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Sample records for ileostomy

  1. Total proctocolectomy with ileostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammatory bowel disease. This includes ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease . This surgery may also be done if you ... if you have a chronic condition, such as: Crohn disease Ulcerative colitis References Araghizadeh F. Ileostomy, colostomy, and ...

  2. Types of ileostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... an opening called a stoma in your belly. Waste will pass through the stoma into a pouch that collects ... ileostomy is thin or thick liquid. It is not solid like the stool that came from your rectum. ...

  3. Spontaneous ileostomy closure

    PubMed Central

    Alyami, Mohammad S.; Lundberg, Peter W.; Cotte, Eddy G.; Glehen, Olivier J.

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic ileostomies are routinely placed during colorectal surgery for the diversion of intestinal contents to permit healing of the distal anastomosis prior to elective reversal. We present an interesting case of spontaneous closure of a diverting ileostomy without any adverse effects to the patient. A 65-year-old woman, positive for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer type-I, with locally invasive cancer of the distal colon underwent en-bloc total colectomy, hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingoophorectomy with creation of a proximal loop ileostomy. The ostomy temporarily closed without reoperation at 10 weeks, after spontaneously reopening, it definitively closed, again without surgical intervention at 18 weeks following the original surgery. This rare phenomenon has occurred following variable colorectal pathology and is poorly understood, particularly in patients with aggressive disease and adjunct perioperative interventions. PMID:27279518

  4. Living with your ileostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... after your operation. Ask your provider for a letter you can give to your employer that explains why you need time off work. It is a good idea to tell your employer, and maybe even a friend at work, about your ileostomy. Heavy ...

  5. Ileostomy - caring for your stoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... proctocolectomy - discharge Types of ileostomy Ulcerative colitis - discharge Review Date 5/11/2016 Updated by: Subodh K. ... gastroenterologist with Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by ...

  6. Return to work following ileostomy.

    PubMed

    Whates, P D; Irving, M

    1984-08-01

    The experiences of 1033 members of the 51 English divisions of the Ileostomy Association of Great Britain and Ireland have been analysed in respect of their return to work after construction of an ileostomy. Although there was a fall in the number of patients returning to work after operation this was often for reasons unrelated to surgery. The majority of those returning to work resumed work with the same employer and usually in the same post. Fifty-nine (5.7 per cent) patients began work for the first time after operation, including 33 (3.2 per cent) who were previously inactive although of working age. Analysis of occupational class shows that, although a number of patients initially resumed work within a lower class, once established in employment successful career advancement was possible. Problems in the gaining or resumption of employment were reported by 56 (5.4 per cent) patients. In 22 (2.1 per cent) patients, almost all approaching or above retirement age, successful surgery resulted in a decision not to return to employment. An ileostomy is no barrier to successful return to work in nearly all occupations, and is accomplished by the majority of patients without major difficulty.

  7. Ileostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some are: Inflammatory bowel disease ( ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease ). This is the most common reason for this ... If you have a chronic condition, such as Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis, you may need ongoing medical ...

  8. Proctocolectomy without ileostomy for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Parks, A G; Nicholls, R J

    1978-01-01

    An operation has been developed that permits total removal of all disease-prone mucosa in ulcerative colitis but avoids the need for a permanent ileostomy. The colon and upper half of the rectum are excised and the remaining inflamed mucosa is stripped from the rectal stump down to the dentate line of the anal canal. A pouch is fashioned from a triplicated loop of terminal ileum. This is drawn down through the denuded rectum and an anastomosis created, via the per-anal approach, between the ileum just distal to the pouch and the mid-anal canal. A temporary ileostomy is made. Out of eight patients so treated, five were available for assessment, and four of them were highly satisfied with the result in improved health and function. The remaining three were awaiting closure of their ileostomies. Images FIG 3 PMID:667572

  9. Defunctioning Ileostomy Reversal Rates and Reasons for Delayed Reversal: Does Delay Impact on Complications of Ileostomy Reversal? A Study of 170 Defunctioning Ileostomies

    PubMed Central

    Waterland, Peter; Goonetilleke, Kolitha; Naumann, David N.; Sutcliff, Mathew; Soliman, Faris

    2015-01-01

    Background Temporary defunctioning ileostomy can reduce the consequences of anastomotic leak following low anterior resection. However, some patients never have their ileostomy reversed and in other cases the time to reversal of ileostomy can be delayed. The aim of this study was to identify the ileostomy closure rate following anterior resection, time to closure of ileostomy, reasons for delay in reversal and whether delay was associated with an increased complication rate. Methods Data were collected retrospectively on consecutive patients undergoing defunctioning ileostomy following anterior resection for rectal cancer, between January 2009 and August 2013. Data were collected on reversal of ileostomy rates, time to reversal, reasons for delayed reversal (defined as > 6 months) and complications following reversal. Results One hundred seventy patients were studied (median age 69 years, range 41 - 90 years), of whom 117 (69%) were male. One hundred twenty-seven (75%) patients had their ileostomies reversed. Median time to reversal was 6 months (range 1 - 42). In 63 patients who had delayed reversal, reasons were adjuvant chemotherapy (22, 35%), medical illness (14, 22%), anastomotic leak (9, 14%), and others (4, 7%). Postoperative complications occurred in 33 patients (26%). There was no postoperative mortality. Univariate analysis showed that delayed reversal was associated with an increased rate of complications and longer length of hospital stay following reversal (P < 0.05). Conclusions One in four defunctioning ileostomies are not closed following anterior resection in our unit. Of those that are closed, approximately 50% have delayed closure beyond 6 months which is associated with increased risk of complications following their ileostomy reversal. PMID:26251682

  10. Morbidity of temporary loop ileostomy in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Thalheimer, Andreas; Bueter, Marco; Kortuem, Martin; Thiede, Arnulf; Meyer, Detlef

    2006-07-01

    This study was designed to quantify the temporary loop ileostomy-related morbidity in patients with colorectal cancer and contrast the morbidity rates after ileostomy closure before, during, and after the start of adjuvant therapy. Between 1997 and 2004, 120 patients with colorectal carcinoma underwent colorectal resection and creation of a temporary loop ileostomy to protect the low anastomosis. Stoma-related complications and perioperative morbidity after ileostomy closure were assessed retrospectively by reviewing the medical records. Sixteen of the 120 patients (13.3 percent) suffered stoma-related complications, requiring early ileostomy closure in three. After ileostomy closure, anastomotic leakage of the ileoileostomy occurred in 3 of the 120 patients (2.5 percent), 2 of them died postoperatively (1.7 percent). The rate of minor complications (16.7 percent in all patients) was much higher in patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy (25.5 percent) than in patients receiving no additional therapy (9.2 percent). In the former patients, there was a trend toward fewer complications when ileostomy closure was performed before (12.5 percent), rather than during (42.9 percent) or after (21.2 percent), the start of adjuvant therapy. The morbidity following closure of a temporary loop ileostomy in colorectal cancer patients is much higher in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy. The morbidity, however, might possibly be lowered to the level of patients receiving no additional therapy if ileostomy closure is performed before the start of adjuvant therapy.

  11. Trace mineral absorption status in infants with ileostomies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infants with ileostomies are often supplemented with zinc and limited in copper, because of potential increased bilious zinc loss and increased cholestasis due to reduced copper excretion. However, no data exist on zinc or copper balance in infants with ileostomies. To determine the effect of an ile...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 Section 876.5030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5030 - Continent ileostomy catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continent ileostomy catheter. 876.5030 Section 876.5030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5030 Continent ileostomy...

  14. Eating marshmallows reduces ileostomy output: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Clarebrough, E; Guest, G; Stupart, D

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotally, many ostomates believe that eating marshmallows can reduce ileostomy effluent. There is a plausible mechanism for this, as the gelatine contained in marshmallows may thicken small bowel fluid, but there is currently no evidence that this is effective. This was a randomized crossover trial. Adult patients with well-established ileostomies were included. Ileostomy output was measured for 1 week during which three marshmallows were consumed three times daily, and for one control week where marshmallows were not eaten. There was a 2-day washout period. Patients were randomly allocated to whether the control or intervention week occurred first. In addition, a questionnaire was administered regarding patient's subjective experience of their ileostomy function. Thirty-one participants were recruited; 28 completed the study. There was a median reduction in ileostomy output volume of 75 ml per day during the study period (P = 0.0054, 95% confidence interval 23.4-678.3) compared with the control week. Twenty of 28 subjects (71%) experienced a reduction in their ileostomy output, two had no change and six reported an increase. During the study period, participants reported fewer ileostomy bag changes (median five per day vs six in the control period, P = 0.0255). Twenty of 28 (71%) reported that the ileostomy effluent was thicker during the study week (P = 0.023). Overall 19 (68%) participants stated they would use marshmallows in the future if they wanted to reduce or thicken their ileostomy output. Eating marshmallows leads to a small but statistically significant reduction in ileostomy output. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Impairment of 'ileostomy adaptation' in patients after ileal resection.

    PubMed

    Hill, G L; Mair, W S; Goligher, J C

    1974-12-01

    Ileostomists claim that in the months following the establishment of an ileostomy, the faecal output decreases in volume and becomes less fluid. It is claimed that this ;ileostomy adaptation' does not occur in those patients who have had an ileal resection. To determine whether ileostomy adaptation does occur and to examine its physiological mechanisms, 10 ileostomy patients were studied. Five had had ileal resection and five had not. The output of fluid, sodium, and potassium from the ileostomy was studied in each patient for the first 11 days after ileostomy and again at six months. Those patients in whom the terminal ileum was preserved had small faecal outputs of fluid and sodium from the outset, and the water content of the effluent was significantly less at six months. After rapid expansion of the extracellular fluid by intravenous saline, there was a marked increase in faecal volume and sodium output. In those patients with an ileal resection, the faecal volume and sodium output were more than two and a half times greater than those for the non-resected group. At six months there was no change in either the volume or chemistry of the effluent. After intravenous saline, no faecal response was observed. It is therefore concluded that ileostomy adaptation does occur and it is a response of the intestine to conserve body salt. This response is lacking in ileostomists who have had an ileal resection.

  16. Percutaneous transgastric endoscopic tube ileostomy in a porcine survival model

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hong; Chen, Su-Yu; Wang, Yong-Guang; Jiang, Sheng-Jun; Cai, He-Li; Lin, Kai; Xie, Zhao-Fei; Dong, Fen-Fang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To introduce natural orifice transgastric endoscopic surgery (NOTES) tube ileostomy using pelvis-directed submucosal tunneling endoscopic gastrostomy and endoscopic tube ileostomy. METHODS Six live pigs (three each in the non-survival and survival groups) were used. A double-channeled therapeutic endoscope was introduced perorally into the stomach. A gastrostomy was made using a 2-cm transversal mucosal incision following the creation of a 5-cm longitudinal pelvis-directed submucosal tunnel. The pneumoperitoneum was established via the endoscope. In the initial three operations of the series, a laparoscope was transumbilically inserted for guiding the tunnel direction, intraperitoneal spatial orientation and distal ileum identification. Endoscopic tube ileostomy was conducted by adopting an introducer method and using a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Catheter Kit equipped with the Loop Fixture. The distal tip of the 15 Fr catheter was placed toward the proximal limb of the ileum to optimize intestinal content drainage. Finally, the tunnel entrance of the gastrostomy was closed using nylon endoloops with the aid of a twin grasper. The gross and histopathological integrity of gastrostomy closure and the abdominal wall-ileum stoma tract formation were assessed 1 wk after the operation. RESULTS Transgastric endoscopic tube ileostomy was successful in all six pigs, without major bleeding. The mean operating time was 71 min (range: 60-110 min). There were no intraoperative complications or hemodynamic instability. The post-mortem, which was conducted 1-wk postoperatively, showed complete healing of the gastrostomy and adequate stoma tract formation of ileostomy. CONCLUSION Transgastric endoscopic tube ileostomy is technically feasible and reproducible in an animal model, and this technique is worthy of further improvement. PMID:27729743

  17. Primary Adenocarcinoma of an Ileostomy in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Meena A.; Lo, Amy; Bellaguarda, Emanuelle; Strong, Scott; Hanauer, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Although Crohn's disease has been associated with an increased risk of small bowel adenocarcinoma, primary adenocarcinoma arising from an ileostomy is a complication that has been rarely documented in Crohn's disease. Chronic small bowel inflammation may lead to development of malignancy through the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. We report a case of a 61-year-old woman with Crohn's ileocolitis diagnosed with a primary adenocarcinoma at the ileostomy with metastases to the liver 47 years after proctocolectomy, and review the literature. PMID:27622191

  18. Adenocarcinoma arising at ileostomy sites: Two cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Procaccino, Lauren; Rehman, Sameer; Abdurakhmanov, Alexander; McWhorter, Peter; La Gamma, Nicholas; Bhaskaran, Madhu C; Maurer, James; Grimaldi, Gregory M; Rilo, Horacio; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Procaccino, John

    2015-06-27

    Total colectomy with ileostomy placement is a treatment for patients with inflammatory bowel disease or familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). A rare and late complication of this treatment is carcinoma arising at the ileostomy site. We describe two such cases: a 78-year-old male 30 years after subtotal colectomy and ileostomy for FAP, and an 85-year-old male 50 years after colectomy and ileostomy for ulcerative colitis. The long latency period between creation of the ileostomies and development of carcinoma suggests a chronic metaplasia due to an irritating/inflammatory causative factor. Surgical excision of the mass and relocation of the stoma is the mainstay of therapy, with possible benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy. Newly developed lesions at stoma sites should be biopsied to rule out the possibility of this rare ileostomy complication.

  19. Defunctioning loop ileostomy for pelvic anastomoses: predictors of morbidity and nonclosure.

    PubMed

    Chun, Linda J; Haigh, Philip I; Tam, Michael S; Abbas, Maher A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the morbidity of a defunctioning loop ileostomy and the subsequent closure rate, and to identify the predictors of complications and nonclosure of stoma. This study is a retrospective review of a single-institution experience. All patients who underwent a planned temporary defunctioning loop ileostomy performed synchronously with a pelvic anastomosis during a 6-year period were included. The primary outcome measures were the ileostomy complication rate for the entire spectrum of care, readmission and reoperation rates to treat ileostomy complications, and subsequent closure rate. Patient and treatment factors were evaluated for their independent effect on complications and closure rate with the use of multivariable logistic regression. One hundred twenty-three patients were identified (median age, 51 years). Of these patients, 64.2% developed ≥1 minor or major ileostomy complications (13.8% during index hospitalization, 52.8% as outpatient, and 23.4% after closure). Readmitted for dehydration following ileostomy formation were 11.4% of patients. The ileostomy was closed in 76.4% of patients with 8.6% requiring a midline laparotomy. The overall ileostomy-related reoperation rate was 10.4% (2.4% during index hospitalization, 1.6% at readmission, and 6.4% following ileostomy closure). Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m) was associated with a higher overall ileostomy complication rate (OR 8.56, 95% CI 1.64-44.74) and outpatient complication rate (OR 7.69, 95% CI 2.48-23.81). Age >65 years (OR 53.34, 95% CI 4.21-676.14) and hypertension (OR 8.36, 95% CI 1.09-64.43) increased the risks of high ileostomy output and dehydration. Obesity (OR 4.61, 95% CI 1.14-18.54) and smoking (4.47, 95% CI 1.43-13.98) decreased the likelihood of ileostomy closure. This study was limited by its retrospective nature. The morbidity of a defunctioning loop ileostomy remains significant. Obesity is an independent predictor of ileostomy complications. Older age and

  20. Pregnancy after jejuno-ileostomy because of obesity.

    PubMed

    Olow, B; Akesson, B A; Dencker, H; Gréen, A; Norryd, C

    1976-01-01

    In four cases of pregnancy after jejuno-ileostomy because of massive obesity intestinal absorption was adequate for the nutrition of both the baby and the mother. It appears that such an operation because of obestiy does not contraindicate later pregnancy; In one case postoperative loss of body weight probably made pregnancy possible. In extremely adipose women who are for some unknown reason infertile and wish to have a child a shunt operation might perhaps be offered.

  1. Protective ileostomy: complications and mortality associated with its closure.

    PubMed

    Mengual-Ballester, Mónica; García-Marín, José Andrés; Pellicer-Franco, Enrique; Guillén-Paredes, María Pilar; García-García, María Luisa; Cases-Baldó, María José; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis

    2012-07-01

    diverting loop ileostomies are widely used in colorectal surgery to protect low rectal anastomoses. However, they may have various complications, among which are those associated with the subsequent stoma closure. The present study analyses our experience in a series of patients undergoing closure of loop ileostomies. retrospective study of all the patients undergoing ileostomy closure at our hospital between 2006-2010. There were 89 patients: 56 males (63%) and 33 females (37%) with a mean age of 55 (38-71) years. The most common indication for ileostomy was protection of a low rectal anastomosis, 81 patients (91%). The waiting time until stoma closure, type and frequency of the complications, length of hospital stay and mortality rate are analysed. waiting time before surgery was 8 (1-25) months. Forty-one patients (45,9%) developed some type of complication, three were reoperated (3.37%) and one patient died (1.12%). The most important complications were intestinal obstruction (32.6%), diarrhoea(6%), surgical wound infection (6%), enterocutaneous fistula (4.5%), rectorrhagia (3.4%) and anastomotic leak (1.12%). The mean length of patient stay was 7.54 (2-23) days. protective ostomies in low rectal anastomoses have proved to be the only preventive measure for reducing the morbidity and mortality rates for anastomotic leakage. However, creation means subsequent closure, which must not be considered a minor procedure but an operation with possibly significant complications, including death, as has been shown in publications on the subject and in our own series.

  2. Feasibility and Outcome of Proximal Catheter Ileostomy – A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Maulana M.; Ahmad, Shakeel; Hasan, Syed H.; Haleem, Shahla

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim: Loop ileostomy has high complication rates and causes much patient inconvenience. This study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of a proximal catheter ileostomy in place of loop ileostomy in patients treated by intestinal repair and/or resection-anastomosis.Design: Prospective study.Setting: J. N. Medical College Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Patients and Methods: From November 2006 to November 2009, in all patients treated surgically by primary repair and/or resection-anastomosis of small and/or large bowel, we constructed a catheter ileostomy when a defunctioning proximal protective loop ileostomy was considered advisable. Catheter ileostomy was constructed in the fashion of catheter jejunostomy, with postoperative saline irrigation. Results: Catheter ileostomy was performed in 20 patients in the 3-year period. The mean age of the subjects was 28.6 years and the male: female ratio was 1.86:1. Four patients died of septicemia and multiple organ failure unrelated to catheter ileostomy in the immediate postoperative period. Catheter ileostomy started functioning within 48 hours of the operation, and twice-daily irrigation was found sufficient in 81.25% of the surviving patients. Only one patient developed peritubal leak with mild skin excoriation that cleared within 5 days. Another patient with Koch's abdomen underwent conversion to loop colostomy on re-exploration for postoperative adhesive obstruction. There was no instance of intestinal leak. Ileostomy wounds closed spontaneously within 7–14 days of catheter removal, and none required formal closure. Hospital stay ranged from 12–35 days (mean: 23 days). Conclusions: Catheter ileostomy is effective in protecting intestinal anastomosis/repair; there is minimal morbidity and no catheter-related leak/mortality, and we recommend the procedure. PMID:21727735

  3. Considerations for diagnosis and management of ileostomy-related malignancy: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alex; Davis, Bradley; Snyder, Jon; Pulskamp, Sara; Nestok, Blake; Rafferty, Janice; Marcello, Peter; Paquette, Ian M

    2014-05-01

    Malignancy associated with a long-standing ileostomy is a rare occurrence reported as early as 3 years after ileostomy placement. Patients most commonly present first to their ostomy care nurse with peristomal skin changes unresponsive to conservative measures. To elucidate presentation and management, two cases of male patients with ileostomy-related with malignancy (one lymphoma and one squamous cell carcinoma) are discussed. Both patients had undergone proctocolectomy with end ileostomy decades prior. Symptoms in the lymphoma patient included complaints of skin irritation, stoma mucosa changes and friability, and a persistent rash around the ostomy; he was found to have small bowel friability and a peristomal mass arising from the terminal ileum that was resected en bloc with the ileostomy, the surrounding skin, and associated abdominal wall musculature. The patient with squamous cell carcinoma had developed a gray-tan skin lesion around his ileostomy site; he underwent exploratory laparotomy with wide local excision of the abdominal wall including ileostomy site, distal ileum, and squamous cell carcinoma, and resiting of the ileostomy to the contralateral abdominal wall. Ostomy care providers should be aware of the clinical presentation of ostomy-associated malignancy to ensure thorough evaluation and prompt referral for surgical management are provided.

  4. Elemental diets role in treatment of high ileostomy output and other gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Kamran; Al Dulaimi, David

    2015-01-01

    Elemental diet (ED) has been used widely in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, especially with the management of Crohn's disease. This modality of diets provides all essential nutrients, and contains protein in the form of free amino acids that are theoretically easily absorbed. High output ileostomies are a rare but important complications of stoma formation following bowel surgery. Treatments could be challenging and include anti-diarrhoeals, octreotide and proton pump inhibitors. There is very little research regarding the use of elemental diets in the treatment of patients with post-operative high ileostomy outputs. Adequate management of high output ileostomies might prevent significant morbidity. In this case report, we describe a patient who underwent a subtotal colectomy for ulcerative colitis complicated by refractory high ileostomy output despite maximal standard medical therapy for years. The ileostomy output was dramatically reduced following the introduction of an elemental diet. This case suggests a possible role for the introduction of an elemental diet in the management of high output ileostomies. Besides presenting this case with high output ileostomy, we reviewed the role of ED in other gastrointestinal disorders.

  5. Ileostomy Complications in Infants less than 1500 grams – Frequent but Manageable

    PubMed Central

    Kargl, Simon; Wagner, Oliver; Pumberger, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Background: In very low birth weight infants abdominal emergency surgery may result in ileostomy formation. We observed a frequent stoma complications in these patients. This retrospective analysis put light on ileostomy-related problems and complications in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Materials and Methods: In a seven-year retrospective chart review (2008 - 2014) infants with ileostomy formation weighing less than 1500 grams at time of operation were identified and reviewed. Data analysis included demographic data, complications and short term outcomes. Results: Thirty patients were included. Ileostomy was formed for spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) (n=17), meconium obstruction of prematurity (MOP) (n=6), midgut volvulus (MV) (n=5), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) (n=1) and Hirschsprung’s disease (HD) (n=1). Three patients died before ileostomy reversal was considered. In seven patients planned ileostomy reversal was done. Twenty infants had stoma related complications (stoma prolapse, prestomal obstruction, stoma retraction, high output stoma, peristomal skin excoriation, and stomal ischemia). Complications did not correlate with underlying diseases. Stomal complications necessitated earlier stoma reversal (mean 62 days). Postoperative complications after stoma reversal occurred in three children (wound dehiscence, adhesion ileus, anastomotic stricture). Conclusions: Although ileostomy related complications are frequent in very low birth weight infants, mortality is low. Morbidity is manageable. PMID:28083490

  6. Elemental diets role in treatment of high ileostomy output and other gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Kamran; Al Dulaimi, David

    2015-01-01

    Elemental diet (ED) has been used widely in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, especially with the management of Crohn's disease. This modality of diets provides all essential nutrients, and contains protein in the form of free amino acids that are theoretically easily absorbed. High output ileostomies are a rare but important complications of stoma formation following bowel surgery. Treatments could be challenging and include anti-diarrhoeals, octreotide and proton pump inhibitors. There is very little research regarding the use of elemental diets in the treatment of patients with post-operative high ileostomy outputs. Adequate management of high output ileostomies might prevent significant morbidity. In this case report, we describe a patient who underwent a subtotal colectomy for ulcerative colitis complicated by refractory high ileostomy output despite maximal standard medical therapy for years. The ileostomy output was dramatically reduced following the introduction of an elemental diet. This case suggests a possible role for the introduction of an elemental diet in the management of high output ileostomies. Besides presenting this case with high output ileostomy, we reviewed the role of ED in other gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:25584179

  7. Diet and health of people with an ileostomy. 1. Dietary assessment.

    PubMed

    Bingham, S; Cummings, J H; McNeil, N I

    1982-05-01

    1. People with an ileostomy experience digestive problems with some foods. Why those foods are avoided is not known nor is it certain whether this interferes with the nutritional adequacy of their diet. 2. A detailed dietary assessment has therefore been made of thirty-seven subjects with ileostomies and a similar number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All food and drink eaten over 1 week was weighed and recorded. In addition. A larger group of seventy-nine ileostomy subjects and seventy matched controls answered a questionnaire designed to identify foods which upset them and which they avoided. 3. Total nutrient and energy intakes were similar in the two groups but the subjects with an ileostomy ate less dietary fibre (g/d; mean + SD: ileostomy subjects 18.0 +/- 5.9, controls 20.9 +/- 5.5; P less than 0.05) mainly due to lower fruit and vegetable intakes. Iron and vitamins A and C intakes were also less. 4. A majority of ileostomy subjects had a pattern of food intake different from the controls, taking more of their energy in the morning and less at night. A variety of food items upset more than half of them including nuts, pips, seeds, skins, onions, beetroot, lettuce, raw cabbage and carrot, peas, sweetcorn, mushrooms and dried fruit. 5. On the basis of the results it is possible to formulate general dietary advice for people with an ileostomy.

  8. Clinical value of preventative ileostomy following ultra-low anterior rectal resection.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hai; Yu, Yifeng; Yao, Yong

    2013-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the clinical value of preventative ileostomy following ultralow anterior rectal resection in decreasing the incidence of anastomotic leakage. For this purpose, 62 cases that had undergone ultralow anterior rectal resection during the period from June 2007 to June 2008 were included in this study. Preventative ileostomy was performed in 36 cases (group A) and 26 cases with no preventative ileostomy performed were included as controls (group B). The incidence rate of anastomotic leakage in both groups was compared. The results show that five cases in group A reported anastomotic leakage while no anastomotic leakage was reported in group B. Therefore, it was concluded that preventative ileostomy could effectively decrease the incidence of anastomotic leakage.

