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Sample records for ileocolic artery occlusion

  1. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  2. Retinal artery occlusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... These blockages are more likely if there is hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ) in the eye. Clots ... Blindness and vision loss Blood clots Diabetes Glaucoma Hardening of the arteries High blood cholesterol levels High ...

  3. ACUTE RETINAL ARTERIAL OCCLUSIVE DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2011-01-01

    The initial section deals with basic sciences; among the various topics briefly discussed are the anatomical features of ophthalmic, central retinal and cilioretinal arteries which may play a role in acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Crucial information required in the management of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the length of time the retina can survive following that. An experimental study shows that CRAO for 97 minutes produces no detectable permanent retinal damage but there is a progressive ischemic damage thereafter, and by 4 hours the retina has suffered irreversible damage. In the clinical section, I discuss at length various controversies on acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Classification of acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders These are of 4 types: CRAO, branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), cotton wools spots and amaurosis fugax. Both CRAO and BRAO further comprise multiple clinical entities. Contrary to the universal belief, pathogenetically, clinically and for management, CRAO is not one clinical entity but 4 distinct clinical entities – non-arteritic CRAO, non-arteritic CRAO with cilioretinal artery sparing, arteritic CRAO associated with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and transient non-arteritic CRAO. Similarly, BRAO comprises permanent BRAO, transient BRAO and cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO), and the latter further consists of 3 distinct clinical entities - non-arteritic CLRAO alone, non-arteritic CLRAO associated with central retinal vein occlusion and arteritic CLRAO associated with GCA. Understanding these classifications is essential to comprehend fully various aspects of these disorders. Central retinal artery occlusion The pathogeneses, clinical features and management of the various types of CRAO are discussed in detail. Contrary to the prevalent belief, spontaneous improvement in both visual acuity and visual fields does occur, mainly during the first 7 days. The incidence of spontaneous visual

  4. Stenting in Acute Lower Limb Arterial Occlusions

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, Jowad; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2008-07-15

    Management of critical limb ischemia of acute onset includes surgical embolectomy, bypass grafting, aspiration thrombectomy, thrombolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy followed by treatment of the underlying cause. We present our experience with the use of stents to treat acute embolic/thrombotic occlusions in one iliac and three femoropopliteal arteries. Although this is a small case series, excellent immediate and midterm results suggest that stenting of acute occlusions of the iliac, superficial femoral, and popliteal arteries is a safe and effective treatment option.

  5. Acute arterial occlusion after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Patricia C; Rogic, Roselyn; Eddington, Carolyn

    2006-11-01

    There are a number of complications associated with total knee-joint arthroplasty. These include deep venous thromboses, peroneal palsy, infection, anemia, and Ogilvie's syndrome. An uncommon but potentially limb-threatening complication is acute arterial occlusion. Approximately 35 cases have been reported in the orthopedic literature. Prompt recognition and treatment intervention are the keys to successful outcome. We describe the case of one patient who had mild peroneal palsy and developed acute arterial occlusion 9 days postoperatively while on the inpatient rehabilitation service. Prompt aggressive management restored arterial circulation to the lower limb. Careful management of patients after total knee arthroplasty requires an understanding that arterial occlusion is a rare limb-threatening complication of surgery, but that it is treatable with prompt, deliberate management. Physiatrists should be aware that this condition exists in postoperative knee-joint arthroplasty patients. They should pay careful attention to any patient with a history of peripheral vascular disease or postoperative peroneal palsy.

  6. Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with common hepatic artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Bracale, G; Porcellini, M; Bernardo, B; Selvetella, L; Renda, A

    1996-12-01

    A unique case of true inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm (IPDA) associated with occlusion of common hepatic artery is reported. Radiological and MRI findings are described. Because of high risk of visceral ischemia that contraindicated a percutaneous transluminal embolization, a successful tangential resection of aneurysm was performed.

  7. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization.

  8. Optimal management of infrainguinal arterial occlusive disease

    PubMed Central

    Pennywell, David J; Tan, Tze-Woei; Zhang, Wayne W

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease is becoming a major health problem in Western societies as the population continues to age. In addition to risk of limb loss, the complexity of the disease is magnified by its intimate association with medical comorbidity, especially cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Risk factor modification and antiplatelet therapy are essential to improve long-term survival. Surgical intervention is indicated for intermittent claudication when a patient’s quality of life remains unacceptable after a trial of conservative therapy. Open reconstruction and endovascular revascularization are cornerstone for limb salvage in patients with critical limb ischemia. Recent advances in catheter-based technology have made endovascular intervention the preferred treatment approach for infrainguinal disease in many cases. Nevertheless, lower extremity bypass remains an important treatment strategy, especially for reasonable risk patients with a suitable bypass conduit. In this review, we present a summary of current knowledge about peripheral arterial disease followed by a review of current, evidence-based medical and surgical therapy for infrainguinal arterial occlusive disease. PMID:25368519

  9. [Acute arterial occlusion associated disseminated hydatidosis].

    PubMed

    Somocurcio, Jose; Alvarez, Gamero; Lara Campos, Gloria; Cahuana Aparco, Judith; Calongos Porras, Estefanny; Bermejo Cataño, Pedro; Tejada Llacsa, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Hydatidosis or echinococcosis are terms used to denote the zoonotic infestation caused by adult and larval stages (metacestode) of the cestode from the genus Echinococcus (family tenidae). The term hydatidosis should be applied to the infestation caused by the metacestode while echinococcosis for the larval and adult stages. In Peru there is a high prevalence of this infection, liver and lung being the most affected organs. There are factors from the host and from the infectious agent that contribute to this infection, with the immune component of the host as an important infection and dissemination point. A case of acute arterial occlusion associated with disseminated hydatidosis in a 54 years old patient, born and from Huancavelica, with sudden onset of an acute arterial obstruction is reported. The patient did not improve after surgery and died within 48 hours of presentation.

  10. Common Carotid Artery Occlusion: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Bajkó, Zoltán; Bălaşa, Rodica; Moţăţăianu, Anca; Maier, Smaranda; Chebuţ, Octavia Claudia; Szatmári, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    Subjects and Methods. We analysed 5000 cerebrovascular ultrasound records. A total of 0.4% of the patients had common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). Results. The mean age was 59.8 ± 14.2 years, and the male/female ratio was 2.33. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Right-sided and left-sided CCAO occurred in 65% and 30% of the cases, respectively, and bilateral occlusion was detected in one case (5%). Patent bifurcation was observed in 10 cases of CCAO in which the anterograde flow in the ICA was maintained from the external carotid artery with reversed flow. In two of the cases, the occluded CCA was hypoplastic. The aetiology of CCAO in the majority of cases was the atherosclerosis (15 cases). The male/female ratio was higher in the patients with occluded distal vessels, and the short-term outcome was poorer. Only two cases from this series underwent revascularisation surgery. Spontaneous recanalisation was observed in one case. Conclusions. The most frequent cause of CCAO was atherosclerosis. The outcome is improved in the cases with patent distal vessels, and spontaneous recanalisation is possible. Treatment methods have not been standardised. Surgical revascularisation is possible in cases of patent distal vessels, but the indications are debatable. PMID:24167740

  11. SURGICAL EMBOLECTOMY FOR FOVEA-THREATENING ACUTE RETINAL ARTERY OCCLUSION

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David R.P.; Mammo, Zaid; Chin, Eric K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a technique of surgical intraocular embolectomy in patients with acute fovea-threatening branch retinal artery occlusion. Methods: Pars plana vitrectomy with embolectomy involving embolus isolation, dissection, and removal in patients with an acute fovea-threatening arterial occlusion without a patent cilioretinal artery. Results: The surgical technique involves a core vitrectomy. The blocked artery is incised using a microvitreoretinal blade, and microsurgical forceps are used to retrieve the embolus. No significant complications were noted. The study technique offers an excellent safety profile and minimizes the risk of vitreous hemorrhage by carefully dissecting the vascular adventitial sheath and isolating the embolus. Conclusion: Surgical embolectomy is a viable technique for patients with acute fovea-threatening arterial occlusions without patent cilioretinal artery. Careful dissection and retrieval of the embolus minimizes the risk of vitreous hemorrhage, which is an important improvement in previous techniques for management of acute retinal arterial occlusions. PMID:26674278

  12. Cilio-retinal arterial circulation in central retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, D

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that an occlusion of the central retinal artery is an essential prerequisite for haemorrhage formation after central retinal vein obstruction has been investigated by examining the fundus changes in patients with a cilio-retinal arterial circulation; the findings are at variance with the 'combined occlusion hypothesis'. Comparisons were made between the pathological features in two retinal capillary beds with independent sources of arterial supply--namely, the central retinal and cilio-retinal arteries--but with an obstructed venous drainage channel common to both--namely, the central retinal vein. The importance of intraluminal pressure changes (as distinct from perfusion changes) in the causation of haemorrhages and oedema after venous occlusion is stressed, and the role of arterial disease in the pathogenesis of venous occlusions is distinguished from its role in determining the sequelae of such occlusions. Images PMID:1203235

  13. Bilateral atherosclerotic internal carotid artery occlusion and recurrent ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Amin, Osama S M

    2015-06-08

    Bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion (BICAO) is a rare disease that carries a gloomy prognosis. We report a case of a 52-year-old man who developed ischaemic infarction at the region of the right middle cerebral artery; he was found to have atherosclerotic occlusion of both internal carotid arteries on Doppler-duplex examination. He received medical treatment only. After 1 year, he developed a new infarction at the region of the left middle cerebral artery. Conventional angiography revealed bilateral occlusion of internal carotid arteries at their origin, approximately 50% stenosis of the common carotid bulbs and mild stenosis of the origin of external carotid arteries. The patient did not undergo any form of surgical revascularisation procedures and died of severe aspiration pneumonia approximately 2 months after the second stroke. BICAO portends a poor outcome and carries a risk of recurrent ischaemic events. The best management strategy for this vascular occlusion remains unclear.

  14. Acute Popliteal Artery Occlusion after Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Ryu; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Takayama, Koji; Kawakami, Yohei; Kamimura, Masato; Matsushita, Takehiko; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Acute arterial occlusions are a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, in revision TKA, the risk of such complications is higher and these complications can lead to amputation if not adequately treated. We describe a case of acute popliteal artery occlusion 4 hours after second revision TKA in a patient with a history of several surgical procedures because of periprosthetic infection at a previous hospital. Revascularization was achieved via bypass grafting and amputation was narrowly avoided despite time lag after symptom onset to revascularization. In this case, it was possible that the arterial disease that accompanied the vascular endothelium injury such as pseudoaneurysm had existed since the previous surgery at another hospital and was destroyed by the surgical procedure, which led to the formation of thrombosis and arterial occlusion. Preoperative evaluation of the arterial condition should be considered to avoid acute arterial occlusive disease, especially in patients who had several previous surgical procedures.

  15. Hemi-central retinal artery occlusion in young adults.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Rishi, Ekta; Sharma, Tarun; Mahajan, Sheshadri

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the clinical presentations of retinal artery occlusion, hemi-central retinal artery occlusion (Hemi-CRAO) is rarely described. This case series of four adults aged between 22 and 36 years attempts to describe the clinical profile, etiology and management of Hemi-CRAO. Case 1 had an artificial mitral valve implant. Polycythemia and malignant hypertension were noted in Case 2. The third patient had Leiden mutation while the fourth patient had Eisenmenger's syndrome. Clinical examination and fundus fluorescein angiography revealed a bifurcated central retinal artery at emergence from the optic nerve head, in all cases. Color Doppler examination of the central retinal artery confirmed branching of the artery behind the lamina cribrosa. It is hypothesized that bifurcation of central retinal artery behind the lamina cribrosa may predispose these hemi-trunks to develop an acute occlusion if associated with underlying risk factors. The prognosis depends upon arterial recanalisation and etiology of the thromboembolic event.

  16. Ileo-right hemi-colonic cervical pull-up on a non-supercharged ileocolic arterial pedicle: A technical and case report

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Andreas RR; Hackl, Christina; Soeder, Yorick; Schlitt, Hans J; Dahlke, Marc-H

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal reconstruction can be challenging when stomach and colon are not anatomically intact and their use as esophageal substitutes is therefore limited. Innovative individual approaches are then necessary to restore the intestinal passage. We describe a technique in which a short stump of the right hemicolon and 25 cm of ileum on a long, non-supercharged, fully mobilized ileocolic arterial pedicle were used for esophageal reconstruction to the neck. In this case, a 65 year-old male patient had accidentally indigested hydrochloric acid which caused necrosis of his upper digestive tract. An emergency esophagectomy, gastrectomy, duodenectomy, pancreatectomy and splenectomy had been performed in an outside hospital. A cervical esophagostomy and a biliodigestive anastomosis had been created and a jejunal catheter for enteral feeding had been placed. After the patient had recovered, a reconstruction of his food passage via the left and transverse colon failed for technical reasons due to an intraoperative necrotic demarcation of the colon. Our team then faced the situation that only a short stump of the right hemi-colon was left in situ when the patient was referred to our center. After intensified nutritional therapy, we reconstructed this patient’s food passage with the right hemicolon-approach described herein. After treatment of a postoperative pneumonia, the patient was discharged from hospital on the 26th postoperative day in a good clinical condition on an oral-only diet. In conclusion, individual approaches for long-segment reconstruction of the esophagus can be technically feasible in experienced hands. They do not always require arterial supercharging or free intestinal transplantation. PMID:27076773

  17. Ileo-right hemi-colonic cervical pull-up on a non-supercharged ileocolic arterial pedicle: A technical and case report.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Andreas Rr; Hackl, Christina; Soeder, Yorick; Schlitt, Hans J; Dahlke, Marc-H

    2016-04-14

    Esophageal reconstruction can be challenging when stomach and colon are not anatomically intact and their use as esophageal substitutes is therefore limited. Innovative individual approaches are then necessary to restore the intestinal passage. We describe a technique in which a short stump of the right hemicolon and 25 cm of ileum on a long, non-supercharged, fully mobilized ileocolic arterial pedicle were used for esophageal reconstruction to the neck. In this case, a 65 year-old male patient had accidentally indigested hydrochloric acid which caused necrosis of his upper digestive tract. An emergency esophagectomy, gastrectomy, duodenectomy, pancreatectomy and splenectomy had been performed in an outside hospital. A cervical esophagostomy and a biliodigestive anastomosis had been created and a jejunal catheter for enteral feeding had been placed. After the patient had recovered, a reconstruction of his food passage via the left and transverse colon failed for technical reasons due to an intraoperative necrotic demarcation of the colon. Our team then faced the situation that only a short stump of the right hemi-colon was left in situ when the patient was referred to our center. After intensified nutritional therapy, we reconstructed this patient's food passage with the right hemicolon-approach described herein. After treatment of a postoperative pneumonia, the patient was discharged from hospital on the 26(th) postoperative day in a good clinical condition on an oral-only diet. In conclusion, individual approaches for long-segment reconstruction of the esophagus can be technically feasible in experienced hands. They do not always require arterial supercharging or free intestinal transplantation.

  18. Isolated supraclinoid occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Lagrèze, H L; Hartmann, A; Ries, F; Wappenschmidt, J; Hanisch, E

    1987-01-01

    Isolated supraclinoid occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery is a rare cause of cerebral ischemia. The authors of the only review of this subject concluded that it is caused predominantly by factors other than atherosclerosis. We examined 6 patients with isolated supraclinoid occlusive lesions. Five of them had one or more risk factors for atherosclerosis. Thus, the isolated stenosis of that part of the internal carotid artery does not seem to represent a particular pathologic entity.

  19. Digital Artery Occlusion Secondary to Plastic Shopping Bag Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Joy, R; Isaacs, JL; McCarthy, RJ

    2007-01-01

    Upper limb digital arterial occlusion is uncommon. We present the case of a 47-year-old man with an ischaemic right middle finger (dominant hand) due to trauma from carrying a heavy plastic shopping bag. Duplex scanning revealed no proximal source of emboli. An angiogram demonstrated occlusions in the medial and lateral digital arteries of the middle digit at the level of the proximal phalanx. Treatment with heparin and warfarin resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:18201465

  20. Central retinal artery occlusion (reversible in sickle trait with glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Radius, R L; Finkelstein, D

    1976-01-01

    We report a case of central retinal artery occlusion in an 18-year-old black woman with sickle-trait haemoglobinopathy and acute glaucoma after hyphaema. The central retinal artery occlusion occurred immediately after treatment of the glaucoma with osmotic agents, raising the possibility that they played a precipitating role. We suggest that osmotic agents be used with extreme caution in sickle patients with glaucoma. The occlusion was treated by anterior chamber paracentesis with eventual return of good vision. The reversibility of retinal and optic nerve function after total ischaemia is discussed. PMID:952815

  1. Leptospirosis and Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Hsiang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lee, Feng-You; Wang, Ying-Chuan; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Data on the association between peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) and leptospirosis are limited. We conducted a retrospective cohort study for determining whether leptospirosis is one of the possible risk factors for PAOD. Patients diagnosed with leptospirosis by using 2000 to 2010 data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with leptospirosis without a history of PAOD were selected. For each leptospirosis patient, 4 controls without a history of leptospirosis and PAOD were randomly selected and frequency-matched for sex, age, the year of the index date, and comorbidity diseases. The follow-up period was from the time of the initial diagnosis of leptospirosis to the diagnosis date of PAOD, or December 31, 2011. The Cox proportional hazard regression models were used for analyzing the risk of PAOD. During the follow-up period, the cumulative incidence of PAOD was higher among the patients from the leptospirosis cohort than among the nonleptospirosis cohort (log-rank test, P < 0.001). In total, 29 patients with PAOD from the leptospirosis cohort and 81 from the nonleptospirosis cohort were observed with the incidence rates of 2.1 and 1.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively, yielding a crude hazards ratio (HR) of 1.62 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44–1.81) and adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.75 (95% CI = 1.58–1.95). The risk of PAOD was 1.75-fold higher in the patients with leptospirosis than in the general population. PMID:26986166

  2. Spontaneous Recanalization of Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion Following Angioplasty and Stenting of Inferior Mesenteric Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Akpinar, Erhan Cil, Barbaros E.; Arat, Anil; Baykal, Atac; Karaman, Kerem; Balkanci, Ferhun

    2006-02-15

    An 84-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and coronary artery disease was admitted with a progressively worsening diffuse abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and angiography revealed occlusion of the origin and proximal portion of superior mesenteric artery. Aortography also showed severe origin stenosis of inferior mesenteric artery and that the distal part of the superior mesenteric artery was supplied by a prominent marginal artery of Drummond. Patient was effectively treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of the inferior mesenteric artery. Follow-up imaging studies demonstrated patency of the stent and spontaneous recanalization of superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  3. A Case of Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion following Uneventful Phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Dragnev, Daniel; Barr, Dai; Kulshrestha, Manoj; Shanmugalingam, Sinnathamboo

    2013-01-01

    We would like to present a case of branch retinal artery occlusion following uneventful phacoemulsification, possibly caused by sub-Tenon's anaesthesia. There were no predisposing general health problems. There are two possible mechanisms: (1) mechanical effect of the bolus anaesthetic; (2) pharmacologically mediated changes in the vascular calibre. The latter mechanism is much more probable, because of the vasoconstrictive properties of both medications used. This is the first reported case of branch retinal artery occlusion after sub-Tenon's anaesthesia with preservative-free medications. PMID:23626570

  4. Intra-arterial Thrombolysis for Central Retinal Artery Occlusion after the Coil Embolization of Paraclinoid Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Minwook; Kim, Hae Yu; Choi, Byeong-Sam

    2016-01-01

    The most common complication of coil embolization for cerebral aneurysms is thrombo-embolic stroke; in rare cases, these strokes, can present with central retinal artery occlusion. At our institution, a 53-year-old woman underwent stent-assisted coiling of the aneurysm. The patient's vision was improved immediately after intra-arterial thrombolysis and had further improved 8 months later. This report describes our experience of a rare case of central retinal artery occlusion after coil embolization that was successfully treated by intra-arterial thrombolysis. PMID:28184347

  5. Suppression of ischemia in arterial occlusive disease by JNK-promoted native collateral artery development

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Kasmir; Sugamura, Koichi; Craige, Siobhan; Keaney, John F; Davis, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    Arterial occlusive diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Blood flow to the affected tissue must be restored quickly if viability and function are to be preserved. We report that disruption of the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) - cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in endothelial cells causes severe blockade of blood flow and failure to recover in the murine femoral artery ligation model of hindlimb ischemia. We show that the MLK-JNK pathway is required for the formation of native collateral arteries that can restore circulation following arterial occlusion. Disruption of the MLK-JNK pathway causes decreased Dll4/Notch signaling, excessive sprouting angiogenesis, and defects in developmental vascular morphogenesis. Our analysis demonstrates that the MLK-JNK signaling pathway is a key regulatory mechanism that protects against ischemia in arterial occlusive disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18414.001 PMID:27504807

  6. Stent-based mechanical thrombectomy in acute basilar artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Leker, Ronen R; Moscovici, Samuel; Attia, Moshe; Itshayek, Eyal

    2011-12-01

    Stent-based mechanical thrombectomy was recently proposed as an effective alternative to other mechanical techniques to achieve recanalization of large-vessel embolic occlusions in the anterior circulation. To our knowledge, there are no reports of the use of this technique in acute basilar artery occlusion (ABAO). We present a patient with complete endovascular recanalization of ABAO using a stent-based thrombectomy technique. Advantages and limitations of this technique in the management of ABAO are discussed. The stent-thrombectomy technique is promising, and will need further evaluation in posterior circulation stroke.

  7. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for innominate artery stenosis and total occlusion of subclavian artery in Takayasu's-type arteritis.

    PubMed

    Staller, B J; Maleki, M

    1989-02-01

    Previous reports describe high success rates achieved by dilating subclavian artery stenoses. Attempts at angioplasty for total occlusions have been uniformly unsuccessful. No previous case successfully recanalizing total subclavian artery occlusion was found after an extensive literature search. Modified guidewire technique facilitated safe crossing of the occlusion.

  8. Popliteal artery occlusion in a young baseball athlete.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mindy Ming-Huey; Chuech, Leonard Shun-Jen; Yang, Cheng-Hsu; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Guo, Gary Bih-Fang

    2007-02-01

    Popliteal artery occlusion is a rare vascular complication in athletes and has not been previously documented in baseball players. A 21-year-old male baseball player presented with a 10-month history of progressive claudication because of repeated trauma-induced popliteal artery occlusion from frequently practicing stealing bases by sliding down onto his right leg. He was found to have a transient deficiency in both protein C and protein S. The patient underwent percutaneous transluminal recanalization angioplasty followed by anticoagulation therapy, with good results. This case illustrates the importance of awareness of this potential complication in baseball athletes, work-up for a hypercoagulable state and the feasibility of angioplasty therapy in the management of ischemic limbs after trauma.

  9. Idiopathic Isolated Cilioretinal Artery Occlusion Treated with Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Aktaş, Serdar; Uyar, Osman Murat; Özer, Erol; Aktaş, Hatice; Eltutar, Kadir

    2016-01-01

    Cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO) is a rare event which has been reported in association with various systemic diseases. We report a case of idiopathic isolated CLRAO treated successfully with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. A 26-year-old man presented with sudden, painless vision loss and an inferior hemivisual field defect in the left eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed an occluded cilioretinal artery. After 2 weeks of HBO therapy, visual acuity improved from 20/200 to 20/20. The visual field defect improved. PMID:28058169

  10. Total occlusion of left main coronary artery without angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Kimbiris, D; Iskandrian, A S; Bemis, C E; Segal, B L

    1983-05-01

    A patient had total occlusion of the left main coronary artery that was proved by coronary arteriography. The patient was initially seen with clinical signs of congestive heart failure but without symptoms of angina pectoris or ECG evidence of myocardial infarction. The patient's extensive right-to-left coronary artery collaterals may have contributed to the absence of chest pain. Because of the severe left ventricular dysfunction and the absence of chest pain, the patient was treated with medical therapy. Six months after the cardiac catheterization, he was alive and well under New York Heart Association functional classification II.

  11. Carotid artery occlusion by rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Faisal; Albloushi, Monirah; Alhindi, Hindi; Timms, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Mucormycosis is the third most common invasive fungal infection that particularly occurs in immunocompromised patients. Intracranial and extracranial arteriovenous vasculopathy is a complication that makes this disease more complex and difficult to treat. We describe a 23-year-old female, who presented to her local hospital with acute blindness and diabetic ketoacidosis-induced coma requiring intensive care treatment. She was found to have lesions in the nasal sinuses, orbit, and frontal base. The left carotid artery was occluded from its origin in the neck to the supraclinoid segment and left cavernous sinus involvement. No cerebral infarction was noted. Biopsies obtained by endonasal debridement confirmed mucormycosis. In addition to antimicrobial therapy, she underwent several multidisciplinary approaches to treat her disease. Multiple endonasal, and cranial procedures were done including bilateral orbital exenteration. After prolonged treatment on the intensive care unit she made a remarkable recovery to the point where she was communicating verbally and had normal limb movements and later discharged home. She remained alive and well for two months, but later succumbed to a recurrence of her disease. In conclusion, mucormycosis-induced vasculopathy is a complex problem, which merits aggressive treatment of this invasive disease. It is normally regarded as an indicator of grave prognosis.

  12. Balloon Occlusion of the Contralateral Iliac Artery to Assist Recanalization of the Ipsilateral Iliac Artery in Total Aortoiliac Occlusion: A Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Jaffan, Abdel Aziz A.

    2013-01-01

    Endovascular recanalization of chronic total aortoiliac occlusion is technically challenging. Inability to reenter the true aortic lumen, following retrograde iliac recanalization, is one of the most common causes of failure. We describe a case of a total aortoiliac occlusion where balloon occlusion of the right common iliac artery, following its recanalization from a brachial approach, was used to facilitate antegrade recanalization of the occluded contralateral left common iliac artery. PMID:23762730

  13. Subintimal Angioplasty for Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease: A Systematic Review

    SciTech Connect

    Met, Rosemarie Lienden, Krijn P. Van; Koelemay, Mark J. W.; Bipat, Shandra; Legemate, Dink A.; Reekers, Jim A.

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study was to summarize outcomes of subintimal angioplasty (SA) for peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase databases were searched to perform a systematic review of the literature from 1966 through May 2007 on outcomes of SA for peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the infrainguinal vessels. The keywords 'percutaneous intentional extraluminal revascularization,' 'subintimal angioplasty,' 'peripheral arterial disease,' 'femoral artery,' 'popliteal artery,' and 'tibial artery' were used. Assessment of study quality was done using a form based on a checklist of the Dutch Cochrane Centre. The recorded outcomes were technical and clinical success, primary (assisted) patency, limb salvage, complications, and survival, in relation to the clinical grade of disease (intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia [CLI] or mixed) and location of lesion (femoropopliteal, crural, or mixed). Twenty-three cohort studies including a total of 1549 patients (range, 27 to 148) were included in this review. Methodological and reporting quality were moderate, e.g., there was selection bias and reporting was not done according to the reporting standards. These and significant clinical heterogeneity obstructed a meta-analysis. Reports about length of the lesion and TASC classification were too various to summarize or were not mentioned at all. The technical success rates varied between 80% and 90%, with lower rates for crural lesions compared with femoral lesions. Complication rates ranged between 8% and 17% and most complications were minor. After 1 year, clinical success was between 50% and 70%, primary patency was around 50% and limb salvage varied from 80% to 90%. In conclusion, taking into account the methodological shortcomings of the included studies, SA can play an important role in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease, especially in the case of critical limb ischemia. Despite the moderate patency

  14. [Reconstruction of foot arteries after injury in arterial occlusive disease].

    PubMed

    Flis, V; Tomazic, T

    1993-06-01

    At the Maribor Teaching Hospital two elderly with progressive atherosclerotic disease below the knee were treated between 1986-1992 for open fracture of ankle joint and pedal arterial trauma. The only patent atherosclerotic vessel (dorsal artery of the foot) that was disrupted was reconstructed in both cases by interposition of a part of the great and small saphenous vein in one case each. A termino-terminal anastomosis with a long, triangular patch was used, fixed with interrupted sutures. The fractures were stabilized with external fixators. Both extremities were saved.

  15. Acute arterial occlusion in the midpiece of femoral artery following total knee arthroplasty: Report of one case.

    PubMed

    He, Rui; Yang, Liu

    2016-04-01

    Acute arterial occlusion is a rare complication following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The incidence as reported previously is from 0.03% to 0.17%; however, the sequelae can be disastrous because of its potential threat to limb loss.We report a case of acute arterial occlusion in the midpiece of femoral artery following TKA occurred 40 min postoperatively. The occlusion site existed at the midpiece of femoral artery is uncommon. Arterial circulation of the lower limb could not be restored by the thrombolysis and thrombectomy treatments performed within 11 h after TKA. In the end, amputation had to be carried out. In the treatment of acute arterial occlusion following TKA with a tourniquet, it is important to fully consider that arteriosclerosis may induce atheromatous plaque disruption, which might be the reason for acute arterial occlusion.

  16. Percutaneous Endovascular Treatment of Chronic Iliac Artery Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, F. C. De Blas, Mariano; Merino, Santiago; Egana, Jose M.; Caldas, Jose G.M.P.

    2004-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and radiological long-term results of recanalization of chronic occluded iliac arteries with balloon angioplasty and stent placement.Methods: Sixty-nine occluded iliac arteries (mean length 8.1 cm; range 4-16 cm) in 67 patients were treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement. Evaluations included clinical assesment according to Fontaine stages, Doppler examinations with ankle-brachial index (ABI) and bilateral lower extremity arteriograms. Wallstent and Cragg vascular stents were inserted for iliac artery recanalization under local anesthesia. Follow-up lasted 1-83 months (mean 29.5 months).Results: Technical success rate was 97.1% (67 of 69). The mean ABI increased from 0.46 to 0.85 within 30 days after treatment and was 0.83 at the most recent follow-up. Mean hospitalization time was 2 days and major complications included arterial thrombosis (3%), arterial rupture (3%) and distal embolization (1%). During follow-up 6% stenosis and 9% thrombosis of the stents were observed. Clinical improvement occurred in 92% of patients. Primary and secondary patency rates were 75% and 95%, respectively.Conclusion: The long-term patency rates and clinical benefits suggest that percutaneous endovascular revascularization with metallic stents is a safe and effective treatment for patients with chronic iliac artery occlusion.

  17. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies. PMID:27574609

  18. Endovascular treatment strategies for supra-aortic arterial occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Peeters, P; Verbist, J; Deloose, K; Bosiers, M

    2005-06-01

    Because of the focal nature of stenoses or occlusions in the supra-aortic vasculature, the high blood-pressures in this area and the very low morbidity rates related to percutaneous therapy have largely replaced surgical revascularization as the initial treatment of choice for patients with supra-aortic arterial occlusive disease. The initial technical success and durability of percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) and stenting in these lesions is excellent. Nevertheless several factors can make PTA and stenting a complex procedure that requires advanced endovascular skills for a successful outcome. Profound knowledge of surgical reconstruction techniques or extra-anatomic bypasses remains mandatory, as it is occasionally required for failure of endovascular techniques or if contraindications exist.

  19. Emergency Stenting of Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery after Acute Catheter-Induced Occlusive Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Akgul, Ferit; Batyraliev, Talantbek; Besnili, Fikret; Karben, Zarema

    2006-01-01

    Left main coronary artery dissection occurs very rarely during selective coronary angiography, but it generally progresses to complete coronary occlusion. The traditional treatment of occlusive dissection of the unprotected left main coronary artery has been surgical. Percutaneous treatment has been sporadic and controversial. We report a case of iatrogenic occlusive dissection of the unprotected left main coronary artery during diagnostic coronary angiography, followed by successful stenting of the lesion. PMID:17215985

  20. Preliminary Experience with Vascular Plugs for Parent Artery Occlusion of the Carotid or Vertebral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woosung; Shin, Yong Sam; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae; Hong, Chang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to report the authors' preliminary experience using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) (St. Jude Medical, Plymouth, MN, USA) for parent artery occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) or vertebral artery (VA). Materials and Methods Between September 2008 and December 2015, we performed 52 therapeutic parent artery occlusions (PAOs) by an endovascular technique. Among them, 10 patients underwent PAO of the carotid or vertebral arteries using AVPs. Clinical and radiographic data of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Results The devices were used for VA dissection that presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in five patients, traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in two patients, spontaneous AVF in one patient, recurrence of carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in one patient, and symptomatic unruptured giant ICA aneurysm in one patient. The devices were used in conjunction with detachable and/or pushable coils and in the extracranial segments of the ICA or VA. Complete occlusion of the parent artery was achieved in all patients. There was one intra-procedural rupture of the VA dissection during coiling prior to using the device. Conclusion Results from the current series suggest that the AVP might be used for therapeutic PAO in the extracranial segments of the ICA or VA. PMID:27847763

  1. Acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery following covered stent occlusion in the superior mesenteric artery: endovascular therapy using mechanical rotational thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Jan P; Petritsch, Bernhard; Spor, Leo; Hahn, Dietbert; Kickuth, Ralph

    2012-09-01

    Acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery is a rare and often fatal condition in which surgery represents the golden standard in therapy. We present a case in which a patient was treated with covered stent implantation for acute bleeding from the superior mesenteric artery following pancreatic resection, radiation, and embolization of a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm. Some weeks later clinical signs were suggestive of acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery and digital subtraction angiography showed occlusion of the previously implanted covered stents. The patient was successfully treated transfemorally with percutaneous mechanical instent thrombectomy using a 6F Rotarex® catheter. We conclude that in selected cases percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy may represent a minimally-invasive alternative to open surgical thrombectomy for treatment of acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery.

  2. Plasmacytic Aortitis with Occlusion of the Right Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Zambetti, Benjamin R.; Garrett, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 55 Final Diagnosis: Plasmacytic aortitis Symptoms: Dizziness • nausea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Inflammation of the aortic wall, known as aortitis, is a rare clinical entity which is frequently asymptomatic, or identified when the patient presents with an aortic aneurysm or dissection. It is most often caused by infection or autoimmune vasculitides such as giant cell or Takayasu’s arteritis. Case Report: The case presented is that of a 55-year-old man with symptomatic occlusion of the right coronary artery caused by a plasmacytic aortitis suggestive of IgG4 disease, which was successfully treated with coronary artery bypass grafting and an ascending aortic graft. Conclusions: A review of the current literature emphasizes how poorly the etiology and natural history of plasmacytic aortitis is understood. PMID:27471062

  3. Endovascular Therapeutic Approaches for Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, S. Sonesson, B.; Resch, T.

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the outcome of attempted endovascular intervention in patients with acute embolic or thrombotic superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion. The records of 21 patients during a 3-year period between 2005 and 2008 were retrieved from the in-hospital registry. The first group included 10 patients (6 women and 4 men; median age 78 years) with acute embolic occlusion of the SMA. The median duration of symptoms from symptom onset to angiography was 30 hours (range 6 to 120). Synchronous emboli (n = 12) occurred in 6 patients. Embolus aspiration was performed in 9 patients, and 7 of these had satisfactory results. Complementary local thrombolysis was successful in 2 of 3 patients. Residual emboli were present at completion angiography in all 7 patients who underwent successful aspiration embolectomy, and bowel resection was necessary in only 1 of these patients. One serious complication occurred because of a long SMA dissection. The in-hospital survival rate was 90% (9 of 10 patients). The second group included 11 patients (10 women and 1 man; median age 68 years) with atherosclerotic acute SMA occlusions. The median time of symptom duration before intervention was 97 hours (range 17 to 384). The brachial, femoral, and SMA routes were used in 6, 7, and 5 patients, respectively. SMA stenting was performed through an antegrade (n = 7) or retrograde (n = 3) approach. Bowel resection was necessary in 4 patients. No major complications occurred. The in-hospital survival rate was 82% (9 of 11 patients). Endovascular therapy of acute SMA occlusion provides a good alternative to open surgery.

  4. A vertebral artery dissection with basilar artery occlusion in a child.

    PubMed

    Devue, Katleen; Van Ingelgem, Annemie; De Keukeleire, Katrien; De Leeuw, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the case report of an 11-year-old boy with an acute dissection with thrombosis of the left vertebral artery and thrombosis of the basilar artery. The patient was treated with acute systemic thrombolysis, followed by intra-arterial thrombolysis, without any clinical improvement, showing left hemiplegia, bilateral clonus, hyperreflexia, and impaired consciousness. MRI indicated persistent thrombosis of the arteria basilaris with edema and ischemia of the right brainstem. Heparinization for 72 hours, followed by a two-week LMWH treatment and subsequent oral warfarin therapy, resulted in a lasting improvement of the symptoms. Vertebral artery dissection after minor trauma is rare in children. While acute basilar artery occlusion as a complication is even more infrequent, it is potentially fatal, which means that prompt diagnosis and treatment are imperative. The lack of class I recommendation guidelines for children regarding treatment of vertebral artery dissection and basilar artery occlusion means that initial and follow-up management both require a multidisciplinary approach to coordinate emergency, critical care, interventional radiology, and child neurology services.

  5. A Vertebral Artery Dissection with Basilar Artery Occlusion in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Devue, Katleen; Van Ingelgem, Annemie; De Keukeleire, Katrien; De Leeuw, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the case report of an 11-year-old boy with an acute dissection with thrombosis of the left vertebral artery and thrombosis of the basilar artery. The patient was treated with acute systemic thrombolysis, followed by intra-arterial thrombolysis, without any clinical improvement, showing left hemiplegia, bilateral clonus, hyperreflexia, and impaired consciousness. MRI indicated persistent thrombosis of the arteria basilaris with edema and ischemia of the right brainstem. Heparinization for 72 hours, followed by a two-week LMWH treatment and subsequent oral warfarin therapy, resulted in a lasting improvement of the symptoms. Vertebral artery dissection after minor trauma is rare in children. While acute basilar artery occlusion as a complication is even more infrequent, it is potentially fatal, which means that prompt diagnosis and treatment are imperative. The lack of class I recommendation guidelines for children regarding treatment of vertebral artery dissection and basilar artery occlusion means that initial and follow-up management both require a multidisciplinary approach to coordinate emergency, critical care, interventional radiology, and child neurology services. PMID:25587466

  6. Treatment Strategies for Acute Ischemic Stroke Caused by Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Yin, Qin; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute ischemic stroke caused by internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion usually has a poor prognosis, especially the T occlusion cases without functional collaterals. The efficacy of intravenous (IV) or intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) remains ambiguous in these patients. Eendovascular recanalization of the occluded carotid has been attempted in recent years as a potential strategy. However, the different etiologies of ICA occlusion pose a significant challenge to neurointerventionists. Recently, several endovascular evolvements have been reported in treating carotid occlusion-related stroke. This review summarizes the current status of treatment for acute ICA occlusion. PMID:27781043

  7. Bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion associated with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anand, Pria; Mann, Sharan K; Fischbein, Nancy J; Lansberg, Maarten G

    2014-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman presented with a right-hemispheric stroke 1 year after she had suffered a left-hemispheric stroke. Her diagnostic workup was notable for bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries at their origins and a positive lupus anticoagulant antibody test. There was no evidence of carotid dissection or another identifiable cause for her carotid occlusions. These findings suggest that the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome may be implicated in the pathological changes that resulted in occlusions of the extracranial internal carotid arteries. Young stroke patients who present with unexplained internal carotid artery occlusions may benefit from testing for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies.

  8. Bilateral Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion Associated with the Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pria; Mann, Sharan K.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Lansberg, Maarten G.

    2014-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman presented with a right-hemispheric stroke 1 year after she had suffered a left-hemispheric stroke. Her diagnostic workup was notable for bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries at their origins and a positive lupus anticoagulant antibody test. There was no evidence of carotid dissection or another identifiable cause for her carotid occlusions. These findings suggest that the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome may be implicated in the pathological changes that resulted in occlusions of the extracranial internal carotid arteries. Young stroke patients who present with unexplained internal carotid artery occlusions may benefit from testing for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. PMID:24707268

  9. Aphthoid ulcerations in ileocolic candidiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Gedgaudas-McClees, R.K.

    1983-11-01

    A case of well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma complicated by Candida tropicalis ileocolic infection is reported. Candida tropicalis is a saprophytic organism, less abundant in man than the more commonly known Candida albicans. These organisms may be the source of infection in debilitated or immune-deficient patients. A 55-year-old man presented to Emory Hospital 7 months before admission with weight loss. At that time the diagnosis of well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma was made by bone-marrow biopsy.

  10. Hemodynamic role of ophthalmic artery collateral in internal carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Tatemichi, T K; Chamorro, A; Petty, G W; Khandji, A; Oropeza, L A; Duterte, D I; Mohr, J P

    1990-03-01

    We performed duplex and transcranial Doppler studies in 36 patients with angiographically documented internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) to determine the effect of ophthalmic artery collateral (OAC) on measures of vascular resistivity both proximal and distal to the occlusion. Resistance in the common carotid artery, measured by the resistivity index, was significantly lower in the group with OAC than in those without OAC, indicating a shunt to the low resistance intracranial circuit. The pulsatility index (PI) of the Doppler signal in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery, a measure of both inflow pressure and distal vascular resistance, did not differ between those with and without OAC. However, the presence of circle of Willis collateral pathways (anterior communicating and/or posterior communicating artery) did appear to have a significant effect on pulsatility. When both were present angiographically, PI was higher than in the group with only 1 Willisian collateral. These findings suggest that OAC has a marginal effect on vascular resistance in arterial bed distal to an ICAO, while Willisian collaterals appear to have a more important role in cerebral perfusion, as measured indirectly by Doppler methods.

  11. Selective thrombolysis performed through meningo-ophthalmic artery in central retinal artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Moscovici, Samuel; Halpert, Michael; Itshayek, Eyal

    2012-03-01

    The poor natural history of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is usually not modified with conventional, conservative management techniques. Guidelines for selective intraarterial ophthalmic thrombolysis are still lacking. While many centers continue to perform this procedure with promising results, others are reluctant due to conflicting findings in recent studies. We present our experience in a 36-year-old male with CRAO. Based on the patient's clinical presentation, we planned to perform selective intraarterial ophthalmic thrombolysis via the ophthalmic artery. When angiography demonstrated that the retina was not supplied by the ophthalmic artery, but by a meningo-ophthalmic artery branching from the internal maxillary artery, we instead administered thrombolytic agents via the meningo-ophthalmic artery. The patient's vision recovered completely, with visual acuity and visual field examination at 30 day follow up comparable to his pre-treatment status. This case emphasizes the need for external carotid artery examination in cases of nonvisualization of the ophthalmic artery. In addition, it illustrates the successful use of the meningo-ophthalmic artery to perform selective intraarterial thrombolysis for CRAO.

  12. Internal carotid artery occlusion: association with atherosclerotic disease in other arterial beds and vascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Liapis, Christos D

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the association between internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) and the presence of atherosclerotic disease and vascular risk factors. The clinical characteristics and risk factors of 120 patients presenting with ICAO were retrospectively reviewed. All patients (n = 120) had at least 1 of the 4 vascular risk factor (diabetes, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension); 2, 3, or all 4 risk factors were present in 14 to 82 of the patients (11.7% to 68.3%), 10 to 39 of the patients (8.3% to 32.5%), and 9 of the patients (7.5%), respectively. A total of 84 patients (70%) with ICAO had disease in at least 1 additional vascular bed (aorta, coronary or lower limb arteries). In addition to ICAO, vascular disease was present in 2 and all 3 of these arterial beds in 42 (35%) and 9 (7.5%) patients, respectively. Furthermore, stenosis or occlusion of the ipsilateral or contralateral vertebral arteries was recorded in 19 of 120 patients (15.8%). Regarding the contralateral carotid artery, 1 patient had bilateral ICAO. One patient had contralateral common carotid artery occlusion, and 1 patient was excluded from the analysis because of surgery to the contralateral carotid artery. Of the remaining 117 patients, 34 (29.0%) had less than 50% contralateral carotid artery stenosis. Thirty-two patients (27.4%) had 50% to 69%, and 51 (43.6%) had 70% to 99% stenosis. Ultrasonographic imaging of the carotid plaque of the contralateral carotid artery revealed that 52 of the 120 arteries (43.3%) were uniformly or predominantly echolucent (types I and II, respectively). Fifty-nine (49.2%) were predominantly or uniformly echogenic (types III and IV), and 9 (7.5%) could not be classified. A similar distribution of echomorphology was observed on the occluded side. ICAO is associated with widespread atherosclerotic disease and a high prevalence of vascular risk factors. Detection of ICAO should prompt the investigation of other arterial beds and

  13. Waveform patterns and peak reversed velocity in vertebral arteries predict severe subclavian artery stenosis and occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun-Ping; Hu, Yuan-Ping

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the value of analyzing spectral Doppler waveform patterns and measuring the peak reversed velocity (PRV) of the vertebral artery (VA) in predicting proximal severe subclavian artery (SA) stenosis and occlusion. Fifty-one patients with proximal SA stenosis were studied retrospectively. Based on the depth of the mid-systolic notch, the Doppler waveforms of the ipsilateral VA were divided into five subtypes (type I, n = 8; type II, n = 8; type III, n = 6; type IV, n = 13; and type V, n = 16). PRV was also measured. PRV receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to obtain the best cutoff value for predicting severe SA stenosis or complete SA occlusion. The results indicated that both VA Doppler waveform and PRV were associated with the degree of SA stenosis (p < 0.05). PRV and the Doppler waveform in the VA had similar accuracy in predicting SA occlusion (84.3%, 43/51). PRV was more accurate than VA waveforms in predicting severe SA stenosis (98%, 50/51 vs. 94.1%, 48/51). However, no significant differences between the two methods in predicting severe SA stenosis were observed (p = 0.84). Thus, with severe obstruction of the SA, typical Doppler waveform patterns of the VA could be observed. PRV is a helpful criterion in predicting severe stenosis and occlusion of the SA.

  14. Dual-Energy CT Angiography in Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, Carolin Jochum, Susanne; Sadick, Maliha; Huck, Kurt; Ziegler, Peter; Fink, Christian; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Diehl, Steffen J.

    2009-07-15

    We sought to study the accuracy of dual-energy computed tomographic angiography (DE-CTA) for the assessment of symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremity by using the dual-energy bone removal technique compared with a commercially available conventional bone removal tool. Twenty patients underwent selective digital subtraction angiography and DE-CTA of the pelvis and lower extremities. CTA data were postprocessed with two different applications: conventional bone removal and dual-energy bone removal. All data were reconstructed and evaluated as 3D maximum-intensity projections. Time requirements for reconstruction were documented. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and concordance of DE-CTA regarding degree of stenosis and vessel wall calcification were calculated. A total of 359 vascular segments were analyzed. Compared with digital subtraction angiography, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively, of CTA was 97.2%, 94.1%, and 94.7% by the dual-energy bone removal technique. The conventional bone removal tool delivered a sensitivity of 77.1%, a specificity of 70.7%, and an accuracy of 72.0%. Best results for both postprocessing methods were achieved in the vascular segments of the upper leg. In severely calcified segments, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy stayed above 90% by the dual-energy bone removal technique, whereas the conventional bone removal technique showed a substantial decrease of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. DE-CTA is a feasible and accurate diagnostic method in the assessment of symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Results obtained by DE-CTA are superior to the conventional bone removal technique and less dependent on vessel wall calcifications.

  15. Parent artery occlusion for ruptured “true” posterior communicating artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Nobuaki; Oishi, Hidenori; Arai, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    A case of a patient with a ruptured true posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm is reported, who had been managed by early endovascular parent artery occlusion with coils. The small blister aneurysm was located at the proximal PCoA itself and directed superiorly. Postoperative course was uneventful. During 1-month follow-up, the patient recovered well and could care for herself. Aneurysms of the PCoA itself are very rare. As reported to date, surgical procedures would favor microsurgical clipping over endovascular coil embolization. Endovascular treatment may be a good alternative to surgical trapping for true PCoA blister aneurysm. PMID:25953771

  16. rt-PA Thrombolysis in Acute Thromboembolic Upper-Extremity Arterial Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Cejna, Manfred; Salomonowitz, Erich; Wohlschlager, Helmut; Zwrtek, Karin; Boeck, Rudolf; Zwrtek, Ronald

    2001-07-15

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis of the results of rt-PA thrombolysis in the treatment of acute thromboembolic occlusion of the upper limb.Methods: Of 55 patients with demonstrated acute embolic arterial occlusion, rt-PA thrombolysis was performed on 40 occlusions in 38 patients (23 women with a mean age of 62 years, range 32-85 years; 15 men with a mean age of 65 years, range 32-92 years) according to the following design: 6 mg rt-PA/hr for 30 min, 3 mg rt-PA/hr for the next 30 min, 1 mg rt-PA/hr for 7 hr, and 0.4 mg rt-PA/hr until the end of lysis. Onset of symptoms varied from 1 to 14 days. Included were three isolated upper-arm occlusions, nine combined brachial and forearm occlusions, and 28 forearm and hand artery occlusions.Results: The overall success rate was 55%. The lysis results for isolated upper arm, combined brachial and forearm occlusions, and forearm and hand artery occlusions were 100%, 66%, and 46%, respectively. In eight patients surgical embolectomy had to be performed after failed thrombolysis. No amputation was required in the follow-up period. No lethal complications occurred.Conclusions: Interventional rt-PA treatment of proximal upper-extremity arterial occlusions may be performed with comparable success rates to surgical embolectomy and without severe complications. For distal occlusions the results are inferior to the success rates obtained with surgery.

  17. Percutaneous Treatment in Iliac Artery Occlusion: Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto; Fabiano, Sebastiano; Chiocchi, Marcello; Chiappa, Roberto Simonetti, Giovanni

    2008-11-15

    We evaluated the long-term results of recanalization with primary stenting for patients with long and complex iliac artery occlusions. This was a retrospective nonrandomised study. Between 1995 and 1999, 138 patients underwent recanalization of an occluded iliac artery with subsequent stenting. Patency results were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The mean length of follow-up was 108 months. Variables affecting primary stent patency such as patient age; stent type and diameter; lesion site, shape, and length; Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology classification; total runoff score; Fontaine classification; and cardiovascular risk factors were analysed using Breslow test. These variables were then evaluated for their relation to stent patency using Cox proportional hazards test. Technical success was 99%. Primary patency rates were 90% (SE .024), 85% (SE .029), 80% (SE .034), and 68% (SE .052) at 3, 5, 7, and 10 years, respectively. Lesion site (p = 0.022) and stent diameter (p = 0.028) were shown to have a statistically significant influence on primary stent patency. Long-term results of iliac recanalization and stent placement were excellent, without major complications, even in highly complex vascular obstructions. A primary endovascular approach appears to be justified in the majority of patients as a less invasive alternative treatment to surgery. In any case, a first-line interventional approach should be considered in elderly patients or in patients with severe comorbidities.

  18. A novel method to determine perineal artery occlusion among male bicyclists.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, Sujeeth; Hotaling, James M; Kathrins, Martin; Baftiri, Amit P; Freels, Sally; Niederberger, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    Background. Perineal pressure due to bicycle riding has been associated with erectile dysfunction. We developed a novel method to measure the occlusive force exerted over the perineal arteries and determined perineal artery occlusion by a variety of seat designs. Methods. Doppler ultrasonography facilitated perineal artery localization and determination of the force required for perineal artery occlusion in 20 healthy men. Flexiforce(®) sensors were affixed over the proximal and distal aspects of the perineal arteries bilaterally. Individuals completed bicycle rides in the road- and stationary-settings with six distinct seat designs, including those with and without an anterior "nose." Results. The occlusion time proportion of the total ride time was calculated for each trial. The overall occlusion time proportion was 0.59 (95% CI [0.45-0.73]) across all seats and settings. The "no-nose" bicycle seat and the stationary-setting demonstrated significantly lower occlusion proportion times than the traditional nose bicycle seat and road-setting, respectively. However, all bicycle seats yielded an occlusion time proportion of 0.41 or greater. Discussion. Our method of real-time, non-invasive force measurement localized to the perineal arteries may be used to validate future bicycle seat design. It also underscores the significant risk of perineal artery insufficiency in men who are avid bicyclists. This risk may be minimized by using newer "no-nose" bicycle seats.

  19. A novel method to determine perineal artery occlusion among male bicyclists

    PubMed Central

    Hotaling, James M.; Kathrins, Martin; Baftiri, Amit P.; Freels, Sally; Niederberger, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Perineal pressure due to bicycle riding has been associated with erectile dysfunction. We developed a novel method to measure the occlusive force exerted over the perineal arteries and determined perineal artery occlusion by a variety of seat designs. Methods. Doppler ultrasonography facilitated perineal artery localization and determination of the force required for perineal artery occlusion in 20 healthy men. Flexiforce® sensors were affixed over the proximal and distal aspects of the perineal arteries bilaterally. Individuals completed bicycle rides in the road- and stationary-settings with six distinct seat designs, including those with and without an anterior “nose.” Results. The occlusion time proportion of the total ride time was calculated for each trial. The overall occlusion time proportion was 0.59 (95% CI [0.45–0.73]) across all seats and settings. The “no-nose” bicycle seat and the stationary-setting demonstrated significantly lower occlusion proportion times than the traditional nose bicycle seat and road-setting, respectively. However, all bicycle seats yielded an occlusion time proportion of 0.41 or greater. Discussion. Our method of real-time, non-invasive force measurement localized to the perineal arteries may be used to validate future bicycle seat design. It also underscores the significant risk of perineal artery insufficiency in men who are avid bicyclists. This risk may be minimized by using newer “no-nose” bicycle seats. PMID:26713236

  20. Evaluation of Ophthalmic Artery Branch Retrograde Intervention in the Treatment of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Runsheng; Qian, Lu; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Du, Shanshuang; Lei, Tao; Lv, Peilin; Long, Tan; Wang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Background Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the occlusion of the central retinal artery resulting in retinal infarction and acute vision loss. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)–guided superselective ophthalmic artery or selective carotid thrombolysis remains the preferred treatment method for CRAO. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of the novel ophthalmic artery branch retrograde thrombolytic intervention for CRAO. Material/Methods Fifty patients with monocular CRAO were enrolled, including 28 males and 22 females (mean age: 55.7±2.3 years). The patients were randomly divided into two groups for thrombolysis with urokinase (400,000 U) and papaverine (30 mg) by either ophthalmic artery branch retrograde intervention (group A, n=26) or superselective ophthalmic artery/selective carotid intervention (group B, n=24). There was no significant difference in age (P=0.58), gender ratio (P=0.49), and time to onset (P=1.00) between the two groups. The adverse reactions and clinical efficacy were evaluated by postoperative DSA, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and visual acuity tests. Results No serious complications, abnormal eye movement, or vitreous hemorrhage occurred in either group. DSA showed that group A had an effective rate (92.30%) comparable to that of group B (100%, χ2=2.08, P=0.25). FFA suggested that both groups had similar treatment efficacy (χ2=3.09, P=0.21). Visual acuity tests also confirmed a similar efficacy of the two intervention approaches (χ2=0.25, P=0.88). Conclusions The developed novel ophthalmic artery branch retrograde intervention is highly effective and safe for CRAO, and may be a superior method compared with the conventional approach. PMID:28064304

  1. Comprehensive analysis of myocardial infarction due to left circumflex artery occlusion: comparison with infarction due to right coronary artery and left anterior descending artery occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Huey, B.L.; Beller, G.A.; Kaiser, D.L.; Gibson, R.S.

    1988-11-01

    Forty consecutive patients with creatine kinase-MB confirmed myocardial infarction due to circumflex artery occlusion (Group 1) were prospectively evaluated and compared with 107 patients with infarction due to right coronary artery occlusion (Group 2) and 94 with left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group 3). All 241 patients underwent exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography, 24 h Holter electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring and coronary arteriography before hospital discharge and were followed up for 39 +/- 18 months. There were no significant differences among the three infarct groups in age, gender, number of risk factors, prevalence and type of prior infarction, Norris index, Killip class and frequency of in-hospital complications. Acute ST segment elevation was present in only 48% of patients in Group 1 versus 71 and 72% in Groups 2 and 3, respectively (p = 0.012), and 38% of patients with a circumflex artery-related infarct had no significant ST changes (that is, elevation or depression) on admission (versus 21 and 20% for patients in Groups 2 and 3, respectively) (p = 0.001). Abnormal R waves in lead V1 were more common in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p less than 0.003) as was ST elevation in leads I, aVL and V4 to V6 (p less than or equal to 0.048). These differences in ECG findings between Group 1 and 2 patients correlated with a significantly higher prevalence of posterior and lateral wall asynergy in the group with a circumflex artery-related infarct. Infarct size based on peak creatine kinase levels and multiple radionuclide variables was intermediate in Group 1 compared with that in Group 2 (smallest) and Group 3 (largest). During long-term follow-up, the probability of recurrent cardiac events was similar in the three infarct groups.

  2. Endovascular recanalization techniques for popliteal arterial occlusive injury with limb-threatening ischemia secondary to trauma.

    PubMed

    Mine, Takahiko; Murata, Satoru; Yasui, Daisuke; Tajima, Hiroyuki; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Kumita, Shin-Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    To date, no ideal endovascular strategy has been established for traumatic arterial occlusion. Here, we report the outcomes of a combination of endovascular recanalization techniques applied in two patients with high risk of leg amputation. A 33-year-old man with popliteal artery occlusion due to blunt trauma was treated by balloon angioplasty with long inflation time and aspiration thrombectomy. A 74-year-old woman with popliteal artery occlusion after total knee replacement was treated by aspiration thrombectomy and stent placement. In both cases, we achieved satisfactory recanalization, and peripheral ischemia was absent even 1 year later.

  3. A Large Posttraumatic Subclavian Artery Aneurysm Complicated by Artery Occlusion and Arteriobronchial Fistula Successfully Treated Using a Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Czeczotka, Jaroslaw; Elgalal, Marcin; Sapieha, Michal; Rowinski, Olgierd

    2011-02-15

    The treatment of posttraumatic aneurysms of peripheral arteries using covered stents is increasingly commonplace. We present the case of a 10-year-old girl with a pseudoaneurysm of the subclavian artery complicated by an arteriobronchial fistula with hemorrhaging into the bronchial tree and distal subclavian artery occlusion. Despite the lack of artery patency, endovascular stent graft implantation was successful. Pseudoaneurysm exclusion and involution was achieved, together with a patent implant and maintained collateral circulation patency.

  4. Preservation of retinal structure and function after cilioretinal artery occlusion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Craig J

    2016-01-01

    Cilioretinal artery occlusion is a cause of sudden, often catastrophic loss of central vision. There are no established effective treatments. Recently, a patient presented 24 hours after a cilioretinal artery occlusion, following a cardiac catheterization prior to which her blood thinners had been discontinued. Lacking an effective way to address the severe retinal ischemic oxidative stress, she was offered, under compassionate use, a multivitamin complex designed to address retinal ischemia and oxidative stress. Significant components of this product are L-methylfolate and n-acetyl cysteine. The patient experienced a rapid unexpected improvement in vision and preservation of retinal structure, suggesting that marked improvement in retinal artery occlusions outcomes may be possible as late as 24 hours postocclusion. This is the third reported case of cilioretinal artery occlusion associated with cardiac catheterization. PMID:26929671

  5. Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion with Moyamoya-Like Vessels and Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Rodrigo; Sordo, Juan; Badilla, Lautaro; Bravo, Eduardo; Riveros, Rodrigo; Giacaman, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe two cases of aneurysmal rupture in moyamoya-like vessels in middle cerebral artery occlusion. This phenomenon was previously described in severe steno-occlusive disease and accounts for the hemorrhagic presentation. To our knowledge, these are the second and third clinical cases published in modern neuroradiological literature. PMID:24556306

  6. Bilateral renal artery occlusion in a patient with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: thrombosis, vasculitis or both?

    PubMed

    Ames, P R; Cianciaruso, B; Bellizzi, V; Balletta, M; Lubrano, E; Scarpa, R; Brancaccio, V

    1992-11-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with oliguria and hypertension. Renal arteriography showed bilateral renal artery occlusion. Circulating antiphospholipid antibodies were found together with a change in natural anticoagulant plasma levels. Immunofluorescence of examined vessels showed immune complex vasculitis. We discuss the pathogenetic mechanism leading to the development of this rare occlusive event.

  7. Occlusion of the left main coronary artery and collateral circulation via the conus branch.

    PubMed

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; Nunez-Gil, Ivan Javier; del Carmen Manzano, Maria; Vivas, David; Mateos, Borja Ruiz; Carda, Rocio; Vilacosta, Isidre; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Macaya, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old-man, a smoker, admitted for unstable angina. Subsequent investigation revealed complete proximal occlusion of the left main coronary with an unusual collateral circulation. The left coronary artery was filled by a large conus branch originating from the right sinus of Valsalva. This case shows the importance of looking for atypical collateral circulation in patients with chronic occlusion of the left main coronary artery and normal left ventricular function.

  8. Nettleship collaterals: circumpapillary cilioretinal anastomoses after occlusion of the central retinal artery.

    PubMed

    Ragge, N K; Hoyt, W F

    1992-03-01

    In extremely rare cases, after occlusion of the central retinal artery, a complete ring of peripapillary anastomotic channels develops. One such case is described and a proposed term given to these channels--'Nettleship collaterals'--after the man who first described them. These collaterals are dilated pathways within the terminal capillary networks of the posterior ciliary arteries and the branches of the central retinal artery. Formation of the channels is believed to be promoted by prelaminar obstruction of the central retinal artery.

  9. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed cerebral angiography of 7 patients (4 hyaluronic acid [HA] and 3 autologous fat-injected cases) showing ophthalmic artery and its branches occlusion after cosmetic facial filler injections, and underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis. On selective ophthalmic artery angiograms, all fat-injected patients showed a large filling defect on the proximal ophthalmic artery, whereas the HA-injected patients showed occlusion of the distal branches of the ophthalmic artery. Three HA-injected patients revealed diminished distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries, which clinically corresponded with skin necrosis. However, all fat-injected patients and one HA-injected patient who were immediately treated with subcutaneous hyaluronidase injection showed preserved distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries and mild skin problems. The size difference between injected materials seems to be associated with different angiographic findings. Autologous fat is more prone to obstruct proximal part of ophthalmic artery, whereas HA obstructs distal branches. In addition, hydrophilic and volume-expansion property of HA might exacerbate blood flow on injected area, which is also related to skin necrosis. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has a limited role in reconstituting blood flow or regaining vision in cosmetic facial filler-associated ophthalmic artery occlusions. PMID:26713062

  10. Management of acute central retinal artery occlusion: Intravenous thrombolysis is feasible and safe.

    PubMed

    Préterre, Cécile; Godeneche, Gaelle; Vandamme, Xavier; Ronzière, Thomas; Lamy, Matthias; Breuilly, Christophe; Urbanczyk, Cédric; Wolff, Valérie; Lebranchu, Pierre; Sevin-Allouet, Mathieu; Guillon, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Background Although acute central retinal artery occlusion is as a stroke in the carotid territory (retinal artery), its management remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of intravenous thrombolysis delivered within 6 h of central retinal artery occlusion in French stroke units. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients treated with intravenous alteplase (recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator), based on stroke units thrombolysis registers from June 2005 to June 2015, and we selected those who had acute central retinal artery occlusion. The feasibility was assessed by the ratio of patients that had received intravenous alteplase within 6 h after central retinal artery occlusion onset among those who had been admitted to the same hospital for acute central retinal artery occlusion. All adverse events were documented. Results Thirty patients were included. Visual acuity before treatment was limited to "hand motion", or worse, in 90% of the cases. The mean onset-to-needle time was 273 min. The individuals treated with intravenous alteplase for central retinal artery occlusion represented 10.2% of all of the patients hospitalized for central retinal artery occlusion in 2013 and 2014. We observed one occurrence of major bleeding, a symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Conclusion When applied early on, intravenous thrombolysis appears to be feasible and safe, provided that contraindications are given due consideration. Whether intravenous thrombolysis is more effective than conservative therapy remains to be determined. In order to conduct a well-designed prospective randomized control trial, an organized network should be in place.

  11. Effects of CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody on rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, J. H.; Liu, K. F.; Bree, M. P.

    1996-01-01

    The progression of a lesion from ischemic injury to infarct, after the permanent occlusion of a middle cerebral artery, may be influenced by the influx of leukocytes into the ischemic territory. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of treating rats that had permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion with a single dose of an anti-CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody injected 1 hour after the arterial occlusion. To mimic the clinical situation of patients with ischemic strokes who may be treated within 1 hour of the ischemic event, the artery remained occluded. Forty-one adult Wistar rats had permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, and one was subjected to a sham operation. One hour later, 22 rats received CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody and an additional 20 were injected either with a nonspecific antibody (n = 10) or a buffer solution (n = 10). Experiments were terminated at intervals ranging 12 to 96 hours after the arterial occlusion. Endpoints included neurological testing, daily evaluation of body weight, counts of white blood cells in the peripheral blood, measurement of the area of pallor in the ischemic hemisphere, counts of necrotic neurons, and counts of leukocytes sequestered in the ischemic hemisphere. In experiments terminated 12 hours after the arterial occlusion (n = 4), there were fewer necrotic neurons in the group treated with the CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody compared with the two controls (P < .05), but this difference was not reflected in the neurological scores. Numbers of necrotic neurons in experiments terminated > 12 hours later were not different among the three subgroups. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood were lower in animals with arterial occlusion injected with the monoclonal antibody CD11b/18 (P < .05); numbers of leukocytes sequestered in the ischemic hemisphere were not different in the three groups. Neither changes in body weight nor in the volume of the area of pallor were significantly different among the three groups. Images

  12. Endovascular revascularization of symptomatic chronic middle cerebral artery occlusions: Two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yue; Lo, Wai-Ting; Liu, Yang-Xia

    2016-01-01

    For patients with chronic middle cerebral artery occlusions who have recurrent ischemic symptoms despite antiplatelet therapy and vascular risk factor control, treatment options are limited. Because of concerns about the safety of endovascular revascularization of these occlusions and the technical skills required, these procedures have not been widely performed. We report on two patients with successful endovascular revascularization of the chronic middle cerebral artery occlusion with impaired cerebral hemodynamics, with vessel patency maintained on follow-up imaging and no recurrence of stroke. A literature review of treatment options for such patients was performed. Revascularization is technically feasible and can be considered an option for carefully selected chronic middle cerebral artery occlusion patients with recurrent ischemic symptoms despite medical therapy. PMID:26647227

  13. Ophthalmic artery blood flow in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, T; Mori, K; Yasuhara, T; Tei, M; Yokoi, N; Kinoshita, S; Kamei, M

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the risk factors for rubeosis iridis by colour Doppler imaging (CDI) in patients with complete internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO). Methods: 34 eyes of 32 consecutive patients with complete ICAO were enrolled. Using CDI, blood flow direction (forward, reverse, undetectable) in the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA), and short posterior ciliary artery (SPCA) were determined. Arterial mean blood velocity (Vmean) and resistive index (RI) were calculated and correlations between the rubeosis iridis incidence and CDI parameters analysed. Results: The eyes were classified into four types according to blood flow direction: forward flow in OA, CRA, and SPCA (type 1; n = 11); reverse OA and forward CRA and SPCA flow (type 2a; n = 12); reverse OA and undetectable CRA and SPCA flow (type 2b; n = 8); undetectable flow in all three arteries (type 3; n = 3). Rubeosis iridis was seen only in type 2b and 3 eyes. Type 2b showed significantly (p<0.01) higher Vmean and lower RI values in the OA, indicating more rapid reverse flow than in type 2a eyes. Although in type 1 and 2a eyes OA flow was in opposite directions, they manifested no rubeosis iridis and no difference in the Vmean and RI values of the CRA and SPCA. Conclusions: The classification of eyes from patients with ICAO into four types by CDI may facilitate the identification of the eyes at high risk for rubeosis iridis. Markedly diminished flow in both the CRA and SPCA may result in rubeosis iridis, regardless of OA flow direction. PMID:15031166

  14. Cerebral arterial occlusion and intracranial venous thrombosis in a woman taking oral contraceptives.

    PubMed Central

    Montón, F.; Rebollo, M.; Quintana, F.; Berciano, J.

    1984-01-01

    Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus are reported in a 30-year-old woman taking oral contraceptives (OC). The coexistence of arterial and venous cerebral pathology as a complication of OC use has only been previously reported in one case. The pathogenesis of this rare association is briefly discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6462985

  15. Obstruction of the Aorta and Left Pulmonary Artery After Gianturco Coil Occlusion of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, H.-Cg; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Wu, Yu-Tsun; Huang, Chien-Fu; Chien, Shao-Ju; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Liang, Chi-Di

    2005-01-15

    We report an unusual case of simultaneous obstruction of the left pulmonary artery and descending thoracic aorta after Gianturco coil occlusion in a 15-month-old boy. The diagnosis was made by echocardiography and cardiac angiography. At surgery, thrombi coating on the protruded parts of the Gianturco coil in the pulmonary artery and aorta were found.

  16. Temporary Arterial Balloon Occlusion as an Adjunct to Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Nambiar, Ashwin; Hagspiel, Lauren M.; Ahmad, Ehab Ali; Bozlar, Ugur

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. This study was designed to describe the technique of arterial occlusion using a temporary occlusion balloon system as an alternative to coil occlusion during Yttrium-90 radioembolization of hepatic tumors. Methods. Review of charts, angiography, and follow-up imaging studies of consecutive patients undergoing oncological embolization procedures in which a HyperForm system (ev3 Neurovascular, Irvine, CA) was used. Intraprocedural target vessel occlusion and patency of the target vessel on follow-up were recorded. Clinical data and Bremsstrahlung scans were reviewed for evidence of nontarget embolization. Results. Four radioembolization procedures were performed in three patients (all female, age 48-54 (mean 52) years). Five arteries were temporarily occluded (three gastroduodenal arteries, one right gastric artery, and one cystic artery). All radioembolization procedures were successfully completed. Follow-up imaging (either digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA)) was available for all patients between 28-454 (mean 183) days following the procedure, demonstrating all five vessels to be patent. No clinical or imaging evidence for nontarget embolization was found. Conclusions. Temporary balloon occlusion of small and medium-sized arteries during radioembolization allows safe therapy with preserved postprocedural vessel patency on early and midterm follow-up.

