of change in pleural pressure and provided insights into patient-ventilator interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Results of a New Distal Protection Method in Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion of the Superficial Femoral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Funatsu, Atsushi; Ejima, Emiko; Muranishi, Hiromi; Utsunomiya, Makoto; Shibata, Kensaku; Mizobuchi, Masahiro; Enjoji, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    Aims. To determine the efficacy of a new distal protection method in SFA CTO interventions. Methods and Results. From June 2003 to February 2009, ninety-two consecutive, chronic total occlusions of superficial femoral arteries were treated with catheter-based intervention using a bidirectional approach. Nine of these cases were managed with our original, distal protection method, based on symptoms, angiographic images, wire resistance, and intravascular ultrasound images. The average age was 73 years; eight patients were male. The mean occlusion length was 17.1 cm. A distal protection balloon was inserted from the retrograde sheath in the popliteal artery and placed distal to the occluded lesion after successful wire crossing. Lesion dilatation with a balloon was performed antegradely and debris was removed by 6Fr. guiding catheter. Debris was retrieved from all lesions, consisting mainly of thrombus. Where we decided not to use the distal protection method, there was no distal thromboembolism. Conclusion. In SFA-CTO intervention, the risk of distal embolization is 10%, which can be anticipated and eliminated by the distal protection method. PMID:19946634

  3. Treatment of subacute and chronic thrombotic occlusions of lower extremity peripheral arteries with the excimer laser: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Shammas, Nicolas W; Weissman, Neil J; Coiner, Denise; Shammas, Gail A; Dippel, Eric; Jerin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Thrombus is highly prevalent in patients with recent symptoms (< 6 months) of claudication or limb ischemia due to an occluded culprit lower extremity vessels. Treatment of these thrombotic occlusions is challenging. In this feasibility study, the excimer laser (Spectranetics, Colorado Springs, CO) has been tested for its safety and ability to ablate thrombus in patients with recent arterial occlusions. Angiographic operator assessment and volumetric core lab quantitation of the thrombus were performed at baseline and after excimer laser but prior to definitive treatment of the vessel to evaluate thrombus resolution. Consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled at a single site. Procedural success was defined as achieving a residual stenosis of <30% after final treatment with no intraprocedural complications requiring additional treatment. 20 consecutive patients were enrolled in this study (8 males, mean age 69.5±11.1 years). Based on patients symptom onset, 12 patients were subacute (> 24 h, < 30 days), and 8 chronic (between 1 to 6 months). 15/20 (75%) had restenotic occlusions. Due to the long, occlusive nature of these lesions, only 8 patients had complete intravascular ultrasound images at each time point which allowed volumetric analysis by the core lab. There was no statistical difference in plaque/thrombus volume between baseline (pretreatment) and excimer laser (P=.68). There was however a significant reduction in residual angiographic stenosis post laser alone (100% vs. 66.75%±23.9%, P=.001). Procedural success was 100%. There were no deaths or amputations. Bail out stenting was performed in 10/20 (50%) patients. Embolic filters were used in 15/20 (75%) of patients. Macrodebris>2 mm were seen in 85.7% of filters. There was no in-hospital or 30-day reocclusion of the treated vessel but one patient had a vascular access complication (small AV fistula) conservatively managed. No other serious adverse events were noted. Using the excimer laser appears

  4. Use of Spider Filter Embolic Protection Device During Endovascular Revascularization of Acute Thromboembolic Occlusion of Superficial Femoral Artery.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhongzhi; Zhao, Jinwei; Tian, Feng; Wang, Kai; Li, Shaoqin; Jiang, Guomin; Wang, Weiping

    2015-12-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Spider filter embolic protection device (EPD) in protecting patients from distal migration of thromboemboli during revascularization of acute superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusion secondary to thromboemboli. Data from all patients at our institution who had EPD placement for embolic protection during endovascular revascularization for acute thromboembolic occlusion of the SFA were analyzed. From April 2007 to June 2014, a total of 14 patients had EPD placement during endovascular revascularization for acute SFA occlusion secondary to thromboemboli. All patients presented with acute onset of limb ischemia, and further work-up with imaging studies demonstrated thromboembolic occlusions. The duration from onset of symptoms to revascularization was 7.0 ± 2.7 h (range 2-14 h). An aspiration technique for thrombectomy was used in all 14 cases (aspiration alone, 6 cases; aspiration plus urokinase, 7 cases; additional angioplasty after urokinase, 1 case). Spider filter EPDs were successfully placed at the target in all 14 cases, and the thromboemboli were captured in 13/14 (92.9%) cases. Successful reestablishment of the SFA flow without distal branch embolism occurred in all 14 cases. There were no EPD-related complications. During a mean 32.2 ± 20.2 months of follow-up, 13 patients remained asymptomatic; one patient who underwent PTA during the procedure reported limb coolness and fatigue 6 months later because of recurrent atherosclerotic stenosis. The Spider filter EPD can be safe and effective in protecting patients from distal branch embolism when they undergo an endovascular thrombectomy procedure.

  5. Therapeutic effects of oral dimethyl fumarate on stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion: An animal experimental study.

    PubMed

    Safari, Anahid; Fazeli, Mehdi; Namavar, Mohammad Reza; Tanideh, Nader; Jafari, Peyman; Borhani-Haghighi,