  9. Long-term Outcomes After Continent Ileostomy Creation in Patients With Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Aytac, Erman; Dietz, David W; Ashburn, Jean; Remzi, Feza H

    2017-05-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease have a higher failure rate after ileal pouch surgery compared with their counterparts with ulcerative colitis. We hypothesized that risk of continent ileostomy failure can be stratified based on the timing of Crohn's disease diagnosis and aimed to assess long-term outcomes. This was a retrospective cohort study. The investigation took place in a high-volume, specialized colorectal surgery department. Patients with Crohn's disease who underwent continent ileostomy surgery between 1978 and 2013 were evaluated. Functional outcomes, postoperative complications, requirement of revision surgery, and continent ileostomy failure were analyzed. There were 48 patients (14 male patients) with a median age of 33 years at the time of continent ileostomy creation. Crohn's disease diagnosis was before continent ileostomy (intentional) in 15 or made in a delayed fashion at a median 4 years after continent ileostomy in 33 patients. Median follow-up was 19 years (range, 1-33 y) after index continent ileostomy creation. Major and minor revisions were performed in 40 (83%) and 13 patients (27%). Complications were fistula (n = 20), pouchitis (n = 16), valve slippage (n = 15), hernia (n = 9), afferent limb stricture (n = 9), difficult intubation (n = 8), incontinence (n = 7), bowel obstruction (n = 7), valve stricture (n = 5), leakage (n = 4), bleeding (n = 3), and valve prolapse (n = 3). Median Cleveland global quality-of-life score was 0.8. Continent ileostomy failure occurred in 22 patients (46%). Based on Kaplan-Meier estimates, continent ileostomy survival was 48 % (95% CI, 33%-63%) at 20 years. Continent ileostomy failure was similar regardless of timing of diagnosis of Crohn's disease (p = 0.533). This study was limited by its retrospective and nonrandomized nature. Outcomes of continent ileostomy in patients with Crohn's disease are poor, regardless of the timing of diagnosis. Very careful consideration should be given by both the surgeon and the

  10. Temporary Diverting Ileostomy via the Umbilicus: a Small Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Mushaya, C. D.; Chandra, Raaj; Sansom, Wendy; Keck, James

    2015-01-01

    The umbilicus, a natural orifice, which is used as an access port during laparoscopic surgery, can be used as a stoma site with potential superior cosmetic results as one less incision is then required. Our objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of the umbilical stoma in a selected group of patients. This is a prospective case series in hospital patients admitted as emergency or elective. Patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery with a planned ileostomy at Box Hill Hospital were approached and invited to participate in the study, with the stoma being fashioned on the umbilicus. Outcomes of interest included demographics, the details regarding the original indication for operation, operative and hospital related outcomes, postoperative bowel related complications, and other surgical and medical complications. Outcomes of a total of 10 (5 males) patients who underwent umbilical covering ileostomy during the study period were analyzed. Two patients with ulcerative colitis had the second stage of their operation converting their end stomas to loop stoma. These were counted twice, totaling 12 stomas in 10 patients. Three patients had their umbistomas after receiving neoadjuvant treatment for rectal cancer. The median period patients have had umbistomas is 113 days. Overall morbidity during the initial operation was low, except for 1 patient who had a small bowel injury. There was no mortality. Minor peristomal skin changes were the most common postoperative complication. Three patients had their stomas reversed with excellent cosmesis. Umbistomas appear to be a safe and effective way to fashion covering stomas post laparoscopic surgery and save the patient an added incision with excellent cosmetic results. PMID:25785324

  11. Increased postoperative complications after protective ileostomy closure delay: An institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Perez, Ines; Leon, Miguel; Pastor, Daniel; Diaz Dominguez, Joaquin; Cantero, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the morbidity and complications associated to ileostomy reversal in colorectal surgery patients, and if these are related to the time of closure. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 93 patients, who had undergone elective ileostomy closure between 2009 and 2013 was performed. Demographic, clinical and surgical variables were reviewed for analysis. All complications were recorded, and classified according to the Clavien-Dindo Classification. Statistical univariate and multivariate analysis was performed, setting a P value of 0.05 for significance. RESULTS: The patients had a mean age of 60.3 years, 58% male. The main procedure for ileostomy creation was rectal cancer (56%), and 37% had received preoperative chemo-radiotherapy. The average delay from creation to closure of the ileostomy was 10.3 mo. Postoperative complications occurred in 40% of the patients, with 1% mortality. The most frequent were ileus (13%) and wound infection (13%). Pseudomembranous colitis appeared in 4%. Increased postoperative complications were associated with delay in ileostomy closure (P = 0.041). Male patients had more complications (P = 0.042), mainly wound infections (P = 0.007). Pseudomembranous colitis was also associated with the delay in ileostomy closure (P = 0.003). End-to-end intestinal anastomosis without resection was significantly associated with postoperative ileus (P = 0.037). CONCLUSION: Although closure of a protective ileostomy is a fairly common surgical procedure, it has a high rate of complications, and this must be taken into account when the indication is made. The delay in stoma closure can increase the rate of complications in general, and specifically wound infections and colitis. PMID:25276286

  12. Complications after Loop Ileostomy Closure: A Retrospective Analysis of 132 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Poskus, Eligijus; Kildusis, Edvinas; Smolskas, Edgaras; Ambrazevicius, Marijus; Strupas, Kestutis

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Closure of a loop ileostomy is a relatively simple procedure although many studies have demonstrated high morbidity rates following it. Methods to reduce the number of complications, such as timing of closure or different surgical closure techniques, are investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the experience of the Abdominal Surgery Center at Vilnius University Hospital (VUH) ‘Santariskiu klinikos’ to review the complications after closure of loop ileostomy and to identify potential risk factors for postoperative complications. Methods Data from 132 patients who underwent closure of loop ileostomy from 2003 to 2013 at the Abdominal Surgery Center of VUH were collected, including demographics, causes of ileostomy formation, additional diseases, time from creation to closure of ileostomy, anastomotic technique, duration of the operation, postoperative complications, and hospital stay after surgery. The operations were performed by 15 surgeons with varying experience assisted by surgical residents. Experience in ileostomy closure was defined by the number of procedures performed. Results Complications occurred in 24 patients (18.2%), with 20 of them having surgical complications: bowel obstruction (9 (6.8%)), wound infection (4 (3.0%)), peritonitis due to anastomotic leak (3 (2.3%)), intra-abdominal abscess (2 (1.5%)), anastomotic leak with enterocutaneous fistula (1 (0.76%)), and bleeding (1 (0.76%)). 4 patients had non-surgical complications: postoperative diarrhea (2 (1.5%)), urinary retention (1 (0.76%)), and deep vein thrombosis (1 (0.76%)). Most complications were classified as group II according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. 2 patients died (1.5%). The anastomotic technique used did not affect the outcome. The experience of the surgeon as judged by the frequency of the procedure was the main factor affecting postoperative morbidity significantly (p = 0.03). Conclusion Our study revealed that the rate of postoperative

  13. Use of Ozone to Treat Ileostomy Dermatitis in an Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Biçer, Şenol; Sayar, İlyas; Gürsul, Cebrail; Işık, Arda; Aydın, Merve; Peker, Kemal; Demiryilmaz, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    Background Dermatitis associated with ileostomy is an important problem that affects many people, especially children. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of ozone on dermatitis due to ileostomy, and to develop an alternative treatment option. Material/Methods A total of 28 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, ileostomy, ozone, and zinc oxide. Ileostomy was performed in all rats except the control group. After a 1-week waiting time, the ozone group was administered ozone therapy and the zinc oxide group was administered zinc oxide cream locally once a day for a total of 7 days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of this period. The efficacy of treatment was examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical parameters. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (tGSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured from tissue. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were examined immunohistochemically. Results Dermatitis occurred pathologically in all rats that underwent ileostomy surgery. The lowest dermatitis score was in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). Ileostomy dermatitis caused increased levels of MDA and TOS. Ozone treatment resulted in reduced MDA and TOS levels, while the levels of tGSH and TAC were increased (p<0.05). Both VEGF and PCNA immunostaining were augmented in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). Conclusions Local ozone application may be a good alternative compared to the conventional treatment methods for the prevention of skin lesions that develop after ileostomy. PMID:26947591

  14. The Impact of Ileostomy-Related Complications on the Multidisciplinary Treatment of Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phatak, Uma R.; Kao, Lillian S.; You, Y. Nancy; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Skibber, John M.; Feig, Barry W.; Nguyen, Sa; Chang, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Radical resection is the primary treatment for rectal cancer. When anastomosis is possible, a temporary ileostomy is used to decrease morbidity from a poorly healed anastomosis. However, ileostomies are associated with complications, dehydration, and need for a second operation. Our purpose was to evaluate the impact of ileostomy related complications on the treatment of rectal cancer. Methods A retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent sphincter preserving surgery between January 2005 and December 2010 at a tertiary cancer center. The primary outcome was the overall rate of ileostomy related complications. Secondary outcomes included complications related to ileostomy status, ileostomy closure, anastomotic complications at primary resection, rate of stoma closure, and completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. Statistical analyses were performed with STATA 12. Results A total of 294 patients were analyzed, 32% (n=95) were women. Two hundred seventy-one (92%) received neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The median tumor distance from the anal verge was 7 centimeters (interquartile range 5-10). Two hundred eighty-one (96%) underwent stoma closure at a median 7 months (interquartile range 5.4 – 8.3). The most common complication related to readmission was dehydration (n=32, 11%). Readmission within 60 days of primary resection was associated with delay in initiating adjuvant chemotherapy (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.42-6.38, p=0.004). Conclusion Diverting ileostomies created during surgical treatment of rectal cancers are associated with morbidity; however this is balanced against the risk of anastomosis-related morbidity at rectal resection. Given the potential benefit of fecal diversion, patient-oriented interventions to improve ostomy management, particularly during adjuvant chemotherapy, can be expected to yield marked benefits. PMID:24085329

  15. The incidence of incisional hernias following ileostomy reversal in colorectal cancer patients treated with anterior resection.

    PubMed

    Fazekas, Balazs; Fazekas, Bence; Hendricks, J; Smart, N; Arulampalam, T

    2017-04-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to identify the rate of incisional hernia formation following ileostomy reversal in patients who underwent anterior resection for colorectal cancer. In addition, we aimed to ascertain risk factors for the development of reversal-site incisional hernias and to record the characteristics of the resultant hernias. MATERIALS AND METHODS Using a prospectively compiled database of colorectal cancer patients who were treated with anterior resection, we identified individuals who had undergone both ileostomy formation and subsequent reversal of their ileostomies from January 2005 to December 2014. Medical records were reviewed to record descriptive patient data about risk factors for hernia formation, operative details and any subsequent operations. Computed tomography reports were reviewed to identify the number, site and characteristics of incisional hernias. RESULTS A total of 121 patients were included in this study; 14.9% (n = 18) developed an incisional hernia at the ileostomy reversal site; 17.4% (n = 21) at a non-ileostomy site and 6.6% (n = 8) developed both. The reversal-site hernias were smaller both in width and length compared with the non-ileostomy-site hernias. Risk factors for the development of reversal-site incisional hernias were higher body mass index (BMI), lower age, open surgery, longer reversal time and a history of previous hernias. We did not detect a difference in the size of the incisional hernias that developed in patients with these specific risk factors. CONCLUSIONS Incisional hernias are a significant complication of ileostomy reversal. Further evaluation of the use of prophylactic mesh to reduce the incidence of incisional hernias may be worthwhile.

  16. [Morbidity and mortality associated with diverting ileostomy closures in rectal cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Flikier-Zelkowicz, Benjamín; Codina-Cazador, Antonio; Farrés-Coll, Ramón; Olivet-Pujol, Francisco; Martín-Grillo, Adán; Pujadas-de Palol, Marcel

    2008-07-01

    Derivative ileostomies are frequently performed to protect low anastomosis. The closure of the ileostomy has shown, under some circumstances, high associated mortality/morbidity rates. This study attempts to quantify the morbidity and mortality associated with ileostomy closure in rectal neoplasm patients and to determine if the length of time between the procedure of construction and closure increases the morbidity/mortality. A retrospective study was performed, using the database of the colo-rectal surgical group in the department of general surgery. The subjects were the 62 patients treated between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2006 who received both a low anterior resection to treat rectal neoplasm and a subsequent ileostomy closure. The mean patient age was 65 years (38-83) and consisted of 19 women (30.7%) and 43 men (69.3%). The mean time between the construction and closure was 10.48 months (2-56) and the mean hospital stay was 7.8 days (3-32). The overall morbidity/mortality rate was 33.8% and 6.4%. The most frequent surgical complications were postoperative intestinal occlusion (16.9%) and wound infection (11.2%). The study showed high morbidity/mortality rate for the closure of temporary ileostomy. Patients who received the closure more than 11.65 months after the low anterior resection had significantly higher morbidity/mortality rates.

  17. Acceptable results of early closure of loop ileostomy to protect low rectal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Perdawid, Sharafaden Karim; Andersen, Ole Bjørn

    2011-06-01

    This was a pilot project performed prior to full implementation of early loop ileostomy closure (within two weeks) following low anterior resection of the rectum in a group of patients selected according to previously recommended criteria for safe, early ileostomy closure. Retrospective review of medical records. Patients undergoing loop ileostomy closure between December 2009 and October 2010 were analyzed. Data were collected on demographics, tumour characteristics, information about the perioperative period, operative details, postoperative complications, closure operation, the postoperative closure period and follow-up. Eleven patients were included (men, n = 4) with a median age of 58 years (range 47-79 years). Ileostomy closure was performed at a median of ten days (range 8-13 days) following rectum resection. The median hospital stay was 16 days (range 14-24 days). No re-laparotomies were performed. One patient developed a pelvic pus collection ten days post closure and was treated conservatively. One patient died 32 days after closure for reasons not related to surgery. The results of this small retrospective study show morbidity rates associated with early loop ileostomy closure that are probably acceptable. Safety, feasibility, timing and selection criteria should be clarified in large randomized studies. not relevant. not relevant.

  18. Blood and Urinary Changes in Patients with Ileostomies and Ileorectal Anastomoses

    PubMed Central

    Singer, A. M.; Bennett, R. C.; Carter, N. G.; Hughes, E. S. R.

    1973-01-01

    Biochemical investigations done on the blood and urine of currently healthy, uncomplicated patients previously treated by either proctocolectomy and ileostomy or colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis were compared with estimations on matched controls. The most striking finding was the reduced urine volume, and to a lesser extent its sodium content, in patients with ileostomies. The urinary pH indicated persistent acidity in postoperative patients but this was also a remarkably constant feature in control subjects. These findings are in agreement with other studies related to the occurrence of urinary calculi after colectomy and ileostomy, and are consistent with the contention that there is a lower incidence of calculi after ileorectal anastomosis. PMID:4720764

  19. Ileostomy for Non-Traumatic Ileal Perforations: Is this the Beginning of the End?

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Rajashekara Gangappa; Chowdary, Prashanth Basappa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ileal perforations are a common place of occurrence in emergency operation rooms around India. They are also significant contributors to mortality in our country. They are very distressing for patients because of the high morbidity of a laparotomy and in certain cases a stoma if its necessity is felt by the operating surgeon. The nature of the disease itself predisposes to a number of complications including wound infections, faecal fistulas and complications associated with a stoma. Aim To evaluate the role of ileostomy in patients with non-traumatic ileal perforation. Materials and Methods A total of 192 cases of ileal perforation, diagnosed per-operatively, were prospectively studied between June 2012 and July 2014. Cases were treated according to standard resuscitation protocols and underwent repair of the ileal perforation either as primary closure or as a bowel resection and anastomosis with or without a proximal diversion ileostomy. Cases were followed up for a period of six months and immediate and late complications and outcomes were noted. Results A total of 192 patients were studied during the given study period out of which 170 (88.5%) were males. The disease was treated primarily without diversion stoma in 176 patients and in 16 patients a proximal diversion ileostomy was performed. The overall mortality was 15 (7.8%) that was noted to be not significantly different in patients with respect to the performance of a stoma. Enterocutaneous fistula was a complication seen exclusively in the non-ileostomy group whereas stomal complications were expectedly noted only in the stoma group. Conclusion The authors found that though conventional ileostomy diversion may appear a safe option in patients with ileal perforations, it has its own additional morbidity, which at times can be very difficult to manage. An ileostomy is of use in a very small group of patients that is diminishing as better facilities and equipment are obtained to manage this

  20. Stimulation of the efferent limb before ileostomy closure: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Abrisqueta, J; Abellan, I; Luján, J; Hernández, Q; Parrilla, P

    2014-12-01

    Postoperative ileus is the most common complication after ileostomy closure with an increase in morbidity, hospital stay, and health care costs. The aim of this study is to assess the utility of a new technique for reducing postoperative ileus after protective ileostomy closure. This is a prospective randomized study registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01881594). Patients were randomly assigned to undergo either stimulation through the efferent limb of the ileostomy before surgery or nonstimulation before surgery. This study was conducted at the Department of Surgery of the Virgen de la Arrixaca Clinical University Hospital (Murcia). Seventy patients underwent surgery for ileostomy closure. In 35 patients, during the 2 weeks before surgery, daily stimulation of the defunctionalized stomal segment was performed by using a thick solution (500 mL of physiological saline associated with 30 g of thickening agent, Nestle Resource, Vevey, Switzerland). In the other 35 patients, stimulation was not performed before surgery. The primary outcome was postoperative ileus. The secondary outcomes included time to tolerating a diet and postoperative stay. Both groups of patients were homogenous for demographic data, characteristics of the first rectal cancer operation, and intersurgery periods. After ileostomy closure, the stimulated group of patients had an earlier return to oral tolerance (1.06 vs 2.57 days; p = 0.007) and passage of flatus or stool (1.14 vs 2.85 days; p <0.001) than the nonstimulated group of patients. The incidence of postoperative ileus (2.85% vs 20%; p = 0.024) and hospital stay (2.49 vs 4.61 days; p = 0.002) was also lower in the stimulated patients. Small numbers of patients means that no definitive statements can be made regarding the effectiveness of this technique. Stimulation of the efferent limb of the ileostomy before closure is a safe technique that reduces postoperative ileus and fosters early intestinal transit and oral tolerance with a shorter

  1. A Qualitative Exploration of the Lived Experiences of Patients Before and After Ileostomy Creation as a Result of Surgical Management for Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Morris, Andrew; Leach, Bethan

    2017-01-01

    Patient experiences pre- and post-ileostomy creation as a result of severe Crohn's Disease are underresearched. A qualitative phenomenological design involving a purposeful sampling approach was used to capture the lived physical and psychosocial transition of patients with Crohn's Disease before and after ileostomy formation. Patients were recruited from the membership of the United Kingdom Ileostomy Association; inclusion criteria stipulated participants must speak English and have a diagnosis of Crohn's Disease and subsequent stoma formation. Ten (10) patients (6 women, 4 men, ranging in age from 34 to 83 years with Crohn's Disease and an ileostomy [mean time with stoma 18.3 years, range 3-36 years]) participated in indepth, semistructured interviews with questions on sociodemographic characteristics along with questions informed by the relevant literature regarding life before and after the ileostomy. All interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to examine the data and identify and interpret themes. Participants were asked to comment on these themes to ensure they were a realistic interpretation of their experiences. Two (2) major themes emerged that embodied ileostomy formation: being controlled by Crohn's and transition to a new life with an ileostomy. Crohn's symptoms controlled daily activities such as work and socializing due, in part, to the need to be in close proximity to toilet facilities. The ileostomy facilitated a transition to a new life that allowed patients to re-engage with work and social activities. One minor theme emerged: memories of Crohn's. Participants said their memories of Crohn's affected life with an ileostomy. Where Crohn's controlled every aspect of people's lives pre-ileostomy formation, the creation of the ileostomy was a positive experience because it helped manage Crohn's symptoms. Memories of life pre-ileostomy may affect individuals' behavior post-ileostomy

  2. Quality of Life After Total Proctocolectomy With Ileostomy or IPAA: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Patrick B; Khot, Zaid; Vogt, Kelly N; Ott, Michael; Dubois, Luc

    2015-09-01

    The standard surgical treatment for ulcerative colitis involves either a total proctocolectomy and end ileostomy or an IPAA. Both treatments result in similar control of disease but differ in terms of patient experience and daily functioning. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether one surgical approach was superior with regard to health-related quality of life. An electronic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Collected Reviews was performed for dates from 1978 to 2014. The search included the following terms: "inflammatory bowel disease," "colitis," "colectomy," and "ileal pouch-anal anastomosis." Studies were included if they reported on a comparison of total proctocolectomy and end ileostomy with an IPAA and evaluated some aspect of quality of life. All of the studies were systematically reviewed. No meta-analysis was performed secondary to significant heterogeneity across studies in different health-related quality-of-life measures. End points were a mixture of global, generic, and disease-specific measures of quality of life. Thirteen studies reporting a total of 1604 patients who underwent total proctocolectomy with ileostomy (N = 820) or IPAA (N = 783) were included for review. Neither procedure was found to be clearly superior with regard to health-related quality of life. The conclusions of this review were limited by small study sample size, significant between-study heterogeneity, observational designs, and limited follow-up. Despite being limited by poor study quality, both total proctocolectomy with ileostomy and IPAA appear equivalent in terms of overall health-related quality of life. Most patients are satisfied with their choice regardless of procedure. Most of the improvement in quality of life after surgery is related to the control of disease-related symptoms. These findings indicate that both IPAA and permanent ileostomy should be discussed in detail with patients preoperatively to help

  3. Obstructed ileostomy in the third trimester of pregnancy due to compression from the gravid uterus: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Porter, Hugh; Seeho, Sean

    2014-08-19

    Ileostomy obstruction in pregnancy, although rare, is a significant complication with associated morbidity and mortality. Early studies recommended immediate surgical intervention for cases of ileostomy obstruction in pregnancy. We present a case of ileostomy obstruction at 29-week gestation in which a laparotomy was performed for presumed adhesions. When adhesiolysis failed to resolve the obstruction, it became clear that the obstruction was caused by external compression from the enlarging gravid uterus. The remainder of the pregnancy was successfully managed by daily aspiration of bowel contents using a large bore drainage tube, and total parental nutrition. Recent studies have utilised MRI to distinguish between adhesions and uterine compression as the cause of ileostomy obstruction in pregnancy. In the few cases of obstruction caused by uterine compression, patients have been safely managed with conservative therapy, thereby avoiding the risks of surgery. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors Associated With the Nonreversal Ileostomy Following Sphincter-Preserving Surgery for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ah; Lee, Gil Jae; Park, Sung Won; Lee, Won-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A loop ileostomy is used to protect an anastomosis after anal sphincter-preserving surgery, especially in patients with low rectal cancer, but little information is available concerning risk factors associated with a nonreversal ileostomy. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors of ileostomy nonreversibility after a sphincter-saving resection for rectal cancer. Methods Six hundred seventy-nine (679) patients with rectal cancer who underwent sphincter-preserving surgery between January 2004 and December 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Of the 679, 135 (19.9%) underwent a defunctioning loop ileostomy of temporary intent, and these patients were divided into two groups, that is, a reversal group (RG, 112 patients) and a nonreversal group (NRG, 23 patients) according to the reversibility of the ileostomy. Results In 23 of the 135 rectal cancer patients (17.0%) that underwent a diverting ileostomy, stoma reversal was not possible for the following reasons; stage IV rectal cancer (11, 47.8%), poor tone of the anal sphincter (4, 17.4%), local recurrence (2, 8.7%), anastomotic leakage (1, 4.3%), radiation proctitis (1, 4.3%), and patient refusal (4, 17.4%). The independent risk factors of the nonreversal group were anastomotic leakage or fistula, stage IV cancer, local recurrence, and comorbidity. Conclusion Postoperative complications such as anastomotic leakage or fistula, advanced primary disease (stage IV), local recurrence and comorbidity were identified as risk factors of a nonreversal ileostomy. These factors should be considered when drafting prudential guidelines for ileostomy closure. PMID:26161377

  5. A new appliance for collecting ileostomy and jejunostomy fluid in the postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Hill, G L; Pickford, I R

    1979-03-01

    A new lightweight two-piece ileostomy appliance was tested in 11 patients with newly established ileostomies and jejunostomies. Seven of the patients presented difficult stoma care problems. The appliance was fitted in theatre on completion of the operation and the patient was followed until discharge from hospital. The appliance remained in place for an average of 4.8 +/- 1.2 days. In a total of 204 patient-days the pouch became dislodged from the flange on 10 occasions and there was leakage under the body flange on 7 occasions. All but one of the patients continued to use the appliance on discharge. No patient was allergic to the appliance nor complained of odour. It is concluded that this new appliance represents an important advance in postoperative stoma care.

  6. Cost Effectiveness of a Novel Attempt to Reduce Readmission after Ileostomy Creation

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Ahsan; Huang, Emina; Goldstein, Lindsey; Hughes, Steven J.; Tan, Sanda A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Dehydration is a common complication after ileostomy creation and is the most frequent reason for postoperative readmission to the hospital. We sought to determine the clinical and economic impact of an outpatient intervention to decrease readmissions for dehydration after ileostomy creation. Methods: All new ileostomates from 09/2011 through 10/2012 at the University of Florida were enrolled to receive an ileostomy education and management protocol and a daily telephone call for 3 weeks after discharge. Counseling and medication adjustments were provided, with a satisfaction survey at the end. Outcomes of these patients were compared to those in a historical control cohort. A cost analysis was conducted to calculate the savings to the hospital. Results: Thirty-eight patients were enrolled. All patients required telephone counseling, and the mean satisfaction score rating was 4.69, on a scale of 1 to 5. The readmission rate for dehydration within 30 days of discharge decreased significantly from 65% before intervention to 16% (5/32 patients) after intervention (P = .002). The length of readmission hospital stay decreased from a mean of 4.2 days before the introduction of the intervention to 3 days after. Cost analysis revealed that the actual total hospital cost of dehydration-specific readmission decreased from $88,858 to $25,037, a saving of $63,821. Conclusion: A standardized ileostomy pathway with comprehensive patient education and outpatient telephone follow-up is cost effective, has a positive influence on patient satisfaction, and reduces dehydration-related readmission rates. PMID:28144122

  7. Postoperative management after loop ileostomy closure: are we keeping patients in hospital too long?

    PubMed Central

    Baraza, W; Wild, J; Barber, W; Brown, S

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Recent studies have shown that closure of loop ileostomy can be performed in the day-case setting, reducing the length and cost of hospitalisation. By analysing our patients who have undergone reversal, we aimed to determine the length of hospital stay and potential factors behind stays beyond 24 h. PATIENTS AND METHODS A database of patients undergoing closure of loop ileostomy at one colorectal unit was examined. The times taken to discharge, morbidity and re-admission rates were recorded. RESULTS Eighty patients underwent reversal of ileostomy between January 2001 and January 2006. Median age was 63 years (range, 22–81 years). The median length of stay was 4 days (range, 2–32 days). The median length of stay in patients without complications was 4 days. Many appeared able to be discharged earlier. Seventy-two patients (90%) were able to tolerate a solid diet within 48 h and 54 (67.5%) had bowel function within 3 days. Six patients went home before bowel function; none of these were re-admitted. Twenty patients (25%) developed complications, which included wound infection (8%), small bowel obstruction/ileus (6%), enterocutaneous fistula (1%), anastomotic leak (1%), and late abdominal wall abscess (1%). Of the patients, 16% stayed longer than 5 days despite having no postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS The majority of patients undergoing loop ileostomy reversal at our institution can be discharged earlier than they are at present. Support in the community and the implementation of modified UK day-case surgery protocols are suggested to help shorten patients' length of stay. PMID:20056062

  8. Comparing methods of ileostomy closure constructed in colorectal surgery in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ay, Nurettin; Ciyiltepe, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Stoma construction is a life saver method for emergent and elective operations in colorectal surgery. However, they are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Aim To compare the operative findings, early postoperative complications, and costs of stapled and hand-sewn closures in loop ileostomies that are constructed in emergent and elective colorectal surgery. Material and methods The data of 68 patients requiring loop ileostomies during colorectal surgery were retrospectively evaluated. SPSS (version 20) was used for data analysis. Results The study group consisted of 44 men and 24 women with a mean age of 55.5 years. The ileostomy closures were performed with hand-sewn method in 36 patients (group 1) and stapled method in 32 patients (group 2). The mean operation time was 75.4 min in group 1 and 46.7 min in group 2 (p < 0.001). Early postoperative complications were wound infection (8.8%), small bowel obstruction (6.06%), and anastomotic leakage (2.9%). Total costs, flatulence and faeces outlet time, oral feeding starting time, time of hospital stay, and early postoperative complications were lower in the stapled group. Conclusions Morbidity and mortality rates of stoma construction and its closure are still considerable. Lower anastomotic leakage rate, complication rate, and costs and shorter operative times in the stapled group make this method preferable. PMID:25396004

  9. Magnetic Compression Anastomosis (Magnamosis) for Functional Undiversion of Ileostomy in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Luzia; Martinez-Ferro, Marcelo; Cervio, Guillermo; Kwiat, Dillon; Imamura-Ching, Jill; Graves, Claire E; Gaston, Brandon; Harrison, Michael

    2017-10-04

    Magnamosis forms a compression anastomosis using self-aligning magnetic Harrison rings. The device has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for first-in-human testing and has been applied in adults for intestinal anastomosis during urologic reconstructions. We now report the first cases of magnamosis to functionally undivert the fecal stream from a previously created loop ileostomy in pediatric patients. Case 1: A 4-year-old male underwent a diverting loop ileostomy for malignant bowel obstruction. The obstruction gradually resolved with chemotherapy, and persistently high stomal output and malnutrition prompted undiversion. Case 2: A 16-year-old female with iloecolonic polyposis underwent ileoproctectomy with J pouch and diverting ileostomy. The magnamosis functional undiversion (FUN) technique involves introducing a Harrison ring through each stomal limb under general anesthesia with X-ray guidance. Magnets are each tied with sutures that exit the stoma and are then tied to each other externally. The device is removed when patency is detected. The introduction procedure took less than 20 minutes and there were no complications. Enteral feeding was initiated 24 and 6 hours postoperatively, and distal passage of stool occurred by the fourth and fifth days, respectively. Magnets were removed 14 and 15 days postoperatively, without evidence of leak. We conclude that the magnamosis undiversion procedure is a safe, minimally invasive way to gradually refunctionalize the excluded distal bowel after previous diverting ostomy.