  17. Mechanical Recanalization of Subacute Vessel Occlusion in Peripheral Arterial Disease with a Directional Atherectomy Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Massmann, Alexander Katoh, Marcus; Shayesteh-Kheslat, Roushanak; Buecker, Arno

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively examine the technical feasibility and safety of directional atherectomy for treatment of subacute infrainguinal arterial vessel occlusions. Methods: Five patients (one woman, four men, age range 51-81 years) with peripheral arterial disease who experienced sudden worsening of their peripheral arterial disease-related symptoms during the last 2-6 weeks underwent digital subtraction angiography, which revealed vessel occlusion in native popliteal artery (n = 4) and in-stent occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (n = 1). Subsequently, all patients were treated by atherectomy with the SilverHawk (ev3 Endovascular, USA) device. Results: The mean diameter of treated vessels was 5.1 {+-} 1.0 mm. The length of the occlusion ranged 2-14 cm. The primary technical success rate was 100%. One patient experienced a reocclusion during hospitalization due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. There were no further periprocedural complications, in particular no peripheral embolizations, until hospital discharge or during the follow-up period of 1 year. Conclusion: The recanalization of infrainguinal arterial vessel occlusions by atherectomy with the SilverHawk device is technically feasible and safe. In our limited retrospective study, it was associated with a high technical success rate and a low procedure-related complication rate.

  18. Iatrogenic central retinal artery occlusion after carotid body tumor embolization and excision

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Carlos M.; Jaramillo, Sergio; Varón, Clara L.; Prada, Angélica M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of iatrogenic central retinal artery occlusion after embolization and surgical resection of carotid body paraganglioma. Methods: Case report Results: One adult female patient presented with persistent unilateral visual loss after embolization with Embosphere® and Contour® microparticles of carotid body tumor. Fluorescein angiography revealed intraluminal microspheres in the central retinal artery ramifications. OCT revealed intraretinal spherical, hyporeflective particles with posterior shadowing. Conclusions: Central retinal artery occlusion should be assessed as a possible complication after surgical repair of head and neck paragangliomas.

  19. Bilateral vs single internal thoracic artery grafting for left main coronary artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Otaki, M; Lust, R M; Sun, Y S; Norton, T O; Spence, P A; Zeri, R S; Hopson, S B; Chitwood, R

    1994-10-01

    This study was conducted to compare the coronary flow distributed by single and bilateral internal thoracic artery (ITA) grafts in the setting of the left main coronary occlusion. Ten dogs underwent coronary artery bypass grafting through a left thoracotomy, off pump, using a brief local occlusion to perform the anastomosis. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either a single left ITA (LITA) graft to the circumflex coronary artery (CFX), or bilateral ITA grafts, with additional placement of the right ITA (RITA) to the left anterior descending artery (LAD). After the grafts were placed, the left main coronary artery was ligated. Electromagnetic flows were obtained in the LAD and the CFX proximally and distally to ITA grafts in both groups before grafting and after grafting. ITA flow in situ was also measured before rotation from the chest wall. Total left ventricular flow requirements were satisfied equally well by either a single LITA graft (116.7 +/- 11.6 mL/min) or bilateral ITA grafts (total, 116.8 +/- 9.6 mL/min divided as LITA, 55.9 +/- 7.4 mL/min; RITA, 60.9 +/- 12.0 mL/min). When two grafts were replaced, competitive flow in the proximal regions of both native vessels was noted, although basal flow requirements were maintained. When an individual graft was occluded in the bilaterally grafted system, the remaining graft immediately recruited the additional flow, demonstrating that either right or left ITA can support flow demands five to six times higher than in situ chest wall flow (RITA, 21.9 +/- 3.1 mL/min; LITA, 22.3 +/- 4.9 mL/min). These data suggest that in this canine model, a single ITA graft can support the entire flow requirements of the left ventricle. Assuming no intervening stenosis is present in native coronary systems, bilateral ITA grafting may provide a margin of safety, but under resting conditions, provides no perfusion advantages over a single ITA graft.

  20. Contemporary therapeutic strategies for occlusion of the artery of Percheron: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Xintong; Agarwal, Nitin; Hansberry, David R; Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Gandhi, Chirag D

    2015-02-01

    The artery of Percheron (AOP) is a rare anatomic variant of the paramedian thalamic-mesencephalic arterial supply, arising as a solitary arterial trunk from the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery. Its occlusion, commonly caused by cardioembolism, leads to distal bilateral paramedian thalamic ischemia, oftentimes affecting the midbrain and/or the anterior thalamus. AOP occlusion presents with a clinical triad of altered mental status, vertical gaze palsy, and memory impairment, along with other associated symptoms. Digital subtraction angiography is effective for detecting AOP, while diffusion weighted MRI is best for diagnosis of its occlusion. Our extensive literature search sought to determine the best forms of treatment for uncomplicated AOP occlusion, with the inclusion criterion of implementation of medical treatment or other forms of therapy in patient recovery from this condition. We conclude that intravenous heparin and thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator are effective firstline treatment options for emergent AOP occlusion followed by a prescription of long term anticoagulants, while non-emergent cases without midbrain involvement could be treated through rehabilitation and continual monitoring by medical staff. Clinical trials of higher power are needed for a more comprehensive analysis of the treatment options for AOP occlusion.

  1. Middle Cerebral Artery, Ophthalmic Artery, and Multibranch Retinal Vessel Occlusion After Cosmetic Autologous Fat Transfer to Forehead.

    PubMed

    Roshandel, Danial; Soheilian, Masoud; Pakravan, Mohammad; Aghayan, Sara; Peyman, Gholam A

    2015-05-01

    A 65-year-old woman with left hemiparesis and sudden loss of visual acuity in her right eye presented a few hours after cosmetic injection of autologous fat to her forehead. Right eye visual acuity was no light perception. Funduscopy revealed widespread retinal whitening and multibranch retinal vessel occlusion. Fluorescein angiography showed markedly delayed choroidal and retinal filling together with occlusion of multiple branches of retinal arteries and veins. On magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, multiple lesions compatible with recent infarction were detected. The authors diagnosed multibranch retinal artery and vein occlusion in the right ophthalmic and middle cerebral arteries due to fat emboli. This case emphasizes the need to reevaluate the safety of such aesthetic procedures, particularly in the facial zone to prevent devastating complications.

  2. Paraplegia after aortic and superior mesenteric artery stenting for occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Hans, Sachinder S; Ngo, William; McAllister, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Paraplegia after endovascular therapy for aortic and visceral artery occlusive disease is an extremely uncommon occurrence. Two cases of paraplegia after placement of an aortic covered stent for infrarenal aortic stenosis and a superior mesenteric artery stent for chronic visceral ischemia are presented. In both patients, embolization of the arterial supply to the spinal cord was the presumed cause. One patient had a slight recovery after intense physical therapy and rehabilitation. The second patient did not have any recovery from her paraplegia.

  3. Incidence and outcome of radial artery occlusion following transradial artery coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Stella, P R; Kiemeneij, F; Laarman, G J; Odekerken, D; Slagboom, T; van der Wieken, R

    1997-02-01

    Coronary angioplasty with 6F guiding catheters via the radial artery is associated with a minimal risk for major entry site-related complications. Although the incidence of radial artery occlusion (RAO) in the literature is approximately 30% after prolonged cannulations, little is known about the incidence and its clinical consequences of RAO following transradial percutaneous coronary angioplasty. In a prospective study, 563 patients with a normal Allen test were evaluated on patency and function of the radial artery after transradial angioplasty, by physical and ultrasound examination at discharge, and at 1 month follow-up. At discharge, 30 patients (5.3%) had clinical evidence of RAO. At follow-up, persistent RAO was found in 16 patients (2.8%). In this study we found a low incidence of RAO after transradial percutaneous coronary angioplasty. None of the patients with temporary or persistent RAO had any major clinical symptoms. Therefore, the occurrence of RAO can be considered a minor complication in patients with a previously good double blood supply to the hand.

  4. Retrievable Stent-Assisted Coiling Technique Using a Solitaire Stent: Treatment of Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm Associated With Celiac Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Bekir; Nas, Omer Fatih; Hacikurt, Kadir; Hakyemez, Bahattin; Erdogan, Cuneyt

    2016-02-01

    True aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal arcade (PDA) is usually accompanied by stenosis or occlusion of celiac trunk (CeT). The up-to-date and first choice treatment modality of PDA aneurysm is the endovascular approach in nearly all cases except few selected ones necessitating surgery. The main approach in endovascular treatment is embolization of the aneurysm by preserving the parent artery. A case with concomitant CeT occlusion and PDA aneurysm was treated with coil embolization by preserving inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery with retrievable Solitaire(®) stent. In our knowledge, this is the first case with PDA aneurysm treated with this technique.

  5. Ophthalmic artery aneurysm treated by surgical clipping and balloon-assisted temporary carotid occlusion.

    PubMed

    Dehdashti, Amir R

    2015-07-01

    A 29-year-old woman is diagnosed with a large broad-base right ophthalmic artery aneurysm. Despite an intact visual field, she complained of mild right visual blurriness. Between endovascular and surgical treatments, surgery was favored due to her young age. It was decided to perform the surgery with simultaneous endovascular temporary carotid balloon occlusion. A right pterional craniotomy and intradural anterior clinoidectomy were performed, the balloon was positioned in the petrous carotid, and the distal durai ring was opened exposing the proximal neck. Under temporary proximal carotid balloon occlusion and distal carotid clip occlusion, the aneurysm was fully dissected and clipped. Intraoperative angiogram confirmed complete aneurysm occlusion and patency of the ophthalmic artery. The patient's neurological exam remained unchanged. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/BIQKTl9bDqA .

  6. Uterine Artery Embolization Versus Laparoscopic Uterine Artery Occlusion: The Outcomes of a Prospective, Nonrandomized Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, Michal; Kubinova, Kristyna; Maskova, Jana; Horak, Petr; Belsan, Tomas; Kuzel, David

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare outcomes of two different types of occlusive therapy of uterine fibroids. Methods: Women with fibroid(s) unsuitable for laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) were treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE) or laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion (LUAO). Results: Before the procedure, patients treated with UAE (n = 100) had a dominant fibroid greater in size (68 vs. 48 mm) and a mean age lower (33.1 vs. 34.9 years) than surgically treated patients (n = 100). After 6 months, mean shrinkage of fibroid volume was 53 % after UAE and 39 % after LUAO (p = 0.063); 82 % of women after UAE, but only 23 % after LUAO, had complete myoma infarction (p = 0.001). Women treated with UAE had more complications (31 vs. 11 cases, p = 0.006) and greater incidence of hysteroscopically verified intrauterine necrosis (31 vs. 3 %, p = 0.001). Both groups were comparable in markers of ovarian functions and number of nonelective reinterventions. The groups did not differ in pregnancy (69 % after UAE vs. 67 % after LUAO), delivery (50 vs. 46 %), or abortion (34 vs. 33 %) rates. The mean birth weight of neonates was greater (3270 vs. 2768 g, p = 0.013) and the incidence of intrauterine growth restriction lower (13 vs. 38 %, p = 0.046) in post-UAE patients. Conclusion: Both methods are effective in the treatment of women with future reproductive plans and fibroids not suitable for LM. UAE is more effective in causing complete ischemia of fibroids, but it is associated with greater risk of intrauterine necrosis. Both methods have low rate of serious complications (except for a high abortion rate).

  7. Subclavian Artery Occlusion and Pseudoaneurysm Caused by Lung Apex Mucormycosis: Successful Treatment with Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Economopoulos, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Dimitris; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Kontopoulou, Christina; Brountzos, Elias N.

    2007-02-15

    Subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm and occlusion in young patients are usually post-traumatic. We report the case of a 33-year-old diabetic woman with subclavian artery occlusion and pseudoaneurysm formation caused by pulmonary mucormycosis infection. The patient presented with diabetic ketoacidosis, Horner's syndrome, and absent left arm pulses. A cystic lesion of the left lung apex was found by imaging, was surgically resected, and was histologically diagnosed as mucormycosis infection. Magnetic resonance angiography depicted a left subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm and occlusion adjacent to the mucormycosis lesion. To protect against thromboembolic complications and rupture, the pseudoaneurysm was embolized with coils. The patient is clinically well 1 year after the intervention with no perfusion of the pseudoaneurysm.

  8. A comparison of pulmonary arterial occlusion algorithms for estimation of pulmonary capillary pressure.

    PubMed

    Pellett, A A; Johnson, R W; Morrison, G G; Champagne, M S; deBoisblanc, B P; Levitzky, M G

    1999-07-01

    Using the arterial occlusion method, we compared five literature-based estimates of pulmonary capillary pressure (Ppc) with the corresponding double occlusion pressures (Pdo) in anesthetized dogs whose chests had been closed after sternotomy for instrumentation. Arterial occlusions were performed with a balloon-tipped pulmonary artery catheter that housed pressure transducers immediately proximal and distal to the balloon. Separation of the proximal and distal pressure waveforms during balloon inflation allowed us to precisely define the moment of occlusion. We fit a monoexponential curve to pressure data beginning 200 ms after the onset of occlusion and a biexponential curve to data beginning at the instant of occlusion, with data obtained over a range of vascular states (control, serotonin infusion, histamine infusion). In addition, we investigated the use of sampling of the raw data to estimate capillary pressure. Three of the five literature-based estimates of Ppc yielded values similar to Pdo. The optimal (least average difference from Pdo) interpolation/extrapolation time points of the curve fits varied, depending on the type of curve fitting and the state of the pulmonary vasculature. We also determined that a close approximation of Pdo may be derived from the raw data, as an alternative to exponential curve fitting.

  9. Successful Recanalization of a Longstanding Right Common Iliac Artery Occlusion with a Radiofrequency Guidewire

    SciTech Connect

    Tapping, C. R.; Uri, I. F.; Dixon, S.; Bratby, M. J.; Anthony, S.; Uberoi, R.

    2012-10-15

    We describe a case of successful recanalization of a longstanding right common iliac occlusion with a radiofrequency (RF) guidewire. The patient had been symptomatic with claudication for 3 years, and a preliminary attempt to cross the lesion using conventional techniques proved unsuccessful. Using low and medium intensity RF pulses and a PowerWire, a tract through the occlusion was established, which allowed subsequent stenting with an excellent angiographic result and a good immediate clinical response. We propose this as a useful technique in the peripheral arterial system for occlusive lesions not amenable to traditional recanalization techniques.

  10. Technique, Complication, and Long-Term Outcome for Endovascular Treatment of Iliac Artery Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, Ugur Oguzkurt, Levent; Tercan, Fahri

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this study was to report technical details, procedure-related complications, and results of endovascular treatment in chronic iliac artery occlusion. Between 2001 and 2008, endovascular treatments of 127 chronic iliac artery occlusions in 118 patients (8 women and 110 men; mean age, 59 years) were retrospectively reviewed. The study was based on Ad Hoc Committee on Reporting Standards (Society for Vascular Surgery/International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery Standards). All occlusions were treated with stent placement with or without preliminary balloon angioplasty. Kaplan-Meier estimators were used to determine patency rates. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine variables affecting successful recanalization, major complications, early stent thrombosis ({<=}30 days), and primary and secondary patency rates. Initial technical success was achieved in 117 (92%) procedures. Successful recanalization was obtained by antegrade approach in 69 of 77 (90%) procedures and by retrograde approach in 52 of 105 (50%) procedures (p < 0.001). Complications were encountered in 28 (24%) patients [minor in 7 patients (6%) and major in 22 patients (19%)]. One death occurred in the operative period secondary to iliac artery rupture. Early stent thrombosis was seen in eight (7%) patients. Presence of critical limb ischemia (p = 0.03), subintimal recanalization (p = 0.03), and major complication (p = 0.02) were the independent predictors of early stent thrombosis on multivariate analysis. Primary and secondary patency rates at 5 years were 63 and 93%, respectively. Presence of critical limb ischemia, TASC type C iliac lesions, combined occlusions of both common and external iliac arteries, and major complications were associated with decreased patency rates on univariate analysis, whereas these factors were not independent predictors of stent patency on multivariate analysis. In conclusion, endovascular treatment of iliac artery occlusion has a

  11. Thirty Years Later: Evolution of Treatment for Acute Left Main Coronary Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Dov, Nissan; Karkabi, Basheer; Jaffe, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Acute occlusion of left main coronary artery is a catastrophic event. We describe two patients with acute occlusion of the left main coronary artery treated thirty years apart. The first patient was treated in 1982 and survived the event without revascularization but developed severe heart failure. His survival was so unusual that it merited a case report at that time. The second patient was treated at the end of 2015. Early revascularization resulted in myocardial reperfusion and near normal left ventricular function. These patients exemplify the progress in therapeutic cardiology over the last 30 years. PMID:28078145

  12. Nettleship collaterals: circumpapillary cilioretinal anastomoses after occlusion of the central retinal artery.

    PubMed Central

    Ragge, N K; Hoyt, W F

    1992-01-01

    In extremely rare cases, after occlusion of the central retinal artery, a complete ring of peripapillary anastomotic channels develops. One such case is described and a proposed term given to these channels--'Nettleship collaterals'--after the man who first described them. These collaterals are dilated pathways within the terminal capillary networks of the posterior ciliary arteries and the branches of the central retinal artery. Formation of the channels is believed to be promoted by prelaminar obstruction of the central retinal artery. Images PMID:1540571

  13. Treatment of acute embolic occlusions of the subclavian and axillary arteries using a rotational thrombectomy device.

    PubMed

    Zeller, T; Frank, U; Bürgelin, K; Sinn, L; Horn, B; Schwarzwälder, U; Roskamm, H; Neumann, F J

    2003-05-01

    Acute embolic or local thrombotic ischaemia of the upper limbs can be treated by embolectomy or by endovascular techniques. We report here on the endovascular thrombectomy of acute embolic occlusions of subclavian and axillary arteries in two patients using a rotational thrombectomy device and give an overview about the actual literature. Two female patients, each with a history of multivessel coronary disease and intermittent atrial fibrillation, complained of sudden onset of pain at rest and paleness of the left and right arm, respectively. Duplex ultrasound showed a localized embolic occlusion of the left subclavian artery and the bifurcation of the brachial artery in the first patient and a localized embolic occlusion of the distal right subclavian and axillary artery in the second patient. In the first patient, the left subclavian artery was reopened using a 8F-Rotarex device via the femoral access, while the bifurcation of the brachial artery was reopened by local thrombolysis using 25 mg rt-PA because of the insufficient length of the thrombectomy device of 80 cm. In the second patient, the right subclavian and axillary arteries were reopened using a 6F-Rotarex device. Follow-up examinations before discharge and after 6 months showed normalized perfusion of the arms of both patients.

  14. Subintimal Recanalization of Long Superficial Femoral Artery Occlusions Through the Retrograde Popliteal Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, Saim; Sindel, Timur; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Lueleci, Ersin

    2001-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the value of the retrograde popliteal artery approach for the percutaneous intentional extraluminal recanalization (PIER) of long superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusions.Methods: During a period of 17 months, PIER through ultrasound-guided retrograde popliteal artery puncture was performed for 39 long SFA occlusions in 37 patients. In six patients, six additional iliac artery stenoses were also treated via the popliteal approach.Results: The procedure was technically successful in 32 (82%) of 39 SFA occlusions; in 29, lesions were treated with balloon angioplasty alone, and in three, stents were also used. Cumulative patency rate was 66% at 6 months, 62% at 1 year, and 59% at 18 months. Additional iliac artery stenoses were successfully treated in the same session. Complications included two minor hematomas and two SFA ruptures, which required no treatment.Conclusion: PIER through retrograde popliteal puncture is a safe and effective method in the treatment of long femoropopliteal occlusions, with a high technical success, low complication rate and a reasonable short-term patency rate. The technique offers an alternative in cases where standard PIER is unsuccessful or contraindicated.

  15. Effect of endovascular reperfusion in relation to site of arterial occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Scott A.; Liebeskind, David S.; Tomsick, Tom A.; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Nogueira, Raul G.; Marks, Michael P.; Jahan, Reza; Gralla, Jan; Yoo, Albert J.; Yeatts, Sharon D.; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Pereira, Vitor M.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Albers, Gregory W.; Lansberg, Maarten G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether the association between reperfusion and improved clinical outcomes after stroke differs depending on the site of the arterial occlusive lesion (AOL). Methods: We pooled data from Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy (SWIFT), Solitaire FR Thrombectomy for Acute Revascularisation (STAR), Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution Study 2 (DEFUSE 2), and Interventional Management of Stroke Trial (IMS III) to compare the strength of the associations between reperfusion and clinical outcomes in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA), proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) (M1), and distal MCA (M2/3/4) occlusions. Results: Among 710 included patients, the site of the AOL was the ICA in 161, the proximal MCA in 389, and the distal MCA in 160 patients (M2 = 131, M3 = 23, and M4 = 6). Reperfusion was associated with an increase in the rate of good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0–2) in patients with ICA (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–7.2) and proximal MCA occlusions (OR 6.2, 95% CI 3.8–10.2), but not in patients with distal MCA occlusions (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8–2.6). Among patients with M2 occlusions, a subset of the distal MCA cohort, reperfusion was associated with excellent functional outcome (mRS 0–1; OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0–4.7). Conclusions: The association between endovascular reperfusion and better clinical outcomes is more profound in patients with ICA and proximal MCA occlusions compared to patients with distal MCA occlusions. Because there are limited data from randomized controlled trials on the effect of endovascular therapy in patients with distal MCA occlusions, these results underscore the need for inclusion of this subgroup in future endovascular therapy trials. PMID:26802090

  16. Diagnosis and management of ileocolic pseudoaneurysms.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sapan S; Dua, Anahita; Shortell, Cynthia K; Thacker, Julie K

    2012-09-01

    Ileocolic pseudoaneurysmal disease is a rare splanchnic aneurysm that affects 3 out of 100 000 patients, and only 7 cases have been described in the past 40 years in patients without preexisting connective tissue disorders. Abdominal pain is the most common presenting symptom and nearly 30% of patients present with hemorrhage. Ileocolic pseudoaneurysms are diagnosed by contrasted computed tomography scans and verified by arteriography. We present a case report and review of the literature in which a patient was initially managed by coil embolization, followed by laparotomy and suture ligation due to pseudoaneurysm rupture.

  17. [Intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery after minor closed head injury].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, S; Tomokiyo, M; Koga, H; Furukawa, Y; Nomura, S; Shimokawa, S; Nakagawa, S; Anegawa, S; Hayashi, T

    2001-10-01

    Thrombosis of the extracranial portion of the internal carotid artery as a result of nonpenetrating head and neck injury is not uncommon. However, intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery after minor head and neck injury without skull fracture is rare. We report a case of 14-year-old male who suffered a minor head injury during an athletic meeting of his school and developed a right hemiparesis and a lethargy state resulting from thrombosis of the supraclinoid portion of the left internal carotid artery. On admission, skull films and a CT scan revealed no abnormality. One hour later, he fully recovered. One day later, no definite lesions were detected on T1-weighted and T2-weighted image of MRI, but an abnormal high signal lesion in the left frontal lobe was detected on diffusion-weighted image of MRI. On additional MR angiography, intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery due to dissection was demonstrated.

  18. Thrombectomy using a stent retriever with artificially induced vertebral artery vasospasm in a patient with acute basilar artery occlusion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghyeon; Choi, Jae-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    An acute basilar artery occlusion is not an uncommon cause of stroke. It represents 6–10% of large vessel strokes and has been associated with poor clinical outcomes. Multimodal treatments have been introduced to recanalise a basilar artery occlusion successfully. However, all mechanical thrombectomy devices are not always usable in an emergent situation. We present a case of basilar artery occlusion treated with a stent retriever assisted by a vertebral artery vasospasm. We attempted thrombectomy with a stent retriever several times. However, the captured thrombus was not pulled out and migrated to the distal basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery due to anterograde flow of the vertebral artery. We carefully advanced the catheter into the distal vertebral artery and generated a vasospasm. The vertebral artery vasospasm reduced the forward flow significantly like a balloon-guided catheter. The thrombus was pulled out with the stent. PMID:26678752

  19. Marvels, Mysteries, and Misconceptions of Vascular Compensation to Peripheral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    ZIEGLER, MATTHEW A.; DISTASI, MATTHEW R.; BILLS, RANDALL G.; MILLER, STEVEN J.; ALLOOSH, MOUHAMAD; MURPHY, MICHAEL P.; AKINGBA, A. GEORGE; STUREK, MICHAEL; DALSING, MICHAEL C.; UNTHANK, JOSEPH L.

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a major health problem and there is a significant need to develop therapies to prevent its progression to claudication and critical limb ischemia. Promising results in rodent models of arterial occlusion have generally failed to predict clinical success and led to questions of their relevance. While sub-optimal models may have contributed to the lack of progress, we suggest that advancement has also been hindered by misconceptions of the human capacity for compensation and the specific vessels which are of primary importance. We present and summarize new and existing data from humans, Ossabaw miniature pigs, and rodents which provide compelling evidence that natural compensation to occlusion of a major artery (i) may completely restore perfusion, (ii) occurs in specific pre-existing small arteries, rather than the distal vasculature, via mechanisms involving flow-mediated dilation and remodeling (iii) is impaired by cardiovascular risk factors which suppress the flow-mediated mechanisms and (iv) can be restored by reversal of endothelial dysfunction. We propose that restoration of the capacity for flow-mediated dilation and remodeling in small arteries represents a largely unexplored potential therapeutic opportunity to enhance compensation for major arterial occlusion and prevent the progression to critical limb ischemia in the peripheral circulation. PMID:20141596

  20. Total knee arthroplasty after ipsilateral peripheral arterial bypass graft: acute arterial occlusion is a risk with or without tourniquet use.

    PubMed

    Turner, N S; Pagnano, M W; Sim, F H

    2001-04-01

    A retrospective review was done of the total joint registry at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, which contains the computerized records of 19,808 consecutive total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) including primary and revision that were performed from 1970 to 1997. From that database, 9 patients were found to have had a TKA after an ipsilateral peripheral arterial reconstruction. One patient had had bilateral peripheral arterial reconstruction followed by bilateral TKA, and 10 TKAs were reviewed. The medical records were reviewed retrospectively with particular attention given to the type of peripheral bypass surgery performed, the bypass graft source, the timing of the bypass surgery relative to TKA, the use of a tourniquet at the time of TKA, and the occurrence of complications after TKA. Of the 10 TKAs, 2 patients had acute arterial occlusion. One patient had a tourniquet, and the other patient did not. There was not a statistical correlation between graft type, tourniquet use, timing of surgery, postoperative anticoagulation, and occurrence of arterial occlusion. There is a marked risk of acute thrombosis of an ipsilateral arterial bypass graft after TKA that cannot be eliminated by performing the TKA without a tourniquet. Careful monitoring of the vascular status of the limb is required in the early postoperative period to detect arterial compromise. Should limb ischemia be suspected, an emergent vascular surgery consultation is required, and arterial flow to the lower extremity must be re-established.

  1. Memory Dysfunction in Caudate Infarction Caused by Heubner's Recurring Artery Occlusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizuta, Hideko; Motomura, Naoyasu

    2006-01-01

    We report five cases with caudate infarction due to Heubner's recurring artery occlusion, in which we conducted detailed memory examinations in terms of explicit memory and implicit memory. We performed the auditory verbal learning test as explicit memory tasks, and motor and cognitive procedural memory tasks, developed by Komori, as implicit…

  2. Total left main coronary artery occlusion after aortic aneurysm repair and valve replacement.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Lemole, G M; Wolf, N W; Dowinsky, S; Untereker, W; Spagna, P M

    1991-02-01

    A 38-year-old woman with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery secondary to cannulation during aortic valve replacement is presented. The clinical course was characterized by progressive left ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure. Recognition of this potential problem when it occurs is important as to institute therapeutic measures which may interrupt a patient's progressive clinical deterioration.

  3. Surgical management of peritonitis secondary to acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute arterial mesenteric ischemia in the early stages is now possible using modern computed tomography with intravenous contrast enhancement and imaging in the arterial and/or portal phase. Most patients have acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion, and a large proportion of these patients will develop peritonitis prior to mesenteric revascularization, and explorative laparotomy will therefore be necessary to evaluate the extent and severity of intestinal ischemia, and to perform bowel resections. The establishment of a hybrid operating room in vascular units in hospitals is most important to be able to perform successful intestinal revascularization. This review outlines current frontline surgical strategies to improve survival and minimize bowel morbidity in patients with peritonitis secondary to acute SMA occlusion. Explorative laparotomy needs to be performed first. Curative treatment is based upon intestinal revascularization followed by bowel resection. If no vascular imaging has been carried out, SMA angiography is performed. In case of embolic occlusion of the SMA, open embolectomy is performed followed by angiography. In case of thrombotic occlusion, the occlusive lesion can be recanalized retrograde from an exposed SMA, the guidewire snared from either the femoral or brachial artery, and stented with standard devices from these access sites. Bowel resections and sometimes gall bladder removal due to transmural infarctions are performed at initial laparotomy, leaving definitive bowel reconstructions to a planned second look laparotomy, according to the principles of damage control surgery. Patients with peritonitis secondary to acute SMA occlusion should be managed by both the general and vascular surgeon, and a hybrid revascularization approach is of utmost importance to improve outcomes. PMID:25110423

  4. Early detection and differentiation of venous and arterial occlusion in skin flaps using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and autofluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Caigang; Chen, Shuo; Chui, Christopher Hoe-Kong; Tan, Bien-Keem; Liu, Quan

    2016-02-01

    Our previous preclinical study demonstrated that both visible diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence spectroscopy, each of which yields a different set of physiological information, can predict skin flap viability with high accuracy in a MacFarlane rat dorsal skin flap model. In this report, we further evaluated our technique for the early detection and differentiation of venous occlusion and arterial occlusion in a rat groin flap model. We performed both diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence measurements on the skin flap model and statistically differentiated between flaps with and without occlusions as well as between flaps with venous occlusion and those with arterial occlusion based on these non-invasive optical measurements. Our preliminary results suggested that visible diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence spectroscopy can be potentially used clinically to detect both venous and arterial occlusion and differentiate one from the other accurately at an early time point.

  5. Early detection and differentiation of venous and arterial occlusion in skin flaps using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and autofluorescence spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Caigang; Chen, Shuo; Chui, Christopher Hoe-Kong; Tan, Bien-Keem; Liu, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Our previous preclinical study demonstrated that both visible diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence spectroscopy, each of which yields a different set of physiological information, can predict skin flap viability with high accuracy in a MacFarlane rat dorsal skin flap model. In this report, we further evaluated our technique for the early detection and differentiation of venous occlusion and arterial occlusion in a rat groin flap model. We performed both diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence measurements on the skin flap model and statistically differentiated between flaps with and without occlusions as well as between flaps with venous occlusion and those with arterial occlusion based on these non-invasive optical measurements. Our preliminary results suggested that visible diffuse reflectance and autofluorescence spectroscopy can be potentially used clinically to detect both venous and arterial occlusion and differentiate one from the other accurately at an early time point. PMID:26977363

  6. Suction Thrombectomy of Thrombotic Occlusion of the Subclavian Artery in a Case of Takayasu's Arteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Purkayastha, Sukalyan; Jayadevan, E.R.; Kapilamoorthy, T.R.; Gupta, A.K. E-mail: gupta@sctimst.ac.in

    2006-04-15

    Takayasu's arteritis, also known as pulseless disease, is a chronic inflammatory arteritis affecting large vessels, predominantly the aorta and its main branches. Vessel inflammation leads to wall thickening, fibrosis, stenosis, and thrombus formation. Percutaneous removal of arterial thrombus with the use of several devices has been reported, with mixed results. We present a case of Takayasu's arteritis with thrombotic occlusion of the subclavian artery in which pulsed urokinase injection and suction thrombectomy were used to revascularize a threatened limb and to establish the sole arterial supply to the brain.

  7. Occlusion of the artery of Adamkiewicz after hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mutch, Jennifer A J; Johansson, Joyce E

    2011-04-01

    The artery of Adamkiewicz is the most significant tributary of the anterior spinal artery in the midthoracic region; the occlusion of this artery results in a well-described phenomenon consisting of paraplegia with loss of the sensation of pain, temperature, and touch as well as loss of sphincter control. Proprioception and vibration sense are typically preserved. Although this phenomenon has been associated with several surgeries as well as preexisting aortic abnormalities, the literature thus far has not reported this as a complication of hip or knee arthroplasty. Two case histories are presented.

  8. Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm Associated with Celiac Axis Occlusion Treated Using Endovascular Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Biswajit; Kuhan, Ganesh; Johnson, Brian; Nicholson, Anthony A.; Ettles, Duncan F.

    2006-10-15

    The case of a 30-year-old woman with a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery and associated celiac axis occlusion is presented. The patient was successfully treated with celiac artery recanalization and placement of a covered stent within the superior mesenteric artery. Follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months and 3 years demonstrated patency of the covered stent and continued exclusion of the aneurysm. Although the long-term success of this procedure is unknown this management option should be considered where facilities are available, to reduce the increased morbidity associated with open surgical procedure.

  9. Hypereosinophilic syndrome accompanying gangrene of the toes with peripheral arterial occlusion--a case report.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Satoru; Masaki, Ichiro; Furuyama, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    The authors herein report the case of a teenage boy who presented with peripheral arterial occlusion of both upper and lower extremities associated with hypereosinophilia. During a 10-year follow-up, corticosteroid therapy was continued for the treatment of hypereosinophilia. The patient underwent bilateral lumbar sympathectomies because of severe ischemia of the bilateral lower extremities with gangrene of the toes. Based on the progress of his disease over the past 10 years, he was suspected to have idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) accompanied by peripheral arterial obstruction. Idiopathic HES is a disease characterized by unexpected hypereosinophilia, which may lead to organ damage. This is a very rare case of peripheral arterial occlusion associated with idiopathic HIS.

  10. Complete occlusion of the proximal subclavian artery post-CABG: Presentation and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Mouhannad M; Ravindran, Aravindhan; Marcuzzi, Daniel W; Chisholm, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic disease of the proximal left subclavian artery is an uncommon cause of angina in the post-coronary artery bypass graft patient, and is termed coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. Typical manifestations include cardiac symptoms of angina and noncardiac symptoms of lightheadedness, left arm numbness or weakness, and a difference in blood pressure of more than 20 mmHg between both arms. A case of complete proximal occlusion of the subclavian artery is reported. The clinical picture, investigations and treatment are described. Historical treatments of occlusive disease include surgical bypass graft and, more recently, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. The patient underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting by a retrograde approach, with an excellent short-term response, but ultimately required a carotid subclavian bypass due to restenosis. PMID:18612504

  11. Distinctive patterns on CT angiography characterize acute internal carotid artery occlusion subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji Man; Lee, Sung Eun; Lee, Seong-Joon; Lee, Jin Soo; Demchuk, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Noninvasive computed tomography angiography (CTA) is widely used in acute ischemic stroke, even for diagnosing various internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion sites, which often need cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) confirmation. We evaluated whether clinical outcomes vary depending on the DSA-based occlusion sites and explored correlating features on baseline CTA that predict DSA-based occlusion site. We analyzed consecutive patients with acute ICA occlusion who underwent DSA and CTA. Occlusion site was classified into cervical, cavernous, petrous, and carotid terminus segments by DSA confirmation. Clinical and radiological features associated with poor outcome at 3 months (3–6 of modified Rankin scale) were analyzed. Baseline CTA findings were categorized according to carotid occlusive shape (stump, spearhead, and streak), presence of cervical calcification, Willisian occlusive patterns (T-type, L-type, and I-type), and status of leptomeningeal collaterals (LMC). We identified 49 patients with occlusions in the cervical (n = 17), cavernous (n = 22), and carotid terminus (n = 10) portions: initial NIH Stroke Scale (11.4 ± 4.2 vs 16.1 ± 3.7 vs 18.2 ± 5.1; P < 0.001), stroke volume (27.9 ± 29.6 vs 127.4 ± 112.6 vs 260.3 ± 151.8 mL; P < 0.001), and poor outcome (23.5 vs 77.3 vs 90.0%; P < 0.001). Cervical portion occlusion was characterized as rounded stump (82.4%) with calcification (52.9%) and fair LMC (94.1%); cavernous as spearhead occlusion (68.2%) with fair LMC (86.3%) and no calcification (95.5%); and terminus as streak-like occlusive pattern (60.0%) with poor LMC (60.0%), and no calcification (100%) on CTA. Our study indicates that acute ICA occlusion can be subtyped into cervical, cavernous, and terminus. Distinctive findings on initial CTA can help differentiate ICA-occlusion subtypes with specific characteristics. PMID:28151850

  12. Complex neurological symptoms in bilateral thalamic stroke due to Percheron artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Paola; Manganotti, Paolo; Moretti, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The artery of Percheron is a rare anatomical variant where a single thalamic perforating artery arises from the proximal posterior cerebral artery (P1 segment) between the basilar artery and the posterior communicating artery and supplies the rostral mesencephalon and both paramedian territories of the thalami. Almost one-third of human brains present this variant. Occlusion of the artery of Percheron mostly results in a bilateral medial thalamic infarction, which usually manifests with altered consciousness (including coma), vertical gaze paresis, and cognitive disturbance. The presentation is similar to the “top of the basilar syndrome”, and early recognition should be prompted. We describe the case of a young female with this vessel variant who experienced a bilateral thalamic stroke. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated bilateral thalamic infarcts and a truncated artery of Percheron. Occlusion of the vessel was presumably due to embolism from a patent foramen ovale. Thrombolysis was performed, with incomplete symptom remission, cognitive impairment, and persistence of speech disorders. Early recognition and treatment of posterior circulation strokes is mandatory, and further investigation for underlying stroke etiologies is needed. PMID:28053539

  13. Partial aortic occlusion and cerebral venous steal: venous effects of arterial manipulation in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Pranevicius, Osvaldas; Pranevicius, Mindaugas; Liebeskind, David S

    2011-05-01

    Acute ischemic stroke therapy emphasizes early arterial clot lysis or removal. Partial aortic occlusion has recently emerged as an alternative hemodynamic approach to augment cerebral perfusion in acute ischemic stroke. The exact mechanism of cerebral flow augmentation with partial aortic occlusion remains unclear and may involve more than simple diversion of arterial blood flow from the lower body to cerebral collateral circulation. The cerebral venous steal hypothesis suggests that even a small increase in tissue pressure in the ischemic area will divert blood flow to surrounding regions with lesser tissue pressures. This may cause no-reflow (absence of flow after restoration of arterial patency) in the ischemic core and "luxury perfusion" in the surrounding regions. Such maldistribution may be reversed with increased venous pressure titrated to avoid changes in intracranial pressure. We propose that partial aortic occlusion enhances perfusion in the brain by offsetting cerebral venous steal. Partial aortic occlusion redistributes blood volume into the upper part of the body, manifested by an increase in central venous pressure. Increased venous pressure recruits the collapsed vascular network and, by eliminating cerebral venous steal, corrects perifocal perfusion maldistribution analogous to positive end-expiratory pressure recruitment of collapsed airways to decrease ventilation/perfusion mismatch in the lungs.

  14. Posterior Ciliary Artery Occlusion Caused by Hyaluronic Acid Injections Into the Forehead: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiu Zhuo; Hu, Jun Yan; Wu, Peng Sen; Yu, Sheng Bo; Kikkawa, Don O; Lu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Although cosmetic facial soft tissue fillers are generally safe and effective, improper injections can lead to devastating and irreversible consequences. We represent the first known case of posterior ciliary artery occlusion caused by hyaluronic acid. A 41-year-old female presented with right visual loss 7 hours after receiving cosmetic hyaluronic acid injections into her forehead. Examination revealed no light perception in the right eye and multiple dark ischemic area of injection over the forehead and nose. The right fundus revealed a pink retina with optic nerve edema. Fluorescein angiogram showed several filling defects in the choroidal circulation and late hyperfluorescence in the choroid. A right posterior ciliary artery occlusion and embolic occlusion of facial artery braches was diagnosed. With hyaluronidase injection, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, oral aspirin, oral acetazolamide and dexamethasone venotransfuse treatment, the patient's forehead and nasal skin improved and vision recovered to hand movements. With proper technique, vascular occlusion is rare following facial filler injection. Vision consequences can be severe if filler emboli enter the ocular circulation. Physicians should be aware of this potential side effect, recognize its presentation, and be knowledgeable of effective management.

  15. Influence of Puncture Site on Radial Artery Occlusion After Transradial Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xi-Le; Fu, Xiang-Hua; Gu, Xin-Shun; Wang, Yan-Bo; Li, Wei; Wei, Li-Ye; Fan, Yan-Ming; Bai, Shi-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of radial artery occlusion (RAO) needs particular attention in transradial intervention (TRI). Therefore, reducing vascular occlusion has an important clinical significance. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate puncture site during TRI through comparing the occurrence of RAO between the different puncture sites to reduce the occurrence of RAO after TRI. Methods: We prospectively assessed the occurrence of RAO in 606 consecutive patients undergoing TRI. Artery occlusion was evaluated with Doppler ultrasound in 2 days and 1 year after the intervention. Risk factors for RAO were evaluated using a multivariate model analysis. Results: Of the 606 patients, the RAO occurred in 56 patients. Compared with TRI at 2–5 cm away from the radius styloid process, the odds ratio (OR) for occlusion risk at 0 cm and 1 cm were 9.65 (P = 0.033) and 8.90 (P = 0.040), respectively. The RAO occurred in the ratio of the arterial diameter to the sheath diameter ≤1 (OR = 2.45, P = 0.004). Conclusion: Distal puncture sites (0–1 cm away from the radius styloid process) can lead to a higher rate of RAO. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01979627; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01979627?term = NCT01979627 and rank = 1. PMID:27064032

  16. Small bowel volvulus in pregnancy with associated superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Esterson, Yonah B; Villani, Robert; Dela Cruz, Ronald A; Friedman, Barak; Grimaldi, Gregory M

    Here we report the case of a pregnant 28-year-old who presented with acute upper abdominal pain. CT demonstrated midgut volvulus with short segment occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Emergent detorsion of the small bowel was performed, at which time underlying intestinal malrotation was discovered. Following detorsion, the SMA had a bounding pulse and did not require thrombectomy or revascularization. Fewer than 25 cases of midgut volvulus during pregnancy have been reported over the past 20years. To our knowledge, this is the first report of maternal midgut volvulus in which imaging captures the resultant occlusion of the SMA.

  17. [The choice of operative method for the arterial occlusion in the femoro-popliteo-tibial segment].

    PubMed

    Nikul'nikov, P I; Guch, A A; Bytsaĭ, A N; Akhmad, D; Danilets, A O

    2006-10-01

    The results of surgical treatment of 198 patients suffering atherosclerotic occlusion of the femoro-popliteo-tibial segment arteries were analyzed, of them endarterectomy from superficial femoral artery was performed in 75 (37.9%) patients, femoro-popliteal shunting using autovena--in 93 (47%), synthetic prosthesis--in 17 (8.6%), in 4 (2%)--distal anastomosis was formatted with "hanged" segment of popliteal artery, revascularization of the limb via the deep femoral artery system was done in 9 (4.5%) patients. Good immediate result was noted in 86.4% patients, in 2 years and more--in 68.6%. Comparative analysis of methods of the femoro-popliteo-tibial segment arteries reconstruction had trusted, that more stable indices of hemodynamics were achieved after performance of autovenous shunting with formation of distal anastomosis via proximally than the knee joint fissure localisation.

  18. Cerebral Arterial Calcification Is an Imaging Prognostic Marker for Revascularization Treatment of Acute Middle Cerebral Arterial Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Joon; Hong, Ji Man; Lee, Manyong; Huh, Kyoon; Choi, Jin Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose To study the significance of intracranial artery calcification as a prognostic marker for acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing revascularization treatment after middle cerebral artery (MCA) trunk occlusion. Methods Patients with acute MCA trunk occlusion, who underwent intravenous and/or intra-arterial revascularization treatment, were enrolled. Intracranial artery calcification scores were calculated by counting calcified intracranial arteries among major seven arteries on computed tomographic angiography. Patients were divided into high (HCB; score ≥3) or low calcification burden (LCB; score <3) groups. Demographic, imaging, and outcome data were compared, and whether HCB is a prognostic factor was evaluated. Grave prognosis was defined as modified Rankin Scale 5-6 for this study. Results Of 80 enrolled patients, the HCB group comprised 15 patients, who were older, and more commonly had diabetes than patients in the LCB group. Initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores did not differ (HCB 13.3±2.7 vs. LCB 14.6±3.8) between groups. The final good reperfusion after revascularization treatment (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2b-3, HCB 66.7% vs. LCB 69.2%) was similarly achieved in both groups. However, the HCB group had significantly higher NIHSS scores at discharge (16.0±12.3 vs. 7.9±8.3), and more frequent grave outcome at 3 months (57.1% vs. 22.0%) than the LCB group. HCB was proven as an independent predictor for grave outcome at 3 months when several confounding factors were adjusted (odds ratio 4.135, 95% confidence interval, 1.045-16.359, P=0.043). Conclusions Intracranial HCB was associated with grave prognosis in patients who have undergone revascularization for acute MCA trunk occlusion. PMID:25692109

  19. Treatment of three pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms associated with coeliac artery occlusion and splenic artery aneurysm: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jibiki, M; Inoue, Y; Iwai, T; Sugano, N; Igari, T; Koike, M

    2005-02-01

    A case of three pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDA) aneurysms associated with coeliac artery occlusion and a concomitant splenic arterial aneurysm is described. Surgical treatment was used because it was anticipated that the hepatic blood supply would be obstructed completely if percutaneous transluminal embolization for three PDA aneurysms were performed. Splenectomy in continuity with the splenic artery aneurysm and PDA aneurysmectomies were performed, and infrarenal abdominal aorto-splenic artery bypass was accomplished using a 6mm ringed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. The postoperative course was uneventful. Graft patency and successful aneurysm ablation were confirmed using MRA and intravenous DSA. Arterial histology revealed segmental arterial mediolysis. At 2-year follow-up, the patient was well and asymptomatic. A literature review of PDA aneurysms is presented.

  20. Unusual Combination of Total Occlusion of Left Main Coronary Artery and Heart Failure with Pulmonary Hemosiderosis: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Elayda, MacArthur A.; Mathur, Virendra S.; Hall, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    A case of total occlusion of the left main coronary artery, congestive heart failure, and pulmonary hemosiderosis in a 54-year-old man is reported. Cardiac catheterization showed total occlusion of the left main coronary artery, subtotal occlusion of the right coronary artery, severely deranged hemodynamics, and an akinetic left ventricle except for a hypokinetic posterobasal segment. A radionuclide left ventricular performance study revealed an ejection fraction of 0.16 with diffuse biventricular hypokinesis and dilatation. Despite all the risk factors, the patient underwent a total of six saphenous vein grafts without perioperative or immediate postoperative complications. Images PMID:15227138

  1. Central Retinal and Posterior Ciliary Artery Occlusion After Intralesional Injection of Sclerosant to Glabellar Subcutaneous Hemangioma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this study is to describe vision loss caused by central retinal artery and posterior ciliary artery occlusion as a consequence of sclerotherapy with a polidocanol injection to a glabellar hemangioma. An 18-year-old man underwent direct injection with a 23-gauge needle of 1 mL of a polidocanol-carbon dioxide emulsion into the glabellar subcutaneous hemangioma under ultrasound visualization of the needle tip by radiologists. He developed lid swelling the next day, and 3 days later at referral, the visual acuity in the left eye was no light perception. Funduscopy revealed central retinal artery occlusion and fluorescein angiography disclosed no perfusion at all in the left fundus, indicating concurrent posterior ciliary artery occlusion. The patient also showed mydriasis, blepharoptosis, and total external ophthalmoplegia on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the swollen medial rectus muscle. In a month, blepharoptosis and ophthalmoplegia resolved but the visual acuity remained no light perception. Sclerosing therapy for facial hemangioma may develop a severe complication such as permanent visual loss.

  2. Acute occlusion of the retinal arteries: current concepts and recent advances in diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, S; Eong, K

    2000-01-01

    Purpose/Background—Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is usually a blinding event, and is not an infrequent presentation to the accident and emergency (A&E) department. The evidence-base in support of current treatment options is weak. Methods—This paper reviewed the literature germane to the diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic aspects of retinal arterial occlusive disease. Results—The visual prognosis associated with CRAO remains poor, and current therapeutic practices are of unproven benefit. The non-ophthalmologist in the A&E department should lie the patient flat and give a stat dose of intravenous acetazolamide in an attempt to improve the retinal perfusion pressure. Conclusion—The management of acute occlusion of the central retinal artery has not changed over the past 30 years, although the potential benefits of superselective intra-arterial fibrinolytic therapy warrant evaluation in a randomised controlled trial. The identification of underlying pathology is an essential component of medical care, and all cases should be followed up by an ophthalmologist because of the possibility of ocular rubeosis. PMID:11005400

  3. Percutaneous Management of Occlusive Arterial Disease Associated with Vasculitis: A Single Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Both, M.; Jahnke, T.; Reinhold-Keller, E.; Reuter, M.; Grimm, J.; Biederer, J.; Brossmann, J.; Gross, W.L.; Heller, M.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, S.

    2003-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for occlusive arterial disease associated with vasculitis. Eleven patients(10 women, 1 man; ages 35-82 years) with the diagnosis of vasculitis of the large vessels underwent interventional treatment during intraarterial angiography. The causes included giant cell arteritis(n = 8) and Takayasu arteritis (n = 3).Thirty-three occlusive lesions (including brachiocephalic and renalarteries, and arteries of upper and lower extremities) were treated with balloon angioplasty and/or stent placement. Follow-up included clinical examination, angiography, and color duplex ultrasound.Technical success was 100% (25/25) for stenoses and 50% (4/8) for occlusive lesions, representing all lesions combined from different anatomic locations. Dissection (n = 3) and arterial rupture with retroperitoneal hematoma (n = 1) was found in three patients. During follow-up (mean 12 months), restenoses(n = 8) and re-restenoses (n = 1)occurred in 8 vascular areas. Three of these lesions were treated with repeated PTA (n = 4). The cumulative primary clinical success rate was 67.6%, cumulative secondary success rate 74.4%, and cumulative tertiary success rate 75.9%. Interventional therapy in systemic vasculitis provides promising results in technical success rates and followup. Angioplasty may result in arterial injury, but the rate of complications is low.

  4. Percutaneous Recanalization of Acute Internal Carotid Artery Occlusions in Patients with Severe Stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Dabitz, Rainer; Triebe, Stefan; Leppmeier, Ullrich; Ochs, Guenther; Vorwerk, Dierk

    2007-02-15

    Background. Sudden symptomatic occlusions of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) resulting in severe middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemia and stroke are usually not accessible by rt-PA thrombolysis and the prognosis is usually very poor. Mechanical recanalization of the proximal ICA combined with intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis was therefore used as a rescue procedure. Methods. Ten patients (9 men, 1 woman; mean age 56.1 years) were treated with emergency recanalization of the proximal carotid artery by using stents and/or balloon angioplasty as a rescue procedure. Three patients showed dissection, and 7 had atherothrombotic occlusions. Nine of 10 presented with an initial modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 5, the remaining patient with mRS 4 (average NIHSS 21.4). After sonographic confirmation of ICA with associated MCA/distal ICA occlusion and bridging with rt-PA (without abciximab) an emergency angiography was performed with subsequent mechanical recanalization by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) (n = 1) or primary stenting (n = 9) using self-expanding stents. Distal protection was used in 1 of 10 patients. Results. Recanalization of the proximal ICA was achieved in all. At least partial recanalization of the intracerebral arteries was achieved in all, and complete recanalization in 5. In 4 of 10 patients limited hemorrhage was detected during CT controls. Major complications included 2 patients who had to undergo hemicraniectomy. One patient died from malignant infarction. At the time of discharge from the stroke unit 9 of 10 patients had improved markedly, 5 patients having an mRS of {<=}2, and 3 patients a mRS of 3. At control after a mean of 20 weeks, 7 of 8 (88%) patients had a mRS {<=}2, and 1 a mRS of 3. Conclusions. Primary mechanical recanalization of ICA occlusions by stent and PTA combined with fibrinolysis and/or GPIIb/IIIa-receptor antagonists seems to be feasible to improve patient outcome significantly.

  5. Tibiopedal Access for Crossing of Infrainguinal Artery Occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Craig M.; Mustapha, Jihad; Zeller, Thomas; Schmidt, Andrej; Montero-Baker, Miguel; Nanjundappa, Aravinda; Manzi, Marco; Palena, Luis Mariano; Bernardo, Nelson; Khatib, Yazan; Beasley, Robert; Leon, Luis; Saab, Fadi A.; Shields, Adam R.; Adams, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report a prospective, multicenter, observational study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01609621) of the safety and effectiveness of tibiopedal access and retrograde crossing in the treatment of infrainguinal chronic total occlusions (CTOs). Methods: Twelve sites around the world prospectively enrolled 197 patients (mean age 71±11 years, range 41-93; 129 men) from May 2012 to July 2013 who met the inclusion criterion of at least one CTO for which a retrograde crossing procedure was planned or became necessary. The population consisted of 64 (32.5%) claudicants (Rutherford categories 2/3) and 133 (67.5%) patients with critical limb ischemia (Rutherford category ≥4). A primary antegrade attempt to cross had been made prior to the tibiopedal attempt in 132 (67.0%) cases. Techniques used for access, retrograde lesion crossing, and treatment were at the operator’s discretion. Follow-up data were obtained 30 days after the procedure. Results: Technical tibiopedal access success was achieved in 184 (93.4%) of 197 patients and technical occlusion crossing success in 157 (85.3%) of the 184 successful tibial accesses. Failed access attempts were more common in women (9 of 13 failures). The rate of successful crossing was roughly equivalent between sexes [84.7% (50/59) women compared to 85.6% (107/125) men]. Technical success did not differ significantly based on a prior failed antegrade attempt: the access success rate was 92.4% (122/132) after a failed antegrade access vs 95.4% (62/65) in those with a primary tibiopedal attempt (p=0.55). Similarly, crossing success was achieved in 82.8% (101/122) after a failed antegrade access vs 90.3% (56/62) for patients with no prior antegrade attempt (p=0.19). Minor complications related to the access site occurred in 11 (5.6%) cases; no patient had access vessel thrombosis, compartment syndrome, or surgical revascularization. Conclusion: Tibiopedal access appears to be safe and can be used effectively for the

  6. Probe exchange catheter used for angioplasty of total coronary artery occlusions.

    PubMed

    Kiemeneij, F; Suwarganda, J S; van der Wieken, L R

    1990-04-01

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for total occlusions frequently fails, because the guidewire fails to pass the occlusion. With the use of the Probe exchange catheter (PEC), however, stiffness of the guidewire is increased and a higher pushability is obtained in order to manipulate the guidewire beyond the lesion. Once the guidewire has passed, the PEC is advanced and a non-over-the-wire dilatation catheter can be introduced through the PEC. This paper describes the technique in a representative case. The results of this technique in 19 consecutive patients with class III-IV/IV(NYHA) angina due to an occluded coronary artery are presented. In 16 patients the PEC reached the lesion (84%) and in all these patients the guidewire could pass the occlusion. A successful PTCA was performed in 14 patients (74%).

  7. [Disseminated arterial occlusions revealing bilateral venous thrombosis with paradoxical embolisms].

    PubMed

    Elsendoorn, A; Desport, E; Vialle, R; Frat, J-P; Bridoux, F; Touchard, G

    2009-06-01

    Paradoxical embolism is a diagnosis of exclusion. Clinical triad associates deep venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, arterial embolism, and intracardiac communication with right-to-left shunt. The intracardiac communication is generally related to a patent foramen ovale (PFO). We report a 75-year-old patient, who presented with bilateral deep venous thrombosis of the legs, complicated by massive pulmonary embolism and paradoxical embolisms through a PFO. This resulted in cerebral, mesenteric, splenic and bilateral kidney infarctions. A promptly initiated anticoagulant treatment allowed a favourable outcome.

  8. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in two patients with basilar artery occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    Herderscheê, D; Limburg, M; Hijdra, A; Koster, P A

    1991-01-01

    Two patients with angiographically proved basilar artery occlusion were treated with systemic recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) according to protocol. The first patient was in a locked-in state and gradually deteriorated. On repeat angiography the basilar artery remained occluded. He died and necropsy revealed a pontine haemorrhagic infarction. The second patient, who was comatose and with decerebrate posturing, made a remarkable recovery. Angiography showed reperfusion. Therapy was initiated in the first patient after six hours and in the second after two hours. Treatment with rtPA is promising but probably not feasible for every patient. Success may depend on duration of occlusion and composition of occluding thrombus. Images PMID:1901349

  9. Technical Failure of Giant Supraclinoid Aneurysm after Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Lv, Ming; Li, Youxiang; Yang, Xinjian; Wu, Zhongxue

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe three cases of technical failure in patients with giant supraclinoid aneurysm treated with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. Case 1 was a 65-year-old woman who presented with a two-month history of headache accompanied by blurred vision of the left eye. Case 2 was a 43-year-old woman who presented with a six-month history of headache accompanied by blurred vision of the right eye. Case 3 was a 21-year-old man admitted due to headache and blurred vision of the left eye, accompanied by left oculomotor nerve palsy for three months. Cerebral angiography revealed giant supraclinoid aneurysms in these patients. All of them were treated with ICA occlusion. One case had recurrent headache symptoms after the first procedure and was retreated. Two cases suffered from post-procedural intracranial hemorrhagic complications. Before ICA occlusion for giant supraclinoid aneurysm, balloon occlusion test was used to evaluate the collateral anastomosis between the external carotid artery (ECA) and the ICA, and still plays an important role in preventing treatment failure. PMID:25496684

  10. Transneuronal Degeneration of Thalamic Nuclei following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Postinfarction transneuronal degeneration refers to secondary neuronal death that occurs within a few days to weeks following the disruption of input or output to synapsed neurons sustaining ischemic insults. The thalamus receives its blood supply from the posterior circulation; however, infarctions of the middle cerebral arterial may cause secondary transneuronal degeneration in the thalamus. In this study, we presented the areas of ischemia and associated transneuronal degeneration following MCAo in a rat model. Materials and Methods. Eighteen 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery for 1, 7, and 14 days. Cerebral atrophy was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium hydrochloride staining. Postural reflex and open field tests were performed prior to animal sacrifice to assess the effects of occlusion on behavior. Results. Myelin loss was observed at the lesion site following ischemia. Gliosis was also observed in thalamic regions 14 days following occlusion. Differential degrees of increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression were observed at each stage of infarction. Increases in myelin basic protein levels were also observed in the 14-day group. Conclusion. The present rat model of ischemia provides evidence of transneuronal degeneration within the first 14 days of occlusion. The observed changes in protein expression may be associated with self-repair mechanisms in the damaged brain. PMID:27597962

  11. [Diagnostic image (162) A woman with temporary hemiplegia. Temporary embolic occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery by a thrombus].

    PubMed

    Groeneveld, G J; van der Schaaf, I C

    2003-10-25

    A 48-year-old woman with right-sided hemiplegia by embolic occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery was treated with alteplase. A pre- and post-treatment CT angiography scan showed the vanishing blood clot.

  12. Congenital Spinal Malformation and Stroke: Aneurysmal Dilatations and Bilateral Rotational Vertebral Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    de la Riva, Patricia; Martínez-Zabaleta, Maria Teresa; Pardo, Edurne; Samprón, Nicolás; Mondragón-Rezola, Elisabet; Arruti González, Maialen; Larrea, Jose Ángel; Martí-Massó, José Félix

    2016-03-01

    A 30-year-old woman suffered from acute vertebrobasilar stroke. Cranial tomography (CT) scans showed multiple vertebral abnormalities suggestive of congenital spine malformation, and angiographic CT revealed aneurysmal dilatations (ADs) at segment V2 of both vertebral arteries (VAs). Dynamic neuroimaging tests including angiography and angio-CT were performed and showed occlusion of both VAs at the point of the ADs with contralateral rotation of the neck. The presence of a bony structure causing the artery compression was excluded and embolic phenomena originating at the AD was proposed as the likely source of stroke. Even if infrequent, the presence of craniocervical anomalies should be considered in vertebrobasilar stroke of indeterminate etiology.

  13. Central retinal artery occlusion in association with fibromuscular dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Altun, Ahmet; Altun, Gulengul; Olcaysu, Osman Okan; Kurna, Sevda Aydin; Aki, Suat Fazil

    2013-01-01

    A 14 year-old female, whose chief complaint was severe vision loss in the right eye for 2 days, presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital. The patient had been attending follow-up visits for 4 years, following a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia by the Clinic of Pediatrics. The patient underwent a complete ophthalmo-logic, angiographic, hematologic, and systemic evaluation. Fundus fluorescein angiography was performed immediately, because of the cherry-red spot sign in the macula of the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed evidence of marked stasis of the retinal arterial circulation in the right eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/400 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. PMID:24293990

  14. Central retinal artery occlusion in association with fibromuscular dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Altun, Ahmet; Altun, Gulengul; Olcaysu, Osman Okan; Kurna, Sevda Aydin; Aki, Suat Fazil

    2013-01-01

    A 14 year-old female, whose chief complaint was severe vision loss in the right eye for 2 days, presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital. The patient had been attending follow-up visits for 4 years, following a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia by the Clinic of Pediatrics. The patient underwent a complete ophthalmo-logic, angiographic, hematologic, and systemic evaluation. Fundus fluorescein angiography was performed immediately, because of the cherry-red spot sign in the macula of the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed evidence of marked stasis of the retinal arterial circulation in the right eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/400 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye.

  15. Endovascular surgery for peripheral arterial occlusive disease. A critical review.

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, S S; Eton, D; Moore, W S

    1992-01-01

    Endovascular surgery is a new multidisciplinary field that applies the recently innovated techniques of angioscopy, intraluminal ultrasound, balloon angioplasty, laser, mechanical atherectomy, and stents. This field can be defined as a diagnostic and therapeutic discipline that uses catheter-based systems to treat vascular disease. As such, it integrates the subspecialties of vascular surgery, interventional radiology, interventional cardiology, and biomedical engineering for the common purpose of improving arterial hemodynamics. Endovascular surgery offers many potential benefits: long incisions are replaced with a puncture wound, the need for postoperative intensive care is significantly reduced, major cardiac and pulmonary complications from general anesthesia are side stepped, and the dollar savings could be dramatic as the need for intensive care unit and in-hospital stay diminishes. Despite these technological advancements, endovascular surgery is still in its infancy and currently has limited applications. This review provides an updated summary of endovascular surgery today and addresses some of the obstacles still preventing its widespread use. PMID:1385944

  16. Microballoon Occlusion Test to Predict Colonic Ischemia After Transcatheter Embolization of a Ruptured Aneurysm of the Middle Colic Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Inokuchi, Hiroyuki; Irie, Hiroyuki; Nishie, Akihiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ishigami, Kousei; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Daisuke; Honda, Hiroshi; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Morita, Masaru; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2008-07-15

    A 76-year-old woman presented with sudden massive melena, and superior mesenteric arteriography showed an aneurysm in the middle colic artery (MCA). Because she had a history of right hemicolectomy and ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) during open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, embolization of the MCA aneurysm was considered to pose a risk comparable to that of colonic ischemia. A microballoon occlusion test during occlusion of the MCA confirmed retrograde visualization of the IMA branches through the collateral arteries by way of the left internal iliac artery, and embolization was successfully performed using microcoils. No colonic ischemia or aneurysm rupture occurred after embolization.

  17. The contralateral carotid disease in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lovrencić-Huzjan, Arijana; Strineka, Maja; Aiman, Drazen; Strbe, Sanja; Sodec-Simicević, Darja; Demarin, Vida

    2009-09-01

    The one-year incidence of carotid occlusion is 6/100 000 inhabitants in general population. Stroke incidence and mortality rate in these patients vary. Patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy (CES) are at a higher risk of progression of contralateral carotid stenosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the management and natural history of the contralateral internal carotid artery disease in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO). During one year, 297 patients with ICAO were investigated. Follow up examinations were retrospectively analyzed and patients were divided into groups according to contralateral carotid disease. Out of 297 patients, only one investigation was performed in 90 patients with carotid occlusion. Thirty three patients were followed up due to postoperative ICAO. In 14 patients, ICAO developed during ultrasonographic follow up. In this group of patients, 9 had unchanged contralateral findings, whereas in 5 patients disease progression was observed. Out of 44 patients with ICAO and contralateral subtotal stenosis at initial investigation, 42 underwent carotid surgery. Postoperatively, 32 patients had normal findings, 6 developed mild carotid stenosis, 2 developed moderate carotid stenosis, and 2 had postoperative carotid occlusion. Two patients were followed-up without intervention. Nine patients with bilateral ICAO were followed-up for years. Follow up was continued in 106 patients with ICAO and contralateral mild to moderate changes. The finding was unchanged in 68 patients. In 21 (30%) patients the disease progressed to subtotal stenosis and 18 patients underwent carotid surgery. Accordingly, contralateral carotid disease progression was observed in one third of patients with carotid occlusion. Additional studies on the issue are needed.

  18. Cerebellar infarction resulting from vertebral artery occlusion associated with a Jefferson fracture.

    PubMed

    Muratsu, Hirotsugu; Doita, Minoru; Yanagi, Toshihide; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Nishida, Kotaro; Tomioka, Masao; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2005-06-01

    Neurologic deficit secondary to a Jefferson fracture is rare, as the fracture fragments tend to spread outward. To the authors' knowledge, only five cases of vertebral artery injury associated with C1 fracture have been reported. A 75-year-old man with diffuse spinal hyperostosis hit the top of his head and sustained a Jefferson fracture. The patient presented with vertigo and slurred speech. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated cerebellar infarction, and MR angiography (MRA) showed bilateral vertebral artery occlusion associated with a Jefferson fracture. The patient was placed in a halo vest for a total of 11 weeks and treated with anticoagulant therapy. Vertigo gradually improved, and the patient was able to walk with a cane. Previously slurred speech was completely resolved. This case demonstrates that a Jefferson fracture can cause vertebral artery occlusion, resulting in cerebellar infarction. The clinician should be aware of the possibility and implications of vertebral artery injuries, especially if a fracture involving the foramen transversarium with displacement is documented or if there is a neurologic deficit above the level of injury. Advances in noninvasive imaging such as MRA will facilitate accurate evaluation of these potentially life-threatening vascular injuries.

  19. Natural history of patients with chronic occlusion of the internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Nader, J; Bogousslavsky, J

    1993-01-01

    Although 3% of the elderly population may have asymptomatic unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO), between 10% and 20% of patients with initial stroke in the carotid territory have appropriate ipsilateral extracranial ICAO. In the latter instance, it is often difficult to establish whether ICAO is (a) an acute thrombotic process on an underlying atheromatous stenosis; (b) an acute embolic ICAO (from heart or aorta); or (c) an old ICAO that was previously asymptomatic. Intracranial studies show that the first stroke ipsilateral to ICAO is usually associated with occlusions distal to ICAO, which suggest artery-to-artery embolism. On the other hand, the follow-up of stroke patients with ICAO shows that delayed cerebral infarction distal to the established ICAO often involves watershed areas and may correspond to hemodynamic disturbances. Because the international extracranial/intracranial arterial bypass study did not show any surgical benefit, current management is mainly directed to stabilization of associated causes of hemodynamic failure (hypotension, bradycardia, etc.). Attempts to find subgroups that may benefit from bypass surgery are still ongoing. However, the prognosis of these patients is negatively influenced by a particularly high risk of cardiac death.

  20. The efficiency analysis of thrombolytic rt-PA combined with intravascular interventional therapy in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Xianxian, Zhao; Chengsong, Yue; Qiang, Mei; Fei, Wei; Lin, Shen; Huiyan, Ding; Zili, Gong

    2017-01-01

    In order to further optimize the treatment strategy for the patients with acute basilar artery occlusion, we were dedicated to study the therapeutic effects and influential factors in the process of treated basilar artery occlusion with thrombolytic combined vascular interventional therapy. 75 patients with acute basilar artery occlusion treated with arterial thrombolytic therapy were analyzed retrospectively. In accordance with the discharge records of patients, their short-term curative effect with 24-hour treatment and 14-days treatment were evaluated. Our data showed that the survival condition of the patients with acute acute basilar artery occlusion were visibly improved by combination thrombolytic and interventional therapy. Moreover, their BI scores were remarkably improved, while NIHSS and mRS scores were evidently reduced. These data proved that our treatment strategy was able to improve the survival condition of patients with acute basilar artery occlusion. Furthermore, our data showed that coagulation related factors remarkably improved in the patients, when they treated by combination thrombolytic therapy with interventional therapy. In addition, our results suggested that the patients' bilateral Babinski(+), revascularization and coma symptom were closely related to their prognosis after treated the patients with combination thrombolytic and vascular interventional therapy, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05, p<0.05, p<0.05). Besides, our data also displayed that the with stent assisted angioplasty was significantly superior to the patients with balloon angioplasty, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Anyhow, combination thrombolytic with interventional therapy can effectively promote the prognosis of the patients with acute basilar artery occlusion. The coma symptom, bilateral Babinski(+), and revascularization in the patients with acute basilar artery occlusion have an appreciable impact on the patients

  1. Transcatheter Thrombolysis with High-Dose Bolus Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Iatrogenic Arterial Occlusion after Femoral Arterial Catheterization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsetis, Dimitrios K.; Kochiadakis, George E.; Hatzidakis, Adam A.; Skalidis, Emannuel I.; Chryssou, Evangelia G.; Tritou, Ioanna N.; Vardas, Panos E.; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas C.