  10. Prospective analysis of indications and early complications of emergency temporary loop ileostomies for perforation peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Poras; Nabi, Ishaq; Ranjan, Gyan; Tiwari, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Kapur, Arun; Arora, Mohinder P.

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the indications, nature, and rate of early complications of temporary loop ileostomy created in emergency for benign diseases, their management, and to find out the associated risk factors. Methods A total of 630 patients undergoing temporary loop ileostomy for benign diseases were studied prospectively over a period of 6 years. Stoma-related early complications occurring within 6-8 weeks were analyzed. Only emergency cases were included in this study. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data and statistical significance was evaluated by applying the Pearson’s chi-square test. Results Typhoid perforation (n=402) was the most commonpathology, followed by tuberculosis (n=106); trauma (n=81); and intestinal obstruction with gangrenous bowel (n=41). 299 patients had no stoma-related complications. Skin excoriation was the most commonstoma-related complication. Age more than 50 years; shock at presentation; delay in presentation; delay in surgery; presence of comorbidities; and surgery done out of working hours, were associated with increased complications. Conclusion Temporary loop ileostomy for perforation peritonitis due to benign systemic diseases like typhoid fever and tuberculosis confers a very high morbidity. PMID:25609137

  11. Fortune of temporary ileostomies in patients treated with laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Haksal, Mustafa; Okkabaz, Nuri; Atici, Ali Emre; Civil, Osman; Ozdenkaya, Yasar; Erdemir, Ayhan; Aksakal, Nihat

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The current study aims to analyze the risk factors for the failure of ileostomy reversal after laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer. Methods All patients who underwent a laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer with a diverting ileostomy between 2007 and 2014 were abstracted. The patients who underwent and did not undergo a diverting ileostomy procedure were compared regarding patient, tumor, treatment related parameters, and survival. Results Among 160 (103 males [64.4%], mean [± standard deviation] age was 58.1 ± 11.9 years) patients, stoma reversal was achieved in 136 cases (85%). Anastomotic stricture (n = 13, 52.4%) was the most common reason for stoma reversal. These were the risk factors for the failure of stoma reversal: Male sex (P = 0.035), having complications (P = 0.01), particularly an anastomotic leak (P < 0.001), or surgical site infection (P = 0.019) especially evisceration (P = 0.011), requirement for reoperation (P = 0.003) and longer hospital stay (P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis revealed that male sex (odds ratio [OR], 7.82; P = 0.022) and additional organ resection (OR, 6.71; P = 0.027) were the risk factors. Five-year survival rates were similar (P = 0.143). Conclusion Fifteen percent of patients cannot receive a stoma reversal after laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer. Anastomotic stricture is the most common reason for the failure of stoma takedown. Having complications, particularly an anastomotic leak and the necessity of reoperation, limits the stoma closure rate. Male sex and additional organ resection are the risk factors for the failure in multivariate analyses. These patients require a longer hospitalization period, but have similar survival rates as those who receive stoma closure procedure. PMID:28090504

  12. Purse-String Versus Linear Conventional Skin Wound Closure of an Ileostomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Alvandipour, Mina; Gharedaghi, Babak; Khodabakhsh, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Infection is one of the most frequent complications that can occur after ileostomy closure. The incidence of wound infection depends on the skin closure technique, but there is no agreement on the perfect closure method for an ileostomy wound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of infection, the patient's approval, and the patient's pain between purse-string closure (PSC) and the usual linear closure (LC) of a stoma wound. Methods This randomized clinical trial enrolled 66 patients who underwent a stoma closure from February 2015 to May 2015 in Sari Emam Khomeini Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the stoma closing method: the PSC group (n = 34) and the LC group (n = 32). The incidences of infection for the 2 groups were compared, and the patients' satisfaction and pain with the stoma were determined by using a questionnaire. Results Infection occurred in 1 of 34 PSC patients (2.9%) and in 7 of 32 LC patients (21.8%), and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.021). Patients in the PSC group were more satisfied with the resulting wound scar and its cosmetic appearance at one month and three months after surgery (P = 0.043). Conclusion After stoma closure, PSC was associated with a significantly lower incidence of wound infection and greater patient satisfaction compared to LC. However, the healing period for patients who underwent PSC was longer than it was for those who underwent LC. PMID:27626025

  13. [Enteropathic acrodermatitis in a patient with high-out-put ileostomy].

    PubMed

    Junquera Bañares, Sonia; Oria Mundín, Eugenio; Botella-Carretero, José Ignacio

    2014-02-01

    Zinc deficiency is relatively common in certain pathologies, although its clinical manifestation is uncommon. We present the case of a patient who was admitted presenting hyponatremic dehydration and pre-renal failure secondary to high-output ileostomy and oral intolerance. Although the ileostomy output was normalized within 3 days of admission and initial zinc plasma levels were normal, after being fed with TPN supplemented with 13 mg/day of zinc, he suffered a severe zinc deficit with enteropathic acrodermatitis that was completely resolved after one week with 26.5 mg/day. However, plasma levels did not return to normal until one month on therapy with high doses of zinc. Zinc plasma levels are not a good indicator of zinc stores in the body and many times their changes are a late indicator of zinc deficit. There is not a correlation between the clinical improvement and normalization of zinc levels, being common the clinical resolution within few days of the supplementation without observing an increase of zinc plasma levels.

  14. Protective effects of terminal ileostomy against bacterial translocation in a rat model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Wen-Kui; Tan, Shan-Jun; Duan, Kai-Peng; Dong, Yi; Bai, Xiao-Wu; Xu, Lin; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of terminal ileostomy on bacterial translocation (BT) and systemic inflammation after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. METHODS: Thirty-two rats were assigned to either the sham-operated group, I/R group, I/R + resection and anastomosis group, or the I/R + ileostomy group. The superior mesenteric artery was occluded for 60 min. After 4 h, tissue samples were collected for analysis. BT was assessed by bacteriologic cultures, intestinal permeability and serum levels of endotoxin; systemic inflammation was assessed by serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, as well as by the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and by intestinal histopathology. RESULTS: Intestinal I/R injury not only caused morphologic damage to ileal mucosa, but also induced BT, increased MPO activity and promoted the release of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in serum. BT and ileal mucosa injuries were significantly improved and levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in serum were decreased in the I/R + ileostomy group compared with the I/R + resection and anastomosis group. CONCLUSION: Terminal ileostomy can prevent the detrimental effects of intestinal I/R injury on BT, intestinal tissue, and inflammation. PMID:25548488

  15. Biofeedback Therapy Before Ileostomy Closure in Patients Undergoing Sphincter-Saving Surgery for Rectal Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Ki; Jeon, Byeong Geon; Song, Yoon Suk; Seo, Mi Sun; Kwon, Yoon-Hye; Park, JI Won; Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Jeong, Seung-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study prospectively investigated the effects of biofeedback therapy on objective anorectal function and subjective bowel function in patients after sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. Methods Sixteen patients who underwent an ileostomy were randomized into two groups, one receiving conservative management with the Kegel maneuver and the other receiving active biofeedback before ileostomy closure. Among them, 12 patients (mean age, 57.5 years; range, 38 to 69 years; 6 patients in each group) completed the study. Conservative management included lifestyle modifications, Kegel exercises, and medication. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after ileostomy closure by using anal manometry, modified Wexner Incontinence Scores (WISs), and fecal incontinence quality of life (FI-QoL) scores. Results Before the ileostomy closure, the groups did not differ in baseline clinical characteristics or resting manometric parameters. After 12 months of follow-up, the biofeedback group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in the mean maximum squeezing pressure (from 146.3 to 178.9, P = 0.002). However, no beneficial effect on the WIS was noted for biofeedback compared to conservative management alone. Overall, the FI-QoL scores were increased significantly in both groups after ileostomy closure (P = 0.006), but did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion Although the biofeedback therapy group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in the maximum squeezing pressure, significant improvements in the WISs and the FI-QoL scores over time were noted in both groups. The study was terminated early because no therapeutic benefit of biofeedback had been demonstrated. PMID:26361615

  16. Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of cider dihydrochalcones in healthy humans and subjects with an ileostomy.

    PubMed

    Marks, Serena C; Mullen, William; Borges, Gina; Crozier, Alan

    2009-03-11

    The phloretin-O-glycosides, phloretin-2'-O-glucoside and phloretin-2'-O-(2''-O-xylosyl)glucoside, are thought to be unique to apples and apple products. To investigate the metabolism and bioavailability of these compounds, nine healthy and five ileostomy human subjects consumed 500 mL of Thatchers Redstreak apple cider containing 46 micromol of phloretin-O-glycosides. Over the ensuing 24 h period, plasma, urine, and ileal fluid were collected prior to analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The sole metabolite present in quantifiable amounts in plasma was phloretin-2'-O-glucuronide, which reached a peak concentration (C(max)) of 73 nmol/L and 0.6 h after ingestion (T(max)) with the healthy subjects, and statistically similar values were obtained with the ileostomy volunteers. Phloretin-2'-O-glucuronide was also detected in urine along with two additional phloretin-O-glucuronides and a phloretin-O-glucuronide-O-sulfate. The quantity of phloretin metabolites excreted in urine represented 5.0 + or - 0.9% of intake in healthy volunteers and 5.5 + or - 0.6% in ileostomy volunteers. The similarity in the excretion levels of the two groups and the rapid plasma T(max) indicate absorption of the dihydrochalcones in the small intestine. Of the two major phloretin-O-glycosides in cider, only phloretin-2'-O-(2''-O-xylosyl)glucoside was recovered in ileal fluid in quantities corresponding to 22% of intake. The absence of phloretin-2'-O-glucoside in ileal fluid suggests that it is more readily absorbed than phloretin-2'-O-(2''-O-xylosyl)glucoside. Phloretin-2'-O-glucuronide, two other phloretin-O-glucuronides, one phloretin-O-glucuronide-O-sulfate, two phloretin-O-sulfates, and the aglycone phloretin were also detected in the ileal fluid. This implies that the wall of the small intestine contains beta-glycosidase, sulfuryltransferase, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities and that, as well as being absorbed, sizable amounts of the

  17. Ileostomy obstruction by ingested apricot stone with clinical-radiological-pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    George, A J; Fallaize, R C; Bennett, J; Shabbir, J

    2015-09-15

    Patients with stomas often present with bowel obstruction, often secondary to adhesions. This case describes the presentation, investigation and management of a 62-year-old woman with an end ileostomy, who presented to hospital with acute abdominal pain and subacute bowel obstruction. Further questioning revealed the recent ingestion of an apricot stone and this was identified by multimodality imaging as the cause of the luminal obstruction in the distal ileum, just proximal to the stoma. After a failed period of conservative management, examination under anaesthesia was performed and digital extraction attempted, but this was unsuccessful. Rather than surgical stoma revision, endoscopic removal was achieved. The patient improved and was discharged the following day. However, her small bowel obstruction relapsed within 48 h. She was readmitted and underwent stoma revision with no further problems.

  18. Ileostomy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... stools are looser or more watery: Drink extra fluids with electrolytes (sodium, potassium). Drinks such as Gatorade, PowerAde, or Pedialyte contain electrolytes. Drinking soda, milk, juice, or tea will help you get enough ...

  19. Ileostomy Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... After Treatment Caregivers and Family Children and Cancer End of Life Care Find Support Programs and Services in Your Area Back To Top Imagine a world free from cancer. Help make it a reality. ...

  20. Development and validation of a quality of life questionnaire for patients with colostomy or ileostomy

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Luis; Thorsen, Hanne; Juul, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    Background Quality of life of stoma patients is increasingly being addressed in clinical trials. However, the instruments used in the majority of these studies have not been validated specifically for stoma patients. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and validation of a quality-of-life instrument, "Stoma-QOL", specifically for patients with colostomy or ileostomy. Methods Potential items were formulated in English on the basis of the results of a series of semi-structured interviews with 169 adult stoma patients. The process resulted in a preliminary 37-item version, which was translated into French, German, Spanish and Danish, and administered repeatedly to 182 patients with colostomy or ileostomy. A psychometric selection of items was performed through Rasch Analysis. The measurement properties of the final questionnaire version were subsequently tested. Results The 20 items in the final questionnaire covered four domains – sleep, sexual activity, relations to family and close friends, and social relations to other than family and close friends. These items were found to define a unidimensional variable according to Rasch specifications (Infit MNSQ < 1.3). Internal consistency reliability calculated as Cronbach's alpha was 0.92, i.e., highly reliable. Spearman's correlation coefficients of scores across times of administration was >0.88 (p < 0.01), indicating a high test-retest reliability. Item calibrations by country calculated as ICC were 0.81 (0.67–0.91 95% CI), confirming cross-cultural comparability across the European countries included in the study. Conclusion Given the adequacy of the metric properties of the Stoma-QOL suggested by the psychometric analyses, this study confirms the suitability of the instrument in clinical practice and in clinical research. PMID:16219109

  1. The Effect of Colostomy and Ileostomy on Acts of Worship in the Islamic Faith.

    PubMed

    Akgül, Betül; Karadağ, Ayişe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of colostomy and ileostomy on Muslim patients' acts of worship. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. The research setting was a stoma therapy unit of a 500-bed capacity training and research hospital in Ankara, Turkey. The study sample comprised 150 patients with colostomies (40.7%) or ileostomies (59.3%); their mean age was 51.6 ± 12.9 (mean ± standard deviation), more than half (60.7%) were men, and 84.7% were married. Participants were queried about specific religious practices following ostomy surgery including those related to salat, fasting, and pilgrimage. Data were collected using forms specifically designed for this study; respondents were interviewed either face-to-face or via telephone. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the influence of a fecal ostomy on specific religious activities. Participants reported decreasing the frequency of daily and Friday prayers (25.2% and 22.7%, respectively) or stopped practicing these activities all together (12.0% and 14.0%, respectively). Respondents tended to increase the frequency of acts of absolution while reducing acts of fasting. Perceptions of cleanliness, central to performance of salat within the Islamic faith, emerged as a central concern. Ostomy surgery influences multiple religious acts practiced by Muslims. Awareness of the potential impact of a fecal ostomy on religious acts within the Islamic faith, combined with specialized education about spiritual practices delivered by the WOC nurse or a knowledgeable resource person, is strongly recommended for all persons following ostomy surgery.

  2. Diverting ileostomy during primary debulking surgery for ovarian cancer: associated factors and postoperative outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Jill H.; Suidan, Rudy S.; Zivanovic, Oliver; Gardner, Ginger J.; Sonoda, Yukio; Levine, Douglas A.; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem A; Tew, William P.; Chi, Dennis S.; Roche, Kara Long

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the use, as well as postoperative and long-term oncologic outcomes of diverting loop ileostomy (DI) during primary debulking surgery (PDS) for ovarian cancer. Methods Patients with stage II–IV ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma who underwent colon resection during PDS from 1/2005–1/2014 were identified. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed. Results Of 331 patients, 320 (97%) had stage III/IV disease and 278 (84%) had disease of high-grade serous histology. Forty-four (13%) underwent a DI. There were no significant differences in age, comorbidity index, smoking status, serum albumin, or attending surgeon between the DI and non-DI groups. Operative time (OR=1.21; 95% CI, 1.03–1.42; p=.02) and length of rectosigmoid resection (OR=1.04; 95% CI, 1.01–1.08; p=.02) were predictors of DI on multivariable analysis. The overall anastomotic leak rate was 6%. A comparison of groups (DI vs non-DI) showed no significant differences in major complications (30% vs 23%; p=.41), anastomotic leak rate (5% vs 7%; p=.60), hospital length of stay (10 vs 9 days; p=.25), readmission rate (23% vs 17%; p=.33), or interval to postoperative chemotherapy (41 vs 40 days; p=.20), respectively. Ileostomy reversal was successful in 89% of patients. Median follow-up was 52.6 months. There were no differences in median progression-free (17.9 vs 18.6 months; p=.88) and overall survival (48.7 vs 63.8 months; p=.25) between the groups. Conclusions In patients undergoing PDS, those with longer operative time and greater length of rectosigmoid resection more commonly underwent DI. DI does not appear to compromise postoperative outcomes or long-term survival. PMID:27261325

  3. Systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials comparing purse-string vs conventional linear closure of the wound following ileostomy (stoma) closure

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Muhammad Shafique; Bhatti, Muhammad I.; Miles, William FA.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article is to systematically analyse the randomized, controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of purse-string closure (PSC) of an ileostomy wound with conventional linear closure (CLC). Methods: Randomized, controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of purse-string closure vs conventional linear closure (CLC) of ileostomy wound in patients undergoing ileostomy closure were analysed using RevMan®, and the combined outcomes were expressed as risk ratio (RR) and standardized mean difference (SMD). Results: Three randomized, controlled trials, recruiting 206 patients, were retrieved from medical electronic databases. There were 105 patients in the PSC group and 101 patients in the CLC group. There was no heterogeneity among included trials. Duration of operation (SMD: −0.18; 95% CI: −0.45, 0.09; z = 1.28; P < 0.20) and length of hospital stay (SMD: 0.01; 95% CI: −0.26, 0.28; z = 0.07; P < 0.95) was statistically similar following both approaches of ileostomy wound closure. The risk of surgical site infection (OR, 0.10; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.33; z = 3.78; P < 0.0001) was significantly reduced when ileostomy wound was closed using PSC technique. Conclusion: PSC technique for ileostomy wound is associated with a reduced risk of surgical site infection apparently without influencing the duration of operation and length of hospital stay. PMID:25011379

  4. The role of single-shot metronidazole in the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection following ileostomy reversal surgery.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Roland; Robinson, Paul; Rangarajan, Karan; Scott, Sophie; Angco, Laura

    2017-05-01

    Symptomatic infection with Clostridium difficile is strongly linked to antibiotic use and rates are higher for colorectal surgery. In February 2015, trust policy for antibiotic prophylaxis of ileostomy reversal surgery was changed from three doses of metronidazole plus cefuroxime to single-dose metronidazole, in a bid to reduce rates of Clostridium difficile infection. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single, large hospital trust between February 2014 and February 2016, before and after change in antimicrobial policy. Theatre data, clinical notes and pathology results were all reviewed. Outcome data, patient age, gender, length of operation and hospital stay were extracted. One hundred three patients underwent ileostomy reversal surgery between February 2014 and February 2015. All received cefuroxime together with metronidazole at induction of anaesthesia followed by two further post-operative doses as operative prophylaxis. Ninety-six patients underwent ileostomy reversal surgery between February 2015 and February 2016. All received single-dose metronidazole at induction as prophylaxis. Post-operative diarrhoea was significantly reduced in patients given single-dose metronidazole compared with patients managed with multiple dose, dual antibiotic therapy (32 vs 12.5%, P 0.001). Rates of CDI were also significantly reduced in patients given single-dose metronidazole (6.8 vs 1%, P 0.038). Single-dose, pre-operative metronidazole is effective at reducing post-operative diarrhoea and CDI in ileostomy reversal surgery compared with multiple-dose cefuroxime plus metronidazole. Metronidazole may be effective as a prophylactic antibiotic against CDI in colonic surgery.

  5. Is the Use of a Support Bridge Beneficial for Preventing Stomal Retraction After Loop Ileostomy? A Prospective Nonrandomized Study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Heung-Kwon; Han, Eon Chul; Song, Yoon Suk; Seo, Mi Sun; Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo

    2015-01-01

    A temporary defunctioning loop ileostomy is frequently created during low colorectal or coloanal anastomosis to prevent peritoneal sepsis associated with anastomotic leakage. We investigated whether routine support bridge placement prevents stoma retraction after the formation of a loop ileostomy. Prospective, nonrandomized trial. The study sample comprised 32 consecutive patients who underwent defunctioning loop ileostomy at an academic tertiary care center in Seoul Korea from February to September 2010. Patients were nonrandomly allocated to "no bridge," "short-term bridge" (1 week), and "long-term bridge" (3 weeks) groups based on the surgeon's clinical judgment. Group differences in stoma height changes over time were analyzed. Subjects' mean age was 59.5 (range: 43-82) years, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.2:1.0. The mean heights of the stoma on postoperative day 2 and postoperative month 3, respectively, were 1.07 ± 0.16 cm (mean ± SD) and 0.81 ± 0.17 cm in the no-bridge group, 1.70 ± 0.29 cm and 1.21 ± 0.18 cm in the short-term bridge group, and 1.18 ± 0.16 cm and 1.01 ± 0.20 cm in the long-term bridge group. The changes in the stoma height 3 months after the surgery showed no statistically significant differences among the groups (P = .430). Stoma Quality of Life scores at 3 weeks (47.4 vs 46.1; P = .730) were similar for patients with and without bridges. However, a significantly greater number of patients with bridges reported difficulty with pouch changes compared to those without bridges (72.7% vs 14.3%; P = .002). Routine use of support bridges during loop ileostomy is unnecessary and inconvenient to patients. If a support bridge must be used, it can be removed early.

  6. Necessity of subcutaneous suction drains in ileostomy reversal (DRASTAR)-a randomized, controlled bi-centered trial.

    PubMed

    Lauscher, J C; Schneider, V; Lee, L D; Stroux, A; Buhr, H J; Kreis, M E; Ritz, J P

    2016-06-01

    Data regarding length of hospital stay of patients undergoing ileostomy reversal are very heterogeneous. There are many factors that may have an influence on the length of postoperative hospital stay, such as postoperative wound infections. One potential strategy to reduce their incidence and to decrease hospital stay is to insert subcutaneous suction drains. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the insertion of subcutaneous suction drains on hospital stay and postoperative wound infections in ileostomy reversal. Risk factors for postoperative wound infection were determined. This is a randomized controlled two-center non-inferiority trial with two parallel groups. The total length of hospital stay as primary endpoint and the occurrence of a surgical site infection, the colonization of the abdominal wall with bacteria, and the occurrence of hematomas/seromas as secondary endpoints were monitored. One hundred eighteen patients with elective ileostomy reversal were included. Fifty-nine patients were randomly assigned to insertion of a subcutaneous suction drain, and 59 patients were randomly assigned to receive no drain. After 3 months of follow-up, 50 patients in the group with drain and 53 patients in the group without drain could be analyzed. Median total length of hospital stay was 8 days in the SD group and 9 days in the group without SD (p = 0.17). Fourteen percent of patients with SD and 17 % without SD developed SSI, p = 0.68. Multivariate analysis revealed anemia (p < 0.01), intraoperative bowel perforation (p = 0.02) and resident (p = 0.04) or fellow (p = 0.048) performing the operation as risk factors for SSI. This trial shows that the omission of subcutaneous suction drains is not inferior to the use of subcutaneous suction drains after ileostomy reversal in terms of length of hospital stay, surgical site infections, and hematomas/seromas.

  7. Negative-Pressure Therapy to Reduce the Risk of Wound Infection Following Diverting Loop Ileostomy Reversal: An Initial Study.

    PubMed

    Cantero, Ramon; Rubio-Perez, Ines; Leon, Miguel; Alvarez, Mario; Diaz, Beatriz; Herrera, Ana; Diaz-Dominguez, Joaquin; Rodriguez-Montes, Jose Antonio

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate if the application of a negative-pressure therapy system (Prevena Incision Management System, Kinetics Concepts Inc, [KCI] an Acelity Company, San Antonio, Texas) on ileostomy-closure surgical wounds would reduce surgical site infections (SSIs) in comparison with conventional closure and dressing. Prospective interventional pilot study. La Paz University Hospital, tertiary care academic hospital in Madrid, Spain. The Prevena device was applied on the wounds of 17 consecutive patients undergoing ileostomy reversal. Control subjects were 43 patients undergoing the same procedure, in which conventional dressings were used for the wound. The device was applied on the wound immediately after surgery (under sterile conditions) and maintained for 5 to 7 days. Patients were evaluated daily, and on the seventh postoperative day, the device was removed and wounds carefully inspected. Another evaluation was performed a month after the surgical intervention in the outpatient clinic. The primary end point of the study was the detection of SSI (defined according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions). Other intervention-related complications were also registered. There were no significant differences in demographic variables between groups. In the control group, 9 patients (21%) presented SSI, with statistical significance (P < .038) when compared with the intervention group (0%). There were no complications associated with the application of the Prevena device. Other complications (for example, ileus or obstruction) occurred in 30% of patients. The negative-pressure Prevena System was safe and easy to use and may prevent SSIs in dirty wounds, such as those from ileostomy closure.

  8. Should routine contrast study be a norm before stoma reversal? A retrospective study of patients with temporary ileostomy.

    PubMed

    Saini, Pradeep; Gupta, Praanjal; Sharma, Ashish; Agarwal, Nitin; Kaur, Navneet; Gupta, Arun

    2013-04-01

    In the developed nations, temporary ileostomies are usually made in order to protect a distal anastomosis after cancer surgery. However, in India and the neighbouring countries ileal perforation is the most common indication for creating a temporary ileostomy after emergency laparotomy. It seems logical to perform a contrast study when a stoma that was made to protect a bowel anastomosis is being reversed in order to check for anastomosis healing, leak or stenosis. Although we do not know precisely when and why we started this practice, it is customary at our institute to do a contrast study before reversal of a temporary ileostomy. At some institutes a routine contrast study is never done. The utility of this practice has not previously been studied at our institute. This study tries to correlate the surgeon's clinical and operative findings with the contrast study report in order to see if it may be reasonable to reverse the stoma without a routine contrast study in selected patients where the surgeon has clearly documented absence of any gross disease in the distal bowel and who have had an uneventful post-operative period. To our knowledge this appears to be the first such attempt from our country.

  9. Split ileostomy and ileocolostomy for Crohn's disease of the colon and ulcerative colitis: a 20 year survey.

    PubMed Central

    Harper, P H; Truelove, S C; Lee, E C; Kettlewell, M G; Jewell, D P

    1983-01-01

    The clinical course of 140 patients who have had a split ileostomy for ulcerative colitis or colonic Crohn's disease over a 20 year period is reported. In 37 patients with ulcerative colitis there was no sustained improvement. In the 102 patients with Crohn's disease there was an immediate clinical improvement in 95, which was sustained in 65. Thirty patients have subsequently required a proctocolectomy for persistent inflammation, and 28 are still defunctioned. Bowel continuity was restored after 61 split ileostomies and in 44 patients intestinal continuity remains intact at the present time (mean follow up since closure = 62.5 months, range 0-231 months). It is concluded that a split ileostomy is a safe conservative operation producing at least temporary improvement in severely ill and malnourished patients with Crohn's colitis, and that if a subsequent resection becomes necessary it may be less extensive than was thought applicable at the initial operation. In 27 patients a resection has not been required. PMID:6852621

  10. A Modified Spontaneously Closed Defunctioning Tube Ileostomy After Anterior Resection of the Rectum for Rectal Cancer with a Low Colorectal Anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qin-Song; Hua, Han-Ju; Cheng, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Wei-Bing; Chen, Wen-Bin; Xu, Jia-He; Lin, Jian-Jiang

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce a new technique of modified spontaneously closed defunctioning tube ileostomy after anterior resection of the rectum for rectal cancer with a low colorectal anastomosis. Patients with rectal cancer who underwent anterior resection of rectum with a low colorectal anastomosis and chose a modified defunctioning tube ileostomy between March 2012 and August 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Data on the success of the operation procedures, post-operative hospital stay, and post-operative tube ileostomy-related complications were analyzed. One hundred fifty-two patients (87 males and 65 females; 57.1 ± 17.4 years) undergoing the modified defunctioning tube ileostomy after anterior resection for rectal cancer were included. The post-operative hospital stay was 11.9 ± 3.2 days. The tube was removed on days 22.6 ± 4.1 after operation and the ileostomy wound closed spontaneously within 13.1 ± 1.9 days. Twenty-five patients felt tube-associated pain or discomfort, which was relieved after a period of adaptation and appropriate tube adjustment. Nine patients suffered from tube blockage and were treated successfully with saline irrigation. Two patients had intestinal obstruction, which was resolved with conservative treatment. Three patients developed leakage of the distal anastomosis: two were successfully treated with conservative measures and the other completely recovered after reoperation. The modified spontaneously closed defunctioning tube ileostomy appears efficacious and safe. This technique may be used to protect the distal anastomosis and simultaneously decrease the ileostomy complications, and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with stoma takedown.

  11. Protection of low rectal anastomosis with a new tube ileostomy using a biofragmentable anastomosis ring

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liming; Huang, Qi; Wang, Jialiang; Chen, Quanning; Lin, Rui; Ge, Bujun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A temporarily defunctioning stoma, while effective at reducing symptomatic anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection (LAR) of rectal cancer, and its subsequent closure, is associated with significant morbidity. Here, we devised a new tube ileostomy using a biofragmentable anastomosis ring (TIB) with no need for reversal. This is a retrospective cohort study. From June 2011 to March 2015, TIBs were performed on 31 consecutive patients with mid- or low-rectal cancer who underwent elective laparoscopic LARs. From January 2008 to May 2011, 25 similarly diseased patients underwent elective laparoscopic LARs and conventional loop ileostomy (LI) and were included as controls. All of the anastomotic sites were within 6 cm of the anal verge. Demographic, clinical feature, and operative data were recorded. The demographic features of both groups were similar. The TIB mean surgical duration was significantly lower than in the LI group (215 ± 28 vs 245 ± 54 min, P = 0.010). Because of readmission for stoma closure, the total hospital stay of the LI group was longer than that of the TIB group (38.1 ± 26.5 vs 19.1 ± 7.9 days, respectively, P = 0.002). Ileal content was completely diverted by TIB for 13.7 ± 2.1 (range, 10–19) days postoperatively. The drainage tube was removed on postoperative day 27.8 ± 6.9 (range, 20–44), and the mean continued duration of the discharge tract, before fistula healing, was 4.5 ± 1.9 (range, 2–10) days. Postoperative complications of the 2 modalities were not significant. In the TIB group, 1 rectovaginal fistula occurred 30 days postsurgery. In the LI group, 1 rectovaginal fistula occurred 3 months after stoma closure. Both complications were treated with transverse colostomy. No major TIB associated complications were observed in the present study. TIB is a safe, feasible, effective, but time-limited diversion technique, which may reduce symptomatic anastomosis leakage after LAR

  12. In a select group of patients meeting strict clinical criteria and undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, the omission of a diverting ileostomy offers cost savings to the hospital.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Myles R; Kiran, Ravi P; Remzi, Feza H; Church, James; Fazio, Victor W

    2010-06-01

    Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the standard care for the majority of patients with ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis requiring surgery. The aim of this study is to determine whether the omission of an ileostomy in patients undergoing ileal pouch surgery offers cost savings to the hospital. Patients who underwent open ileal pouch-anal anastomosis between 2000 and 2007 were identified. They were grouped according to the absence or presence of an ileostomy at the time of their surgery. Direct costs were calculated from the hospital's accounting database. Costs analyzed included those from the index surgery, ileostomy closure, and 6-month complications. Cost data were available for 835 patients undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Seven hundred fifteen (86%) had a diverting ileostomy, and the ileostomy was omitted in 120 (14%). Patients without an ileostomy had a longer length of stay (8.7 vs 6.0 days; P < .001) and a 15% greater cost (P < .001) at the time of index surgery than did those with an ileostomy. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in costs related to complications. The total costs, including ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, ileostomy closure, and complications, were 25% greater in the ileostomy group than in the group who had the ileostomy omitted at the index surgery ($9176 (+/- 6559) vs $11,451 (+/- 8791); P < .001). The above data shows that in a select group of patients meeting well-defined clinical criteria, the omission of a diverting ileostomy will provide significant cost savings for the hospital.

  13. Surgical Audit of Patients with Ileal Perforations Requiring Ileostomy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Hemkant; Pandey, Siddharth; Sheoran, Kapil Dev; Marwah, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Ileal perforation peritonitis is a frequently encountered surgical emergency in the developing countries. The choice of a procedure for source control depends on the patient condition as well as the surgeon preference. Material and Methods. This was a prospective observational study including 41 patients presenting with perforation peritonitis due to ileal perforation and managed with ileostomy. Demographic profile and operative findings in terms of number of perforations, site, and size of perforation along with histopathological findings of all the cases were recorded. Results. The majority of patients were male. Pain abdomen and fever were the most common presenting complaints. Body mass index of the patients was in the range of 15.4–25.3 while comorbidities were present in 43% cases. Mean duration of preoperative resuscitation was 14.73 + 13.77 hours. Operative findings showed that 78% patients had a single perforation; most perforations were 0.6–1 cm in size and within 15 cm proximal to ileocecal junction. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in 29.2% patients. On histopathological examination, nonspecific perforations followed by typhoid and tubercular perforations respectively were the most common. Conclusion. Patients with ileal perforations are routinely seen in surgical emergencies and their demography, clinical profile, and intraoperative findings may guide the choice of procedure to be performed. PMID:26247059

  14. Bioavailability of chlorogenic acids following acute ingestion of coffee by humans with an ileostomy.

    PubMed

    Stalmach, Angélique; Steiling, Heike; Williamson, Gary; Crozier, Alan

    2010-09-01

    The intestinal absorption and metabolism of 385 micromol chlorogenic acids following a single intake of 200 mL of instant coffee by human volunteers with an ileostomy was investigated. HPLC-MS(3) analysis of 0-24h post-ingestion ileal effluent revealed the presence of 274+/-28 micromol of chlorogenic acids and their metabolites accounting for 71+/-7% of intake. Of the compounds recovered, 78% comprised parent compounds initially present in the coffee, and 22% were metabolites including free and sulfated caffeic and ferulic acids. Over a 24h period after ingestion of the coffee, excretion of chlorogenic acid metabolites in urine accounted for 8+/-1% of intake, the main compounds being ferulic acid-4-O-sulfate, caffeic acid-3-O-sulfate, isoferulic acid-3-O-glucuronide and dihydrocaffeic acid-3-O-sulfate. In contrast, after drinking a similar coffee, urinary excretion by humans with an intact colon corresponded to 29+/-4% of chlorogenic acid intake. This difference was due to the excretion of higher levels of dihydroferulic acid and feruloylglycine together with sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of dihydrocaffeic and dihydroferulic acids. This highlights the importance of colonic metabolism. Comparison of the data obtained in the current study with that of Stalmach et al. facilitated elucidation of the pathways involved in post-ingestion metabolism of chlorogenic acids and also helped distinguish between compounds absorbed in the small and the large intestine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Can Postoperative Nutrition be Favourably Maintained by Oral Diet in Patients with Emergency Temporary Ileostomy? A Tertiary Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Debabrata; Dey, Ramprasad; Choudhury, Krishnangshu Bhanja; Das, Gautam; Bhattacharya, Ujjwal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Temporary ileostomy is an emergency procedure performed in cases having septic peritonitis in presence of perforation or obstruction or gangrene of small intestine. These patients usually suffer from gross malnutrition following surgery. Aim To measure nutritional status of patients with emergency temporary ileostomy and to determine whether their postoperative nutrition can be favourably maintained by oral diet alone. Materials and Methods Sixty patients were enrolled for the study on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria during the study period from January 2012 to December 2013. Oral feeding was started as soon as ileostomy started functioning and patients expressed hunger, about 48-72 hours postoperatively. An individualized diet chart was formulated for each patient using Harris Benedict Equation. Nutritional assessment was done on 1) 1st day of oral feeding, 2) After 7 days of oral feeding, 3). After three months of oral feeding. Nutritional parameters (anthropometric, biochemical) employed were tabulated and statistically analysed with SPSS v 17, Chicago. Results Out of 60 patients, 36 males and 24 females were enrolled in the study. The patients were in the age group of 20-60 years with a mean age of 45 years. After 7 days of oral nutrition the nutritional status deteriorated with a significant decrease in body weight (p<0.001) and serum haemoglobin (p <0.001). However, at the end of the study, the patients had their nutritional status restored satisfactorily with normalization of basic parameters like bodyweight, haemoglobin and serum albumin (p<0.001). Conclusion Proper dietary advice and oral nutrition were found to be sufficient for gradual restoration and maintenance of satisfactory nutritional status in the postoperative period. PMID:26816941

  16. Study Protocol Evaluating the Use of Bowel Stimulation Before Loop Ileostomy Closure to Reduce Postoperative Ileus: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Garfinkle, Richard; Trabulsi, Nora; Morin, Nancy; Phang, Terry; Liberman, Sender; Feldman, Liane; Fried, Gerald; Boutros, Marylise

    2017-05-12

    Postoperative ileus is the most commonly observed morbidity following ileostomy closure. Studies have demonstrated that the defunctionalized bowel of a loop ileostomy undergoes a series of functional and structural changes, such as atrophy of the intestinal villi and muscular layers, which may contribute to ileus. A single-center study in Spain demonstrated that preoperative bowel stimulation via the distal limb of the loop ileostomy decreased postoperative ileus, length of stay, and time to gastrointestinal function. A multicenter randomized controlled trial involving patients from Canadian institutions was designed to evaluate the effect of preoperative bowel stimulation before ileostomy closure on postoperative ileus. Stimulation will include canalizing the distal limb of the ileostomy loop with an 18Fr Foley catheter and infusing it with a solution of 500mL of normal saline mixed with 30g of a thickening-agent (Nestle© Thicken-Up©). This will be performed 10 times over the three weeks prior to ileostomy closure on an outpatient clinic setting by a trained Enterostomal Therapy nurse. Surgeons and the treating surgical team will be blinded to their patient's group allocation. Data regarding patient demographics, operative, and postoperative variables will be collected prospectively. Primary outcome will be postoperative ileus, defined as an intolerance to oral food in the absence of clinical or radiological signs of obstruction, that either a) requires nasogastric tube insertion; or b) is associated with 2 of the following: nausea/vomiting, abdominal distension, and the absence of flatus, on or after post-operative day 3. Secondary outcomes will include length of stay, time to tolerating a regular diet, time to first passage of flatus or stool, and overall morbidity. A cost-analysis will be performed to compare the costs of conventional care to conventional care plus preoperative stimulation. This manuscript discusses the potential benefits of preoperative

  17. Loop Ileostomy Closure as an Overnight Procedure: Institutional Comparison With the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project Data Set.

    PubMed

    Berger, Nicholas G; Chou, Raymond; Toy, Elliot S; Ludwig, Kirk A; Ridolfi, Timothy J; Peterson, Carrie Y

    2017-08-01

    Enhanced recovery pathways have decreased length of stay after colorectal surgery. Loop ileostomy closure remains a challenge, because patients experience high readmission rates, and validation of enhanced recovery pathways has not been demonstrated. This study examined a protocol whereby patients were discharged on the first postoperative day and instructed to advance their diet at home with close telephone follow-up. The hypothesis was that patients can be safely discharged the day after loop closure, leading to shorter length of stay without increased rates of readmission or complications. Patients undergoing loop ileostomy closure were queried from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project and compared with a single institution (2012-2015). Length of stay, 30-day readmission, and 30-day morbidity data were analyzed. The study was conducted at a tertiary university department. The study includes 1602 patients: 1517 from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database and 85 from a single institution. Length of stay and readmission rates were measured. Median length of stay was less at the single institution compared with control (2 vs 4 d; p < 0.001). Thirty-day readmission (15.3% vs 10.4%; p = 0.15) and overall 30-day complications (15.3% vs 16.7%; p = 0.73) were similar between cohorts. Estimated adjusted length of stay was less in the single institution (2.93 vs 5.58 d; p < 0.0001). There was no difference in the odds of readmission (p = 0.22). The main limitations of this study include its retrospective nature and limitations of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Next-day discharge with protocoled diet advancement and telephone follow-up is acceptable after loop ileostomy closure. Patients can benefit from decreased length of stay without an increase in readmission or complications. This has the potential to change the practice of postoperative management of loop ileostomy closure, as

  18. Resection and primary anastomosis without diverting ileostomy for left colon emergencies: is it a safe procedure?

    PubMed

    Jiménez Fuertes, Montiel; Costa Navarro, David

    2012-05-01

    Large-bowel obstruction and perforation are still frequently occurring entities for the acute care surgeon. In these cases, Hartmann's procedure is the most commonly used surgical technique. However, recent papers demonstrate that colon resection and primary anastomosis (RPA) in the emergency setting is a safe and feasible procedure. We present our series of left colon resection and primary anastomosis procedures from Torrevieja Hospital (Alicante, Spain), performed without bowel irrigation or a diverting ileostomy. Thirty-two RPA procedures were performed in emergency settings for perforation or obstruction, or both, during an 18-month period. The following data were prospectively collected: age, gender, nationality, diagnoses, ASA score, body mass index (BMI), POSSUM score (Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enumeration of Mortality and morbidity), and the score according to the Hinchey classification. Furthermore, duration of the operation, length of postoperative hospital stay, and mortality and morbidity data were recorded. Sixteen of these patients were diagnosed with acute diverticulitis, 14 patients with neoplasm (of which 9 cases had obstruction, 2 cases had perforation, and 3 cases had both), and foreign body perforation in the remaining 2 cases. The mean hospital stay was 7.8 (range, 4-10) days. The physiological POSSUM score was 24.4 (range, 15-39), and the surgical POSSUM score was 19.8 (range, 16-24). None of the patients died (0% mortality). Seven patients developed some kind of complication (21.9%), all of which were managed conservatively. The results of this study suggest that RPA for left colon obstruction and perforation in emergency settings can be safely performed in certain surgical conditions.

  19. Morbidity Associated with Diverting Loop Ileostomies: Weighing Diversion in Rectosigmoid Resection.

    PubMed

    Belkin, Nathan; Bordeianou, Liliana G; Shellito, Paul C; Hawkins, Alexander T

    2017-07-01

    Anterior resection with primary anastomosis is the procedure of choice for patients with rectosigmoid cancers with good sphincter function. Surgeons may perform an associated diverting loop ileostomy (DLI) to minimize the likelihood and/or the severity of an anastomotic leak. To examine the morbidity of DLIs, we performed a review of a prospectively maintained database. Participants included all patients at the Massachusetts General Hospital who underwent anterior resection from January 2013 to July 2015 for rectosigmoid cancers and who subsequently underwent adjuvant chemotherapy. The primary outcome was time to start of adjuvant chemotherapy. Secondary outcomes included length of hospitalization, perioperative complications, and 60-day postoperative complications. Inclusion criteria were met in 57 patients and DLI was performed in 21 (37%). The DLI group had higher estimated blood loss (431.7 vs 192.1 mL, P = 0.03) and a longer operation time (3.7 vs 2.3 hours, P = 0.0007). The DLI group took over a week longer to start adjuvant chemotherapy than the non-DLI group (median time to chemo: 43 vs 34 days, P = 0.002). Postoperatively, DLI was associated with a longer hospitalization (6.7 vs 3.1 days, P = 0.0003), more perioperative complications (57.1% vs 13.9%, P = 0.0006), and more 60-day readmissions or emergency department visits (38.1% vs 5.6%, P = 0.002). Ostomies are associated with appreciable morbidity. In turn, they do not eliminate postoperative complications. Surgeons should closely consider ostomy morbidity in rectosigmoid resection and institute a proactive approach toward identification and prevention of complications.

  20. Promising results after endoscopic vacuum treatment of anastomotic leakage following resection of rectal cancer with ileostomy.

    PubMed

    Nerup, Nikolaj; Johansen, John Lykkegaard; Alkhefagie, Ghalib Ali Abod; Maina, Pierre; Jensen, Kenneth Højsgaard

    2013-04-01

    In colorectal surgery, the most feared complication is anastomotic leakage (AL), which is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this study, we focus on treatment of perianastomotic abscess following AL after low anterior resection (LAR) of rectal cancer. In the literature, conservative irrigation regimes are reported to perdure for months and some even years and to be associated with a poor stoma closure rate. In the present paper, we evaluated endoscopic vacuum treatment of the perianastomotic abscess. Patients who had LAR due to rectal cancer with total mesorectal excision (TME) performed in Slagelse and Næstved Hospitals in the 2008-2012 (1st February) period were identified in the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database. We included patients who had AL and who did not require emergency reoperation and were treated with endoscopic vacuum in the study period. Patients who initiated treatment more than one month after the leakage were excluded. All patients had primary ileostomy. A total of 13 patients were included. All patients had successful closure of the perianastomotic abscess for a median of 18 (3-40) days in a median of eight (1-18) sessions. The median length of hospital stay was 25 (7-39) days. Mortality was zero, and the stoma closure rate was 12/13 (97%). Our data support the positive findings previously reported by other studies. Endoscopic vacuum treatment seems to be a safe approach for selected patients in the treatment of perianastomotic abscess after LAR with TME of rectal cancer. not relevant. not relevant.

  1. Primary adenocarcinoma in the ileostomy of a woman with familial adenomatous polyposis: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Ileal adenomas associated with familial adenomatous polyposis are a common finding. Many recent studies following panproctocolectomy for familial adenomatous polyposis have confirmed the presence of multiple ileal adenomas and an increase in ileal mucosal proliferation. In this study, we present a case of invasive adenocarcinoma arising in a severely dysplastic tubulovillous adenoma in the ileostomy of a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis; also, we present a literature review. To the best of our knowledge, only very few cases have been reported in the literature. Case presentation A 59-year-old Caucasian woman developed a primary adenocarcinoma in her ileostomy, complicating the stoma 31 years after its formation. Conclusions Primary adenocarcinoma following panproctocolectomy for familial adenomatous polyposis is a very rare clinical entity. The risk of developing adenocarcinoma in those patients increases with time. Patient education and medical examination of the stoma are of paramount importance and should be implemented early with the need of designing a surveillance protocol for early detection and management of ileal adenomas, especially in longstanding stomas. PMID:22129430

  2. Small-bowel absorption of D-tagatose and related effects on carbohydrate digestibility: an ileostomy study.

    PubMed

    Normén, L; Laerke, H N; Jensen, B B; Langkilde, A M; Andersson, H

    2001-01-01

    The ketohexose D-tagatose is a new sweetener with a low energy content. This low energy content may be due to either low absorption of the D-tagatose or decreased absorption of other nutrients. The aims of this study were to measure the excretion of D-tagatose from the human small bowel, to calculate the apparent absorption of D-tagatose, and to study the effects of D-tagatose on the small-bowel excretion of other carbohydrates. A controlled diet was served for 2 periods of 2 d during 3 consecutive weeks to 6 ileostomy subjects. In one of the periods, 15 g D-tagatose was added to the diet daily. Duplicate portions of the diet and ileostomy effluents were freeze-dried and analyzed to calculate the apparent net absorption of D-tagatose and carbohydrates. Median D-tagatose excretion was 19% (range: 12-31%), which corresponded to a calculated apparent absorption of 81% (69-88%). Of the total amount of D-tagatose excreted [2.8 g (1.7-4.4 g)], 60% (8-88%) was excreted within 3 h. Between 3 and 5 h, 32% (11-82%) was excreted. Excretion of wet matter increased by 41% (24-52%) with D-tagatose ingestion. Sucrose and D-glucose excretion increased to a small extent, whereas no significant changes were found in the excretion of dry matter, energy, starch, or D-fructose. The apparent absorption of 15 g D-tagatose/d was 81%. D-Tagatose had only a minor influence on the apparent absorption of other nutrients.

  3. Low zinc status and absorption exist in infants with jejunostomies or ileostomies which persists after intestinal repair.

    PubMed

    Balay, Kimberly S; Hawthorne, Keli M; Hicks, Penni D; Chen, Zhensheng; Griffin, Ian J; Abrams, Steven A

    2012-09-01

    There is very little data regarding trace mineral nutrition in infants with small intestinal ostomies. Here we evaluated 14 infants with jejunal or ileal ostomies to measure their zinc absorption and retention and biochemical zinc and copper status. Zinc absorption was measured using a dual-tracer stable isotope technique at two different time points when possible. The first study was conducted when the subject was receiving maximal tolerated feeds enterally while the ostomy remained in place. A second study was performed as soon as feasible after full feeds were achieved after intestinal repair. We found biochemical evidence of deficiencies of both zinc and copper in infants with small intestinal ostomies at both time points. Fractional zinc absorption with an ostomy in place was 10.9% ± 5.3%. After reanastamosis, fractional zinc absorption was 9.4% ± 5.7%. Net zinc balance was negative prior to reanastamosis. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that infants with a jejunostomy or ileostomy are at high risk for zinc and copper deficiency before and after intestinal reanastamosis. Additional supplementation, especially of zinc, should be considered during this time period.

  4. Low Zinc Status and Absorption Exist in Infants with Jejunostomies or Ileostomies Which Persists after Intestinal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Balay, Kimberly S.; Hawthorne, Keli M.; Hicks, Penni D.; Chen, Zhensheng; Griffin, Ian J.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    There is very little data regarding trace mineral nutrition in infants with small intestinal ostomies. Here we evaluated 14 infants with jejunal or ileal ostomies to measure their zinc absorption and retention and biochemical zinc and copper status. Zinc absorption was measured using a dual-tracer stable isotope technique at two different time points when possible. The first study was conducted when the subject was receiving maximal tolerated feeds enterally while the ostomy remained in place. A second study was performed as soon as feasible after full feeds were achieved after intestinal repair. We found biochemical evidence of deficiencies of both zinc and copper in infants with small intestinal ostomies at both time points. Fractional zinc absorption with an ostomy in place was 10.9% ± 5.3%. After reanastamosis, fractional zinc absorption was 9.4% ± 5.7%. Net zinc balance was negative prior to reanastamosis. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that infants with a jejunostomy or ileostomy are at high risk for zinc and copper deficiency before and after intestinal reanastamosis. Additional supplementation, especially of zinc, should be considered during this time period. PMID:23112915

  5. Total body sodium depletion and poor weight gain in children and young adults with an ileostomy: a case series.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Megan; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Harris, Mary Beth

    2014-06-01

    Patients with high-output small bowel ostomies are at risk for total body sodium depletion (TBSD), defined as a urine sodium level <10 mmol/L. Failure to thrive (FTT) as a consequence of TBSD has been reported in neonates with ileostomies; however, this has not been well described in older children. The records of all children beyond the age of infancy with a small bowel ostomy cared for in our Children's Intestinal Rehabilitation Program from 2010-2012 were reviewed. Four patients between the ages of 18 months and 19 years were identified as having TBSD. All 4 patients experienced unintentional weight loss, despite adequate energy intake based on calculated needs, which was associated with a urine sodium level ≤10 mmol/L. With the supplementation of sodium, either enteral or intravenous, all patients demonstrated improved weight gain and correction of TBSD. The following cases suggest that the relationship between TBSD and FTT may extend well beyond the neonatal period and possibly into adulthood. We advise that patients of all ages with high stoma output have routine urine sodium levels checked, particularly in the setting of weight loss or poor gain. Furthermore, instances of TBSD should be treated with sodium supplementation. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between TBSD and FTT and to establish intervention guidelines.

  6. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Liver Resection for Colorectal Metastasis through Stoma Site at Time of Reversal of Diversion Ileostomy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Røsok, Bård I; Edwin, Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgical techniques for liver tumors are gaining increased acceptance as an alternative to traditional resections by laparotomy. In this article we describe a laparoscopic liver resection of a metastatic lesion in a patient primarily operated for colorectal cancer. The resection was conducted as a single port procedure through the stoma aperture at time of reversal of the diversion ileostomy. Sigle incision liver resections may be less traumatic than conventional laparoscopy and could be applied in selected patients with both benign and malignant liver tumors.

  7. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Liver Resection for Colorectal Metastasis through Stoma Site at Time of Reversal of Diversion Ileostomy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Røsok, Bård I.; Edwin, Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgical techniques for liver tumors are gaining increased acceptance as an alternative to traditional resections by laparotomy. In this article we describe a laparoscopic liver resection of a metastatic lesion in a patient primarily operated for colorectal cancer. The resection was conducted as a single port procedure through the stoma aperture at time of reversal of the diversion ileostomy. Sigle incision liver resections may be less traumatic than conventional laparoscopy and could be applied in selected patients with both benign and malignant liver tumors. PMID:22091359

  8. Proctocolectomy for colorectal cancer--is the ileal pouch anal anastomosis a safe alternative to permanent ileostomy?

    PubMed

    Snelgrove, Ryan; Brown, Carl J; O'Connor, Brenda I; Huang, Harden; Victor, J Charles; Gryfe, Robert; MacRae, Helen; Cohen, Zane; McLeod, Robin S

    2014-12-01

    Ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the procedure of choice in patients requiring surgery for ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). There are few data on reconstruction with the IPAA in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). This study assessed the outcomes of the IPAA compared to proctocolectomy and permanent ileostomy (PI) on these patients. Between 1983 and 2013, over 2800 patients with CRC have been treated at the Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH). Demographic, surgical, pathological, and outcome data for all patients have been maintained in a database-73 patients were treated for CRC with proctocolectomy: 39 patients with IPAA and 34 patients with PI. Clinical features, pathologic findings, and survival outcomes were compared between these groups. Each group was similar with respect to gender, stage, and histologic grade. Patients undergoing IPAA were significantly younger. The diagnosis leading to proctocolectomy was more commonly UC or FAP in patients treated with IPAA (39/39 vs. 23/34, p = 0.001). Rectal cancer subgroups were similar in age, sex, TNM stage, T-stage, height of tumor, and histologic grade. There was no significant difference in overall or disease free survival between groups for colon or rectal primaries. Analysis using the Cochran-Armitage trend test suggests that utilization of IPAA has increased over time (p = 0.002). The IPAA is a viable and safe option to select for patients who would otherwise require PI. Increased experience and improved outcomes following IPAA has led to its more liberal use in selected patients.

  9. Vitamin A equivalency and apparent absorption of beta-carotene in ileostomy subjects using a dual-isotope dilution technique.

    PubMed

    Van Loo-Bouwman, Carolien A; Naber, Ton H J; van Breemen, Richard B; Zhu, Dongwei; Dicke, Heleen; Siebelink, Els; Hulshof, Paul J M; Russel, Frans G M; Schaafsma, Gertjan; West, Clive E

    2010-06-01

    The objective was to quantify the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in two diets using a dual-isotope dilution technique and the apparent beta-carotene absorption as measured by the oral-faecal balance technique. Seventeen healthy adults with an ileostomy completed the 4-week diet-controlled, cross-over intervention study. Each subject followed both diets for 2 weeks: a diet containing vegetables low in beta-carotene content with supplemental beta-carotene in salad dressing oil ('oil diet'; mean beta-carotene intake 3.1 mg/d) and a diet containing vegetables and fruits high in beta-carotene content ('mixed diet'; mean beta-carotene intake 7.6 mg/d). Daily each subject consumed a mean of 190 microg [13C10]beta-carotene and 195 microg [13C10]retinyl palmitate in oil capsules. The vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene was calculated as the dose-corrected ratio of [13C5]retinol to [13C10]retinol in serum. Apparent absorption of beta-carotene was determined with oral-faecal balance. Isotopic data quantified a vitamin A equivalency of [13C10]beta-carotene in oil of 3.6:1 (95 % CI 2.8, 4.6) regardless of dietary matrices differences. The apparent absorption of (labelled and dietary) beta-carotene from the 'oil diet' (30 %) was 1.9-fold higher than from the 'mixed diet' (16 %). This extrinsic labelling technique can measure precisely the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in oil capsules, but it does not represent the effect of different dietary matrices.

  10. Body composition in patients with an ileostomy and inflammatory bowel disease: validation of bio-electric impedance spectroscopy (BIS).

    PubMed

    Carlsson, E; Bosaeus, I; Nordgren, S

    2002-07-01

    To validate bio-electric impedance spectroscopy (BIS) by comparison with other methods for determination of body water compartments in stable subjects with an ileostomy and no or minor small bowel resection for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Twenty-one subjects were included, age range 36-65 y (female/male=12/9), Crohn's disease (CD), n=14, ulcerative colitis (UC), n=6 and indeterminate colitis (IDC), n=1. Fluid compartments were assessed by the use of three independent methods: BIS, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and dilution techniques (DIL); tritiated water (total body water, TBW); and bromide (extracellular water, ECW), respectively. Intra-cellular water (ICW) was calculated as TBW-ECW. For comparison TBW was also predicted according to an empirical formula. Differences were analysed using Bland-Altman plots. The mean TBW values obtained from the impedance measurement differed in the order of -2.21 (DIL) to 1.41 (DXA) in women and -2.01 (DIL) to 2.61 (DXA) in men, from the measured and derived values of total body water. Prediction of TBW gave values that were close to BIS, with a mean difference of -0.31 in male subjects and +0.51 in female subjects. Assessment of ECW revealed that the mean difference between dilution and impedance was less in women than in men (P<0.01). The differences between all methods to assess fluid compartments are pronounced. To further investigate the use of the method in clinical practice for dynamic monitoring of rehydration in ileostomates with acute diarrhoea, repeated measurements together with comparison with weight fluid-balance charts are suggested. The study was supported by grants from the Swedish Medical Research Council (17X-03117), Göteborgs Läkarsällskap and IB and A Lundbergs forskningsstiftelse.