    2002-01-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of percutaneous local thrombolysis with high-dose bolus recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in patients with acute limb ischemia due to arterial thrombosis after cardiac catheterization.Methods: We treated eight patients (7 men; mean age 56 years) with thrombotic occlusion of both the common femoral artery (CFA) and external iliac artery (EIA) in six patients and of the CFA only in two patients. Two 5 mg boluses of rt-PA were injected into the proximal clot through a 5 Fr end-hole catheter and subsequently two additional boluses of 5 mg rt-PA were given through a catheter with multiple side-holes. In case of a significant amount of residual thrombus, a continuous infusion of 2.5 mg/hr of rt-PA was started.Results: Successful lysis was achieved in all patients. The mean duration of lysis was 2 hr 41 min. The mean total amount of rt-PA delivered was 23.16 mg. In four patients unmasked flow-limited dissections confined to the CFA were managed by prolonged balloon dilatation, while in the remaining four patients with extension of the dissection to the external iliac artery one or two Easy Wallstents were implanted. There was prompt relief of lower limb ischemic symptoms and signs in all patients. Two groin hematomas were conservatively treated.Clinical and color Doppler flow imaging follow-up with a mean duration of 15 months, showed no reappearance of ischemic symptoms or development of restenosis in any of the patients. One patient died 6 months after thrombolysis.Conclusions: Transcatheter thrombolysis with high-dose bolus rt-PA is a safe and effective treatment inpatients with iatrogenic arterial occlusion after femoral catheterization. Underlying dissections should be treated by prolonged balloon dilatation but stent implantation is often required.

  2. Profunda Anchor Technique for Ipsilateral Antegrade Approach in Endovascular Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Ostial Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei

    2015-04-15

    Endovascular treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is challenging in the presence of flush ostial occlusion. One of the main challenges is the availability of access sites for intervention. Contralateral retrograde femoral access followed by cross-over and antegrade intervention while commonly used, may not be feasible in cases of altered iliac anatomy (e.g. kissing iliac stents). Ipsilateral antegrade intervention using common femoral artery (CFA) access in these instances while possible is typically challenging due to inadequate working length of the CFA for interrogation of the SFA ostium, compounded by the lack of sheath stability. The “profunda anchor” technique uses a buddy wire in the profunda femoris artery (PFA) to stabilize the sheath and allow catheter manipulation for antegrade intervention at the level of the SFA ostium. The PFA is further used as a conduit for deployment of closure device to avoid interference with the treated SFA.

  3. Sphingosine-1-phosphate is involved in the occlusive arteriopathy of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sachindra R.; Bastola, Mrigendra M.; McLendon, Jared M.; Oka, Masahiko; Fagan, Karen A.; McMurtry, Ivan F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite several advances in the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Current therapy improves symptoms but has disappointing effects on survival. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid synthesized by sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) and SphK2. Considering the regulatory roles of S1P in several tissues leading to vasoconstriction, inflammation, proliferation, and fibrosis, we investigated whether S1P plays a role in the pathogenesis of PAH. To test this hypothesis, we used plasma samples and lung tissue from patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH) and the Sugen5416/hypoxia/normoxia rat model of occlusive PAH. Our study revealed an increase in the plasma concentration of S1P in patients with IPAH and in early and late stages of PAH in rats. We observed increased expression of both SphK1 and SphK2 in the remodeled pulmonary arteries of patients with IPAH and PAH rats. Exogenous S1P stimulated the proliferation of cultured rat pulmonary arterial endothelial and smooth-muscle cells. We also found that 3 weeks of treatment of late-stage PAH rats with an SphK1 inhibitor reduced the increased plasma levels of S1P and the occlusive pulmonary arteriopathy. Although inhibition of SphK1 improved cardiac index and the total pulmonary artery resistance index, it did not reduce right ventricular systolic pressure or right ventricular hypertrophy. Our study supports that S1P is involved in the pathogenesis of occlusive arteriopathy in PAH and provides further evidence that S1P signaling may be a novel therapeutic target. PMID:27683614

  4. Sequential neuronal and astrocytic changes after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Chopp, M; Schultz, L; Bodzin, G; Garcia, J H

    1993-09-01

    The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of ischemic cell injury was investigated after transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Male Wistar rats (n = 61) were subjected to 2 h of MCA occlusion induced by advancing a nylon monofilament into the right internal carotid artery. Animals were killed after different durations of reperfusion, ranging from 4 to 166 h (n = 6-11 for each group). Neuronal injury and astrocytic reaction were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry, respectively. Eosinophilic neurons were detected at 4 h of reperfusion in the basal ganglia, and at 10 h of reperfusion in the cortex. Focal brain infarct developed by 46 h of reperfusion, both in the cortex and the basal ganglia, and the volume remained constant between 46 and 166 h of reperfusion. Significant differences in astrocytic reaction were detected between the lesion and the periphery of the lesion at reperfusion times from 46 to 166 h; GFAP staining decreased in the core of the lesion and increased in the peripheral areas. Our data suggest that, after 2 h of MCA occlusion, brain tissue progresses from isolated neuronal injury to infarct with a time course dependent on anatomical site; and astrocytic reactivity, expressed by GFAP staining, reflects the outcome of the ischemic injury.

  5. Simultaneous occlusion of three cilioretinal arteries following scleral buckling surgery under local anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Cuccu, Alberto; Farci, Roberta; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background Cilioretinal artery (CRA) occlusions are rare in young patients. In these cases, the most commonly associated causes are considered to be the same as those implicated in central retina artery occlusions, such as vasculitic processes, migraine, cardiac disorder, and coagulation abnormality. The aim of this article was to report for the first time the medical records and investigational results of an unusual case of simultaneous occlusion of three CRAs after scleral buckling surgery under local anesthesia. Methods A complete ophthalmic examination, including color fundus image, fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, visual field, as well as systemic and laboratory assessments, was performed. Results A case of contemporaneous blockage of three CRAs after ab externo surgery for retinal detachment in a 29-year-old Caucasian woman was reported. The interdisciplinary approach and the imaging results have allowed us the clinical definition of such a very rare case. Conclusion Here, we reported that optical coherence tomography is an indispensable tool to better delineate the pathological process and follow atrophic changes in the macula, especially in cases in which fundus fluorescein angiography and systemic tests may be poorly informative. PMID:27695367

  6. The Effect of Endovascular Revascularization of Common Iliac Artery Occlusions on Erectile Function

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, Serkan; Ozkan, Ugur; Onder, Hakan; Tekbas, Gueven; Oguzkurt, Levent

    2013-02-15

    To determine the incidence of erectile dysfunction in patients with common iliac artery (CIA) occlusive disease and the effect of revascularization on erectile function using the sexual health inventory for males (SHIM) questionnaire. All patients (35 men; mean age 57 {+-} 5 years; range 42-67 years) were asked to recall their sexual function before and 1 month after iliac recanalization. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine variables effecting improvement of impotence. The incidence of impotence in patients with CIA occlusion was 74% (26 of 35) preoperatively. Overall 16 (46%) of 35 patients reported improved erectile function after iliac recanalization. The rate of improvement of impotence was 61.5% (16 of 26 impotent patients). Sixteen patients (46%), including seven with normal erectile function before the procedure, had no change. Three patients (8%) reported deterioration of their sexual function, two of whom (6%) had normal erectile function before the procedure. The median SHIM score increased from 14 (range 4-25) before the procedure to 20 (range 1-25) after the procedure (P = 0.005). The type of recanalization, the age of the patients, and the length of occlusion were related to erectile function improvement in univariate analysis. However, these factors were not independent factors for improvement of erectile dysfunction in multivariate analysis (P > 0.05). Endovascular recanalization of CIA occlusions clearly improves sexual function. More than half of the patients with erectile dysfunction who underwent endovascular recanalization of the CIA experienced improvement.

  7. The missing button sign as a tool for detecting proximal internal carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Ho Sung; Joo, In Soo; Huh, Kyoon; Lee, Phil Hyu; Heo, Ji Hoe; Nam, Hyo Suk

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable sign for detecting proximal internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) using conventional CT scanning. The missing button sign (MBS) is defined as the absence of the ICA at the level of the foramen magnum on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) scans. Two raters independently reviewed random CECT samples from consecutive patients with acute ischaemic stroke. A total of 399 patients with 798 carotid arteries were analysed. Rater A identified the MBS in 41 (5%) of the carotid arteries, and did not identify the MBS in 735 (92%) carotid arteries. Rater B identified the MBS in 45 (6%) of the arteries, and lack of the MBS in 731 (91%) arteries. The kappa value for agreement was 0.90 (95% CI 0.84-0.95). Compared with CT angiography, Rater A's sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for detecting proximal ICAO were 85%, 100%, 100%, and 99%, respectively, while Rater B's values were 87%, 99%, 93%, and 99%, respectively. This study indicated that the MBS on CECT scanning is both a consistent and specific tool for the early identification of proximal ICAO.

  8. [Conservative management of a ruptured inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with celiac artery occlusion].

    PubMed

    Kidogawa, Hideo; Okamoto, Kohji; Yamayoshi, Takatomo; Noguchi, Junya

    2013-10-01

    A 45-year-old female presented at our hospital with a one-day history of upper abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed that the root of the celiac artery was obstructed and that a large hematoma was present in the retroperitoneum. The patient was diagnosed with retroperitoneal hemorrhage associated with the rupture of an inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm, which was caused by increased blood flow in the pancreaticoduodenal arterial arcade. Because the patient's general condition was stable, she was managed conservatively and discharged on achieving remission after a month. Follow-up CT revealed spontaneous resolution of the celiac artery obstruction and aneurysm. The celiac artery obstruction in this case was assumed to be caused by segmental arterial mediolysis.

  9. Evaluation of Endarterectomy Recanalization under Ultrasound Guidance in Symptomatic Patients with Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yumei; Jia, Lingyun; Liu, Beibei; Meng, Xiufeng; Yang, Jie; Li, Jingzhi; Zhou, Yinghua; Jiao, Liqun; Hua, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous screening and good imaging would help perform surgery on carotid artery occlusion CAO safely and effectively. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate carotid endarterectomy (CEA) recanalization in patients with common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) or internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) with color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI). A total of 59 patients undergoing CEA were enrolled. According to the results of CEA, the patients were divided into successful recanalization (group A) and unsuccessful recanalization (group B) groups. The original diameter, lesion length, proximal-to-distal diameter ratio and echo characteristics of the lesion within the lumen of the carotid artery were recorded before CEA and compared between the two groups. In regards to the achievement of repatency by CEA, the overall success rate was 74.6% (44/59), the success rate in CCAO patients was 75.9% (22/29) and the success rate in ICAO patients was 73.3% (22/30). There was no significant difference in the success rates between the CCAO and ICAO patients (χ2 = 0.050, P = 0.824). The overall rate of stroke and death within 30 postoperative days was 5.1% (3/59). For the CCAO patients, the lesion length in group A was shorter than that in group B (t = 3.221, P = 0.004). For the ICAO patients, the original diameter of the distal ICA was broader (t = 6.254, P = 0.000) and the proximal-to-distal ICA diameter ratio was smaller (t = 8.036, P = 0.000) in group A than in group B. The rate of recanalization for lumens with a homogeneous echo pattern (hypoecho or isoecho) was significantly higher than that for lumens with echo heterogeneity for both the CCAO and ICAO patients (χ2 = 14.477, P = 0.001; χ2 = 10.519, P = 0.003). However, for both the CCAO and ICAO patients, there was no difference in the rate of recanalization between patients with hypoecho and isoecho lesions (χ2 = 0.109, P = 0.742; χ2 = 0.836, P = 0.429). The original diameter, proximal-to-distal ICA

  10. Evaluation of Endarterectomy Recanalization under Ultrasound Guidance in Symptomatic Patients with Carotid Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yumei; Jia, Lingyun; Liu, Beibei; Meng, Xiufeng; Yang, Jie; Li, Jingzhi; Zhou, Yinghua; Jiao, Liqun; Hua, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous screening and good imaging would help perform surgery on carotid artery occlusion CAO safely and effectively. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate carotid endarterectomy (CEA) recanalization in patients with common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) or internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) with color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI). A total of 59 patients undergoing CEA were enrolled. According to the results of CEA, the patients were divided into successful recanalization (group A) and unsuccessful recanalization (group B) groups. The original diameter, lesion length, proximal-to-distal diameter ratio and echo characteristics of the lesion within the lumen of the carotid artery were recorded before CEA and compared between the two groups. In regards to the achievement of repatency by CEA, the overall success rate was 74.6% (44/59), the success rate in CCAO patients was 75.9% (22/29) and the success rate in ICAO patients was 73.3% (22/30). There was no significant difference in the success rates between the CCAO and ICAO patients (χ2 = 0.050, P = 0.824). The overall rate of stroke and death within 30 postoperative days was 5.1% (3/59). For the CCAO patients, the lesion length in group A was shorter than that in group B (t = 3.221, P = 0.004). For the ICAO patients, the original diameter of the distal ICA was broader (t = 6.254, P = 0.000) and the proximal-to-distal ICA diameter ratio was smaller (t = 8.036, P = 0.000) in group A than in group B. The rate of recanalization for lumens with a homogeneous echo pattern (hypoecho or isoecho) was significantly higher than that for lumens with echo heterogeneity for both the CCAO and ICAO patients (χ2 = 14.477, P = 0.001; χ2 = 10.519, P = 0.003). However, for both the CCAO and ICAO patients, there was no difference in the rate of recanalization between patients with hypoecho and isoecho lesions (χ2 = 0.109, P = 0.742; χ2 = 0.836, P = 0.429). The original diameter, proximal-to-distal ICA

  11. Spontaneous central retinal artery occlusion in a teenager with sickle cell trait.

    PubMed

    Pai, Sivakami A; Hebri, Sudhira Pai; Dekhain, Moza A

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell trait (SCT) is traditionally considered a benign condition by ophthalmologists. Several studies have reported ocular complications in SCT, but these complications have been described as a consequence of trauma, exertion, and associated systemic disorders. We here in the report a case of an Arab teen boy, who presented with a sudden loss of vision in his left eye of 1 h duration. The ocular examination revealed acute central retinal artery occlusion. He underwent a series of laboratory and radiological investigations. The blood investigations revealed SCT and abnormal partial thromboplastin time. The fundus fluorescein angiography revealed abnormal retinal vascular perfusion. Marked blood rheological impairment and activation of the coagulation pathway can occur without any contributing factors in SCT leading to severe ocular complications. This is one of the young patients with spontaneous vascular occlusion in SCT.

  12. Percutaneous laser thermal angioplasty: initial clinical results with a laser probe in total peripheral artery occlusions.

    PubMed

    Cumberland, D C; Sanborn, T A; Tayler, D I; Moore, D J; Welsh, C L; Greenfield, A J; Guben, J K; Ryan, T J

    1986-06-28

    A metal-tipped laser fibre was used during percutaneous angioplasty of femoral/popliteal or iliac artery occlusions in 56 patients. Primary success was achieved in 50 (89%) of these total occlusions, providing a channel for subsequent balloon dilatation. Before the procedure, 18 lesions had been judged untreatable by conventional angioplasty and four of the six failures were in these. Complications directly attributable to the laser probe were one case of vessel perforation and two cases of entry into vessel walls; these had no sequelae. Other acute complications were a distal thrombosis in a non-heparinised patient, requiring local streptokinase treatment, and two reocclusions and one transient peripheral embolic episode in the first 24 hours. The laser probe technique has potential for increasing the proportion of patients suitable for angioplasty.

  13. Surgical salvage of acute renal artery occlusion in the setting of a solitary kidney.

    PubMed

    Stone, Patrick; Mossalllati, Adam S; Schlarb, Haley; Schlarb, Chris

    2014-04-01

    Management of acute renal artery occlusion in patients with a solitary kidney has a poorly defined prognosis. Loss of renal function is reported by some when acute warm ischemia reaches 2 hours. We report a unique case of a patient that had a 24-hour onset of anuria and acute renal failure upon arrival to the hospital. Nuclear imaging showed trace uptake of the right kidney, without evidence of excretion. Conventional digital subtraction angiography was performed; however, evidence of nephrogram or distal filling of the renal artery was not demonstrated. Secondary to conflicting studies, a computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous contrast revealed only minimal cortical perfusion despite complete occlusion of the previously grafted right renal artery. Patient was taken for urgent hepatorenal bypass surgery. Intraoperative return of urine output occurred immediately after completion of the bypass. Hemodialysis, which was required preoperatively, was stopped after <30 days of bypass procedure. Over 2 years following successful renal salvage, the patient has maintained a normal glomerular filtration rate and patency of her bypass by duplex follow-up.

  14. Predictive Value of Balloon Test Occlusion of the Internal Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Segal, David H.; Sen, Chandranath; Bederson, Joshua B.; Catalano, Peter; Sacher, Michael; Stollman, Aryeh L.; Lorberboym, Mordechai

    1995-01-01

    Balloon test occlusion (BTO) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is used in conjunction with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging to assess the cerebrovascular collateral reserve prior to surgical manipulation of the artery. The present report reviews 56 consecutive patients with tumors or vascular lesions at the base of the skull who underwent BTO and subsequent treatment on that basis within a 3-year period. Four patients underwent carotid sacrifice, since they tolerated the BTO and had normal SPECT imaging. Postoperatively, one patient had patchy infarcts in the frontal lobe, another a middle cerebral artery territory infarction, a third had a lacunar infarct, and the fourth had an impending stroke and was treated with an emergent revascularization procedure. There were 15 patients who underwent saphenous vein bypass grafting, of these there were three graft occlusions, one of which resulted in an infarction. There were two other infarctions due to technical difficulties, one being related to the revascularization procedure. Based on these results, we suggest that passing BTO with a normal SPECT study does not necessarily indicate that the patient is immune to stroke following carotid sacrifice. Revascularization should be considered, when ICA sacrifice is deemed necessary to treat the pathologic condition adequately, to minimize the likelihood of a stroke. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:17171183

  15. Central retinal artery occlusion following laser treatment for ocular ischemic aortic arch syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Payal J.; Ellis, Brian; DiGiovine, Lauren R.; Hogg, Jeffery P.; Leys, Monique J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Ocular ischemic syndrome is a rare blinding condition generally caused by disease of the carotid artery. We describe a 69-year-old female with a 50 pack-year smoking history with aortic arch syndrome causing bilateral ocular ischemic syndrome. Methods: The patient presented with progressive visual loss and temple pain. Slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed bilateral iris neovascularization. This finding prompted a cardiovascular work up. Panretinal photocoagulation with retrobulbar block was performed in the right eye. Results: A temporal artery biopsy was negative. The carotid duplex ultrasound showed only a 1–39% stenosis. MRA revealed a more proximal occlusion of the aortic branch for which she underwent subclavian carotid bypass surgery. At the one month follow up, the right eye suffered profound vision loss secondary to a central retinal artery occlusion. Conclusion: Ocular neovascularization may be one of the clinical manifestations of aortic arch syndrome. This case also illustrates the limitations of relying solely on carotid duplex ultrasound testing. We caution against overly aggressive panretinal photocoagulation utilizing retrobulbar anesthesia. PMID:27625958

  16. The use of mechanical thrombectomy in the treatment of basilar artery occlusion--case report.

    PubMed

    Knap, Daniel; Honkowicz, Maciej; Kirmes, Tomasz; Koroński, Marcin; Kysiak, Marzena; Bukański, Mateusz; Sieroń, Dominik; Dymon, Izabela; Baron, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Occlusion of the basilar artery (BAO) is a rare cause of stroke, making up approximately 1% of all cases. Ischemic stroke within the basilar artery is associated with serious complications and high mortality (75-91%). BAO may occur initially in the form of mild prodromal symptoms with neurological disorders, the consequences of which can lead to death. For these reasons, BAO requires rapid diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a 26-year-old man who suffered basilar artery occlusion and was treated with endovascular therapy. The patient was disqualified from intra-venous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment due to exceeding the therapeutic time window. Despite this, due to the location of ischemia and age of the patient, it was decided to proceed with a mechanical thrombectomy (TM). Vessel patency was restored using the Solitaire FR stent. Treatment continued with antiplatelet therapy. Despite a significant overshoot of the time window the procedure was successful and complete recanalization was achieved. During hospitalization, significant neurological symptom reductions were observed. There is no accurate data on which method of treatment of ischemic stroke is best for BAO. Expectations about the effectiveness of endovascular techniques are high.

  17. Progression from ischemic injury to infarct following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, J. H.; Yoshida, Y.; Chen, H.; Li, Y.; Zhang, Z. G.; Lian, J.; Chen, S.; Chopp, M.

    1993-01-01

    Focal brain ischemia induced in rats by occlusion of an intracranial artery is a widely used paradigm of human brain infarct. Details of the structural changes that develop in either the human or the rat brain at various times after occlusion of an intracranial artery are incompletely characterized. We studied, in 48 adult Wistar rats, structural alterations involving the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to an arterial occlusion, at intervals ranging from 30 min to 7 days. Microscopic changes developed over time in separate areas of the corresponding cerebral hemisphere in a predictable pattern, appearing as small lesions in the preoptic area (30 minutes), enlarging to involve the striatum, and finally involving the cerebral cortex. Two types of neuronal responses were noted according to the time elapsed; acute changes (up to 6 hours) included scalloping, shrinkage, and swelling, whereas delayed changes (eosinophilia and karyolysis) appeared later (> or = 12 hours). Three types of astrocytic responses were noted. 1) Cytoplasmic disintegration occurred in the preoptic area at a time and in a place where neurons appeared minimally injured. 2) Nuclear and cytoplasmic swelling were prominent responses in the caudoputamen and cerebral cortex at a time when neurons showed minimal alterations. 3) Increased astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein reactivity was noted at the interface between the lesion and the surrounding brain tissue after 4 to 6 hours. The gross pattern of the brain lesion and the maturation of neuronal changes typical of a brain infarct have a predictable progression. Focal brain ischemia of up to 6-hour duration does not induce coagulation necrosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8434652

  18. Branch retinal artery occlusion with visual field and multifocal erg in Susac syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    van Winden, Marianne; Salu, Paul

    2010-12-01

    A 19-year-old woman presented with subacute encephalopathy and subsequently developed hearing loss and occlusions of branches of the central retinal artery. The triad of microangiopathy of the brain, retina and cochlea is typical for Susac syndrome. The etiology of this syndrome is still unknown, but the prognosis is good in most cases. Spontaneous resolution usually occurs, but early treatment minimizes the risk of sequelae. Multifocal ERG may be useful to assess subclinical retinal dysfunction after recovery of subjective symptoms of BRAO in Susac syndrome.

  19. [Iliac artery occlusion balloons for suspected placenta accreta during cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Burgos Frías, N; Gredilla, E; Guasch, E; Gilsanz, F

    2014-02-01

    Massive obstetric hemorrhage still remains a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. The risk factors associated with this pathology must be identified in order to schedule the appropriate delivery with the necessary resources. A case is presented of an iliac artery occlusion with intravascular balloons for suspected placenta accreta during cesarean section. The perioperative treatment, as well as an analysis of the treatment options is described, along with their advantages and disadvantages, from the use of postpartum hemorrhage protocols, blood transfusion and procoagulant factors, and other maneuvers to control bleeding, until the hysterectomy.

  20. Case report of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome with retinal arterial and venous occlusion treated with eculizumab

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Gregory T

    2015-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disease caused by chronic, uncontrolled activation of the alternative complement pathway, leading to thrombotic microangiopathy. Renal impairment and progression to end-stage renal disease are common in untreated patients with aHUS, and extrarenal manifestations are being increasingly characterized in the literature. Ocular involvement remains rare in aHUS. This report describes a patient with aHUS with bilateral central retinal artery and vein occlusion, vitreous hemorrhage, and blindness in addition to renal impairment. The patient’s hematologic and renal parameters and ocular manifestation improved following initiation of eculizumab therapy. PMID:26508891

  1. Death after closed adolescent knee injury and popliteal artery occlusion: a case report and clinical review.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jeremy J; Kremen, Thomas J; Oppenheim, William L

    2013-11-01

    A healthy adolescent male soccer player sustained a radiograph-negative, effusion-negative physeal injury of the proximal tibia from a ground-level fall with traumatic occlusion of the popliteal artery. Orthopaedic evaluation and arteriography were delayed for 72 hours after the injury. He arrived at a tertiary referral center in multisystem organ failure secondary to lower extremity ischemic necrosis, septic pulmonary thromboembolism, and systemic shock. Emergent medical evaluation, a high index of suspicion, and a careful neurovascular examination are imperative after every closed knee injury in the young athlete.

  2. Tirofiban combined with urokinase selective intra-arterial thrombolysis for the treatment of middle cerebral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    FENG, LEI; LIU, JUN; LIU, YUNZHEN; CHEN, JIAN; SU, CHUNHAI; LV, CHUANFENG; WEI, YUZHEN

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a model of embolic stroke in rabbits and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intra-arterially administered tirofiban combined with urokinase thrombolysis. The middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) of embolic stroke was established in New Zealand rabbits via an autologous clot. The model rabbits were allocated at random into four groups: Tirofiban group (T group), urokinase group (UK group), tirofiban and urokinase group (T + UK group) and the control group (C group). The recanalization rate, relative-apparent diffusion coefficient (rADC) and neurological function deficit score (NFDS) values were compared among the four groups. The recanalization rate, rADC and NFDS values were improved in the T + UK group compared with the other groups. In summary, the intra-arterial administration of tirofiban combined with urokinase thrombolysis was a more effective intervention in an MCAO model compared with intra-arterial urokinase alone, and may promote reperfusion and reduce infarct volume. PMID:26998029

  3. Utilizing a cranial window to visualize the middle cerebral artery during endothelin-1 induced middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Regenhardt, Robert W; Ansari, Saeed; Azari, Hassan; Caldwell, Kenneth J; Mecca, Adam P

    2013-02-22

    Creation of a cranial window is a method that allows direct visualization of structures on the cortical surface of the brain(1-3). This technique can be performed in many locations overlying the rat cerebrum, but is most easily carried out by creating a craniectomy over the readily accessible frontal or parietal bones. Most frequently, we have used this technique in combination with the endothelin-1 middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic stroke to quantify the changes in middle cerebral artery vessel diameter that occur with injection of endothelin-1 into the brain parenchyma adjacent to the proximal MCA(4, 5). In order to visualize the proximal portion of the MCA during endothelin -1 induced MCAO, we use a technique to create a cranial window through the temporal bone on the lateral aspect of the rat skull (Figure 1). Cerebral arteries can be visualized either with the dura intact or with the dura incised and retracted. Most commonly, we leave the dura intact during visualization since endothelin-1 induced MCAO involves delivery of the vasoconstricting peptide into the brain parenchyma. This bypasses the need to incise the dura directly over the visualized vessels for drug delivery. This protocol will describe how to create a cranial window to visualize cerebral arteries in a step-wise fashion, as well as how to avoid many of the potential pitfalls pertaining to this method.

  4. Aneurysms of Peripancreatic Arterial Arcades Coexisting with Celiac Trunk Stenosis or Occlusion: Single Institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Antoniak, Robert; Grabowska-Derlatka, Laretta; Nawrot, Ireneusz; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. True aneurysms of peripancreatic arterial arcades (PAAAs) are rare. Most of them coexist with celiac axis stenosis/occlusion due to median arcuate ligament (MAL) compression or atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cause of celiac axis lesion and characterize the anatomy of the aneurysms. These findings may have important management implications. Material and Methods. A retrospective analysis of 15 patients with true PAAAs was performed. The diagnosis was established by contrast-enhanced CT, using a 64-MDCT scanner. We evaluated the most probable cause of celiac axis lesion. Aneurysms were characterized by their number, location, size, and morphology. Location of the aneurysms was classified either as pancreaticoduodenal arteries (PDA) or as dorsal pancreatic arteries (DPA) as they may represent different collateral pathways between superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk. Results. A total of 32 true PAAAs were identified. Celiac trunk was occluded in 12 patients and critically narrowed in 3 patients. Celiac axis lesion was categorized as secondary to MAL compression in 14 cases and due to atherosclerosis in 1 case. The most common location of the aneurysms was inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries. Only in 1 case aneurysms involved both PDA and DPA. Conclusions. Coexistence of PAAAs with celiac axis compression as well as involvement of either PDAs or DPAs has important therapeutic implications. The uninvolved collateral pathway may be sufficient to preserve effective circulation in celiac trunk branches in case of resection or embolization of the aneurysms. However, further studies are crucial to confirm our findings.

  5. Aneurysms of Peripancreatic Arterial Arcades Coexisting with Celiac Trunk Stenosis or Occlusion: Single Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Antoniak, Robert; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. True aneurysms of peripancreatic arterial arcades (PAAAs) are rare. Most of them coexist with celiac axis stenosis/occlusion due to median arcuate ligament (MAL) compression or atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cause of celiac axis lesion and characterize the anatomy of the aneurysms. These findings may have important management implications. Material and Methods. A retrospective analysis of 15 patients with true PAAAs was performed. The diagnosis was established by contrast-enhanced CT, using a 64-MDCT scanner. We evaluated the most probable cause of celiac axis lesion. Aneurysms were characterized by their number, location, size, and morphology. Location of the aneurysms was classified either as pancreaticoduodenal arteries (PDA) or as dorsal pancreatic arteries (DPA) as they may represent different collateral pathways between superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk. Results. A total of 32 true PAAAs were identified. Celiac trunk was occluded in 12 patients and critically narrowed in 3 patients. Celiac axis lesion was categorized as secondary to MAL compression in 14 cases and due to atherosclerosis in 1 case. The most common location of the aneurysms was inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries. Only in 1 case aneurysms involved both PDA and DPA. Conclusions. Coexistence of PAAAs with celiac axis compression as well as involvement of either PDAs or DPAs has important therapeutic implications. The uninvolved collateral pathway may be sufficient to preserve effective circulation in celiac trunk branches in case of resection or embolization of the aneurysms. However, further studies are crucial to confirm our findings. PMID:28286755

  6. Murine Ileocolic Bowel Resection with Primary Anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Troy; Borowiec, Anna; Dicken, Bryan; Fedorak, Richard; Madsen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal resections are frequently required for treatment of diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, with Crohn’s disease and colon cancer being two common examples. Despite the frequency of these procedures, a significant knowledge gap remains in describing the inherent effects of intestinal resection on host physiology and disease pathophysiology. This article provides detailed instructions for an ileocolic resection with primary end-to-end anastomosis in mice, as well as essential aspects of peri-operative care to maximize post-operative success. When followed closely, this procedure yields a 95% long-term survival rate, no failure to thrive, and minimizes post-operative complications of bowel obstruction and anastomotic leak. The technical challenges of performing the procedure in mice are a barrier to its wide spread use in research. The skills described in this article can be acquired without previous surgical experience. Once mastered, the murine ileocolic resection procedure will provide a reproducible tool for studying the effects of intestinal resection in models of human disease. PMID:25406841

  7. [Bilateral pulmonary artery occlusion due to primary pulmonary artery sarcoma; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Shingaki, Masami; Kobayashi, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    60-year-old female who complained of severe dyspnea was admitted with a diagnosis of massive pulmonary embolism. An emergency operation was undertaken due to right side heart failure. Under extracorporeal circulation with beating heart, large, white and smooth surface mass which was originated from right pulmonary artery was removed. Pathology of the mass showed low differentiated sarcoma. No evidence of other primary lesion by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) suggested primary pulmonary artery sarcoma. We scheduled total resection of the right lung, however postoperative CT showed large mass occupying from right pulmonary artery to main pulmonary trunk. Palliative chemo radiation therapy was introduced. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking pulmonary thromboembolism is so malignant that the diagnosis and treatment should not be delayed.

  8. Combined use of stent angioplasty and mechanical thrombectomy for acute tandem internal carotid and middle cerebral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Joyce Lo, WaiTing; Sun, Xuan; Xu, XiaoTong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Tandem internal carotid and middle cerebral artery occlusion carries a grave prognosis, with intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolytics having low efficacy. Currently, endovascular therapy is a promising means for treatment in which the proximal carotid lesion can be treated with angioplasty and stenting, whilst mechanical thrombectomy can be used for the treatment of the distal occlusion. Two approaches can be used – the antegrade (proximal-to-distal) approach or the retrograde (distal-to-proximal) approach, although there has not yet been any consensus on which is the better approach. Case report We present two patients with tandem occlusions, one treated using the antegrade and one using the retrograde approach, with different revascularization outcomes, despite having similar functional outcome on follow-up. Conclusion The combined use of stent angioplasty and mechanical thrombectomy can be used to treat tandem occlusions, and with procedural modifications, the antegrade approach may more easily achieve technical success. PMID:26246102

  9. Percutaneous transluminal excimer laser angioplasty in total peripheral artery occlusion in man

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenek, G.; Laufer, G.; Grabenwoeger, F.

    1988-01-01

    Laser angioplasty and laser-assisted angioplasty have become a clinical reality. Producing sharply defined borders of the ablated area with minimal adjacent thermal damage, excimer lasers offer several proven and some potential advantages over conventional systems. To evaluate the feasibility of excimer laser angioplasty, we have treated one patient using 308-nm radiation via a bare fiber in direct contact with the total occlusion of a right femoral artery. The lesion was successfully recanalized, thus allowing easy passage of the balloon catheter and subsequent dilatation. This percutaneous laser recanalization of an occluded peripheral artery is one of the first to be done in man using excimer laser radiation, thus demonstrating that the technique is feasible and the system is potentially useful.

  10. Bradykinin B2 receptor contributes to the exaggerated muscle mechanoreflex in rats with femoral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian; Xing, Jihong

    2013-01-01

    Static muscle contraction activates the exercise pressor reflex, which in turn increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and blood pressure (BP). Bradykinin (BK) is considered as a muscle metabolite responsible for modulation of the sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to muscle contraction. Prior studies have suggested that kinin B2 receptor mediates the effects of BK on the reflex SNA and BP responses during stimulation of skeletal muscle afferents. In patients with peripheral artery disease and a rat model with femoral artery ligation, amplified SNA and BP responses to static exercise were observed. This dysfunction of the exercise pressor reflex has previously been shown to be mediated, in part, by muscle mechanoreflex overactivity. Thus, in this report, we determined whether kinin B2 receptor contributes to the augmented mechanoreflex activity in rats with 24 h of femoral artery occlusion. First, Western blot analysis was used to examine protein expression of B2 receptors in dorsal root ganglion tissues of control limbs and ligated limbs. Our data show that B2 receptor displays significant overexpression in ligated limbs as compared with control limbs (optical density: 0.94 ± 0.02 in control and 1.87 ± 0.08 after ligation, P < 0.05 vs. control; n = 6 in each group). Second, mechanoreflex was evoked by muscle stretch and the reflex renal SNA (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to muscle stretch were examined after HOE-140, a B2 receptors blocker, was injected into the arterial blood supply of the hindlimb muscles. The results demonstrate that the stretch-evoked reflex responses were attenuated by administration of HOE-140 in control rats and ligated rats; however, the attenuating effects of HOE-140 were significantly greater in ligated rats, i.e., after 5 μg/kg of HOE-140 RSNA and MAP responses evoked by 0.5 kg of muscle tension were attenuated by 43% and 25% in control vs. 54% and 34% in ligation (P < 0.05 vs. control group; n = 11 in

  11. Stroke outcomes of Japanese patients with major cerebral artery occlusion in the post-alteplase, pre-MERCI era.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kaoru; Koga, Masatoshi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Furui, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Okada, Yasushi; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Hyogo, Toshio; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Nagashima, Hisashi; Fujinaka, Toshiyuki; Hyodo, Akio; Terada, Tomoaki; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2013-08-01

    This study examined outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with major cerebral artery occlusion after the approval of intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA) but before approval of the MERCI retriever. We retrospectively enrolled 1170 consecutive patients with AIS and major cerebral artery occlusion (496 women; mean age, 73.9 ± 12.3 years) who were admitted within 24 hours after the onset of symptoms to 12 Japanese stroke centers between October 2005 and June 2009. Cardioembolism was a leading cause of AIS in this group (68.2%). The occlusion sites of the major cerebral arteries included the common carotid artery and internal carotid artery (ICA; 29.6%), middle cerebral artery (52.2%), and basilar artery (7.6%). Recanalization therapy (RT) was performed in 32.0% of patients (IV rt-PA, 20.0%; neuroendovascular therapy, 9.4%; combined, 2.5%). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage within 36 hours with a ≥ 1-point increase in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score occurred in 5.3% of the patients. At 3 months (or at hospital discharge), 29.3% of the patients had a favorable outcome (based on a modified Rankin scale score of 0-2), 23.8% were bedridden, and 15.6% died. After multivariate adjustment, RT was positively associated with a favorable outcome and negatively associated with death, whereas age, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and ICA occlusion were negatively associated with a favorable outcome and positively associated with death. One-third of the patients with AIS and major cerebral artery occlusion were treated with RT, which was independently associated with favorable outcomes and death. However, 40% of the patients became bedridden or died during the post-alteplase, pre-MERCI era in Japan.

  12. Balloon-Assisted Occlusion of the Internal Iliac Arteries in Patients with Placenta Accreta/Percreta

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, Leonard J.; Nosher, John L. Gribbin, Christopher; Siegel, Randall L.; Beale, Stephanie; Scorza, William

    2006-06-15

    Background. Placenta accreta/percreta is a leading cause of third trimester hemorrhage and postpartum maternal death. The current treatment for third trimester hemorrhage due to placenta accreta/percreta is cesarean hysterectomy, which may be complicated by large volume blood loss. Purpose. To determine what role, if any, prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion and transcatheter embolization of the anterior division of the internal iliac arteries plays in the management of patients with placenta accreta/percreta. Methods. The records of 28 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of placenta accreta/percreta were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups. Six patients underwent prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion, followed by cesarean section, transcatheter embolization of the anterior division of the internal iliac arteries and cesarean hysterectomy (n = 5) or uterine curettage (n = 1). Twenty-two patients underwent cesarean hysterectomy without endovascular intervention. The following parameters were compared in the two groups: patient age, gravidity, parity, gestational age at delivery, days in the intensive care unit after delivery, total hospital days, volume of transfused blood products, volume of fluid replacement intraoperatively, operating room time, estimated blood loss, and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Results. Patients in the embolization group had more frequent episodes of third trimester bleeding requiring admission and bedrest prior to delivery (16.7 days vs. 2.9 days), resulting in significantly more hospitalization time in the embolization group (23 days vs. 8.8 days) and delivery at an earlier gestational age than in those in the surgical group (32.5 weeks). There was no statistical difference in mean estimated blood loss, volume of replaced blood products, fluid replacement needs, operating room time or postoperative recovery time. Conclusion. Our findings do not support the contention that in patients with

  13. Nylon filament coated with paraffin for intraluminal permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xia-Lin; Wu, Ping; Ji, Ai-Min

    2012-06-21

    A variety of intraluminal nylon filament has been used in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models. However the lesion extent and its reproducibility vary among laboratories. The properties of nylon filament play a part of reasons for these variations. In the present study, we used paraffin-coated nylon filament for rat MCAO model, tested the effects and advanced improvement for making the rat MCAO. Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into two groups, MCAO with traditional uncoated nylon filament (uMCAO) and MCAO with paraffin-coated nylon filament (cMCAO), three rats as normal group and sham group respectively. Assessment included mortality rates, model success rates, neurological deficit evaluation, and infarct volume. The study showed two rats died in uMCAO group, no rat died in cMCAO group within the 12h. The model success rate of uMCAO was 100%, while the uMCAO group was 55% (n=20, two died within 12h, seven rats were excluded as the brain slices showed no TTC staining due to subarachanoid hemorrhage). Neurological evaluation demonstrated group cMCAO had more worse neurological outcomes than group uMCAO, and the difference was statistically signification (p<0.05). TTC staining cMCAO group had significantly larger infarct volumes than uMCAO group, and also showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05). The result demonstrated that the paraffin-coated nylon filament intraluminal occlusion provide better occlusion of middle cerebral artery than the uncoated nylon filament, improve the consistent of model, and raise the success rate to reduce the number of experimental animals. These positive results are much encouraging and interesting.

  14. Retriever wire supported carotid artery revascularization (ReWiSed CARe) in acute ischemic stroke with underlying tandem occlusion caused by an internal carotid artery dissection: Technical note.

    PubMed

    Behme, Daniel; Knauth, Michael; Psychogios, Marios-Nikos

    2017-01-01

    We hereby report a novel technical approach for the treatment of acute stroke with underlying tandem occlusion. The so-called retriever wire supported carotid artery revascularization (ReWiSed CARe) technique, utilizing the wire of a stent-retriever as a guiding wire for carotid artery stenting, is technically feasible in tandem occlusions caused by an internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection or high grade ICA stenosis. This technique eliminates the need to use a long microwire in order to maintain the position inside the true lumen of a dissection. Additionally, it leads to anterograde perfusion through the released stent-retriever during the time of ICA stenting, which is favorable in all tandem occlusion cases.

  15. A novel embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion model induced by thrombus formed in common carotid artery in rat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yin-Zhong; Li, Li; Song, Jun-Ke; Niu, Zi-Ran; Liu, Hai-Feng; Zhou, Xiang-Shan; Xie, Fu-Sheng; Du, Guan-Hua

    2015-12-15

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. However, treatment options to date are very limited. To meet the need for validating the novel therapeutic approaches and understanding the physiopathology of the ischemic brain injury, experimental stroke models were critical for preclinical research. However, commonly used embolic stroke models are reluctant to mimic the clinical situation and not suitable for thrombolytic timing studies. In this paper, we established a standard method for producing a rat embolic stroke model with autologous thrombus formed within the common carotid artery (CCA) by constant galvanic stimulation. Then the thrombus was shattered and channeled into the origin of the MCA and small (lacunar) artery. To identify the success of MCA occlusion, regional cerebral blood flow was monitored, neurological deficits and infarct volumes were measured at 2, 4 and 6h postischemia. This model developed a predictable infarct volume (38.37 ± 2.88%) and gradually reduced blood flow (20% of preischemic baselines) within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. The thrombus occluded in the MCA was able to be lysed by a tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) within 4h postischemia. The techniques presented in this paper would help investigators to overcome technical problems for stroke research.

  16. Endovascular Treatment of In-Stent Occlusion: New Technique for Recanalization of Long Superficial Femoral Artery Occlusion (Direct Stent Puncture Technique)

    SciTech Connect

    Palena, Luis Mariano Cester, Giacomo; Manzi, Marco

    2012-04-15

    In-stent reocclusion is a frequent complication of endovascular treatment and stenting, especially in the superficial femoral artery. Neointimal hyperplasia is the main cause of this problem, but in many cases, it occurs as a result of the presence of stent strut fractures. The two treatment options are endovascular and surgical intervention. The effectiveness of endovascular interventions in patients with critical limb ischemia has been well established, but in some cases, crossing the occluded stent is difficult. We describe a new technique to recanalize long in-stent superficial femoral artery occlusions characterized by direct stent puncture, followed by retrograde-antegrade recanalization after antegrade failures.

  17. Endovascular treatment of in-stent occlusion: new technique for recanalization of long superficial femoral artery occlusion (direct stent puncture technique).

    PubMed

    Palena, Luis Mariano; Cester, Giacomo; Manzi, Marco

    2012-04-01

    In-stent reocclusion is a frequent complication of endovascular treatment and stenting, especially in the superficial femoral artery. Neointimal hyperplasia is the main cause of this problem, but in many cases, it occurs as a result of the presence of stent strut fractures. The two treatment options are endovascular and surgical intervention. The effectiveness of endovascular interventions in patients with critical limb ischemia has been well established, but in some cases, crossing the occluded stent is difficult. We describe a new technique to recanalize long in-stent superficial femoral artery occlusions characterized by direct stent puncture, followed by retrograde-antegrade recanalization after antegrade failures.

  18. Primary Stenting of Subclavian and Innominate Artery Occlusive Disease: A Single Center's Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Brountzos, E. N. Petersen, B.; Binkert, C.; Panagiotou, I.; Kaufman, J. A.

    2004-11-15

    Purpose: To review immediate and midterm results of primary stenting for innominate and subclavian artery occlusive lesions. Methods: Retrospective data were collected from 48 consecutive symptomatic patients (27 men and 21 women, median age 64 years) having 49 subclavian and innominate artery lesions treated with stenting. Of the patients 52% had concomitant ischemic heart disease, and 30% had carotid and/or vertebral artery disease. Indication for treatment was vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) in 16.6% of the patients; upper limb ischemia (ULI) in 31.3%; VBI and ULI in 12.5%; transient ischemic attack in 16.7%; angina in 12.5% before or after left internal mammary artery-to-coronary artery bypass grafting; and leg claudication in 10.4% before or after axillofemoral bypass grafting. Balloon-expandable stents were used in 44 lesions and self-expandable stents in 5 lesions. In total, 53 stents were placed in 48 patients. Results: Technical success was 96%, and clinical success 94%. We encountered four complications (two puncture site hematomas, one distal hand embolization and one transient cerebral ischemia). Two patients died within 30 days from other causes, and seven patients were lost to follow-up. Mean follow-up time was 16.7 months (range 0.3 to 68.2). Five patients had recurrent lesions treated by surgical (n = 2) or endovascular (n = 3) means. Cumulative primary patency rate was 91.7% and 77% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Cumulative secondary patency rate was 96.5% and 91.7% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Conclusion: Stenting of subclavian and innominate artery lesions resulted in immediate resolution of patients' symptoms with durable midterm effect and few complications in a larger patient group with serious comorbid conditions.

  19. Percutaneous Thrombin Injection of a Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysm with Simultaneous Venous Balloon Occlusion of a Communicating Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Mittleider, Derek Cicuto, Kenneth; Dykes, Thomas

    2008-07-15

    An 82-year-old woman developed acute occlusion of her right coronary artery. She underwent percutaneous coronary stent placement and aortic balloon pump installation. In the postprocedural period, she developed a common femoral artery pseudoaneurysm (PSA) that communicated with the common femoral vein via an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). After unsuccessful ultrasound-guided compression, ultrasound-guided thrombin injection of the PSA was performed, with simultaneous balloon occlusion of the common femoral vein at the level of the AVF. There was complete thrombosis of the PSA and AVF.

  20. Bilateral internal carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections with retinal artery occlusion after a roller coaster ride - case report and a review.

    PubMed

    Ozkan Arat, Yonca; Volpi, John; Arat, Anıl; Klucznik, Richard; Diaz, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    We present the first case of a woman with no significant medical history who developed dissections of bilateral carotid and bilateral vertebral arteries, as well as a retinal artery occlusion, after a roller coaster ride. A 35-year-old woman developed right-sided neck pain followed by a frontal headache immediately after a roller coaster ride. Five days after the incident, she developed complete loss of vision in her right eye for two hours. Subsequently, the vision improved but remained significantly decreased. On presentation, her visual acuity was 20/200 in the right and 20/20 in the left eye. Her fundus exam revealed retinal edema in the superotemporal retinal artery distribution without any visible emboli. Her neurological exam was otherwise normal. The cerebral angiogram showed bilateral internal carotid and vertebral artery dissections. The patient remained stable with conservative therapy without further worsening of vision or any new neurological deficits. Outcomes for cervicocephalic arterial dissection are usually favorable, but early diagnosis is critical for initiation of appropriate treatment of possible complications. Physicians must have a high index of suspicion for arterial dissection when patients note any headache, neck pain or vertigo triggered by violent motion after leisure activities such as roller coaster rides.

  1. Successful Treatment of Resistant Hypertension by Means of Chronic Renal Artery Occlusion Revascularization in a Fragile Patient

    PubMed Central

    Spezia, Laura; Perandini, Simone; Augelli, Raffaele; Puppini, Giovanni; Montemezzi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Renal artery stenosis is a common cause of secondary hypertension refractory to medical therapy. Percutaneous angioplasty along with metallic stent placement has been described as an effective treatment for revascularization of the renal artery. Case Report A 54-year-old woman affected by paranoid schizophrenia with a history of hypertension and chronic renal failure due to renal artery occlusion was treated by endovascular recanalization and stent placement that resulted in improvement of renal function and control of hypertension. Laboratory studies 4 months after the revascularization revealed blood creatinine decrease gradually from 8.57 mg/dL to 3 mg/dL. Conclusions Revascularization with stenting has proven to be a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of total renal artery occlusion which also led to a significant relief at a psychological level. PMID:27882189

  2. Validity of Laser Doppler Flowmetry in Predicting Outcome in Murine Intraluminal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hedna, Vishnumurthy Shushrutha; Ansari, Saeed; Shahjouei, Shima; Cai, Peter Y.; Ahmad, Abdullah Shafique; Mocco, J; Qureshi, Adnan I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) can reliably reflect brain perfusion in experimental stroke by monitoring both the degree and the duration of relative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Variation in rCBF was continuously monitored in 68 mice undergoing middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 25 mice undergoing sham-operation and documented as LDF (%). Transcranial LDF changes in the territory of right middle cerebral artery during MCAO procedure were correlated with corrected infarct volume (CIV) and neurological deficit score (NDS). Methods Ninety-three C57BL/6 mice (Harlan Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN) between 9 and 11 weeks old were randomly selected and assigned to either MCAO for 45 minutes (n = 68) or sham group (n = 25). Ischemia was induced using the transient intraluminal filament model of MCAO based on Koizumi’s method and transcranial LDF was used to measure CBF during the procedure. Neurological deficits were measured at 2 and 23 hours after MCA reperfusion with NDS and 2% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of carefully dissected brains was performed at 23 hours after reperfusion to determine infarct area. Results After common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO), there was a negative association between LDF drop from base line and NDS at 2 hours (r = −0.43, P = 0.038) and 23 hours (r = −0.61, P = 0.003). Also, a negative correlation was noted between MCA reperfusion LDF and NDS at 23 hours (r = −0.53, P = 0.001). Moreover, post-MCA reperfusion LDF had a positive association with initial CCAO LDF (r = 0.761, P = 0.000) and MCA occlusion LDF (r = 0.31, P = 0.036) in predicting neurological outcome. NDS at 23 hours corresponded well with the infarct volume (r = 0.31, P = 0.005). Conclusions Greater augmentation of rCBF after MCA reperfusion was associated with improved neurological deficit scoring. Interestingly, greater reduction of regional cerebral blood flow after CCAO was also associated with improved neurological

  3. Early retinal inflammatory biomarkers in the middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ritzel, Rodney M.; Pan, Sarah J.; Verma, Rajkumar; Wizeman, John; Crapser, Joshua; Patel, Anita R.; Lieberman, Richard; Mohan, Royce

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke is one of the most commonly used models to study focal cerebral ischemia. This procedure also results in the simultaneous occlusion of the ophthalmic artery that supplies the retina. Retinal cell death is seen days after reperfusion and leads to functional deficits; however, the mechanism responsible for this injury has not been investigated. Given that the eye may have a unique ocular immune response to an ischemic challenge, this study examined the inflammatory response to retinal ischemia in the MCAO model. Methods Young male C57B/6 mice were subjected to 90-min transient MCAO and were euthanized at several time points up to 7 days. Transcription of inflammatory cytokines was measured with quantitative real-time PCR, and immune cell activation (e.g., phagocytosis) and migration were assessed with ophthalmoscopy and flow cytometry. Results Observation of the affected eye revealed symptoms consistent with Horner’s syndrome. Light ophthalmoscopy confirmed the reduced blood flow of the retinal arteries during occlusion. CX3CR1-GFP reporter mice were then employed to evaluate the extent of the ocular microglia and monocyte activation. A significant increase in green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive macrophages was seen throughout the ischemic area compared to the sham and contralateral control eyes. RT–PCR revealed enhanced expression of the monocyte chemotactic molecule CCL2 early after reperfusion followed by a delayed increase in the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Further analysis of peripheral leukocyte recruitment by flow cytometry determined that monocytes and neutrophils were the predominant immune cells to infiltrate at 72 h. A transient reduction in retinal microglia numbers was also observed, demonstrating the ischemic sensitivity of these cells. Blood–eye barrier permeability to small and large tracer molecules was increased by 72 h. Retinal microglia exhibited enhanced

  4. Blood fluidity, fibrinogen, and cardiovascular risk factors of occlusive arterial disease: results of the Aachen study.

    PubMed

    Koscielny, J; Jung, E M; Mrowietz, C; Kiesewetter, H; Latza, R

    2004-01-01

    In the Aachen study the prevalence of arterial disease was established in 346 out of a cohort of 2821 subjects between 45 and 65 years of age. Rheological variables and risk factor profile for patients with peripheral occlusive arterial disease (POAD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular insufficiency (CI) in comparison to a control group are given. Significantly elevated are hematocrit in males, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation and fibrinogen. It is evident that plasma viscosity is the rheological parameter most often elevated in patients with arterial disease (70.8%). In patients with CI (80.6%) plasma viscosity is elevated about four times more often than in healthy subjects. While 85.8% of healthy volunteers show no or only one elevated rheological parameter only 44.5% of the patients have this constellation. Risk factors are bundled in patients compared to healthy volunteers. 84.2% of the healthy volunteers have no or only one risk factor whereas patients with OAD show this constellation in only 30.9% (32.4% in POAD, 16.1% in CI and 32.4% in CHD).

  5. Ventricular tachycardic storm with a chronic total coronary artery occlusion treated with percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old man with a history of coronary artery disease was evaluated due to ventricular tachycardic (VT) storm. The patient continued to have frequent recurrences of VT despite treatment with amiodarone and lidocaine. Since the ventricular arrhythmia could be related to myocardial ischemia related to a chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the right coronary artery, the patient underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention of the CTO, followed by implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation. He had no further episodes of VT during his hospital stay. After 9 months of follow-up, he had no further chest pain or clinically apparent recurrent ischemia. Interrogation of his defibrillator has shown brief nonsustained episodes of ventricular tachycardia, but the patient has not required delivery of a shock. The temporal association between treatment of the CTO and resolution of the VT, as well as the lack of recurrence of sustained VT, suggest a causative link between underlying ischemia produced by a chronically occluded coronary artery and provocation of VT and lend supportive evidence to this treatment approach. PMID:25829653

  6. Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model of Stroke in Rodents: A Step-by-Step Approach

    PubMed Central

    Shahjouei, Shima; Cai, Peter Y.; Ansari, Saeed; Sharififar, Sharareh; Azari, Hassan; Ganji, Sarah; Zand, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and an immense amount of medical care resources are devoted to combat the poststroke debilitating consequences. The key to develop effective and clinically applicable treatment methodologies is a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, including the root causes and targets for pharmacology. Developing these foundations requires the use of standard animal models that mimic the physicochemical process of the diseases that can reliably replicate results in order to test and fine-tune therapeutic modalities. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), endothelin-1-induced ischemic stroke, photothrombosis, devascularization, embolization, and spontaneous infarction using hemorrhage are some examples of different animal models. Reliability of MCAO has been proved and due to the ability to induce reperfusion similar to tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) therapy, this model is widely used in preclinical studies. Here, we describe a detailed methodology on how to develop MCAO stroke in rodents using intra-arterial insertion of filament to occlude the middle cerebral artery. This approach allows for the study of a wide array of basic pathophysiology mechanisms, regenerative medicine and rehabilitation therapy. PMID:26958146

  7. Retrograde approach to an ostial left anterior descending chronic total occlusion through a left internal mammary artery graft.

    PubMed

    Hari, Pawan; Kirtane, Ajay J; Bangalore, Sripal

    2016-05-01

    Retrograde approach to chronic total occlusions (CTO) has been described via saphenous vein grafts, septal and epicardial collaterals. We report for the first time a successful retrograde approach to an ostial left anterior descending (LAD) artery CTO through a failed left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to LAD anastamosis. This case demonstrates the technical aspects of using a LIMA conduit as a retrograde approach to CTO. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Conus artery occlusion causing isolated right ventricular outflow tract infarction: novel application of cardiac magnetic resonance in anterior STEMI

    PubMed Central

    Lyle, Melissa; Tweet, Marysia; Young, Phillip M.; Best, Patricia J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute ST elevation in the anterior precordial leads typically suggests an anteroseptal infarction due to left anterior descending coronary artery obstruction, but the differential can be broad. Conus branch artery occlusion is a potentially overlooked cause of anteroseptal ST elevation myocardial infraction. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is an emerging technology which can differentiate the etiology of anterior ST elevation in patients with no apparent coronary abnormalities on coronary angiography and normal echocardiography. PMID:27280090

  9. External carotid artery angioplasty and stenting to augment cerebral perfusion in the setting of subacute symptomatic ipsilateral internal carotid artery occlusion. Case report.

    PubMed

    Adel, Joseph G; Bendok, Bernard R; Hage, Ziad A; Naidech, Andrew M; Miller, Jeffery W; Batjer, H Hunt

    2007-12-01

    The authors performed external carotid artery (ECA) angioplasty and stenting in a 45-year-old man who had presented with right hemispheric crescendo ischemic symptoms stemming from acute right internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO). This unique application of ECA angioplasty and stenting augmented cerebral perfusion and improved clinical symptoms. In certain situations, ECA stenting can increase cerebral perfusion in the setting of ICAO and ECA stenosis. The authors are the first to describe this approach in this context.

  10. Combined occlusion of the central retinal artery and central retinal vein following blunt ocular trauma: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Noble, M J; Alvarez, E V

    1987-01-01

    A healthy young woman suffered complete loss of the vision of one eye following a blunt ocular injury. She sustained a combined occlusion of the central retinal artery and central retinal vein of the affected eye. Initially few retinal haemorrhages were present, but they increased considerably in number and size during the day following injury. Images PMID:3689734

  11. Regional block anesthesia in a patient with factor V Leiden mutation and axillary artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Erkalp, Kerem; Comlekci, Mevlut; Inan, Bekir; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozdemir, Haluk; Saidoglu, Leyla

    2011-01-01

    Anesthetic management of patients with coagulation disorders presents safety and technical challenges. This case describes a 58-year-old woman with factor V Leiden mutation who required distal saphenous vein harvest and axillo-brachial bypass to treat axillary artery occlusion. The patient underwent surgery with satisfactory anesthesia using infraclavicular brachial plexus block, thoracic paravertebral block, and unilateral subarachnoid block. These three regional anesthetic interventions were performed in lieu of general anesthesia to minimize risks of thrombotic events, pain, and to decrease recovery time. Despite higher failure rates of regional anesthesia, longer time required for procedures, and added discomforts during surgery, the benefits may outweigh risks for selected high-risk patients, including those with factor V Leiden mutations. PMID:22915885

  12. Scuba diving, acute left anterior descending artery occlusion and normal ECG.

    PubMed

    Doll, Sébastien Xavier; Rigamonti, Fabio; Roffi, Marco; Noble, Stéphane

    2013-01-31

    We report the case of an acute proximal occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary (LAD) artery following a scuba diving decompression accident and associated with normal ECG. Following uneventful thromboaspiration and coronary stenting, the patient was discharged on day 4 with secondary preventative therapies. A transthoracic echocardiography performed at this point showed a complete recovery compared with an initial localised akinesia involving the anterior and apical portion of the left ventricle upon admission. This case highlights that significant acute coronary lesions involving the LAD can occur without any ECG anomaly. The presence of acute and persistent angina associated with troponin elevation should prompt physicians to consider coronary angiography without delay, independently of the ECG results.

  13. A SPECT study in internal carotid artery occlusion: Discrepancies between flow image and neurologic deficits

    SciTech Connect

    Moriwaki, H.; Hougaku, H.; Matsuda, I.; Kusunoki, M.; Shirai, J. )

    1989-08-01

    A SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) study in internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion was performed in 6 patients. The validity of iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT study in the evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) or neurologic function is still controversial. In this study, the authors showed several cases in whom SPECT images of brain were not compatible with their neurologic deficits. In 2 typical cases, a large low-density area was observed in the non-dominant hemisphere in computed tomography (CT) scan, but no apparent motor-sensory deficits in left limbs were present. In these patients, SPECT study also revealed flow reduction in the affected side of the brain. So there was a possibility that an IMP brain image could not always reflect CBF, which maintains neurologic function of the brain.

  14. Estimating the Radiation Dose to the Fetus in Prophylactic Internal Iliac Artery Balloon Occlusion: Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Kentaro; Hamada, Tomohiro; Yuge, Akitoshi; Kiyosue, Hiro; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Nasu, Kaei; Narahara, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although radiation exposure is of great concern to expecting patients, little information is available on the fetal radiation dose associated with prophylactic internal iliac artery balloon occlusion (IIABO). Here we estimated the fetal radiation dose associated with prophylactic IIABO in Caesarean section (CS). Cases. We report our experience with the IIABO procedure in three consecutive patients with suspected placenta previa/accreta. Fetal radiation dose measurements were conducted prior to each CS by using an anthropomorphic phantom. Based on the simulated value, we calculated the fetal radiation dose as the absorbed dose. We found that the fetal radiation doses ranged from 12.88 to 31.6 mGy. The fetal radiation dose during the prophylactic IIABOs did not exceed 50 mGy. Conclusion. The IIABO procedure could result in a very small increase in the risk of harmful effects to the fetus. PMID:26180648

  15. Intraoperative laser speckle contrast imaging improves the stability of rodent middle cerebral artery occlusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lu; Li, Yao; Li, Hangdao; Lu, Hongyang; Tong, Shanbao

    2015-09-01

    Rodent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model is commonly used in stroke research. Creating a stable infarct volume has always been challenging for technicians due to the variances of animal anatomy and surgical operations. The depth of filament suture advancement strongly influences the infarct volume as well. We investigated the cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the affected cortex using laser speckle contrast imaging when advancing suture during MCAO surgery. The relative CBF drop area (CBF50, i.e., the percentage area with CBF less than 50% of the baseline) showed an increase from 20.9% to 69.1% when the insertion depth increased from 1.6 to 1.8 cm. Using the real-time CBF50 marker to guide suture insertion during the surgery, our animal experiments showed that intraoperative CBF-guided surgery could significantly improve the stability of MCAO with a more consistent infarct volume and less mortality.

  16. Indications for the use of temporary arterial occlusion during aneurysm repair: an institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Behzad; Morgan, Michael Kerin

    2011-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine variables that could predict, in the preoperative period, the likelihood for the need for intraoperative temporary arterial occlusion using clips (temporary clipping) when surgically repairing intracranial aneurysms. Data collected prospectively between October 1989 and March 2010 of 1129 unruptured intracranial aneurysms in 934 patients who were managed surgically was examined retrospectively. Temporary clipping was used in 400 patients (35.4%). Regression analysis of putative predictive variables revealed that aneurysms of a larger size, irregular fundus shape or midline location were more likely to be treated with temporary clipping. Basilar caput aneurysms larger than 10mm were always managed with temporary clipping. There was no combination of factors studied that consistently predicted that temporary clipping would not be needed. Therefore, the potential need for temporary clipping must be considered for every patient with an aneurysm.

  17. Neuroprotective effects of progesterone after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Chopp, M; Li, Y

    1999-12-01

    Treatment of focal cerebral ischemia in the rat with intraperitoneal administration of progesterone dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy. In the present study we test whether iv administration of water soluble progesterone 2 h after the onset of middle cerebral artery occlusion provides therapeutic benefit for the treatment of stroke. In addition, we perform a battery of functional tests: rotarod, adhesive-backed somatosensory, and neurological score, as well as a dose-response study. The data indicate that iv administration of progesterone at a dose of 8 mg/kg significantly reduces the volume of cerebral infarction and significantly improves outcome on the array of functional measures employed. Treatment with 4 mg/kg or 32 mg/kg of progesterone failed to provide any therapeutic benefit. Progesterone, a non toxic, clinically employed, pluripotent therapeutic agent which targets both neuroprotective as well as neuroregenerative strategies, may have important therapeutic benefits for the treatment of stroke.

  18. Allopurinol and dimethylthiourea reduce brain infarction following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Martz, D; Rayos, G; Schielke, G P; Betz, A L

    1989-04-01

    Free radicals have been shown to play an important role in ischemia-reperfusion injury in several organ systems; however, the role of free radicals in central nervous system ischemia has been less well studied. Many potential free radical-generating systems exist. The primary products of these reactions, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, may combine to produce hydroxyl radicals. Of the many potential sources of free radical generation, the enzyme xanthine oxidase has been shown to be important in ischemia in noncerebral tissue. We investigated the effect of the hydroxyl radical scavenger dimethylthiourea and the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol on infarct volume in a model of continuous partial ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with dimethylthiourea or allopurinol before middle cerebral artery occlusion. Infarct volume was measured by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining of brains removed 3 or 24 hours after occlusion. Stroke volume was reduced by 30% after dimethylthiourea treatment and by 32-35% after allopurinol treatment. At 24 hours after stroke, cortical tissue was more effectively protected than caudate tissue with both agents. Pretreatment with dimethylthiourea and allopurinol also significantly reduced cerebral edema formation and improved blood-brain barrier function as measured by fluorescein uptake. Our results imply that hydroxyl radicals are important in tissue injury secondary to partial cerebral ischemia and that xanthine oxidase may be the primary source of these radicals.

  19. Selective occlusion of lumbar arteries as a spinal cord ischemia model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Tomoyuki; Mori, Koichi; Shiraishi, Yoshimitsu; Tatebayashi, Kyoko; Kawai, Yasuaki

    2003-02-01

    Paraplegia is a devastating complication of operations requiring transient occlusion of the descending thoracic aorta. Many animal models of spinal cord ischemia have been utilized to examine the efficacy of various neuroprotective methods. In this study, we establish a rabbit model of spinal cord ischemia by selective temporary occlusion of lumbar arteries and examine the protective effects of systemic mild hypothermia in this model. Animals were divided into the following four groups: sham group (group A, n = 6); 10 min ischemia, normothermia (39 degrees C) (group B, n = 6); 20 min ischemia, normothermia (group C, n = 6); and 30 min ischemia, mild hypothermia (35 degrees C) (group D, n = 6). After 7 d of reperfusion, three rabbits in group B and five rabbits in group C developed paraplegia (Tarlov's score = 0). In contrast, all rabbits preserved hindlimb motor function (Tarlov's score = 4) in groups A and D. Histological findings indicated that the number of motor neurons in the anterior horns in group C were significantly fewer than in group A. A large number of motor neurons were preserved in group D. Hypothermia is known to be an effective and reliable method of neuroprotection, but the risk of complications rises at deep hypothermia. Our current results confirm that systemic, mild hypothermia is a safe and effective neuroprotective method during ischemia-reperfusion injury of the spinal cord.

  20. Neurocognitive Improvement in Patients Undergoing Carotid Endarterectomy for Atherosclerotic Occlusive Carotid Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Muhammad; Haq, Imran Ul; Memon, Amir Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the improvement in neurocognitive functions after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) under local anesthesia (LA) in patients with carotid bifurcation occlusive disease. Place and duration of study: Department of Vascular Surgery, Combined Military Hospital Lahore from January 2013 to January 2015. Patients and Methods: A total of 79 patients with carotid artery occlusive disease, having no history of major stroke, depression, or dementia underwent CEA under LA. Cognitive functions were assessed 3 days before surgery and then 4 weeks and 12 weeks after the surgery using the Addenbrookes cognitive examination (ACE) score and General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG) Score. Results: In ACE score, Attention, Memory, Fluency, Language, and Visuospatial orientation improved by 33.3%, 30.7%, 21.4%, 38.4%, and 31.2%, respectively, by the end of 12 weeks. An overall improvement in neurocognition was 32% (P = 0.03). In GPCOG score, Orientation, Recall, and Memory improved by 33%, 20%, and 100%, respectively, with an overall improvement of 33.3% at the end of 12 weeks (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Both scoring systems show an overall improvement in neurocognition as well as improvements in all the subcategories in each system. Hence, we conclude statistically significant improvement in neurocognitive functions after CEA. PMID:28018503

  1. Ruptured aneurysm at the cortical segment of the distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery associated with hemodynamic stress after basilar artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Marutani, Akiko; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Park, Hun Soo; Tamura, Kentaro; Motoyama, Yasushi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: A distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) de novo aneurysm at the cortical segment after atherosclerotic basilar artery occlusion is extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a ruptured distal PICA de novo aneurysm 8 years after basilar artery occlusion. Case Description: A 75-year-old man experienced sudden disturbance of consciousness; computed tomography demonstrated cerebellar and subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured distal PICA aneurysm. Neck clipping of the aneurysm prevented re-rupture initially, and superficial temporal artery-superior cerebellar artery (STA-SCA) bypass was performed 3 months after admission. Postoperative angiography confirmed patency of the bypass, and the patient was discharged without any new neurological deficits. Conclusion: This report describes a case of de novo development of a saccular distal PICA aneurysm after atherosclerotic basilar artery occlusion. We believe that increased hemodynamic stress at the PICA might have contributed to the occurrence and rupture of the aneurysm. STA-SCA bypass, introduced in the territory of the cerebellar hemisphere, reduces hemodynamic stress, which would prevent the occurrence of de novo aneurysm and recurrent bleeding. PMID:28144485

  2. Screen-imaging guidance using a modified portable video macroscope for middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xingbao; Luo, Junli; Liu, Yun; Chen, Guolong; Liu, Song; Ruan, Qiangjin; Deng, Xunding; Wang, Dianchun; Fan, Quanshui; Pan, Xinghua

    2012-04-25

    The use of operating microscopes is limited by the focal length. Surgeons using these instruments cannot simultaneously view and access the surgical field and must choose one or the other. The longer focal length (more than 1 000 mm) of an operating telescope permits a position away from the operating field, above the surgeon and out of the field of view. This gives the telescope an advantage over an operating microscope. We developed a telescopic system using screen-imaging guidance and a modified portable video macroscope constructed from a Computar MLH-10 × macro lens, a DFK-21AU04 USB CCD Camera and a Dell laptop computer as monitor screen. This system was used to establish a middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. Results showed that magnification of the modified portable video macroscope was appropriate (5-20 ×) even though the Computar MLH-10 × macro lens was placed 800 mm away from the operating field rather than at the specified working distance of 152.4 mm with a zoom of 1-40 ×. The screen-imaging telescopic technique was clear, life-like, stereoscopic and matched the actual operation. Screen-imaging guidance led to an accurate, smooth, minimally invasive and comparatively easy surgical procedure. Success rate of the model establishment evaluated by neurological function using the modified neurological score system was 74.07%. There was no significant difference in model establishment time, sensorimotor deficit and infarct volume percentage. Our findings indicate that the telescopic lens is effective in the screen surgical operation mode referred to as "long distance observation and short distance operation" and that screen-imaging guidance using an modified portable video macroscope can be utilized for the establishment of a middle cerebral artery occlusion model and micro-neurosurgery.