  11. Ileostomy and your diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... bad. Your skin around your stoma is bulging out. You have any kind of sore on the skin around your stoma. You have any signs of being dehydrated (there is not enough water in your body). Some signs are dry mouth, ...

  12. Ileostomy - changing your pouch

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes. Allow your stoma to dry completely before connecting the new pouch. Trace the shape of your ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  13. Ileostomy and your child

    MedlinePlus

    ... embarrassment. You may see some changes in your child's behavior at first. Sometimes teenagers have a harder time ... You being open and natural will help your child's behavior stay positive. Help your child learn how to ...

  14. Correction of vitamin D deficiency using sublingually administered vitamin D2 in a Crohn's disease patient with mal-absorption and a new ileostomy.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Patrick; Heaney, Robert

    2016-12-31

    Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be associated with many adverse health problems. Studies have shown that patients with Crohn's disease who have low vitamin D levels have a poorer quality of life than those with more adequate levels. It has also been shown that patients with mal-absorption problems have a difficult time achieving normal vitamin D levels in spite of aggressive supplementation, and that exposure to UVB radiation may be the most effective treatment option for these patients. We present a case in which 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were normalized within 2 weeks in a severely vitamin D deficient patient with Crohn's disease with mal-absorption and a new ileostomy, utilizing sublingually administered vitamin D2. A 58 year-old white female was admitted with a new ileostomy following partial bowel resection due to complications from Crohn's disease. She was found to be severely vitamin D deficient at the time of admission, with a level of 6.1ng/ml on hospital day 3. Her treatment with vitamin D was delayed for a few days. She was initially treated with 5000 units of vitamin D3 orally twice a day for 3days (days 7-10). After discussion with the patient and obtaining her consent, vitamin D3 was stopped, and she was then treated with a total of 8 doses of 50,000 units of vitamin D2 administered sublingually. She was given the first 3 doses on alternating days (days 11, 13, 15), and then 5 more doses on consecutive days (days 17-21). The rise in her 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in response to treatment with sublingual vitamin D2 was significant. On day 10, after receiving 3days of orally administered vitamin D3, her level was 9.8ng/ml. One week later, after receiving 3 sublingual doses of vitamin D2, it rose to 20.3ng/ml. It was then measured on alternating days twice over the next 4days, and it rose to 45.5ng/ml, and then to 47.4ng/ml on the day of discharge to home. The major finding of this study is that sublingual administration of vitamin D2 appears to

  15. Comparison of surgical techniques for stoma closure: A retrospective study of purse-string skin closure versus conventional skin closure following ileostomy and colostomy reversal

    PubMed Central

    WADA, YUMA; MIYOSHI, NORIKATSU; OHUE, MASAYUKI; NOURA, SHINGO; FUJINO, SHIKI; SUGIMURA, KEIJIROU; AKITA, HIROFUMI; MOTOORI, MASAAKI; GOTOH, KUNIHITO; TAKAHASHI, HIDENORI; KOBAYASHI, SHOGO; OHMORI, TAKESHI; FUJIWARA, YOSHIYUKI; YANO, MASAHIKO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of postoperative complications, including superficial incisional surgical site infection (SSI) following purse-string skin closure (PS) and conventional skin closure with a drainage tube (CD) following stoma closure. A total of 55 consecutive patients who underwent loop colostomy and loop ileostomy closures in our hospital between October, 2011 and September, 2014 were retrospectively assessed. The patients were divided into two groups, namely the PS group (26 patients) and the CD group (29 patients). There were no significant differences in the characteristics of the patients between the two groups. The baseline and operative characteristics also did not differ significantly between the two groups. However the incidence of superficial incisional SSI was lower in the PS group compared to that in the CD group (0 vs. 13.8%, respectively; P=0.049). The overall incidence of complications did not differ significantly between the two groups (P=0.313). The duration of postoperative hospital stay in the PS group was shorter compared to that in the CD group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that PS may an effective technique to reduce the incidence of superficial incisional SSI. This technique appears to be superior to the conventional technique, allowing for better cosmesis. PMID:26137277

  16. Comparison of surgical techniques for stoma closure: A retrospective study of purse-string skin closure versus conventional skin closure following ileostomy and colostomy reversal.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yuma; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Ohue, Masayuki; Noura, Shingo; Fujino, Shiki; Sugimura, Keijirou; Akita, Hirofumi; Motoori, Masaaki; Gotoh, Kunihito; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Shogo; Ohmori, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of postoperative complications, including superficial incisional surgical site infection (SSI) following purse-string skin closure (PS) and conventional skin closure with a drainage tube (CD) following stoma closure. A total of 55 consecutive patients who underwent loop colostomy and loop ileostomy closures in our hospital between October, 2011 and September, 2014 were retrospectively assessed. The patients were divided into two groups, namely the PS group (26 patients) and the CD group (29 patients). There were no significant differences in the characteristics of the patients between the two groups. The baseline and operative characteristics also did not differ significantly between the two groups. However the incidence of superficial incisional SSI was lower in the PS group compared to that in the CD group (0 vs. 13.8%, respectively; P=0.049). The overall incidence of complications did not differ significantly between the two groups (P=0.313). The duration of postoperative hospital stay in the PS group was shorter compared to that in the CD group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that PS may an effective technique to reduce the incidence of superficial incisional SSI. This technique appears to be superior to the conventional technique, allowing for better cosmesis.

  17. Meta-analysis of elective surgical complications related to defunctioning loop ileostomy compared with loop colostomy after low anterior resection for rectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Hong Zhi; Nasier, Dilidan; Liu, Bing; Gao, Hua; Xu, Yi Ke

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Defunctioning loop ileostomy (LI) and loop colostomy (LC) are used widely to protect/treat anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery. However, it is not known which surgical approach has a lower prevalence of surgical complications after low anterior resection for rectal carcinoma (LARRC). Methods We conducted a literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Embase and Cochrane databases to identify studies published between 1966 and 2013 focusing on elective surgical complications related to defunctioning LI and LC undertaken to protect a distal rectal anastomosis after LARRC. Results Five studies (two randomized controlled trials, one prospective non-randomized trial, and two retrospective trials) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Outcomes of 1,025 patients (652 LI and 373 LC) were analyzed. After the construction of a LI or LC, there was a significantly lower prevalence of sepsis (p=0.04), prolapse (p=0.03), and parastomal hernia (p=0.02) in LI patients than in LC patients. Also, the prevalence of overall complications was significantly lower in those who received LIs compared with those who received LCs (p<0.0001). After closure of defunctioning loops, there were significantly fewer wound infections (p=0.006) and incisional hernias (p=0.007) in LI patients than in LC patients, but there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of overall complications. Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis show that a defunctioning LI may be superior to LC with respect to a lower prevalence of surgical complications after LARRC. PMID:26274752

  18. Meta-analysis of elective surgical complications related to defunctioning loop ileostomy compared with loop colostomy after low anterior resection for rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hong Zhi; Nasier, Dilidan; Liu, Bing; Gao, Hua; Xu, Yi Ke

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Defunctioning loop ileostomy (LI) and loop colostomy (LC) are used widely to protect/treat anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery. However, it is not known which surgical approach has a lower prevalence of surgical complications after low anterior resection for rectal carcinoma (LARRC). Methods We conducted a literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Embase and Cochrane databases to identify studies published between 1966 and 2013 focusing on elective surgical complications related to defunctioning LI and LC undertaken to protect a distal rectal anastomosis after LARRC. Results Five studies (two randomized controlled trials, one prospective non-randomized trial, and two retrospective trials) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Outcomes of 1,025 patients (652 LI and 373 LC) were analyzed. After the construction of a LI or LC, there was a significantly lower prevalence of sepsis (p=0.04), prolapse (p=0.03), and parastomal hernia (p=0.02) in LI patients than in LC patients. Also, the prevalence of overall complications was significantly lower in those who received LIs compared with those who received LCs (p<0.0001). After closure of defunctioning loops, there were significantly fewer wound infections (p=0.006) and incisional hernias (p=0.007) in LI patients than in LC patients, but there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of overall complications. Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis show that a defunctioning LI may be superior to LC with respect to a lower prevalence of surgical complications after LARRC.

  19. Loop ileostomy versus total colectomy as surgical treatment for Clostridium difficile-associated disease: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Ferrada, Paula; Callcut, Rachael; Zielinski, Martin D; Bruns, Brandon; Yeh, Daniel Dante; Zakrison, Tanya L; Meizoso, Jonathan P; Sarani, Babak; Catalano, Richard D; Kim, Peter; Plant, Valerie; Pasley, Amelia; Dultz, Linda A; Choudhry, Asad J; Haut, Elliott R

    2017-07-01

    The mortality of patients with Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) requiring surgery continues to be very high. Loop ileostomy (LI) was introduced as an alternative procedure to total colectomy (TC) for CDAD by a single-center study. To date, no reproducible results have been published. The objective of this study was to compare these two procedures in a multicentric approach to help the surgeon decide what procedure is best suited for the patient in need. This was a retrospective multicenter study conducted under the sponsorship of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Demographics, medical history, clinical presentation, APACHE score, and outcomes were collected. We used the Research Electronic Data Capture tool to store the data. Mann-Whitney (continuous data) and Fisher exact (categorical data) were used to compare TC with LI. Logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of mortality. A propensity score analysis was done to control for potential confounders and determine adjusted mortality rates by procedure type. We collected data from 10 centers of patients who presented with CDAD requiring surgery between July 1, 2010 and July 30, 2014. Two patients died during the surgical procedure, leaving 98 individuals in the study. The overall mortality was 32%, and 75% had postoperative complications. Median age was 64.5 years; 59% were male. Concerning preoperative patient conditions, 54% were on pressors, 47% had renal failure, and 36% had respiratory failure. When comparing TC and LI, there was no statistical difference regarding these conditions. Univariate preprocedure predictors of mortality were age, lactate, timing of operation, vasopressor use, and acute renal failure. There was no statistical difference between the APACHE score of patients undergoing either procedure (TC, 22 vs LI, 16). Adjusted mortality (controlled for preprocedure confounders) was significantly lower in the LI group (17.2% vs 39.7%; p = 0.002). This

  20. Manipulation of starch bioaccessibility in wheat endosperm to regulate starch digestion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and gut hormone responses: a randomized controlled trial in healthy ileostomy participants.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Grundy, Myriam Ml; Grassby, Terri; Vasilopoulou, Dafni; Frost, Gary S; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah Ee; Sanderson, Jeremy; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-10-01

    Cereal crops, particularly wheat, are a major dietary source of starch, and the bioaccessibility of starch has implications for postprandial glycemia. The structure and properties of plant foods have been identified as critical factors in influencing nutrient bioaccessibility; however, the physical and biochemical disassembly of cereal food during digestion has not been widely studied. The aims of this study were to compare the effects of 2 porridge meals prepared from wheat endosperm with different degrees of starch bioaccessibility on postprandial metabolism (e.g., glycemia) and to gain insight into the structural and biochemical breakdown of the test meals during gastroileal transit. A randomized crossover trial in 9 healthy ileostomy participants was designed to compare the effects of 55 g starch, provided as coarse (2-mm particles) or smooth (<0.2-mm particles) wheat porridge, on postprandial changes in blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, lipids, and gut hormones and on the resistant starch (RS) content of ileal effluent. Undigested food in the ileal output was examined microscopically to identify cell walls and encapsulated starch. Blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations were significantly lower (i.e., 33%, 43%, 40%, and 50% lower 120-min incremental AUC, respectively) after consumption of the coarse porridge than after the smooth porridge (P < 0.01). In vitro, starch digestion was slower in the coarse porridge than in the smooth porridge (33% less starch digested at 90 min, P < 0.05, paired t test). In vivo, the structural integrity of coarse particles (∼2 mm) of wheat endosperm was retained during gastroileal transit. Microscopic examination revealed a progressive loss of starch from the periphery toward the particle core. The structure of the test meal had no effect on the amount or pattern of RS output. The structural integrity of wheat endosperm is largely retained during gastroileal digestion

  1. Manipulation of starch bioaccessibility in wheat endosperm to regulate starch digestion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and gut hormone responses: a randomized controlled trial in healthy ileostomy participants12

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Grundy, Myriam ML; Grassby, Terri; Vasilopoulou, Dafni; Frost, Gary S; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah EE; Sanderson, Jeremy; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cereal crops, particularly wheat, are a major dietary source of starch, and the bioaccessibility of starch has implications for postprandial glycemia. The structure and properties of plant foods have been identified as critical factors in influencing nutrient bioaccessibility; however, the physical and biochemical disassembly of cereal food during digestion has not been widely studied. Objectives: The aims of this study were to compare the effects of 2 porridge meals prepared from wheat endosperm with different degrees of starch bioaccessibility on postprandial metabolism (e.g., glycemia) and to gain insight into the structural and biochemical breakdown of the test meals during gastroileal transit. Design: A randomized crossover trial in 9 healthy ileostomy participants was designed to compare the effects of 55 g starch, provided as coarse (2-mm particles) or smooth (<0.2-mm particles) wheat porridge, on postprandial changes in blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, lipids, and gut hormones and on the resistant starch (RS) content of ileal effluent. Undigested food in the ileal output was examined microscopically to identify cell walls and encapsulated starch. Results: Blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations were significantly lower (i.e., 33%, 43%, 40%, and 50% lower 120-min incremental AUC, respectively) after consumption of the coarse porridge than after the smooth porridge (P < 0.01). In vitro, starch digestion was slower in the coarse porridge than in the smooth porridge (33% less starch digested at 90 min, P < 0.05, paired t test). In vivo, the structural integrity of coarse particles (∼2 mm) of wheat endosperm was retained during gastroileal transit. Microscopic examination revealed a progressive loss of starch from the periphery toward the particle core. The structure of the test meal had no effect on the amount or pattern of RS output. Conclusion: The structural integrity of wheat

  2. Children with Ileostomies (for Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... at home, then take them back to school. One youngster tells this story: he noticed that his pouch was leaking and had stained his pants. Instead of rushing out of the class with everyone else, he calmly waited until everyone ...

  3. A pilot single-centre randomized trial assessing the safety and efficacy of lateral pararectus abdominis compared with transrectus abdominis muscle stoma placement in patients with temporary loop ileostomies: the PATRASTOM trial.

    PubMed

    Hardt, J; Seyfried, S; Weiß, C; Post, S; Kienle, P; Herrle, F

    2016-02-01

    Transrectal stoma placement is considered the standard technique for positioning a stoma. A prospective series using a novel method of lateral pararectal stoma placement recently revealed a remarkably low stoma herniation rate. A randomized trial was conducted to compare the lateral pararectal with the transrectal stoma position with regard to parastomal herniation, stoma-related morbidity and quality of life. Adult patients undergoing elective placement of a temporary loop ileostomy were eligible for inclusion. Patients were intra-operatively randomized to undergo either a lateral pararectal or a transrectal ileostomy. The primary end-point was the rate of parastomal herniation. Secondary end-points included other stoma-related complications and quality of life. Sample size calculation resulted in 54 patients having to be analysed to detect a difference of parastomal herniation of 30% with an 80% power and a 5% significance level. The trial was registered with the German Clinical Trials Register (registration number DRKS00003534). Between April 2012 and April 2014, 30 patients were randomized to each group. The incidence of parastomal herniation did not differ between the lateral pararectal (5 of 27) and the transrectal group (4 of 29; P = 0.725). There was also no significant difference regarding other stoma-related complications and the EORTC quality of life scales C30 and CR29. The incidence of parastomal herniation and other stoma-related complications did not differ between the groups. However, due to the limited sample size a small difference in favour of one of the two stoma placement techniques cannot be entirely ruled out. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Ileostomy - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... often should I clean it? What types of tape, creams, or paste can I use on the stoma? Does insurance cover the cost of ostomy supplies? What should I do if there is bleeding from the stoma, if it appears red or swollen, or if there is a sore ...

  5. Ostomy: Adapting to Life After Colostomy, Ileostomy or Urostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... time to time. While it can be embarrassing, don't let a fear of what could go wrong keep you from going about your day. No clothing is off-limits if you have an ostomy. However, your individual body contour ... don't let your ostomy keep you from wearing tightfitting clothes ...

  6. Usefulness of ileostomy defunctioning stoma after anterior resection of rectum on prevention of anastomotic leakage A retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Giuseppe; Licari, Leo; Agrusa, Antonino; Romano, Giorgio; Cocorullo, Gianfranco; Falco, Nicolò; Tutino, Roberta; Gulotta, Gaspare

    2016-01-01

    Una delle principali e più temute complicanze della resezione anteriore di retto è stata ed è la deiscenza anastomotica. Solitamente, sia essa una scelta di principio od a discrezione del chirurgo operatore, viene confezionata una ileostomia laterale di sicurezza con lo scopo di prevenire tale circostanza. Scopo di tale studio è stato quello di investigare circa la utilità della stomia laterale di sicurezza quale strumento di prevenzione della deiscenza anastomotica, mettendo a paragone il decorso post-operatorio dei paziente con e senza stomia laterale. Le evidenze hanno portato alla conclusione che il confezionamento della stomia laterale di sicurezza è fattore di protezione non tanto dell’evento deiscenza anastomotica in senso stretto, quanto delle complicanze e della evoluzione clinica della stessa, vedasi ad esempio tasso di ricorrenza di deiscenza/quadro clinico in corso di deiscenza/ tempi di degenza, pur rendendosi necessario sottolineare l’assenza di significatività statistica nel tasso di mortalità nei due gruppi in studio. Cosi detto appare dunque sinottico affermare che il confezionamento di ileostomia laterale di sicurezza in corso di resezione anteriore di retto non determina una diretta azione sull’evento “deiscenza anastomotica” né “morte”, purtuttavia modifica certamente in positivo il decorso clinico ed evolutivo dell’evento “deiscenza anastomotica”.

  7. Low zinc status and absorption exist in infants with jejunostomies or ileostomies which persists after intestinal repair

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is very little data regarding trace mineral nutrition in infants with small intestinal ostomies. Here we evaluated 14 infants with jejunal or ileal ostomies to measure their zinc absorption and retention and biochemical zinc and copper status. Zinc absorption was measured using a dual-tracer s...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... collection of fecal material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically... colostomy appliance, ostomy collector, colostomy pouch, urinary ileostomy bag, urine collecting...

  9. Sigmoid resection with primary anastomosis and ileostomy versus laparoscopic lavage in purulent peritonitis from perforated diverticulitis: outcome analysis in a prospective cohort of 40 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Catry, Jonathan; Brouquet, Antoine; Peschaud, Frédérique; Vychnevskaia, Karina; Abdalla, Solafah; Malafosse, Robert; Lambert, Benoit; Costaglioli, Bruno; Benoist, Stéphane; Penna, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    This prospective study aimed to compare outcomes after laparoscopic peritoneal lavage (LPL) and sigmoid resection with primary colorectal anastomosis (RPA). From June 2010 to June 2015, 40 patients presenting with Hinchey III peritonitis from perforated diverticulitis underwent LPL or RPA. Patients with Hinchey II or IV peritonitis and patients who underwent an upfront Hartmann procedure were excluded. Primary endpoint was overall 30-day or in-hospital postoperative morbidity after surgical treatment of peritonitis. Twenty-five patients underwent RPA and 15 LPL. Overall postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were not significantly different after RPA and LPL (40 vs 67 %, p = 0.19; 4 vs 6.7 %, p = 1, respectively). Intra-abdominal morbidity and reoperation rates were significantly higher after LPL compared to RPA (53 vs 12 %, p < 0.01; 40 vs 4 %, p = 0.02, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that LPL (p = 0.028, HR = 18.936, CI 95 % = 1.369-261.886) was associated with an increased risk of postoperative intra-abdominal septic morbidity. Among 6 patients who underwent reoperation after LPL, 4 had a Hartmann procedure. All surviving patients who had a procedure requiring stoma creation underwent stoma reversal after a median delay of 92 days after LPL and 72 days after RPA (p = 0.07). LPL for perforated diverticulitis is associated with a high risk of inadequate intra-abdominal sepsis control requiring a Hartmann procedure in up to 25 % of patients. RPA appears to be safer and more effective. It may represent the best option in this context.

  10. 21 CFR 357.803 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Use § 357.803 Definitions. As used in this subpart: (a) Colostomy. An external operative opening... from conditions such as colostomies, ileostomies, or fecal incontinence. (c) Ileostomy. An...

  11. 21 CFR 357.803 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Internal Use § 357.803 Definitions. As used in this subpart: (a) Colostomy. An external operative opening... from conditions such as colostomies, ileostomies, or fecal incontinence. (c) Ileostomy. An...

  12. 21 CFR 357.803 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... USE MISCELLANEOUS INTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Deodorant Drug Products for... from conditions such as colostomies, ileostomies, or fecal incontinence. (c) Ileostomy. An external operative opening from the ileum. (d) Incontinence. An inability to retain urine or feces....

  13. 21 CFR 357.803 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... USE MISCELLANEOUS INTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Deodorant Drug Products for... from conditions such as colostomies, ileostomies, or fecal incontinence. (c) Ileostomy. An external operative opening from the ileum. (d) Incontinence. An inability to retain urine or feces....

  14. 21 CFR 357.803 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... USE MISCELLANEOUS INTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Deodorant Drug Products for... from conditions such as colostomies, ileostomies, or fecal incontinence. (c) Ileostomy. An external operative opening from the ileum. (d) Incontinence. An inability to retain urine or feces....

  15. Ulcerative colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... proctocolectomy - discharge Types of ileostomy Ulcerative colitis - discharge Review Date 8/14/2015 Updated by: Subodh K. ... gastroenterologist at Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Internal review and ...

  16. Total colectomy or proctocolectomy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016:chap 26. Read More Colon cancer Ileostomy Intestinal obstruction Total abdominal colectomy Total proctocolectomy and ileal - anal ... Diseases Colorectal Cancer Crohn's Disease Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Intestinal Obstruction Ulcerative Colitis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  17. [Protective ileostoma versus protective transverse stoma. What evidence is available?].

    PubMed

    Klink, C D; Willis, S; Neumann, U P; Jansen, M

    2010-11-01

    The clinical outcome of anastomotic leakage in colorectal and coloanal anastomoses necessitates a loop stoma for fecal diversion. Controversy remains of the most suitable position of the stoma. In this respect a loop ileostomy or loop colostomy can be performed. The aim of this study was to determine the advantages and disadvantages of both surgical strategies from the literature and to derive possible recommendations. Both methods provide a good operative outcome with low complication rates. Overall there is a trend towards ileostomy because of lower complication rates after stoma creation and the incidence of sepsis and stoma prolapse in particular is significantly reduced after ileostomy. Concerning stoma reversal both methods seem to be equivalent. As long as no large evidenced-based, randomized studies are available loop ileostomy seems to be the most appropriate surgical procedure.

  18. Nutrition for people with stomas 1: overview of issues.

    PubMed

    Burch, Jennie

    This is the first in a two-part unit examining nutrition for people with stomas. It outlines the three main types of stomas--colostomy, ileostomy and urostomy--and the principles of a healthy diet in general.

  19. Clinical Characteristics of Stoma-Related Obstruction after Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis for Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Okita, Yoshiki; Araki, Toshimitsu; Kondo, Satoru; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshiyama, Shigeyuki; Hiro, Junichiro; Inoue, Mikihiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Kobayashi, Minako; Ohi, Masaki; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2017-03-01

    We defined small bowel obstruction occurring around the limbs of the ileostomy as stoma-related obstruction (SRO) and investigated the clinical characteristics and predictive factors of SRO. From January 2002 to March 2016, 309 consecutive patients who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis were enrolled. Two-stage IPAA with diverting ileostomy was analyzed. We assessed the possible associations between SRO and clinical factors. A total of 205 patients met the inclusion criteria. Fifty-three (25.8%) patients with SRO before ileostomy closure were identified for review. All patients with SRO were at least transiently resolved by intubation though orifice of ileostomy (98.1%) or nasally (3.7%). In 18 (33.9%) patients, the ileostomy was taken down ahead of schedule and the small bowel obstruction improved in all cases. Multivariate analysis revealed that age at surgery <16 years old and body mass index <21 were significant predictive factors for SRO (P = 0.013 and 0.0012, respectively). Younger age at surgery and low body mass index may be significant predictive factors for SRO after IPAA with diverting ileostomy in patients with ulcerative colitis.

  20. The reversal of a protective stoma is feasible before the complete healing of a colorectal anastomotic leak.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Silvia; Piccinni, Giuseppe; Casagranda, Biagio; Balani, Alessandro; de Manzini, Nicolò

    2011-12-01

    A proximal diverting stoma is recommended in "high-risk" conditions after total mesorectal excision. The aim of the study is to assess whether, after checking the anastomosis by using a water-soluble contrast enema (WCE), the closure of the ileostomy is feasible and safe, even in the presence of a persistent radiological leak. From 2003 to 2010, 210 colorectal anastomoses were performed. Ileostomy was carried out in "high-risk" anastomosis. A radiological control was performed 2 weeks later. If a leakage was present, conservative therapy controlled by serial WCEs was prescribed. Ileostomy closure was performed in the absence of leakage or with persistent leakage without clinical signs of pelvic infections. Seventy patients (33.3%) had a protective ileostomy. Fifty-eight of these (82.9%) had an uneventful course, whereas 12 (17.1%) had clinical leakage. All 70 patients were submitted to WCE after 2 weeks. Nine of 58 patients (15.5%) and eight of 12 patients with clinical anastomotic leakage showed a leakage at radiology. All these patients were scheduled another WCE 2 months later. It showed that the anastomosis had been healed in seven patients, whereas the 10 patients with leaks remained with ostomy until the third enema 1 month later. For all these patients, closure of the ileostomy was planned despite persistent radiological and subclinical leakage. A radiological study using WCE before closure of the stoma is essential and stoma closure, in the presence of a persistent leakage, is possible in selected patients.

  1. Complications of the ileal pouch: is the pouchogram a useful predictor?

    PubMed

    Malcolm, P N; Bhagat, K K; Chapman, M A; Davies, S G; Williams, N S; Murfitt, J B

    1995-09-01

    A series of ileal pouchograms from 25 consecutive patients has been analysed retrospectively. Ileal pouchography may demonstrate abnormalities which delay closure of the covering ileostomy. The aim was to determine whether disruption of the ileoanal anastomosis and/or leak at pouchography correlated with pelvic sepsis after ileostomy closure. Disruption of the stapled ileoanal anastomosis is a sensitive (88%) but not specific predictor (57%) for subsequent pelvic sepsis. The predictive value of a negative test is high (89%). Leak of contrast from the anastomosis is specific (81%) but not sensitive (56%) for pelvic sepsis. No significant relationship was demonstrated between width of the presacral space and the presence of pelvic sepsis. No significant relationship was demonstrated between diameter of the ileoanal anastomosis and symptoms of stricture. The presence of anastomotic disruption or leak at pouchography prior to ileostomy closure are useful predictors of potential pelvic sepsis.

  2. [Surgical options in ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Hultén, L; Ecker, K W

    1998-01-01

    Surgery is needed in every second patient with pancolitis. Historically four surgical options have been developed: conventional ileostomy, ileorectostomy, continent ileostomy (Kock's pouch) and ileo-anal pouch. However, in emergent or unclear situations subtotal colectomy, ileostomy and preservation of the rectum is the most suitable operation. After recovery and in elective indications proctectomy and proctocolectomy establish the general surgical standard. Today, in most cases ileo-pouch-anal anastomosis is performed instead of creation of an ileostomy. Both lowered frequency of defecation and acceptable continence contribute to a better quality of life. However, functional disturbances are not uncommon and result in most cases from complications of the demanding technique. Definitive cure of the colitis is in interference with the risk of pouchitis in about 30%. The cumulative probability to loose the pouch may rise to 15-20% in the long-term course. Thus, ileorectostomy may be considered as a first step of surgical treatment, since pelvic nerve damage is excluded, function is much better and persistent proctitis can be treated topically. The attractively is that ileo-anal pouch can be performed later on, when decreasing function and increasing risk of malignant change will eventually require proctectomy. A Kock-pouch is seldom considered, especially in patients with ileostomy wishing sure fecal control. But the continent reservoir becomes more and more interesting again since it can be reconstructed from a failed ileo-anal pouch without loss of bowel. Conventional ileostomy should be reserved for patients not suitable for reconstructive methods or those who consider pough operations risk. However, it is the safest procedure with absolute cure of disease. The optimal choice of method considers medical and surgical aspects as well as patients conception and desire.

  3. Elective and emergent operative management of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Amanda M

    2007-06-01

    Surgical therapy of ulcerative colitis is effective, safe, and provides an improved quality of life in those whose disease cannot be managed medically. In the elective setting, widespread acceptance of restorative proctocolectomy has made surgical therapy an attractive option in the overall management of ulcerative colitis. Enthusiasm for this procedure should be tempered by the acknowledgment of the significant incidence of pouchitis in the long term, however. Proctocolectomy with ileostomy remains a good surgical option for patients who are unsuitable for restorative procedures. The standard therapy for fulminant colitis or toxic megacolon remains subtotal colectomy with ileostomy. Patients undergoing subtotal colectomy are candidates for conversion to restorative procedures.

  4. Over-the-scope-clipping system for anastomotic leak after colorectal surgery: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hirotoshi; Kikuchi, Akifumi; Okazaki, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Megumi; Ishikawa, Toshiaki; Iida, Satoru; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    An anastomotic leak is one of the major complications following colorectal surgery. Standard treatments for anastomotic leak are total parenteral nutrition or temporary ileostomy. The over-the-scope-clipping (OTSC) system was originally developed to treat intestinal perforation or to close the tissue after natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Two cases of successful management of an anastomotic leak after colorectal surgery using the OTSC system are reported. One patient avoided a temporary ileostomy. In the other, hospitalization was shortened by the use of the OTSC system. The OTSC system can be a potential option in the management of anastomotic leaks after colorectal surgery. PMID:24976736

  5. Predictors of Fecal Incontinence and Related Quality of Life After a Total Mesorectal Excision With Primary Anastomosis for Patients With Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kornmann, Verena N. N.; Boerma, Djamila; de Roos, Marnix A. J.; van Westreenen, Henderik L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose After total mesorectal excision (TME) with primary anastomosis for patients with rectal cancer, the quality of life (QoL) may be decreased due to fecal incontinence. This study aimed to identify predictors of fecal incontinence and related QoL. Methods Patients who underwent TME with primary anastomosis for rectal cancer between December 2008 and June 2012 completed the fecal incontinence quality of life scale (FIQoL) and Wexner incontinence score. Factors associated with these scores were identified using a linear regression analysis. Results A total of 80 patients were included. Multivariate analysis identified a diverting ileostomy (n = 58) as an independent predictor of an unfavorable outcome on the FIQoL subscale coping/behavior (P = 0.041). Ileostomy closure within and after 3 months resulted in median Wexner scores of 5.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 2.5-8.0) and 10.5 (IQR, 6.0-13.8), respectively (P < 0.001). The median FIQoL score was 15.0 (IQR, 13.1-16.0) for stoma closure within 3 months versus 12.0 (IQR, 10.5-13.9) for closure after 3 months (P = 0.001). Conclusion A diverting ileostomy is a predictor for an impaired FIQoL after a TME for rectal cancer. Stoma reversal within 3 months showed better outcomes than reversal after 3 months. Patients with a diverting ileostomy should be informed about the impaired QoL, even after stoma closure. PMID:25745623

  6. Save the skin and improve the scar: a simple technique to minimize the scar from a temporary stoma.

    PubMed

    Keating, John; Kelly, Erica Whineray; Hunt, Ian

    2003-10-01

    Reversal of a loop ileostomy is not infrequently associated with wound infection and delayed wound healing. This in turn may lead to a disappointing scar. A simple modification to the technique of stoma construction simplifies wound closure, reduces the rate of wound morbidity, and improves the cosmetic result.

  7. Benign colonic metaplasia at a previous stoma site in a patient without adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Prouty, Megan; Patrawala, Samit; Vogt, Adam; Kelleher, Michael; Lee, Michael; Parker, Douglas C

    2016-03-01

    There are few reported cases of cutaneous intestinal metaplasia or primary adenocarcinoma arising at the ileostomy site following panproctocolectomy. These complications have been seen almost exclusively in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, benign intraepidermal colonic mucosa at a reversed ileostomy site in a patient without familial adenomatous polyposis or IBD has not been documented. We report a case of a 51-year-old female with a history of colonic adenocarcinoma who presented with pruritic, erythematous, scaly plaques on the right lower abdomen, present since reversal of her ileostomy in 2007. Skin biopsy revealed benign foci of colonic epithelium with no evidence of adenomatous change. Benign intraepidermal colonic mucosa was diagnosed based on histopathologic findings and immunohistochemistry. To our knowledge, this is the first case of intraepidermal benign colonic metaplasia forming in a patient following ostomy reversal. The case emphasizes the importance of patient education and physical examination of the stoma or stoma remnants for detection of unusual or changing lesions due to the risk for malignant transformation. It also demonstrates that benign colonic mucosa should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating lesions near ileostomy sites, regardless of whether the patient has a history of familial adenomatous polyposis or IBD.

  8. Restorative proctocolectomy with a three-loop ileal reservoir for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Clinical results in 66 patients followed for up to 6 years.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, J; Pescatori, M; Motson, R W; Pezim, M E

    1984-01-01

    The results of restorative proctocolectomy with a three-loop ileal reservoir were reviewed. Of 66 patients treated between 1976 and 1982, 52 had ulcerative colitis and 14 had familial adenomatous polyposis. The temporary ileostomy was closed between 2 and 78 months previously in 63 cases. Of these, three patients had had the reservoir removed and two were lost to follow-up. One other patient was subsequently found to have Crohn's disease. Function was assessed in 55 patients who had undergone closure of the ileostomy more than 8 weeks previously. Mean frequency of defecation was 3.7 per 24 hours (range 1-9.5) and 11 patients (20%) were taking antidiarrheal medication. Spontaneous defecation occurred in 22 patients (40%) while 29 (52.7%) had to use a catheter passed per anum. Four patients defecated spontaneously but sometimes used a catheter. Continence was normal in 36 (65.4%) and minor leakage once every 2 to 3 days occurred at night in 16 (29.1%). Three patients (5.4%) had some soiling during day and night. Troublesome perianal soreness (five patients, 9.1%) necessitated a defunctioning ileostomy in one. Fifty-four of the 55 patients assessed preferred their quality of life to that with an ileostomy. PMID:6712311

  9. Management of colorectal anastomotic leakage: differences between salvage and anastomotic takedown.

    PubMed

    Fraccalvieri, Domenico; Biondo, Sebastiano; Saez, Jose; Millan, Monica; Kreisler, Esther; Golda, Thomas; Frago, Ricardo; Miguel, Bernat

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the morbidity associated with 2 strategies of treatment of colorectal anastomotic leakage: surgical drainage of anastomosis with loop ileostomy versus anastomotic takedown. An observational study of patients operated on for ileocolic or colorectal anastomotic leakage between 2001 and 2009. Patients were classified into 2 groups: group 1, salvage of the anastomosis, and group 2, anastomotic takedown. Mortality and morbidity were assessed. Morbidity and mortality of bowel restoration were also evaluated. Thirty-nine patients were included into group 1 and 54 into group 2. Mortality was 15% for group 1 and 37% for group 2 (P = .022). The rate of patients suitable for stoma reversal was 91% for loop ileostomy and 38% for end stoma (P < .001). Morbidity was 18% after loop ileostomy closure and 71% after end stoma reversal (P = .021). Hospitalization was 10 days and 21 days, respectively (P = .009). There was no mortality. Salvage of anastomosis with loop ileostomy is an effective strategy to control peritoneal sepsis for colorectal anastomotic leakage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Is STEP the future for patients requiring proctocolectomy? A new therapeutic proposal from pediatric experience

    PubMed Central

    Mangray, Hansraj; Ghimenton, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We present a pediatric case of medically unmanageable juvenile colonic polyposis, initially treated with subtotal colectomy and an ileostomy followed by a proctectomy, ileal-J-pouch and serial transverse enteroplasties (STEP) of the distal ileum. The STEP procedure in an adequate length was able to control stooling of our patient. PMID:26273442

  11. Is STEP the future for patients requiring proctocolectomy? A new therapeutic proposal from pediatric experience.

    PubMed

    Mangray, Hansraj; Ghimenton, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    We present a pediatric case of medically unmanageable juvenile colonic polyposis, initially treated with subtotal colectomy and an ileostomy followed by a proctectomy, ileal-J-pouch and serial transverse enteroplasties (STEP) of the distal ileum. The STEP procedure in an adequate length was able to control stooling of our patient.

  12. Specialized Health Care Procedures in the Schools: Training and Service Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kathryn Wolff; Fredrick, Laura D.; Best, Sherwood; Dykes, Mary Kay; Cohen, Elisabeth Tucker

    2000-01-01

    A study involving 342 nonmedical personnel found that although the teachers and paraprofessionals regularly performed health care procedures for students with disabilities, only about half reported being very knowledgeable about them. Procedures most commonly performed solely by teachers and paraprofessionals were colostomy/ileostomy care, tube…

  13. 42 CFR 488.110 - Procedural guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... —Rehabilitation service —Colostomy/ileostomy care —Respiratory care —Tracheostomy care —Suctioning —Tube feeding.... These include: • Decubitus Care • Restraints • Catheters • Injections, Parenteral Fluids, Colostomy... services related to the pertinent care areas only, e.g., catheters, restraints, or colostomy. Utilize...

  14. The Ostomy: Part One of Two Parts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Rosemary C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Teaches nurses to identify four common indications for fecal diversion surgery: list three types of colostomies; distinguish a colostomy from an ileostomy; describe the two basic methods of colostomy management; and identify factors that influence the choice of method of colostomy care. (CT)

  15. 42 CFR 488.110 - Procedural guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... —Rehabilitation service —Colostomy/ileostomy care —Respiratory care —Tracheostomy care —Suctioning —Tube feeding.... These include: • Decubitus Care • Restraints • Catheters • Injections, Parenteral Fluids, Colostomy... services related to the pertinent care areas only, e.g., catheters, restraints, or colostomy. Utilize...

  16. Nutrition for people with stomas. 2: An overview of dietary advice.

    PubMed

    Burch, Jennie

    This two-part unit examines nutrition for people with stomas. Part 1 outlined the three types of stomas--colostomy, ileostomy and urostomy--and diet in general. This part focuses on postoperative and long-term dietary needs. It includes advice on diet related to enhanced recovery and specific to types of stoma.

  17. A multicenter randomized clinical trial of primary anastomosis or Hartmann's procedure for perforated left colonic diverticulitis with purulent or fecal peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Oberkofler, Christian Eugen; Rickenbacher, Andreas; Raptis, Dimitri Aristotle; Lehmann, Kuno; Villiger, Peter; Buchli, Christian; Grieder, Felix; Gelpke, Hans; Decurtins, Marco; Tempia-Caliera, Adrien A; Demartines, Nicolas; Hahnloser, Dieter; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Breitenstein, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the outcome after Hartmann's procedure (HP) versus primary anastomosis (PA) with diverting ileostomy for perforated left-sided diverticulitis. The surgical management of left-sided colonic perforation with purulent or fecal peritonitis remains controversial. PA with ileostomy seems to be superior to HP; however, results in the literature are affected by a significant selection bias. No randomized clinical trial has yet compared the 2 procedures. Sixty-two patients with acute left-sided colonic perforation (Hinchey III and IV) from 4 centers were randomized to HP (n = 30) and to PA (with diverting ileostomy, n = 32), with a planned stoma reversal operation after 3 months in both groups. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. The primary end point was the overall complication rate. The study was discontinued following an interim analysis that found significant differences of relevant secondary end points as well as a decreasing accrual rate (NCT01233713). Patient demographics were equally distributed in both groups (Hinchey III: 76% vs 75% and Hinchey IV: 24% vs 25%, for HP vs PA, respectively). The overall complication rate for both resection and stoma reversal operations was comparable (80% vs 84%, P = 0.813). Although the outcome after the initial colon resection did not show any significant differences (mortality 13% vs 9% and morbidity 67% vs 75% in HP vs PA), the stoma reversal rate after PA with diverting ileostomy was higher (90% vs 57%, P = 0.005) and serious complications (Grades IIIb-IV: 0% vs 20%, P = 0.046), operating time (73 minutes vs 183 minutes, P < 0.001), hospital stay (6 days vs 9 days, P = 0.016), and lower in-hospital costs (US $16,717 vs US $24,014) were significantly reduced in the PA group. This is the first randomized clinical trial favoring PA with diverting ileostomy over HP in patients with perforated diverticulitis.

  18. Laparoscopic total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Kalpesh; Shah, Amit

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to study the feasibility of the laparoscopic approach in the management of ulcerative colitis, to assess the functional results at 1-year and to review of literature on the topic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting for surgical management of histopathologically proven ulcerative colitis during the study period were included in the study. All patients presenting in a non-emergency setting were offered a two-stage procedure (Group A). The first-stage consisted of laparoscopic total proctocolectomy (TPC) with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) with a diverting split end ileostomy. Ileostomy was closed in the second stage. For patients presenting in acute setting (Group B), the first-stage consisted of laparoscopic TPC with end ileostomy followed by IPAA with diverting split end ileostomy in the second-stage and finally ileostomy closure in the third-stage. The technique is described. RESULTS: A total of 31 cases underwent laparoscopic TPC-IPAA, of which 28 belonged to Group A and 3 were included in Group B. All surgeries were successfully completed laparoscopically without need for conversion. The average operating time was 375 min in Group A (range: 270–500 min) and 390 min in Group B (range: 250–480 min). Oral diet was resumed at a mean of 3.4 days (range: 1.5–6 days) and the mean hospital stay was 8.2 days (range: 4–26 days). Overall morbidity rate was 16.2%; re-operation rate was 9.7% while mortality was nil. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic TPC-IPAA is feasible in acute as well as non-acute setting in patients needing surgical management of ulcerative colitis. PMID:26195875

  19. Social and sexual function following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, B; Wettergren, A; Kirkegaard, P

    1995-03-01

    Patients who undergo surgery for ulcerative colitis are usually young and active. When surgery becomes necessary, their future social and sexual function is of major concern. This study was performed to be able to give more detailed information of what is to be expected. Forty-nine consecutive patients (26 men and 23 women) who underwent ileal J-pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis between November 1983 and September 1986 in the authors' institution were personally interviewed regarding details of their preoperative and postoperative social and sexual functions. Eighty-eight percent had reduced capacity to work preoperatively compared with 6 percent postoperatively. Thirty-one percent resumed work in the period with diverting ileostomy. Leisure time activities were reduced in 47 percent preoperatively, whereas 6 percent had limitations postoperatively. In 35 percent of women, frequency of intercourse was increased postoperatively, and none reported a decreased frequency. None of the women who were able to achieve orgasm preoperatively reported a postoperative disturbance of this ability, and 16 percent experienced an increased quality of orgasm. Postoperatively none reported dyspareunia, vaginal discharge, or changes in their menstrual cycle. Frequency of intercourse and ability to achieve orgasm remained unchanged for the majority of men; however, one developed erectile dysfunction, and one complained of retrograde ejaculation. Sexual activity in men was less affected by the presence of an ileostomy, and 69 percent had intercourse in the period with ileostomy compared with 30 percent of women. None of the patients complained of anal pain, soiling, or fecal leakage during intercourse, but one women reported some discomfort from the pouch during intercourse. None of the patients wanted to return to a life with an ileostomy. The social and sexual function, quality of life, after ileal J-pouch anastomosis is improved when compared with the period with

  20. Using quality of life scores to help determine treatment: is restoring bowel continuity better than an ostomy?

    PubMed

    Ko, C. Y.; Rusin, L. C.; Schoetz, D. J.; Coller, J. A.; Murray, J. J.; Roberts, P. L.; Moreau, L.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In colorectal surgery, evaluation of heath-related quality of life (HRQL) has been relatively minimal when compared to other medical specialties. Would the performance of such HRQL evaluations change our decision-making in patient care? In familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), procedures that restore bowel continuity (i.e. Ileorectal anastomosis or ileal pouch anal anastomosis) are routinely preferred to ileostomy because of the perceived, but unproven, better HRQL. This study evaluates FAP patients who underwent prophylactic colectomy with either permanent ileostomy or 'restored bowel continuity' reconstruction. The functional outcomes of both groups are reported, and the HRQL assessments are compared. METHODS: All FAP patients who underwent (procto) colectomy resection with reconstruction, either restored bowel continuity (BC) or permanent ileostomy (OST), between 1980 and 1998 were studied. Functional data were obtained by questionnaire and medical record review. HRQL was assessed by 2 validated instruments - the SF-36 Physical and Mental Health Summary Scales and the SF-36 Health Survey - which measure physical summary (PSF) and mental summary functioning (MSF) as well as eight separate health quality dimensions including health perception (HP), physical (PF) and social functioning (SF), physical (PR) and emotional role limitations (ER), mental health (MH), bodily pain (BP), and energy level (E). RESULTS: Results were obtained in 54 patients; bowel continuity (44), ileostomy (10). Mean patient age was 39 years, mean follow up time was 10.5 years. Mean patient age at operation was 28 years. Functional results for BC included number of bowel movements/day (6.7), leakage (30%), having to wear a pad (11%), perianal skin problems (25%), food avoidance (68%), and inability to distinguish gas (27%). Functional results for OST were routinely excellent. Results of the HRQL surveys reveal no significant differences for BC vs OST (HP: 67 +/- 28 vs 79 +/- 39; PF

  1. [A serious complication in colorectal surgery: anastomotic leakage. Our experience].

    PubMed

    Petitti, T; Lippolis, G; Ferrozzi, L

    2005-10-01

    Anastomotic leakage is a severe complication in colorectal surgery with a lot of generic and specific risk factors. There are still controversies about the possibility to prevent it or to limit its severity with the use of faecal diversions. We report our experience on 189 patients operated in five years on colon-rectum, in election and emergency, with manual or mechanical anastomoses in the last 20 cm from the anal verge. We have had 21 anastomotic leakages (11%), symptomatic in 10 cases (5.5%), and 5 deaths (2.6%), 3 directly correlated to the leakage. In the patients (n 98) with loop-ileostomy there wasn't anastomotic leakages reduction, but only of clinical impact. We prefer loop-ileostomy in cases of extraperitoneal anastomoses, always in emergency and in anastomoses at risk.

  2. Bilio-intestinal shunt. A method and a pilot study for treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, D; Holmgren, U

    1979-01-01

    Diarrhea is a drawback in all types of small intestinal bypass operations for the treatment of morbid obesity. One of the causes of diarrhea is excessive amounts of bile acids in the colon. Therefore in five obese subjects, we complemented the usual jejuno-ileostomy end to side procedure with an anastomosis between the proximal end of the excluded blind loop and the gallbladder (bilio-intestinal shunt). In this way the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is assumed to be preserved. The patients, subjected to this new methods, were compared to matched patients (age, sex, height, preoperative body-weight, Brocas index and total small intestinal length) following four other types of jejuno-ileostomies. The frequency of diarrhea in the subjects with the bilio-intestinal shunt was significantly less than in the other groups. Other parameters, such as rate and magnitude of weight reduction, changes in blood cholesterol and triglycerides, were the same in the control groups.

  3. EFFICACY OF THE ANTERIOR RESECTION IN MANAGMENT OF ACUTE COLONIC OBSTRUCTION IN PATIENTS WITH RECTAL CANCER.

    PubMed

    Minasyan, A; Sargsyan, R

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the results of surgical treatment of acute bowel obstruction caused by rectal cancer and to reduce the period of full recovery of patients. The presented research included 73 patients (study group) with rectal cancer who underwent emergent anterior resection of rectum with loop ileostomy and intra-operative decompression of colon. Patients of this group were compared to a group of 68 patients (control group) with the same diagnosis who underwent Hartmann's procedure. There was no essential difference between the two groups in the quantity of postoperative complications. However the results indicate significant difference in reversal rates and time to reversal. Thus, the technique of low anterior resection with intraoperative decompression and ileostomy that we used improves outcomes, significantly reduces the period of full recovery.

  4. [Treatment of a severe Clostridium difficile infection with colonic lavages. Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Quezada, Felipe; Castillo, Richard; Villalón, Constanza; Zúñiga, José Miguel; Manterola, Carla; Molina, María Elena; Bellolio, Felipe; Urrejola, Gonzalo

    2015-05-01

    A loop ileostomy with intraoperative anterograde colonic lavage has been described as an alternative to colectomy in the management of cases of Clostridium difficile infection refractory to medical treatment. We report a 69 years old diabetic women admitted with a septic shock. An abdominal CAT scan showed a pan-colitis that seemed to be infectious. A polymerase chain reaction was positive for Clostridium Difficile. Due to the failure to improve after full medical treatment, a derivative loop ileostomy and intra-operatory colonic lavage were performed, leaving a Foley catheter in the proximal colon. In the postoperative period, anterograde colonic instillations of Vancomycin flushes through the catheter were performed every 6 hours. Forty eight hours after surgery, the patient improved. A colonoscopy prior to discharge showed resolution of the pseudomembranous colitis.

  5. [A Case of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis with a Desmoid Tumor Probably Communicating to the Intestinal Lumen That Was Successfully Treated with Non-Surgical Therapy].

    PubMed

    Ito, Tetsuya; Chika, Noriyasu; Yamamoto, Azusa; Ogura, Toshiro; Amano, Kunihiko; Ishiguro, Toru; Fukuchi, Minoru; Kumagai, Youichi; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Okazaki, Yasushi; Mochiki, Erito; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2016-11-01

    A 44-year-old man with familial adenomatous polyposis underwent laparoscopic-assistedtotal proctocolectomy with ilealpouch anal anastomosis(IPAA). Computed tomography conducted 21 months after IPAA demonstrated bilateral hydronephrosis andan intra-abdominal mass with a maximal diameter of 22 cm, leading to a diagnosis of stage IV desmoid disease, according to the classification by Church and associates. Six courses of combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin plus dacarbazine were administered. Computed tomography after chemotherapy demonstrated marked shrinkage of the desmoidtumor with intraabdominal air andfluidcollection extending just below the skin of the ileostomy closure site. Stoollike fluidoverflowedspontaneously through the site of the ileostomy closure andthe abscess cavity was successfully drained. The patient was discharged 30 days after the start of drainage. The patient is doing well 10 months after the drainage without regrowth of the desmoid tumor, even though a cavity-like lesion encapsulatedby a thick wall remains.

  6. Ultra-Low Anterior Resection with Coloanal Anastomosis for Recurrent Rectal Prolapse in a Young Woman with Colitis Cystica Profunda

    PubMed Central

    Hompes, R; Arnold, S; Venkatasubramaniam, A

    2015-01-01

    This case demonstrates the successful treatment of a young female patient with colitis cystica profunda causing rectal prolapse, after primary treatment with a Delorme procedure had failed. An ultra-low anterior resection with a temporary defunctioning ileostomy was carried out with good postoperative results. This case illustrates the possibility of carrying out sphincter preserving surgery rather than an abdominoperineal resection in the treatment of this condition, which may be preferable for patients. PMID:25723681

  7. Ileoproctostomy is preferred over ileoanal pull-through in patients with indeterminate colitis.

    PubMed

    Bodzin, J H; Klein, S N; Priest, S G

    1995-07-01

    A 15-year retrospective review was undertaken to evaluate the operative outcomes of patients with indeterminate colitis who were referred for rectal-sparing operations. Review of 95 consecutive patients operated for ulcerative colitis (UC) or indeterminate colitis (IC) revealed characteristics of IC in 13 patients. In the group as a whole, there were 45 females and 50 males; the average age was 33. A total of 64 patients had ileoanal pull-through (IAA). Analysis revealed that four of these patients had IC revealed by findings before operation in three patients and following the first stage of operation in one patient. Three of these four patients have subsequently required permanent ileostomy. Six patients who underwent IAA have subsequently demonstrated signs and symptoms of Crohn's disease (CD). All six have subsequently required ileostomy. Overall 10 patients with CD underwent IAA, and nine have required permanent ileostomy. Fourteen patients had ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) for UC or IC. IRA was performed for patients with IC in nine cases, and five patients with UC elected this operative option. Indications for IRA in patients with UC included obesity, 2; mental retardation, 1; advanced age, 1; and patient preference, 1. Of the patients with IC who underwent IRA, two have subsequently shown signs and symptoms of Crohn's disease. Overall, 14 of 14 patients who had IRA still have functioning IRA. None has required ileostomy. The poor results in patients with UC or IC subsequently shown to have CD have caused us to change our operative approach in patients with any question in the diagnosis of UC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Mucosal proctectomy and ileoanal pull-through technique and functional results in 23 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Bodzin, J H; Kestenberg, W; Kaufmann, R; Dean, K

    1987-07-01

    Mucosal proctectomy with ileoanal pull-through in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis provides a technique for the preservation of the anal sphincters and relatively normal mechanisms of continence. Five patients had straight ileoanal anastomosis while 18 had the construction of a J-pouch. A two-team approach was used for simultaneous abdominal and perineal procedures to facilitate a shortened operating time. A loop ileostomy was routinely used in the postoperative period and was closed an average of 4.5 months (range: 2-16 months) later without complication. Prolonged preoperative hospitalization was rarely necessary and outpatient steroid enema preparation was routinely used. There were no deaths. Nineteen patients with functioning pull-through procedures have been followed an average of 23 months (range: 3-42 months). Two other patients have not had ileostomy closure because of complications. The two remaining patients had intractable diarrhea and have since undergone conversion to a permanent ileostomy. The 19 patients are continent, having three to nine bowel movements each day. Nearly all wear a perineal sanitary pad because of rare, unpredictable leakage of small amounts of fluid, especially at night. Complications were significant in this group of patients. Intestinal obstruction was a frequent problem, occurring in 52 per cent of the entire series and necessitating reoperation in 22 per cent. Anal stricture was a problem in another five patients. A variety of other minor problems occurred and most were treated nonoperatively. In spite of moderate diarrhea and occasional leakage of stool, all patients with functioning pull-through procedures prefer their current status to life with an ileostomy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. 21 CFR 357.850 - Labeling of deodorant drug products for internal use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... drug, if any, and identifies the product as a “deodorant for internal use” or as a “colostomy or... products containing bismuth subgallate identified in § 357.810(a). “An aid to reduce odor from a colostomy...). (i) “An aid to reduce odor from a colostomy or ileostomy.” (ii) “An aid to reduce fecal odor due...

  10. Waardenburg syndrome presenting with constipation since birth.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Sharma, S B; Mathur, P; Agrawal, L D

    2014-12-01

    Shah-Waardenburg syndrome is Waardenburg syndrome associated with Hirschsprung's disease. A 10-day-old full-term male neonate of Waardenburg syndrome presented with constipation since birth along with features of small bowel obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy revealed distended proximal jejunal and ileal loops along with microcolon; an ileostomy was performed. Postoperatively patient developed sepsis and died. Histopathology confirmed total colonic aganglionosis. Suspect familial Shah-Waardenburg syndrome in a neonate of Waardenburg syndrome presenting with constipation since birth or intestinal obstruction.