  3. A Comparison between Mechanical Thrombectomy and Intra-arterial Fibrinolysis in Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion: Single Center Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seunguk; Jung, Cheolkyu; Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byung Se; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Chang, Jun Young; Kim, Beom Joon; Han, Moon-Ku; Bae, Hee-Joon; Kwon, Bae Ju; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recent advances in intra-arterial techniques and thrombectomy devices lead to high rate of recanalization. However, little is known regarding the effect of the evolvement of endovascular revascularization therapy (ERT) in acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We compared the outcome of endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) versus intra-arterial fibrinolysis (IAF)-based ERT in patients with acute BAO. Methods After retrospectively reviewed a registry of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent ERT from September 2003 to February 2015, 57 patients with acute BAO within 12 hours from stroke onset were enrolled. They were categorized as an IAF group (n=24) and EMT group (n=33) according to the primary technical option. We compared the procedural and clinical outcomes between the groups. Results The time from groin puncture to recanalization was significantly shorter in the EMT group than in the IAF group (48.5 [25.3 to 87.8] vs. 92 [44 to 179] minutes; P=0.02) The rate of complete recanalization was significantly higher in the EMT group than in the IAF group (87.9% vs 41.7%; P<0.01). The good outcome of the modified Rankin Scale score≤2 at 3 months was more frequent in the EMT group than in the IAF group, but it was not statistically significant (39.4% vs 16.7%; P=0.06). Conclusions EMT-based ERT in patients with acute BAO is superior to IAF-based ERT in terms of the reduction of time from groin puncture to recanalization and the improvement of the rate of complete recanalization. PMID:27283281

  4. Severity of middle cerebral artery occlusion determines retinal deficits in rats

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Rachael S.; Sayeed, Iqbal; Cale, Heather A.; Morrison, Katherine C.; Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Pardue, Machelle T.; Stein, Donald G.

    2014-01-01

    Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using the intraluminal suture technique is a common model used to study cerebral ischemia in rodents. Due to the proximity of the ophthalmic artery to the middle cerebral artery, MCAO blocks both arteries, causing both cerebral and retinal ischemia. While previous studies have shown retinal dysfunction at 48 hours post-MCAO, we investigated whether these retinal function deficits persist until 9 days and whether they correlate with central neurological deficits. Rats received 90 minutes of transient MCAO followed by electroretinography at 2 and 9 days to assess retinal function. Retinal damage was assessed with cresyl violet staining, immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamine synthetase, and TUNEL staining. Rats showed behavioral deficits as assessed with neuroscore that correlated with cerebral infarct size and retinal function at 2 days. Two days after surgery, rats with moderate MCAO (neuroscore < 5) exhibited delays in electroretinogram implicit time, while rats with severe MCAO (neuroscore ≥ 5) exhibited reductions in amplitude. Glutamine synthetase was upregulated in Müller cells 3 days after MCAO in both severe and moderate animals, however, retinal ganglion cell death was only observed in MCAO retinas from severe animals. By 9 days after MCAO, both glutamine synthetase labeling and electroretinograms had returned to normal levels in moderate animals. Early retinal function deficits correlated with behavioral deficits. However, retinal function decreases were transient and selective retinal cell loss was observed only with severe ischemia, suggesting that the retina is less susceptible to MCAO than the brain. Temporary retinal deficits caused by MCAO are likely due to ischemia-induced increases in extracellular glutamate that impair signal conduction, but resolve by 9 days after MCAO. PMID:24518488

  5. Intraoperative Endovascular Stent-graft Repair of a Popliteal Artery Laceration and Occlusion during Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kehagias, Elias; Ioannou, Christos V; Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Balalis, Constatinos; Tsetis, Dimitrios

    2015-10-01

    Injury to the popliteal vessels during total knee arthroplasty is a rare but serious complication that can cause permanent loss of function. Its incidence has been reported to be on the rise with an incidence ranging from 0.03% to 0.51%. Although rare, these complications deserve attention as they may have dire consequences, with mortality reaching 7%, amputation in up to 42%, and other morbidities such as ischemic nerve injury (foot drop). We present a case of a 78-year-old female with a pulseless limb after intraoperative injury of the popliteal artery during total knee replacement surgery who was immediately investigated with digital subtraction angiography and found to have a popliteal artery laceration with significant bleeding and a distal occlusion of the artery that was repaired endovascularly. A covered stent graft was used to simultaneously exclude the arterial laceration and to recanalize the localized popliteal occlusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an iatrogenic popliteal artery laceration and occlusion treated endovascularly in the intraoperative time.

  6. Internal Carotid Artery Reconstruction Using Multiple Fenestrated Clips for Complete Occlusion of Large Paraclinoid Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Kook

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although surgical techniques for clipping paraclinoid aneurysms have evolved significantly in recent times, direct microsurgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms remains a formidable surgical challenge. We review here our surgical experiences in direct surgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms, especially in dealing with anterior clinoidectomy, distal dural ring resection, optic canal unroofing, clipping techniques, and surgical complications. Methods Between September 2001 and February 2012, we directly obliterated ten large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms. In all cases, tailored orbito-zygomatic craniotomies with extradural and/or intradural clinoidectomy were performed. The efficacy of surgical clipping was evaluated with postoperative digital subtraction angiography and computed tomographic angiography. Results Of the ten cases reported, five each were of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. Five aneurysms occurred in the carotid cave, two in the superior hypophyseal artery, two in the intracavernous, and one in the posterior wall. The mean diameter of the aneurysms sac was 18.8 mm in the greatest dimension. All large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms were obliterated with direct neck clipping without bypass. With the exception of the one intracavenous aneurysm, all large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms were occluded completely. Conclusion The key features of successful surgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms include enhancing exposure of proximal neck of aneurysms, establishing proximal control, and completely obliterating aneurysms with minimal manipulation of the optic nerve. Our results suggest that internal carotid artery reconstruction using multiple fenestrated clips without bypass may potentially achieve complete occlusion of large paraclinoid aneurysms. PMID:24527189

  7. Environmental reduplication in a patient with right middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Likitcharoen, Yuthachai; Phanthumchinda, Kammant

    2004-12-01

    Environmental reduplication or reduplicative paramnesia is one of the content-specific delusions (CSD) which is characterized by reduplication of places. CSD has been reported in focal and diffuse cerebral disorders. A focal lesion such as frontal lobes and the right hemispheric lesion have been documented The authors describe a 66 year-old woman who had a delusion of misidentification for place one month after right middle cerebral artery occlusion. The patient did not have any history of schizophrenia or other psychiatric diseases. The patient believed that her car, furniture and house were duplicated. She also mentioned that her son and friends tried to takeover all of her properties and told everyone that she was insane. The prominent cortical signs were tactile and visual neglect. Neuropsychological assessments revealed poor attention but she had neither confusion nor dementia. Clock drawing and construction tests revealed visuospatial impairment which was compatible with non-dominant hemispheric abnormality. MRI showed evidence of cerebral infarction in the right middle cerebral artery territory. Only one similar patient who had an intracerbral hematoma of the right frontal lobe has been reported in the literature. The role of occipito-parietal and fronto-temporal lobes or their connections in environmental reduplication is proposed.

  8. Extracerebral Tissue Damage in the Intraluminal Filament Mouse Model of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Vaas, Markus; Ni, Ruiqing; Rudin, Markus; Kipar, Anja; Klohs, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Middle cerebral artery occlusion is the most common model of focal cerebral ischemia in the mouse. In the surgical procedure, the external carotid artery (ECA) is ligated; however, its effect on the tissue supplied by the vessel has not been described so far. C57BL/6 mice underwent 1 h of transient MCAO (tMCAO) or sham surgery. Multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography was employed at 30 min after surgery to assess oxygenation in the temporal muscles. Microstructural changes were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging and histological examination at 24 h and 48 h after surgery. Ligation of the ECA resulted in decreased oxygenation of the left temporal muscle in most sham-operated and tMCAO animals. Susceptible mice of both groups exhibited increased T2 relaxation times in the affected muscle with histological evidence of myofibre degeneration, interstitial edema, and neutrophil influx. Ligatures had induced an extensive neutrophil-dominated inflammatory response. ECA ligation leads to distinct hypoxic degenerative changes in the tissue of the ECA territory and to ligature-induced inflammatory processes. An impact on outcome needs to be considered in this stroke model. PMID:28348545

  9. Krypton laser-induced photothrombotic distal middle cerebral artery occlusion without craniectomy in mice.

    PubMed

    Sugimori, Hiroshi; Yao, Hiroshi; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Ibayashi, Setsuro; Iida, Mitsuo

    2004-08-01

    Recent advances in genetical engineering of the mouse have highlighted the importance of reproducible and less invasive models of cerebral ischemia in mice. In this paper, we developed minimally invasive and reproducible model of distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in mice using krypton (Kr) laser-induced photothrombosis. C57BL/6 or BALB mice (n=8 each) were anesthetized with halothane. The skin was cut, the temporal muscle was retracted, and the right distal MCA was observed through the skull. A Kr laser beam of wavelength 568 nm was focused onto the MCA over the intact skull. Upon laser irradiation, intravenous administration of a rose bengal solution was begun. After 4 min of irradiation, the laser beam was refocused on the MCA just proximal to the first spot, and another 4-min irradiation was performed. Then, the right common carotid artery (CCA) was ligated. Three days later, the brain was removed, and infarct volume was determined. Infarction confined almost solely to the cortical area was produced in each mouse. Mean infarct volume in C57BL/6 mice was 25.2+/-13.7 mm3. The BALB mice group showed significantly larger and more reproducible infarction (44.1+/-5.2 mm3; the coefficient of variation was 12%) than did C57BL/6 mice (P<0.005). Our photothrombosis model of stroke in mice can be performed without craniectomy, and its reproducibility is satisfactory when using BALB mice.

  10. Femoral Artery Occlusion Increases Muscle Pressor Reflex and Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α in Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Li, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has an important contribution to pathophysiological changes of homeostasis under conditions of oxygen deprivation as well as ischemia. We examined the effects of femoral artery occlusion on HIF-1α expression in sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of rats. Also, we examined cardiovascular responses to static muscle contraction following femoral occlusion. We hypothesized that hindlimb vascular insufficiency increases the levels of sensory nerves’ HIF-1α and augments autonomic responses induced by activation of muscle afferent nerves. In addition, we examined if the reflex cardiovascular responses were altered as HIF-1α was increased in the DRG neurons. Our data show that HIF-1α was significantly increased in the lumbar DRG neurons 6, 24 and 72 hours after femoral artery ligation as compared with sham control. Administration of dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a stabilizer of HIF-α, significantly increased HIF-1α in the lumbar DRG neurons. Furthermore, femoral occlusion enhanced the reflex pressor response to muscle contraction; however, the response was not altered by injection of DMOG. Overall, our results indicate that 1) femoral artery occlusion increases HIF-1α levels of in DRG neurons and contraction-induced pressor response; and 2) an increase in HIF-1α of DRG neurons per se may not alter the muscle pressor reflex. PMID:25346936

  11. Heart period and blood pressure characteristics in splanchnic arterial occlusion shock-induced collapse.

    PubMed

    Aletti, Federico; Gambarotta, Nicolò; Penn, Alexander H; Ferrario, Manuela; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2017-02-01

    The nature of hemodynamic instability typical of circulatory shock is not well understood, but an improved interpretation of its dynamic features could help in the management of critically ill patients. The objective of this work was to introduce new metrics for the analysis of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in order to characterize the risk of catastrophic outcome in splanchnic arterial occlusion (SAO) shock. Continuous ABP (fs = 1 kHz) was measured in rats during experimental SAO shock, which induced a fatal pressure drop (FPD) in ABP. The FPD could either be slow (SFPD) or fast (FFPD), with the latter causing cardiovascular collapse. Time series of mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure and heart period were derived from ABP. The sample asymmetry-based algorithm Heart Rate Characteristics was adapted to compute the Heart Period Characteristics (HPC) and the Blood Pressure Characteristics (BPC). Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed by means of a bivariate model. The approach to FPD of the animals who collapsed (FFPD) was characterized by higher BRS in the low frequency band versus SFPD animals (0.36 ± 0.15 vs. 0.19 ± 0.12 ms/mmHg, p value = 0.0196), bradycardia as indicated by the HPC (0.76 ± 0.57 vs. 1.94 ± 1.27, p value = 0.0179) and higher but unstable blood pressure as indicated by BPC (3.02 ± 2.87 vs. 1.47 ± 1.29, p value = 0.0773). The HPC and BPC indices demonstrated promise as potential clinical markers of hemodynamic instability and impending cardiovascular collapse, and this animal study suggests their test in data from intensive care patients.

  12. Proximal Arterial Occlusion in Acute Ischemic Stroke with Low NIHSS Scores Should Not Be Considered as Mild Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Tae; Park, Man-Seok; Chang, Jane; Lee, Ji Sung; Choi, Kang-Ho; Cho, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background Untreated acute mild stroke patients have substantial 90-day disability rates and worse outcomes than those who are treated with thrombolysis. There is little information regarding which patients with acute mild stroke will benefit from thrombolysis. We sought to investigate factors that are associated with early neurological deterioration (END) and poor prognosis in patients with acute mild stroke. Methods This was a retrospective study of consecutively registered patients with acute mild stroke (NIHSS ≤3) at our tertiary stroke center between October 2008 and December 2011. END was defined as an increase in NIHSS ≥2 points between hospital days 0 and 5. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores of 0–1 at 90 days post-stroke were defined as favorable outcomes. Results A total of 378 (mean age, 65.9±13.0 years) patients were included in this study. END occurred in 55 patients (14.6%). IV-thrombolysis was performed in only 9 patients. Symptomatic arterial occlusion on the initial MRA was independently associated with END (OR, 2.206; 95% CI, 1.219–3.994; p = 0.009) by multivariate logistic regression. Of the 119 patients with symptomatic arterial occlusion, ICA occlusion was independently associated with END (OR, 8.606; 95% CI, 2.312–32.043; p = 0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that symptomatic arterial occlusion may be an important predictor of END in patients with acute mild stroke. It may therefore be important to consider that acute ischemic stroke with symptomatic arterial occlusion and low NIHSS scores may not represent mild stroke in acute periods. PMID:23976971

  13. Recanalization of a Heavily Calcified Chronic Total Occlusion in a Femoropopliteal Artery Using a Wingman Crossing Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Naoto; Tanaka, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    We present a 77-year-old female with heavily calcified chronic total occlusions (CTO) in a superficial femoral artery treated by endovascular therapy using a Wingman crossing catheter, which is an over-the-wire catheter with a metallic blade, controlled manually. The blade could probe and track the calcified cap of CTO, wherein any hydrophilic guidewires or looped wires could not penetrate. Moreover, the Wingman could proceed through the occlusion and introduce a guidewire into distal intramedial lumen as a support catheter. Finally, wire crossing was achieved using a bi-directional approach. The Wingman can be a simple solution for crossing calcified peripheral CTO. PMID:27375810

  14. Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer of the Abdominal Aorta Involving the Celiac Trunk Origin and Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G. Petrocelli, Francesco; Seitun, Sara; Robaldo, Alessandro; Mazzei, Raffaele

    2011-02-15

    We describe a case of endovascular treatment in a 64-year-old woman affected by a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) of the abdominal aorta with a 26-mm pseudoaneurysm involving the celiac trunk (CT) origin and with superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion in the first 30 mm. The patient underwent stenting to treat the SMA occlusion and subsequent deployment of a custom-designed fenestrated endovascular stent-graft to treat the PAU involving the CT origin. Follow-up at 6 months after device placement demonstrated no complications, and there was complete thrombosis of the PAU and patency of the two branch vessels.

  15. Intracranial haemodynamics during vasomotor stress test in unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion estimated by 3-D transcranial Doppler scanner.

    PubMed

    Zbornikova, V; Lassvik, C; Hillman, J

    1995-04-01

    Seventeen patients, 14 males and 3 females, mean age 64 years (range 45-77 years) with longstanding unilateral occlusion of the internal carotid artery and minimal neurological deficit, were evaluated in order to find criteria for potential benefit of extracranial-intracranial by-pass surgery. 3-D transcranial Doppler was used for estimation of mean velocities and pulsatility index in the middle cerebral artery, anterior cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery before and after iv injection of 1 g acetazolamide. The anterior cerebral artery was the supplying vessel to the occluded side in 16 patients and mean velocities were significantly (p < 0.001) faster on the occluded (59.3 +/- 14.5 cm sec-1) and nonoccluded (91.6 +/- 29.6 cm sec-1, p < 0.05)) side than those found in the middle cerebral artery (39.2 +/- 13.7 and 50.9 +/- 8.5 cm sec-1). In two patients a decrease of mean velocity after acetazolamide was noted in middle cerebral artery indicating 'steal' effect. In another 4 patients, poor vasomotor response was seen with less than 11% of mean velocity increase in the middle cerebral artery. Differences between posterior cerebral artery on the occluded and nonoccluded side were insignificant as well as those between middle and posterior on the occluded side. Resting values of pulsatility index differed significantly (p < 0.01) only between anterior and posterior cerebral artery on the nonoccluded side.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Comparison of optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with central retinal artery occlusion in one eye and end-stage glaucoma in the fellow eye.

    PubMed

    Greene, Daniel P; Richards, Charles P; Ghazi, Nicola G

    2012-01-01

    This case describes a patient with chronic central retinal artery occlusion in one eye and end-stage traumatic glaucoma in the fellow eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the macula of the chronic phase of central retinal artery occlusion of the right eye indicated loss of the normal foveal depression, extensive inner retinal atrophy, and marked retinal thinning. In contrast, scans of the left eye with end-stage glaucoma demonstrated an intact foveal depression and limited retinal thinning. The pattern of macular OCT findings in this patient illustrates distinguishing features between chronic central retinal artery occlusion and chronic optic neuropathy due to end-stage glaucoma.

  17. Repeated edaravone treatment reduces oxidative cell damage in rat brain induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Yanagisawa, Makoto; Tak, Nyou Wei; Watanabe, Kazutoshi; Takahashi, Chizuko; Fujisawa, Akio; Kashiba, Misato; Tanaka, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    The free radical scavenger 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (edaravone) has been used to treat acute brain infarction in Japan since 2001. To obtain direct evidence that edaravone serves as an antioxidant in vivo, four groups of rats were prepared: (i) an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group receiving 2 h occlusion-reperfusion of the middle cerebral artery; (ii) a single administration group treated by intravenous infusion of edaravone (3 mg/kg) immediately after I/R; (iii) a repeated treatment group receiving twice daily edaravone administration for 14 days; and (iv) a sham operation group without occlusion. Repeated treatment with edaravone significantly improved the neurological symptoms and impairment of motor function as compared to the I/R group, while single administration demonstrated limited efficacy. No significant differences in plasma antioxidants such as ascorbate, urate, and vitamin E, or in redox status of coenzyme Q(9) were observed among the four groups. In contrast, the plasma content of oleic acid in the total free fatty acids (percentage 18:1) was significantly increased in the I/R group for 7 days as compared to the sham operation group. Oleic acid was produced from stearic acid by the action of stearoyl-CoA desaturase to compensate for the oxidative loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The above results suggest that cellular oxidative damage in the rat brain is evident for at least 7 days after I/R. Repeated treatment suppressed the percentage 18:1 increment, while the single administration did not, which is consistent with the limited efficacy of single administration.

  18. [Case of cerebellar and spinal cord infarction presenting with acute brachial diplegia due to right vertebral artery occlusion].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takayuki; Santa, Yo; Akutagawa, Noriko; Nagano, Sukehisa; Yoshimura, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted for evaluation of sudden onset of dizziness, bilateral shoulder pain, and brachial diplegia. Neurological examination revealed severe bilateral weakness of the triceps brachii, wrist flexor, and wrist extensor muscles. There was no paresis of the lower limbs. His gait was ataxic. Pinprick and temperature sensations were diminished at the bilateral C6-C8 dermatomes. Vibration and position senses were intact. An MRI of the head revealed a right cerebellar infarction and occlusion of the right vertebral artery. An MRI of the cervical spine on T₂ weighted imaging (T₂WI) showed cord compression at the C3/4-C5/6 level secondary to spondylotic degeneration without any intramedullary signal changes of the cord. On the following day, however, high-signal lesions on T₂WI appeared in the C5-C6 spinal cord, suggesting cord infarction. Unilateral vertebral artery occlusion does not usually result in cervical cord infarction because of anastomosis of arteries. Because of the long-term mechanical compression in our case, it was likely that cervical cord ischemia was present before the onset of symptoms. On the basis of chronic cord compression, our case suggests that occlusion of a unilateral vertebral artery could cause cervical cord infarction.

  19. Initial and Long-Term Results of Endovascular Therapy for Chronic Total Occlusion of the Subclavian Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Babic, Srdjan; Sagic, Dragan; Radak, Djordje; Antonic, Zelimir; Otasevic, Petar; Kovacevic, Vladimir; Tanaskovic, Slobodan; Ruzicic, Dusan; Aleksic, Nikola; Vucurevic, Goran

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: To study the initial and long-term results of angioplasty and primary stenting for the treatment of chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the subclavian artery (SA). Materials and Methods: From January 1999 to February 2010, 56 patients (25 men with a mean age of 58 {+-} 8 years) underwent endovascular treatment for CTO of the SA. Duplex scans and arteriograms confirmed occlusion in all cases. Indications for recanalization were subclavian steal syndrome in 33 patients (58.1%), arm claudication in 13 patients (23.2%), and coronary ischemia in 7 patients (12.5%) who had a history of previous coronary artery bypass grafting that included left internal thoracic artery graft. Three patients (5.4%) were treated before the scheduled coronary artery bypass surgery, which included left internal thoracic artery graft. After successful recanalization, all arteries were stented, and all of the patients were followed-up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery and annually thereafter. Results: Successful recanalization of the SA was achieved in 46 patients (82.1%), and the complication rate was 7.1%. During follow-up (mean 40 {+-} 26 months; range 2 to 125), the primary patency rates after 1 and 3 years were 97.9% and 82.7%, respectively. At the end of follow-up, 76% of the arteries showed no evidence of restenosis. Univariate analysis failed to identify any variable predictive of long-term patency of successfully recanalized SA. Conclusion: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting of the complete total occlusion of the SA is a safe and effective procedure associated with low risks and good long-term results.

  20. Endovascular Repair of a Type III Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Patient with Occlusion of Visceral Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Klonaris, Chris Katsargyris, Athanasios; Giannopoulos, Athanasios; Georgopoulos, Sotiris; Tsigris, Chris; Michail, Othon; Marinos, George; Bastounis, Elias

    2007-07-15

    The successful endovascular repair of a type III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) with the use of a tube endograft is reported. A 56-year-old male with a 6.4-cm type III TAAA, a 4.2-cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, and chronic renal insufficiency presented with flank pain, nausea, acute anuria, and serum creatinine of 6.1 mg/dl. Acute occlusion of the left solitary renal artery was diagnosed and emergent recanalization with percutaneus transluminal angioplasty and stenting was performed successfully, with reversal of the serum creatinine level at 1.6 mg/dl. Further imaging studies for TAAA management revealed ostial occlusion of both the celiac artery (CA) and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) but a hypertrophic inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) providing retrograde flow to the aforementioned vessels. This rare anatomic serendipity allowed us to repair the TAAA simply by using a two-component tube endograft without fenestrations (Zenith; William Cook, Bjaeverskov, Denmark) that covered the entire length of the aneurysm, including the CA and SMA origins, since a natural arterial bypass from the IMA to the CA and SMA already existed, affording protection from gastrointestinal ischemic complications. The patient had a fast and uneventful recovery and is currently doing well 6 months after the procedure. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the English literature of successful endovascular repair of a TAAA involving visceral arteries with the simple use of a tube endograft.

  1. A framework for retinal layer intensity analysis for retinal artery occlusion patient based on 3D OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jianping; Chen, Haoyu; Zhou, Chunlei; Chen, Xinjian

    2014-03-01

    Occlusion of retinal artery leads to severe ischemia and dysfunction of retina. Quantitative analysis of the reflectivity in the retina is very needed to quantitative assessment of the severity of retinal ischemia. In this paper, we proposed a framework for retinal layer intensity analysis for retinal artery occlusion patient based on 3D OCT images. The proposed framework consists of five main steps. First, a pre-processing step is applied to the input OCT images. Second, the graph search method was applied to segment multiple surfaces in OCT images. Third, the RAO region was detected based on texture classification method. Fourth, the layer segmentation was refined using the detected RAO regions. Finally, the retinal layer intensity analysis was performed. The proposed method was tested on tested on 27 clinical Spectral domain OCT images. The preliminary results show the feasibility and efficacy of the proposed method.

  2. Twelve months follow-up after retrograde recanalization of superficial femoral artery chronic total occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Wojtasik-Bakalarz, Joanna; Arif, Salech; Chyrchel, Michał; Rakowski, Tomasz; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Dudek, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fifty percent of cases of peripheral artery disease are caused by chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Ten–fifteen percent of percutaneous SFA recanalization procedures are unsuccessful. In those cases the retrograde technique can increase the success rate of the procedure, but the long-term follow-up of such procedures is still unknown. Aim To assess the efficacy and clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up after retrograde recanalization of the SFA. Material and methods We included patients after at least one unsuccessful percutaneous antegrade recanalization of the SFA. Patients were evaluated for the procedural and clinical follow-up of mean time 13.9 months. Results The study included 17 patients (7 females, 10 males) who underwent percutaneous retrograde recanalization of the SFA from June 2011 to June 2015. The mean age of patients was 63 ±7 years. Retrograde puncture of the distal SFA was successful in all cases. A retrograde procedure was performed immediately after antegrade failure in 4 (23.5%) patients and after a previously failed attempt in 13 (76.5%) patients. The procedure was successful in 15 (88.2%) patients, and unsuccessful in 2 (11.8%) patients. Periprocedural complications included 1 peripheral distal embolization (successfully treated with aspiration thrombectomy), 1 bleeding event from the puncture site and 7 puncture site hematomas. During follow-up the all-cause mortality rate was 5.8% (1 patient, non-cardiac death). The primary patency rate at 12 months was 88.2% and secondary patency 100%. Conclusions The retrograde SFA puncture seems to be a safe and successful technique for CTO recanalization and is associated with a low rate of perioperative and long-term follow-up complications. PMID:28344617

  3. Risk of Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ya-Wen; Yu, Mei-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yu, Tung-Min; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with atherosclerosis, but the relationship between SLE and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) remains unclear. We sought to investigate this relationship by comparing cardiovascular complications in patients with and without SLE. Data on patients from 2000 to 2011 were collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The SLE cohort was frequency-matched according to age, sex, and history of diabetes mellitus (DM) with patients without SLE (control cohort). We evaluated the risk of cardiovascular complications, including hypertension, DM, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, coronary artery disease, and hyperlipidemia. The study included 10,144 patients with SLE and 10,144 control patients. The incidence of PAOD was 9.39-fold higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.70–11.15) in the SLE cohort than in the non-SLE cohort. Moreover, SLE was an independent risk factor for PAOD. The adjusted risk of PAOD was highest in patients with SLE who were aged ≤34 years (hazard ratio = 47.6, 95% CI = 26.8–84.4). The risk of PAOD was highest during the first year of follow-up and decreased over time. Patients with SLE exhibit a higher incidence and an independently higher risk of PAOD compared with the general population. The PAOD risk is markedly elevated in patients with SLE who are young and in whom the disease is at an early stage. PMID:26579830

  4. Mapping the dynamics of brain perfusion using functional ultrasound in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Clément; Isabel, Clothilde; Martin, Abraham; Dussaux, Clara; Savoye, Anne; Emmrich, Julius; Montaldo, Gabriel; Mas, Jean-Louis; Baron, Jean-Claude; Urban, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Following middle cerebral artery occlusion, tissue outcome ranges from normal to infarcted depending on depth and duration of hypoperfusion as well as occurrence and efficiency of reperfusion. However, the precise time course of these changes in relation to tissue and behavioral outcome remains unsettled. To address these issues, a three-dimensional wide field-of-view and real-time quantitative functional imaging technique able to map perfusion in the rodent brain would be desirable. Here, we applied functional ultrasound imaging, a novel approach to map relative cerebral blood volume without contrast agent, in a rat model of brief proximal transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to assess perfusion in penetrating arterioles and venules acutely and over six days thanks to a thinned-skull preparation. Functional ultrasound imaging efficiently mapped the acute changes in relative cerebral blood volume during occlusion and following reperfusion with high spatial resolution (100 µm), notably documenting marked focal decreases during occlusion, and was able to chart the fine dynamics of tissue reperfusion (rate: one frame/5 s) in the individual rat. No behavioral and only mild post-mortem immunofluorescence changes were observed. Our study suggests functional ultrasound is a particularly well-adapted imaging technique to study cerebral perfusion in acute experimental stroke longitudinally from the hyper-acute up to the chronic stage in the same subject.

  5. Successful Cross-circulation Stent-Retriever Embolectomy Through Posterior Communicating Artery for Acute MCA Occlusion by Using Trevo XP ProVue

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul Kee; Baek, Byung Hyun; Heo, Tae Wook

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke due to embolic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in patients with chronic ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion is quite rare. Several previous reports demonstrated that intra-arterial (IA) thrombolytic therapy or aspiration thrombectomy using the cross-circulation technique via an alternative collateral pathway is feasible in acute stroke patients with an unfavorable direct route to the occluded sites. However, stent-retriever embolectomy via the cross-circulation approach has not been reported in the literature. The present paper reports the first case of successful stent-retriever embolectomy for acute MCA occlusion via the patent posterior communicating artery (PComA) by using Trevo XP ProVue stent-retriever in a patient with acute MCA stroke and chronic occlusion at the origin site of the ipsilateral ICA. PMID:26958415

  6. Anchor technique: Use of stent retrievers as an anchor to advance thrombectomy catheters in internal carotid artery occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Stacey Q; Janjua, Rashid M; Hedayat, Hirad; Burnette, Christofer

    2015-01-01

    In three recent cases of acute complete internal artery occlusions, we used stent retriever deployed through the mechanical aspiration/distal access catheters to achieve recanalization. In all cases the stent retriever was used as an anchor and supplemented mechanical thrombectomy. This report describes the technical details of the procedure and presents an alternative plan of action in difficult cases when standard thrombectomy techniques do not work. PMID:26494404

  7. Laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion before cervical curettage in cervical ectopic pregnancy: Safe and effective for preventing massive bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hong-Seok; Kim, Na-Young

    2015-01-01

    Cervical ectopic pregnancy is associated with high risk for massive bleeding conditions. Cervical ectopic pregnancy can usually be treated by methotrexate injection or surgery. We present 4 cases of cervical ectopic pregnancy that were treated successfully with different uterine-conserving methods. By comparing our experience of 4 cases managed in different ways, we found that laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion before cervical curettage is more effective method for preventing massive bleeding. PMID:26430673

  8. Rapidly progressive dementia due to bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion with infarction of the total length of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Romano, Jose G; Forteza, Alejandro M; Koch, Sebastian

    2004-04-01

    The authors report a patient with rapidly progressive cognitive decline due to bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) resulting in multiple pathologically proven cerebral infarctions including the entire length of the corpus callosum. The gradual evolution of the deficits was suggestive of hemodynamic ischemia. Bilateral ICAO should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with rapidly cognitive decline. Although ICAO commonly spares the splenium, complete callosal infarction is possible in the presence of bilateral ICAO.

  9. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist decreases the number of necrotic neurons in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, J. H.; Liu, K. F.; Relton, J. K.

    1995-01-01

    Marked increases in the brain expression of interleukin (IL)-1 have been reported in rats after permanent occlusion of a large cerebral artery. Interactions between endothelial cells and leukocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several types of ischemic injury to the myocardium and other organs. In this study we asked whether inhibiting the effects of IL-1 would affect the outcome of an experimental brain infarct. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 13) with permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery were given IL-1 receptor antagonist. A second group (n = 13) with the same type of brain injury was given a placebo. A third group, subjected to a sham operation, was given either IL-1 receptor antagonist (n = 2) or a placebo (n = 2). Experiments were terminated after either 24 hours or 7 days. Compared with the control group, animals treated with IL-1 receptor antagonist improved their neurological score (P < 0.05), experienced less pronounced changes in body weight (P < 0.05), and had fewer necrotic neurons (P < 0.001) and fewer leukocytes in the ischemic hemisphere (P < 0.001) as well as a smaller area of pallor (P < 0.05) in the ischemis hemisphere. The results suggest that inhibiting the proinflammatory effects of IL-1 with a receptor antagonist is an effective way of influencing the leukocyte responses elicited by an arterial occlusion. Such leukocyte inhibition seemingly attenuates the number of necrotic neurons resulting from the occlusion of a large brain artery. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:7485410

  10. The Effect of Photoluminescence of Bioceramic Irradiation on Middle Cerebral Arterial Occlusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Chan, Paul; Liu, Zhong-Min; Hwang, Ling-Ling; Lin, Kuo-Chi; Chan, Wing P.; Leung, Ting-Kai; Choy, Cheuk Sing

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the possible effect of photoluminescence of bioceramic (PLB) on ischemic cerebral infarction (stroke), by using an animal model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce MCAO to block the origin of the left MCAO; three months later, the positive chronic stroke rats were selected by running tunnel maze; the MCAO rats with significant chronic stroke and neurological defects were used for treadmill experiments with varying speed settings to test their capability for restoration after muscular fatigue under conditions of with and without PLB irradiation. As a result, PLB irradiation could improve exercise completion rate and average running speed during slow and fast treadmill settings. After PLB irradiation, the selected MCAO rats successfully completed all the second-round treadmill exercises at the maximum speed setting, and they had better restoration from muscular fatigue. An in vitro cell study on astrocytes of rats by bioceramic irradiation further demonstrated increased intracellular nitric oxide. To explain these results, we suggest that cortical brain stimulation of microcirculation and enhancement of peripheral muscular activity are the main causes of the improved exercise performance in MCAO rats by PLB. PMID:27375765

  11. Carvacrol Exerts Neuroprotective Effects Via Suppression of the Inflammatory Response in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenlan; Hua, Cong; Pan, Xiaoqiang; Fu, Xijia; Wu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that inflammation plays an important role in cerebral ischemia. Carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol, is naturally occurring in various plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae and exerts protective effects in a mice model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by reducing infarct volume and decreasing the expression of cleaved caspase-3. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms by which carvacrol protect the brain have yet to be fully elucidated. We investigated the effects of carvacrol on inflammatory reaction and inflammatory mediators in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats. The results of the present study showed that carvacrol inhibited the levels of inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of iNOS and COX-2. It also increased SOD activity and decreased MDA level in ischemic cortical tissues. In addition, carvacrol treatment suppressed the ischemia/reperfusion-induced increase in the protein expression of nuclear NF-kB p65. In conclusion, we have shown that carvacrol inhibits the inflammatory response via inhibition of the NF-kB signaling pathway in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Therefore, carvacrol may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia injury.

  12. Accumulation of exogenous 45Ca after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Tomabechi, M; Sako, K; Yonemasu, Y

    1994-02-01

    The distribution of exogenous 45Ca in the focal ischemia rat model (middle cerebral artery occlusion) was studied using 45Ca autoradiography. High 45Ca accumulations were observed in the frontal cortex and caudate-putamen corresponding with morphological damage shown by HE staining. Regional 45Ca concentrations were calculated from the optical density on the 45Ca autoradiograms. Rapid uptake of 45Ca in the ischemic brain occurred during the first 5 hours, and continued more slowly between 5 and 24 hours after ischemia. The area of 45Ca accumulation was also expanded between 5 and 24 hours. An area of low 45Ca concentration around the area of high accumulation developed 5 hours after ischemia, which presumably accumulated 45Ca between 5 and 24 hours after ischemia. The lower concentration of 45Ca in the periphery of ischemia may result from: 1) a decrease in the total amount of calcium due to narrowing of extracellular space accompanied by cytotoxic edema, and 2) delayed accumulation of exogenous 45Ca due to reduced clearance of extracellular fluid.

  13. A framework for classification and segmentation of branch retinal artery occlusion in SD-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingyun; Shi, Fei; Zhu, Weifang; Chen, Haoyu; Chen, Xinjian

    2016-03-01

    Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) is an ocular emergency which could lead to blindness. Quantitative analysis of BRAO region in the retina is very needed to assessment of the severity of retinal ischemia. In this paper, a fully automatic framework was proposed to classify and segment BRAO based on 3D spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first automatic 3D BRAO segmentation framework. First, a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier is designed to differentiate BRAO into acute phase and chronic phase, and the two types are segmented separately. To segment BRAO in chronic phase, a threshold-based method is proposed based on the thickness of inner retina. While for segmenting BRAO in acute phase, a two-step segmentation is performed, which includes the bayesian posterior probability based initialization and the graph-search-graph-cut based segmentation. The proposed method was tested on SD-OCT images of 23 patients (12 of acute and 11 of chronic phase) using leave-one-out strategy. The overall classification accuracy of SVM classifier was 87.0%, and the TPVF and FPVF for acute phase were 91.1%, 5.5%; for chronic phase were 90.5%, 8.7%, respectively.

  14. Popliteal Retrograde Approach is Effective and Safe for Superficial Femoral Artery Chronic Total Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ashikaga, Takashi; Shimura, Tsukasa; Hatano, Yu; Sasaoka, Taro; Kurihara, Ken; Yoshikawa, Shunji; Maejima, Yasuhiro; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Endovascular treatment (EVT) using a popliteal approach is effective for superficial femoral artery (SFA) chronic total occlusion (CTO); however, its effectiveness, safety, and consequent complications are unclear. Materials and Methods: We studied 324 consecutive EVTs (in 187 patients) performed at three centers between April 2008 and March 2013, and selected all EVTs that included SFA CTO regions. A total of 91 EVTs (in 65 patients) were included and divided into two groups; “with popliteal approach” (WPA) and “without popliteal approach” (WOPA). Results: Despite higher rates of hypertension (WPA, 88.9% vs. WOPA, 69.1%; p = 0.04) and CTO length >200 mm (55.6% vs. 28.3%, respectively; p <0.01), the primary success rate was better in the WPA group (97.2% vs. 78.2%, respectively; p <0.01); however, both total complication rate and major complication rate were not significantly different. We compared popliteal puncture using a sheath and using a microcatheter alone. There were no significant differences between sheath and microcatheter use in terms of primary success rates (95.5% vs. 100%, respectively; p = 0.61) and puncture site complications (22.7% vs. 14.2%, respectively; p = 0.53). Conclusion: A popliteal approach improved the primary success rate of EVT for SFA CTO. PMID:26421071

  15. Blockage of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 inhibits brain edema in middle cerebral artery occlusion mice.

    PubMed

    Jie, Pinghui; Tian, Yujing; Hong, Zhiwen; Li, Lin; Zhou, Libin; Chen, Lei; Chen, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Brain edema is an important pathological process during stroke. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) causes an up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in lung tissue. MMP can digest the endothelial basal lamina to destroy blood brain barrier, leading to vasogenic brain edema. Herein, we tested whether TRPV4-blockage could inhibit brain edema through inhibiting MMPs in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mice. We found that the brain water content and Evans blue extravasation at 48 h post-MCAO were reduced by a TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047. The increased MMP-2/9 protein expression in hippocampi of MCAO mice was attenuated by HC-067046, but only the increased MMP-9 activity was blocked by HC-067047. The loss of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin protein in MCAO mice was also attenuated by HC-067047. Moreover, MMP-2/9 protein expression increased in mice treated with a TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A, but only MMP-9 activity was increased by GSK1016790A. Finally, ZO-1 and occludin protein expression was decreased by GSK1016790A, which was reversed by an MMP-9 inhibitor. We conclude that blockage of TRPV4 may inhibit brain edema in cerebral ischemia through inhibiting MMP-9 activation and the loss of tight junction protein.

  16. The Effect of Photoluminescence of Bioceramic Irradiation on Middle Cerebral Arterial Occlusion in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Chan, Paul; Liu, Zhong-Min; Hwang, Ling-Ling; Lin, Kuo-Chi; Chan, Wing P; Leung, Ting-Kai; Choy, Cheuk Sing

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the possible effect of photoluminescence of bioceramic (PLB) on ischemic cerebral infarction (stroke), by using an animal model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce MCAO to block the origin of the left MCAO; three months later, the positive chronic stroke rats were selected by running tunnel maze; the MCAO rats with significant chronic stroke and neurological defects were used for treadmill experiments with varying speed settings to test their capability for restoration after muscular fatigue under conditions of with and without PLB irradiation. As a result, PLB irradiation could improve exercise completion rate and average running speed during slow and fast treadmill settings. After PLB irradiation, the selected MCAO rats successfully completed all the second-round treadmill exercises at the maximum speed setting, and they had better restoration from muscular fatigue. An in vitro cell study on astrocytes of rats by bioceramic irradiation further demonstrated increased intracellular nitric oxide. To explain these results, we suggest that cortical brain stimulation of microcirculation and enhancement of peripheral muscular activity are the main causes of the improved exercise performance in MCAO rats by PLB.

  17. Neurological sequelae and long-term behavioural assessment of rats with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Modo, M; Stroemer, R P; Tang, E; Veizovic, T; Sowniski, P; Hodges, H

    2000-12-15

    Animal models of stroke, notably transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), are used to assess the efficacy of pharmacological and transplant treatments. Long-term studies (>1 month) of the functional effects of treatments in animal models are required to predict treatments likely to improve dysfunctions associated with stroke damage. These pre-clinical studies require (1) optimum post-operative care to ensure long-term survival, (2) methods for assignment of rats to groups with equivalent impairments to reduce variability and enhance detection of treatment effects, and (3) behavioural tests that detect long-term stable deficits. For long-term functional assessment, a battery of behavioural tests sensitive to a range of deficits observed after MCAo was developed. The bilateral asymmetry test evaluated the time course of sensory neglect. Deficits of motor integration were examined in the footfault test, and motor bias was assessed by pharmacological stimulation of rotation. The water maze was used to detect long-term deficits in spatial information processing. Long-term differences between control and MCAo animals in this battery of tests indicate that the protocol provides an efficient assessment suitable for evaluating treatment outcomes in pre-clinical studies of stroke, and that the post-operative care procedure and method of assignment to groups were effective.

  18. Association between peripheral arterial occlusive disease and cardiothoracic ratio in patients on chronic hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Kang-Yi; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Fang, Yu-Wei; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Tsai, Ming-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    The cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) are related to mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, data on the association between PAOD and CTR are limited. In this study, we aim to elucidate this relationship in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Using a retrospective cross-sectional study of 622 Taiwanese patients, we investigated the association of PAOD and CTR. PAOD was significantly associated with CTR in the crude analysis. The odds ratio (OR) for CTR >0.5 was 1.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32–2.37], and the odds ratio for CTR >0.6 was 2.18 [95% CI, 1.44–3.30]. After adjusting for confounding variables, this difference continued to exhibit significant predictive power for CTR >0.6 (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.14–3.11), but the predictive power for CTR >0.5 was attenuated (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.98–2.03). In the subgroup analysis, PAOD was an independent factor for CTR >0.6, particularly in elderly and female patients or patients with hemoglobin >10 mg/dl and with no history of cardiovascular disease. In this research, we showed that the detection of PAOD was independently associated with CTR >0.6 in patients on chronic hemodialysis. PMID:27918569

  19. Cerebroprotective effect of Moringa oleifera against focal ischemic stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kirisattayakul, Woranan; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Wannanon, Panakaporn; Jittiwat, Jinatta

    2013-01-01

    The protection against ischemic stroke is still required due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. Based on the role of oxidative stress in stroke pathophysiology, we determined whether Moringa oleifera, a plant possessing potent antioxidant activity, protected against brain damage and oxidative stress in animal model of focal stroke. M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg·kg(-1) was orally given to male Wistar rats (300-350 g) once daily at a period of 2 weeks before the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO) and 3 weeks after Rt.MCAO. The determinations of neurological score and temperature sensation were performed every 7 days throughout the study period, while the determinations of brain infarction volume, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px were performed 24 hr after Rt.MCAO. The results showed that all doses of extract decreased infarction volume in both cortex and subcortex. The protective effect of medium and low doses of extract in all areas occurred mainly via the decreased oxidative stress. The protective effect of the high dose extract in striatum and hippocampus occurred via the same mechanism, whereas other mechanisms might play a crucial role in cortex. The detailed mechanism required further exploration.

  20. Recanalization of Acute and Subacute Femoropopliteal Artery Occlusions with the Rotarex Catheter: One Year Follow-up, Single Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Duc, Sylvain R. Schoch, Eric; Pfyffer, Markus; Jenelten, Regula; Zollikofer, Christoph L.

    2005-06-15

    Purpose:To assess the efficacy and safety of a new rotational catheter for percutaneous removal of fresh and organized thrombi in the femoropopliteal artery.Methods:Forty-one limbs in 38 patients (age 56-90 years, mean 75.6 years) with acute, subacute or chronic femoropopliteal occlusions of 1-180 days' duration (mean 31.6 days) were treated with the Rotarex device. The Fontaine stage was mainly IIB (Rutherford 2-3, 22 patients) or III (Rutherford 4, 14 patients). The length of occlusion varied from 2 to 35 cm (mean 13.1 cm). After recanalization percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed if there was a residual stenosis of >25%. Patients were followed up with color Doppler ultrasound at 48 hr and clinically with Doppler pressures and oscillometry at 3, 6, and 12 months.Results:After an average of two passages with the Rotarex catheter all but two limbs required PTA for residual stenosis >25%. Five patients needed additional stenting. Major complications were one groin hematoma requiring blood transfusion and one arteriovenous fistula spontaneously thrombosing after unsuccessful primary prolonged balloon dilation. Distal embolizations occurred in 10 patients; 6 clinically relevant emboli were aspirated. All occlusions were technically successfully recanalised there were 2 early reocclusions after 1 day and two at 2 weeks. Brachial-ankle indices improved from an average of 0.41 before to 0.93 after recanalization. Primary and secondary patency rates were 62% / 84% after 6 months and 39% / 68% after 1 year. The amputation-free survival at 12 months was 100%.Conclusion:The Rotarex mechanical thrombectomy device is an efficient, quick, easy to handle, and safe tool for the treatment of acute, subacute or even chronic peripheral arterial thromboembolic occlusions. It can be used for short or long occlusions with equal success, provided the obstruction is not heavily calcified and has been safely passed with a guidewire first.

  1. Quantification of myocardial injury produced by temporary coronary artery occlusion and reflow with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, D.E.; Corbett, J.R.; Buja, L.M.; Hansen, C.; Ugolini, V.; Parkey, R.W.; Willerson, J.T.

    1987-03-01

    Previously, technetium-99m-stannous pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PPi) has been used to localize and estimate the size of myocardial infarcts in animals after permanent coronary artery occlusion. This study tested the hypothesis that /sup 99m/Tc-PPi accurately sizes myocardial infarctions produced by temporary coronary artery occlusion and reflow in dogs. Three groups of dogs were studied: group A underwent 3 hr of occlusion followed by 2 hr of reperfusion, with /sup 99m/Tc-PPi injected 10 min after reflow (n = 10); group B underwent 3 hr of occlusion followed by 2 hr of reperfusion, with /sup 99m/Tc-PPi injected 90 min after reflow (n = 11); and group C underwent 3 hr of occlusion followed by reflow with /sup 99m/Tc-PPi injected at 10 min and again at 48 hr after reflow (n = 5). Myocardial slices from group A and B dogs were imaged in vitro. Group C dogs were imaged with single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) in vivo, and myocardial slices were imaged in vitro at the conclusion of the study. The extent of myocardial infarction was defined with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and coronary blood flow was estimated with radioactive microspheres. In addition, transmural myocardial tissue samples were taken from the center of the myocardial infarction, the lateral portion of the myocardial infarction, the normal myocardium adjacent to the lateral aspect of the infarcts, and from the normal myocardium and counted for /sup 99m/Tc-PPi activity. A significant correlation was found between infarct size determined by areas of increased /sup 99m/Tc-PPi uptake and that estimated from TTC staining for both group A (r = .89) and group B animals (r = .98).

  2. Procedural outcomes of revascularization of chronic total occlusion of native coronary arteries (from a multicenter United States registry).

    PubMed

    Michael, Tesfaldet T; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Fuh, Eric; Patel, Vishal G; Mogabgab, Owen; Alomar, Mohammed; Kirkland, Ben L; Lembo, Nicholas; Kalynych, Anna; Carlson, Harold; Banerjee, Subhash; Lombardi, William; Kandzari, David E

    2013-08-15

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) is a rapidly evolving area of interventional cardiology. We sought to examine the immediate procedural and in-hospital clinical outcomes of native coronary artery CTO PCI from a multicenter United States (US) registry. We retrospectively examined the procedural outcomes of 1,361 consecutive native coronary artery CTO PCIs performed at 3 US institutions from January 2006 to November 2011. Mean age was 65 ± 11 years, 85% of patients were men, 40% had diabetes, 37% had previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 42% had previous PCI. The CTO target vessel was the right coronary artery (55%), circumflex (23%), left anterior descending artery (21%), and left main or bypass graft (1%). The retrograde approach was used in 34% of all procedures. The technical and procedural success rates were 85.5% and 84.2%, respectively. The mean procedural time, fluoroscopy time, and contrast utilization were 113 ± 61 minutes, 42 ± 29 minutes, and 294 ± 158 ml, respectively. In multivariate analysis, female gender, no previous coronary artery bypass surgery, and years since initiation of CTO PCI at each center were independent predictors of procedural success. Major complications occurred in 24 patients (1.8%). In conclusion, among selected US-based institutions with experienced operators, native coronary artery CTO PCI can be performed with high success and low major complication rates.

  3. Cerebral Hemodynamics and Vascular Reactivity in Mild and Severe Ischemic Rodent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Stroke Models

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jeongeun; Jo, Areum; Kang, Bok-Man; Lee, Sohee; Bang, Oh Young; Heo, Chaejeong; Jhon, Gil-Ja; Lee, Youngmi

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia can cause decreased cerebral neurovascular coupling, leading to a failure in the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. This study aims to investigate the effect of varying degrees of ischemia on cerebral hemodynamic reactivity using in vivo real-time optical imaging. We utilized direct cortical stimulation to elicit hyper-excitable neuronal activation, which leads to induced hemodynamic changes in both the normal and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) ischemic stroke groups. Hemodynamic measurements from optical imaging accurately predict the severity of occlusion in mild and severe MCAO animals. There is neither an increase in cerebral blood volume nor in vessel reactivity in the ipsilateral hemisphere (I.H) of animals with severe MCAO. The pial artery in the contralateral hemisphere (C.H) of the severe MCAO group reacted more slowly than both hemispheres in the normal and mild MCAO groups. In addition, the arterial reactivity of the I.H in the mild MCAO animals was faster than the normal animals. Furthermore, artery reactivity is tightly correlated with histological and behavioral results in the MCAO ischemic group. Thus, in vivo optical imaging may offer a simple and useful tool to assess the degree of ischemia and to understand how cerebral hemodynamics and vascular reactivity are affected by ischemia. PMID:27358581

  4. Clinical and radiological predictors of recanalisation and outcome of 40 patients with acute basilar artery occlusion treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, M; Nedeltchev, K; Schroth, G; Baumgartner, R; Remonda, L; Loher, T; Stepper, F; Sturzenegger, M; Schuknecht, B; Mattle, H

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To define predictors of recanalisation and clinical outcome of patients with acute basilar artery occlusions treated with local intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT). Methods: Vascular risk factors, severity of the neurological deficit graded by the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS), and radiological findings were recorded at presentation. Outcome was measured using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) three months later and categorised as favourable (mRS 0–2), poor (mRS 3–5), or death (mRS 6). Results: 40 patients were studied. Median NIHSS on admission was 18. Mean time from symptom onset to treatment was 5.5 hours (range 2.3 to 11). Outcome was favourable in 14 patients (35%) and poor in nine (23%); 17 (42%) died. There were two symptomatic cerebral haemorrhages (5%). Recanalisation of the basilar artery was achieved in 32 patients (80%); it was complete (TIMI grade 3) in 20% and partial (TIMI grade 2) in 60%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, low NIHSS score on admission (p = 0.002) and vessel recanalisation (p = 0.005) were independent predictors of favourable outcome. Recanalisation occurred more often with treatment within six hours of symptom onset (p = 0.003) and when admission computed tomography showed a hyperdense basilar artery sign (p = 0.007). In a univariate model, quadriplegia (p = 0.002) and coma (p = 0.004) were associated with a poor outcome or death. Conclusions: Low baseline NIHSS on admission and recanalisation of basilar artery occlusions predict a favourable outcome after intra-arterial thrombolysis. Early initiation of IAT and the presence of a hyperdense basilar artery sign on CT were associated with a higher likelihood of recanalisation. PMID:15146000

  5. Angiographic Structural Differentiation between Native Arteriogenesis and Therapeutic Synangiosis in Intracranial Arterial Steno-occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cher Ooi, Yinn; Laiwalla, Azim N.; Liou, Raymond; Gonzalez, Nestor R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis has been shown to generate collateral vessels from the extracranial to the intracranial circulation in patients with moyamoya disease and intracranial arterial steno-occlusive disease. The mechanisms involved are not well understood. We hypothesize that angiogenesis is the leading mechanism forming collaterals after encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis as there are no preexisting connections, which should exhibit higher architectural complexity compared to native collaterals. Materials and Methods Pre- and postoperative digital subtraction angiograms were analyzed in patients enrolled in a prospective trial of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis surgery. Branching angioscore, tortuosity index, and local connected fractal dimension were compared between innate and postoperative collaterals. Results 101 angiograms (50 preoperative, 51 postoperative) were analyzed from 44 patients (22 intracranial atherosclerosis and 22 moyamoya disease). There was a significantly higher median branching angioscore (13 vs. 4, p < 0.001) and lower median tortuosity index (1.08 vs. 1.76, p < 0.001) in the encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis collaterals compared to innate collaterals. Higher mean local fractal dimension peaks (1.28 SD 0.1 vs. 1.16 SD 0.11, p < 0.001) were observed in the encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis collaterals compared to innate collaterals for both intracranial atherosclerosis (p < 0.001) and moyamoya disease (p < 0.001) groups. The observed increase in high connectivity was greater in the intracranial atherosclerosis group compared to moyamoya disease cases (p = 0.01). Conclusions The higher median branching angioscore and local connected fractal dimension, along with lower median tortuosity index of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis collaterals are consistent with the greater complexity observed in the process of sprouting and splitting associated with angiogenesis. PMID:26797139

  6. Reversibility of retinal ischemia due to central retinal artery occlusion by hyperbaric oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Hadanny, Amir; Maliar, Amit; Fishlev, Gregory; Bechor, Yair; Bergan, Jacob; Friedman, Mony; Avni, Isaac; Efrati, Shai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ischemic retinal damage can be reversed by hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) as long as irreversible infarction damage has not developed. However, the time window till irreversible damage develops is still unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the effect of HBOT and determine possible markers for irreversible retinal damage. Materials and methods Retrospective analysis of 225 patients treated with HBOT for central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) in 1999–2015. One hundred and twenty-eight patients fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria: age >18 years, symptoms <20 hours, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) <0.5 logMAR. Results Time delay from symptoms to treatment was 7.8±3.8 hours. The BCVA was significantly improved after HBOT, from 2.14±0.50 to 1.61±0.78 (P<0.0001). The proportion of patients with clinically meaningful visual improvement was significantly higher in patients without cherry-red spot (CRS) compared to patients with CRS at presentation (86.0% vs 57.6%, P<0.0001). The percentage of patients with final BCVA better than 1.0 was also significantly higher in patients without CRS vs patients with CRS at presentation (61.0% vs 7.1%, P<0.0001). There was no correlation between CRS and the time from symptoms. HBOT was found to be safe, and only 5.5% of patients had minor, reversible, adverse events. Conclusion HBOT is an effective treatment for non-arteritic CRAO as long as CRS has not formed. The fundus findings, rather than the time delay, should be used as a marker for irreversible damage. PMID:28096655

  7. Mildronate treatment improves functional recovery following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Svalbe, Baiba; Zvejniece, Liga; Vavers, Edijs; Pugovics, Osvalds; Muceniece, Ruta; Liepinsh, Edgars; Dambrova, Maija

    2011-09-12

    Mildronate (3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium) propionate) is an inhibitor of l-carnitine biosynthesis and an anti-ischemic drug. In the present study, we investigated the effects of mildronate in rats following focal cerebral ischemia. Male Wistar rats were subjected to transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 90min, followed by the intraperitoneal administration of mildronate at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg 2h after reperfusion and then daily for an additional 14days. The beam-walking, rota-rod and cylinder tests were used to assess sensorimotor function, and vibrissae-evoked forelimb-placing and limb-placing tests examined responses to tactile and proprioceptive stimulation. Following behavioural testing, the infarct volume was measured. The cerebellar concentrations of l-carnitine, γ-butyrobetaine (GBB) and mildronate were also measured. The results showed that saline-treated MCAO rats had minor or no spontaneous recovery in sensorimotor and proprioceptive function up to 14days post-stroke. Treatment with mildronate at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to accelerate recovery of motor and proprioceptive deficits in limb-placing, cylinder and beam-walking tests. Analysis of rat cerebellar tissue extracts revealed that l-carnitine and GBB concentrations changed with mildronate treatment; the concentration of l-carnitine was significantly decreased by mildronate treatment, whereas the concentration of GBB was significantly increased. Cerebellar concentrations of mildronate also increased in a dose-dependent manner following systemic administration. Infarct size did not differ among the experimental groups on post-stroke day 14. The present study suggests that mildronate treatment improves the functional outcome in MCAO rats without influencing infarct size.

  8. Endovascular Management of Long-Segmental Petrocavernous Internal Carotid Artery (Carotid S) Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soonchan; Park, Eun Suk; Kwak, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Dong-Geun; Suh, Dae Chul; Kwon, Sun U.; Lee, Deok Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Long-segmental thrombotic occlusion of the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) sparing the cervical segment proximally and the supraclinoid segment distally, which could be termed ’Carotid S occlusion’, has an unusual clinical presentation. However, endovascular management of this lesion is challenging. The purpose of our study is to report our endovascular treatment clinical experience of the disease. Methods From March 2008 to June 2013, we could identify 14 patients (average age: 62.1, median age: 62, range: 50-79) with ‘Carotid S occlusion’, who underwent endovascular recanalization procedures. Patient’s clinical presentations were collected and the imaging findings also analyzed. The technical success rate, 24-hour and follow-up imaging outcome, and the clinical outcome using the 90-day mRS (modified Rankin scale) score were evaluated. Results Patients presented with gradually progressing (n = 8), fluctuating (n = 3), transient ischemic attack (n = 2) and stationary (n = 1) symptoms. DWI showed internal and external border-zone lesions in six patients, only internal ICA border-zone lesions in three patients, and only external border-zone lesions in two patients. Underlying distal ICA stenosis was noted in 12 patients. The technical success rate was 92.8% (13/14). Luminal patency was noted in all patients (100%) after 24 hours and in nine of 10 (90%) on long-term follow-up (median: 6.5, average: 15.1, range: 1-39 months). A 90-day, good functional outcome (mRS ≤ 2) was noted in 13 of 14 patients (92.8%). Conclusions ‘Carotid S occlusion’ usually presented with border-zone infarction and endovascular management of the lesions was feasible. A relatively successful clinical outcome could be achieved after successful revascularization. PMID:26437999

  9. Association of lower urinary tract syndrome with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Yu; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung; Wu, Hsi-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe atherosclerosis may lead to chronic bladder ischemia, eventually resulting in lower urinary tract syndrome (LUTS), and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). We investigated the association of LUTS with PAOD. Methods This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2010; follow-up lasted until the end of 2011. We identified patients with newly diagnosed LUTS by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Results In total, 36,042 and 36,042 patients were enrolled in LUTS and non-LUTS cohorts, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities, the risk of subsequent PAOD was 1.36-fold higher [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.26–1.46] in the LUTS cohort than in the non-LUTS cohort. The adjusted risk of PAOD was the highest in patients with LUTS without any comorbidity [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.54–2.41]. The age-specific relative risk of PAOD was significantly higher in all age groups, particularly in those aged <49 years (aHR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.39–2.34], in the LUTS cohort than in the non-LUTS cohort. Conclusion LUTS is a risk factor for PAOD. Physicians should consider the possibility of underlying PAOD in patients with LUTS aged <49 years and without cardiovascular comorbidities. Additional studies developing strategies for decreasing the risk of PAOD are warranted. PMID:28301517

  10. Loss of distal femur combined with popliteal artery occlusion: reconstructive arthroplasty using modular segmental endoprosthesis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shin-Taeg; Hwang, Chan-Ha; Kim, Bo-Hyeon; Sung, Byung-Yoon

    2009-04-01

    Severe injury to the knee and the surrounding area is frequently associated with injury to ligaments of the knee joint and structures in the popliteal fossa. This case involved a popliteal artery occlusion, severe bone loss of distal femur, loss of collateral ligaments, and extensor mechanism destruction of the knee. Initially, prompt recognition and correction of associated popliteal artery injury are important for good results after treatment. After successful revascularization, treatment for severe bone loss of distal femur and injury of the knee joint must be followed. We treated this case by delayed reconstruction using modular segmental endoprosthesis after revascularization of the popliteal artery. This allowed early ambulation. At 36 months after surgery, the patient had good circulation of the lower limb and was ambulating independently.

  11. Effects of BRL 38227, sodium nitroprusside and verapamil on collateral perfusion following acute arterial occlusion in the rabbit isolated ear.

    PubMed Central

    Randall, M. D.; Griffith, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    1. We have used an isolated, buffer-perfused, rabbit ear model of acute arterial occlusion to investigate the effects of the nitrovasodilator sodium nitroprusside, the potassium channel activator BRL 38227 (the active (-)-enantiomer of cromakalim) and the calcium antagonist, verapamil, on collateral perfusion in the absence of pharmacological tone. 2. Verapamil was the most potent vasodilator (EC50 = 72.6 +/- 32.0 nM) of 5-hydroxytryptamine/histamine-induced tone in the rabbit isolated perfused ear. Sodium nitroprusside and BRL 38227 were less potent with respective EC50 values of 488 +/- 75 nM and 296 +/- 40 nM. Following inhibition of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) synthesis, the potency of BRL 38227 was significantly (P less than 0.001) increased with an EC50 of 55.6 +/- 5.0 nM. 3. BRL 38227 at 500 nM and 3 microM induced substantial increases in collateral perfusion following arterial ligation in the absence of pharmacological tone compared to control. Furthermore 3 microM BRL 38227 completely reversed the attenuation of collateral perfusion which followed inhibition of EDRF synthesis with 100 microM NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). 4. Sodium nitroprusside (500 nM and 3 microM) induced modest improvements in collateral perfusion in the early stages after arterial occlusion. 5. Verapamil did not influence collateral perfusion at either of the concentrations used (50 nM and 3 microM), even though it was a potent vasodilator. 6. The results of this study indicate that BRL 38227, and to a much lesser extent sodium nitroprusside, selectively improve collateral perfusion following arterial occlusion, even in the presence of effects of EDRF on acute collateralization, while verapamil has no effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 PMID:1393264

  12. Acute Stroke and Obstruction of the Extracranial Carotid Artery Combined with Intracranial Tandem Occlusion: Results of Interventional Revascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Lescher, Stephanie Czeppan, Katja; Porto, Luciana; Singer, Oliver C.; Berkefeld, Joachim

    2015-04-15

    PurposeDue to high thrombus load, acute stroke patients with tandem obstructions of the extra- and intracranial carotid arteries or the middle cerebral artery show a very limited response to systemic thrombolysis. Interventional treatment with mechanical thrombectomy—often in combination with acute stenting of underlying atherosclerotic stenosis or dissection—is increasingly used. It has been shown that such complex interventions are technically feasible. The lack of optimal management strategies and clinical data encouraged us to review our acute stroke interventions in patient with anterior circulation tandem lesions to determine lesion patterns, interventional approaches, and angiographic or clinical outcomes.Patients and MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed a series of 39 consecutive patients with intracranial vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation simultaneously presenting with high-grade cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis or occlusion.ResultsEmergency ICA stent implantation was technically feasible in all patients, and intracranial recanalization with TICI ≥ 2b was reached in a large number of patients (64 %). Good clinical outcomes (mRS ≤ 2 at 3 months) were achieved in one third of the patients (36 %). Symptomatic hemorrhages occurred in four patients (10 %). Mortality was 10 %.ConclusionEndovascular recanalization of acute cervical carotid artery occlusion was technically feasible in all patients, and resulted in high extra- and intracranial revascularization rates. A trend for favorable clinical outcome was seen in a higher TICI score, younger age, good collateral status, and combined IV rTPA and endovascular therapy.

  13. OUTBACK catheter for treatment of superficial femoral and iliac artery chronic total occlusion: Experience from two centers

    PubMed Central

    Husainy, Mohammad Ali; Suresh, Balla; Fang, Cheng; Ammar, Thoraya; Botchu, Rajesh; Thava, V

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The OUTBACK® catheter is a reentry device that enables reentry into a vessel lumen from the subintimal space during subintimal angioplasty. It is reserved for cases where reentry has not been possible using conventional wire and catheter techniques. We report a two-center experience in recanalization of the chronic total occlusions of the common iliac (CIA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using the OUTBACK® catheter in cases where other techniques were unsuccessful. Material and Methods: All cases where recanalization was performed using the OUTBACK® reentry catheter between January 2010 to January 2015 were retrospectively identified and included in this study. 21 patients were identified. The indication for intervention in these cases included claudication and critical leg ischemia. In all cases, conventional recanalization could not be successfully achieved. Results: The OUTBACK® catheter was used to recanalize 10 SFA occlusion and 9 CIA occlusions. In 19 patients (90%), reentry into true arterial lumen was successfully achieved. 17 patients had their recanalization through the transfemoral approach whereas 2 patients had a transpopliteal artery approach. In 2 patients, reentry into the true lumen could not be achieved using the OUTBACK® catheter due to patient's intolerability for the procedure and severe atherosclerotic calcified plaques. There was 100% patency of the vessel intervened on Duplex ultrasound at 24 months of follow up. 16 patients (84%) remained asymptomatic and 2 patients (10.5%) reported worsening of their symptoms due to the development of new lesions within the arterial system. Conclusion: The OUTBACK® catheter is an effective and safe technique for reentry into the vessel lumen when conventional techniques fail. PMID:27413275

  14. Hemodynamic changes in a rat parietal cortex after endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion monitored by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Ma, Yushu; Dou, Shidan; Wang, Yi; La, Dongsheng; Liu, Jianghong; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-07-01

    A blockage of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) on the cortical branch will seriously affect the blood supply of the cerebral cortex. Real-time monitoring of MCA hemodynamic parameters is critical for therapy and rehabilitation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging modality that can produce not only structural images but also functional information on the tissue. We use OCT to detect hemodynamic changes after MCA branch occlusion. We injected a selected dose of endothelin-1 (ET-1) at a depth of 1 mm near the MCA and let the blood vessels follow a process first of occlusion and then of slow reperfusion as realistically as possible to simulate local cerebral ischemia. During this period, we used optical microangiography and Doppler OCT to obtain multiple hemodynamic MCA parameters. The change trend of these parameters from before to after ET-1 injection clearly reflects the dynamic regularity of the MCA. These results show the mechanism of the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion process after a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and confirm that OCT can be used to monitor hemodynamic parameters.

  15. Endovascular Management of Acute Embolic Occlusion of the Superior Mesenteric Artery: A 12-Year Single-Centre Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Raupach, J. Lojik, M. Chovanec, V. Renc, O.; Strýček, M.; Dvořák, P. Hoffmann, P.; Guňka, I. Ferko, A.; Ryška, P.; Omran, N.; Krajina, A. Čabelková, P.; Čermáková, E.; Malý, R.

    2016-02-15

    PurposeRetrospective evaluation of 12-year experience with endovascular management of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) due to embolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA).Materials and methodsFrom 2003 to 2014, we analysed the in-hospital mortality of 37 patients with acute mesenteric embolism who underwent primary endovascular therapy with subsequent on-demand laparotomy. Transcatheter embolus aspiration was used in all 37 patients (19 women, 18 men, median age 76 years) with embolic occlusion of the SMA. Adjunctive local thrombolysis (n = 2) and stenting (n = 2) were also utilised.ResultsWe achieved complete recanalization of the SMA stem in 91.9 %. One patient was successfully treated by surgical embolectomy due to a failed endovascular approach. Subsequent exploratory laparotomy was performed in 73.0 % (n = 27), and necrotic bowel resection in 40.5 %. The total in-hospital mortality was 27.0 %.ConclusionPrimary endovascular therapy for acute embolic SMA occlusion with on-demand laparotomy is a recommended algorithm used in our centre to treat SMA occlusion. This combined approach for the treatment of AMI is associated with in-hospital mortality rate of 27.0 %.