  11. Orazipone, a locally acting immunomodulator, ameliorates intestinal radiation injury: A preclinical study in a novel rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Boerma, Marjan; Wang, Junru; Richter, Konrad K.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin . E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: Intestinal radiation injury (radiation enteropathy) is relevant to cancer treatment, as well as to radiation accidents and radiation terrorism scenarios. This study assessed the protective efficacy of orazipone, a locally-acting small molecule immunomodulator. Methods and Materials: Male rats were orchiectomized, a 4-cm segment of small bowel was sutured to the inside of the scrotum, a proximal anteperistaltic ileostomy was created for intraluminal drug administration, and intestinal continuity was re-established by end-to-side anastomosis. After three weeks postoperative recovery, the intestine in the 'scrotal hernia' was exposed locally to single-dose or fractionated X-radiation. Orazipone (30 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was administered daily through the ileostomy, either during and after irradiation, or only after irradiation. Structural, cellular, and molecular aspects of intestinal radiation toxicity were assessed two weeks after irradiation. Results: Orazipone significantly ameliorated histologic injury and transforming growth factor-{beta} immunoreactivity levels, both after single-dose and fractionated irradiation. Intestinal wall thickness was significantly reduced after single-dose and nonsignificantly after fractionated irradiation. Mucosal surface area and numbers of mast cells were partially restored by orazipone after single-dose irradiation. Conclusions: This work (1) demonstrates the utility of the ileostomy rat model for intraluminal administration of response modifiers in single-dose and fractionated radiation studies; (2) shows that mucosal immunomodulation during and/or after irradiation ameliorates intestinal toxicity; and (3) highlights important differences between single-dose and fractionated radiation regimens.

  12. Primary Enterolith in a Patient with Intestinal Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Mohd. Habib; Finan, RafiulImad; Akhtar, Sadik; Ahmad, Manzoor

    2016-01-01

    Primary enterolithiasis is a rare surgical ailment. The underlying cause is intestinal stasis. Numerous anatomical and micro environmental factors such as enteritis, incarcerated hernia, malignancy, diverticula, blind loops, and enteroenterostomy predispose to clinically significant concretions. Enterolithiasis in tuberculosis can be due to the presence of strictures, intestinal bands, or interbowel/parietal adhesions, leading to intestinal stasis. Secondary enterolithiasis is generally caused by gallstones or renal stones migrating to the gastrointestinal tract due to fistula formation. During stasis, food particles act as a nidus and calcium salts are deposited over the food particles, leading to stone formation. A 57-year-old male patient presented to the Emergency Department of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, AMU, Aligarh, with features of intestinal obstruction. The patient underwent emergency laparotomy, revealing 2 strictures in the distal ileum with 15.24cm of the bowel between them containing a 2×2 cm enterolith. The strictured segment was resected, and end ileostomy and mucus fistula were created. The patient’s postoperative recovery was fine, and he wasdischarged with ileostomy on antitubercular treatment (after histopathologicalconfirmation). Ileostomy closure wasplanned after 6 weeks. The incidence and prevalence of enterolithiasis has been on the rise recently because of advancement in radiological imaging studies. Endoscopic and surgical stone removal along with the treatment of the underlying pathology is recommended. PMID:27853338

  13. Spontaneous closure of stoma.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Narendra; Singh, Harjeet; Kumar, Hemanth; Gupta, Rajesh; Verma, G R

    2016-11-01

    Intestinal loop stoma is a common surgical procedure performed for various benign and malignant abdominal problems, but it rarely undergoes spontaneous closure, without surgical intervention. Two male patients presented to our emergency surgical department with acute abdominal pain. One of them was diagnosed as having rectosigmoid perforation and underwent diversion sigmoid loop colostomy after primary closure of the perforation. The other was a known case of carcinoma of the rectum who had already undergone low anterior resection with covering loop ileostomy; the patient underwent second loop ileostomy, this time for complicated intestinal obstruction. To our surprise, both the loop colostomy and ileostomy closed spontaneously at 8 weeks and 6 weeks, respectively, without any consequences. Spontaneous stoma closure is a rare and interesting event. The exact etiology for spontaneous closure remains unknown, but it may be hypothesized to result from slow retraction of the stoma, added to the concept of a tendency towards spontaneous closure of enterocutaneous fistula. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press and the Digestive Science Publishing Co. Limited.

  14. Clostridium difficile disease: Diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment update.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Lena M; Edmiston, Charles E

    2017-03-03

    Clostridium difficile infections are the leading cause of health care-associated infectious diarrhea, posing a significant risk for both medical and surgical patients. Because of the significant morbidity and mortality associated with C difficile infections, knowledge of the epidemiology of C difficile in combination with a high index of suspicion and susceptible patient populations (including surgical, postcolectomy, and inflammatory bowel disease patients) is warranted. C difficile infections present with a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis or small bowel enteritis and recurrent C difficile infections. Early implementation of medical and operative treatment strategies for C difficile infections is imperative for optimal patient outcomes. National and international guidelines recommend early operative consultation and total abdominal colectomy with end ileostomy and preservation of rectum. Diverting loop ileostomy and colonic lavage followed by intravenous metronidazole and intracolonic vancomycin administered via the efferent limb of the ileostomy should be considered as an alternative to total colectomy in selected patients. New and emerging strategies for C difficile infection treatment include monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, probiotics, biotherapeutics, and new antibiotics. A successful C difficile prevention and eradication program requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes early disease recognition, implementation of guidelines for monitoring adherence to environmental control, judicious hand hygiene, evidence-based treatment and management strategies, and a focused antibiotic stewardship program. Surgeons are an important part of the clinical team in the management of C difficile infection prevention and treatment.

  15. What can Crohn's patients eat?

    PubMed

    McDonald, P J; Fazio, V W

    1988-08-01

    Seventy-one patients with Crohn's disease were interviewed about their diet. All had undergone surgery for the condition. Thirty-seven patients had an ileostomy and 34 patients did not. Information about the effect of 32 foodstuffs and drinks, what advice had been given, who had given it, and the patients' attitude to food, was obtained. Twenty-seven fit health workers acted as a control group. Corn, nuts, fizzy drinks, raw fruits, shellfish and pickles in the ileostomy patients and nuts, raw fruit and tomatoes in the non-ileostomy patients gave rise to problems. These differences were statistically significant (P less than 0.01) when compared to the control group. Chicken, white bread, rice, potatoes and lamb were the foods least likely to provoke symptoms in all the groups. "Eat what you can" was the commonest dietary advice given and physicians were the most important source of that advice. More than half of the patients thought their diet was adequate but more Crohn's patients than controls took regular vitamin supplements. Although only two patients considered that diet might be responsible for their disease, most thought dietary factors important in controlling symptoms or aiding recovery.

  16. Factors related to the presence of IgA class antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Esteve, M; Mallolas, J; Klaassen, J; Abad-Lacruz, A; Gonzàlez-Huix, F; Cabré, E; Fernández-Bañares, F; Menacho, M; Condom, E; Martí-Ragué, J; Gassull, M A

    1998-04-01

    Few studies have assessed the IgA antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positivity in ulcerative colitis patients and there is no information about factors related to its synthesis and its status after colectomy. The aims of the study were to assess the serum IgA ANCA prevalence in ulcerative colitis patients, both nonoperated and operated, and to determine the clinical factors related to this positivity. Fifty-four ulcerative colitis patients, 63 ulcerative colitis colectomized patients (32 with Brooke's ileostomy and 31 with ileal pouch anal anastomosis), and 24 controls were studied. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were detected by specific indirect immunofluorescent assays. The percentage of IgA ANCA was significantly higher in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (45%) than in patients with Brooke's ileostomy (22%). There were no differences related to the presence of pouchitis in ileal pouch anal anastomosis patients. Patients with nonoperated extensive colitis (47%) had a significantly higher percentage of IgA ANCA than patients with proctitis (19%). Total percentage of ANCA (IgA and/or IgG) tended to be higher in ulcerative colitis and in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis than in patients with Brooke's ileostomy. However, in ileal pouch anal anastomosis patients, ANCA positivity was mainly due to exclusive IgA production. A substantial percentage of ulcerative colitis patients, and especially colectomized patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, had IgA ANCA, suggesting that ANCA production in ulcerative colitis might be stimulated by an immune reaction in the intestinal mucosa.

  17. Inter-subject variability in intestinal drug solubility.

    PubMed

    Rabbie, Sarit Cohen; Flanagan, Talia; Martin, Paul D; Basit, Abdul W

    2015-05-15

    Variability in oral drug absorption is a well-known phenomenon, but it is often overlooked for its potential effects in oral drug delivery. Understanding the mechanisms behind absorption variability is crucial to understanding and predicting drug pharmacokinetics. In this study, the solubility of furosemide and dipyridamole - drugs known to have highly variable oral bioavailabilities - was investigated in individual ileostomy fluids from 10 subjects with ulcerative colitis. For comparison, drug solubility was also determined in pooled upper gastrointestinal fluids from healthy human subjects and simulated intestinal fluids. Ileostomy fluid characterization revealed high variability in buffer capacity and to a lesser degree for pH. Drug solubility in ileostomy fluids showed high variability. Correlation analysis revealed that dipyridamole solubility in these fluids is pH-dependent, whereas furosemide solubility was highly correlated to buffer capacity and pH. The implications of these results might partly explain the high variability in bioavailability in vivo, assuming that most of the observed variability is due to the absorption, and not the elimination, process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of Low Colorectal Anastomotic Leakage in the Laparoscopic Era: More Than a Decade of Experience.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Stephen Alexander; Harris, Craig; Stevenson, Andrew; Lumley, John; Clark, David

    2017-08-01

    Anastomotic leak after colorectal surgery increases postoperative mortality, cancer recurrence, permanent stoma formation, and poor bowel function. Anastomosis between the colon and rectum is a particularly high risk. Traditional management mandates laparotomy, disassembly of the anastomosis, and formation of an often-permanent stoma. After laparoscopic colorectal surgery it may be possible to manage anastomotic failure with laparoscopy, thus avoiding laparotomy. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of the laparoscopic management of failed low colorectal anastomoses. This was a single-institute case series. A total of 555 laparoscopic patients undergoing anterior resection with primary anastomosis within 10 cm of the anus in the period 2000-2012 were included. Anastomotic failure, defined as any clinical or radiological demonstrable defect in the anastomosis; complications using the Clavien-Dindo system; mortality within 30 days; and patient demographics and risk factors, as defined by the Charlson index, were measured. Leakage occurred in 44 (7.9%) of 555 patients, 16 patients with a diverting ileostomy and 28 with no diverting ileostomy. Leakage was more common in those with anastomoses <5 cm form the anus, male patients, and those with a colonic J-pouch and rectal cancer. Diverting ileostomy was not protective of anastomotic leakage. In those patients with anastomotic leakage and a primary diverting ileostomy, recourse to the peritoneal cavity was required in 4 of 16 patients versus 24 of 28 without a diverting ileostomy (p = 0.0002). In 74% of those cases, access to the peritoneal cavity was achieved through laparoscopy. Permanent stoma rates were very low, including 14 (2.5%) of 555 total patients or 8 (18.0%) of 44 patients with anastomotic leakage. Thirty-day mortality was rare (0.6%). This study was limited by the lack of a cohort of open cases for comparison. Laparoscopic anterior resection is associated with low levels of

  19. Relationship between diversion colitis and quality of life in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Nyoung; Choi, Dong Jin; Woo, Si Uk; Kim, Jin; Keom, Bo Ra; Kim, Chul Hwan; Baek, Se Jin; Kim, Seon Hahn

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigated the incidence of diversion colitis (DC) and impact of DC symptoms on quality of life (QoL) after ileostomy reversal in rectal cancer. METHODS: We performed a prospective study with 30 patients who underwent low anterior resection and the creation of a temporary ileostomy for the rectal cancer between January 2008 and July 2009 at the Department of Surgery, Korea University Anam Hospital. The participants totally underwent two rounds of the examinations. At first examination, endoscopies, tissue biopsies, and questionnaire survey about the symptom were performed 3-4 mo after the ileostomy creations. At second examination, endoscopies, tissue biopsies, and questionnaire survey about the symptom and QoL were performed 5-6 mo after the ileostomy reversals. Clinicopathological data were based on the histopathological reports and clinical records of the patients. RESULTS: At the first examination, all of the patients presented with inflammation, which was mild in 15 (50%) patients, moderate in 11 (36.7%) and severe in 4 (13.3%) by endoscopy and mild in 14 (46.7%) and moderate in 16 (53.3%) by histology. At the second examination, only 11 (36.7%) and 17 (56.7%) patients had mild inflammation by endoscopy and histology, respectively. There was no significant difference in DC grade between the endoscopic and the histological findings at first or second examination. The symptoms detected on the first and second questionnaires were mucous discharge in 12 (40%) and 5 (17%) patients, bloody discharge in 5 (17%) and 3 (10%) patients, abdominal pain in 4 (13%) and 2 (7%) patients and tenesmus in 9 (30%) and 5 (17%) patients, respectively. We found no correlation between the endoscopic or histological findings and the symptoms such as mucous discharge, bleeding, abdominal pain and tenesmus in both time points. Diarrhea was detected in 9 patients at the second examination; this number correlated with the severity of DC (0%, 0%, 66.7%, 33.3% vs 0%, 71.4%, 23

  20. Fasting and postprandial ileal function in adapted ileostomates and normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Ladas, S D; Isaacs, P E; Murphy, G M; Sladen, G E

    1986-01-01

    The output of 11 established ileostomies was compared with ileal flow measured by intestinal perfusion in five normal volunteers when fasting and during the ileal passage of test meals containing different proportions of medium chain triglyceride and long chain triglyceride. Oroileal transit of the meal was the same in the two groups, but ileostomy output was less than ileal flow of normal persons both fasting (16.3 +/- 10.9 vs 62.4 +/- 24.7 ml/h, p less than 0.001) and after the long chain triglyceride rich meal (35.4 27.0 vs 96.1 +/- 20.2 ml/h, p less than 0.001). After ingestion of the medium chain triglyceride rich meal, ideal flow failed to increase in normal subjects but in ileostomates the changes in flow after medium chain triglyceride and long chain triglyceride rich meals were not significantly different. The fasting ileostomy effluent composition differed from that of normal fasting ileal content in having a higher concentration of potassium (8.0 +/- 2.9 vs 4.7 +/- 0.6 mmol/1, p less than 0.04) and a higher osmolality (353 +/- 63 vs 287 +/- 5 mosm/kg, p less than 0.05). Sodium concentration tended to be lower in ileostomy effluent, but in contrast to previous reports, ileostomy effluent was of consistently alkaline pH (7.2 +/- 0.3). These concentrations were not significantly altered by either type of meal. The long chain triglyceride rich meal increased the ileal flow of bile acids in both normal subjects and ileostomates, whereas the medium chain triglyceride rich meal increased bile acid flow in ileostomates but not in normal subjects, possibly reflecting a different amount of the bile acids in the ileum of the ileostomate. In the adapted ileostomate, the low volume and high potassium concentration of fasting effluent suggest that sodium and water absorption are continuously stimulated by chronic salt depletion. PMID:3732897

  1. Step-up approach and video assisted retroperitoneal debridement in infected necrotizing pancreatitis: A case complicated by retroperitoneal bleeding and colonic fistula

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eugene; Sundaraamoorthy, R.S.; Tan, David; Teh, Hui-Seong; Tan, Tzu-Jen; Cheng, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Infected Necrotizing Pancreatitis carries a high mortality and necessitates intervention to achieve sepsis control. The surgical strategy for proven infected necrosis has evolved, with abandonment of open necrosectomy to a step-up approach consisting of percutaneous drains and Video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement (VARD). We present a case that underwent VARD complicated by bleeding and colonic perforation and describe its management. Presentation of case A 38 year-old male with acute pancreatitis developed infected necrotizing pancreatitis. Initial treatment was by percutaneous drainage under radiological guidance and intravenous antibiotics. The infected retroperitoneal necrosis was then debrided using gasless laparoscopy through a mini-incision. Post-operatively, he developed peripancreatic bleeding which was controlled with angioembolisation. He also developed a descending colon fistula which was treated with laparotomy and defunctioning loop ileostomy. He recovered and subsequently had his ileostomy closed twelve months later. The colonic fistula recurred and was treated with endoscopic clips and histoacryl glue injection and finally closed. Discussion Step-up approach consists of the 3 D's: Delay, drain and debride. VARD is recommended as it is replicable in general surgical units using standard laparoscopic instruments. Bleeding and colon perforation are potential complications which must have multi-disciplinary input, aggressive resuscitation and timely radiologic intervention. Defunctioning ileostomy is recommended to control sepsis in colonic fistulation. Novel fistula closing methods using endoscopic clips and histoacryl glue are potential treatment options. Conclusion Step-up approach and VARD is the new paradigm to treat necrotizing pancreatitis. Complications of bleeding and colon fistula are uncommon and require multi-disciplinary management. PMID:26587229

  2. The Reversal of Stoma Following Open Abdomen Management.

    PubMed

    Yetişir, Fahri; Şarer, AkgünEbru; Acar, H Zafer; Çiftciler, Erdinç

    2016-06-01

    Bowel stoma formation is very often required during open abdomen (OA) management; we aim to report our stoma reversal series following OA management retrospectively. A retrospective analysis of 31 patients who underwent the reversal of the stoma created during OA management between January 2008 and September 2014 was performed. Twenty-eight of these 31 patients were included in this study. The stoma-related complications are more common after OA management during waiting time interval for reversal. At this time interval, patients with jejunostomy had more stoma-related complications than patients with ileostomy (p = 0.008) and colostomy. (p = 0.001). Waiting time interval was shorter for reversal of jejunostomy than reversal of ileostomy (p = 0.014) and colostomy (p = 0.001). Operation time for jejunostomy (p = 0.016) and colostomy reversal (p = 0.001) were significantly longer than the ileostomy reversal. There was no difference between early and late reversal of stoma regarding morbidity and mortality. The stoma-related complications are more common following OA management during waiting time interval for stoma reversal. The reversal time is more critical for this kind of patients especially with life-threatening complicated jejunostomy. For loop stoma created during OA management, the reversal may be performed after average 50 days without increasing morbidity and mortality. The reversal of end stoma created during OA management has high morbidity. If it is possible, loop stoma should be preferred during OA management.

  3. Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II Score and its Correlation with Three Surgical Strategies for Management of Ileal Perforations

    PubMed Central

    Munghate, Anand; Kumar, Ashwani; Mittal, Sushil; Singh, Harnam; Sharma, Jyoti; Yadav, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ileal perforation peritonitis is a common surgical emergency in the Indian subcontinent and in tropical countries. It is reported to constitute the fifth common cause of abdominal emergencies due to high incidence of enteric fever and tuberculosis in these management based on Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score. Methods: The following study was conducted in the Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College, Patiala. A total of 57 patients were studied and divided in to Group I, II, and III. APACHE II score accessed and score between 10 and 19 were blindly randomized into three procedures primary closure, resection-anastomosis, and ileostomy. The outcome was compared. Results: Ileal perforations were most commonly observed in the third and fourth decade of life with male dominance. APACHE II score was accessed and out of total 57 patients, 6 patients had APACHE II score of 0–9, 48 patients had APACHE II score of 10–19, and 3 patients had APACHE II score of ≥20. In APACHE II score 10–19, 15 patients underwent primary closure, 16 patients underwent resection-anastomosis, and 17 patients underwent ileostomy. Discussion and Conclusion: Primary closure of perforation is advocated in patients with single, small perforation (<1 cm) with APACHE II score 10–19 irrespective of duration of perforation. Ileostomy is advocated in APACHE II score 10–19, where the terminal ileum is grossly inflamed with multiple perforations, large perforations (>1 cm), fecal peritonitis, matted bowel loops, intraoperative evidence of caseating lymph nodes, strictures, and an unhealthy gut due to edema. PMID:27512550

  4. Predictors of Early Readmission in Hospitalized Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Christian, Kaci E; Jambaulikar, Guruprasad D; Hagan, Matilda N; Syed, Ali M; Briscoe, Jessica A; Brown, Sara A; Campbell, Earl V; Gadani, Akash B; Cross, Raymond K

    2017-08-22

    Readmissions are being increasingly used as an indicator of quality of care. We sought to identify risk factors for 30-day readmission in hospitalized patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease hospitalized between 2004 and 2013 at the University of Maryland were identified. Demographic and clinical information were extracted from the medical record for each admission. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the association between these variables and readmission. One thousand two hundred thirteen admissions were identified in 498 patients; 232 (19.1%) index admissions were followed by a 30-day readmission. Mean age was 39.4 ± 14.5 years. Approximately 70% of the population was white, 60% were women, and 67.5% had Crohn's disease. Concurrent congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of steroid use, diverting ileostomy, subtotal colectomy, or a thromboembolic event during index admission, and IV antibiotics or restricted diet at discharge were associated with readmission. After adjustment, patients with congestive heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were more likely to be readmitted (aOR 4.06 and 2.86, respectively). Underweight or obese patients were nearly twice as likely to be readmitted (aOR 1.81 and 1.72, respectively). Those with past steroid use, new ileostomy, or those who were discharged on hyperalimentation were twice as likely to be readmitted (aOR 1.90, 2.04, and aOR 1.97, respectively). Nineteen percentage of patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated at a referral center are readmitted within 30 days. Our results suggest that patients with comorbid medical conditions, malnutrition or obesity, a new ileostomy, past steroid use, or those discharged on hyperalimentation are at increased risk for readmission. Research is needed to determine if targeted interventions for high-risk patients decreases readmissions.

  5. Low complication rate after stoma closure. Consultants attended 90% of the operations.

    PubMed

    Faunø, L; Rasmussen, C; Sloth, K K; Sloth, A M; Tøttrup, A

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate complications after stoma closure. Using a retrospective review of 997 medical records, data were collected from all patients undergoing stoma closure at the Department of Surgery P, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, from 1996 to 2010. Patient data after Hartmann reversal and loop-ileostomy closure were compared. Data regarding the grade of the operating surgeon and assistant were extracted. Out of 997 patients, 700 (70.6%) had a loop-ileostomy closure and 172 (17.4%) had a Hartmann reversal. Postoperative mortality was 0.5%. Seven patients required re-operation (0.7%). Morbidity was registered in 31.9% of the patients, with 131 (13.1%) having early complications and 187 (18.8%) having late complications. Wound infection was the most frequent early complication, which occurred in 31 patients (3.1%). Only 10 patients (1%) had an anastomotic leak. Incisional hernia was the most frequent late complication, occurring in 92 patients (9.3%). A consultant attended 90% of the operations. Junior surgeons never performed stoma closure without supervision. Body mass index was significantly associated with the development of incisional hernia. Hartmann reversal was associated with higher rates of complications compared with loop-ileostomy closure. In patients with Hartmann reversal, stapled anastomosis was associated with stricture in 12 out of 95 cases (12.6%), whereas hand-sewn anastomosis was not associated with stricture (0 out of 64 patients; 0%; P < 0.05). Stoma closure is associated with low rates of leakage. A favourable case mix and high degree of consultant attendance may explain the good results. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Transanal Inspection and Management of Low Colorectal Anastomosis Performed With a New Technique: the TICRANT Study.

    PubMed

    Crafa, Francesco; Smolarek, Sebastian; Missori, Giulia; Shalaby, Mostafa; Quaresima, Silvia; Noviello, Adele; Cassini, Diletta; Ascenzi, Pasquale; Franceschilli, Luana; Delrio, Paolo; Baldazzi, Giannandrea; Giampiero, Ucchino; Megevand, Jacques; Maria Romano, Giovanni; Sileri, Pierpaolo

    2017-10-01

    Anastomotic leakage is one of the most serious complications after rectal cancer surgery. A prospective multicenter interventional study to assess a newly described technique of creating the colorectal and coloanal anastomosis. The primary outcome was to access the safety and efficacy of this technique in the reduction of anastomotic leak. Fifty-three patients with rectal cancer who underwent low or ultra-low anterior resection were included in the study. There were 35 males and 18 females, with a median age of 68 years (range = 49-89 years). The median tumor distance from the anal verge was 8 cm (range = 4-12 cm), and the median body mass index was 24 kg/m(2) (range = 20-35 kg/m(2)). Thirty patients underwent open, 16 laparoscopic, and 7 robotic surgeries. Multiple firing (2-charges) was required in 30 patients to obtain a complete rectal division. Forty-five patients had colorectal anastomosis, and 8 patients had coloanal anastomosis. The protective ileostomy was created in 40 patients at the time of initial surgery. There was no mortality in the first 30 days postoperatively, and only 10 (19%) patients developed complications. There were 3 anastomotic leakages (6%); 2 of them were subclinical with ileostomy created at initial operation and both were treated conservatively with transanal drainage and intravenous antibiotics. One patient required reoperation and ileostomy. The median length of hospital stay was 10 days (range = 4-20 days). Our technique is a safe and efficient method of creation of colorectal anastomosis. It is also a universal method that can be used in open, laparoscopic, and robotic surgeries.

  7. Distinct phenotypes of children with perianal perforating Crohn’s disease☆

    PubMed Central

    Short, Scott S.; Dubinsky, Marla C.; Rabizadeh, Shervin; Farrior, Sharmayne; Berel, Dror; Frykman, Philip K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Perianal perforating disease (PF) has been reported in approximately 15% of children with Crohn’s disease (CD). It is unknown whether children who present with PF at the time of diagnosis have a different course than those that develop PF while on therapy. Methods From a prospective, single institution observational registry of children diagnosed with CD, we identified children with perianal perforating CD, defined as perianal abscesses and/or fistulae. Patients who presented with perianal perforating CD (PF-CD0) were compared to those who developed perianal perforating CD (PF-CD1) after initial diagnosis. Results Thirty-eight of 215 (18%) children with CD had PF-CD during a median follow up of 4.5 years. Patients with PF-CD0 (n = 26) tended to be more likely male (81% vs. 50%, p = 0.07) and younger (9.3 yrs vs. 12.5 yrs, p = 0.02). PF-CD1 (n = 12) patients were more likely to require diverting ileostomy (42% vs. 8%, p = 0.02) and colectomy (33% vs. 4%, p = 0.03). Multivariable analysis predicted increased rate of diverting ileostomy in the PF-CD1 group (p = 0.007, OR 19.1, 95% CI 1.6–234.8). Conclusion Pediatric CD patients who develop PF while on therapy for CD have a more severe phenotype and are more likely to require diverting ileostomy or colectomy compared to those who present with PF-CD. PMID:23845622

  8. Distinct phenotypes of children with perianal perforating Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Short, Scott S; Dubinsky, Marla C; Rabizadeh, Shervin; Farrior, Sharmayne; Berel, Dror; Frykman, Philip K

    2013-06-01

    Perianal perforating disease (PF) has been reported in approximately 15% of children with Crohn's disease (CD). It is unknown whether children who present with PF at the time of diagnosis have a different course than those that develop PF while on therapy. From a prospective, single institution observational registry of children diagnosed with CD, we identified children with perianal perforating CD, defined as perianal abscesses and/or fistulae. Patients who presented with perianal perforating CD (PF-CD0) were compared to those who developed perianal perforating CD (PF-CD1) after initial diagnosis. Thirty-eight of 215 (18%) children with CD had PF-CD during a median follow up of 4.5 years. Patients with PF-CD0 (n=26) tended to be more likely male (81% vs. 50%, p=0.07) and younger (9.3 yrs vs. 12.5 yrs, p=0.02). PF-CD1 (n=12) patients were more likely to require diverting ileostomy (42% vs. 8%, p=0.02) and colectomy (33% vs. 4%, p=0.03). Multivariable analysis predicted increased rate of diverting ileostomy in the PF-CD1 group (p=0.007, OR 19.1, 95% CI 1.6-234.8). Pediatric CD patients who develop PF while on therapy for CD have a more severe phenotype and are more likely to require diverting ileostomy or colectomy compared to those who present with PF-CD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors affecting poor nutritional status after small bowel resection in patients with Crohn disease

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ki Ung; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Park, In Ja; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Crohn disease, bowel-preserving surgery is necessary to prevent short bowel syndrome due to repeated operations. This study aimed to determine the remnant small bowel length cut-off and to evaluate the clinical factors related to nutritional status after small bowel resection in Crohn disease. We included 394 patients (69.3% male) who underwent small bowel resection for Crohn disease between 1991 and 2012. Patients who were classified as underweight (body mass index < 17.5) or at high risk of nutrition-related problems (modified nutritional risk index < 83.5) were regarded as having a poor nutritional status. Preliminary remnant small bowel length cut-offs were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Variables associated with poor nutritional status were assessed retrospectively using Student t tests, chi-squared tests, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression analyses. The mean follow-up period was 52.9 months and the mean patient ages at the time of the last bowel surgery and last follow-up were 31.2 and 35.7 years, respectively. The mean remnant small bowel length was 331.8 cm. Forty-three patients (10.9%) underwent ileostomy, 309 (78.4%) underwent combined small bowel and colon resection, 111 (28.2%) had currently active disease, and 105 (26.6%) underwent at least 2 operations for recurrent disease. The mean body mass index and modified nutritional risk index were 20.6 and 100.8, respectively. The independent factors affecting underweight status were remnant small bowel length ≤240 cm (odds ratio: 4.84, P < 0.001), ileostomy (odds ratio: 4.70, P < 0.001), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.16, P < 0.001). The independent factors affecting high nutritional risk were remnant small bowel length ≤230 cm (odds ratio: 2.84, P = 0.012), presence of ileostomy (odds ratio: 3.36, P = 0.025), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.90, P < 0.001). Currently active disease, ileostomy, and

  10. Helping Patients Cope with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Professional Developmen AFIT. Wright-Patterson AFB OH I6. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side it necessary and Identify by block number) 2). ABSTRAc r (Continue...on reverse lde if neceaary, and Identity by block numbei.) ATTACHED .... I I 7 1473 EDITION OF I NOV6 5sS OBSOLETE UNCLASS 84 09 13.03 1 SECURITY...IBD because of life threatening 4q .,.-"- 5 complications. Surgery may include bowel resection, colostomy or ileostomy. Tbough considered a cure for

  11. Embolization of Bleeding Stomal Varices by Direct Percutaneous Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Arulraj, Ramakrishnan; Mangat, Kamarjit S.; Tripathi, Dhiraj

    2011-02-15

    Stomal varices can occur in patients with stoma in the presence of portal hypertension. Suture ligation, sclerotherapy, angiographic embolization, stoma revision, beta blockade, portosystemic shunt, and liver transplantation have been described as therapeutic options for bleeding stomal varices. We report the case of a 21-year-old patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis and colectomy with ileostomy for ulcerative colitis, where stomal variceal bleeding was successfully treated by direct percutaneous embolization. We consider percutaneous embolization to be an effective way of treating acute stomal bleeding in decompensated patients while awaiting decisions regarding shunt procedures or liver transplantation.