  16. Endovascular parent-artery occlusion of large or giant unruptured internal carotid artery aneurysms. A long-term single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kampei; Imamura, Hirotoshi; Mineharu, Yohei; Adachi, Hidemitsu; Sakai, Chiaki; Tani, Shoichi; Arimura, Koichi; Beppu, Mikiya; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2017-03-01

    The development of stent-like devices has increased treatment options for complex internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms, but the optimal treatment remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular parent-artery occlusion (PAO) for ICA aneurysms. We retrospectively reviewed 28 patients with unruptured ICA aneurysms ⩾10mm treated with PAO between April 2002 and March 2015 at our institution. Patients who developed neurologic symptoms or with venous-phase delay >2s during balloon test occlusion were not treated by PAO. Patients with venous-phase delays of 1-2s underwent superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass prior to PAO. The median patient age was 65 (range, 26-84)years. Nineteen aneurysms (68%) were located in the cavernous segment. The median aneurysm size was 25 (range 11-40)mm. Venous-phase delay of 1-2s was observed in five patients. Perioperative ischemic complications (N=9, 32%), which occurred within 30days after treatment, were significantly associated with venous-phase delays of 1-2s (p<0.01) and history of hypertension (p<0.01). Six-month morbidity was observed in one (3.6%) patient. Complete occlusion at final follow-up and delayed (i.e. ⩾31days after treatment) ischemic events were observed in 100% and 0% of patients, respectively, over a median period of 63 (range, 6-147) months. Despite the high frequency of perioperative ischemic episodes, endovascular PAO with selective use of STA-MCA bypass showed excellent long-term outcomes in patients with unruptured ICA aneurysms ⩾10mm.

  17. Performing Permanent Distal Middle Cerebral with Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats to Study Cortical Ischemia with Sustained Disability.

    PubMed

    Wayman, Christina; Duricki, Denise A; Roy, Lisa A; Haenzi, Barbara; Tsai, Shi-Yen; Kartje, Gwendolyn; Beech, John S; Cash, Diana; Moon, Lawrence

    2016-02-23

    Stroke typically occurs in elderly people with a range of comorbidities including carotid (or other arterial) atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, obesity and diabetes. Accordingly, when evaluating therapies for stroke in animals, it is important to select a model with excellent face validity. Ischemic stroke accounts for 80% of all strokes, and the majority of these occur in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), often inducing infarcts that affect the sensorimotor cortex, causing persistent plegia or paresis on the contralateral side of the body. We demonstrate in this video a method for producing ischemic stroke in elderly rats, which causes sustained sensorimotor disability and substantial cortical infarcts. Specifically, we induce permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in elderly female rats by using diathermy forceps to occlude a short segment of this artery. The carotid artery on the ipsilateral side to the lesion was then permanently occluded and the contralateral carotid artery was transiently occluded for 60 min. We measure the infarct size using structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 hr and 8 weeks after stroke. In this study, the mean infarct volume was 4.5% ± 2.0% (standard deviation) of the ipsilateral hemisphere at 24 hr (corrected for brain swelling using Gerriet's equation, n = 5). This model is feasible and clinically relevant as it permits the induction of sustained sensorimotor deficits, which is important for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms and novel treatments.

  18. Performing Permanent Distal Middle Cerebral with Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats to Study Cortical Ischemia with Sustained Disability

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Lisa A.; Haenzi, Barbara; Tsai, Shi-Yen; Kartje, Gwendolyn; Beech, John S.; Cash, Diana; Moon, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Stroke typically occurs in elderly people with a range of comorbidities including carotid (or other arterial) atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, obesity and diabetes. Accordingly, when evaluating therapies for stroke in animals, it is important to select a model with excellent face validity. Ischemic stroke accounts for 80% of all strokes, and the majority of these occur in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), often inducing infarcts that affect the sensorimotor cortex, causing persistent plegia or paresis on the contralateral side of the body. We demonstrate in this video a method for producing ischemic stroke in elderly rats, which causes sustained sensorimotor disability and substantial cortical infarcts. Specifically, we induce permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in elderly female rats by using diathermy forceps to occlude a short segment of this artery. The carotid artery on the ipsilateral side to the lesion was then permanently occluded and the contralateral carotid artery was transiently occluded for 60 min. We measure the infarct size using structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 hr and 8 weeks after stroke. In this study, the mean infarct volume was 4.5% ± 2.0% (standard deviation) of the ipsilateral hemisphere at 24 hr (corrected for brain swelling using Gerriet’s equation, n = 5). This model is feasible and clinically relevant as it permits the induction of sustained sensorimotor deficits, which is important for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms and novel treatments. PMID:26967269

  19. TRPA1 mediates amplified sympathetic responsiveness to activation of metabolically sensitive muscle afferents in rats with femoral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic responses to activation of mechanically and metabolically sensitive muscle afferent nerves during static contraction are augmented in rats with femoral artery occlusion. Moreover, metabolically sensitive transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) has been reported to contribute to sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (BP) responses evoked by static muscle contraction. Thus, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms by which afferent nerves' TRPA1 plays a role in regulating amplified sympathetic responsiveness due to a restriction of blood flow directed to the hindlimb muscles. Our data show that 24-72 h of femoral artery occlusion (1) upregulates the protein levels of TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tissues; (2) selectively increases expression of TRPA1 in DRG neurons supplying metabolically sensitive afferent nerves of C-fiber (group IV); and (3) enhances renal SNA and BP responses to AITC (a TRPA1 agonist) injected into the hindlimb muscles. In addition, our data demonstrate that blocking TRPA1 attenuates SNA and BP responses during muscle contraction to a greater degree in ligated rats than those responses in control rats. In contrast, blocking TRPA1 fails to attenuate SNA and BP responses during passive tendon stretch in both groups. Overall, results of this study indicate that alternations in muscle afferent nerves' TRPA1 likely contribute to enhanced sympathetically mediated autonomic responses via the metabolic component of the muscle reflex under circumstances of chronic muscle ischemia.

  20. TRPA1 mediates amplified sympathetic responsiveness to activation of metabolically sensitive muscle afferents in rats with femoral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic responses to activation of mechanically and metabolically sensitive muscle afferent nerves during static contraction are augmented in rats with femoral artery occlusion. Moreover, metabolically sensitive transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) has been reported to contribute to sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial blood pressure (BP) responses evoked by static muscle contraction. Thus, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms by which afferent nerves' TRPA1 plays a role in regulating amplified sympathetic responsiveness due to a restriction of blood flow directed to the hindlimb muscles. Our data show that 24–72 h of femoral artery occlusion (1) upregulates the protein levels of TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tissues; (2) selectively increases expression of TRPA1 in DRG neurons supplying metabolically sensitive afferent nerves of C-fiber (group IV); and (3) enhances renal SNA and BP responses to AITC (a TRPA1 agonist) injected into the hindlimb muscles. In addition, our data demonstrate that blocking TRPA1 attenuates SNA and BP responses during muscle contraction to a greater degree in ligated rats than those responses in control rats. In contrast, blocking TRPA1 fails to attenuate SNA and BP responses during passive tendon stretch in both groups. Overall, results of this study indicate that alternations in muscle afferent nerves' TRPA1 likely contribute to enhanced sympathetically mediated autonomic responses via the metabolic component of the muscle reflex under circumstances of chronic muscle ischemia. PMID:26441669

  1. Vascular growth responses to chronic arterial occlusion are unaffected by myeloid specific focal adhesion kinase (FAK) deletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuslein, Joshua L.; Murrell, Kelsey P.; Leiphart, Ryan J.; Llewellyn, Ryan A.; Meisner, Joshua K.; Price, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    Arteriogenesis, or the lumenal expansion of pre-existing arterioles in the presence of an upstream occlusion, is a fundamental vascular growth response. Though alterations in shear stress stimulate arteriogenesis, the migration of monocytes into the perivascular space surrounding collateral arteries and their differentiation into macrophages is critical for this vascular growth response to occur. Focal adhesion kinase’s (FAK) role in regulating cell migration has recently been expanded to primary macrophages. We therefore investigated the effect of the myeloid-specific conditional deletion of FAK on vascular remodeling in the mouse femoral arterial ligation (FAL) model. Using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, whole mount imaging of vascular casted gracilis muscles, and immunostaining for CD31 in gastrocnemius muscles cross-sections, we found that there were no statistical differences in perfusion recovery, arteriogenesis, or angiogenesis 28 days after FAL. We therefore sought to determine FAK expression in different myeloid cell populations. We found that FAK is expressed at equally low levels in Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo blood monocytes, however expression is increased over 2-fold in bone marrow derived macrophages. Ultimately, these results suggest that FAK is not required for monocyte migration to the perivascular space and that vascular remodeling following arterial occlusion occurs independently of myeloid specific FAK.

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopy and transcranial sonography to evaluate cerebral autoregulation in middle cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Oldag, Andreas; Neumann, Jens; Goertler, Michael; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Kupsch, Andreas; Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Kopitzki, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of autoregulatory delay by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been proposed as an alternative technique to assess cerebral autoregulation, which is routinely assessed via transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) in most centers. Comparitive studies of NIRS and TCD, however, are largely missing. We investigated whether cerebrovascular reserve (CVR), as assessed via TCD, correlates with the delay of the autoregulatory response to changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP) as assessed by NIRS, i.e., if impaired upstream vasomotor reactivity is reflected by downstream cortical autoregulation. Twenty patients with unilateral high-grade steno-occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) underwent bilateral multichannel NIRS of the cortical MCA distributions over a period of 6 min while breathing at a constant rate of 6 cycles/min to induce stable oscillations in ABP. The phase shift φ between ABP and cortical blood oxygenation was calculated as a measure of autoregulatory latency. In a subgroup of 13 patients, CO2 reactivity of the MCAs was determined by TCD to assess CVR in terms of normalized autoregulatory response (NAR). Mean phase shift between ABP and blood oxygenation was significantly increased over the hemisphere ipsilateral to the steno-occlusion (n = 20, p = 0.042). The interhemispheric difference Δφ in phase shift was significantly larger in patients with markedly diminished or exhausted CVR (NAR < 10) than in patients with normal NAR values (NAR ≥ 10) (p = 0.007). Within the MCA core distribution territory, a strong correlation existed between Δφ and CO2 reactivity of the affected MCA (n = 13, r = -0.78, p = 0.011). NIRS may provide an alternative or supplementary approach to evaluate cerebral autoregulation in risk assessment of ischemic events in steno-occlusive disease of cerebral arteries, especially in patients with insufficient bone windows for TCD.

  3. The transient intraluminal filament middle cerebral artery occlusion model as a model of endovascular thrombectomy in stroke.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Brad A; Neuhaus, Ain A; Couch, Yvonne; Balami, Joyce S; DeLuca, Gabriele C; Hadley, Gina; Harris, Scarlett L; Grey, Adam N; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-02-01

    The clinical relevance of the transient intraluminal filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) has been questioned due to distinct cerebral blood flow profiles upon reperfusion between tMCAO (abrupt reperfusion) and alteplase treatment (gradual reperfusion), resulting in differing pathophysiologies. Positive results from recent endovascular thrombectomy trials, where the occluding clot is mechanically removed, could revolutionize stroke treatment. The rapid cerebral blood flow restoration in both tMCAO and endovascular thrombectomy provides clinical relevance for this pre-clinical model. Any future clinical trials of neuroprotective agents as adjuncts to endovascular thrombectomy should consider tMCAO as the model of choice to determine pre-clinical efficacy.

  4. Main Trunk and Division Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusions: Differences in Recanalization Times, Number of Stent Retriever Passes and Clinical Outcomes: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Ihtesham A.; Maud, Alberto; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Rodriguez, Gustavo J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose In this article, we present our experience with the recanalization of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), we hypothesize that there are higher rates of recanalization with fewer stent retriever passes and better clinical outcomes in patients with division MCA occlusions. A more complex anatomy at the bifurcation may prevent a faster recanalization in main trunk MCA occlusions. Methods We retrospectively identified consecutive patients admitted with MCA occlusions who underwent mechanical thrombectomy using stent retrievers. We categorized patients into division MCA and main trunk MCA occlusions based on angiography. Variables were compared between the groups. We further analyzed patients with trunk MCA occlusions to identify reasons for delays in recanalization. Results There were 32 MCA occlusions that underwent mechanical thrombectomy and eligible for the analysis during the study period. Of those, 11 were main trunk MCA occlusions. Univariate analysis disclosed a trend toward a lower GP-to-recanalization time (p = 0.05) and a lower number of passes required for recanalization in division MCA occlusions. However, there was a significantly better outcome in patients with division MCA occlusion after multivariate analysis. Analyzing main trunk MCA occlusion data, we found that the need for more than one pass to achieve recanalization led to a trend toward a longer GP-to-recanalization time and a worse outcome. When the stent was placed in the dominant division, the chances of recanalization were significantly higher. Conclusions Division MCA occlusions have higher recanalization rates with fewer stent retriever passes and better clinical outcomes than main trunk MCA occlusions, likely due to a more favorable anatomy. Measures like placing the stent retriever in the dominant division may decrease recanalization times and improve clinical outcomes in main trunk MCA occlusions. PMID:27051403

  5. The Use of Below-Knee Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Arterial Occlusive Disease Causing Chronic Critical Limb Ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Loefberg, Ann-Marie; Loerelius, Lars-Erik; Karacagil, Sadettin; Westman, Bo; Almgren, Bo; Berqgvist, David

    1996-09-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy, safety and long-term results of crural artery percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in limbs with chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI). Methods: Patients undergoing crural artery PTA due to CLI were followed at regular clinic visits with ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) measurements. PTA of the crural arteries was attempted either alone (n= 39) or in combination with PTA of the superficial and/or popliteal artery (n= 55) in 86 limbs (82 patients and 94 procedures) presenting with CLI. The ages of patients ranged from 37 to 94 years (mean 72 years). The indications for PTA were rest pain in 10 and ulcer/gangrene in 84 limbs.Results: A technically successful PTA with at least one crural level was achieved in 88% of cases (n= 83). Cumulative primary clinical success rates at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months were 55%, 51%, 36%, and 36%, respectively. Cumulative secondary clinical success and limb salvage rates at 36 months were 44% and 72%, respectively. Conclusion: PTA of the crural arteries might be considered the primary choice of treatment in patients with CLI and distal lesions with localized stenosis or segmental short occlusions.

  6. A modification of intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model for ischemic stroke with laser Doppler flowmetry guidance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qiang; Xu, Gang; Liu, Junhui; Wang, Long; Deng, Gang; Liu, Jun; Chen, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the common causes of death and disability in the world. The intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) model is a “gold standard” in surgical ischemic stroke models. Here, we optimized the procedure of this model by ligating on external carotid artery (ECA) stump and two ligatures prepared on internal carotid artery, which could improve the success and survival rate in mice. The results show that ECA approach was superior to common carotid artery approach. Meanwhile, we found that the exposure of pterygopalatine artery was not an essential step for MCAO/R model in mice. PMID:27843320

  7. Upper limb artery segmental occlusions due to chronic use of ergotamine combined with itraconazole, treated by thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The ergotamine tartrate associated with certain categories of drugs can lead to critical ischemia of the extremities. Discontinuation of taking ergotamine is usually sufficient for the total regression of ischemia, but in some cases it could be necessary thrombolytic and anticoagulant therapy to avoid amputation. Case report A woman of 62 years presented with a severe pain left forearm appeared 10 days ago, with a worsening trend. The same symptoms appeared after 5 days also in the right forearm. Physical examination showed the right arm slightly hypothermic, with radial reduced pulse in presence of reduced sensitivity. The left arm was frankly hypothermic, pulse less on radial and with an ulnar humeral reduced pulse, associated to a decreased sensitivity and motility. Clinical history shows a chronic headache for which the patient took a daily basis for years Cafergot suppository (equivalent to 3.2 mg of ergotamine). From about ten days had begun therapy with itraconazole for vaginal candidiasis. The Color-Doppler ultrasound shown arterial thrombosis of the upper limbs (humeral and radial bilateral), with minimal residual flow to the right and no signal on the humeral and radial left artery. Results Angiography revealed progressive reduction in size of the axillary artery and right humeral artery stenosis with right segmental occlusions and multiple hypertrophic collateral circulations at the elbow joint. At the level of the right forearm was recognizable only the radial artery, decreased in size. Does not recognize the ulnar, interosseous artery was thin. To the left showed progressive reduction in size of the distal subclavian and humeral artery, determined by multiple segmental steno-occlusion with collateral vessels serving only a thin hypotrophic interosseous artery. Arteriographic findings were compatible with systemic drug-induced disease. The immediate implementation of thrombolysis, continued for 26 hours, with heparin in continuous intravenous

  8. Augmented P2X response and immunolabeling in dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating skeletal muscle following femoral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua

    2013-04-01

    The responsiveness of sensory neurons to muscle metabolites is altered under the conditions of insufficient limb blood supply in some diseases, such as peripheral artery disease. The purpose of this study was to examine ATP-induced current with activation of purinergic P2X subtypes P2X₃ and P2X₂/₃ in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of control limbs and limbs with 24 h of femoral artery occlusion using whole cell patch-clamp methods. Also, dual-labeling immunohistochemistry was employed to determine existence of P2X₃ expression in DRG neurons of thin-fiber afferents. DRG neurons from 4- to 6-wk-old rats were labeled by injecting the fluorescence tracer DiI into the hindlimb muscles 4-5 days before the recording experiments. Transient (P2X₃), mixed (P2X₃ and P2X₂/₃), and sustained (P2X₂/₃) current responses to α,β-methylene ATP (a P2X receptor agonist) are observed in small and medium DRG neurons, and size distribution of DRG neurons is similar in control and occluded limbs. However, the peak current amplitude of DRG neuron induced by stimulation of P2X₃ and/or P2X₂/₃ is larger in occluded limbs than that in control limbs. Moreover, the percentage of DRG neurons with P2X₃ transient currents is greater after arterial occlusion compared with control. In addition, a rapid desensitization was observed in DRG neurons with transient currents, but not with sustained currents in control and occluded groups. Furthermore, results from immunofluorescence experiments show that femoral artery occlusion primarily augments P2X₃ expression within DRG neurons projecting C-fiber afferents. Overall, these findings suggest that 1) greater ATP-induced currents with activation of P2X₃ and P2X₂/₃ are developed when hindlimb arterial blood supply is deficient under ischemic conditions and 2) increased P2X₃ expression is largely observed in C-fibers of DRG neurons after hindlimb vascular insufficiency.

  9. Acid-sensing ion channel subtype 3 function and immunolabelling increases in skeletal muscle sensory neurons following femoral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jihong; Lu, Jian; Li, Jianhua

    2012-03-01

    Sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure responses to static hindlimb muscle contractions are greater in rats with femoral arteries that were previously ligated (24-72 h earlier) than in control rats. Studies further demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel subtype 3 (ASIC(3)) in thin-fibre muscle afferents contributes to the amplified reflex muscle responses observed in occluded rats, probably due to enhanced ASIC(3) expression in muscle sensory neurons. The purpose of this study was to characterize acid-induced current with activation of ASIC(3) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of control rats and rats with 24 h of femoral occlusion using whole-cell patch clamp methods. Also, immunohistochemistry was employed to examine existence of ASIC(3) expression in DRG neurons of thin-fibre afferents. DRG neurons from 4- to 6-week-old rats were labelled by injecting the fluorescence tracer DiI into the hindlimb muscles 4-5 days prior to the recording experiments. The results of this study show that ∼90% of current responses evoked by pH 6.7 in DRG neurons innervating the hindlimb muscles are ASIC(3)-like. The peak current amplitude to pH 6.7 is significantly attenuated with application of rAPETx2, a specific ASIC(3) antagonist. In addition, ASIC(3)-like current responses to pH 6.7 are observed in small, medium and large DRG neurons, and size distribution of DRG neurons is similar in control and occluded animals. However, the peak current amplitude of DRG neuron response induced by ASIC(3) stimulation is larger in occluded rats than that in control rats. Moreover, the percentage of DRG neurons with ASIC(3)-like currents is greater after arterial occlusion compared with control. Furthermore, results from double immunofluorescence experiments show that femoral artery occlusion mainly augments ASIC(3) expression within DRG neurons projecting C-fibre afferents. Taken together, these data suggest that (1) the majority of current responses to pH 6.7 are ASIC

  10. The Effect of Chronic Hypoxemia on Regional Myocardial Blood Flow in the Conscious Dog After Acute Coronary Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Sanford P.; White, Francis C.; Bloor, Colin M.

    1977-01-01

    Chronic hypoxemia was produced in 16 dogs by surgical transposition of the caudal vena cava to the left atrium to determine if chronic hypoxemia would alter the response of the myocardium to acute ischemia. An electromagnetic aortic flow probe, left atrial tube, and occlusive cuff on the left circumflex coronary artery were permanently implanted in 11 hypoxemic and 26 normal control dogs. The animals were studied in the conscious state after recovery from the surgery. Dogs with hypoxemia had a blood hematocrit value of 54.3 ± 1.0% (SE), arterial PO2 of 43.2 ± 1.4 mm Hg, and 80.2 ± 1.6% oxygen saturation. There was no difference from control animals in the ratio of left ventricular weight to body weight, but the right ventricular weight was significantly decreased in the hypoxemic dogs. Cardiac output from the left ventricle was twice that of the right ventricle. Aortic blood flow was 3.68 ± 0.22 liters/min in hypoxemic animals and 2.64 ± 0.19 liters/min in normal dogs. Myocardial blood flow measured with 15-μ diameter tracer microspheres was increased from 79 ± 10 and 59 ± 8 ml/100 g/min in left ventricular endocardial and epicardial halves, respectively, in normal dogs to 212 ± 48 and 172 ± 39 in dogs with chronic hypoxemia. There were no deaths in 10 hypoxemic dogs within 24 hours after complete circumflex coronary artery occlusion; 7 of 26 (27%) normal dogs died after circumflex coronary artery occlusion during the conscious state. Gross infarct size was extremely variable in both groups. Median infarct size was smaller in dogs with hypoxemia and was directly correlated with arterial PO2 in hypoxemic dogs. There was a mild, but statistically not significant, increase in the anastomotic index of hypoxemic dogs compared with that of normal animals, suggesting that a metabolic adaptive change rather than increased collateral circulation may have been responsible for the decreased mortality and smaller infarct size in hypoxemic dogs. PMID:596417

  11. Endovascular Treatment of Common Iliac Occlusion in the Presence of Persistent Sciatic Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Mofidi, R. Macaskill, E. J.; Griffiths, G. D.; Chakraverty, S.

    2008-07-15

    Persistent sciatic artery is a rare congenital anomaly. It is associated with increased incidence of aneurysmal dilatation, thrombosis, distal embolization, and atherosclerotic change. We describe the case of a patient with persistent sciatic artery who presented with a critically ischemic left leg as a result of an occluded left common iliac artery, which was treated by angioplasty and stenting, and discuss the endovascular iliac recanalization in the presence of a persistent sciatic artery.

  12. Inferior Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysms Associated with Occlusive Lesions of the Celiac Axis: Diagnosis, Treatment Options, Outcomes, and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Flood, Karen Nicholson, Anthony A.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To describe the presentation, treatment, and outcomes for 14 patients with aneurysms of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries associated with occlusive lesions of the celiac axis, and to review the literature for similar cases. Methods, Over a period of 12 years, 14 patients (10 women and 4 men) ranging in age from 26 to 50 (mean 46) years were demonstrated to have aneurysms of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery origin associated with stenosis or occlusion of the celiac axis. All patients were treated by a combination of surgery and interventional radiology. Results. Outcome data collected between 3 months and 4 years (mean 2 years) demonstrated that all aneurysms remained excluded, and all 14 patients were well. The 49 case reports in the literature confirm the findings of this cohort. Conclusion. In inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm resulting from celiac occlusive disease, endovascular treatment is best achieved by stenting the celiac axis and/or embolizing the aneurysm when necessary.

  13. The Results of a New Distal Protection Method in Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion of the Superficial Femoral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Funatsu, Atsushi; Ejima, Emiko; Muranishi, Hiromi; Utsunomiya, Makoto; Shibata, Kensaku; Mizobuchi, Masahiro; Enjoji, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    Aims. To determine the efficacy of a new distal protection method in SFA CTO interventions. Methods and Results. From June 2003 to February 2009, ninety-two consecutive, chronic total occlusions of superficial femoral arteries were treated with catheter-based intervention using a bidirectional approach. Nine of these cases were managed with our original, distal protection method, based on symptoms, angiographic images, wire resistance, and intravascular ultrasound images. The average age was 73 years; eight patients were male. The mean occlusion length was 17.1 cm. A distal protection balloon was inserted from the retrograde sheath in the popliteal artery and placed distal to the occluded lesion after successful wire crossing. Lesion dilatation with a balloon was performed antegradely and debris was removed by 6Fr. guiding catheter. Debris was retrieved from all lesions, consisting mainly of thrombus. Where we decided not to use the distal protection method, there was no distal thromboembolism. Conclusion. In SFA-CTO intervention, the risk of distal embolization is 10%, which can be anticipated and eliminated by the distal protection method. PMID:19946634

  14. Fermented soybeans, Chungkookjang, prevent hippocampal cell death and β-cell apoptosis by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines in gerbils with transient artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Moon, Bo Reum

    2015-01-01

    Since Chungkookjang, a short-term fermented soybean, is known to improve glucose metabolism and antioxidant activity, it may prevent the neurological symptoms and glucose disturbance induced by artery occlusion. We investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of traditional (TFC) and standardized Chungkookjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (BLFC) against ischemia/reperfusion damage in the hippocampal CA1 region and against hyperglycemia after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. Gerbils were subjected to either an occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries for 8 min to render them ischemic or a sham operation. Ischemic gerbils were fed either a 40% fat diet containing 10% of either cooked soybean (CSB), TFC, or BLFC for 28 days. Neuronal cell death and cytokine expression in the hippocampus, neurological deficit, serum cytokine levels, and glucose metabolism were measured. TFC and BLFC contained more isoflavonoid aglycones than CSB. Artery occlusion increased the expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α as well as cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and induced severe neurological symptoms. CSB, TFC, and BLFC prevented the neuronal cell death and the symptoms such as dropped eyelid, bristling hair, reduced muscle tone and flexor reflex, and abnormal posture and walking patterns, and suppressed cytokine expressions. CSB was less effective than TFC and BLFC. Artery occlusion induced glucose intolerance due to decreased insulin secretion and β-cell mass. TFC and BLFC prevented the impairment of glucose metabolism by artery occlusion. Especially TFC and BLFC increased β-cell proliferation and suppressed the β-cell apoptosis by suppressing TNF-α and IL-1β which in turn decreased cleaved caspase-3 that caused apoptosis. In conclusion, TFC and BLFC may prevent and alleviate neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and neurological symptoms and poststroke hyperglycemia in gerbils with artery occlusion. This might be associated with

  15. Fermented soybeans, Chungkookjang, prevent hippocampal cell death and β-cell apoptosis by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines in gerbils with transient artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Sunna; Moon, Bo Reum

    2016-02-01

    Since Chungkookjang, a short-term fermented soybean, is known to improve glucose metabolism and antioxidant activity, it may prevent the neurological symptoms and glucose disturbance induced by artery occlusion. We investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of traditional (TFC) and standardized Chungkookjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (BLFC) against ischemia/reperfusion damage in the hippocampal CA1 region and against hyperglycemia after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. Gerbils were subjected to either an occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries for 8 min to render them ischemic or a sham operation. Ischemic gerbils were fed either a 40% fat diet containing 10% of either cooked soybean (CSB), TFC, or BLFC for 28 days. Neuronal cell death and cytokine expression in the hippocampus, neurological deficit, serum cytokine levels, and glucose metabolism were measured. TFC and BLFC contained more isoflavonoid aglycones than CSB. Artery occlusion increased the expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α as well as cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and induced severe neurological symptoms. CSB, TFC, and BLFC prevented the neuronal cell death and the symptoms such as dropped eyelid, bristling hair, reduced muscle tone and flexor reflex, and abnormal posture and walking patterns, and suppressed cytokine expressions. CSB was less effective than TFC and BLFC. Artery occlusion induced glucose intolerance due to decreased insulin secretion and β-cell mass. TFC and BLFC prevented the impairment of glucose metabolism by artery occlusion. Especially TFC and BLFC increased β-cell proliferation and suppressed the β-cell apoptosis by suppressing TNF-α and IL-1β which in turn decreased cleaved caspase-3 that caused apoptosis. In conclusion, TFC and BLFC may prevent and alleviate neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and neurological symptoms and poststroke hyperglycemia in gerbils with artery occlusion. This might be associated with

  16. Electrophysiological monitoring during preoperative angiography to guide decisions regarding permanent occlusion of major radicular arteries in patients undergoing total en bloc spondylectomy.

    PubMed

    Salame, Khalil; Maimon, Shimon; Regev, Gilad J; Kimchi, Tali Jonas; Korn, Akiva; Mangel, Laurence; Lidar, Zvi

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Preoperative embolization is performed before spine tumor surgery when significant intraoperative hemorrhage is anticipated. Occlusion of radicular and segmental arteries may result in spinal ischemia. The goal of this study was to check whether neurophysiological monitoring during preoperative angiography in patients scheduled for total en bloc spondylectomy (TES) of spine tumors improves the safety of vessel occlusion. METHODS This was a case series study of patients who underwent tumor embolization under somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) and motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring in preparation for TES in treating spine tumors. The angiography findings, the embolized vessels, and the results are presented. RESULTS Five patients whose ages ranged from 33 to 75 years and who had thoracic spine tumors are reported. Four patients suffered from primary tumor and 1 patient had a metastatic tumor. Radicular arteries at the tumor level, 1 level above, and 1 level below were permanently occluded when SSEPs and MEPs were preserved during temporary occlusion. No complications were encountered during or after the angiography procedure and embolization. CONCLUSIONS Temporary occlusion with electrophysiological monitoring during preoperative angiography may improve the safety of permanent radicular artery occlusion, including the artery of Adamkiewicz in patients undergoing TES for the treatment of spine tumors.

  17. Optic nerve fast axonal transport abnormalities in primates. Occurrence after short posterior ciliary artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L

    1980-11-01

    Fast axonal transport abnormalities in primate (Aotus trivirgatus) optic nerve were studied in ten eyes at various intervals after occlusion of the lateral short posterior ciliary circulation. Evidence of focal axonal ischemia, as indicated by swelling of mitochondria and dissolution of cytoplasmic detail, was noted as early as one hour after occlusion. Accumulation of mitochondria, microvesicles, and dense bodies, indicating focal interruption of axonal transport mechanisms, was noted in eyes examined at 2, 4, and 6 hours. This accumulation of organelles was limited to the region of the lamina cribrosa. Nerve head abnormalities were not seen in two eyes studied at two weeks.

  18. Magnetic resonance markers of ischaemia: their correlation with vasodilatory reserve in patients with carotid artery stenosis and occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Lythgoe, D; Simmons, A; Pereira, A; Cullinane, M; Williams, S; Markus, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Better methods of identifying patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis who are at high risk of stroke are required. It has been suggested that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may allow the identification of ongoing ischaemia in this patient group by the detection of a potentially reversible reduction of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), a presumed marker of neuronal integrity, and the presence of lactate, a marker of anaerobic metabolism. Previous studies have reported metabolite ratios rather than absolute concentrations. This study was performed to determine if NAA was reduced ipsilateral to carotid stenosis or occlusion, and if its concentration was related to carbon dioxide reactivity, a marker of cerebrovascular reserve.
METHODS— Twenty one patients with unilateral carotid stenosis (>70%) or occlusion were studied. Single voxel proton MRS was performed in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres, with the voxel positioned in the arterial borderzone region between the middle and anterior cerebral artery territories. Absolute quantification of metabolite concentrations was performed. Cerebrovascular reactivity to 6% carbon dioxide was determined in both middle cerebral artery territories using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography.
RESULTS—Mean (SD) cerebrovascular reactivity was significantly lower in the stenosed compared with the contralateral hemisphere (13.3(7.7) v 19.2 (8.2)%/kPa, p=0.002). There were no significant differences in the absolute concentrations of NAA, choline, or creatine between the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres (for example, NAA 10.1 (1.1) v 10.5 (1.1) mmol/l, p=0.1). No lactate peak was seen in any spectra. For each metabolite measured, there was no correlation between the absolute concentration and cerebrovascular reactivity for either hemisphere.
CONCLUSIONS—In patients with carotid stenosis and occlusion we found no evidence that chronic hypoperfusion is associated with a

  19. An unusual case of multiple aortic abnormalities: total occlusion of aortic arch, left external iliac artery, and bicuspid aortic valve in a 21-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Tanindi, Asli; Tavil, Yusuf; Mutluay, Ruya; Taktak, Hacer; Cengel, Atiye

    2007-03-01

    An unusual case of total occlusion of aorta just distal to the left subclavian artery, bicuspid aortic valve, and occluded left external iliac artery in a 21-year-old man who was admitted with headache and severe hypertension is presented. We wish to report this case because so far there have been none reported with such multiple aortic abnormalities, although several documented cases of isolated total occlusion of aorta exist. Our patient underwent a successful surgical correction, i.e., patch plasty to the coarcted segment and end to side - end to side aortal-aortal bypass with Dacron graft.

  20. Neuroprotective effect of lercanidipine in middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sangeetha; Sharma, Uma; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptotic neuronal cell death are cardinal mechanisms involved in the cascade of acute ischemic stroke. Lercanidipine apart from calcium channel blocking activity possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. In the present study, we investigated neuroprotective efficacy and therapeutic time window of lercanidipine in a 2h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) model in male Wistar rats. The study design included: acute (pre-treatment and post-treatment) and sub-acute studies. In acute studies (pre-treatment) lercanidipine (0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 60min prior MCAo. The rats were assessed 24h post-MCAo for neurological deficit score (NDS), motor deficit paradigms (grip test and rota rod) and cerebral infarction via 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The most effective dose was found to be at 0.5mg/kg, i.p., which was considered for further studies. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was monitored till 120min post-reperfusion to assess vasodilatory property of lercanidipine (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) administered at two different time points: 60min post-MCAo and 15min post-reperfusion. In acute studies (post-treatment) lercanidipine (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 15min, 120min and 240min post-reperfusion. Based on NDS and cerebral infarction via TTC staining assessed 24h post-MCAo, effectiveness was evident upto 120min. For sub-acute studies same dose/vehicle was repeated for next 3days and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed 96h after the last dose. Biochemical markers estimated in rat brain cortex 24h post-MCAo were oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase), blood brain barrier damage (matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9) and apoptotic (caspase-3 and -9). Lercanidipine significantly reduced NDS, motor deficits and cerebral infarction volume as compared to the control group. Lercanidipine (60min post

  1. Treatment of Angio-Seal® Vascular Closure Device-Induced Acute Femoral Artery Occlusion with SilverHawk® Directional Atherectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rishi; Vamanan, Karthik

    2016-01-01

    Vascular closure devices provide a safe and cost-effective method to achieve rapid hemostasis and early ambulation after angiographic procedures. Rarely, they can result in arterial injury with resultant stenosis or acute arterial closure requiring open surgical intervention. We report an Angio-Seal® vascular closure device-induced acute arterial closure successfully treated percutaneously with the SilverHawk® plaque excision system. This report discusses the possible mechanisms of Angio-Seal® induced arterial occlusion and various percutaneous options for treatment. PMID:28083454

  2. Transarterial regional hypothermia provides robust neuroprotection in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion with transient collateral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Kurisu, Kota; Abumiya, Takeo; Ito, Masaki; Gekka, Masayuki; Osanai, Toshiya; Shichinohe, Hideo; Nakayama, Naoki; Kazumata, Ken; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2016-11-15

    The robust neuroprotective effects of transarterial regional hypothermia have been demonstrated in the typical transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model, but have not yet been tested in other ischemic stroke models, even though clinical ischemic conditions are diverse. In order to clarify these effects in a different ischemic stroke model, we employed a rat model of permanent MCAO (pMCAO) with transient collateral hypoperfusion (tCHP), which was achieved by direct MCA ligation through craniotomy and 1-h bilateral common carotid artery occlusion at the beginning of pMCAO. The infusion of 20ml/kg of 4°C cold saline (CS) or 37°C warm saline (WS) into the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) was performed for 15min in intra- or post-tCHP. Neurological scores, infarct/edema volumes, and neuronal apoptosis and reactive gliosis were compared between the CS and WS groups and a non-infusion control group after 48h of reperfusion. Although brain temperatures were only reduced by 2-3°C for 15min, the CS group had significantly better neurological scores, smaller infarct/edema volumes, and less penumbral neuronal apoptosis and reactive gliosis than the control and WS groups. The post-tCHP CS group exhibited prominent neuroprotective effects, even though infarct volumes and neuronal apoptosis were reduced less than those in the intra-tCHP CS group. In conclusion, we demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of transarterial regional hypothermia in an ischemic model of pMCAO with tCHP. Even though MCAO is persistent, cold infusion via the ICA is neuroprotective for the penumbra, suggesting the wider therapeutic application of this therapy.

  3. Bilateral Superior Cerebellar Artery Embolic Occlusion with a Fetal-Type Posterior Cerebral Artery Providing Collateral Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Taylor J.; Saporito, Rachael C.; Hope, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral infarction of the superior cerebellar arteries with sparing of the rest of the posterior circulation, particularly the posterior cerebral arteries, is an uncommon finding in neurological practice. Most commonly, the deficits of the superior cerebellar arteries and posterior cerebral arteries occur together due to the close proximity of their origins at the top of the basilar artery. A patient was transferred to the neurological intensive care unit with a history of recent-onset falls from standing, profound hypertension, dizziness, and headaches. The neurological exam revealed cerebellar signs, including dysmetria of the right upper extremity and a decreased level of consciousness. Computed tomography of the head and neck revealed decreased attenuation throughout most of the cerebellar hemispheres suggestive of ischemic injury with sparing of the rest of the brain. Further investigation with a computed tomography angiogram revealed a fetal-type posterior cerebral artery on the right side that was providing collateral circulation to the posterior brain. Due to this embryological anomaly, the patient was spared significant morbidity and mortality that would have likely occurred had the circulation been more typical of an adult male. PMID:28203181

  4. Bilateral Superior Cerebellar Artery Embolic Occlusion with a Fetal-Type Posterior Cerebral Artery Providing Collateral Circulation.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Taylor J; Saporito, Rachael C; Hope, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral infarction of the superior cerebellar arteries with sparing of the rest of the posterior circulation, particularly the posterior cerebral arteries, is an uncommon finding in neurological practice. Most commonly, the deficits of the superior cerebellar arteries and posterior cerebral arteries occur together due to the close proximity of their origins at the top of the basilar artery. A patient was transferred to the neurological intensive care unit with a history of recent-onset falls from standing, profound hypertension, dizziness, and headaches. The neurological exam revealed cerebellar signs, including dysmetria of the right upper extremity and a decreased level of consciousness. Computed tomography of the head and neck revealed decreased attenuation throughout most of the cerebellar hemispheres suggestive of ischemic injury with sparing of the rest of the brain. Further investigation with a computed tomography angiogram revealed a fetal-type posterior cerebral artery on the right side that was providing collateral circulation to the posterior brain. Due to this embryological anomaly, the patient was spared significant morbidity and mortality that would have likely occurred had the circulation been more typical of an adult male.

  5. Long-term beneficial effects of BW619C89 on neurological deficit, cognitive deficit and brain damage after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Smith, S E; Hodges, H; Sowinski, P; Man, C M; Leach, M J; Sinden, J D; Gray, J A; Meldrum, B S

    1997-04-01

    4-Amino-2-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-5-(2,3,5-trichlorophenyl)pyrimidine (BW619C89) is a sodium channel antagonist which when administered parenterally reduces neurological deficit and infarct volume after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. We have investigated whether BW619C89 administered orally before middle cerebral artery occlusion is cerebroprotective when rats are assessed at one day after stroke, and whether cerebroprotection is long lasting and related to functional recovery. A cerebroprotective oral dose of BW619C89 (20 mg/kg) was used to determine whether reduction in infarct volume is long lasting and can be enhanced with continued therapy, and whether behavioural deficits occurring after middle cerebral artery occlusion such as disturbances in cognition and motor coordination are ameliorated by treatment with BW619C89. Rats received sham surgery or middle cerebral artery occlusion with a single treatment of BW619C89 (20 mg/kg) 1 h before middle cerebral artery occlusion, a double treatment group receiving 20 mg/kg BW619C89 1 h before and 10 mg/kg 5 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion, or continued treatment with BW619C89 for up to five days. Neurological deficit, assessed from days 1 to 21, and at 70 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion, was reduced to a similar extent in all three groups of rats treated with BW619C89, compared with vehicle-treated controls. At 70 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion, all groups performed at control level. Vehicle-treated rats were impaired in the Morris water maze and step-through passive avoidance paradigm five to eight weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion, when neurological deficit was minimal. These deficits were partially alleviated, to a similar extent, by all of the three treatments with BW619C89. Total volumes of brain damage, assessed at 70 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion in Luxol Fast Blue- and Cresyl Violet-stained coronal sections, were reduced in all three groups

  6. Arterial blood flow characteristics in central retinal vein occlusion and effects of panretinal photocoagulation treatment: an investigation by colour Doppler imaging

    PubMed Central

    Avunduk, A. M.; Dinc, H.; Kapicioglu, Z.; Ugurlu, S.; Dayanir, V.; Korkmaz, E.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To determine whether an increase in vascular resistance in the central retinal and ophthalmic arterial circulations contributes to the development of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), or haemodynamic alterations in central retinal and ophthalmic arteries occur secondary to the vein occlusion as increased intravascular pressure is transferred through the capillary bed to the arterial side and the effect of panretinal photocoagulation treatment on these circulations in ischaemic cases.
METHODS—The ophthalmic and central retinal arteries of the affected and non-affected eyes of 20 patients with non-ischaemic CRVO, 13 patients with ischaemic CRVO, and 22 control subjects were investigated by colour Doppler imaging. Panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) treatment was applied to the eyes with ischaemic CRVO. Maximum and minimum blood flow velocities, and resistivity indexes were calculated in the affected and healthy eyes of patients and in the control eyes.
RESULTS—Average blood flow velocity in the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries of patients with non-ischaemic CRVO did not differ from their fellow eyes, but a significantly lower average blood flow velocity was found in the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries of the patients with ischaemic CRVO compared with their fellow eyes. Patients with ischaemic CRVO had significantly lower blood flow velocities in their ophthalmic and central retinal arteries than non-ischaemic cases that were further reduced following PRP treatment.
CONCLUSION—This study suggests that impaired arterial blood flow observed in patients with CRVO may be partly related to secondary changes in the retrobulbar arterial circulation as a result of enhanced arterial resistance following CRVO. These data also demonstrate that PRP treatment decreases retinal and ophthalmic blood flow velocities in patients with ischaemic CRVO.

 Keywords: central retinal vein occlusion; panretinal photocoagulation; arterial circulation

  7. Acute Thrombotic Occlusion of the Popliteal Artery following Knee Dislocation: A Case Report of Management, Local Unit Practice, and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hindi, Fadi; Ettles, Callum; Pemberton, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Arterial complications following traumatic knee injury are relatively rare but mandate timely recognition and treatment to avoid significant comorbidity and medicolegal ramifications. In this report we describe a case of acute thrombotic occlusion of the popliteal artery occurring after knee dislocation, successfully repaired by intimal fixation and a limited venous patch reconstruction. We present a review of local practice in screening vascular injuries following knee dislocation, aligned with a review of the literature and considerations for practice. PMID:28246569

  8. Acute Thrombotic Occlusion of the Popliteal Artery following Knee Dislocation: A Case Report of Management, Local Unit Practice, and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Anthony Dean; Hindi, Fadi; Ettles, Callum; Pemberton, Mark; Grewal, Perbinder

    2017-01-01

    Arterial complications following traumatic knee injury are relatively rare but mandate timely recognition and treatment to avoid significant comorbidity and medicolegal ramifications. In this report we describe a case of acute thrombotic occlusion of the popliteal artery occurring after knee dislocation, successfully repaired by intimal fixation and a limited venous patch reconstruction. We present a review of local practice in screening vascular injuries following knee dislocation, aligned with a review of the literature and considerations for practice.

  9. Hypothermic liquid ventilation prevents early hemodynamic dysfunction and cardiovascular mortality after coronary artery occlusion complicated by cardiac arrest in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Darbera, Lys; Chenoune, Mourad; Lidouren, Fanny; Kohlhauer, Matthias; Adam, Clovis; Bruneval, Patrick; Ghaleh, Bijan; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Carli, Pierre; Vivien, Benoit; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Berdeaux, Alain; Tissier, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    Objective Ultrafast and whole-body cooling can be induced by total liquid ventilation (TLV) with temperature-controlled perfluorocarbons. Our goal was to determine whether this can afford maximal cardio- and neuroprotections through cooling rapidity when coronary occlusion is complicated by cardiac arrest. Design Prospective, randomized animal study. Setting Academic research laboratory. Subjects Male New-Zealand rabbits. Interventions Chronically instrumented rabbits were submitted to coronary artery occlusion and ventricular fibrillation. After 8-min of cardiac arrest, animals were resuscitated and submitted to a normothermic follow-up (Control group) or to 3-h of mild hypothermia induced by TLV (TLV group) or by combination of cold saline infusion and cold blankets application (Saline group). Coronary reperfusion was permitted 40-min after the onset of occlusion. After awakening, rabbits were followed during 7 days. Measurements and main results Ten animals were resuscitated in each group. In the Control group, all animals secondarily died from cardiac/respiratory failure (8/10) or neurological dysfunction (2/10). In the Saline group, the target temperature of 32°C was achieved within 30–45 min after cooling initiation. This slightly reduced infarct size vs Control (41±16% vs 54±8% of risk zone, respectively; p<0.05) but failed to significantly improve cardiac output, neurological recovery and survival rate (3 survivors, 6 death from cardiac/respiratory failure and 1 from neurological dysfunction). Conversely, the 32°C temperature was achieved within 5–10 min in the TLV group. This led to a dramatic reduction in infarct size (13±4%; p<0.05 vs other groups) and improvements in cardiac output, neurological recovery and survival (8 survivors, 2 deaths from cardiac/respiratory failure). Conclusions Achieving hypothermia rapidly is critical to improve the cardiovascular outcome after cardiac arrest with underlying myocardial infarction. PMID:24126441

  10. [Knee dislocation--a simple diagnosis? Compartment syndrome with occlusion of the popliteal artery and lesion of the peroneal nerve after inadequate trauma].

    PubMed

    Back, D A; Rauhut, F; Rieger, H

    2011-01-01

    Knee dislocations are rare and often associated with damage to the surrounding structures. We present a case where a soldier sustained a complex knee dislocation during routine training. This trauma was associated with a compartment syndrome, occlusion of the popliteal artery, lesion of the peroneal nerve and multiple lesions of ligaments and tendons of the knee.

  11. Percutaneous intervention of chronic total occlusion of anomalous right coronary artery originating from left sinus – Use of mother and child technique using guideliner

    PubMed Central

    Senguttuvan, Nagendra Boopathy; Sharma, Samin K.; Kini, Annapoorna

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous origin of right coronary artery (RCA) from left sinus is a rare clinical entity. Percutaneous coronary intervention of such an anomalous RCA, which is chronically occluded, is difficult and is rarely described. We describe such an intervention in a patient, who had a chronic total occlusion of anomalous RCA and discuss the technical issues associated with such interventions. PMID:26995429

  12. The treadmill test in the assessment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Ucchino, S; Nardi, M; Santarelli, M; Legnini, M; Costantini, A; Ucchino, G; Napolitano, A M

    1992-01-01

    Results of a study using the treadmill test on 32 patients with peripheral Fontaine's stage II arterial disease are described. The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of the test in assessing useful information concerning the site of the lesion. Patients were divided in three classes depending on the arterial segment involved (iliac-femoral, femoro-popliteal, associated lesions) as resulted from the velocimetric and angiographic evaluation. Ankle pressure and WI, at rest and after stress test, PFWD and RT were evaluated. The authors conclude that data achieved with the dynamic test are related to the arterial involvement, allowing to differentiate obstructive and stenotic lesions, but do not give information concerning the site of the lesion. Nevertheless it is a valuable means of highlighting arterial lesions well compensated at rest and with normal pressure values.

  13. Determination of skeletal muscle perfusion using arterial spin labeling NMRI: validation by comparison with venous occlusion plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, J S; Duteil, S; Vaughan, J T; Hennel, F; Wary, C; Leroy-Willig, A; Carlier, P G

    2001-08-01

    T(1)-based determination of perfusion was performed with the high temporal and spatial resolution that monitoring of exercise physiology requires. As no data were available on the validation of this approach in human muscles, T(1)-based NMRI of perfusion was compared to standard strain-gauge venous occlusion plethysmography performed simultaneously within a 4 T magnet. Two different situations were investigated in 21 healthy young volunteers: 1) a 5-min ischemia of the leg, or 2) a 2-3 min ischemic exercise consisting of a plantar flexion on an amagnetic ergometer. Leg perfusion was monitored over 5-15 min of the recovery phase, after the air-cuff arterial occlusion had been released. The interesting features of the sequence were the use of a saturation-recovery module for the introduction of a T(1) modulation and of single-shot spin echo for imaging. Spatial resolution was 1.7 x 2.0 mm and temporal resolution was 2 s. For data analysis, ROIs were traced on different muscles and perfusion was calculated from the differences in muscle signal intensity in successive images. To allow comparison with the global measurement of perfusion by plethysmography, the T(1)-based NMR measurements in exercising muscles were rescaled to the leg cross-section. The perfusion measurements obtained by plethysmography and NMRI were in close agreement with a correlation coefficient between 0.87 and 0.92. This indicates that pulsed arterial techniques provide determination of muscle perfusion not only with superior spatial and temporal resolution but also with exactitude.

  14. Investigation of arterial gas occlusions. [effect of noncondensable gases on high performance heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of noncondensable gases on high-performance arterial heat pipes was investigated both analytically and experimentally. Models have been generated which characterize the dissolution of gases in condensate, and the diffusional loss of dissolved gases from condensate in arterial flow. These processes, and others, were used to postulate stability criteria for arterial heat pipes under isothermal and non-isothermal condensate flow conditions. A rigorous second-order gas-loaded heat pipe model, incorporating axial conduction and one-dimensional vapor transport, was produced and used for thermal and gas studies. A Freon-22 (CHCIF2) heat pipe was used with helium and xenon to validate modeling. With helium, experimental data compared well with theory. Unusual gas-control effects with xenon were attributed to high solubility.

  15. Totally Endovascular Management of Popliteal Artery Occlusion and Pseudoaneurysm Formation after Total Knee Replacement.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Anthony; Sandstrom, Anna; Jha, Pankaj K

    2017-01-01

    Injuries to the popliteal artery during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are rare. We present a case of a 72-year-old man with popliteal artery thrombosis and a pseudoaneurysm presenting immediately after TKA. First-line management of acute limb ischemia is currently transitioning from open surgery to endovascular strategies such as catheter-directed thrombolysis or mechanical thrombectomy. Due to the rarity of acute limb ischemia and pseudoaneurysms after TKA, endovascular management is only reported in a few case studies. This case is distinctive by having both popliteal artery thrombosis and a pseudoaneurysm which were successfully managed entirely endovascular using AngioJet thrombolysis and a flexible covered stent. This case contributes to the evidence supporting endovascular management of this rare complication of TKA.

  16. Morphometric Analysis of Torso Arterial Anatomy with Implications for Resuscitative Aortic Occlusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    celiac ; Zone II includes celiac to caudal renal; Zone III includes caudal renal to aortic bifurcation. Zone lengths were calculated and correlated to a...respectively. Median aortic diameters at the left subclavian, celiac , and lowest renal arteries were 21 mm (20Y23 mm), 18 mm (16Y19 mm), and 15 mm (14Y16 mm...zones (Fig. 2).4 Aortic Zone I extended from the origin of the left subclavian artery to the celiac trunk. Aortic Zone II extended from the celiac trunk

  17. Central retinal artery occlusion following forehead injection with a corticosteroid suspension.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Albert O

    2008-01-01

    Intralesional injection of corticosteroid suspensions into or adjacent to the ocular adnexa is performed by a number of medical specialists including dermatologists. Although not widely known outside of the ophthalmic community, these injections can lead to blindness through embolization of the central retinal artery. A case of blindness following injection into the forehead lesion of a child with the rare dermatologic condition pyogenic arthritis and pyodermic gangrenosum syndrome is reported. Injection into or near the ocular adnexa may be performed in small boluses to reduce the chance of retinal embolization following entry into the arterial system.

  18. Sesamin attenuates behavioral, biochemical and histological alterations induced by reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Moshahid; Ishrat, Tauheed; Ahmad, Ajmal; Hoda, Md Nasrul; Khan, M Badruzzaman; Khuwaja, Gulrana; Srivastava, Pallavi; Raza, Syed Shadab; Islam, Fakhrul; Ahmad, Saif

    2010-01-05

    Restoration of blood flow to an ischemic brain region is associated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with consequent reperfusion injury. ROS cause lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, all of which are deleterious to cells. So diminishing the production of free radicals and scavenging them may be a successful therapeutic strategy for the protection of brain tissue in cerebral stroke. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of sesamin (Sn) to reduce brain injury after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The middle cerebral artery (MCA) of adult male Wistar rat was occluded for 2h and reperfused for 22h. Sesamin is the most abundant lignan in sesame seed oil is a potent antioxidant. Sesamin (30 mg/kg) was given orally twice, 30 min before the onset of ischemia and 12h after reperfusion. The initial investigations revealed that sesamin reduced the neurological deficits in terms of behavior and reduced the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), and protein carbonyl (PC) in the different areas of the brain when compared with the MCAO group. A significantly depleted level of glutathione and its dependent enzymes (glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and glutathione reductase [GR]) in MCAO group were protected significantly in MCAO group treated with sesamin. The present study suggests that sesamin may be able to attenuate the ischemic cell death and plays a crucial role as a neuroprotectant in regulating levels of reactive oxygen species in the rat brain. Thus, sesamin may be a potential compound in stroke therapy.

  19. Treatment Strategies for a Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm with or without a Celiac Trunk Occlusive Lesion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: A true pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm (PDAA) is a rare disease, and has some unique characteristics: a high rupture risk and a strong correlation with celiac trunk stenotic lesions (CTSL). We showed here that our treatment strategy for PDAA. Materials and Methods: Seven consecutive patients with PDAA at our institution from 1998 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 7 patients, five were male and two were female, with a mean age of 55 ± 9.7 years. Three aneurysms were diagnosed incidentally, and the remaining four ruptured. The locations of the aneurysm were the anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery (ASPDA) in 3 patients and the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA) in four. CTSL found 3 patients in the IPDA. Results: Of four ruptured patients, emergency catheter coil embolization was performed in three, and a simple ligation was performed in one. Three patients with non-ruptured aneurysms in the IPDA with a CTSL underwent direct aneurysm resection with arterial reconstruction. Six patients were successfully treated without complications or the appearance of new aneurysms during the follow-up period. Conclusion: The treatment strategy for PDAA should be selected by the site of the aneurysm, the patients’ condition, and the anatomical situation. A hybrid treatment could be considered a beneficial option for a CTSL. PMID:24386022

  20. Left circumflex coronary artery occlusion due to a left atrial appendage closure device

    PubMed Central

    Katona, András; Temesvári, András; Szatmári, András; Forster, Tamás; Fontos, Géza

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is spreading, and a large number of patients with this procedure have concomitant coronary artery disease. With the presented case it could be concluded that coronary angiography is recommended before LAA closure. PMID:25848378

  1. The efficacy of pre-delivery prophylactic trans-catheter arterial balloon occlusion of bilateral internal iliac artery in patients with suspected placental adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoon Jin; Oh, Yong Taek; Kim, Ju Young; Jung, Sun Young; Chon, Seung Joo; Kim, Jeong Ho; Byun, Sung Su

    2017-01-01

    Objective Prophylactic trans-catheter arterial balloon occlusion (PTABO) before cesarean section of placenta previa totalis has been introduced to prevent massive hemorrhage. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of PTABO in cases of suspected placental adhesion and to examine antepartal risk factors and perinatal outcomes in women with placental adhesion. Methods Between January 2012 and December 2015, 77 patients who had undergone ultrasonography for evaluation of placenta previa were enrolled in this study. Seventeen of these patients with suspected placental adhesion by ultrasonography and Pelvic MRI underwent PTABO before cesarean section and another 59 patients underwent cesarean section without PTABO. Antepartal risk factors and peripartum maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between patients with PTABO and those without PTABO. Results More advanced maternal age, longer in gestational weeks at delivery, and more common previous cesarean section history were observed in the PTABO group. Placenta adhesion, abnormal Doppler findings, and frequency of transfusion were more common in the PTABO group. However there was no significant difference in estimated blood loss, hospital days, and neonatal outcome. It had occurred 3 cases of hysterectomy and 1 case of uterine artery embolization after cesarean section in the PTABO group. Conclusion Close surveillance of antepartum risk factors for placental adhesion using ultrasonography and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging is important to prevention of massive hemorrhage during cesarean section. PTABO before cesarean section might result in reduced blood loss and requirement for transfusion during the operation. PMID:28217667

  2. Emergent revascularization of acute tandem vertebrobasilar occlusions: Endovascular approaches and technical considerations-Confirming the role of vertebral artery ostium stenosis as a cause of vertebrobasilar stroke.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Leker, Ronen R; Gomori, J Moshe; Eichel, Roni; Rajz, Gustavo; Moscovici, Samuel; Itshayek, Eyal

    2016-12-01

    Patients suffering from acute atherothrombotic occlusion of the proximal vertebral artery (VA) and concomitant basilar artery (BA) occlusion present a grim prognosis. We describe our experience in the endovascular recanalization of tandem vertebrobasilar occlusions using endovascular techniques. The BA was accessed through the normal VA (clean-road) or the occluded, thrombotic VA (dirty-road), and stentriever-based thrombectomy was performed using antegrade or reverse revascularization variants. Seven patients underwent successful stentriever-assisted mechanical thrombectomy of the BA and five sustained concomitant VA revascularization. Stroke onset to endovascular intervention initiation (time-to-treatment) ranged from 4.5-13hours (mean 8.6). In two of seven patients, the BA occlusion was approached with a 'clean-road' approach via the contralateral VA; in five of seven patients, a 'dirty-road' approach via the occluded VA was used. Mean time-to-recanalization was 66minutes (range 55-82). There were no perforations, iatrogenic vessel dissections, or other technical complications. Four patients presented mild-to-moderate disability (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 0-3) at 3months, one remained with moderate-to-severe disability (mRS 4), and two patients died on days 9 and 23 after their strokes. Follow-up ranged from 6-45months (mean 24months). In selected patients with acute VA-BA occlusion, stentriever-based thrombectomy performed through either the patent or the occluded VA, may be feasible, effective, and safe. Clinical outcomes in these patients seem to equipoise the neurological outcome of patients with successful revascularization for isolated BA occlusion. This unique pair of occlusions confirms the role of VA ostium stenosis as a cause of vertebrobasilar stroke.

  3. Occlusion of carotid artery and hypergravity loading of animals caused similar effects on L-[14C]glutamate uptake in rat brain nerve terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Sivko, Roman; Krisanova, Natalia

    Changes in sodium-dependent L-[14C]glutamate uptake in rat brain nerve terminals was com-paratively analysed after hypergravity loading of animals (centrifugation of rats in special con-tainers at 10 G for 1 hour) and unilateral occlusion of carotid artery (20 min). The initial velocity of L-[14C]glutamate uptake was decreased from 2.5 ± 0.2 nmol x min-1 x mg-1 of proteins to 2.05 ± 0.1 nmol x min-1 x mg-1 of proteins after hypergravity and after occlusion -up to 2.25 ± 0.1 nmol x min-1 x mg-1 of proteins. Recently, we have shown that a decrease in L-[14C]glutamate uptake was at least partially caused by the redaction in the membrane potential of nerve terminals and the proton gradient of synaptic vesicles. These parameters were analysed after unilateral occlusion of carotid artery, where one brain hemisphere was used as a control, whereas the second one as subjected to ischemic/hypoxic conditions. Similarly with hypergravity, we revealed a decrease in the membrane potential of nerve terminals by ˜ 10 % and a reduction of the proton gradient of synaptic vesicles by ˜ 5 % after occlusion of carotid artery. Thus, a decrease in the activity of glutamate transporters after hypergrav-ity and unilateral occlusion of carotid artery was at least partially caused by changes in the membrane potential of nerve terminals and the proton gradient of synaptic vesicles. This fact may be considered in support of the suggestion that ischemia/hypoxia was a main unspecific stressor, which caused the alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission under conditions of hypergravity.

  4. Successful Recanalization of Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Thromboembolic Occlusion by a Combination of Intraarterial Thrombolysis and Mechanical Thrombectomy with a Carotid Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenak, Kamil; Sinak, Igor; Janik, Jan; Mikolajcik, Anton; Mistuna, Dusan

    2013-06-15

    Acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion is a life-threatening disease, and acute intestinal ischemia develops from the sudden decrease in perfusion to the intestines. The key to saving the patient's life is early diagnosis, and prompt revascularization of the SMA can prevent intestinal infarction and decrease the risk of bowel segment necrosis. Computed tomographic angiography may be useful for rapid diagnosis. We report recanalization of an SMA occlusion in an 80-year-old man with a combination of intraarterial thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy with a carotid filter.

  5. Occlusion of a hepatic artery to portal vein fistula with Bucrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Kerlan, R.K. Jr.; Hoddick, W.K.; Pogany, A.C.; Bank, W.O.; Sollenberger, R.D.

    1983-08-01

    A 49-year-old woman with cirrhosis and portal hypertension was evaluated for a portal-systemic shunt procedure following recurrent variceal hemorrhage. The preoperative visceral angiogram demonstrated a hepatic arterial to portal venous fistula, presumably a complication of a previous liver biopsy. The fistula was successfully closed using isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Bucrylate) delivered through a flow-directed, calibrated-leak balloon microcatheter.

  6. Cryoplasty for Occlusive Disease of the Femoropopliteal Arteries: 1-Year Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Korteweg, Mies A.; Gils, Marjon van; Hoedt, Marco T.; Valk, Pieter H. M. van der; Tutein Noltenius, Rudolf P.; Avontuur, Jurgen A.; Bronswijk-Monster, Krien F.; Elgersma, Otto E. H.

    2009-03-15

    Atherosclerosis of femoropopliteal arteries is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) has only limited success in treating these arteries, mainly because of the high rate of recurrent stenosis. Cryoplasty has been proposed as a technique which might improve treatment outcome. This study reports our single-center experience with cryoplasty. Thirty-two claudicants, 33 arteries, in whom conservative therapy failed, were consecutively included. Duplex ultrasound (US), angiography, and ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement were performed before the procedure; ABI and duplex US, 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Patients' symptoms were categorized according to the Rutherford classification. Lesions were classified as TASC A, B, or C according to angiographic appearance. Differences in ABI before and after the procedure were defined as significant at p < 0.05 by paired t-test. Patency was evaluated using duplex US by determining the peak systolic velocity ratio. Sixteen TASC A lesions, 13 TASC B lesions, and 4 TASC C lesions were included. ABI improved significantly for TASC A lesions 2 weeks and 3 months postprocedure. Patency after 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months was 93%, 67%, and 64% for TASC A lesions, 83%, 31%, and 31% for TASC B lesions, and 100%, 50%, and 33% for TASC C lesions, respectively. In conclusion, cryoplasty has good immediate success rates and patency rates similar to the results of conventional PTA in the literature.

  7. Relationship between epicardial ST-segment elevation and myocardial ischemic damage after experimental coronary artery occlusion in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Heng, M K; Singh, B N; Norris, R M; John, M B; Elliot, R

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between early and late epicardial electrocardiographic changes as well as those in regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and the severity of myocardial damage was determined in 12 anesthetized dogs with left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Radioactive microspheres (15 mum) were used to measure regional MBF at 15 min (early) and 24 h (late) after coronary occlusion. Severity of myocardial damage was assessed by the extent of myocardial creatine phosphokinase depletion 24 h after coronary ligation. There was a close linear correlation between myocardial creatine phosphokinase activity and regional MBF both early (r=0.93, 2P less than 0.001) and late (r=0.88, 2P less than 0.001). An inverse but less precise relationship existed between acute epicardial ST-segment elevation and early (r=-0.41, 2P less than 0.001), or late (r=0.35, 2P less than 0.05) regional MBF. Similarly, a weak correlation was found between myocardial creatine phosphokinase (IU/mg protein) at 24 h and early epicardial ST (millivolt) elevation (r=-0.36, 2P less than 0.02). In the center zones of the infarct with MBF 1/10 of normal, about 35% of the areas with normal QRS width had no epicardial ST-segment elevation 15 min after coronary occlusion. About 44% of the areas which developed pathological Q-waves in the electrocardiogram at 24 h had no ST elevation 15 min after coronary ligation. Late evolution of abnormal Q-waves occurred almost invariably in areas in which the early MBF was reduced to less than 50% of normal and in areas which subsequently had myocardial creatine phosphokinase levels reduced to less than 60% of normal. After coronary occlusion, the severity of the ultimate myocardial damage, which was directly proportional to the degree of reduction in MBF, was therefore not reliably predicted by the early epicardial ST-segment elevation. The data obtained in these studies suggest the need for caution in the use of acute ST-segment elevation as a predictive

  8. Assessing the end-organ in peripheral arterial occlusive disease—from contrast—enhanced ultrasound to blood-oxygen-level-dependent MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Partovi, Sasan; Jacobi, Bjoern; Fergus, Nathan; Schulte, Anja-Carina; Robbin, Mark R.; Bilecen, Deniz; Staub, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is a result of atherosclerotic disease which is currently the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Patients with PAOD may present with intermittent claudication or symptoms related to critical limb ischemia. PAOD is associated with increased mortality rates. Stenoses and occlusions are usually detected by macrovascular imaging, including ultrasound and cross-sectional methods. From a pathophysiological view these stenoses and occlusions are affecting the microperfusion in the functional end-organs, such as the skin and skeletal muscle. In the clinical arena new imaging technologies enable the evaluation of the microvasculature. Two technologies currently under investigation for this purpose on the end-organ level in PAOD patients are contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging (MRI). The following article is providing an overview about these evolving techniques with a specific focus on skeletal muscle microvasculature imaging in PAOD patients. PMID:24834413

  9. Ileocolic neobladder post-cystectomy: continence and potency.

    PubMed

    Marshall, F F; Mostwin, J L; Radebaugh, L C; Walsh, P C; Brendler, C B

    1991-03-01

    Incontinence and impotence are 2 of the primary complications associated with total bladder reconstruction after cystectomy for carcinoma. These and other features are addressed in 25 patients who underwent total neobladder reconstruction following cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma. Of these patients 20 had a urethral anastomosis. No patient had to wear a pad or device. Enuresis was rare. When the radical cystoprostatectomy population was contrasted with a radical prostatectomy patient population, continence was achieved more rapidly in the neobladder group. Potency was maintained in 15 of 21 (71%) evaluable patients. This ileocolic neobladder produces a large volume and low pressure, and provides excellent day and night continence. With preservation of the neurovascular bundle potency can be maintained in the majority of patients.

  10. Right-Side Colon Ischemia: Clinical Features, Large Visceral Artery Occlusion, and Long-Term Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Longstreth, George F; Hye, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Context: Large visceral artery occlusion (LVAO) could underlie right-side colon ischemia (RSCI) but is little known. Objective: To assess patients with RSCI through long-term follow-up, including features and management of LVAO. Main Outcome Measures: Mesenteric ischemia and mortality. Design: Retrospective observational study in an integrated health care system. Results: Of 49 patients (30 women [61.2%]; mean [standard deviation] age, 69.4 [11.9] years), 19 (38.8%) underwent surgery—that is, 5 (83.3%) of 6 who developed RSCI in hospital following surgical procedures and 14 (32.6%) of 43 who had RSCI before hospitalization (p value = 0.03); overall, 5 (10.2%) died. Among 44 survivors with a median (range) follow-up of 5.19 (0.03–14.26) years, 5 (11.4%), including 3 (20.0%) of 15 operated cases, had symptomatic LVAO and underwent angioplasty and stent placement: 2 for abdominal angina that preceded RSCI, 1 for acute mesenteric ischemia 1 week after resection of RSCI, 1 for RSCI 6 weeks after resection of left-side ischemia, and 1 for abdominal angina that began 3 years after spontaneous recovery from RSCI. None had further mesenteric ischemia until death from nonintestinal disease or the end of follow-up (1.6 to 10.2 years later). Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for all 44 survivors at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years were 88.6%, 72.3%, 57.6%, and 25.9%, respectively. Thirty-one patients (70.4%) died during follow-up, 19 (61.3%) of a known cause; the 39 patients not treated for LVAO lacked mesenteric ischemia. Conclusion: Patients with RSCI may have symptomatic LVAO; therefore, we advise they undergo careful query for symptoms of abdominal angina and routine visceral artery imaging. PMID:26263388

  11. A new imaging technique for retinal vessel oximetry: principles and first clinical results in patients with retinal arterial occlusion and diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, M.; Riemer, T.; Vilser, W.; Gehlert, S.; Schweitzer, D.

    2009-02-01

    The oxygen saturation of blood inside retinal vessels is an essential measure for the estimation of oxygen supply to the tissue as well as its oxygen consumption. In the current approach, the blood oxygenation is measured by a dual-wavelength technique. Using a fundus camera, equipped with a special dual wavelength transmission filter and a color CCD camera, two monochromatic fundus images at 548 nm and 610 nm were recorded simultaneously. The optical densities of retinal vessels for both wavelengths and their ratio, which is known to be proportional to the oxygen saturation, were calculated. From a health control population, mean arterial and venous oxygen saturations were measured of 98+/-10.1% and 65+/-11.7% with reproducibility of 2.52% and 3.25% respectively. In 10 patients with arterial occlusion, a reduction of the arterial oxygen saturation to 78 +/-17% (mean +/- standard deviation, branch arterial occlusion) and 91+/-11% (central arterial occlusion) respectively was found in the occluded vessel. After 5 days on pentoxifilin therapy, the arterial saturation increased to an average of 93+/-12% or 103 +/-6% respectively. In 70 eyes of 42 patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy, an increase of the venous oxygen saturation with the severity of the retinopathy was found (mild nonproliferative retinopathy: 68.4+/-8.2%, moderate non-proliferative retinopathy: 70.5+/-6.8%, severe non-proliferative retinopathy: 72.4+/-7.6%, proliferative retinopathy 75.7+/-8.3%) due to vessel shunting and diabetic changes of the permeability of vessel walls. These first clinical results demonstrate the ability of an accurate measurement of retinal vessel oxygenation with a very simple setup just requiring a special filter in the illumination path of a fundus camera and dedicated software.

  12. Comparison of Muscle BOLD Responses to Arterial Occlusion at 3T and 7T

    PubMed Central

    Towse, Theodore F.; Childs, Benjamin T.; Sabin, Shea A.; Bush, Emily C.; Elder, Christopher P.; Damon, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of muscle BOLD (mBOLD) imaging at 7T by comparing the changes in R2* of muscle at 3 and 7T in response to a brief period of tourniquet-induced ischemia. Methods Eight subjects (3 male), aged 29.5 ± 6.1 years (mean ± standard deviation, SD), 167.0 ± 10.6 cm tall with a body mass of 62.0 ± 18.0 kg, participated in the study. Subjects reported to the lab on four separate occasions including a habituation session, two MRI scans, and in a subset of subjects, a session during which changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation were quantified using Doppler ultrasound (U/S) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) respectively. For statistical comparisons between 3T and 7T, R2* rate constants were calculated as R2* = 1/T2*. Results The mean pre-occlusion R2* value was greater at 7T than at 3T (60.16 ± 2.95 vs 35.17 ± 0.35 s−1 respectively, p <0.001). Also, the mean ΔR2*END and ΔR2*POST values were greater for 7T than for 3T (−2.36 ± 0.25 vs. −1.24 ± 0.39 s−1, respectively, Table 1). Conclusion Muscle BOLD contrast at 7T is as much as six-fold greater than at 3T. In addition to providing greater SNR and CNR, 7T mBOLD studies may offer further advantages in the form of greater sensitivity to pathological changes in the muscle microcirculation. PMID:25884888

  13. Protective effects of cannabidiol against hippocampal cell death and cognitive impairment induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Angélica Pupin; Soares, Lígia Mendes; Bonato, Jéssica Mendes; Milani, Humberto; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira; Weffort de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated whether cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychoactive constituent of marijuana, protects against hippocampal neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits induced by brain ischemia in adult mice. Male Swiss mice were subjected to a 17 min of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) and tested in the Morris water maze 7 days later. CBD (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) was administered 30 min before and 3, 24, and 48 h after BCCAO. After behavioral testing, the brains were removed and processed to evaluate hippocampal cell survival and degeneration using Nissl staining and FluoroJade C histochemistry, respectively. Astroglial response was examined using immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). CBD (3-30 mg/kg) improved spatial learning performance in BCCAO mice. The Nissl and FJC staining results showed a decrease in hippocampal neurodegeneration after CBD (10 and 30 mg/kg) treatment. GFAP immunoreactivity was also decreased in ischemic mice treated with CBD (30 mg/kg). These findings suggest a protective effect of CBD on neuronal death induced by ischemia and indicate that CBD might exert beneficial therapeutic effects in brain ischemia. The mechanisms that underlie the neuroprotective effects of CBD in BCCAO mice might involve the inhibition of reactive astrogliosis.

  14. Monocytes are Essential for the Neuroprotective Effect of Human Cord Blood Cells Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Womble, T. A.; Green, S.; Shahaduzzaman, M.; Grieco, J.; Sanberg, P. R.; Pennypacker, K. R.; Willing, A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic administration of human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) mononuclear cells (MNC) following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the rat reduces infarct size and, more importantly, restores motor function. The HUCB cell preparation is composed of immature T-cells, B-cells, monocytes and stem cells. In this study we examined whether the beneficial effects of HUCB injection were attributable to one of these cell types. Male Sprague Dawley rats underwent permanent MCAO followed 48 hours later by intravenous administration of HUCB MNC preparations depleted of either CD14+ monocytes, CD133+ stem cells, CD2+ T-cells or CD19+ B cells. Motor function was measured prior to MCAO and 30 days post-stroke. When CD14+ monocytes were depleted from the HUCB MNC, activity and motor asymmetry were similar to the MCAO only treated animals. Monocyte depletion prevented HUCB cell treatment from reducing infarct size while monocyte enrichment was sufficient to reduce infarct size. Administration of monocyte-depleted HUCB cells did not suppress Iba1 labeling of microglia in the infarcted area relative to treatment with the whole HUCB preparation. These data demonstrate that the HUCB monocytes provide the majority of the efficacy in reducing infarct volume and promoting functional recovery. PMID:24472845

  15. Apparent diffusion coefficient evaluation for secondary changes in the cerebellum of rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunjun; Gao, Lingyun; Fu, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yuxin; Yin, Bo; Chen, Weijian; Geng, Daoying

    2013-11-05

    Supratentorial cerebral infarction can cause functional inhibition of remote regions such as the cerebellum, which may be relevant to diaschisis. This phenomenon is often analyzed using positron emission tomography and single photon emission CT. However, these methods are expensive and radioactive. Thus, the present study quantified the changes of infarction core and remote regions after unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion using apparent diffusion coefficient values. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed that the area of infarction core gradually increased to involve the cerebral cortex with increasing infarction time. Diffusion weighted imaging signals were initially increased and then stabilized by 24 hours. With increasing infarction time, the apparent diffusion coefficient value in the infarction core and remote bilateral cerebellum both gradually decreased, and then slightly increased 3-24 hours after infarction. Apparent diffusion coefficient values at remote regions (cerebellum) varied along with the change of supratentorial infarction core, suggesting that the phenomenon of diaschisis existed at the remote regions. Thus, apparent diffusion coefficient values and diffusion weighted imaging can be used to detect early diaschisis.

  16. Chronic methamphetamine exposure prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion increases infarct volume and worsens cognitive injury in Male mice.

    PubMed

    Zuloaga, Damian G; Wang, Jianming; Weber, Sydney; Mark, Gregory P; Murphy, Stephanie J; Raber, Jacob

    2016-08-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that methamphetamine (MA) abuse can impact cardiovascular disease. In humans, MA abuse is associated with an increased risk of stroke as well as an earlier age at which the stroke occurs. However, little is known about how chronic daily MA exposure can impact ischemic outcome in either humans or animal models. In the present study, mice were injected with MA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline once daily for 10 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the final injection, mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for one hour followed by reperfusion. Mice were tested for novel object memory at 96 h post-reperfusion, just prior to removal of brains for quantification of infarct volume using 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium Chloride (TTC) staining. Mice treated with MA prior to tMCAO showed decreased object memory recognition and increased infarct volume compared to saline-treated mice. These findings indicate that chronic MA exposure can worsen both cognitive and morphological outcomes following cerebral ischemia.

  17. Curcumin attenuates the middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced reduction in γ-enolase expression in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Gim, Sang-Ah; Lee, So-Ra; Shah, Fawad-Ali

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin exerts a protective effect in cerebral ischemia through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. γ-enolase is a glycolytic enzyme expressed in neurons that is known to exerts a neuroprotective effect. We investigated whether curcumin regulates γ-enolase expression in focal cerebral ischemic injury in rats. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed to induce focal cerebral ischemia. Adult male rats were injected intraperitoneally with either vehicle or curcumin (50 mg/kg) 1 h after MCAO and cerebral cortex tissues were isolated 24 h after MCAO. We found that MCAO-induced injury resulted in a reduction in γ-enolase expression in vehicle-treated animals using a proteomics approach. However, this reduction was attenuated in animals with MCAO treated with curcumin. Reverse-transcription PCR and Western blot analyses also showed that curcumin treatment prevented the MCAO injury-induced reduction in γ-enolase expression. The results of this study suggest that curcumin exerts its neuroprotective function in focal cerebral ischemia by regulating the expression of γ-enolase. PMID:26755923

  18. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. Methods The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Results Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. Conclusions These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. PMID:20955613

  19. Complexity of the autonomic heart rate control in coronary artery occlusion in patients with and without prior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Magrans, R; Gomis, P; Caminal, P; Wagner, G S

    2013-08-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) is governed by complex interactions arising from feedback loops of nonlinear systems that operate over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, enabling the organism to adapt to stress, metabolic changes and diseases. This study is aimed to assess multifractal and nonlinear characteristics of the ANS during ischemic events provoked by a prolonged percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedure. Eighty-seven patients from the STAFF III database were used. Patients were classified into 2 groups: (1) with prior myocardial infarction (MI) and (2) without MI (noMI). R-R signals during three 3-min stages of the procedures were analyzed using multifractal and surrogate data techniques. Multifractal indices increased significantly from the pre-inflation stage to the post-deflation stage. These variations were more marked for the noMI group. Multifractal changes significantly correlated with both the decreased parasympathetic and the increased sympathetic modulations accounted by classical linear indices. Multifractal measures resulted to be a more powerful indicator than linear HRV indices in quantifying the ischemia-induced changes. Right coronary artery (RCA) occlusions provoke greater multifractal reactions throughout the PCI procedure. Our findings suggest reduced complex multifractal and nonlinear reactions of ANS activity in patients with prior MI in comparison to the noMI group, possibly due to degradation in the complexity of control mechanism of heart rate generation.

  20. Galectin-3 causes enteric neuronal loss in mice after left sided permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, a model of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaowen; Boza-Serrano, Antonio; Turesson, Michelle Foldschak; Deierborg, Tomas; Ekblad, Eva; Voss, Ulrikke

    2016-01-01

    In addition to brain injury stroke patients often suffer gastrointestinal complications. Neuroimmune interactions involving galectin-3, released from microglia in the brain, mediates the post-stroke pro-inflammatory response. We investigated possible consequences of stroke on the enteric nervous system and the involvement of galectin-3. We show that permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) induces loss of enteric neurons in ileum and colon in galectin-3+/+, but not in galectin-3−/−, mice. In vitro we show that serum from galectin-3+/+, but not from galectin-3−/−, mice subjected to pMCAO, caused loss of C57BL/6J myenteric neurons, while myenteric neurons derived from TLR4−/− mice were unaffected. Further purified galectin-3 (10−6 M) caused loss of cultured C57BL/6J myenteric neurons. Inhibitors of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) or AMP activated kinase (AMPK) counteracted both the purified galectin-3 and the galectin-3+/+ pMCAO serum-induced loss in vitro. Combined we show that stroke (pMCAO) triggers central and peripheral galectin-3 release causing enteric neuronal loss through a TLR4 mediated mechanism involving TAK1 and AMPK. Galectin-3 is suggested a target for treatment of post-stroke complications. PMID:27612206

  1. The myopathy of peripheral arterial occlusive disease: part 1. Functional and histomorphological changes and evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pipinos, Iraklis I; Judge, Andrew R; Selsby, Joshua T; Zhu, Zhen; Swanson, Stanley A; Nella, Aikaterini A; Dodd, Stephen L

    In recent years, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that a myopathy is present, contributes, and, to a certain extent, determines the pathogenesis of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAD). These works provide evidence that a state of repetitive cycles of exercise-induced ischemia followed by reperfusion at rest operates in PAD patients and mediates a large number of structural and metabolic changes in the muscle, resulting in reduced strength and function. The key players in this process appear to be defective mitochondria that, through multilevel failure in their roles as energy, oxygen radical species, and apoptosis regulators, produce and sustain a progressive decline in muscle performance. In this 2-part review, we highlight the currently available evidence that characterizes the nature and mechanisms responsible for this myopathy. In part 1, the authors review the functional and histomorphological characteristics of the myopathy and focus on the biochemistry and bioenergetics of its mitochondriopathy. In part 2, they then review accumulating evidence that oxidative stress related to ischemia reperfusion is probably the major operating mechanism of PAD myopathy. Important new findings of a possible neuropathy and a shift in muscle fiber type are also reviewed. Learning more about these mechanisms will enhance our understanding of the degree to which they are preventable and treatable.

  2. Late proximal pulmonary artery occlusion in a child with a single chamber after a right-sided Blalock-Taussig shunt

    PubMed Central

    Mroziński, Bartłomiej; Moszura, Tomasz; Wojtalik, Michał

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the management of a child born with pulmonary valve atresia, a single (double-inlet) ventricle, right ventricular hypoplasia, and perimembranous septal defect. The first stage of treatment consisted in a Blalock-Taussig shunt. Control angiography performed 1 year after surgery confirmed that the anastomosis was correct, and there was no narrowing at the connection. The first stage of treatment was complicated by the occlusion of the left pulmonary artery, as diagnosed during cardiac catheterization before the planned bidirectional Glenn anastomosis. A decision was made to perform surgery through a left thoracotomy without a cardiopulmonary bypass in order to restore the continuity of the left pulmonary artery. PMID:27785142

  3. Temporary balloon occlusion of the common hepatic artery for yttrium-90 glass microspheres administration in a patient with hepatocellular cancer and renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin; Murthy, Ravi; Lahoti, Amit; Odisio, Bruno; Avritscher, Rony; Chasen, Beth; Mahvash, Armeen

    2013-01-01

    The most severe complication of yttrium-90 therapy is gastrointestinal ulceration caused by extrahepatic dispersion of microspheres. Standard pretreatment planning requires extensive angiographic evaluation of the hepatic circulation and embolization of hepatoenteric collaterals; however, in patients with severe renal insufficiency, this evaluation may lead to acute renal failure. In order to minimize iodinated contrast utilization in a patient with preexisting severe renal insufficiency, the authors describe the use of a balloon catheter for temporary occlusion of the common hepatic artery to induce transient redirection of flow of the hepatoenteric arteries towards the liver, in lieu of conventional coil embolization.

  4. Awake extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as bridge to recovery after left main coronary artery occlusion: a promising concept of haemodynamic support in cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Alozie, Anthony; Kische, Stephan; Birken, Thomas; Kaminski, Alexander; Westphal, Bernd; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Ince, Hüseyin; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2014-10-01

    Cardiogenic shock following acute myocardial infarction is associated with high mortality rate. Different management concepts including fluid management, inotropic support, intra aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) mainly in mechanically ventilated patients have been used as cornerstones of management. However, success rates have been disappointing. Few reports suggested that ECMO when performed under circumvention of mechanical ventilation, may offer some survival benefits. We herein present our experience with the use of veno-arterial ECMO as bridge to recovery in an awake and spontaneously breathing patient after left main coronary artery occlusion complicated by cardiogenic shock.

  5. Arteriovenous revascularization for lower limb salvage in unreconstructible arterial occlusive disease (long-term outcome).

    PubMed

    Lengua, F; Cohen, R; L'Huillier, B; Buffet, J M

    1995-01-01

    Between February 1983 and June 1994 we attempted surgically to salvage twenty-six legs in twenty-five patients with insufficient distal run-off and severely ischemic feet; all of them had resting pain, and 23 had tissue necrosis. A saphenous venous graft was interposed between an artery of the lower extremity (femoral or popliteal) and the veins of the foot with obligatory end-to-side distal anastomosis. The patency of the venous circulation of the ischemic foot was ascertained by retrograde phlebography. Patients were followed from 3 months to 11 years (an average of 3 years and 5 months). In 19 legs (73%), surgery succeeded in preventing extensive gangrene of the foot, and allowed postponing or avoiding major amputation. The purpose of this paper is to analyze this experience, and stimulate further interest and study of the reversed microcirculation in critical ischemia.

  6. Vascular complications following prophylactic balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries resolved by successful interventional thrombolysis in a patient with morbidly adherent placenta*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Lou, Wei-hua; Zhang, Xue-bin; Fu, Jia-ning; Chen, Yun-yan; Zhuang, Zhi-guo; Lin, Jian-hua

    2017-01-01

    The increasing incidence of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) is placing women at a higher risk of life-threatening massive hemorrhage. The involvement of interventional radiology to manage this complex condition by performing prophylactic iliac artery balloon occlusion has been reported recently. However, the effectiveness and safety of this technique have not been fully determined. Here we report the case of a 25-year-old woman with placenta increta with preemptive bilateral internal iliac artery balloons who had external iliac artery thrombosis detected by computed tomography angiography (CTA) 72 h post cesarean section. A digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) and intra-arterial thrombolysis were instantly performed followed by supplementary conservative treatments, leading to a desirable resolution of thrombus without sequela. This is the first report of vascular complications with successful interventional thrombolysis in this setting. Our experience suggests that prophylactic iliac artery balloon occlusion should be used cautiously in cases of MAP and consideration given to minimizing vascular complications given the hypercoagulable state of pregnancy. PMID:28271663

  7. Does Preinterventional Flat-Panel Computer Tomography Pooled Blood Volume Mapping Predict Final Infarct Volume After Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Cerebral Artery Occlusion?

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Marlies; Kyriakou, Yiannis; Mesnil de Rochemont, Richard du; Singer, Oliver C.; Berkefeld, Joachim

    2013-08-01

    PurposeDecreased cerebral blood volume is known to be a predictor for final infarct volume in acute cerebral artery occlusion. To evaluate the predictability of final infarct volume in patients with acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) or the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) and successful endovascular recanalization, pooled blood volume (PBV) was measured using flat-panel detector computed tomography (FPD CT).Materials and MethodsTwenty patients with acute unilateral occlusion of the MCA or distal ACI without demarcated infarction, as proven by CT at admission, and successful Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score (TICI 2b or 3) endovascular thrombectomy were included. Cerebral PBV maps were acquired from each patient immediately before endovascular thrombectomy. Twenty-four hours after recanalization, each patient underwent multislice CT to visualize final infarct volume. Extent of the areas of decreased PBV was compared with the final infarct volume proven by follow-up CT the next day.ResultsIn 15 of 20 patients, areas of distinct PBV decrease corresponded to final infarct volume. In 5 patients, areas of decreased PBV overestimated final extension of ischemia probably due to inappropriate timing of data acquisition and misery perfusion.ConclusionPBV mapping using FPD CT is a promising tool to predict areas of irrecoverable brain parenchyma in acute thromboembolic stroke. Further validation is necessary before routine use for decision making for interventional thrombectomy.

  8. [Comparative analysis of action of beta-phenyl derivatives of glutamic and gamma-aminobutyric acid on cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular endothelium after irreversible occlusion of the common carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V; Mazina, N V; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the effect of phenyl derivatives of glutamic (RGPU-135) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (Phenibut) on cerebral blood flow, vasodilatory endothelial function and the number of circulating endothelial cells desquamated in animals after irreversible occlusion of the common carotid arteries. It was found that animals treated prophylactically by RGPU-135, after occlusion of the common carotid arteries have higher cerebral blood flow and lower the severity of endothelial dysfunction than in animals treated with Phenibut.

  9. Intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke associated with cervical internal carotid artery occlusion: the ICARO-3 study.

    PubMed

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Inzitari, Domenico; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Caso, Valeria; Balucani, Clotilde; Grotta, James C; Sarraj, Amrou; Sung-Il, Sohn; Chamorro, Angel; Urra, Xabier; Leys, Didier; Henon, Hilde; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Dequatre, Nelly; Aguettaz, Pierre; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Zini, Andrea; Vallone, Stefano; Dell'Acqua, Maria Luisa; Menetti, Federico; Nencini, Patrizia; Mangiafico, Salvatore; Barlinn, Kristian; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Bovi, Paolo; Cappellari, Manuel; Linfante, Italo; Dabus, Guilherme; Marcheselli, Simona; Pezzini, Alessandro; Padovani, Alessandro; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Shahripour, Reza Bavarsad; Sessa, Maria; Giacalone, Giacomo; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Lanari, Alessia; Ciccone, Alfonso; De Vito, Alessandro; Azzini, Cristiano; Saletti, Andrea; Fainardi, Enrico; Orlandi, Giovanni; Chiti, Alberto; Gialdini, Gino; Silvestrini, Mauro; Ferrarese, Carlo; Beretta, Simone; Tassi, Rossana; Martini, Giuseppe; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Vasdekis, Spyros N; Consoli, Domenico; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Luda, Emilio; Varbella, Ferdinando; Galletti, Giampiero; Invernizzi, Paolo; Donati, Edoardo; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Corea, Francesco; Sette, Massimo Del; Monaco, Serena; Riva, Maurizio; Tassinari, Tiziana; Scoditti, Umberto; Toni, Danilo

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the ICARO-3 study was to evaluate whether intra-arterial treatment, compared to intravenous thrombolysis, increases the rate of favourable functional outcome at 3 months in acute ischemic stroke and extracranial ICA occlusion. ICARO-3 was a non-randomized therapeutic trial that performed a non-blind assessment of outcomes using retrospective data collected prospectively from 37 centres in 7 countries. Patients treated with endovascular treatment within 6 h from stroke onset (cases) were matched with patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis within 4.5 h from symptom onset (controls). Patients receiving either intravenous or endovascular therapy were included among the cases. The efficacy outcome was disability at 90 days assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), dichotomized as favourable (score of 0-2) or unfavourable (score of 3-6). Safety outcomes were death and any intracranial bleeding. Included in the analysis were 324 cases and 324 controls: 105 cases (32.4 %) had a favourable outcome as compared with 89 controls (27.4 %) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.79, p = 0.1]. In the adjusted analysis, treatment with intra-arterial procedures was significantly associated with a reduction of mortality (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40-0.93, p = 0.022). The rates of patients with severe disability or death (mRS 5-6) were similar in cases and controls (30.5 versus 32.4 %, p = 0.67). For the ordinal analysis, adjusted for age, sex, NIHSS, presence of diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation, the common odds ratio was 1.15 (95 % IC 0.86-1.54), p = 0.33. There were more cases of intracranial bleeding (37.0 versus 17.3 %, p = 0.0001) in the intra-arterial procedure group than in the intravenous group. After the exclusion of the 135 cases treated with the combination of I.V. thrombolysis and I.A. procedures, 67/189 of those treated with I.A. procedures (35.3 %) had a favourable outcome, compared to 89/324 of

  10. Percutaneous Aspiration Thrombectomy for the Treatment of Arterial Thromboembolic Occlusions Following Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Schleder, Stephan; Diekmann, Matthias; Manke, Christoph; Heiss, Peter

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to evaluate the technical success and the early clinical outcome of patients undergoing percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy (PAT) for the treatment of arterial thromboembolism following percutaneous infrainguinal transluminal angioplasty (PTA).MethodsIn this single-center study, during a period of 7 years retrospectively, 47 patients (22 male, 47 %) with a mean age of 73 (range 53–96) years were identified in whom PAT was performed for the treatment of thromboembolic complications of infrainguinal PTA. Primary technical success was defined as residual stenosis of <50 % in diameter after sole PAT, whereas secondary technical success was defined as residual stenosis of <50 % in diameter after PAT and additional PTA and/or stenting. Clinical outcome parameters (e.g., need for further intervention, minor/major amputation) were evaluated for the 30-day postinterventional period.ResultsPrimary technical success was achieved in 64 % of patients (30/47); secondary technical success was obtained in 96 % of patients (45/47). Clinical outcome data were available in 38 patients. In 87 % of patients (33/38), there was no need for further intervention within the 30-day postinterventional period. In three patients, minor amputations were conducted due to preexisting ulcerations (Rutherford Category 5 respectively).ConclusionsPAT enables endovascular treatment of iatrogenic thromboembolic complications after PTA with good technical and early clinical results and minimal morbidity.

  11. Evaluation of the middle cerebral artery occlusion techniques in the rat by in-vitro 3-dimensional micro- and nano computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are widely used in stroke research. The purpose of our study was to evaluate and compare the cerebral macro- and microvascular architecture of rats in two different models of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion using an innovative quantitative micro- and nano-CT imaging technique. Methods 4h of middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed in rats using the macrosphere method or the suture technique. After contrast perfusion, brains were isolated and scanned en-bloc using micro-CT (8 μm)3 or nano-CT at 500 nm3 voxel size to generate 3D images of the cerebral vasculature. The arterial vascular volume fraction and gray scale attenuation was determined and the significance of differences in measurements was tested with analysis of variance [ANOVA]. Results Micro-CT provided quantitative information on vascular morphology. Micro- and nano-CT proved to visualize and differentiate vascular occlusion territories performed in both models of cerebral ischemia. The suture technique leads to a remarkable decrease in the intravascular volume fraction of the middle cerebral artery perfusion territory. Blocking the medial cerebral artery with macrospheres, the vascular volume fraction of the involved hemisphere decreased significantly (p < 0.001), independently of the number of macrospheres, and was comparable to the suture method. We established gray scale measurements by which focal cerebral ischemia could be radiographically categorized (p < 0.001). Nano-CT imaging demonstrates collateral perfusion related to different occluded vessel territories after macrosphere perfusion. Conclusion Micro- and Nano-CT imaging is feasible for analysis and differentiation of different models of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. PMID:20509884

  12. Iloprost infusion in diabetic patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease and foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Mirenda, Francesco; La Spada, Michele; Baccellieri, Domenico; Stilo, Francesco; Benedetto, Filippo; Spinelli, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate iloprost infusion as an alternative to open surgical revascularisation in diabetic patients with foot ulcers, also as a support measure in conjunction with endovascular procedures. We studied 244 patients with critical ischaemia of the lower limbs, 146 of whom (59.8%) affected by diabetes. A femoro-distal bypass was performed in 175 patients. In the 69 nonsurgical diabetic patients (47.3% of the diabetics) an iloprost infusion was started. These diabetics presented foot ulcers, a palpable or slightly hypo-sphygmic popliteal pulse and high distal arterial flow at the ankle. In 55 of these patients (79.7% of those not operated on and 37.6% of the diabetics) who were non-responders to medical therapy, an endovascular procedure was also performed. The results of the iloprost infusion (69 pts.) were evaluated after one week. In 14 responders treated only with iloprost infusion, complete healing of the lesions occurred during the 3 weeks following the end of the 4-week course of therapy. No severe ischaemia recurrences were reported in the follow-up of these 69 patients. In the 47.3% of subjects with diabetic arteriopathy presenting foot ulcers and high distal flow, it proved possible to avoid an open surgical revascularisation procedure and to resort to medical therapy with iloprost, completed in 79.7% of cases with endovascular procedures. Iloprost infusion improves limb perfusion and, in selected cases may be an important therapeutic tool for the care of ulcerative lesions of the diabetic foot, also as a support measure in conjunction with endovascular procedures.

  13. Transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of the PACAP38 influenced ischemic brain in permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is considered to be a potential therapeutic agent for prevention of cerebral ischemia. Ischemia is a most common cause of death after heart attack and cancer causing major negative social and economic consequences. This study was designed to investigate the effect of PACAP38 injection intracerebroventrically in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) along with corresponding SHAM control that used 0.9% saline injection. Methods Ischemic and non-ischemic brain tissues were sampled at 6 and 24 hours post-treatment. Following behavioral analyses to confirm whether the ischemia has occurred, we investigated the genome-wide changes in gene and protein expression using DNA microarray chip (4x44K, Agilent) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), respectively. Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining were also used to further examine the identified protein factor. Results Our results revealed numerous changes in the transcriptome of ischemic hemisphere (ipsilateral) treated with PACAP38 compared to the saline-injected SHAM control hemisphere (contralateral). Previously known (such as the interleukin family) and novel (Gabra6, Crtam) genes were identified under PACAP influence. In parallel, 2-DGE analysis revealed a highly expressed protein spot in the ischemic hemisphere that was identified as dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DPYL2). The DPYL2, also known as Crmp2, is a marker for the axonal growth and nerve development. Interestingly, PACAP treatment slightly increased its abundance (by 2-DGE and immunostaining) at 6 h but not at 24 h in the ischemic hemisphere, suggesting PACAP activates neuronal defense mechanism early on. Conclusions This study provides a detailed inventory of PACAP influenced gene expressions and protein targets

  14. Low-speed treadmill running exercise improves memory function after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Haruka; Hamakawa, Michiru; Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Nakashima, Hiroki; Ishida, Kazuto

    2013-04-15

    Physical exercise may enhance the recovery of impaired memory function in stroke rats. However the appropriate conditions of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are not yet known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect exercise intensity on memory function after cerebral infarction in rats. The animals were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min to induce stroke and were randomly assigned to four groups; Low-Ex, High-Ex, Non-Ex and Sham. On the fourth day after surgery, rats in the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups were forced to exercise using a treadmill for 30 min every day for four weeks. Memory functions were examined during the last 5 days of the experiment (27-32 days after MCAO) by three types of tests: an object recognition test, an object location test and a passive avoidance test. After the final memory test, the infarct volume, number of neurons and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus were analyzed by histochemistry. Memory functions in the Low-Ex group were improved in all tests. In the High-Ex group, only the passive avoidance test improved, but not the object recognition or object location tests. Both the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups had reduced infarct volumes. Although the number of neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the Low-Ex and High-Ex groups was increased, the number for the Low-Ex group increased more than that for the High-Ex group. Moreover hippocampal MAP2 immunoreactivity in the High-Ex group was reduced compared to that in the Low-Ex group. These data suggest that the effects of exercise on memory impairment after cerebral infarction depend on exercise intensity.

  15. Atorvastatin Modulates Regulatory T Cells and Attenuates Cerebral Damage in a Model of Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Perea, Ana Lucía; Gutierrez-Vargas, Johanna; Cardona-Gómez, Gloria Patricia; Guarin, Carlos Julio Montoya; Rojas, Mauricio; Hernández, Paula Andrea Velilla

    2017-03-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) inhibit the activation of the immune response which could down-regulate the systemic and focal activation observed during ischemic stroke. In fact, in animal models, Tregs infiltrate the infarcted brain and reduce the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and infarct volume, mainly in late stages of ischemia. Recently, an expansion and greater suppressive capacity of circulating Tregs after treatment with statins was observed, in addition to their cardio- and neuroprotective actions demonstrated previously. Thus, to determine whether Treg modulation mediated by statins can also be beneficial during stroke, cerebral ischemia was artificially induced in Wistar rats by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) during 60 minutes with subsequent reperfusion for 7 days. Six hours after surgery, some animals were treated with atorvastatin (ATV, 10 mg/kg) or carboxymethylcellulose as vehicle at the same concentration every other day during 7 days. Some animals were sham operated as control group of surgery. Interestingly, ATV treatment prevented the development of infarct volume, reduced the neurological deficits, and the circulating and cervical lymph node CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Treg population. Moreover, there was a reduction of glial cell activation, which correlated with decreased circulating Tregs. Remarkably, treatment with ATV induced an increase in the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells, in particular of those expressing CTLA-4, in brain samples. Together, these results suggest that ATV can modulate Tregs in peripheral tissue and favor their accumulation in the brain, where they can exert neuroprotective actions maybe by the reduction of glial cell activation.

  16. Multidisciplinary treatment for peripheral arterial occlusive disease and the role of eHealth and mHealth

    PubMed Central

    Fokkenrood, Hugo JP; Lauret, Gert-Jan; Scheltinga, Marc RM; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; de Bie, Rob A; Teijink, Joep AW

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly unaffordable health care costs are forcing care providers to develop economically viable and efficient health care plans. Currently, only a minority of all newly diagnosed peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) patients receive efficient and structured conservative treatment for their disease. The aim of this article is to introduce an innovative effective treatment model termed ClaudicatioNet. This concept was launched in The Netherlands as a means to combat treatment shortcomings and stimulate cohesion and collaboration between stakeholders. The overall goal of ClaudicatioNet is to stimulate quality and transparency of PAOD treatment by optimizing multidisciplinary health care chains on a national level. Improved quality is based on stimulating both a theoretical and practical knowledge base, while eHealth and mHealth technologies are used to create clear insights of provided care to enhance quality control management, in addition these technologies can be used to increase patient empowerment, thereby increasing efficacy of PAOD treatment. This online community consists of a web portal with public and personal information supplemented with a mobile application. By connecting to these tools, a social community is created where patients can meet and keep in touch with fellow patients, while useful information for supervising health care professionals is provided. The ClaudicatioNet concept will likely create more efficient and cost-effective PAOD treatment by improving the quality of supervised training programs, extending possibilities and stimulating patient empowerment by using eHealth and mHealth solutions. A free market principle is introduced by introducing transparency to provided care by using objective and subjective outcome parameters. Cost-effectiveness can be achieved using supervised training programs, which may substitute for or postpone expensive invasive vascular interventions. PMID:23093906

  17. Bryostatin extends tPA time window to 6 hours following middle cerebral artery occlusion in aged female rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhenjun; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Turner, Ryan C.; Tan, Cong; Li, Xinlan; Hongpaison, Jarin; Alkon, Daniel L.; Simpkins, James W.; Rosen, Charles L.; Huber, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and hemorrhagic transformation (HT) following ischemic/reperfusion injury contributes to post-stroke morbidity and mortality. Bryostatin, a potent protein kinase C (PKC) modulator, has shown promise in treating neurological injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that administration of bryostatin would reduce BBB disruption and HT following acute ischemic stroke; thus, prolonging the time window for administering recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA). Methods Acute cerebral ischemia was produced by reversible occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCAO) in 18–20-month-old female rats using an autologous blood clot with delayed r-tPA reperfusion. Bryostatin (or vehicle) was administered at 2 hours post-MCAO and r-tPA was administered at 6 hours post-MCAO. Functional assessment, lesion volume, and hemispheric swelling measurements were performed at 24 hours post-MCAO. Assessment of BBB permeability, measurement of hemoglobin, assessment of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels by gel zymography, and measurement of PKCε, PKCα, PKCδ expression by western blot were conducted at 24 hours post-MCAO. Results Rats treated with bryostatin prior to r-tPA administration had decreased mortality and hemispheric swelling when compared with rats treated with r-tPA alone. Administration of bryostatin also limited BBB disruption and HT and down-regulated MMP-9 expression while up-regulating PKCε expression at 24 hours post-MCAO. Conclusions Bryostatin administration ameliorates BBB disruption and reduces the risk of HT by down-regulating MMP-9 activation and up-regulating PKCε. In this proof-of-concept study, bryostatin treatment lengthened the time-to-treatment window and enhanced the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic therapy. PMID:26189021

  18. ChAT-positive neurons participate in subventricular zone neurogenesis after middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianping; Fu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Di; Yu, Lie; Li, Nan; Lu, Zhengfang; Gao, Yufeng; Wang, Menghan; Liu, Xi; Zhou, Chenguang; Han, Wei; Yan, Bo; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms of post-stroke neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) are unclear. However, neural stem cell-intrinsic and neurogenic niche mechanisms, as well as neurotransmitters, have been shown to play important roles in SVZ neurogenesis. Recently, a previously unknown population of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)(+) neurons residing in rodent SVZ were identified to have direct control over neural stem cell proliferation by indirectly activating fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). This finding revealed possible neuronal control over SVZ neurogenesis. In this study, we assessed whether these ChAT(+) neurons also participate in stroke-induced neurogenesis. We used a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model produced by transcranial electrocoagulation in mice, atropine (muscarinic cholinergic receptor [mAchR] antagonist), and donepezil (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) to investigate the role of ChAT(+) neurons in stroke-induced neurogenesis. We found that mAchRs, phosphorylated protein kinase C (p-PKC), and p-38 levels in the SVZ were upregulated in mice on day 7 after MCAO. MCAO also significantly increased the number of BrdU/doublecortin-positive cells and protein levels of phosphorylated-neural cell adhesion molecule and mammalian achaete scute homolog-1. FGFR was activated in the SVZ, and doublecortin-positive cells increased in the peri-infarction region. These post-stroke neurogenic effects were enhanced by donepezil and partially decreased by atropine. Neither atropine nor donepezil affected peri-infarct microglial activation or serum concentrations of TNF-α, IFN-γ, or TGF-β on day 7 after MCAO. We conclude that ChAT(+) neurons in the SVZ may participate in stroke-induced neurogenesis, suggesting a new mechanism for neurogenesis after stroke.

  19. Biphasic Functional Regulation in Hippocampus of Rat with Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Induced by Permanent Occlusion of Bilateral Common Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In Sun; Han, Jung-Soo; Kim, Bu-Yeo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by permanent occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery (BCCAO) in rats has been commonly used for the study of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Despite the apparent cognitive dysfunction in rats with BCCAO, the molecular markers or pathways involved in the pathological alternation have not been clearly identified. Methods Temporal changes (sham, 21, 35, 45, 55 and 70 days) in gene expression in the hippocampus of rats after BCCAO were measured using time-course microarray analysis. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analyses were performed to identify the functional involvement of temporally regulated genes in BCCAO. Results Two major gene expression patterns were observed in the hippocampus of rats after BCCAO. One pattern, which was composed of 341 early up-regulated genes after the surgical procedure, was dominantly involved in immune-related biological functions (false discovery rate [FDR]<0.01). Another pattern composed of 182 temporally delayed down-regulated genes was involved in sensory perception such as olfactory and cognition functions (FDR<0.01). In addition to the two gene expression patterns, the temporal change of GO and the pathway activities using all differentially expressed genes also confirmed that an immune response was the main early change, whereas sensory functions were delayed responses. Moreover, we identified FADD and SOCS3 as possible core genes in the sensory function loss process using text-based mining and interaction network analysis. Conclusions The biphasic regulatory mechanism first reported here could provide molecular evidence of BCCAO-induced impaired memory in rats as well as mechanism of the development of vascular dementia. PMID:23936146

  20. Reduction of ischemic brain injury by administration of palmitoylethanolamide after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Akbar; Genovese, Tiziana; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Crupi, Rosalia; Velardi, Enrico; Marino, Angela; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2012-10-05

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in adults. Current therapeutic strategies for stroke, including thrombolytic drugs, such as tissue plasminogen activator offer great promise for the treatment, but complimentary neuroprotective treatments are likely to provide a better outcome. To counteract the ischemic brain injury in mice, a new therapeutic approach has been employed by using palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). PEA is one of the members of N-acyl-ethanolamine family maintain not only redox balance but also inhibit the mechanisms of secondary injury on ischemic brain injury. Treatment of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-induced animals with PEA reduced edema and brain infractions as evidenced by decreased 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining across brain sections. PEA-mediated improvements in tissues histology shown by reduction of lesion size and improvement in apoptosis level (assayed by Bax and Bcl-2) further support the efficacy of PEA therapy. We demonstrated that PEA treatment blocked infiltration of astrocytes and restored MCAo-mediated reduced expression of PAR, nitrotyrosine, iNOS, chymase, tryptase, growth factors (BDNF and GDNF) and GFAP. PEA also inhibited the MCAo-mediated increased expression of pJNK, NF-κB, and degradation of IκB-α. PEA-treated injured animals improved neurobehavioral functions as evaluated by motor deficits. Based on these findings we propose that PEA would be useful in lowering the risk of damage or improving function in ischemia-reperfusion brain injury-related disorders.

  1. Multimodal Neuroprotection Induced by PACAP38 in Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation and Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Stroke Models

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Gadi; Arien-Zakay, Hadar; Chen, Jieli; Zhang, Chunling; Chopp, Michael; Jiang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), a potent neuropeptide which crosses the blood–brain barrier, is known to provide neuroprotection in rat stroke models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by mechanism(s) which deserve clarification. We confirmed that following i.v. injection of 30 ng/kg of PACAP38 in rats exposed to 2 h of MCAO focal cerebral ischemia and 48 h reoxygenation, 50 % neuroprotection was measured by reduced caspase-3 activity and volume of cerebral infarction. Similar neuroprotective effects were measured upon PACAP38 treatment of oxygen–glucose deprivation and reoxygenation of brain cortical neurons. The neuroprotection was temporally associated with increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylation of its receptor—tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (trkB), activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt, and reduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 phosphorylation. PACAP38 increased expression of neuronal markers beta-tubulin III, microtubule-associated protein-2, and growth-associated protein-43. PACAP38 induced stimulation of Rac and suppression of Rho GTPase activities. PACAP38 down-regulated the nerve growth factor receptor (p75NTR) and associated Nogo-(Neurite outgrowth-A) receptor. Collectively, these in vitro and in vivo results propose that PACAP exhibits neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia by three mechanisms: a direct one, mediated by PACAP receptors, and two indirect, induced by neurotrophin release, activation of the trkB receptors and attenuation of neuronal growth inhibitory signaling molecules p75NTR and Nogo receptor. PMID:22678884

  2. Multimodal neuroprotection induced by PACAP38 in oxygen-glucose deprivation and middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke models.

    PubMed

    Lazarovici, Philip; Cohen, Gadi; Arien-Zakay, Hadar; Chen, Jieli; Zhang, Chunling; Chopp, Michael; Jiang, Hao

    2012-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), a potent neuropeptide which crosses the blood-brain barrier, is known to provide neuroprotection in rat stroke models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by mechanism(s) which deserve clarification. We confirmed that following i.v. injection of 30 ng/kg of PACAP38 in rats exposed to 2 h of MCAO focal cerebral ischemia and 48 h reoxygenation, 50 % neuroprotection was measured by reduced caspase-3 activity and volume of cerebral infarction. Similar neuroprotective effects were measured upon PACAP38 treatment of oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation of brain cortical neurons. The neuroprotection was temporally associated with increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylation of its receptor-tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (trkB), activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt, and reduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 phosphorylation. PACAP38 increased expression of neuronal markers beta-tubulin III, microtubule-associated protein-2, and growth-associated protein-43. PACAP38 induced stimulation of Rac and suppression of Rho GTPase activities. PACAP38 downregulated the nerve growth factor receptor (p75(NTR)) and associated Nogo-(Neurite outgrowth-A) receptor. Collectively, these in vitro and in vivo results propose that PACAP exhibits neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia by three mechanisms: a direct one, mediated by PACAP receptors, and two indirect, induced by neurotrophin release, activation of the trkB receptors and attenuation of neuronal growth inhibitory signaling molecules p75(NTR) and Nogo receptor.

  3. Intravenous administration of pravastatin immediately after middle cerebral artery occlusion reduces cerebral oedema in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Mariucci, Giuseppina; Taha, Elena; Tantucci, Michela; Spaccatini, Cristiano; Tozzi, Alessandro; Ambrosini, Maria Vittoria

    2011-06-25

    3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to protect against ischemic stroke by mechanisms that are independent of lowering serum cholesterol levels. In this study we investigated the potential neuroprotective effect of a single i.v. treatment with four increasing doses of pravastatin on permanent occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCAo) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pravastatin was given 10 min after MCAo and its effect was determined 24 h later. Treatment results were evaluated in terms of infarct volume, homolateral hemisphere oedema, glial fibrillary acid (GFAP), vimentin (Vim) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) immunoreactivity and TUNEL positivity. Cerebral levels of eNOS were measured by western blot analysis. Pravastatin did not reduce cerebral infarct while it mitigated homolateral hemisphere oedema in a dose-dependent manner with respect to controls. No differences among groups were found regarding GFAP and Vim immunoreactivity and TUNEL positivity. Instead, pravastatin-treated animals presented a more marked cerebral eNOS immunoreactivity as compared with controls. In agreement with immunohistochemistry, immunoblot revealed dose-dependent increases in cerebral levels of eNOS in pravastatin rats. Our data confirm statin neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia. In particular, it is of great interest that a single i.v. Pravastatin administration reduced cerebral oedema by upregulating eNOS expression/activity. This, by increasing vascular NO bioavailability, could have produced proximal vasodilation and contributed to reducing perfusional deficit. It is worthy stressing how important the anti-oedema action is that pravastatin seems to exert. Indeed, cerebral oedema, when widespread and beyond limits of physiological compensation, causes endocranic hypertension and additional cerebral damage over time.

  4. Guidewires Used in First Intentional Single Wiring Strategy for Chronic Total Occlusions of the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Yasser S.; Boudou, Nicolas; Dumonteil, Nicolas; Lhermusier, Thibault; Carrie, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the left anterior descending (LAD) specifically is associated with improved long-term 5 year survival as compared to PCI failure. The procedure is associated with usage of different types of dedicated guidewires by simple or complex techniques aiming to reopen the occluded artery. Aim: To describe types and outcome of guidewires used in LAD-CTO utilizing a first intentional single wiring simple strategy. Methods: A single center prospective registry for all consecutive patients with a PCI attempt to a native LAD CTO. The initial strategy for lesion crossing was Single wiring. Results: A total of 30 patients with LAD CTO lesions (100%), were recorded. Mean age was 71.6 + 15 years, 77% were Males, risk factors Hypertension in 63%, Diabetes 27%, Dyslipidemia 57%, smoking 40%, hereditary in 13% of patients. Isolated guidewire (GW) success rate was very high 93%. Single wiring was the prevailing technique used in 97% of successfull lesions (83% of total cases) while only 3% were by multiple wiring techniques. Successful single antegrade wiring represented 63% with a GW success rate of 92% of cases. Successful single retrograde wiring represented 13% with a GW success rate of 67%. Successful Crossing GW types in our patients were 44% Soft Tapered GWs; fielder XT (44%), 36% were Soft Non Tapered Pilot 50 (28%), whisper (8%), while 16% were Stiff Non tapered GWs; Miracle 12 (8%), Miracle 6 (4%), Miracle 3 (4%), and 4% were Stiff Tapered GWs; Progress 200 (4%). Conclusions: Single wiring as an initial strategy in PCI for LAD-CTO lesions has a high success rate and is associated with a 44% majority of Soft Tapered GWs, 36% Soft Non Tapered, 16% Stiff Non tapered GWs, and 4% Stiff Tapered GWs. PMID:23983909

  5. Thromboelastographic Changes Following Nonionic Contrast Medium Injection During Transfemoral Angiography in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, V.K. Handa, A.; Philips-Hughes, J.; Boardman, P.; Uberoi, R.; Hands, L.J.

    2006-12-15

    Background/Purpose. Patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) are known to be systemically hypercoagulable and there is concern that exposing them to contrast media during angiography may exacerbate that thrombotic tendency. Many in vitro studies in which blood is exposed to contrast media suggest that nonionic contrast medium (NICM) has a weaker anticoagulant effect than ionic contrast medium (ICM) and some studies suggest that NICM can lead to activation of coagulation thus increasing the risk of thrombotic events where it is employed. We have looked at the changes in coagulation adjacent to the site of contrast injection/potential angioplasty to determine the magnitude of change locally. Methods. We measured changes in the coagulability of aortic blood samples immediately before and within 2 min after injection of the last bolus of iohexol (NICM) prior to any intervention procedure in 30 patients with PAOD. Samples were analyzed using thromboelastography (TEG) to identify changes in the coagulability of the aortic blood samples. Results. TEG tracings of samples taken from the aorta after injection of NICM showed a significant increase in R time (time to fibrin formation) (p = 0.036) and in k time (dynamics of clot formation) (p = 0.028) and a reduction in Angle (decreased acceleration of fibrin build-up) (p = 0.013), Maximal amplitude (MA) (reduced ultimate clot strength) (p = 0.018) and Coagulation Index (CI) (p = 0.032). Conclusion. These changes in TEG parameters show that the local effect of NICM is a reduction in coagulation activity rather than the activation suggested by some previous studies.

  6. Leucocyte adhesion deficiency presenting as a chronic ileocolitis.

    PubMed Central

    D'Agata, I D; Paradis, K; Chad, Z; Bonny, Y; Seidman, E

    1996-01-01

    CD11/CD18 leucocyte glycoprotein deficiency is a rare, congenital adhesion molecule disorder which, in its severe form, is usually fatal. Leucocytes in affected subjects have abnormal migration and adherence, rendering patients susceptible to life threatening infections. The CD11/CD18 integrins, and other adhesion molecules, are considered essential to the normal inflammatory response. It has been postulated that adhesion molecules may be responsible for mediating in part, the inflammatory changes observed in inflammatory bowel diseases and related disorders. This report describes the first case of CD11/CD18 deficiency characterised by a chronic ileocolitis. Bone marrow transplantation completely resolved the gastrointestinal symptoms, supporting a role for neutrophil dysfunction in the pathogenesis of the gut lesions. This case suggests that specific blockade of CD11/CD18 integrins alone may not halt the chronic inflammatory response observed in immune mediated bowel disorders, and that abnormalities of leucocyte function must be included in the differential diagnosis of paediatric Crohn's disease. Images p606-a PMID:8944573

  7. The free radical spin-trap alpha-PBN attenuates periinfarct depolarizations following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats without reducing infarct volume.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Thomas; Bruhn, Torben; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-11-14

    The effect of the free radical spin-trap alpha-phenyl-butyl-tert-nitrone (alpha-PBN) in permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats was examined in two series of experiments. In the first, rats were subjected to permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) and treated 1 h after occlusion with a single dose of alpha-PBN (100 mg/kg) or saline. Body temperature was measured and controlled for the first 24 h to obtain identical temperature curves in the two groups. Cortical infarct volumes were determined on histological sections 7 days later. alpha-PBN did not significantly reduce infarct volume (control: 28.3+/-16.3 mm3 vs. alpha-PBN 23.7+/-7.4 mm3). In the second series of experiments, periinfarct depolarizations (PIDs) were recorded with an extracellular DC electrode at two locations in the ischemic penumbra for the initial 3 h following MCAO. alpha-PBN (100 mg/kg, single dose in conjunction with occlusion) significantly reduced the total number (median value of 3 PIDs in the control groups vs. 1 PID in alpha-PBN groups, p<0.001) and total duration of the PIDs (median value 662 s in the control groups vs. 162 s in the alpha-PBN groups, p<0.006). In spite of this, cortical infarct volumes determined 7 days later in the same rats were not smaller in alpha-PBN-treated rats. The study thus demonstrates that attenuation of PIDs does not always lead to smaller infarcts if permanent arterial occlusion is followed by long survival time and does not support the hypothesis that PIDs per se are critical determinants of infarct size in this situation.

  8. Short-Term Left Ventricular Remodeling After Revascularization in Subacute Total and Subtotal Occlusion With the Infarct-Related Left Anterior Descending Artery

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Ahmet; Kalay, Nihat; Korkmaz, Hasan; Dogdu, Orhan; Sahin, Omer; Elcik, Deniz; Karacavus, Seyhan; Dogan, Ali; Inanc, Tugrul; Ozdogru, Ibrahim; Oguzhan, Abdurrahman; Topsakal, Ramazan

    2011-01-01

    Background Large randomized studies revealed that percutaneous coronary intervention has no clinical benefit in patients with total occlusion. The purpose of this study is to evaluate left ventricular remodelling after PCI for total and subtotal infarct-related left anterior desending artery in stable patients who have not received trombolytic theraphy. Methods Sixty stable patients with subacute anterior myocardial infarction who have total or subtotal occlusion in the infarct-related left anterior descending artery were enrolled the study (20 patient in the total-medical group, 20 patient in the total-PCI group and 20 patient in the subtotal-PCI group). All patients’ left ventricular diameters, volumes and ejection fractions measured at admission and after a month. Results The necrotic segment number in scintigraphy were similar in three groups. In the total-PCI group, there were significant increases in left ventricular diastolic diameter, left ventricular end-diastolic volume and left ventricular end-systolic volume at first month. A borderline significant increase was observed in LVEDV in the total-medical group at first month. No significant difference was seen in all echocardiographic parameters in the subtotal-PCI group at a month after discharge. The percentage of increase in LVEDV was significantly higher and the percentage of increase in LVESV was borderline significantly higher in the total-PCI group than the other groups. Conclusions In stable patients, PCI for total occlusion in the subacute phase of anterior MI causes an increase in LV remodeling. Nevertheless PCI for subtotal occlusion in the subacute phase of anterior MI may prevent LV remodeling.

  9. Acute embolic occlusion of the right common iliac artery after revision total hip arthroplasty treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis and balloon angioplasty: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongqi; Chen, Song; Chen, Li; Li, Yuefeng; Chai, Yasheng; Wei, Ping; Xu, Shunchi; Liu, Tangyou; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Methods: A 63-year-old woman with atrial fibrillation presented clinical symptoms and signs of acute ischemia in the right lower extremity on the 17th postoperative day after revision total hip arthroplasty of the left hip for aseptic loosening of femoral component. Aspirin was discontinued 7 days before surgery. Both computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of the right common iliac artery. An emergency catheter-directed thrombolysis with urokinase combined with balloon angioplasty was performed to obtain complete patency of the right common iliac artery. Results: The patient received anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy postoperatively and was fine at the 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: This case demonstrated that catheter-directed thrombolysis combined with balloon angioplasty could be an efficacious, minimally invasive approach for the treatment of acute embolic occlusion of the common iliac artery. Preoperative anticoagulation for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty with long-term use of aspirin for atrial fibrillation needs further investigation. PMID:27489692

  10. A temporal MRI assessment of neuropathology after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat: correlations with behavior.

    PubMed

    Virley, D; Beech, J S; Smart, S C; Williams, S C; Hodges, H; Hunter, A J

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temporal and spatial pathological alterations within ischemic tissue using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine the extent and duration of functional impairment using objective behavioral tests after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in the rat. MRI signatures derived from specific anatomical regions of interest (ROI) were then appropriately correlated to the behavioral measures over the time course of the study (up to 28 days post-tMCAO). Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) were initially trained on the following behavioral tasks before surgery: bilateral sticky label test (for contralateral neglect); beam walking (for hindlimb coordination); staircase test (for skilled forelimb paw-reaching). Rats were then randomly assigned to receive either tMCAO (90 minutes, n = 6), by means of the intraluminal thread technique, or sham-control surgery (n = 6). Proton density, T2- and T2-diffusion-weighted MR images were acquired at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days post-tMCAO that were then smoothed into respective proton density, T2 relaxation, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Apparent percent total lesion volume was assessed using T2W imaging. MR signatures were evaluated using the tissue maps by defining ROI for MCAO and sham-control groups, which corresponded to the caudate-putamen, forelimb, hindlimb, and lower parietal cortices both ipsilateral and contralateral to the occlusion site. Behavioral tests were undertaken daily from 1 to 28 days post-tMCAO. Results demonstrate that apparent percent lesion volume reduced from 1 to 7 days (P < 0.05) but then remained constant up to 28 days for the MCAO group. Pathological changes in the temporal profile of T2 and ADC tissue signatures were significantly altered in specific ROI across the time course of the study (P < 0.05 to <0.001), reflecting the progression of edema to necrosis and cavitation. Both T2 and ADC measures of ischemic pathology

  11. Usefulness of MRI to Differentiate Between Temporary and Long-Term Coronary Artery Occlusion in a Minimally Invasive Model of Experimental Myocardial Infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Abegunewardene, Nico Vosseler, Markus; Gori, Tommaso; Hoffmann, Nico; Schmidt, Kai-Helge; Becker, Dietmar; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Petersen, Steffen E.; Schreiber, Laura M.; Horstick, Georg; Muenzel, Thomas

    2009-09-15

    The surgical technique employed to determine an experimental ischemic damage is a major factor in the subsequent process of myocardial scar development. We set out to establish a minimally invasive porcine model of myocardial infarction using cardiac contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (ce-MRI) as the basic diagnostic tool. Twenty-seven domestic pigs were randomized to either temporary or permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Temporary occlusion was achieved by inflation of a percutaneous balloon in the left anterior descending artery directly beyond the second diagonal branch. Occlusion was maintained for 30 or 45 min, followed by reperfusion. Permanent occlusion was achieved via thrombin injection. Thirteen animals died peri- or postinterventionally due to arrhythmias. Fourteen animals survived the 30-min ischemia (four animals; group 1), the 45-min ischemia (six animals; group 2), or the permanent occlusion (4 animals; group 3). Coronary angiography and ce-MRI were performed 8 weeks after coronary occlusion to document the coronary flow grade and the size of myocardial scar tissue. The LAD was patent in all animals in groups 1 and 2, with normal TIMI flow; in group 3 animals, the LAD was totally occluded. Fibrosis of the left ventricle in group 1 (4.9 {+-} 4.4%; p = 0.008) and group 2 (9.4 {+-} 2.9%; p = 0.05) was significantly lower than in group 3 (14.5 {+-} 3.9%). Wall thickness of the ischemic area was significantly lower in group 3 versus group 1 and group 2 (2.9 {+-} 0.3, 5.9 {+-} 0.7, and 6.1 {+-} 0.7 mm; p = 0.005). The extent of late enhancement of the left ventricle was also significantly higher in group 3 (16.9 {+-} 2.1%) compared to group 1 (5.3 {+-} 5.4%; p = 0.003) and group 2 (9.7 {+-} 3.4%, p = 0.013). In conclusion, the present model of minimally invasive infarction coupled with ce-MRI may represent a useful alternative to the open chest model for studies of myocardial infarction and scar development.

  12. Near-infrared diffuse reflectance imaging of infarct core and peri-infarct depolarization in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Nishidate, Izumi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Sato, Shunichi

    2014-03-01

    To understand the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke, in vivo imaging of the brain tissue viability and related spreading depolarization is crucial. In the infarct core, impairment of energy metabolism causes anoxic depolarization (AD), which considerably increases energy consumption, accelerating irreversible neuronal damage. In the peri-infarct penumbra region, where tissue is still reversible despite limited blood flow, peri-infarct depolarization (PID) occurs, exacerbating energy deficit and hence expanding the infarct area. We previously showed that light-scattering signal, which is sensitive to cellular/subcellular structural integrity, was correlated with AD and brain tissue viability in a rat hypoxia-reoxygenation model. In the present study, we performed transcranial NIR diffuse reflectance imaging of the rat brain during middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and examined whether the infarct core and PIDs can be detected. Immediately after occluding the left MCA, light scattering started to increase focally in the occlusion site and a bright region was generated near the occlusion site and spread over the left entire cortex, which was followed by a dark region, showing the occurrence of PID. The PID was generated repetitively and the number of times of occurrence in a rat ranged from four to ten within 1 hour after occlusion (n=4). The scattering increase in the occlusion site was irreversible and the area with increased scattering expanded with increasing the number of PIDs, indicating an expansion of the infarct core. These results suggest the usefulness of NIR diffuse reflectance signal to visualize spatiotemporal changes in the infarct area and PIDs.

  13. [Effect of deltaran on the mediatory balance in the brain of young and old rats with left-side laterality profile in case of carotid arteries occlusion].

    PubMed

    Kim, T K; Karantysh, G V; Mendzheritskiĭ, A M; Ryzhak, G A

    2007-01-01

    The medico-social significance of ischemic brain lesions, which are the most frequent cause of disablement and death in older people, stipulates the need for efficient means of prevention and correction of central nervous system disorders in case of ischemic brain lesions. The efficacy of Deltaran in the correction of disordered neuromediator balance in the brain of rats of different age groups was studied on the model of carotid arteries occlusion. Studies showed, that Deltaran exerts an anti-stress effect on old rats with left-side profile by altering the neuromediators' distribution in animals' brain under conditions of hypoxia. This enables to recommend Deltaran for further study as a neuroprotector.

  14. Parecoxib is neuroprotective in spontaneously hypertensive rats after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion: a divided treatment response?

    PubMed Central

    Kelsen, Jesper; Kjær, Katrine; Chen, Gang; Pedersen, Michael; Røhl, Lisbeth; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Nielsen, Søren; Nyengaard, Jens R; Rønn, Lars Christian B

    2006-01-01

    Background Anti-inflammatory treatment affects ischemic damage and neurogenesis in rodent models of cerebral ischemia. We investigated the potential benefit of COX-2 inhibition with parecoxib in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo). Methods Sixty-four male SHRs were randomized to 90 min of intraluminal tMCAo or sham surgery. Parecoxib (10 mg/kg) or isotonic saline was administered intraperitoneally (IP) during the procedure, and twice daily thereafter. Nineteen animals were euthanized after 24 hours, and each hemisphere was examined for mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX enzymes by quantitative RT-PCR. Twenty-three tMCAo animals were studied with diffusion and T2 weighted MRI within the first 24 hours, and ten of the SHRs underwent follow-up MRI six days later. Thirty-three SHRs were given 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) twice daily on Day 4 to 7 after tMCAo. Animals were euthanized on Day 8 and the brains were studied with free-floating immunohistochemistry for activated microglia (ED-1), hippocampal granule cell BrdU incorporation, and neuronal nuclei (NeuN). Infarct volume estimation was done using the 2D nucleator and Cavalieri principle on NeuN-stained coronal brain sections. The total number of BrdU+ cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus was estimated using the optical fractionator. Results We found a significant reduction in infarct volume in parecoxib treated animals one week after tMCAo (p < 0.03). Cortical ADC values in the parecoxib group were markedly less increased on Day 8 (p < 0.01). Interestingly, the parecoxib treated rats were segregated into two subgroups, suggesting a responder vs. non-responder phenomenon. We found indications of mRNA up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and COX-2, whereas COX-1 remained unaffected. Hippocampal granule cell BrdU incorporation was not affected by parecoxib treatment. Presence of ED-1+ activated microglia in the

  15. Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion with and without brain damage.

    PubMed

    Kokaia, Z; Zhao, Q; Kokaia, M; Elmér, E; Metsis, M; Smith, M L; Siesjö, B K; Lindvall, O

    1995-11-01

    Levels of mRNA for c-fos, nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), TrkB, and TrkC were studied using in situ hybridization in the rat brain at different reperfusion times after unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Short-term (15 min) MCAO, which does not cause neuronal death, induced elevated BDNF mRNA expression confined to ipsilateral frontal and cingulate cortices outside the ischemic area. With a longer duration of MCAO (2 h), which leads to cortical infarction, the increase was more marked and elevated BDNF mRNA levels were also detected bilaterally in dentate granule cells and CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons. Maximum expression was found after 2 h of reperfusion. At 24 h BDNF mRNA expression had returned to control values. In the ischemic core of the parietal cortex only scattered neurons were expressing high levels of BDNF mRNA after 15 min and 2 h of MCAO. Analysis of different BDNF transcripts showed that MCAO induced a marked increase of exon III mRNA but only small increases of exon I and II mRNAs in cortex and hippocampus. In contrast to BDNF mRNA, elevated expression of c-fos mRNA was observed in the entire ipsilateral cerebral cortex, including the ischemic core, after both 15 min and 2 h of MCAO. Two hours of MCAO also induced transient, bilateral increases of NGF and TrkB mRNA levels and a decrease of NT-3 mRNA expression, confined to dentate granule cells. The upregulation of BDNF mRNA expression in cortical neurons after MCAO is probably triggered by glutamate through a spreading depression-like mechanism. The lack of response of the BDNF gene in the ischemic core may be due to suppression of signal transduction or transcription factor synthesis caused by the ischemia. The observed pattern of gene expression after MCAO agrees well with a neuroprotective role of BDNF in cortical neurons. However, elevated levels of NGF and BDNF protein could also increase synaptic efficacy in the

  16. Rat Pial Microvascular Responses to Transient Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion and Reperfusion: Quercetin’s Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Lapi, D.; Vagnani, S.; Pignataro, G.; Esposito, E.; Paterni, M.; Colantuoni, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess quercetin’s mechanism of action in rat pial microvessels during transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) and reperfusion. Rat pial microcirculation was visualized using fluorescence microscopy through a closed cranial window. Pial arterioles were classified in five orders of branchings. In ischemic rats, 30 min BCCAO and 60 min reperfusion caused arteriolar diameter decrease, microvascular leakage, leukocyte adhesion in venules, and reduction of capillary perfusion. Quercetin highest dose determined dilation in all arteriolar orders, by 40 ± 4% of baseline in order 2 vessels, and prevented microvascular permeability [0.15 ± 0.02 normalized gray levels (NGL)], leukocyte adhesion, and capillary failure. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition exerted by chelerythrine prior to quercetin attenuated quercetin-induced effects: order 2 arterioles dilated by 19.0 ± 2.4% baseline, while there was an increase in permeability (0.40 ± 0.05 NGL) and leukocyte adhesion with a marked decrease in capillary perfusion. Tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibition by tyrphostin 47 prior to quercetin lessened smaller pial arterioles responses, dilating by 20.7 ± 2.5% of baseline, while leakage increased (0.39 ± 0.04 NGL) sustained by slight leukocyte adhesion and ameliorated capillary perfusion. Inhibition of endothelium nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) prior to PKC or TK reduced the quercetin’s effects on pial arteriolar diameter and leakage. eNOS inhibition by L-NAME reduced quercetin effects on pial arteriolar diameter and leakage. Finally, combined inhibition of PKC and TK prior to quercetin abolished quercetin-induced effects, decreasing eNOS expression, while blocking ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels by glibenclamide suppressed arteriolar dilation. In conclusion, the protective effects of quercetin could be due to different mechanisms resulting in NO

  17. Protective Effects of Quercetin on Rat Pial Microvascular Changes during Transient Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion and Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Lapi, Dominga; Vagnani, S.; Pignataro, G.; Esposito, E.; Paterni, M.; Colantuoni, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo effects of quercetin on pial microvascular responses during transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) and reperfusion. Rat pial microcirculation was visualized by fluorescence microscopy through a closed cranial window. Pial arterioles were classified in five orders of branchings. Capillaries were assigned order 0, the smallest arterioles order 1, and the largest ones order 5. In ischemic rats, 30 min BCCAO and 60 min reperfusion caused arteriolar diameter decrease (by 14.5 ± 3.3% of baseline in order 2), microvascular leakage [0.47 ± 0.04, normalized gray levels (NGL)], leukocyte adhesion in venules (9 ± 2/100 μm venular length, v.l./30 s), and reduction of capillary perfusion (by 40 ± 7% of baseline). Moreover, at the end of BCCAO and reperfusion there was a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation when compared with baseline. Quercetin highest dose determined dilation in all arteriolar orders (by 40 ± 4% of baseline in order 2) and prevented microvascular permeability (0.15 ± 0.02 NGL), leukocyte adhesion (3 ± 1/100 μm v.l./30 s) as well as ROS formation, while capillary perfusion was protected. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) prior to quercetin reduced arteriolar dilation (order 2 diameter increase by 10.3 ± 2.5% of baseline) and caused permeability increase (0.29 ± 0.03 NGL); inhibition of neuronal NOS or inducible NOS did not affect quercetin-induced effects. Inhibition of guanylyl cyclase prior to quercetin reversed the quercetin’s effects on pial arteriolar diameter and leakage. In conclusion, quercetin was able to protect pial microcirculation from ischemia–reperfusion damage inducing arteriolar dilation likely by nitric oxide release. Moreover, quercetin scavenger activity blunted ROS formation preserving the blood–brain barrier integrity. PMID:22403549

  18. Neurological impairment in rats after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion: a comparative study under various treatment paradigms.

    PubMed

    Zausinger, S; Hungerhuber, E; Baethmann, A; Reulen, H; Schmid-Elsaesser, R

    2000-04-28

    The assessment of the functional outcome - in addition to the conventional endpoints as histomorphometry of the ischemic brain damage - for the evaluation of cerebroprotective therapies is increasingly recommended, although there is little consensus on appropriate procedures. We evaluated a battery of sensorimotor tasks in rats after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to select those with the highest potential to discriminate between various degrees of neuronal damage. A total of 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 90 min of MCAO and assigned to one of four treatment arms: (1) sham-operated controls, (2) vehicle-treated controls, (3) moderately effective neuroprotection by 2x100 mg/kg alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), (4) highly effective neuroprotection by mild hypothermia (33 degrees C). Functional deficits were daily quantified using the beam balance task (1.5 cm, 2.5 cm diameter rectangular and 2.5 cm diameter cylindrical beam), the prehensile traction task, the rotarod, and a six-point neuro-score. Infarction of cerebral cortex and basal ganglia was assessed one week after ischemia. Treatment with PBN significantly reduced cortical infarction (-31%), while treatment with hypothermia resulted in a significantly smaller infarct volume of cortex (-94%) and basal ganglia (-27%). Beam balance, prehensile traction and rotarod failed to demonstrate any difference in motor performance. The six-point neuro-score showed a significant correlation with cortical infarction from day 2 and with total infarct volume from day 3. The smaller the reduction of infarct volume, the later the corresponding difference in neuro-score became apparent. Functional outcome after MCAO in rats can be assessed by a relatively simple measurement of neurological deficit. The slope of functional recovery is closely related with the degree of the morphological, particularly cortical damage. If expected treatment effects are small, an observation period of at least 3

  19. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... legs (or rarely the arms), usually due to atherosclerosis and resulting in decreased blood flow. Symptoms depend ... among older people because it often results from atherosclerosis (plaque or disease buildup in the wall of ...

  20. Retrograde rotational thrombectomy with the Rotarex® catheter system: treatment option for an acute thrombotic occlusion of a subclavian artery

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Michael; Kaeunicke, Matthias; Lukat, Michael; Hailer, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Rotarex® catheter system is an effective tool for endovascular therapy of acute occluded arteries of the lower extremities, especially for the femoral artery. The authors report the use of the Rotarex catheter system for retrograde percutaneous thrombectomy of an occluded subclavian artery. Case presentation: A 79-year-old male patient was referred because of acute pain and paleness of his left arm. Ultrasound examination and computed tomography angiography proved an occlusion of the left subclavian artery from the origin of the vessel. A retrograde recanalization was attempted using the 6F Rotarex catheter and combined with initiation of a local low-dose lytic therapy. A normal blood flow to the left arm was restored. Follow-up examination 3 months later showed a normal perfusion situation of the left upper extremity. Conclusion: The Rotarex catheter system is an effective tool for endovascular therapy of acute occluded arteries and efficacy is not restricted to the lower extremities. PMID:22102785

  1. Evolution of myocardial ischemia and left ventricular function in patients with angina pectoris without myocardial infarction and total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and collaterals from other coronary arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Juilliere, Y.; Marie, P.Y.; Danchin, N.; Karcher, G.; Bertrand, A.; Cherrier, F. )

    1991-07-01

    Repeated episodes of myocardial ischemia might lead to progressive impairment of left ventricular (LV) function. This radionuclide study assessed myocardial ischemia and LV function several years after documented coronary occlusion without myocardial infarction. Over 5 years, 24 consecutive patients, who underwent cardiac catheterization for angina pectoris without myocardial infarction, had isolated total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery with well-developed collateral vessels. Five patients were successfully treated by coronary bypass grafting and 3 by coronary angioplasty. Among the 16 medically treated patients, 1 was lost to follow-up and 1 died (extracardiac death). The mean (+/- standard deviation) follow-up (14 patients) was 48 +/- 15 months. At follow-up, 8 patients still had clinical chest pain, 11 received antianginal therapy, 4 patients had no stress ischemia and the other 10 had greater than or equal to 1 sign of stress ischemia. All patients had a normal LV ejection fraction at rest (mean 60 +/- 3%; range 55 to 65%). Collateral circulation preserves LV function at the time of occlusion and, in some cases, prevents the development of myocardial ischemia; in patients with persisting myocardial ischemia after well-collateralized coronary occlusion, LV function is not impaired at long-term follow-up.

  2. Preventive Effect of Yuzu and Hesperidin on Left Ventricular Remodeling and Dysfunction in Rat Permanent Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Occlusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hye Yon; Ahn, Ji Hun; Park, Se Won; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling, which includes ventricular dilatation and increased interstitial fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI), is the critical process underlying the progression to heart failure. Therefore, a novel approach for preventing LV remodeling after MI is highly desirable. Yuzu is a citrus plant originating in East Asia, and has a number of cardioprotective properties such as hesperidin. However, no study has proved whether yuzu can prevent LV remodeling. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of yuzu on heart failure (HF) and its potential impact on the LV remodeling process after MI. Our in vivo study using the permanent left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion model demonstrate that one week pre-treatment with yuzu or its major metabolite hesperidin before LAD occlusion significantly attenuated cardiac dysfunction, myocyte apoptosis and inflammation. Not only yuzu but also hesperidin inhibited caspase-3 activity, myeloperoxidase expression, α-smooth muscle actin expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity in a permanent LAD occlusion rat model. To our knowledge, our findings provide the first evidence that yuzu and hesperidin prevent MI-induced ventricular dysfunction and structural remodeling of myocardium. PMID:25559243

  3. Preventive effect of yuzu and hesperidin on left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction in rat permanent left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hye Yon; Ahn, Ji Hun; Park, Se Won; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling, which includes ventricular dilatation and increased interstitial fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI), is the critical process underlying the progression to heart failure. Therefore, a novel approach for preventing LV remodeling after MI is highly desirable. Yuzu is a citrus plant originating in East Asia, and has a number of cardioprotective properties such as hesperidin. However, no study has proved whether yuzu can prevent LV remodeling. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of yuzu on heart failure (HF) and its potential impact on the LV remodeling process after MI. Our in vivo study using the permanent left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion model demonstrate that one week pre-treatment with yuzu or its major metabolite hesperidin before LAD occlusion significantly attenuated cardiac dysfunction, myocyte apoptosis and inflammation. Not only yuzu but also hesperidin inhibited caspase-3 activity, myeloperoxidase expression, α-smooth muscle actin expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity in a permanent LAD occlusion rat model. To our knowledge, our findings provide the first evidence that yuzu and hesperidin prevent MI-induced ventricular dysfunction and structural remodeling of myocardium.

  4. Assessment of in vivo fetal growth and placental vascular function in a novel intrauterine growth restriction model of progressive uterine artery occlusion in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Emilio A.; Alegría, René; Farias, Marcelo; Díaz‐López, Farah; Hernández, Cherie; Uauy, Ricardo; Regnault, Timothy R. H.; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Key points Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with short‐ and long‐term detrimental cardiometabolic effects.Mice and rats are commonly used to assess IUGR, but differences in placental and fetal developmental physiology relative to those in humans highlight the need for alternative small animal IUGR models.We developed a guinea pig IUGR model by gradual occlusion of uterine arteries by ameroid constrictor implantation. In this model, reduced uterine blood flow was associated with IUGR, allowing in vivo assessment of fetal growth trajectory and umbilico‐placental vascular function in conscious animals.The intervention induces placental vascular dysfunction and remodelling, as well as altered fetal abdominal growth resulting in an asymmetric IUGR and preserved brain growth. Abstract Intra‐uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with short and long‐term metabolic and cardiovascular alterations. Mice and rats have been extensively used to study the effects of IUGR, but there are notable differences in fetal and placental physiology relative to those of humans that argue for alternative animal models. This study proposes that gradual occlusion of uterine arteries from mid‐gestation in pregnant guinea pigs produces a novel model to better assess human IUGR. Fetal biometry and in vivo placental vascular function were followed by sonography and Doppler of control pregnant guinea pigs and sows submitted to surgical placement of ameroid constrictors in both uterine arteries (IUGR) at mid‐gestation (35 days). The ameroid constrictors induced a reduction in the fetal abdominal circumference growth rate (0.205 cm day−1) compared to control (0.241 cm day−1, P < 0.001) without affecting biparietal diameter growth. Umbilical artery pulsatility and resistance indexes at 10 and 20 days after surgery were significantly higher in IUGR animals than controls (P < 0.01). These effects were associated with a decrease in the relative

  5. [Follow-up study, using dynamic transcutaneous oximetry in 17 patients with stage II Leriche and Fontaine occlusive arterial disease of the lower limbs].

    PubMed

    Grard, C; Perez-Cousin, M; Desmyttère, J; Alsberghe, M C; Hachulla, E; Copin, D; Roux, J P; Brouillard, M; Hatron, P Y; Warembourg, H

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the value of dynamic transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement (TcPO2) in 17 patients with stage II occlusive arterial disease of the lower limbs treated with exercise only. We studied 17 patients (15 men, two women) with an average age of 63 years (range 39-80 years). Claudication perimeter and dynamic TcPO2 were evaluated before and after 6 month walking exercise and tabac stopping. Four different sites of TcPO2 were studied: precordium (reference probe), thigh, calf and foot in the dorsal recumbent position after 30 minutes rest, during a standardised exercise stress test at 50 watts and during the recovery phase. The results were expressed as ratio of tissue oxygenation (RTO): thigh, calf or foot TcPO2/precordial TcPO2 x 100 in order to take into account the patients cardiorespiratory status and adaptation to exercise. Claudication perimeter was 255 m +/- 221 before 6 months exercise and 835 m +/- 539 after (P < 0.01). The duration of significative ischemia was significantly reduced after 6 months exercise (P = 0.02 calf, P < 0.01 foot). Dynamic transcutaneous oxymetry would therefore seem to be a useful method of assessing stage II occlusive peripheral arterial disease and the topography of tissue hypoxia. It could be valuable in orientating treatment and the first method to provide and objective evaluation of the efficacy of medical or surgical treatment.

  6. Cerebrospinal Fluid Enhancement on Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images After Carotid Artery Stenting with Neuroprotective Balloon Occlusions: Hemodynamic Instability and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Ogami, Ryo Nakahara, Toshinori; Hamasaki, Osamu; Araki, Hayato; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: A rare complication of carotid artery stenting (CAS), prolonged reversible neurological symptoms with delayed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space enhancement on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. We prospectively identified patients who showed CSF space enhancement on FLAIR images. Methods: Nineteen patients-5 acute-phase and 14 scheduled-underwent 21 CAS procedures. Balloon catheters were navigated across stenoses, angioplasty was performed using a neuroprotective balloon, and stents were placed with after dilation under distal balloon protection. CSF space hyperintensity or obscuration on FLAIR after versus before CAS indicated CSF space enhancement. Correlations with clinical factors were examined. Results: CSF space was enhanced on FLAIR in 12 (57.1%) cases. Postprocedural CSF space enhancement was significantly related to age, stenosis rate, acute-stage procedure, and total occlusion time. All acute-stage CAS patients showed delayed enhancement. Only age was associated with delayed CSF space enhancement in scheduled CAS patients. Conclusions: Ischemic intolerance for severe carotid artery stenosis and temporary neuroprotective balloon occlusion, causing reperfusion injury, seem to be the main factors that underlie BBB disruption with delayed CSF space enhancement shortly after CAS, rather than sudden poststenting hemodynamic change. Our results suggest that factors related to hemodynamic instability or ischemic intolerance seem to be associated with post-CAS BBB vulnerability. Patients at risk for hemodynamic instability or with ischemic intolerance, which decrease BBB integrity, require careful management to prevent intracranial hemorrhagic and other post-CAS complications.

  7. A Case of Chronic Total Occlusion of the Left Anterior Descending Artery Successfully Treated with Side Branch Technique Using the Soutenir CV

    PubMed Central

    Niizeki, Takeshi; Ikeno, Eiichiro; Kubota, Isao

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 54 Final Diagnosis: Old myocardial infarction Symptoms: Lower extremity swelling • respiratory distress Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Success Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual setting of medical care Background: Success rates for treatment of chronic total occlusion (CTO) have dramatically improved in recent years with the development of new CTO guidewires and development of new techniques such as the retrograde approach. In the antegrade approach, a guidewire is occasionally passed through a side branch despite successful wire crossing of the CTO lesion. In order to pass a wire through the main artery, there are a few side branch techniques such as a reverse wire technique. Case Report: A 54-year-old man with symptoms of heart failure was admitted to our hospital. Coronary angiography showed CTO of the proximal left anterior descending artery. Percutaneous coronary intervention with an antegrade approach was started. We succeeded in passing the wire through a side branch but not the main artery. Unfortunately, a reverse wire technique failed in this case. Next, the wire passed through a side branch was exchanged with the Soutenir CV, and a retrograde approach was started. The wire crossing from retrograde was entwined around the Soutenir CV. After that, the retrograde wire was snared and guided to the antegrade guiding catheter, which resulted in successful wiring into the main artery easily. Conclusions: The side branch technique using the Soutenir CV may be an effective strategy in some cases. PMID:28082733

  8. Hemodynamic study of internal carotid artery stenosis and occlusion: value of combined isotopic measurements of regional cerebral blood flow and blood volume

    SciTech Connect

    Derlon, J.M.; Bouvard, G.; Lechevalier, B.; Dupuy, B.; Maiza, D.; Hubert, P.; Courtheoux, P.; Peres, J.C.; Houtteville, J.P.

    1986-05-01

    The assessment of the intracranial hemodynamic consequences of obstructive lesions of the carotid artery by measuring resting rCBF is inadequate because cerebral blood flow may remain constant in spite of significant drops in the intraluminal pressure due to autoregulation. Moreover, flow may be permanently decreased following cerebral infarction, even if the arterial anatomical conditions have resumed their normal state because of the decreased metabolic demand of an infarcted area. Measurement of the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) helps with the hemodynamic assessment of these conditions, since there is a linear and inverse relationship between intraarterial pressure and intracranial blood volume. In 24 patients exhibiting various carotid and ischemic brain lesions we studied both rCBF and rCBV. The latter is a comparative measure between hemispheres obtained by single photon emission tomography after autotransfusion of 99mTechnetium labeled erythrocytes. There was no correlation between rCBF and clinical status, CT scan or arterial lesions. There was no correlation between rCBV and clinical status or CT scan. There was, however, an interesting correlation between rCBV and the severity of the arterial lesion. The rCBV was symmetrical in all patients with normal or moderately stenotic carotid arteries before and after operation. In some patients with severe unilateral stenosis or occlusion, there was a significant relative increase of rCBV in the hemisphere downstream from the lesion, which disappeared after surgery (endarterectomy or extra-intracranial bypass). In some patients with severe and bilateral carotid lesions, we noted an asymmetry in rCBV that disappeared after a unilateral operation. Other patients with similar lesions develop asymmetry only after an operation that resulted in a relative increase in rCBV in the hemisphere supplied by the non-operated artery.

  9. Generalised wavelet analysis of cutaneous flowmotion during post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia in patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease.

    PubMed

    Rossi, M; Bertuglia, S; Varanini, M; Giusti, A; Santoro, G; Carpi, A

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess whether the generalised wavelet analysis (GWA) of the leg cutaneous laser Doppler (LD) flowmotion waves recorded during baseline (Bsl) and after skin post-occlusive hyperaemia (POH) can provide information on the leg cutaneous microcirculatory adaptation to stage II peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAOD). With this aim the flowmotion was characterised in 20 healthy subjects (HS) and 20 stage II PAOD patients by GWA of LDF tracings during Bsl and POH test. The vascular endothelial and smooth muscle function was also evaluated exploring the arm skin vasodilatory response to iontophoretically delivered acetylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) using LD. During Bsl there was no significant difference in leg skin perfusion between HS and PAOD patients (7.3+/-5.6 vs. 5.8+/-2.9 AU, respectively). PAOD patients revealed higher peak powers in the frequency interval of 0.007-0.02 Hz (120+/-82 vs. 85+/-62 AU(2)/Hz; P < 0.05), 0.02-0.06 Hz (116+/-128 vs. 63+/-48 AU(2)/Hz, respectively; P < 0.05) and 0.06-0.2 Hz (39+/-49 vs. 14+/-10 AU(2)/Hz; P < 0.05). These flowmotion frequencies are related to vascular endothelium activity, sympathetic activity and vessel wall myogenic activity, respectively. During POH the mean peak power of the flowmotion waves increased significantly (P < 0.05) in HS respect to Bsl with the only exception of the 0.02-0.06 Hz band. In the PAOD patients, compared to Bsl the amplitude of the flowmotion waves did not significantly change during POH. In addition, the PAOD patients presented an increased time from release to peak-flux (18.25+/-15.5 vs. 2.16+/-1.28 s, respectively; P < 0.05), an increased time from release to recovery of the basal perfusion (90.26+/-39.14 vs. 26.55+/-14.05 s, respectively; P < 0.05) and a lower slope of the POH curve (10+/-15 vs. 54+/-17 degrees , respectively; P < 0.05), compared with HS. The cutaneous arm vasodilatory response to Ach and to SNP was reduced in PAOD

  10. Comparison of intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography using carbon dioxide by 'home made' delivery system and conventional iodinated contrast media in the evaluation of peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan, K S; Sharma, S; Srivastava, D N; Thulkar, S; Mehta, S N; Prasad, G; Seenu, V; Agarwal, S

    2009-02-01

    To prospectively compare the feasibility, safety and diagnostic role of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) using a 'home made' delivery system with iodinated contrast medium (ICM) DSA in the evaluation of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases (PAOD) of lower limbs. Twenty-one patients (27 limbs; all men; mean age, 47.6 years) who presented with PAOD of lower limbs underwent DSA using both intra-arterial CO(2) and ICM. Conventional ICM DSA was performed first and used as gold standard. Carbon dioxide was then injected by hand using a locally improvised home made plastic bag delivery system. Patient tolerance was assessed subjectively. Arteries from aortic bifurcation to the ankle were independently evaluated by two radiologists and graded for stenosis using a five-point scale. For each patient, the quality of CO(2) DSA images were compared with the corresponding images of ICM DSA and an overall grade of 'good', 'acceptable' or 'poor' was assigned. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to determine inter-observer agreement. Carbon dioxide opacified 86.2% (188/195) of major arteries and depicted stenosis adequately in 84.5% (191/226) of arterial segments. A good or acceptable image quality of CO(2) DSA was obtained in over 95% of patients. Infrapopliteal arteries were inadequately visualized. Mild pain was seen in six (28.6%) patients with both contrast agents; one patient developed severe pain during CO(2) DSA. Inter-observer agreement was good (k > 0.75) at 70% of the segments. Administration of CO(2) into lower limb arteries is well tolerated. Carbon dioxide DSA using the locally improvised home made delivery system is a feasible and safe alternative to ICM DSA in the evaluation of PAOD. It provides adequate imaging of arteries of lower extremities except infrapopliteal segments.

  11. Mechanical thrombectomy using Rotarex system and stent-in-stent placement for treatment of distal femoral artery occlusion secondary to stent fracture – a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Dys, Krzysztof; Drelichowska-Durawa, Justyna; Dołega-Kozierowski, Bartosz; Lis, Michał; Sokratous, Kyriakos; Iwanowski, Wojciech; Drelichowski, Stanisław; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: Treatment of peripheral arterial diseases may be distinguished into conservative and interventional management; the latter is divided into surgical and endovascular procedures. Management of peripheral artery stenosis and occlusion with vascular stents is associated with the risk of late complications such as restenosis, stent fracture or dislocation. Case Report: A 62-year-old woman with generalized atherosclerosis, particularly extensive in lower limb arteries, was admitted to the Department of Angiology 11 months after having an endovascular procedure performed due to critical ischemia of left lower limb. Because of stent occlusion, a decision to perform angiographic examination of lower limb arteries was made. Examination revealed occlusion of the superficial femoral artery along its entire length, including previously implanted stents. Distal stent was fractured with slight dislocation of the proximal segment. A decision was made to perform mechanical thrombectomy using a Rotarex system followed by a stent-in-stent placement procedure. Follow-up angiography and ultrasound scan performed 24 hours after the procedure revealed a patent vessel with satisfactory blood flow. Discussion: Nowadays, imaging diagnostics of peripheral artery stenosis involves non-invasive examinations such as ultrasound, minimally invasive examinations such as angio-MRI and MDCT, or invasive examinations such as DSA and IVUS. DSA examinations are used to confirm significant stenosis or occlusion of a vessel, particularly when qualifying a patient for endovascular treatment. Due to their anatomic location, the superficial femoral artery and the popliteal artery are subject to various forces e.g. those exerted by the working muscles. Mechanical thrombectomy and atherectomy are efficient methods of arterial recanalization used in the treatment of acute, subacute or even chronic occlusions or stenosis of peripheral vessels. Conclusions: Frequency of angioplasty and

  12. Mechanical Thrombectomy Using the Solitaire FR system for Occlusion of the Top of the Basilar Artery: Intentional Detachment of the Device after Partial Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Kwong Lok; Lee, Dong-Geun; Shim, Jae Ho; Suh, Dae Chul

    2014-01-01

    Acute, distal, basilar artery occlusion is a challenging neurovascular emergency. There have been several reports regarding the successful application of the Solitaire FR device for treating this lesion. However, due to the lack of a suitable, balloon-tipped, guiding catheter for the vertebral artery, during this procedure we frequently experience the occurrence of clot fragmentation and distal migration. There may be some technical solutions to solve this problem. The purpose of this report is to present a technical variation of using the Solitaire FR, and which is referred to as the 'intentional device detachment technique.' As a clot tends to re-embolize during its passage through the tortuous cranio-cervical junction level of the vertebral artery or its passage through the tip of the guiding catheter, due to the lack of proximal flow arrest, we thought that not removing the stent segment of the device which is capturing the clot could avoid this problem. We were able to successfully apply this technique in two cases. We believe that this technique can be a possible technical option for using the Solitaire FR device when a patient has little concern regarding the subsequent use of antiplatelets. PMID:24642915

  13. Hypertension downregulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the ischemia-vulnerable hippocampal CA1 and cortical areas after carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsong-Hai; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Kato, Hiroyuki; Wu, June Hsieh

    2006-10-20

    We studied the effect of hypertension on brain damage and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex after permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA). Two groups of rats were used, including normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat and spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR). Each group contained sham operation, 1 week and 4 weeks after bilateral CCA occlusion (n=5-10 in each time point). The blood pressure showed a significant elevation in WKY rats from 1 h after operation to 4 weeks before sacrifice (P<0.05), but was not changed in SHR (P>0.05). However, rectal temperature showed no significant change after operation in WKY rat and SHR (P>0.05) and showed no significant difference at any time point between WKY rat and SHR (P>0.05). Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed SHR had a significantly larger necrotic volume than WKY rats (n=10 in each group, 6044+/-6895 microm(3) vs. 144+/-174 microm(3), P<0.05) at 4 weeks after ischemia. In SHR, BDNF immunoreactivity and mRNA decreased significantly from 1 week to 4 weeks in both the hippocampal CA1 and cortical areas (P<0.01) but decreased transiently in dentate gyrus. However, in WKY rats, BDNF immunoreactivity and mRNA decreased transiently at 1 week (P<0.05) and recovered at 4 weeks after cerebral ischemia. Our study demonstrates that after bilateral CCA occlusion, preexisting hypertension may aggravate the brain injury and downregulate the expression of BDNF immunoreactivity and mRNA in the ischemia-vulnerable hippocampal CA1 and cortical areas but not in ischemia-resistant dentate gyrus.

  14. Nitinol clip distal migration and resultant popliteo-tibial artery occlusion complicating access closure by the StarClose SE vascular closure system.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Myeong Jin; Yoo, Chan Jong; Park, Cheol Wan

    2017-02-01

    Lower extremity ischemia following deployment of a vascular closure device for access site closure after a transfemoral endovascular procedure rarely occurs. A 68-year-old woman diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured anterior communicating aneurysm was treated by endovascular coil embolization. The StarClose SE device was deployed for right femoral arteriotomy closure. After 2 days, critical ischemia occurred on her right lower leg due to total occlusion of the popliteo-tibial artery. Emergent surgical embolectomy was performed and the nitinol clip of the StarClose device was captured in the lumen of the tibioperoneal trunk. Although StarClose is an extravascular closure system, intravascular deployment, distal migration, and resultant critical limb ischemia can occur.

  15. Ischemic brain injury decreases dynamin-like protein 1 expression in a middle cerebral artery occlusion animal model and glutamate-exposed HT22 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ah-Ram

    2016-01-01

    Dynamin-like protein I (DLP-1) is an important mitochondrial fission and fusion protein that is associated with apoptotic cell death in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated DLP-1 expression in a focal cerebral ischemia animal model and glutamate-exposed hippocampal-derived cell line. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was surgically induced in adult male rats to induce focal cerebral ischemic injury. Brain tissues were collected 24 hours after the onset of MCAO. MCAO induces an increase in infarct volume and histopathological changes in the cerebral cortex. We identified a decrease in DLP-1 in the cerebral cortices of MCAO-injured animals using a proteomic approach and Western blot analysis. Moreover, glutamate treatment significantly decreased DLP-1 expression in a hippocampal-derived cell line. The decrease in DLP-1 indicates mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, these results suggest that neuronal cell injury induces a decrease in DLP-1 levels and consequently leads to neuronal cell death. PMID:28053612

  16. [COMPARATIVE CEREBROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF PREVENTIVE ADMINISTRATION OF MAGNESIUM HYDROXYBUTYRATE VERSUS MAGNESIUM SULFATE AND CAVINTON IN RATS WITH COMMON CAROTID ARTERY OCCLUSION].

    PubMed

    Tyurenkov, I N; Litvinov, A A; Kurkin, D V; Volotova, E V; Darmanyan, A P; Ozerov, A A

    2016-01-01

    Dose-dependent cerebroprotective effect of magnesium hydroxybutyrate (MHB) on common carotid artery occlusion model in rats was established. Administration of 150 mg/kg MHB led to significant decrease in animal mortality (up to 9.3 times) in comparison to control (p < 0.05). This MHB dose also produced significant decrease of neurological deficit on the McGraw scale in comparison to control and magnesium sulfate (50% and 20%, respectively). The MHB treated animals also showed improved locomotor and exploratory performance in the open-field test and retained memory performance in the passive avoidance test and extrapolation escape task test. The administration of 150 mg/kg MHB produced three-fold (p < 0.05) decrease of brain edema in animals with cerebral blood flow impairment in comparison to animals treated with magnesium sulfate and cavinton.

  17. Ischemic preconditioning at a distance: altered gene expression in mouse heart and other organs following brief occlusion of the mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Huda, Ruksana; Chung, Dai H; Mathru, Mali

    2005-03-01

    Remote ischemic preconditionining (IPC) has been defined as a brief episode of ischemia/reperfusion in an organ that protects another remote organ from the damage induced by subsequent and prolonged ischemia. As yet, no study has been conducted with the purpose of elucidating a precise association between remote IPC and patterns of gene-transcription in cardiac tissue. In this study, using a cDNA microarray, we analyzed the gene expression profile in murine heart at 24h after brief cycles of occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. The profile revealed that IPC induces significant levels of expression of many genes known to be associated with the stress response, redox regulation, growth and metabolism, DNA repair and other functions. The result of cDNA microarray profile from heart was also compared with those from other organs (lung, kidney and intestine). The genes identified in the expression profile may be associated with remote IPC induced late phase organ protection.

  18. The effects of Tanshinone IIA on blood-brain barrier and brain edema after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chao; Xue, Hongli; Bai, Changlin; Fu, Rong; Wu, Anhua

    2010-12-01

    Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and edema formation play a key role in the development of neurological dysfunction after cerebral ischemia. In this study, the effects of Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), one of the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza root, on the BBB and brain edema after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats were examined. Our study demonstrated that Tan IIA reduced brain infarct area, water content in the ischemic hemisphere. Furthermore, Tan IIA significantly decreased BBB permeability to Evans blue, suppressed the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), inhibited the degradation of tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Occludin. These results demonstrated that Tan IIA was effective for attenuating the extent of brain edema formation in response to ischemia injury in rats, partly by Tan IIA's protective effect on the BBB. Our results may have implications in the treatment of brain edema in cerebral ischemia.

  19. Ankle-Arm Index, Angiography, and Duplex Ultrasonography After Recanalization of Occlusions in Femoropopliteal Arteries: Comparison of Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Winter-Warnars, Hillegonda A.O.; Graaf, Yolanda van der; Mali, Willem P.T.M.

    1996-04-15

    Purpose: Comparison of the relative values of the ankle-arm index (AAI) at rest and after exercise, angiography, and duplex ultrasonography for the follow-up of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Methods: Thirty-two patients were prospectively followed after technically and clinically successful PTA of a femoropopliteal occlusion. The patency of the femoropopliteal artery was assessed for 1 year using AAI measurements at rest and after exercise; duplex ultrasonography at 4, 12, 24, 36, and 52 weeks; and angiography at 3 and 12 months after PTA. Results: Patency was highly dependent on the measurement technique. The cumulative patency after 1 year determined with the AAI at rest and during exercise, by angiography, and by duplex ultrasonography was 74%, 19%, 31%, and 32%, respectively. Seventy-five percent of the restenoses occurred at the site of the treated occlusion. Conclusion: Duplex ultrasonography is most suitable for this assessment, as it causes no patient discomfort and the specificity is better than AAI after exercise because vascular disease in other, proximal segments does not interfere with the results.

  20. Cool excimer laser-assisted angioplasty (CELA) and tibial balloon angioplasty (TBA) in management of infragenicular arterial occlusion in critical lower limb ischemia (CLI).

    PubMed

    Sultan, Sherif; Tawfick, Wael; Hynes, Niamh

    2013-04-01

    We aim to compare cool excimer laser-assisted angioplasty (CELA) versus tibial balloon angioplasty (TBA) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) with tibial artery occlusive disease. The primary end point is sustained clinical improvement (SCI) and amputation-free survival (AFS). The secondary end points are binary restenosis, target extremity revascularization (TER), and cost-effectiveness. From June 2005 to October 2010, 1506 patients were referred with peripheral vascular disease and 572 with CLI. A total of 80 patients underwent 89 endovascular revascularizations (EVRs) for tibial occlusions, 47 using TBA and 42 using CELA. All patients were Rutherford category 4 to 6. Three-year SCI was enhanced with CELA (81%) compared to TBA (63.8%; P = .013). Three-year AFS significantly improved with CELA (95.2%) versus TBA (89.4%; P = .0165). Three-year freedom from TER was significantly improved with CELA (92.9%) versus 78.7% TBA (P = .026). Three-year freedom from MACE was comparable in both the groups (P = .455). Patients with CELA had significantly improved quality time without symptoms of disease or toxicity of treatment (Q-TWiST) at 3 years (10.5 months; P = .048) with incremental cost of €2073.19 per quality-adjusted life year gained. Tibial EVR provides exceptional outcome in CLI. The CELA has superior SCI, AFS, and freedom from TER, with improved Q-TWiST and cost-effectiveness.

  1. Overactivation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors through entorhinal-hippocampal connection initiates accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in rat hippocampus after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Shi; Liu, An-Chun; Chen, Juan; Pan, Zhi-Yong; Wan, Qi; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Ze-Fen

    2015-08-01

    Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induces secondary damages in the hippocampus that is remote from primary ischemic regions. Tau hyperphosphorylation is an important risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Increased tau phosphorylation has been identified in ischemic cortex, but little is known regarding the changes in the hippocampus. We showed that unilateral transient MCAO induced accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and concurrent dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β at Ser 9 in the ipsilateral hippocampus. These MCAO-induced changes were not reproduced when glutamatergic inputs from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus were transected; however, the changes were mimicked by intrahippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) administration. Inhibition of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunit NR2B, but not NR2A activity in the hippocampus attenuated the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and spatial cognitive impairment in MCAO rats. Together, our data suggest that overactivation of NR2B-containing NMDARs through entorhinal-hippocampal connection plays an important role in the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampus following MCAO. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β is an important protein kinase involved in NMDARs-mediated tau hyperphosphorylation. This study indicates that early inhibition of NR2B-containing NMDARs may represent a potential strategy to prevent or delay the occurrence of post-stroke dementia. Middle cerebral artery occlusion induces secondary damage in the hippocampus that is remote from primary ischemic regions. We propose that excessive activation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors through entorhinal-hippocampal connection initiated the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampus, which subsequently induced cognitive deficit. This study provides new insights into the prospects of NR2B inhibition in stoke therapy.

  2. Network meta-analysis of balloon angioplasty, nondrug metal stent, drug-eluting balloon, and drug-eluting stent for treatment of infrapopliteal artery occlusive disease

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yaowen; Chen, Zhong; Yang, Yaoguo; Kou, Lei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to conduct a network meta-analysis of mixed treatments for the infrapopliteal artery occlusive disease. METHODS We searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding balloon angioplasty (BA), nondrug metal stent (NDMS), drug-eluting balloon (DEB), or drug-eluting stent (DES) in PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, Ovid, Sinomed, and other relevant websites. We selected and assessed the trials that met the inclusion criteria and conducted a network meta-analysis using the ADDIS software. RESULTS We included 11 relevant trials. We analyzed data of 1322 patients with infrapopliteal artery occlusive disease, of which 351 were in the NDMS vs. DES trials, 231 in the NDMS vs. BA trials, 490 in the BA vs. DEB trials, 50 in the DEB vs. DES trials, and 200 in the BA vs. DES trials. The network meta-analysis indicated that with NDMS as the reference, DES had a better result with respect to restenosis (odds ratio [OR], 5.16; 95% credible interval [CI], 1.58–18.41; probability of the best treatment, 84%) and amputation (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 0.81–7.11; probability of the best treatment, 61%) and DEB had a better result with respect to target lesion revascularization (TLR; OR, 3.74; 95% CI, 0.78–17.05; probability of the best treatment, 57%). Moreover, with BA as the reference, NDMS had a better result with respect to technical success (OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.00–1.15; probability of the best treatment, 86%). CONCLUSION Our meta-analysis revealed that DES is a better treatment with respect to short-term patency and limb salvage rate, NMDS may provide a better technical success, and DEB and DES are good choices for reducing revascularization. PMID:27559766

  3. Earliest effects of sudden occlusions on pressure profiles in selected locations of the human systemic arterial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majka, Marcin; Gadda, Giacomo; Taibi, Angelo; Gałązka, Mirosław; Zieliński, Piotr

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a numerical simulation method for predicting the time dependence (wave form) of pressure at any location in the systemic arterial system in humans. The method uses the matlab-Simulink environment. The input data include explicitly the geometry of the arterial tree, treated up to an arbitrary bifurcation level, and the elastic properties of arteries as well as rheological parameters of blood. Thus, the impact of anatomic details of an individual subject can be studied. The method is applied here to reveal the earliest stages of mechanical reaction of the pressure profiles to sudden local blockages (thromboses or embolisms) of selected arteries. The results obtained with a purely passive model provide reference data indispensable for studies of longer-term effects due to neural and humoral mechanisms. The reliability of the results has been checked by comparison of two available sets of anatomic, elastic, and rheological data involving (i) 55 and (ii) 138 arterial segments. The remaining arteries have been replaced with the appropriate resistive elements. Both models are efficient in predicting an overall shift of pressure, whereas the accuracy of the 55-segment model in reproducing the detailed wave forms and stabilization times turns out dependent on the location of the blockage and the observation point.

  4. Endothelin-1 overexpression leads to further water accumulation and brain edema after middle cerebral artery occlusion via aquaporin 4 expression in astrocytic end-feet.

    PubMed

    Lo, Amy C Y; Chen, Ann Y S; Hung, Victor K L; Yaw, Lai Ping; Fung, Maggie K L; Ho, Maggie C Y; Tsang, Margaret C S; Chung, Stephen S M; Chung, Sookja K

    2005-08-01

    Stroke patients have increased levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a strong vasoconstrictor, in their plasma or cerebrospinal fluid. Previously, we showed high level of ET-1 mRNA expression in astrocytes after hypoxia/ischemia. It is unclear whether the contribution of ET-1 induction in astrocytes is protective or destructive in cerebral ischemia. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse model that overexpress ET-1 in astrocytes (GET-1) using the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter to examine the role of astrocytic ET-1 in ischemic stroke by challenging these mice with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Under normal condition, GET-1 mice showed no abnormality in brain morphology, cerebrovasculature, absolute cerebral blood flow, blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, and mean arterial blood pressure. Yet, GET-1 mice subjected to transient MCAO showed more severe neurologic deficits and increased infarct, which were partially normalized by administration of ABT-627 (ET(A) antagonist) 5 mins after MCAO. In addition, GET-1 brains exhibited more Evans blue extravasation and showed decreased endothelial occludin expression after MCAO, correlating with higher brain water content and increased cerebral edema. Aquaporin 4 expression was also more pronounced in astrocytic end-feet on blood vessels in GET-1 ipsilateral brains. Our current data suggest that astrocytic ET-1 has deleterious effects on water homeostasis, cerebral edema and BBB integrity, which contribute to more severe ischemic brain injury.

  5. Adenocarcinoma of the ileocolic junction and multifocal hepatic sarcomas in an aged rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Lang, Cynthia D; Daviau, Judith S; Merton, Daniel A; Caraker, Susan M

    2013-08-01

    An aged male rhesus macaque in our colony had decreased appetite and a loss of interest in behavioral testing. CBC analysis revealed a regenerative, microcytic, hypochromic anemia with thrombocytosis, consistent with iron deficiency. A fecal occult blood test was positive. Ultrasound imaging revealed numerous, vascularized focal liver lesions that suggested metastases. The macaque's appetite continued to decrease, and he became more lethargic. At this point, the investigator elected to euthanize the macaque. At necropsy, the ileocolic junction was white and abnormally thickened, and the liver was pale tan with approximately 18 discrete white masses randomly scattered throughout the hepatic parenchyma. Histologically, the mass at the ileocolic junction was identified as an intestinal adenocarcinoma, whereas the liver masses were confirmed to be undifferentiated hepatic sarcomas. This case report describes a rhesus macaque that had 2 unrelated primary neoplasms. A review of the literature indicates that this rhesus macaque is the first reported to have an adenocarcinoma of the ileocolic junction and multiple hepatic sarcomas simultaneously.

  6. Anastomotic recurrence of Crohn's disease after ileocolic resection: comparison of MR enteroclysis with endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sailer, Johannes; Peloschek, Philipp; Reinisch, Walter; Vogelsang, Harald; Turetschek, Karl; Schima, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of MR enteroclysis in patients with Crohn's disease recurrence after ileocolic resection and to establish an MR scoring sytem. MR enteroclysis and endoscopy were performed in 30 patients with suspected Crohn's disease recurrence after ileocolic resection. Findings were evaluated by three radiologists, using an MR score based on image quality, contrast enhancement, and mural and extramural bowel-wall changes: MR0 (no abnormal features), MR1 (minimal mucosal changes), MR2 (diffuse aphtoid ileitis, moderate recurrence), and MR3 (severe recurrence with trans- and extramural changes). The endoscopic Rutgeerts score defines changes at the ileum on a scale from I0 to I4. In 3/30 (10%) patients, evaluation was not possible. The mean overall image quality was rated as 1.7 (kappa 0.78). Comparing MR and Rutgeerts score, the mean observer agreement for the total score rating was 77.8% (kappa 0.67). When comparing only scores below or above MR2-the threshold indicative of the necessity of medical treatment-there was a total agreement of 95.1% (kappa 0.84). MR enteroclysis allows assessment of Crohn's disease recurrence after ileocolic resection. The MR score is reproducible and shows high agreement with the approved endoscopic Rutgeerts score.

  7. Partial ligation-induced carotid artery occlusion induces leukocyte recruitment and lipid accumulation--a shear stress model of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Merino, Hilda; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Singla, Dinender K

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that disturbed blood flow-induced shear stress can induce atherosclerosis (ATH) in humans and animals without a high fat diet. Therefore, we hypothesize that partial ligation of the left carotid artery can generate disturbed blood flow and shear stress and would lead to ATH in a predisposed genetic model of Apo E(-/-) mice. The partial left carotid artery model was generated by ligating three out of four branches of the left carotid artery compared with controls which experienced similar surgery conditions but no ligation. Animals were sacrificed 2 weeks post-ligation and examined for plaque formation, infiltration of leukocytes, pro-inflammatory immune response, and blood flow velocity. Our findings suggest a significant (p < 0.05) increase in plaque formation and lipid deposition in the partial ligated animals compared with controls, confirmed with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O staining. Furthermore, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the number of M1 macrophages and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNFα, as compared with the control. Moreover, partial ligated carotid arteries demonstrated disturbed blood flow as their systolic velocity was significantly reduced. In conclusion, our data suggest that partial ligation of the left carotid artery induces disturbed flow and shear stress in the predisposed genetic model of Apo E(-/-) mice and leads to significantly developed ATH. Similarities to clinical patients who develop ATH independent of a high fat diet show that this could be a potential animal model to examine various parameters in ATH.

  8. Intra-carotid cold magnesium sulfate infusion induces selective cerebral hypothermia and neuroprotection in rats with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Wu, Yong-Ming; Ji, Zhong; Ji, Ya-Bin; Wang, Sheng-Nan; Pan, Su-Yue

    2013-04-01

    Local hypothermia induced by intra-arterial infusion of cold saline reduces brain injury in ischemic stroke. Administration of magnesium sulfate through the internal carotid artery is also known to reduce ischemic brain damage. The neuroprotective effects of combination therapy with local endovascular hypothermia and intra-carotid magnesium sulfate infusion has not been evaluated. The aim of the study was to determine whether infusion of intra-carotid cold magnesium offers neuroprotective efficacy superior to cold saline infusion alone. Sixty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 3 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion and were randomly divided into six groups: sham-operated group; stroke control group; local cold magnesium infusion group; local cold saline infusion group; local normothermic magnesium infusion group; and local normothermic saline infusion group. Before reperfusion, ischemic rats received local infusion or no treatment. Infarct volume, neurological deficit, and brain water content were evaluated at 48 h after reperfusion. Selective brain hypothermia (33-34 °C) was successfully induced by intra-carotid cold infusion. Local cold saline infusion and local cold magnesium infusion reduced the infarct volumes by 48 % (p < 0.001) and 65 % (p < 0.001), respectively, compared with stroke controls. Brain water content was decreased significantly in animals treated with local cold magnesium infusion. Furthermore, the rats given a local cold magnesium infusion had the best neurological outcome. Local normothermic infusion failed to improve ischemic brain damage. These data suggest that local hypothermia induced by intra-carotid administration of cold magnesium is more effective in reducing acute ischemic damage than infusion of cold saline alone.

  9. Role of systemic arterial pressure, heart rate, and derived variables in prediction of severity of myocardial ischemia during acute coronary occlusion in anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Moore, P G; Reitan, J A; Kien, N D; White, D A; Safwat, A M

    1992-09-01

    The present study examined the postulate that the quotient of mean systemic arterial pressure and heart rate predicts the severity of myocardial ischemia during occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Studies were performed in open-chest fentanyl-anesthetized dogs before and during halothane (n = 8) or isoflurane (n = 8) anesthesia. The pressure-rate quotient (PRQ) decreased significantly in both groups during incremental increases in halothane or isoflurane to 68% and 57% of control values at 0.5 MAC and to 41% and 38% at 1.5 MAC for halothane and isoflurane, respectively. Myocardial lactate production was unchanged from the ischemic region, and no correlation between the PRQ and myocardial lactate production was observed. In contrast, heart rate correlated significantly (r = 0.376; P less than 0.05) with lactate production. The product of systolic systemic arterial pressure and heart rate (rate-pressure product) correlated with blood flow (r = 0.493; P less than 0.001) and with oxygen consumption (r = 0.571; P less than 0.001) in the normal myocardium. A weak correlation (r = 0.330; P less than 0.05) of rate-pressure product with myocardial lactate production from the ischemic region was observed. There were no correlations between the PRQ and myocardial lactate production from the ischemic region or indices of blood flow distribution (i.e., inner/outer ratio in the ischemic region or ischemic/normal ratio). The relationship of hemodynamic variables to measurements of regional myocardial metabolism was independent of background anesthetic agent of depth of anesthesia. The current data suggest that heart rate changes are weakly predictive of severity of myocardial ischemia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Long-term pretreatment with desethylamiodarone (DEA) or amiodarone (AMIO) protects against coronary artery occlusion induced ventricular arrhythmias in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Morvay, Nikolett; Baczkó, István; Sztojkov-Ivanov, Anita; Falkay, György; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Leprán, István

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare the effectiveness of long-term pretreatment with amiodarone (AMIO) and its active metabolite desethylamiodarone (DEA) on arrhythmias induced by acute myocardial infarction in rats. Acute myocardial infarction was induced in conscious, male, Sprague-Dawley rats by pulling a previously inserted loose silk loop around the left main coronary artery. Long-term oral pretreatment with AMIO (30 or 100 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), loading dose 100 or 300 mg·kg(-1) for 3 days) or DEA (15 or 50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), loading dose 100 or 300 mg·kg(-1) for 3 days), was applied for 1 month before the coronary artery occlusion. Chronic oral treatment with DEA (50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) resulted in a similar myocardial DEA concentration as chronic AMIO treatment (100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in rats (7.4 ± 0.7 μg·g(-1) and 8.9 ± 2.2 μg·g(-1)). Both pretreatments in the larger doses significantly improved the survival rate during the acute phase of experimental myocardial infarction (82% and 64% by AMIO and DEA, respectively, vs. 31% in controls). Our results demonstrate that chronic oral treatment with DEA resulted in similar cardiac tissue levels to that of chronic AMIO treatment, and offered an equivalent degree of antiarrhythmic effect against acute coronary artery ligation induced ventricular arrhythmias in conscious rats.

  11. Peripheral Arterial Disease Study (PERART): Prevalence and predictive values of asymptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Alzamora, María Teresa; Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Sorribes, Marta; Forés, Rosa; Toran, Pere; Vicheto, Marisa; Pera, Guillem; Reina, María Dolores; Albaladejo, Carlos; Llussà, Judith; Bundó, Magda; Sancho, Amparo; Heras, Antonio; Rubiés, Joan; Arenillas, Juan Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index (AAI) is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease). The aim of the PERART study (PERipheral ARTerial disease) is to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (both silent and symptomatic) in a general population of both sexes and determine its predictive value related to morbimortality (cohort study). Methods/Design This cross-over, cohort study consists of 2 phases: firstly a descriptive, transversal cross-over study to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, and secondly, a cohort study to evaluate the predictive value of AAI in relation to cardiovascular morbimortality. From September 2006 to June 2007, a total of 3,010 patients over the age of 50 years will be randomly selected from a population adscribed to 24 healthcare centres in the province of Barcelona (Spain). The diagnostic criteria of peripheral arterial disease will be considered as an AAI < 0.90, determined by portable Doppler (8 Mhz probe) measured twice by trained personnel. Cardiovascular risk will be calculated with the Framingham-Wilson tables, with Framingham calibrated by the REGICOR and SCORE groups. The subjects included will be evaluted every 6 months by telephone interview and the clnical history and death registries will be reviewed. The appearance of the following cardiovascular events will be considered as variables of response: transitory ischaemic accident, ictus, angina, myocardial infartction, symptomatic abdominal aneurysm and vascular mortality. Discussion In this study we hope to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, especially the silent forms, in the general population and establish its relationship with cardiovascular morbimortality. A low

  12. Alternative Techniques for Treatment of Complex Below-the Knee Arterial Occlusions in Diabetic Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto; Uccioli, Luigi; Spinelli, Alessio; Del Giudice, Costantino Ros, Valerio Da; Volpi, Tommaso; Meloni, Marco; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe alternative endovascular (EV) techniques and assess their feasibility and efficacy in minimizing failure rates in limb salvage for the treatment of complex below-the knee (BTK) occlusions that could not be crossed with a conventional antegrade access. Between December 2007 and November 2010, 1,035 patients (557 male) underwent EV treatment for critical limb ischemia in our institution. In 124 (12% [83 male], mean age 68.2 {+-} 0.5 years) patients, transfemoral antegrade revascularization attempt failed, and an alternative approach was used. Follow-up was performed at 1 and 6 months. Results were compared with 56 patients treated between November 2002 and November 2007, in whom conventional technique was unsuccessful and unconventional techniques were not adopted. Technical success was achieved in 119 (96%) patients. The limb-salvage rates were 96.8% and 83% at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Sixteen (12.9%) and 33 (26.6%) patients underwent reintervention at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Transcutaneous oxygen tension increased at 1 month (44.7 {+-} 1.1 vs. 15.7 {+-} 0.8 mmHg; p < 0.001) and remained stable at follow-up. Twenty (16.1%) patients required major amputation. Thirteen (10.4%) patients died during follow-up. In our previous experience, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty failure, amputation, and death rates were 10.9, 39.2, and 23.2%, respectively. Alternative techniques allowed a significant decrease of major amputation and death rates (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.02, respectively). The use of alternative techniques seems feasible in case of a failed antegrade BTK revascularization attempt and could minimize failure rates in the treatment of complex occlusions while providing satisfying clinical success rates at 6 months.

  13. Role for NGF in augmented sympathetic nerve response to activation of mechanically and metabolically sensitive muscle afferents in rats with femoral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian; Xing, Jihong; Li, Jianhua

    2012-10-15

    Arterial blood pressure and heart rate responses to static contraction of the hindlimb muscles are greater in rats whose femoral arteries were previously ligated than in control rats. Also, the prior findings demonstrate that nerve growth factor (NGF) is increased in sensory neurons-dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of occluded rats. However, the role for endogenous NGF in engagement of the augmented sympathetic and pressor responses to stimulation of mechanically and/or metabolically sensitive muscle afferent nerves during static contraction after femoral artery ligation has not been specifically determined. In the present study, both afferent nerves and either of them were activated by muscle contraction, passive tendon stretch, and arterial injection of lactic acid into the hindlimb muscles. Data showed that femoral occlusion-augmented blood pressure response to contraction was significantly attenuated by a prior administration of the NGF antibody (NGF-Ab) into the hindlimb muscles. The effects of NGF neutralization were not seen when the sympathetic nerve and pressor responses were evoked by stimulation of mechanically sensitive muscle afferent nerves with tendon stretch in occluded rats. In addition, chemically sensitive muscle afferent nerves were stimulated by lactic acid injected into arterial blood supply of the hindlimb muscles after the prior NGF-Ab, demonstrating that the reflex muscle responses to lactic acid were significantly attenuated. The results of this study further showed that NGF-Ab attenuated an increase in acid-sensing ion channel subtype 3 (ASIC3) of DRG in occluded rats. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was employed to examine the number of C-fiber and A-fiber DRG neurons. The data showed that distribution of DRG neurons with different thin fiber phenotypes was not notably altered when NGF was infused into the hindlimb muscles. However, NGF increased expression of ASIC3 in DRG neurons with C-fiber but not A-fiber. Overall, these data

  14. Outcomes and computed tomography scan follow-up of bioresorbable vascular scaffold for the percutaneous treatment of chronic total coronary artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Soledad; Pan, Manuel; Romero, Miguel; Suárez de Lezo, Javier; Mazuelos, Francisco; Segura, José; Espejo, Simona; Morenate, Carmen; Blanco, Marta; Martín, Pedro; Medina, Alfonso; Suárez de Lezo, José

    2015-06-01

    Everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) implantation in chronic total occlusion (CTO) could provide theoretical advantages at follow-up compared with metallic stents. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of BVS use for the percutaneous treatment of CTO by analyzing clinical outcomes and patency at midterm follow-up. From February 2013 to June 2014, 42 patients with 46 CTOs were treated by BVS implantation. Once the guidewire reached the distal lumen, all the occluded segments were predilated. Postdilation was performed in all patients. A multislice computed tomography was scheduled for all patients at 6 months. The mean age was 58 ± 9 years, 41 (98%) were men and 14 (33%) diabetic. The target vessel was predominantly the left anterior descending artery (22, 48%). According to the Japanese-CTO score, 21 CTOs (46%) were difficult or very difficult. Most cases were treated with an anterograde strategy (34 lesions, 74%). A hybrid procedure with a drug-eluting stent at the distal segment was the applied treatment in 7 CTOs (15%). The mean scaffold length was 43 ± 21 mm. Technical success was achieved in 45 lesions (98%), and 1 patient (2.4%) presented a non-Q periprocedural myocardial infarction. Re-evaluation was obtained in all patients at 6 ± 1 months. Two re-occlusions and a focal restenosis were identified. After 13 ± 5 months of follow-up, there were 2 repeat revascularizations (4.8%). Neither death nor myocardial infarction was documented. In conclusion, BVS for CTO seems to be an interesting strategy with a high rate of technical success and low rate of cardiac events at midterm follow-up in selected patients.

  15. Iliac artery occlusion with "oxbow lake" formation following stent deployment in a tortuous external iliac artery during EVAR: a case report.

    PubMed

    Culverwell, Adam D; Kent, Patrick; Puppala, Sapna

    2011-10-01

    In this case report, we describe a complication that we term the "oxbow lake" deformity. This phenomenon occurs when a tortuous elongated external iliac artery segment is artificially straightened by an iliac stent resulting in kinking and compression of a redundant loop with lumen compromise. We describe the anatomy, corrective treatment, and outcome. This occurrence is potentially foreseeable with tortuous vascular anatomy and recognition can allow appropriate management planning avoiding complications for the patient.

  16. Assessment of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model after Localized Brain Cooling in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Soo; Kwon, Mi Jung; Lee, Phil Hye; Ju, Young-Su; Yoon, Dae Young; Kim, Hye Jeong; Lee, Kwan Seop

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of localized brain cooling on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats, by using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. Materials and Methods Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each: control group, localized cold-saline (20℃) infusion group, and localized warm-saline (37℃) infusion group. The left middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded for 1 hour in anesthetized rats, followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. In the localized saline infusion group, 6 mL of cold or warm saline was infused through the hollow filament for 10 minutes after MCA occlusion. DCE-MRI investigations were performed after 3 hours and 24 hours of reperfusion. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the extended Tofts-Kety model were calculated for each DCE-MRI. In addition, rotarod testing was performed before tMCAO, and on days 1-9 after tMCAO. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) immunohisto-chemistry was performed to identify infiltrating neutrophils associated with the inflammatory response in the rat brain. Results Permeability parameters showed no statistical significance between cold and warm saline infusion groups after 3-hour reperfusion 0.09 ± 0.01 min-1 vs. 0.07 ± 0.02 min-1, p = 0.661 for Ktrans; 0.30 ± 0.05 min-1 vs. 0.37 ± 0.11 min-1, p = 0.394 for kep, respectively. Behavioral testing revealed no significant difference among the three groups. However, the percentage of MPO-positive cells in the cold-saline group was significantly lower than those in the control and warm-saline groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Localized brain cooling (20℃) does not confer a benefit to inhibit the increase in BBB permeability that follows transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in an animal model, as compared with localized warm-saline (37℃) infusion group. PMID:27587960

  17. Neuroprotective Effects of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Bilateral Common Carotid Arteries Occlusion Model of Cerebral Ischemia in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Pourheydar, Bagher; Azimzadeh, Mostafa; Rezaei Moghadam, Adel; Marzban, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy is the most advanced treatment of the cerebral ischemia, nowadays. Herein, we discuss the neuroprotective effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on rat hippocampal cells following intravenous injection of these cells in an ischemia-reperfusion model. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control, sham (surgery without blockage of common carotid arteries), ischemia (common carotid arteries were blocked for 30 min prior to reperfusion), vehicle (7 days after ischemia PBS was injected via the tail vein), and treatment (injections of BMSC into the tail veins 7 days after ischemia). We performed neuromuscular and vestibulomotor function tests to assess behavioral function and, finally, brains were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), anti-Brdu immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL staining. The ischemia group had severe apoptosis. The group treated with BMSCs had a lower mortality rate and also had significant improvement in functional recovery (P < 0.001). Ischemia-reperfusion for 30 min causes damage and extensive neuronal death in the hippocampus, especially in CA1 and CA3 regions, leading to several functional and neurological deficits. In conclusion, intravenous injection of BMSCs can significantly decrease the number of apoptotic neurons and significantly improve functional recovery, which may be a beneficial treatment method for ischemic injuries. PMID:27847404

  18. Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Vascular Closure Device (Glubran 2 Seal) After Diagnostic and Interventional Angiography in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Del Corso, Andrea; Bargellini, Irene Cicorelli, Antonio; Perrone, Orsola; Leo, Michele; Lunardi, Alessandro; Alberti, Aldo; Tomei, Francesca; Cioni, Roberto; Ferrari, Mauro; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2013-04-15

    To prospectively evaluate safety and efficacy of a novel vascular closure device (Glubran 2 Seal) after peripheral angiography in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). From December 2010 to June 2011, all consecutive patients with PAOD undergoing peripheral angiography were prospectively enrolled onto the study after percutaneous antegrade or retrograde puncture of the common femoral artery. After angiography, the Glubran 2 Seal device was used to achieve hemostasis. The following data were registered: technical success and manual compression duration, patients' discomfort (scale 0-5), operators' technical difficulty (scale 0-5), and vascular complications. The site of hemostasis was evaluated by clinical inspection and color-coded Duplex ultrasound performed 1 day and 1 month after the procedure. One hundred seventy-eight patients were enrolled (112 male, mean age 70.8 years) with a total of 206 puncture sites, including 104 (50.5 %) antegrade accesses. The device was successful in 198(96.1 %) of 206 procedures, with 8 cases of manual compression lasting longer than 5 min (maximum 20 min). No major vascular complications were observed, resulting in 100 % procedural success. Minor complications occurred in seven procedures (3.4 %), including two cases of pseudoaneurysms, successfully treated by ultrasound-guided glue injection. The mean {+-} standard deviation score for patients' discomfort was 0.9 {+-} 0.7, whereas the mean score for operators' difficulty was 1.2 {+-} 0.9. In patients with PAOD, the Glubran 2 Seal represents a simple, painless, and efficient vascular closure device, able to achieve hemostasis both in antegrade and retrograde accesses.

  19. "Spiral stenting"-creating a subintimal neo-luminal helix around a massively calcified ostial chronic total occlusion of the right coronary artery in a patient with recurrent ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Kambis; Valuckiene, Zivile; Neuser, Hans; Walter, Marlon; Gappmaier, Wolfgang; Kaiser, Thomas; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Akin, Ibrahim; Behnes, Michael

    2016-11-01

    This case report describes a successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of a severely calcified aorto-ostial chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the right coronary artery (RCA). The lesion was treated by a retrograde approach implementing long spiral subintimal wire tracking and final coronary stenting creating a subintimal neo-luminal helix around the natively occluded RCA. After 6 months of follow-up valuable angiographic results were proven.

  20. “Spiral stenting”—creating a subintimal neo-luminal helix around a massively calcified ostial chronic total occlusion of the right coronary artery in a patient with recurrent ventricular tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Valuckiene, Zivile; Neuser, Hans; Walter, Marlon; Gappmaier, Wolfgang; Kaiser, Thomas; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Akin, Ibrahim; Behnes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of a severely calcified aorto-ostial chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the right coronary artery (RCA). The lesion was treated by a retrograde approach implementing long spiral subintimal wire tracking and final coronary stenting creating a subintimal neo-luminal helix around the natively occluded RCA. After 6 months of follow-up valuable angiographic results were proven. PMID:28066662

  1. Combined use of spatial restraint stress and middle cerebral artery occlusion is a novel model of post-stroke depression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gaocai; Chen, Li; Yang, Lingli; Hua, Xiaodong; Zhou, Beiqun; Miao, Zhigang; Li, Jizhen; Hu, Hua; Namaka, Michael; Kong, Jiming; Xu, Xingshun

    2015-01-01

    Post stroke depression (PSD) is one of the most common complications of ischemic stroke. At present, the underlying mechanisms are unclear, largely because there are no reliable, valid and reproducible animal models of PSD. Here we report a novel animal model of PSD that displays consistent and reliable clinical features of hemiplegic stroke. The animal model encompasses a combination of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and spatial restraint stress. We found that a 60-minute MCAO followed by spatial restraint stress for 2 h daily for 2 to 4 weeks from the fourth day after MCAO induced PSD-like depressive phenotypes in mice. Importantly, the mice showed exacerbated deficits of neurological functions and decreased body weights, which were accompanied with reduced levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor and neurotransmitters including serotonin and dopamine. In addition, we identified increased levels of serum cortisol in our PSD mice. Finally, we found that mice with PSD were responsive to the tri-cyclic antidepressant imipramine as evidenced by their attenuated depressive behaviors, increased body weights, recovered brain serotonin levels, and decreased serum cortisol levels. This mouse model replicates multiple features of human post-stroke depression and thus provides a new model for the investigation of PSD. PMID:26572587

  2. PACAP38 Differentially Effects Genes and CRMP2 Protein Expression in Ischemic Core and Penumbra Regions of Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model Mice Brain

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Motohide; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Tsuchida, Masachi; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neuroprotective and axonal guidance functions, but the mechanisms behind such actions remain unclear. Previously we examined effects of PACAP (PACAP38, 1 pmol) injection intracerebroventrically in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) along with control saline (0.9% NaCl) injection. Transcriptomic and proteomic approaches using ischemic (ipsilateral) brain hemisphere revealed differentially regulated genes and proteins by PACAP38 at 6 and 24 h post-treatment. However, as the ischemic hemisphere consisted of infarct core, penumbra, and non-ischemic regions, specificity of expression and localization of these identified molecular factors remained incomplete. This led us to devise a new experimental strategy wherein, ischemic core and penumbra were carefully sampled and compared to the corresponding contralateral (healthy) core and penumbra regions at 6 and 24 h post PACAP38 or saline injections. Both reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to examine targeted gene expressions and the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) protein profiles, respectively. Clear differences in expression of genes and CRMP2 protein abundance and degradation product/short isoform was observed between ischemic core and penumbra and also compared to the contralateral healthy tissues after PACAP38 or saline treatment. Results indicate the importance of region-specific analyses to further identify, localize and functionally analyse target molecular factors for clarifying the neuroprotective function of PACAP38. PMID:25257527

  3. Combined contrast-enhanced ultrasound and rt-PA treatment is safe and improves impaired microcirculation after reperfusion of middle cerebral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Nedelmann, Max; Ritschel, Nouha; Doenges, Simone; Langheinrich, Alexander C; Acker, Till; Reuter, Peter; Yeniguen, Mesut; Pukropski, Jan; Kaps, Manfred; Mueller, Clemens; Bachmann, Georg; Gerriets, Tibo

    2010-01-01

    In monitoring of recanalization and in sonothrombolysis, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is applied in extended time protocols. As extended use may increase the probability of unwanted effects, careful safety evaluation is required. We investigated the safety profile and beneficial effects of CEUS in a reperfusion model. Wistar rats were subjected to filament occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). Reperfusion was established after 90 minutes, followed by recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment and randomization to additional CEUS (contrast agent: SonoVue; 60 minutes). Blinded outcome evaluation consisted of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neurologic assessment, and histology and, in separate experiments, quantitative 3D nano-computed tomography (CT) angiography (900 nm3 voxel size). Nano-CT revealed severely compromised microcirculation in untreated animals after MCA reperfusion. The rt-PA partially improved hemispheric perfusion. Impairment was completely reversed in animals receiving rt-PA and CEUS. This combination was more effective than treatment with either CEUS without rt-PA or rt-PA and ultrasound or ultrasound alone. In MRI experiments, CEUS and rt-PA treatment resulted in a significantly reduced ischemic lesion volume and edema formation. No unwanted effects were detected on MRI, histology, and intracranial temperature assessment. This study shows that CEUS and rt-PA is safe in the situation of reperfusion and displays beneficial effects on the level of the microvasculature. PMID:20531462

  4. Electroacupuncture Attenuates Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion of Rat via Modulation of Apoptosis, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mei-hong; Zhang, Chun-bing; Zhang, Jia-hui; Li, Peng-fei

    2016-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) has several properties such as antioxidant, antiapoptosis, and anti-inflammatory properties. The current study was to investigate the effects of EA on the prevention and treatment of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and to elucidate possible molecular mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 24 h. EA stimulation was applied to both Baihui and Dazhui acupoints for 30 min in each rat per day for 5 successive days before MCAO (pretreatment) or when the reperfusion was initiated (treatment). Neurologic deficit scores, infarction volumes, brain water content, and neuronal apoptosis were evaluated. The expressions of related inflammatory cytokines, apoptotic molecules, antioxidant systems, and excitotoxic receptors in the brain were also investigated. Results showed that both EA pretreatment and treatment significantly reduced infarct volumes, decreased brain water content, and alleviated neuronal injury in MCAO rats. Notably, EA exerts neuroprotection against I/R injury through improving neurological function, attenuating the inflammation cytokines, upregulating antioxidant systems, and reducing the excitotoxicity. This study provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the traditional use of EA. PMID:27123035

  5. Hyperforin attenuates brain damage induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats via inhibition of TRPC6 channels degradation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun; Zhang, Jian-Cheng; Fu, Jun; Chen, Fang; Wang, Jie; Wu, Zhi-Lin; Yuan, Shi-Ying

    2013-02-01

    Hyperforin, a lipophilic constituent of medicinal herb St John's wort, has been identified as the main active ingredient of St John's wort extract for antidepressant action by experimental and clinical studies. Hyperforin is currently known to activate transient receptor potential canonical (subtype) 6 (TRPC6) channel, increase the phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB), and has N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-antagonistic effect that convert potential neuroprotective effects in vitro. However, the protective effects of hyperforin on ischemic stroke in vivo remain controversial and its neuroprotective mechanisms are still unclear. This study was designed to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of hyperforin on transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Hyperforin, when applied immediately after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) onset, significantly reduced infarct volumes and apoptotic cells, and also increased neurologic scores at 24 hours after reperfusion accompanied by elevated TRPC6 and p-CREB activity and decreased SBDP145 activity. When MEK or CaMKIV activity was specifically inhibited, the neuroprotective effect of hyperforin was attenuated, and we observed a correlated decrease in CREB activity. In conclusion, our results clearly showed that i.c.v. injection of hyperforin immediately after MCAO onset blocked calpain-mediated TRPC6 channels degradation, and then to stimulate the Ras/MEK/ERK and CaMKIV pathways that converge on CREB activation, contributed to neuroprotection.

  6. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion alters inducible NOS expression within the ventrolateral medulla and modulates cardiovascular function during static exercise.

    PubMed

    Ally, Ahmmed; Maher, Timothy J

    2011-09-01

    A major cause of stroke is cerebral ischemia in regions supplied by the middle cerebral artery (MCA). In this study, we hypothesized that compromised cardiovascular function during static exercise may involve altered expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) protein within the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM). We compared cardiovascular responses and iNOS protein expression within the left and right sides of both RVLM and CVLM in sham-operated rats and in rats with a 90 min left-sided MCA occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Increases in blood pressure during a static muscle contraction were attenuated in MCAO rats compared with sham-operated rats. Also, iNOS expression within the left RVLM was augmented compared with the right RVLM in MCAO rats and compared with both RVLM quadrants in sham-operated rats. In contrast, compared with sham-operated rats and the right CVLM of MCAO rats, iNOS expression was attenuated in the left CVLM in left-sided MCAO rats. These data suggest that the attenuation of pressor responses during static exercise in MCAO rats involves overexpression of iNOS within the ipsilateral RVLM and attenuation in iNOS within the ipsilateral CVLM. Differential expression of iNOS within the medulla plays a role in mediating cardiovascular responses during static exercise following stroke.

  7. Ketamine does not inhibit interleukin-6 synthesis in hepatic resections requiring a temporary porto-arterial occlusion (Pringle manoeuvre): a controlled, prospective, randomized, double-blinded study

    PubMed Central

    Bonofiglio, Francisco Carlos; Molmenti, Ernesto P; de Santibañes, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels correlated with mortality in critically ill patients. Goal To determine the effect of ketamine on IL-6 levels in liver resections patients with a temporary porto-arterial occlusion (Pringle manoeuvre). Materials and methods Controlled, prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. One group (n = 21) received ketamine whereas the other group (n = 17) received placebo. IL-6 levels were obtained at baseline, 4, 12, 24 h, 3 and 5 days. Results There were no significant differences in IL-6 levels between the groups (basal P = 089, 4 h P = 0.83, 12 h P = 0.39, 24 h, P = 0.55, 3 days P = 0.80 and 5 days P = 0.45). Both groups had elevated IL-6 levels that became almost undetectable by day 5. There was no major morbidity and no mortality in either group. Conclusions Ketamine does not seem to have an effect on plasma levels of IL-6. This could be interpreted as a potential finding associated with outcome as we did not encounter any deaths or major complications. Further studies will likely be needed to determine the range of IL-6 levels associated with survival and mortality, and whether it could be a predictor of survival. PMID:21929671

  8. Neutrophil infiltration increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the ischemic brain after occlusion/reperfusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats.

    PubMed

    Justicia, Carles; Panés, Julián; Solé, Sònia; Cervera, Alvaro; Deulofeu, Ramon; Chamorro, Angel; Planas, Anna M

    2003-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity increases in the brain during the first day after focal ischemia and might be involved in the pathogenesis of tissue damage. We previously showed MMP-9 in the extracellular space of brain parenchyma along with neutrophil recruitment after ischemia. In the present study, we tested whether neutrophils were a direct source of enhanced MMP-9 in the ischemic brain. Neutrophil infiltration was prevented either by injecting an antibody against ICAM-1, which abrogates neutrophil adhesion to the endothelial vessel wall, or by inducing neutropenia. One-hour intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion with reperfusion was induced, and studies were performed at 24 hours. Circulating neutrophils expressed 95-kDa MMP-9 and dimers, and infiltrated neutrophils stained positive for MMP-9. The expression of MMP-9 (mainly 95-kDa proform and dimers and, to a lesser extent, 88-kDa form) increased in brain after ischemia/reperfusion. Treatments preventing neutrophil infiltration failed to preclude the ischemia-induced increase in 88-kDa MMP-9 form and gelatinase activity in neurons and blood vessels. However, these treatments prevented the major increase in 95-kDa MMP-9 form and dimers. We conclude that neutrophil infiltration highly contributes to enhanced MMP-9 in the ischemic brain by releasing MMP-9 proform, which might participate in the tissular inflammatory reaction.

  9. Immediate- and short-term outcome following recanalization of long chronic total occlusions (> 50 mm) of native coronary arteries with the Frontrunner catheter.

    PubMed

    Loli, Akil; Liu, Rex; Pershad, Ashish

    2006-06-01

    Thirty percent of diagnostic angiograms have at least 1 chronic total occlusion (CTO). The 10-year survival of patients with a CTO is improved if they have the CTO successfully recanalized. The success of recanalization with conventional wires is 50% and the impact of new technology on recanalization is unknown. This abstract reports a single center experience with one such new device, the Lumend Frontrunner catheter in revascularization of this difficult lesion subset. A consecutive series of 18 patients with CTO's of native coronary arteries were enrolled in this single center, single operator series. The mean age of the CTO was 5.3 years. The indication for attempt at recanalization was ischemia in the territory of the CTO on SPECT imaging. Success was defined as TIMI flow restoration and < 40% residual stenosis. Primary success (defined as TIMI 3 Flow restoration and < 40% residual stenosis) was achieved in 77% of patients. At 30 days and out to 6 months, clinical TVR was 11% (2/18) in this difficult lesion subset. Conventional predictors of failure to recanalize CTOs do not appear to hold true with the use of the Frontrunner catheter. In this small series, dual cusp injections and use of the Microglide catheter appears to correlate with favorable outcomes. Fluoroscopy times and contrast use are high when attempting recanalization of CTOs with this technology.

  10. Fish oil supplementation associated with decreased cellular degeneration and increased cellular proliferation 6 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Howells, David W; Crewther, David P; Carey, Leeanne M; Crewther, Sheila G

    2015-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-LC-PUFAs) are both neuroprotective and have antidepressive effects. However the influence of dietary supplemented n-3-LC-PUFAs on inflammation-related cell death and proliferation after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-induced stroke is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors are reduced in n-3-LC-PUFA-fed MCAo animals. Thus in the present study, male hooded Wistar rats were exposed to MCAo or sham surgeries and examined behaviorally 6 weeks later, prior to euthanasia and examination of lesion size, cell death and proliferation in the dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis region of the hippocampus of the ipsilesional hemispheres, and the thalamus of the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. Markers of cell genesis and cell degeneration in the hippocampus or thalamus of the ipsilesional hemisphere did not differ between surgery and diet groups 6 weeks post MCAo. Dietary supplementation with n-3-LC-PUFA decreased cell degeneration and increased cell proliferation in the thalamic region of the contralesional hemisphere. MCAo-associated cell degeneration in the hippocampus and thalamus positively correlated with anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors previously reported in these animals. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory n-3-LC-PUFA supplementation appears to have cellular protective effects after MCAo in the rat, which may affect behavioral outcomes.

  11. Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Treated by Thrombectomy in a Patient with Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Severe Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Onder, Halil; Murat Arsava, E.; Arat, Anıl; Akif Topcuoglu, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Experience on thrombolysis and/or thrombectomy for acute major ischemic strokes in the setting of deep (less than 40,000/mm3) thrombocytopenia is limited. Methods Case report and review of the literature. Results A 63-year-old female with myelodysplastic syndrome presented with left middle cerebral artery stroke within 2 hours of symptom onset. Severe thrombocytopenia (10.000/mm3) precluded systemic thrombolysis. However, endovascular thrombectomy provided successful recanalization and dramatic clinical recovery with NIHSS score decreasing from 20 to 2 soon after the procedure. Her modified Rankin scale was 1 at the end of the third month. Conclusion This exceptional case highlights that neurothrombectomy could be feasible and of justifiable merit even in the setting of critically low thrombocytopenia if a meticulous procedure is followed in subjects with severe acute stroke. PMID:26576212

  12. Ileocolic Intussusception in a Leukemic Adult Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tuqan, Wa'el; Alawneh, Alia; Saleh, Alaa; Alrabi, Kamal; Marei, Lina

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of intussusception in a 41-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia without an evidence of leukemic infiltration of the bowel. The patient presented to the emergency room with right lower quadrant pain. Initially he was diagnosed with typhlitis. CT scan was done and showed ileocolic intussusception without a definitive lead point identified. Patient underwent hemicolectomy and histopathological study of the specimen did not show any leukemic infiltrate. High suspicion of intussusception should be kept in mind with leukemic patients presenting with abdominal pain. PMID:27840762

  13. Portal venous gas and cardiopulmonary arrest during pneumatic reduction of an ileocolic intussusception.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mark L; Fields, Jonathan M; Sola, Juan E; Neville, Holly L

    2011-04-01

    We present the case of an 8-month-old infant with a small bowel obstruction secondary to an ileocolic intussusception without a pathologic lead point. During pneumatic reduction, the patient went into cardiopulmonary arrest, at which point portal venous gas (PVG) was visualized on radiography. Here we present-to our knowledge-the first reported case of PVG secondary to pneumatic reduction of an intussusception along with a review of the literature regarding known complications of pneumatic reduction and the etiologies of PVG.

  14. Ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp causing chronic ileocolic intussusception and mimicking cecal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Naveen; Falzarano, John S; Limm, Whitney ML; Namiki, Thomas S; Tom, Laurie KS

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a rare, idiopathic pseudotumorous lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. While mostly reported as solitary gastric lesions, multiple cases of small bowel IFPs are also reported. It is a documented cause of intussusception in adults. In the case reports of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyps with intussusception, an emergent presentation with small bowel obstruction has been most often described. Here we depict a case of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp presenting with chronic intermittent ileocolic intussusception, anemia and weight loss with an endoscopic appearance mimicking necrotic cecal carcinoma. PMID:21160780

  15. Time course, distribution and cell types of induction of transforming growth factor betas following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Pál, Gabriella; Vincze, Csilla; Renner, Éva; Wappler, Edina A; Nagy, Zoltán; Lovas, Gábor; Dobolyi, Arpád

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-β1-3) are cytokines that regulate the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of various cell types. The present study describes the induction of TGF-β1-3 in the rat after focal ischemia at 3 h, 24 h, 72 h and 1 month after transient (1 h) or permanent (24 h) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using in situ hybridization histochemistry and quantitative analysis. Double labeling with different markers was used to identify the localization of TGF-β mRNA relative to the penumbra and glial scar, and the types of cells expressing TGF-βs. TGF-β1 expression increased 3 h after MCAO in the penumbra and was further elevated 24 h after MCAO. TGF-β1 was present mostly in microglial cells but also in some astrocytes. By 72 h and 1 month after the occlusion, TGF-β1 mRNA-expressing cells also appeared in microglia within the ischemic core and in the glial scar. In contrast, TGF-β2 mRNA level was increased in neurons but not in astrocytes or microglial cells in layers II, III, and V of the ipsilateral cerebral cortex 24 h after MCAO. TGF-β3 was not induced in cells around the penumbra. Its expression increased in only a few cells in layer II of the cerebral cortex 24 h after MCAO. The levels of TGF-β2 and -β3 decreased at subsequent time points. Permanent MCAO further elevated the levels of all 3 subtypes of TGF-βs suggesting that reperfusion is not a major factor in their induction. TGF-β1 did not co-localize with either Fos or ATF-3, while the co-localization of TGF-β2 with Fos but not with ATF-3 suggests that cortical spreading depolarization, but not damage to neural processes, might be the mechanism of induction for TGF-β2. The results imply that endogenous TGF-βs are induced by different mechanisms following an ischemic attack in the brain suggesting that they are involved in distinct spatially and temporally regulated inflammatory and neuroprotective processes.

  16. A Putative Blood-Based Biomarker for Autism Spectrum Disorder-Associated Ileocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Stephen J.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Fortunato, John; Krigsman, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A significant proportion of children with ASD and gastrointestinal symptoms have histologic evidence of ileocolitis (inflammation of the terminal ileum and/or colon). We previously reported the molecular characterization of gastrointestinal biopsy tissue from ASD children with ileocolitis (ASDIC+) compared to anatomically similar inflamed tissue from typically developing children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; i.e. Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis) and typically developing children with gastrointestinal symptoms but no evidence of gastrointestinal mucosal inflammation (TDIC−). ASDIC+ children had a gene expression profile that, while primarily overlapping with known IBD, had distinctive differences. The present study confirms these findings and replicates this molecular characterization in a second cohort of cases (ASDIC+) and controls (TDIC−). In these two separate case/control mucosal-based cohorts, we have demonstrated overlap of 59 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) unique to inflamed ileocolonic tissue from symptomatic ASDIC+ children. We now report that 9 of these 59 transcripts are also differentially expressed in the peripheral blood of the second cohort of ASDIC+ children. This set of transcripts represents a putative blood-based biomarker for ASD-associated ileocolonic inflammation. PMID:27767057

  17. Successful treatment of ileocolic intussusception with air enema reduction in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Satoshi; Kanemura, Takashi; Yokouchi, Yukako; Kamiichi, Hideo; Kiriu, Nobuaki; Koike, Yuji

    2014-05-01

    Intussusception is a rare condition in adults, representing only 1% of all bowel obstructions. In adult cases, operative explorations are recommended to treat the bowel obstruction and to diagnose underlying diseases. The objective of the current case report was to describe the successful treatment of ileocolic intussusception with air enema reduction in an adult patient. A previously healthy 21-year-old woman had a 20-hour history of colicky abdominal pain and vomiting and was diagnosed as having idiopathic ileocolic intussusception by abdominal computed tomography. We treated the patient with air enema reduction under fluoroscopic guidance instead of an operative procedure. She received oxygen and intravenous midazolam to provide some degree of pain relief. Air was carefully pumped manually into the rectum, and the air pressure was monitored with a manometer. Because of air leakage from the rectum through the void to the outside the body, we continued to provide air to maintain the air pressure between 40 and 60 mm Hg. Three minutes after initiation of the air enema, when the patient experienced increasing abdominal pain and vomiting, the pressure was temporarily increased to greater than 100 mm Hg, and the air reached the terminal ileum. We considered the reduction successful and confirmed it with an abdominal ultrasound examination. We believe that air enema reduction is effective for treating idiopathic intussusception within 24 hours of symptom onset in young, previously healthy adult patients.

  18. Adenovirus-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression regulated by hypoxia response element protects brain from injury of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qindong; Zhang, Pengbo; Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Xinlin; Lu, Haixia; Tian, Yumei; Parker, T L; Liu, Yong

    2009-11-20

    Some gene expression may be regulated by hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) that is bound by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) which is up-regulated during cerebral ischemia. To explore ischemia/hypoxia-controlled expression and the neuroprotective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after ischemic brain injury, an adenoviral vector using five copies of hypoxia response element (HRE) in the vascular endothelial growth factor gene to regulate the expression of BDNF gene (Ad5HRE:BDNF) was constructed, and its efficacy was verified for driving BDNF expression in cultured Hela cells under hypoxic condition by ELISA. We found that the concentration of BDNF in the Ad5HRE:BDNF-transfected culture media was 28-fold greater in a hypoxic condition than under normoxia. To examine the effect of Ad5HRE:BDNF on ischemic brain injury in vivo, Ad5HRE:BDNF was injected into right caudate putamen of adult mice 7 days prior to 60 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). It was found that exogenous BDNF expression was increased in the Ad5HRE-BDNF-treated group and infarct volume of the Ad5HRE:BDNF-treated group at 3 days after MCAO was significantly smaller than that of vehicle- or AdNull-treated groups. Moreover, Ad5HRE:BDNF injection resulted in significantly improved sensorimotor scores 7 days after MCAO and induced a reduction in the number of Fluoro-Jade B-positive neurons and TUNEL-positive cells, compared with vehicle- or AdNull-injection. Our findings suggest that BDNF expression could be regulated in hypoxia/ischemia condition with five copies of HRE and ameliorates ischemic brain injury in a mouse focal cerebral ischemia model.

  19. Impact of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion in Non-Infarct-Related Arteries in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction (from the COREA-AMI Registry).

    PubMed

    Choi, Ik Jun; Koh, Yoon-Seok; Lim, Sungmin; Choo, Eun Ho; Kim, Jin Jin; Hwang, Byung-Hee; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Seo, Suk Min; Kim, Chan Joon; Park, Mahn-Won; Shin, Dong Il; Choi, Yun-Seok; Park, Hun-Jun; Her, Sung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Bin; Park, Chul Soo; Lee, Jong-Min; Moon, Keon Woong; Chang, Kiyuk; Kim, Hee Yeol; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Jeon, Doo Soo; Chung, Wook-Sung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Seung, Ki-Bae; Kim, Pum-Joon

    2016-04-01

    Chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a non-infarct-related artery (IRA) is an independent predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study evaluated the impact of successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for CTO of a non-IRA on the long-term clinical outcomes in patients with AMI. A total of 4,748 patients with AMI were consecutively enrolled in the Convergent Registry of Catholic and Chonnam University for AMI registry from January 2004 to December 2009. We enrolled 324 patients with CTO in a non-IRA. To adjust for baseline differences, propensity matching (96 matched pairs) was used to compare successful PCI and occluded CTO for the treatment of CTO in non-IRA. The primary clinical end points were all-cause mortality and a composite of the major adverse cardiac events, including cardiac death, MI, stroke, and any revascularization during the 5-year follow-up. Patients who received successful PCI for CTO of non-IRA had lower rates of all-cause mortality (16.7% vs 32.3%, hazard ratio 0.459, 95% CI 0.251 to 0.841, p = 0.012) and major adverse cardiac events (21.9% vs 55.2%, hazard ratio 0.311, 95% CI 0.187 to 0.516, p <0.001) compared with occluded CTO group. Subgroup analyses revealed that successful PCI resulted in a better mortality rate in patients with normal renal function compared to patients with chronic kidney disease (p = 0.010). In conclusion, successful PCI for CTO of non-IRA is associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in patients with AMI.

  20. Estradiol reduces activity of the blood-brain barrier Na-K-Cl cotransporter and decreases edema formation in permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martha E; Lam, Tina I; Tran, Lien Q; Foroutan, Shahin; Anderson, Steven E

    2006-10-01

    Estrogen has been shown to protect against stroke-induced brain damage, yet the mechanism is unknown. During the early hours of stroke, cerebral edema forms as increased transport of Na and Cl from blood into brain occurs across an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). We showed previously that a luminal BBB Na-K-Cl cotransporter is stimulated by hypoxia and arginine vasopressin (AVP), factors present during cerebral ischemia, and that inhibition of the cotransporter by intravenous bumetanide greatly reduces edema in rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The present study was conducted to determine whether estrogen protects in stroke at least in part by reducing activity of the BBB cotransporter, thereby decreasing edema formation. Ovariectomized rats were subjected to 210 mins of permanent MCAO after 7-day or 30-min pretreatment with 17beta-estradiol and then brain swelling and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were assessed as measures of brain edema and lesion volume, respectively. Diffusion-weighed imaging was used to monitor permanent MCAO-induced decreases in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, an index of changes in brain water distribution and mobility. Na-K-Cl cotransporter activity of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) was assessed as bumetanide-sensitive K influx and cotransporter abundance by Western blot analysis after estradiol treatment. Estradiol significantly decreased brain swelling and lesion volume and attenuated the decrease in ADC values during permanent MCAO. Estradiol also abolished CMEC cotransporter stimulation by chemical hypoxia or AVP and decreased cotransporter abundance. These findings support the hypothesis that estrogen attenuates stimulation of BBB Na-K-Cl cotransporter activity, reducing edema formation during stroke.

  1. Certain forms of matrix metalloproteinase-9 accumulate in the extracellular space after microdialysis probe implantation and middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Planas, Anna M; Justicia, Carles; Solé, Sònia; Friguls, Bibiana; Cervera, Alvaro; Adell, Albert; Chamorro, Angel

    2002-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are activated in focal cerebral ischemia. The activation of MMP-9 is involved in blood-brain barrier breakdown and tissue remodeling. The MMPs are released to the extracellular space, but the form and fate of secreted enzymes in brain are unknown. Using microdialysis in vivo, the authors studied whether ischemia-induced MMP-9 in brain tissue was related to free MMP-9 in the extracellular fluid. A microdialysis probe was placed into the right striatum and microdialysis was initiated 24 hours later in controls (n = 7). One hour prior to microdialysis, a group of rats (n = 7) was subjected to 1-hour occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery, followed by reperfusion. Dialysates were collected at discrete time points up to 24 hours, and subjected to zymography and Western blot analysis. The MMP-9 was released after ischemia and accumulated in the extracellular space at 24 hours (P < 0.05). Free MMP-9 forms include mainly the 95-kd proform, and, to a lesser extent, dimers and cleaved active forms (70 kd), but not the 88-kd form found in tissue. Probe implantation and microdialysis increased free MMP-9 in the dialysate. This increase was concomitant with neutrophil infiltration after the mechanical lesion, as myeloperoxidase was found by means of Western blot analysis in the brain hemisphere subjected to microdialysis (P < 0.005), and immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of myeloperoxidase stain surrounding the site of probe implantation. The results suggest that certain forms of MMP-9 are released and accumulate in the extracellular space after brain injury, and that vascular alterations and neutrophil recruitment elicit MMP-9 activation in the brain after focal ischemia and trauma.

  2. Independent Factors of Changes of Ankle-Brachial Index in Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease in Elderly Patients with or without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bąk, Ewelina; Marcisz, Czesław; Kadłubowska, Monika; Michalik, Anna; Krawczyk, Bożena; Dobrzyń-Matusiak, Dorota; Krzemińska, Sylwia; Fiałkowski, Tomasz; Glądys, Elżbieta; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) belongs to the commonly-occurring pathologies associated with elderly age. A simple tool for defining the severity of PAD is the ankle-brachial index (ABI). The purpose of this research was to determine independent factors of changes of ABI in elderly patients with occlusive PAD disease (PAOD) with and without diabetes. The research was carried out on 49 elderly patients with PAOD, including 29 patients with type 2 diabetes, and 20 patients without diabetes. The concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6), E-selectin, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood serum was marked. In all patients, the independent factors of changes of ABI were determined with the use of the multiple logistic regression analysis. Our results show that in the group of patients with PAOD suffering from diabetes, it was demonstrated that the ABI was related to age, the duration of the symptoms of PAD, body mass index (BMI), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fibrinogen, and sex (determination coefficient R2 = 0.699). In patients with PAOD without diabetes, the ABI was related to age, the duration of the symptoms of PAD, the levels of CRP, E-selectin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the glomerular filtration rate(determination coefficient R2 = 0.844). We conclude that in elderly patients with PAOD with and without diabetes, the participation of independent factors related to the ABI is diversified; in patients with diabetes, the concentration of IL-6 and fibrinogen is lower, and the concentration of E-selectin is higher than in patients without diabetes. PMID:27834825

  3. The Antiepileptic Drug Levetiracetam Suppresses Non-Convulsive Seizure Activity and Reduces Ischemic Brain Damage in Rats Subjected to Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Ornella; Rispoli, Vincenzo; Leo, Antonio; Politi, Giovanni Bosco; Vinciguerra, Antonio; di Renzo, Gianfranco; Cataldi, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    The antiepileptic drug Levetiracetam (Lev) has neuroprotective properties in experimental stroke, cerebral hemorrhage and neurotrauma. In these conditions, non-convulsive seizures (NCSs) propagate from the core of the focal lesion into perilesional tissue, enlarging the damaged area and promoting epileptogenesis. Here, we explore whether Lev neuroprotective effect is accompanied by changes in NCS generation or propagation. In particular, we performed continuous EEG recordings before and after the permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO) in rats that received Lev (100 mg/kg) or its vehicle immediately before surgery. Both in Lev-treated and in control rats, EEG activity was suppressed after pMCAO. In control but not in Lev-treated rats, EEG activity reappeared approximately 30-45 min after pMCAO. It initially consisted in single spikes and, then, evolved into spike-and-wave and polyspike-and-wave discharges. In Lev-treated rats, only rare spike events were observed and the EEG power was significantly smaller than in controls. Approximately 24 hours after pMCAO, EEG activity increased in Lev-treated rats because of the appearance of polyspike events whose power was, however, significantly smaller than in controls. In rats sacrificed 24 hours after pMCAO, the ischemic lesion was approximately 50% smaller in Lev-treated than in control rats. A similar neuroprotection was observed in rats sacrificed 72 hours after pMCAO. In conclusion, in rats subjected to pMCAO, a single Lev injection suppresses NCS occurrence for at least 24 hours. This electrophysiological effect could explain the long lasting reduction of ischemic brain damage caused by this drug. PMID:24236205

  4. Association of Far-Infrared Radiation Therapy and Ankle-Brachial Index of Patients on Hemodialysis with Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Kuo, I-Ching; Mai, Hsiu-Chin; Kuo, Po-Lin; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is recognized to be a good marker for atherosclerosis, and is useful in the diagnosis of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) which is prevalent among patients on hemodialysis (HD). Methods: This randomized trial aimed to evaluate the effect of far-infrared radiation (FIR) therapy on ABI in HD patients with PAOD. PAOD was defined as patients with ABI < 0.95. One hundred and eight HD patients were enrolled, including 50 in the control group and 58 in the FIR group. A WS TY101 FIR emitter was applied for 40 minutes during each HD session, three times per week for six months. The ABI was measured before and after the FIR therapy. Results: Regardless of FIR therapy, the bilateral ABI decreased (in the FIR group, left: 0.88±0.22 to 0.85±0.24, p = 0.188; right: 0.92±0.20 to 0.90±0.23, p = 0.372; in control group, left: 0.91±0.23 to 0.88±0.21, p = 0144; right: 0.93±0.17 to 0.89±0.21, p = 0.082). Multivariate logistic analysis of the FIR group revealed that high uric acid (odds ratio [OR]: 2.335; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.117-4.882; p=0.024) and aspirin use (OR: 16.463; 95% CI: 1.787-151.638; p=0.013) were independently associated with increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that ABI is not increased after FIR therapy in HD patients with PAOD. However, in the FIR group, patients with higher uric acid level or those who used aspirin have increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy. PMID:27994503

  5. Increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and lactic acid in stroke patients with internal carotid artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Dan; Hu, Di; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Yufang; Li, Jimei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) causes high annual rates of mortality and morbidity. It has been established that atherosclerosis is the normal cause of ICAO. As the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis may involve blood lipids, inflammatory factors and other biomarkers, the aim of this study was to assess the changes in these biomarkers and investigate the relationship between these biomarkers and the development of ICAO in stroke patients. Material and methods A total of 89 ischaemic stroke inpatients with ICAO (ICAO group) and 89 without ICAO (control group) were studied, retrospectively. The serum was collected from each patient on the 3rd day of admission, to measure the lipid parameters and biomarkers, e.g. high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and lactic acid (LA). Histories were taken including age, gender, smoking history, and disease history. Additional analysis was carried out to compare between the genders and evaluate the association between certain biomarkers and ICAO. Results Among the 89 ICAO cases in this study, the serum levels of hs-CRP, ESR and LA were significantly higher than those in the control group (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences were found in the mean levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, HDL cholesterol or glucose, or the known risk factors. Gender also had no influence on these biomarkers. Logistic regression analysis indicated that hs-CRP, ESR and LA were significantly associated with ICAO (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that hs-CRP, ESR and LA are associated with ICAO in ischaemic stroke patients, but gender has no effect. Therefore, Hs-CRP, ESR and LA may be useful in the early detection of patients with ICAO. PMID:27279846

  6. Functional Independence following Endovascular Treatment for Basilar Artery Occlusion despite Extensive Bilateral Pontine Infarcts on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging: Refuting a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

    PubMed Central

    Haussen, Diogo C.; Oliveira, Renato A.C.; Patel, Vikas; Nogueira, Raul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Extensive brainstem diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensity has been associated with poor outcomes. We aim at documenting a series of patients with extensive DWI pontine lesions who achieved independence following endovascular therapy and aggressive medical therapy in the setting of posterior circulation basilar artery occlusion (BAO). Methods This is a retrospective endovascular database review of a single-operator experience over a 9-year period for patients with (1) complete BAO, (2) extensive bilateral pontine DWI changes and (3) 90-day modified Rankin scale 0–2. Results Three out of a total of 40 patients met the inclusion criteria. Case 1 was an 18-year-old male with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) 32 on admission, treated 25 h after symptom onset. Case 2 was a 56-year-old male with NIHSS 19, treated 10 h after onset. Case 3 was a 73-year-old male with NIHSS 29, treated 6 h after onset. Full endovascular reperfusion was achieved in all 3 patients. A literature review identified 9 additional cases of extensive pontine DWI changes and good outcome. These patients were young (32 ± 22 years), mostly males (69%), presented with a relatively low posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score (6 ± 1), were treated relatively late from last known normal (13 ± 10 h) and were mostly (84%) treated with endovascular intervention. Conclusion Extensive bilateral pontine DWI lesions among patients with BAO are not an unequivocal indicator of poor prognosis. We advise strong caution when considering these findings in the treatment decision algorithm. PMID:27781047

  7. In Vitro Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Neuron-Like Cells by Cerebrospinal Fluid Improves Motor Function of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ying; Peng, Yi-ran; Hu, Shu-qun; Yan, Xian-liang; Chen, Juan; Xu, Tie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) represent a promising tool for stem cell-based therapies. However, the majority of BMSC transplants only allow for limited recovery of the lost functions. We previously found that human cerebrospinal fluid (hCSF) is more potent than growth factors in differentiating human BMSCs into neuron-like cells in vitro. In this study, we studied the effect of transplantation of rat BMSC-derived neuron-like cells (BMSC-Ns) induced by hCSF into rat brain with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The survival and differentiation of the transplanted cells were determined using immunofluorescence staining of bromodeoxyuridine. The recovery of neurological function were observed by the modified neurological severity score (modified NSS) at 4, 15, and 32 days after cell transplantation, HE staining for determination of the infarct volume at day 32 after cell transplantation. Transplantation of BMSC-Ns or BMSCs significantly improved indexes of neurological function and reduced infarct size in rats previously subjected to MCAO compared with those in the control group. Remarkably, 32 days after transplantation, rats treated with BMSC-Ns presented a smaller infarct size, higher number of neuron-specific, enolase-positive, and BrdU-positive cells, and improved neurological function compared with BMSC group. Our results demonstrate that transplantation of hCSF-treated BMSC-Ns significantly improves neurological function and reduces infarct size in rats subjected to MCAO. This study may pave a new avenue for the treatment of MCAO. PMID:27833584

  8. TTC, fluoro-Jade B and NeuN staining confirm evolving phases of infarction induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fudong; Schafer, Dorothy P; McCullough, Louise D

    2009-04-30

    Considerable debate exists in the literature on how best to measure infarct damage and at what point after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) infarct is histologically complete. As many researchers are focusing on more chronic endpoints in neuroprotection studies it is important to evaluate histological damage at later time points to ensure that standard methods of tissue injury measurement are accurate. To compare tissue viability at both acute and sub-acute time points, we used 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), Fluoro-Jade B, and NeuN staining to examine the evolving phases of infarction induced by a 90-min MCAO in mice. Stroke outcomes were examined at 1.5h, 6h, 12h, 24h, 3d, and 7d after MCAO. There was a time-dependent increase in infarct volume from 1.5h to 24h in the cortex, followed by a plateau from 24h to 7d after stroke. Striatal infarcts were complete by 12h. Fluoro-Jade B staining peaked at 24h and was minimal by 7d. Our results indicated that histological damage as measured by TTC and Fluoro-Jade B reaches its peak by 24h after stroke in a reperfusion model of MCAO in mice. TTC staining can be accurately performed as late as 7d after stroke. Neurological deficits do not correlate with the structural lesion but rather transient impairment of function. As the infarct is complete by 24h and even earlier in the striatum, even the most efficacious neuroprotective therapies are unlikely to show any efficacy if given after this point.

  9. MAGnesium-oral supplementation to reduce PAin in patients with severe PERipheral arterial occlusive disease: the MAG-PAPER randomised clinical trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Venturini, Monica Aida; Zappa, Sergio; Minelli, Cosetta; Bonardelli, Stefano; Lamberti, Laura; Bisighini, Luca; Zangrandi, Marta; Turin, Maddalena; Rizzo, Francesco; Rizzolo, Andrea; Latronico, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Magnesium exerts analgaesic effects in several animal pain models, as well as in patients affected by acute postoperative pain and neuropathic chronic pain. There is no evidence that magnesium can modulate pain in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). We describe the protocol of a single-centre randomised double-blind clinical trial aimed at assessing the efficacy of oral magnesium supplementation in controlling severe pain in patients with advanced PAOD. Methods and analysis Adult patients affected by PAOD at stages III and IV of Lèriche-Fontaine classification, who are opioid-naïve, and who have been admitted to our Acute Pain Service for intractable pain, will be eligible. Patients will be randomised to the control group, treated with standard therapy (oxycodone and pregabalin) plus placebo for 2 weeks, or to the experimental group (standard therapy plus magnesium oxide). Patients will be evaluated on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14; the following information will being collected: daily oxycodone dose; average and maximum pain (Numerical Rating Scale); pain relief (Pain Relief Scale); characteristics of the pain (Neuropathic Pain Scale); impact of pain on the patient's daily activities (Brief Pain Inventory). The primary outcome will be oxycodone dosage needed to achieve satisfactory analgaesia on day 14. Secondary outcomes will be pain relief on day 2, time needed to achieve satisfactory analgaesia and time needed to achieve a pain reduction of 50%. A sample size calculation was performed for the primary outcome, which estimated a required sample size of 150 patients (75 per group). Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval of the study protocol has been obtained from Comitato Etico Provinciale di Brescia, Brescia, Italy. Trial results will be disseminated through scientific journal manuscripts and scientific conference presentations. Trial registration number NCT02455726. PMID:26674497

  10. Usefulness of the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in predicting long-term cardiovascular mortality in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    PubMed Central

    Erturk, Mehmet; Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Yalcin, Ahmet Arif; Uygur, Begum; Bulut, Umit; Oz, Kursat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Inflammation and increased platelet activation play a crucial role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) has recently been reported as a new independent predictor for major adverse cardiovascular events in cardiovascular diseases. Aim To investigate the relation between PLR and cardiovascular mortality in patients with intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia (CLI) or both. Material and methods In our retrospective study, 602 consecutive patients who were admitted to a large tertiary hospital with the diagnosis of symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) were included. Patients were divided into two groups according to their PLR as follows: high PLR (PLR > 142) and low PLR (PLR ≤ 142) groups. Results During the follow-up period (median: 33.8 months (interquartile range: 21–45)), 131 deaths occurred out of 602 (21.8%) patients. Cardiovascular mortality was found to be significantly higher in the high PLR group compared to the low PLR group (31.6% vs. 17.2 %; p < 0.001). Even after adjustment for various risk factors, PLR > 142 and age were found to be independent predictors of long-term cardiovascular mortality in Cox regression analysis (hazard ratios (95% confidence interval): 1.03 (1.01–1.04) and 1.04 (1.02–1.06), p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, which is one of the parameters of routine complete blood count, reflects increased inflammatory status, platelet activation and aggregation. PLR is a cheap and readily available marker that has the ability to improve risk stratification provided by conventional risk scores in predicting long-term cardiovascular mortality in PAOD. PMID:28344615

  11. Comparisons between Garcia, Modo, and Longa rodent stroke scales: Optimizing resource allocation in rat models of focal middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Bachour, Salam P; Hevesi, Mario; Bachour, Ornina; Sweis, Brian M; Mahmoudi, Javad; Brekke, Julia A; Divani, Afshin A

    2016-05-15

    The use of rodent stroke models allow for the understanding of stroke pathophysiology. There is currently no gold standard neurological assessment to measure deficits and recovery from stroke in rodent models. Agreement on a universal preclinical stroke scale allows for comparison of the outcomes among conducted studies. The present study aimed to compare three routinely used neurological assessments in rodent studies (i.e., Garcia, Modo, and Longa) to determine which is most effective for accurately and consistently quantifying neurological deficits in the context of focal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in rats. Focal MCAo was induced in 22 male Wistar rats using a novel transfemoral approach. Rodents were assessed for neurological deficit pre-injury as well as 3 and 24h post-injury. Data was analyzed to determine Pearson correlation coefficients in addition to McNemar's χ(2) values between each pair of neurological assessments. All three stroke scales, Garcia, Modo, and Longa, showed statistically significant changes between the baseline and the 3-hour neurological assessments. A trend towards neurological recovery was observed in all three stroke scales between the 3 and 24-hour endpoints. The three scales were highly correlated with each other, with Garcia and Modo having the strongest correlation. Of the three pairwise analyses, the comparison between the Garcia and Longa tests demonstrated the highest McNemar's χ(2) value, indicating least marginal homogeneity between these two tests. The combination of high correlation between Garcia and Modo tests along with greatest marginal heterogeneity observed between the Garcia and Longa test lead us to recommend the use of Garcia and Longa neurological scales when researchers are hoping to capture the broadest range of neurological factors using only two stroke scales.

  12. Occlusion Calculator

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Anand; Aluckal, Eby

    2015-01-01

    Start with end in mind’ is a popular cliché in orthodontics. This aptly applies to the therapeutic occlusion the orthodontist strives to achieve. Predicting the post treatment occlusion is an essential component of treatment planning. When no extractions or symmetric extractions are done predicting the final occlusion is somewhat easy. Prediction is challenging when we do unconventional and/or asymmetric extractions. To aid this decision Kesling proposed the ‘Kesling Setup’. Though it serves the purpose acceptably; it is time, energy and money consuming. We have developed a model which can help us visualize the final occlusion in matter of seconds. Although this model is primarily intended for orthodontic postgraduate teaching, it can be of considerable use even to a seasoned orthodontist. The regular use of “Orthodontic Calculator” in our department is a testimony to its usefulness. PMID:25738101

  13. Relationships between high oxygen extraction fraction in the acute stage and final infarction in reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion: an investigation in anesthetized baboons with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Young, A R; Sette, G; Touzani, O; Rioux, P; Derlon, J M; MacKenzie, E T; Baron, J C

    1996-11-01

    Studies in humans suggest that regions that show maximal increases in brain oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in the hours following an ischemic episode are those most vulnerable for infarction and are often, although not always, associated with the final site of infarction. To clarify this issue, we followed the hemodynamic and metabolic characteristics of regions with an initially maximally increased OEF and compared them with the ultimately infarcted region in an experimental stroke model. Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to obtain functional images of the brain prior to and following reversible unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in 11 anesthetized baboons. To model early reperfusion, the clips were removed 6 h after occlusion. Successive measurements of regional CBF (rCBF), regional CMRO2 (rCMRO2), regional cerebral blood volume, and regional OEF (rOEF) were performed during the acute (up to 2 days) and chronic (> 15 days) stage. Late magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (co-registered with PET) were obtained to identify infarction. Reversible MCAO produced an MRI-measurable infarction in 6 of 11 baboons; the others had no evidence of ischemic damage. Histological analysis confirmed the results of the MRI investigation but failed to show any evidence of cortical ischemic damage. The lesion was restricted to the head of the caudate nucleus, internal capsule, and putamen. The infarct volume obtained was 0.58 +/- 0.31 cm3. The infarcts were situated in the deep MCA territory, while the area of initially maximally increased OEF was within the cortical mantle. The mean absolute rCBF value in the infarct region of interest (ROI) was not significantly lower than in the highest-OEF ROI until 1-2 days post-MCAO. Cerebral metabolism in the deep MCA territory was always significantly lower than that of the cortical mantle; decreases in CMRO2 in the former region were evident as early as 1 h post-MCAO. In the cortical mantle, the rOEF was

  14. Unraveling the Specific Ischemic Core and Penumbra Transcriptome in the Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Mouse Model Brain Treated with the Neuropeptide PACAP38

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Motohide; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our group has been systematically investigating the effects of the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) on the ischemic brain. To do so, we have established and utilized the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) mouse model, in which PACAP38 (1 pmol) injection is given intracerebroventrically and compared to a control saline (0.9% sodium chloride, NaCl) injection, to unravel genome-wide gene expression changes using a high-throughput DNA microarray analysis approach. In our previous studies, we have accumulated a large volume of data (gene inventory) from the whole brain (ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres) after both PMCAO and post-PACAP38 injection. In our latest research, we have targeted specifically infarct or ischemic core (hereafter abbreviated IC) and penumbra (hereafter abbreviated P) post-PACAP38 injections in order to re-examine the transcriptome at 6 and 24 h post injection. The current study aims to delineate the specificity of expression and localization of differentially expressed molecular factors influenced by PACAP38 in the IC and P regions. Utilizing the mouse 4 × 44 K whole genome DNA chip we show numerous changes (≧/≦ 1.5/0.75-fold) at both 6 h (654 and 456, and 522 and 449 up- and down-regulated genes for IC and P, respectively) and 24 h (2568 and 2684, and 1947 and 1592 up- and down-regulated genes for IC and P, respectively) after PACAP38 treatment. Among the gene inventories obtained here, two genes, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and transthyretin (Ttr) were found to be induced by PACAP38 treatment, which we had not been able to identify previously using the whole hemisphere transcriptome analysis. Using bioinformatics analysis by pathway- or specific-disease-state focused gene classifications and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) the differentially expressed genes are functionally classified and discussed. Among these, we specifically discuss some novel and previously

  15. Anatomical significance in aortoiliac occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Candace; Hayat, Munawar; du Plessis, Maira; Cesmebasi, Alper; Koesterer, Michael; Daly, Kevin P; Matusz, Petru; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-11-01

    Aortoiliac occlusive disease is a subset of peripheral arterial disease involving an atheromatous occlusion of the infrarenal aorta, common iliac arteries, or both. The disease, as it is known today, was described by the French surgeon René Leriche as a thrombotic occlusion of the end of the aorta. Leriche successfully linked the anatomic location of the occlusion with a unique triad of symptoms, including claudication, impotence, and decreased peripheral pulses. The anatomical location of the atheromatous lesions also has a direct influence on classification of the disease, as well as choice of treatment modality. Considering its impact on diagnosis and treatment, we aimed to provide a detailed understanding of the anatomical structures involved in aortoiliac occlusive disease. Familiarity with these structures will aid the physician in interpretation of radiologic images and surgical planning.

  16. Long-term Results for Primary Bypass vs. Primary Angioplasty/Stent for Intermittent Claudication Due to Superficial Femoral Artery Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Siracuse, Jeffrey J.; Giles, Kristina A.; Pomposelli, Frank B.; Hamdan, Allen D.; Wyers, Mark C.; Chaikof, Elliot L.; Nedeau, April E.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty +/− stent (PTA/S) and surgical bypass are both accepted treatments for claudication due to superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusive disease. However, long-term results comparing these modalities for primary intervention in patients who have had no prior intervention has not been reported. We report our results with three year follow-up. Methods We reviewed all lower extremity bypass procedures at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from 2001–2009 and all PTA/S performed from 2005 through 2009 for claudication. We excluded all limb salvage procedures and included only those that were undergoing their first intervention for claudication due to SFA disease. We recorded patient demographics, comorbidities, perioperative medications, TASC classification, and runoff. Outcomes included complications, restenosis, symptom recurrence, reinterventions, major amputation, and mortality. Results We identified 113 bypass grafts and 105 PTA/S of femoral-popliteal lesions without prior interventions. Bypasses were above the knee in 62% (45% vein) and below the knee in 38% (100% vein). Mean age was 63 (bypass) vs. 69 (PTA/S) (P<.01). Mean length of stay (LOS) was 3.9 vs. 1.2 days (P<.01). Bypass grafts were used less for TASC A (17% vs. 40%, P<.01), and more for TASC C (36% vs. 11%, P<.01) and TASC D (13% vs. 3%, P<.01) lesions. There were no differences in perioperative (2% vs. 0%, NS) or 3 year mortality (9 vs. 8%, NS). Wound infection was higher with bypass (16% vs. 0%, P<.01). None involved grafts. Bypass showed improved freedom from restenosis (73% vs. 42% - 3 years, HR 0.4, 95% CI 0.23–0.71), symptom recurrence (70% and 36% at 3 years, HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.2–0.56), and freedom from symptoms at last follow-up (83% vs. 49%, (HR 0.18, 95% CI 0.08–0.40). There was no difference in freedom from reintervention (77% vs. 66% at 3 years, NS). Multivariable analysis of all patients showed that restenosis was predicted by PTA

  17. Renal Branch Artery Occlusion in a 13-Year-Old Hypertensive Girl: Initial Treatment and Treatment of Recurrent Stenosis by Balloon Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Konez, Orhan; Burrows, Patricia E.; Harmon, William E.

    2001-09-15

    A 13-year-old girl who recently developed hypertension was diagnosed to have an occluded right renal branch artery and was treated successfully with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). To our knowledge, PTA has not been reported as a treatment for totally occluded renal branch arteries, and there is no data available regarding the success rate and possible complications.

  18. Neurological Complications Comparing Endoscopically vs. Open Harvest of the Radial Artery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-05

    Complications Due to Coronary Artery Bypass Graft; Coronary Artery Disease; Myocardial Ischemia; Coronary Disease; Heart Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Arteriosclerosis; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Vascular Diseases

  19. Transient changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in hippocampus during moderate ischemia induced by chronic bilateral common carotid artery occlusions in the rat.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Kastner, R; Truettner, J; Lin, B; Zhao, W; Saul, I; Busto, R; Ginsberg, M D

    2001-08-15

    Chronic bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) induces moderate ischemia (oligemia) in the rat forebrain in the absence of overt neuronal damage. In situ hybridization for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA was used to search for a molecular response to moderate ischemia. BDNF mRNA was significantly increased in the hippocampal granule cells at 6 h of occlusion (ANOVA, Tukey test P<0.05). At 1, 7 and 14 days BDNF mRNA levels returned to control levels. The frequency of BDNF gene expression at 6 h was 83%, which was significantly higher than the 7% incidence of histological injury in the hippocampus (Fisher's exact test, P<0.002). Cerebral blood flow was reduced to 75% of control levels in the hippocampus after 1 week of BCCAO when measured with the autoradiographic method. Measurements of tissue flow with a microprobe for laser Doppler flow excluded decreases into the ischemic range during the period when elevated gene expression was observed. Prolonged moderate ischemia (oligemia) is a sufficient stimulus for BDNF gene expression in the hippocampus. These molecular studies provide direct evidence for an involvement of the hippocampus in the BCCAO model.

  20. Acute myocardial infarction and subclavian artery occlusion in a 41-year-old woman with Behçet’s disease: coronary and large vessel arteritis

    PubMed Central

    So, Ho; Yip, Man Lung

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old Chinese woman with Behçet’s disease (BD) complicated by acute myocardial infarction, requiring inotropic and ventilatory support. Angiography showed critical left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, a blocked left subclavian artery and left carotid artery stenosis. The patient was successfully treated with a high dose of immunosuppressants, standard anti-ischaemic therapy and percutaneous coronary intervention. Although life-threatening, coronary arteritis is a treatable manifestation of BD. We suggest that the diagnosis of coronary arteritis be considered in patients with BD who present with chest pain. Involvement of other arteries should also be looked out for in these patients. PMID:25273943

  1. Polycythemia causing posterior segment vascular occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Suganeswari; Raman, Rajiv; Sharma, Tarun

    2017-01-01

    A 44-year-old male patient presented with features suggestive of transient central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) followed by permanent CRAO and lateral posterior ciliary artery occlusion. He had diagnostic features of polycythemia vera (PV). When presented for the first time, the patient had features of ocular ischemia such as ocular pain, conjunctival congestion, and retinal opacification but with normal arm-to-retina time and normal arteriovenous transit time. During the second presentation, he had ocular pain, congested conjunctiva, retinal opacification, cherry red spot with box-carrying of retinal vessels, and choroidal infarct (Amalric's sign). He had lost light perception in that eye. Patients with polycythemia are prone to multifocal vascular occlusions and this can be the presenting feature in PV. A timely diagnosis and prompt management can prevent these repeated thromboembolic occlusive episodes. PMID:28298862

  2. Endoluminal occlusion devices: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Tobias; Medina, Samantha; Montes, Guillermo; Nuñez-Atahualpa, Lourdes; Valdes, Michel; Maynar, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Endoluminal occlusion has been performed since the early beginning of interventional radiology. Over recent decades, major technological advances have improved the techniques used and different devices have been developed for changing conditions. Most of these occlusion devices have been implemented in the vascular territory. Early embolization materials included glass particles, hot contrast, paraffin, fibrin, and tissue fragments such as muscle fibers and blood clots; today, occlusion materials include metallic devices, particles, and liquid materials, which can be indicated for proximal or distal occlusion, high-flow and low-flow situations, and in large-caliber and small-caliber vessels, based on need. Technological progress has led to a decreased size of delivery catheters, and an increase in safety due to release systems that permit the withdrawing and replacement of embolization material. Furthermore, bioactive embolization materials have been developed to increase the efficacy of embolization or the biological effect of medication. Finally, materials have been modified for changing indications. Intravascular stents were initially developed to keep an artery open; however, by adding a covering membrane, these stents can be used to occlude the wall of a vessel or other endoluminal structures. This article gives an overview of the devices most utilized for occlusion of endoluminal structures, as well as their major purpose in the endovascular territory. PMID:25489252

  3. Total laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with 3-step stapled intracorporeal isoperistaltic ileocolic anastomosis for colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jian-Cheng, Tu; Shu-Sheng, Wang; Bo, Zhang; Jian, Fang; Liang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with extracorporeal anastomosis is a widely used procedure; several authors have published their approach to intracorporeal anastomosis. In this paper, we present an approach developed by us and compare short-term outcomes with those of extracorporeal anastomosis in colon cancer patients. Retrospective review of colon cancer patients treated with laparoscopic right hemicolectomy either with intracorporeal anastomosis (TLG group) or extracorporeal anastomosis (LG group) at the Zhangjiagang Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University between January 2011 and October 2015. Operative and postoperative data are compared. Around 85 patients underwent laparoscopic hemicolectomy (56 TLG and 29 LG) during the reference period for this study. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), stage of cancer, operation time, number of lymph nodes harvested, and length of hospital stay were comparable between the 2 groups. In the TLG group, the ileocolic anastomosis time was significantly shorter (9.9–15.5 minutes vs 13.5–18.2 minutes in LG; P < 0.001), the mean intraoperative blood loss was lower (83.2 mL [range, 56.5–100.5 mL] vs 93.3 mL [range, 75.8 – 110.3 mL]; P < 0.001), the recovery of bowel function was faster (P < 0.001), and the postoperative pain score was lower (P < 0.001) as compared to that in the LG group. Complications in the LG group included wound infection (4 patients), obstruction (1), and postoperative bleeding complications (1); however, only 1 patient developed complication (wound infection) in the TLG group. Total laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with 3-step stapled intracorporeal anastomosis for colon cancer is a safe and reliable procedure. Its advantages include short anastomosis time, less intraoperative blood loss, less postoperative pain, and early bowel function recovery. PMID:27902621

  4. [Hemodynamic adaptations in proximal cerebrovascular occlusion].

    PubMed

    De Ley, G

    1990-01-01

    In order to gain more insight into the pathophysiology of extracerebral cerebrovascular occlusion, the cerebral hemodynamic behaviour after uni- or bilateral carotid occlusion was investigated. In Wistar rats, acute occlusion of one common carotid artery leads to a moderate bilateral lowering of the resting hemispheric brain blood flow; no interhemispheric perfusion asymmetry is observed. During hypercapnia, however, a manyfold increase of the hemispheric blood flow is seen at the intact side, whereas blood flow increase at the side of the occlusion is suppressed indicating that the cerebrovascular reserve at the side of the occlusion is largely used to preserve resting hemispheric perfusion. During the days (1, 5, 15 and 30) following the occlusion, resting hemispheric blood flow is progressively restored rather rapidly (bilateral normalization on the fifth day) whereas restoration of the cerebrovascular reserve (hemispheric blood flow increase in hypercapnia) proceeds more slowly and a nearly normal hypercapnic response is reached on day thirty. Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) show structural abnormalities of their blood vessels during the development of hypertension, leading to impaired adaptation possibilities of the cerebral vasculature after unilateral common carotid occlusion. This is indicated by the striking comparability of the compensation of hemispheric cerebral blood flow (in normo- and hypercapnia) of SH rats five days after unilateral carotid occlusion with the cerebral hemodynamic status of normotensive animals already seen 24 hours after the same occlusion. Consecutive bilateral common carotid occlusion shows that survival rate increases by increasing the interval between both occlusions. This survival relation is much more unfavorable in SH rats. The parallelism between the restoration of the measured CO2-reactivity of the blood flow in the involved hemisphere after unilateral carotid occlusion and the evolution of survival rate after

  5. Basilar Occlusion Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Basilar artery occlusions (BAOs) are a subset of posterior circulation strokes. Particular issues relevant to BAOs include variable and stuttering symptoms at onset resulting in delays in diagnosis, high morbidity and mortality, and uncertain best management. Despite better imaging techniques, diagnosis, and therefore treatment, is often delayed. We will present the most common signs and symptoms of posterior circulation strokes. Data on optimal treatment strategies are gathered from multiple case series, registries, and one randomized trial, which was stopped early. Possible etiologies of BAOs, acute, and subacute treatment strategies and special topics in neuroimaging of the posterior fossa are discussed. This review may be helpful to neurohospitalists who are managing patients with acute stroke as well as emergency room physicians and neurologists. PMID:26288672

  6. Clinical and angiographic comparison of asymptomatic occlusive cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, P B; Caplan, L R; Langenberg, P; Hier, D B; Pessin, M; Patel, D; Taber, J

    1988-06-01

    We compared clinical and arteriographic features in 106 patients with symptomatic unilateral carotid territory occlusive disease to determine the frequency and distribution of occlusive arterial lesions in asymptomatic vessels. Among black patients who were predominantly from Chicago, young, and female, there were fewer transient ischemic attacks and myocardial infarcts, less claudication, and more asymptomatic lesions of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery stem, and the middle cerebral artery stem. Among white patients predominantly from New England, elderly, and male, there was more frequent and severe occlusive asymptomatic disease at extracranial carotid and vertebral artery sites. Knowledge of the distribution of asymptomatic lesions will help guide evaluation and treatment strategies for patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease.

  7. Mapping of Autogenous Saphenous Veins as an Imaging Adjunct to Peripheral MR Angiography in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease and Peripheral Bypass Grafting: Prospective Comparison with Ultrasound and Intraoperative Findings

    PubMed Central

    Jah-Kabba, Ann-Marie Bintu Munda; Kukuk, Guido Matthias; Hadizadeh, Dariusch Reza; Träber, Frank; Koscielny, Arne; Kabba, Mustapha Sundifu; Verrel, Frauke; Schild, Hans Heinz; Willinek, Winfried Albert

    2014-01-01

    Background Mapping of the great saphenous vein is very important for planning of peripheral and coronary bypass surgery. This study investigated mapping of the great saphenous vein as an adjunct to peripheral MR angiography using a blood pool contrast agent in patients who were referred for evaluation of peripheral arterial occlusive disease and bypass surgery. Methods 38 patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (21 men; mean age: 71 years, range, 44–88 years) underwent peripheral MR angiography using the blood pool contrast agent Gadofosveset trisodium. Apart from primary arterial assessment images were evaluated in order to determine great saphenous vein diameters at three levels: below the saphenofemoral junction, mid thigh and 10 cm above the knee joint (usability: diameter range: >3 and <10 mm at one level and >3.5 and <10 mm at a neighboring level). Duplex ultrasound was performed by an independent examiner providing diameter measurements at the same levels. Additionally, vessel usability was determined intraoperatively by the vascular surgeon during subsequent bypass surgery. Results Mean venous diameters for MR angiography/duplex ultrasound were 5.4±2.6/5.5±2.8 mm (level 1), 4.7±2.7/4.6±2.9 mm (level 2) and 4.4±2.2/4.5±2.3 mm (level 3), respectively, without significant differences between the modalities (P = 0.207/0.806/0.518). Subsequent surgery was performed in 27/38 patients. A suitable saphenous vein was diagnosed in 25 and non-usability was diagnosed in 2 of the 27 patients based on MR angiography/duplex ultrasound, respectively. Usability was confirmed by intraoperative assessment in all of the 24 patients that received a venous bypass graft in subsequent bypass surgery. In 1 case, in which the great saphenous vein was assessed as useable by both MR angiography and duplex ultrasound, it was not used during subsequent bypass surgery due to the patients clinical condition and comorbidities. Conclusion Simultaneous mapping of the

  8. Antegrade Techniques for Chronic Total Occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Michael C.L.

    2015-01-01

    By convention, a total obstruction of the coronary artery with no flow at the occluded segment that has been present for at least 3 months is termed as chronic total occlusion or CTO. This is to be distinguished from a sudden occlusion of the coro-nary artery lumen by a thrombus during an acute myocardial infarction. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of CTO is increasingly being performed by interventional cardiologists with improved success rates. In this article, the focus will be on antegrade techniques that will assist the operator to maximise the success rates and to minimise the complications.

  9. Patient- and lesion-tailored algorithm of endovascular treatment for arterial occlusive disease of extracranial arteries supplying the brain: safety of the treatment at 30-day follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Simka, Marian; Brzegowy, Paweł; Janas, Piotr; Kazibudzki, Marek; Pieniążek, Piotr; Ochała, Andrzej; Popiela, Tadeusz; Mrowiecki, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although surgical endarterectomy remains the treatment of choice for carotid artery stenosis, stenting plays an important role as an alternative treatment modality, especially in high-risk patients. The actual safety profile associated with stenting procedures is probably better than that reported by randomized controlled trials. Aim To assess the safety of stent implantations in extracranial arteries supplying the brain, and also to identify risk factors associated with this procedure. Material and methods This was a post hoc analysis, with 30-day follow-up. We analyzed the results of treatment of 372 patients who underwent 408 procedures, 197 such procedures in asymptomatic, and 211 in symptomatic individuals. Stenting procedures were performed using a technique and armamentarium which were tailored to the type and anatomy of lesions. Results There were 6 (1.5%) strokes, including 2 (0.5%) major strokes, 1 ipsi- and 1 contralateral, and 4 (1.0%) minor strokes. In asymptomatic patients there was 1 (0.3%) minor stroke. Transient ischemic attacks occurred in 5 (1.2%) patients. There were 2 (0.5%) non-STEMI myocardial infarctions and 2 (0.5%) non-stroke related fatalities. Risk factors of these adverse events were diabetes mellitus, lesions localized in a tortuous segment of the artery, embolic material in the filter and bilateral stenoses of carotid arteries. Additional risk factors in asymptomatic patients were renal impairment and advanced coronary artery disease; and in symptomatic patients, grade 3 arterial hypertension, dislipidemia, cigarette smoking and lesions requiring predilatation. Conclusions Stenting procedures of extracranial arteries supplying the brain, which are tailored to the type and anatomy of lesions, seem to be relatively safe. PMID:28344618

  10. Alcohol septal ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in a patient with a chronic total occlusion of the right coronary artery: “beware of collateral damage”

    PubMed Central

    de Hemptinne, Quentin; Picard, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) is an effective semi-invasive alternative to surgical myectomy in selected patients for the management of severely symptomatic and drug-refractory hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). One contraindication of this procedure is the presence of collateral flow originating from the target septal perforator to a remote myocardial territory. In such circumstances, ethanol injection could cause remote non-target myocardial necrosis in the collateralized territory. Percutaneous revascularization of the collateralized vessel prior to ASA might cope with this contraindication by restoring normal antegrade flow in the occluded artery. We report a case that illustrates the feasibility and efficacy of such strategy. PMID:28164017

  11. Aortoiliac occlusive disease presenting as sudden onset paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chien-Hung; Wang, Cheng-Hsien; Wu, Shih-Yun; Shih, Hong-Mo

    2014-07-01

    Thromboembolism and atherosclerotic stenosis both can cause arterial occlusion. Aortoiliac occlusive disease involving bifurcation of the aortoiliac artery induces symptoms of ischemia such as claudication and pain of buttocks and thighs, decreased bilateral femoral pulses, and impotence. Here, we describe a 58-year-old woman with a past history of atrial fibrillation and lacuna stroke with minimal right side weakness. She presented to our emergency department with sudden onset bilateral pain in the legs and paraplegia. A comprehensive examination revealed paresthesia and decreasing bilateral distal pulses. Computed tomographic imaging showed filling defects over the low abdominal aorta just above the bifurcation of the common iliac artery and bilateral femoral arteries. Acute aortic embolic occlusion was suspected. Her symptoms were resolved after emergent thrombectomy for acute limb ischemia. Physicians need to be aware of aortoiliac embolic occlusive disease which may present as acute paraplegia.

  12. Endovascular occlusion of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations with the ArtVentive Endoluminal Occlusion System™

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, Fabio; Silvestre, Mattia; Cervo, Amedeo; Giurazza, Francesco; Corvino, Antonio; Maglione, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are vascular anomalies of the lung and carry the risk of cerebral thromboembolism, brain abscess, or pulmonary hemorrhage. We describe a 64-year-old male with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome) who presented with a five-year history of progressive effort dyspnea and a PAVM in the right upper lobe successfully treated by transcatheter embolization of feeding arteries using a new occlusion device, the ArtVentive Endoluminal Occlusion System™. PMID:27559714

  13. Carotid bypass for carotid occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hage, Ziad A; Behbahani, Mandana; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Charbel, Fady T

    2015-07-01

    The 2-year risk of ipsilateral ischemic stroke following internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) in a patient undergoing maximal medical therapy is 5-8% per year. While medical therapy may reduce the risk of stroke, it does not completely eliminate it. Since the 1985 extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass study, additional trials have been conducted to further investigate the usefulness of EC-IC bypass surgery in more selected patients with cerebral ischemia and impaired hemodynamic reserve. These important studies will be briefly reviewed in this article, as well as a discussion regarding the utility of bypass surgery for ICAO in current clinical practice. In addition, a short discussion regarding the pathophysiology of carotid occlusion will be presented. We will also highlight our own institutional patient selection criteria based on the latest methods for hemodynamic assessment, as well as our intraoperative flow assisted surgical techniques (FAST), and post-operative patient follow-up.

  14. Racial differences in the distribution of anterior circulation occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, P B; Caplan, L R; Hier, D B; Parker, S L; Patel, D

    1984-01-01

    We compared clinical and angiographic features of 26 white and 45 black patients with symptomatic occlusive cerebrovascular disease. White patients had more transient ischemic attacks, carotid bruits, and more severe occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery origin. Blacks had more severe disease of the middle cerebral artery stem and supraclinoid internal carotid arteries. Differences were not explained by racial differences in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, or ischemic heart disease. Since the middle cerebral artery lesions in blacks do not correlate with other accepted epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory markers of atherosclerosis, the lesions may arise from a disorder that differs from atherosclerosis.

  15. Disruption of NMDAR-CRMP-2 signaling protects against focal cerebral ischemic damage in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model.

    PubMed

    Brittain, Joel M; Pan, Rui; You, Haitao; Brustovetsky, Tatiana; Brustovetsky, Nickolay; Zamponi, Gerald W; Lee, Wei-Hua; Khanna, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2), traditionally viewed as an axon/dendrite specification and axonal growth protein, has emerged as nidus in regulation of both pre- and post-synaptic Ca ( 2+) channels. Building on our discovery of the interaction and regulation of Ca ( 2+) channels by CRMP-2, we recently identified a short sequence in CRMP-2 which, when appended to the transduction domain of HIV TAT protein, suppressed acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain in vivo by functionally uncoupling CRMP-2 from the Ca ( 2+) channel. Remarkably, we also found that this region attenuated Ca ( 2+) influx via N-methylD-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and reduced neuronal death in a moderate controlled cortical impact model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we sought to extend these findings by examining additional neuroprotective effects of this peptide (TAT-CBD3) and exploring the biochemical mechanisms by which TAT-CBD3 targets NMDARs. We observed that an intraperitoneal injection of TAT-CBD3 peptide significantly reduced infarct volume in an animal model of focal cerebral ischemia. Neuroprotection was observed when TAT-CBD3 peptide was given either prior to or after occlusion but just prior to reperfusion. Surprisingly, a direct biochemical complex was not resolvable between the NMDAR subunit NR2B and CRMP-2. Intracellular application of TAT-CBD3 failed to inhibit NMDAR current. NR2B interactions with the post synaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) remained intact and were not disrupted by TAT-CBD3. Peptide tiling of intracellular regions of NR2B revealed two 15-mer sequences, in the carboxyl-terminus of NR2B, that may confer binding between NR2B and CRMP-2 which supports CRMP-2's role in excitotoxicity and neuroprotection.

  16. Risk of Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease in Patients with Vertigo, Tinnitus, or Sudden Deafness: A Secondary Case-Control Analysis of a Nationwide, Population-Based Health Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Juen-Haur

    2016-01-01

    Background Cochleovestibular symptoms, such as vertigo, tinnitus, and sudden deafness, are common manifestations of microvascular diseases. However, it is unclear whether these symptoms occurred preceding the diagnosis of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD). Therefore, the aim of this case-control study was to investigate the risk of PAOD among patients with vertigo, tinnitus, and sudden deafness using a nationwide, population-based health claim database in Taiwan. Methods We identified 5,340 adult patients with PAOD diagnosed between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 and 16,020 controls, frequency matched on age interval, sex, and year of index date, from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Risks of PAOD in patients with vertigo, tinnitus, or sudden deafness were separately evaluated with multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results Of the 5,340 patients with PAOD, 12.7%, 6.7%, and 0.3% were diagnosed with vertigo, tinnitus, and sudden deafness, respectively. In the controls, 10.6%, 6.1%, and 0.3% were diagnosed with vertigo (P < 0.001), tinnitus (P = 0.161), and sudden deafness (P = 0.774), respectively. Results from the multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the risk of PAOD was significantly increased in patients with vertigo (adjusted odds ratio = 1.12, P = 0.027) but not in those with tinnitus or sudden deafness. Conclusions A modest increase in the risk of PAOD was observed among Taiwanese patients with vertigo, after adjustment for comorbidities. PMID:27631630

  17. Intravenous HOE-642 reduces brain edema and Na uptake in the rat permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke: evidence for participation of the blood-brain barrier Na/H exchanger.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martha E; Chen, Yi-Je; Lam, Tina I; Taylor, Kelleen C; Walton, Jeffrey H; Anderson, Steven E

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral edema forms in the early hours of ischemic stroke by processes involving increased transport of Na and Cl from blood into brain across an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). Our previous studies provided evidence that the BBB Na-K-Cl cotransporter is stimulated by the ischemic factors hypoxia, aglycemia, and arginine vasopressin (AVP), and that inhibition of the cotransporter by intravenous bumetanide greatly reduces edema and infarct in rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). More recently, we showed that BBB Na/H exchanger activity is also stimulated by hypoxia, aglycemia, and AVP. The present study was conducted to further investigate the possibility that a BBB Na/H exchanger also participates in edema formation during ischemic stroke. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to pMCAO and then brain edema and Na content assessed by magnetic resonance imaging diffusion-weighed imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy Na spectroscopy, respectively, for up to 210 minutes. We found that intravenous administration of the specific Na/H exchange inhibitor HOE-642 significantly decreased brain Na uptake and reduced cerebral edema, brain swelling, and infarct volume. These findings support the hypothesis that edema formation and brain Na uptake during the early hours of cerebral ischemia involve BBB Na/H exchanger activity as well as Na-K-Cl cotransporter activity.

  18. Door-to-Needle Time Under 60 Minutes and Picture-to-Puncture Under 90 Minutes: Initiatives and Outcomes in Reducing Time to Recanalization for Cerebral Major Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    OTA, Takahiro; SATO, Masayuki; AMANO, Tatsuo; MATSUMARU, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of stent retrievers has significantly improved outcomes of intravenous treatment for acute stroke due to major artery occlusion, and reducing the time to recanalization may achieve further improvements. We reviewed reductions in “door-to-needle time” (DNT) and “picture-to-puncture time” (P2P), as the results of measures to consolidate stroke response capabilities in our hospital, and compared treatment outcomes in acute recanalization patients. We investigated DNT by the route of admission for 96 consecutive patients who received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator between July 2012 and June 2015. We then retrospectively studied 52 patients with acute stroke who underwent endovascular recanalization within 8 h after stroke onset, grouped according to recanalization before (Group I; n = 23) or after (Group II; n = 29) introduction of stent retrievers. Between 2012 and 2015, mean DNT decreased. Significant differences between Groups I and II were only seen in times required, with significantly shorter DNT, picture-to-puncture time, admission to puncture time, and puncture to guiding catheter placement time in Group II. A considerable difference in DNT was seen according to the route of patient admission, and consolidation of hospital stroke response capability successfully reduced the time from admission to recanalization. PMID:27385058

  19. Endovascular Treatment Strategies in Aortoiliac Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, Ugur Oguzkurt, Levent Tercan, Fahri Gumus, Burcak

    2009-05-15

    The aim of this study was to report our experience in endovascular treatment of total aortoiliac occlusion. Five patients who underwent endovascular recanalization procedures including manual aspiration thrombectomy, balloon angioplasty, and stent placement for total aortoiliac occlusion in a 4-year period were reviewed retrospectively. The mean age of patients was 51 years (range, 43 to 58 years). All patients had abdominal aorta and bilateral common iliac artery occlusion with or without external iliac artery occlusion. All patients either had a contraindication to surgery or refused it. Initial technical success was obtained in four of five (80%) patients. Endovascular techniques were successful in four patients who had good distal runoff and short-segment aortoiliac occlusion, but failed in a patient who had the worst distal runoff and long-segment aortoiliac occlusion. We observed two major complications, one of which was bilateral rupture of the common iliac arteries treated with covered stent placement. Another patient had extension of intra-aortic thrombus into the iliac stent after primary stenting. This was successfully treated with manual aspiration thrombectomy. Aortic and iliac stents remained patent during the follow-up period (median, 18 months; range, 3 to 26 months) in four patients. Primary patency rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were all 80%. In conclusion, endovascular treatment can be an alternative for aortoiliac occlusion in selected patients. Short- to midterm follow-up so far is satisfactory. Removal of intra-aortic thrombus with manual aspiration thrombectomy before balloon angioplasty and/or stenting is possible and a good alternative to thrombolysis.

  20. Lingualized occlusion. An occlusion for all reasons.

    PubMed

    Parr, G R; Ivanhoe, J R

    1996-01-01

    This authors make practical recommendations for a wide variety of clinical situations, including various anteroposterior and buccolingual arch discrepancies. Many of the ideals of the anatomical and mechanical schools of thought are blended. In addition to being a valuable clinical adjunct, Lingualized Occlusion also has great application in undergraduate dental education. It is a simpler occlusal scheme to teach and learn.

  1. Occlusal cranial balancing technique.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gerald H

    2007-01-01

    The acronym for Occlusal Cranial Balancing Technique is OCB. The OCB concept is based on the architectural principle of a level foundation. The principles of Occlusal Cranial Balancing are a monumental discovery and if applied will enhance total body function.

  2. Occlusion: an orthodontic perspective.

    PubMed

    Kasrovi, P M; Meyer, M; Nelson, G D

    2000-10-01

    In recent years, orthodontists have examined their concepts of occlusion. In current literature, at professional meetings, and in continuing education courses, one hears an ongoing discussion of condylar position and mandibular border movements in relation to occlusion. There is a wide variation in opinion as to whether dental occlusion and TMJ function are interdependent. The authors have adopted a dynamic concept of dental function to replace the traditional static view of molar relationship and incisor overlap. This article discusses how occlusion has evolved in orthodontics and reviews Andrews' six keys to ideal static occlusion, the goals of ideal dynamic occlusion, and the six signs of developing malocclusions. The authors also review the literature on the relationship between orthodontics, occlusion, and TMD.

  3. Management of Bilateral Carotid Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Ashutosh P.; Ducruet, Andrew F.; Jankowitz, Brian T.; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Symptomatic bilateral internal carotid occlusive disease is a rare but potentially devastating entity. Medical therapy alone is associated with high rates of mortality and recurrent stroke. The optimal management of this disease remains poorly understood. Methods A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was conducted for patients who presented with an acute stroke in the setting of bilateral carotid occlusive disease between May and October 2013. Results We identified 3 patients. The admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ranged from 4 to 7. All patients had small- to moderate-sized infarcts in the anterior circulation on presentation. Angiography confirmed bilateral internal carotid occlusions with collateral filling via the posterior communicating artery and retrograde filling via external carotid artery supply to the ophthalmic artery. All patients were initially managed with permissive hypertension and anticoagulation followed by carotid angioplasty and stenting. At 1-year follow-up, all patients demonstrated a modified Rankin scale score of 0-1. Conclusions Carotid stenting may be a safe and effective therapy for patients presenting with symptomatic bilateral carotid occlusions. PMID:27051405

  4. Arterial Vascularization of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2016-06-01

    Based on gross dissection of fifteen adult animals (11 females, 4 males), we described the arterial supply of the stomach and intestines of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), a South American endangered species. The coeliac artery emitted the splenic, left gastric and hepatic arteries. The splenic artery directed towards the spleen, and the right ruminal artery, which is its only collateral directed towards the stomach, being the main artery of the rumen. The left gastric artery gave origin to the left ruminal, the reticular and the left gastroepiploic arteries. The left gastroepiploic artery originated the reticular accessory artery. Both arteries, gastric and left gastroepiploic, anastomosed their right counterparts derived from the hepatic artery on the curvatures of the abomasum. The cranial mesenteric artery irrigated the second half of the duodenum until the beginning of the descending colon. The thickest branch emitted by the cranial mesenteric artery was the ileocolic artery, which was destined to the ascending colon, caecum and ileum. The colic branches and the right colic arteries were irradiated on the right surface of the spiral loop of the ascending colon and distributed to both centripetal and centrifugal coils of the ascending colon; the colic branches were also anastomosed with the last jejunals and ileals and with the right colic arteries. There were no variations in the origin of any of the main branches derived from the coeliac and cranial mesenteric arteries. This species had a basic pattern of arterial distribution similar to small domestic ruminants.

  5. Collagenase Total Occlusion-1 (CTO-1) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Bradley H.; Osherov, Azriel B.; Radhakrishnan, Sam; Mancini, G.B. John; Manners, Allison; Sparkes, John D.; Chisholm, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Percutaneous interventions for chronic total occlusions have low success rates, primarily because of failure of guide wire crossing. Collagen-rich matrix constitutes the main barrier to chronic total occlusion crossing. In preclinical studies, local delivery of a bacterial collagenase formulation improved guide wire crossing. The Collagenase Total Occlusion-1 (CTO-1) Trial is a phase I, dose-escalation trial to assess the safety and efficacy of collagenase therapy to facilitate guide wire crossing in coronary artery chronic occlusions. Methods and Results Twenty subjects with ≥1 previous failure of chronic total occlusion guide wire crossing were enrolled at 2 sites. Subjects were treated in 4 distinct cohorts of 5 patients, with escalation of collagenase dose in each cohort from 300 to 1200 μg. Collagenase was locally delivered into the occlusions with either an over-the-wire balloon system (n=8) or a fine-cross microcatheter (n=12) for a period of 30 minutes. Subjects were brought back to the catheterization laboratory for guide wire crossing and angioplasty the next day. Guide wire crossing was successfully achieved in 15 subjects (75%). A soft-tip guide wire (Whisper, Pilot-50, Fielder XT) was either the sole or predominant guide wire used in 75% of successful crossings. Non–ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarctions occurred in 3 patients as a result of side-branch ischemia during stenting. Computed tomographic angiography at 3 months showed no late complications and patent stents in successfully treated chronic total occlusion. Anginal improvement occurred with a reduction in Canadian Cardiovascular Society class from baseline to 3 months (2.5±0.6 versus 0.9±0.9; P<0.001). Conclusion Local delivery of collagenase into coronary chronic total occlusion is feasible and safe with encouraging guide wire crossing results in previously failed cases. Larger clinical trials are required to determine efficacy. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http

  6. Extracranial vertebral artery intervention.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Debabrata; Pineda, Guillermo

    2007-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of vertebral artery stenosis and has a predilection for the origin and proximal section of the extracranial portion of the vessel and also the intracranial portion of the vessel. Although it has generally been thought that extracranial vertebral artery (ECVA) disease has a more benign outcome compared to intracranial vertebral artery disease, significant occlusive disease of the proximal vertebral artery is the primary cause of vertebral artery ischemia in a significant proportion of patients. We focus on the interventional management of patients with proximal ECVA disease in this article.

  7. Controversies in occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chasens, A I

    1990-01-01

    The tissues and structures of the stomatognathic system adapt in different ways but in a coordinated manner to functional forces. This adaptive capacity differs from individual to individual and tends to cloud the picture as to how these mechanisms function. This leads to many areas of disagreement as to the role of occlusal trauma in the etiology of periodontal disease; the importance of centric, bite collapse versus arch collapse; the role of incisal guidance in maintaining occlusal stability; canine protected-guided occlusion versus group function; the use of appliances in occlusal therapy; prophylactic versus interceptive occlusal adjustment; and the role of bruxism and other parafunctional habits in occlusal trauma. An attempt is made in this article to clarify these issues.

  8. Follicular occlusion tetrad

    PubMed Central

    Vasanth, Vani; Chandrashekar, Byalakere Shivanna

    2014-01-01

    Follicular occlusion tetrad is a symptom complex consisting of four conditions having a similar pathophysiology. It includes Hidradenitis suppurativa, acne conglobata, dissecting cellulitis of the scalp and pilonidal sinus. The exact pathogenesis of this group of disease is unknown but evidence suggests that they share the same pathological process initiated by follicular