  12. Spontaneous Rupture of Adenocarcinoma of Meckel’s Diverticulum- A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Meckel’s diverticulum is a true diverticulum from remnant of vitelline duct. It is most common congenital anomaly of intestine. It is associated with intestinal atresia and anorectal anomalies. It contains heterotrophic epithelium. Most common heterotrophic mucosa is gastric followed by pancreatic tissue. Adenocarcinoma arising from Meckel’s diverticulum is very rare. Spontaneous perforation of adenocarcinoma rarely reported. Most of perforation reported in Meckel’s diverticulum diagnosed during intraoperative period. This is a case report of spontaneous rupture of adenocarcinoma of Meckel’s diverticulum, which was managed with primary resection and ileostomy. PMID:26672729

  13. Factors affecting poor nutritional status after small bowel resection in patients with Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ki Ung; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Park, In Ja; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-07-01

    In Crohn disease, bowel-preserving surgery is necessary to prevent short bowel syndrome due to repeated operations. This study aimed to determine the remnant small bowel length cut-off and to evaluate the clinical factors related to nutritional status after small bowel resection in Crohn disease.We included 394 patients (69.3% male) who underwent small bowel resection for Crohn disease between 1991 and 2012. Patients who were classified as underweight (body mass index < 17.5) or at high risk of nutrition-related problems (modified nutritional risk index < 83.5) were regarded as having a poor nutritional status. Preliminary remnant small bowel length cut-offs were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Variables associated with poor nutritional status were assessed retrospectively using Student t tests, chi-squared tests, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression analyses.The mean follow-up period was 52.9 months and the mean patient ages at the time of the last bowel surgery and last follow-up were 31.2 and 35.7 years, respectively. The mean remnant small bowel length was 331.8 cm. Forty-three patients (10.9%) underwent ileostomy, 309 (78.4%) underwent combined small bowel and colon resection, 111 (28.2%) had currently active disease, and 105 (26.6%) underwent at least 2 operations for recurrent disease. The mean body mass index and modified nutritional risk index were 20.6 and 100.8, respectively. The independent factors affecting underweight status were remnant small bowel length ≤240 cm (odds ratio: 4.84, P < 0.001), ileostomy (odds ratio: 4.70, P < 0.001), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.16, P < 0.001). The independent factors affecting high nutritional risk were remnant small bowel length ≤230 cm (odds ratio: 2.84, P = 0.012), presence of ileostomy (odds ratio: 3.36, P = 0.025), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.90, P < 0.001).Currently active disease, ileostomy, and remnant small

  14. Skin Problems After Ostomy Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Katharina

    1978-01-01

    For many years people with colostomies, ileostomies and urinary diversions have had to live in a shadow due to ill-fitting appliances. This has lead to odor problems, skin excoriation, depression, and even withdrawal from society. Dr. Rupert Turnbull from the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio saw the need for an enterostomal therapy service some ten years ago. Patients rehabilitated in self-care by an enterostomal therapist, pre and post-operatively, now rarely have any skin problems. During the last ten years new and better appliances have been developed, and with a well constructed stoma in a suitable site, any ostomate can return to a normal life. PMID:21301501

  15. Management of pouch dysfunction in a tertiary centre.

    PubMed

    Ourô, S; Thava, B; Shaikh, I; Clark, S K

    2016-12-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the operation of choice for ulcerative colitis (UC) and some cases of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Although it offers improvement in quality of life and high patient satisfaction, pouch surgery is also associated with significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to describe the management of patients referred to a tertiary centre with pouch dysfunction. All patients referred with pouch dysfunction from other institutions between October 2006 and November 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Information regarding initial diagnosis before RPC, type of procedure, symptoms leading to referral, relation of the appearance of symptoms to the ileostomy closure, investigations, final diagnosis, treatment and follow-up was reviewed. One hundred and twenty-one patients were included, having had RPC mostly for UC (94%), and with diverting ileostomy (83%). The most frequent reasons for referral were high frequency of defaecation in 83 (69%) patients, abdominal pain and incontinence in 45 (37%) each and perianal pain in 44 (36%). The principal investigations performed were pouchoscopy in 97 (80%) patients, examination under anaesthesia (EUA) in 62 (51%), pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 56 (46%) and contrast radiology of the pouch (pouchogram) in 45 (35%). The commonest diagnoses were pouchitis (primary and secondary) in 24 (21%) patients and anastomotic leakage in 26 (22%). After full investigation a cause for the symptoms could not be found in 24 (20%) patients, resulting in the diagnosis of exclusion of 'irritable pouch syndrome' or functional disorder. The treatments given were long-term antibiotic therapy in 29 (25%) patients, ileostomy in 19 (16%), use of a Medena catheter to promote anal evacuation in 17 (15%) and dilatation of a stenosis under anaesthetic in 12 (10%). Six (5%) patients underwent major revision surgery of the pouch with a defunctioning ileostomy and

  16. Diagnosis and Management of Nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Ingimarsson, Johann P; Krambeck, Amy E; Pais, Vernon M

    2016-06-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common affliction, affecting approximately 10% of adults. Potentially presenting with acute abdominal or flank pain, nausea, or emesis, it may pose as a general surgical condition. Therefore, recognition, diagnosis, and management concerns are pertinent to the general surgeon. Furthermore, the risk of nephrolithiasis is increased in common general surgical conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, hyperparathyroidism, and short gut. Nephrolithiasis may be induced as a result of general surgical interventions, including gastric bypass and bowel resection with ileostomy. An understanding of this common disease will improve coordination of patient care between urologists and general surgeons.

  17. The operative management of children with complex perianal Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Seemann, Natashia M; King, Sebastian K; Elkadri, Abdul; Walters, Thomas; Fish, Joel; Langer, Jacob C

    2016-12-01

    Perianal Crohn's disease (PCD) can affect both quality of life and psychological wellbeing. A subset of pediatric patients with complex PCD require surgical intervention, although appropriate timing and treatment regimens remain unclear. This study aimed to describe a large pediatric cohort in a tertiary center to determine the range of surgical management in children with complex PCD. A retrospective review of children requiring operative intervention for PCD over 13 years (2002-2014) was performed. PCD was divided into simple and complex based on the type of surgical procedure, and the two groups were compared. The 57 children were divided into two groups: the simple group (N=43) underwent abscess drainage ± seton insertion alone, and the complex group (N=14) underwent loop ileostomy ± more extensive surgery. In the complex group, females were more predominant (57% of complex vs 30% of simple), and the average age at diagnosis was lower. Anti-TNF therapy was utilized in 79.1% of simple and 100% of complex PCD. All 14 complex patients underwent a defunctioning ileostomy, with 7 requiring further operations (subtotal colectomy=4, proctocolectomy ± anal sparing=5, plastic surgery reconstruction with perineal flap/graft=4). Complex PCD represents a small but challenging subset of patients in which major surgical intervention may be necessary to alleviate the symptoms of this debilitating condition. retrospective case study with no control group - level IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Liver Cirrhosis/Severe Fibrosis Is a Risk Factor for Anastomotic Leakage after Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Irina; Willi, Niels; Stickel, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Liver cirrhosis associated with high perioperative morbidity/mortality. This retrospective study determines whether liver cirrhosis represents a risk factor for anastomotic leakage after colonic anastomosis or not. Methods. Based on a prospective database with all consecutive colorectal resections performed at the authors' institution from 07/2002 to 07/2012 (n = 2104) all colonic and rectal anastomoses were identified (n = 1875). A temporary loop ileostomy was constructed in 257 cases (13.7%) either due to Mannheimer Peritonitis-Index > 29 or rectal anastomosis below 6 cm from the anal verge. More than one-third of the patients (n = 691) had postoperative contrast enema, either at the occasion of another study or prior to closure of ileostomy. The presence of liver cirrhosis and the development of anastomotic leakage were assessed by chart review. Results. The overall anastomotic leakage rate was 2.7% (50/1875). In patients with cirrhosis/severe fibrosis, the anastomotic leakage rate was 12.5% (3/24), while it was only 2.5% (47/1851) in those without (p = 0.024). The difference remained statistically significant after correction for confounding factors by multivariate analysis. Conclusion. Patients with liver cirrhosis/severe fibrosis have an increased risk of leakage after colonic anastomosis. PMID:28105046

  19. Risk factors causing structural sequelae after anastomotic leakage in mid to low rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Woong Bae; Kwak, Jung Myun; Kim, Jin; Um, Jun Won; Kim, Seon Hahn

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk factors causing structural sequelae after anastomotic leakage in patients with mid to low rectal cancer. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of consecutive subjects who had anastomotic leakage after surgical resection for rectal cancer from March 2006 to May 2013 at Korea University Anam Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Two subgroup analyses were performed. The patients were initially divided into the sequelae (stricture, fistula, or sinus) and no sequelae groups and then divided into the permanent stoma (PS) and no PS groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors of structural sequelae after anastomotic leakage. RESULTS: Structural sequelae after anastomotic leakage were identified in 29 patients (39.7%). Multivariate analysis revealed that diversion ileostomy at the first operation increases the risk of structural sequelae [odds ratio (OR) = 6.741; P = 0.017]. Fourteen patients (17.7%) had permanent stoma during the follow-up period (median, 37 mo). Multivariate analysis showed that the tumor level from the dentate line was associated with the risk of permanent stoma (OR = 0.751; P = 0.045). CONCLUSION: Diversion ileostomy at the first operation increased the risk of structural sequelae of the anastomosis, while lower tumor location was associated with the risk of permanent stoma in the management of anastomotic leakage. PMID:26019455

  20. Recurrent severe gastrointestinal bleeding and malabsorption due to extensive habitual megacolon

    PubMed Central

    Mecklenburg, Ingo; Leibig, Markus; Weber, Christof; Schmidbauer, Stefan; Folwaczny, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Dilatation of the colon and the rectum, which is not attributable to aganglionosis, is a rare finding and can be the result of intractable chronic constipation. We report a rare case of a 29-year-old male patient with impressive megacolon, in whom Hirschsprung’s or Chagas disease was ruled out. In the present case, dilatation of the colon was most likely due to a behavioral disorder with habitual failure of defecation. Chronic stool retention led to a bizarre bulging of the large bowel with displacement of the other abdominal organs and severe occult blood loss. Because of two episodes of life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding despite conventional treatment of constipation, a surgical approach for bowel restoration was necessary. Temporary loop ileostomy had to be performed for depressurization of the large bowel and the subsequent possibility for effective antegrade colonic lavage to remove impacted stools. Shortly after the operation, the patient was healthy and could easily manage the handling of the ileostomy. However, the course of the megacolon in this young adult cannot be predicted and the follow-up will have to reveal if regression of this extreme colonic distension with reestablishment of regular rectal perception will occur. PMID:16437700

  1. Survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the Terminal Ileum of Fistulated Göttingen Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Lick, Sonja; Drescher, Karsten; Heller, Knut J.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus administered in yogurt to survive the passage through the upper gastrointestinal tract was investigated with Göttingen minipigs that were fitted with ileum T-cannulas. After ingestion of yogurt containing viable microorganisms, ileostomy samples were collected nearly every hour beginning 3 h after food uptake. Living L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were detected in the magnitude of 106 to 107 per gram of intestinal contents (wet weight) in all animals under investigation. A calculation of the minimum amount of surviving bacteria that had been administered is presented. Total DNA extracted from ileostomy samples was subjected to PCR, which was species specific for L. delbrueckii and S. thermophilus and subspecies specific for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. All three bacterial groups could be detected by PCR after yogurt uptake but not after uptake of a semisynthetic diet. One pig apparently had developed an endogenous L. delbrueckii flora. When heat-treated yogurt was administered, L. delbrueckii was detected in all animals. S. thermophilus or L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was not detected, indicating that heat-inactivated cells and their DNAs had already been digested and their own L. delbrueckii flora had been stimulated for growth. PMID:11526016

  2. Survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the terminal ileum of fistulated Göttingen minipigs.

    PubMed

    Lick, S; Drescher, K; Heller, K J

    2001-09-01

    The ability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus administered in yogurt to survive the passage through the upper gastrointestinal tract was investigated with Göttingen minipigs that were fitted with ileum T-cannulas. After ingestion of yogurt containing viable microorganisms, ileostomy samples were collected nearly every hour beginning 3 h after food uptake. Living L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were detected in the magnitude of 10(6) to 10(7) per gram of intestinal contents (wet weight) in all animals under investigation. A calculation of the minimum amount of surviving bacteria that had been administered is presented. Total DNA extracted from ileostomy samples was subjected to PCR, which was species specific for L. delbrueckii and S. thermophilus and subspecies specific for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. All three bacterial groups could be detected by PCR after yogurt uptake but not after uptake of a semisynthetic diet. One pig apparently had developed an endogenous L. delbrueckii flora. When heat-treated yogurt was administered, L. delbrueckii was detected in all animals. S. thermophilus or L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was not detected, indicating that heat-inactivated cells and their DNAs had already been digested and their own L. delbrueckii flora had been stimulated for growth.

  3. The Kock pouch reconsidered: an alternative surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Alison; Williams, Julia; Woodhouse, Fran

    The psychological impact stoma surgery can have on an individual is well documented within the literature (White and Hunt, 1997; Borwell, 2009; Williams, 2005; Brown, 2005). For many years, surgeons have explored and developed innovations in surgical techniques, in particular restorative procedures with a view of preventing permanent stoma formation; ileal anal pouch (IAP) now being the surgical procedure of choice for treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, high morbidity rates are associated with pouch longevity (Castillo et al 2005; Nessar and Wu, 2012) and once removed can lead to a high-output ileostomy with risks of electrolyte imbalance and malabsorption. This then creates the dilemma of whether the Kock pouch (KP) should be offered as a surgical option. This article offers a historical perspective of the KP and its place in the surgical management of UC and FAP. This article also presents results from a recent audit funded by the Ileostomy Association (IA), highlighting how patients manage their KP and the importance of maintaining bowel control and being free of an incontinent stoma as a means of coming to terms with their condition.

  4. Use of T-Tube Enterostomy in Neonatal Gastro-intestinal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Al-Zaiem, Maher; Al-Garni, Abdulhai F; Al-Maghrebi, Abdulrahman; Asghar, Asim A

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the results of the use of the T-tube ileostomy in neonatal intestinal surgery cases. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of sixty two neonates underwent intestinal obstruction surgery by using T-tube ileostomy was conducted between January 1990 and January 2013.The pathologies of the intestinal obstruction were; thirty four of jejunoileal atresia cases, thirteen case meconium ileus, eight cases perforated necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), three cases meconium peritonitis, three cases with bowel resection due to intestinal volvulus, and one case of gastroschisis. Results: Mean duration of T-tube placement was 13 days (range9-20days) and the sites of T-tube insertion closed spontaneously in 2 days (range 1-4 days). The mean duration for starting oral intake postoperatively in these patients was 9 days (6-16 days). All patients well tolerated the procedure and there were no serious complications related to the T-tube insertion. However, four patients died due to other reasons like sepsis, respiratory failure and prematurity. Conclusion: T-tube enterostomy is an effective and safe technique for treatment of selected cases of neonatal intestinal surgery. It showed less morbidity and mortality rates than the conventional stoma. Therefore, it is considered a helpful approach in cases where there is danger of hypoperistaltic dilated bowel proximal to the anastomosis.

  5. Stressors relating to patient psychological health following stoma surgery: an integrated literature review.

    PubMed

    Ang, Seng Giap Marcus; Chen, Hui-Chen; Siah, Rosalind Jiat Chiew; He, Hong-Gu; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2013-11-01

    To summarize empirical evidence relating to stressors that may affect patients' psychosocial health following colostomy or ileostomy surgery during hospitalization and after discharge. An extensive search was performed on the CINAHL®, Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science electronic databases. Eight articles were included with three qualitative and five quantitative research designs. Most studies were conducted in Western nations with one other in Taiwan. Following colostomy or ileostomy surgery, common stressors reported by patients during hospitalization included stoma formation, diagnosis of cancer, and preparation for self-care. After discharge, stressors that patients experienced encompassed adapting to body changes, altered sexuality, and impact on social life and activities. This review suggests that patients with stomas experience various stressors during hospitalization and after discharge. Additional research is needed for better understanding of patient postoperative experiences to facilitate the provision of appropriate nursing interventions to the stressors. To help patients deal with stressors following stoma surgery, nurses may provide pre- and postoperative education regarding the treatment and recovery process and encourage patient self-care. Following discharge, nurses may provide long-term ongoing counseling and support, build social networks among patients with stomas, and implement home visit programs. Stoma surgery negatively affects patients' physical, psychological, social, and sexual health. Postoperative education programs in clinical settings mostly focus on physical health and underemphasize psychological issues. More pre- and postoperative education programs are needed to help patients cope with stoma stressors.

  6. Treatment of megacolon and megarectum.

    PubMed

    Szarka, Lawrence A; Pemberton, John H

    2006-07-01

    Patients presenting with megacolon and megarectum require extensive specialized testing to distinguish underlying Hirschsprung's disease from other secondary causes. Diagnostic testing and long-term treatment are best initiated after disimpaction has been achieved, by large-volume tap water enemas and/or oral colonic lavage with polyethylene glycol. With intensive treatment (including biofeedback if pelvic floor dysfunction is present), at lease one half of patients can avoid surgery. Maintenance therapy relies on daily use of osmotic laxatives. Stimulant laxatives are used intermittently as rescue treatments if there has not been a satisfactory bowel movement in 3 days. Patients with idiopathic megacolon or megarectum may require surgery if they have refractory symptoms. Depending on age, pelvic floor, and anal sphincter function, patients who have isolated megacolon can be treated with either subtotal colectomy with ileorectostomy or diverting loop ileostomy. Patients with isolated megarectum can be treated with either proctectomy and coloanal anastomosis or vertical reduction rectoplasty. Patients who have combined megacolon and megarectum can be offered diverting loop ileostomy or, if pelvic floor function is normal and they wish to avoid stoma, total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

  7. Acute Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction with Feeding Intolerance in Critically Ill Patients: A Study according to Gut Wall Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chenyan; Xie, Tingbin; Li, Jun; Cheng, Minhua; Shi, Jialiang; Gao, Tao; Xi, Fengchan; Shen, Juanhong; Cao, Chun

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To compare the differences between acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) with and without acute gut wall thickening. Methods. ACPO patients with feeding tolerance were divided into ACPO with no obvious gut wall thickening (ACPO-NT) group and ACPO with obvious acute gut wall thickening (ACPO-T) group according to computed tomography and abdominal radiographs. Patients' condition, responses to supportive measures, pharmacologic therapy, endoscopic decompression, and surgeries and outcomes were compared. Results. Patients in ACPO-T group had a significantly higher APACHE II (11.82 versus 8.25, p = 0.008) and SOFA scores (6.47 versus 3.54, p < 0.001) and a significantly higher 28-day mortality (17.78% versus 4.16%, p = 0.032) and longer intensive care unit stage (4 versus 16 d, p < 0.001). Patients in ACPO-NT group were more likely to be responsive to supportive treatment (62.50% versus 24.44%, p < 0.001), neostigmine (77.78% versus 17.64%, p < 0.001), and colonoscopic decompression (75% versus 42.86%, p = 0.318) than those in ACPO-T group. Of the patients who underwent ileostomy, 81.25% gained benefits. Conclusions. ACPO patients with gut wall thickening are more severe and are less likely to be responsive to nonsurgical treatment. Ileostomy may be a good option for ACPO patients with gut wall thickening who are irresponsive to nonsurgical treatment. PMID:28386273

  8. Adenocarcinomas After Prophylactic Surgery For Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joan C.; Schäffer, Michael W.; Ballard, Billy R.; Smoot, Duane T.; Herline, Alan J.; Adunyah, Samuel E.; M’Koma, Amosy E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is one in 7,000 to 12,000 live births. Virtually, all surgically untreated patients with FAP inevitably develop colorectal-cancer in their lifetime because they carry the adenomatous polyposis coli gene. Thus prophylactic proctocolectomy is indicated. Surgical treatment of FAP is still controversial. There are however, four surgical options: ileorectal anastomosis, restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, proctocolectomy with ileostomy, and proctocolectomy with continent-ileostomy. Conventional proctocolectomy options largely lie between colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis or ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Detractors of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis prefer ileorectal anastomosis because of better functional results and quality of life. The functional outcome of total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis is undoubtedly far superior to that of the ileoanal pouch; however, the risk for rectal cancer is increased by 30%. Even after mucosectomy, inadvertent small mucosal residual islands remain. These residual islands carry the potential for the development of subsequent malignancy. We reviewed the literature (1975–2012) on the incidence, nature, and possible etiology of subsequent ileal-pouch and anal transit zone adenocarcinoma after prophylactic surgery procedure for FAP. To date there are 24 studies reporting 92 pouch-related cancers; 15 case reports, 4 prospective and 5 retrospective studies. Twenty three of 92 cancers (25%) developed in the pouch mucosa and 69 (75%) in anal transit zone (ATZ). Current recommendation for pouch surveillance and treatment are presented. Data suggest lifetime surveillance of these patients. PMID:23875116

  9. An initial experience using transanal vacuum therapy in pelvic anastomotic leakage.

    PubMed

    Srinivasamurthy, D; Wood, C; Slater, R; Garner, J

    2013-06-01

    Treatment of the presacral cavity that forms after contained anastomotic leakage of a low pelvic anastomosis is challenging and often results in a permanent stoma. Endosponge™ therapy is a minimally invasive method of treating the presacral cavity which potentially avoids a permanent stoma. We report our initial experience of using Endosponge™ therapy. All patients who underwent Endosponge™ treatment for low pelvic anastomotic leakage in our hospital over a 45-month period were identified and data collected from clinical, operative and endoscopic notes. Eight patients (seven males, one female) underwent Endosponge™ therapy for extraperitoneal pelvic anastomotic leak during the study period; all had had defunctioning ileostomies placed at their original surgery. Six out of eight patients had complete closure or a reduction in the size of the abscess cavity. Five patients have had their ileostomies reversed with good or reasonable bowel function after a median follow-up of 41 months and four of these patients had Endosponge™ therapy instituted within 6 weeks of initial surgery. One patient had Endosponge™ therapy abandoned and conversion to a permanent end colostomy after accidental intraperitoneal placement of the sponge. Early use of Endosponge™ therapy appears to offer a minimally invasive and effective way of closing the presacral cavity after a pelvic anastomotic leak, reducing the risk of permanent stoma and resulting in acceptable bowel function. Endosponge™-specific complications can occur.

  10. Simultaneously Diagnosed and Successfully Treated Rectovaginal and Vesicovaginal Fistulae after Low Anterior Resection with Concomitant Resection of Female Genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Chisato; Baba, Hideo; Yamafuji, Kazuo; Asami, Atsunori; Takeshima, Kaoru; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Takahashi, Hidena; Kubochi, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Rectovaginal fistula (RVF) and vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) are infrequent but distressing complications after pelvic surgery. However, their adequate treatment is not well described. Here, we simultaneously encountered and successfully treated RVF and VVF after radical surgery for rectal cancer. A 70-year-old woman underwent low anterior resection (LAR) combined with resection of the uterus, the bilateral adnexa, and the upper side of the vagina, as well as diverted ileostomy for rectal cancer. A month after the surgery, she developed urinary incontinence and underwent medical treatment, but her symptoms did not improve. Evaluation with contrast enema before stoma closure revealed the presence of RVF and VVF. We repaired the VVF and RVF via transabdominal and transperineal approaches. After 6 months, ileostomy was closed and the patient had no recurrence of cancer and fistula. In LAR with hysterectomy and resection of the vaginal wall, there is a risk of RVF and VVF. The excision and closure of the fistula tract and omental flap can be effective to treat both fistulae. PMID:28203133

  11. Body Image Perceptions of Persons With a Stoma and Their Partners: A Descriptive, Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Dilek; Gocman Baykara, Zehra

    2015-05-01

    The body image perceptions of persons with a stoma and their partners are rarely examined and have yet to be evaluated in a Turkish sample. Using convenience sampling methods, a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among individuals receiving treatment at the authors' stomatherapy unit between March 1, 2012 and May 31, 2012 to assess the effect of the stoma on self-image and partner perception. Eligible participants had to be >18 years of age, married, and with an abdominal stoma (colostomy, urostomy, or ileostomy) for at least 2 months. Data were obtained through separate (patient or partner), face-to-face, 30-minute to 45-minute interviews using the appropriate questionnaire. Questionnaire items assessed demographic variables and patient/partner feelings toward the ostomate's body using the Body Cathexis Scale (BCS) and author-developed questionnaires comprising statements eliciting individual responses (agree, disagree, undecided) regarding their feelings toward the stoma. Data were tabulated and analyzed using percentile distributions, and Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis H tests were performed (Bonferroni correction was applied). Sixty (60) patients (25 women, 35 men, mean age 56.01 ± 10.1 years; 25 with an ileostomy, 30 with a colostomy, 5 with an ileostomy) participated, along with their 60 heterosexual partners (mean age 54.56 ± 10.25 years) married a mean of 33.06 ± 11.03 years. Mean patient BCS score was 133.15 ± 20.58 (range 40--low perception--to 200--high perception). Mean BCS score of patients whose partner helped in stoma care was significantly higher (136.04) than those whose partners did not (120.27) (P = 0.033). Patients who consulted their partners' opinions on stoma creation and participation in care had significantly higher BCS scores (P <0.05), and BCS scores of patients whose partners thought the stoma had a negative effect on their relationship were significantly lower (P = 0.040); patients' perceptions toward their bodies

  12. Minimal invasive surgery: NOSE and NOTES in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Tasende, Marta M; Delgado, Salvadora; Jimenez, Marta; Del Gobbo, Gabriel Diaz; Fernández-Hevia, María; DeLacy, Borja; Balust, Jaume; Lacy, Antonio M

    2015-11-01

    In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), laparoscopic pelvic dissection for IPAA is not always straightforward: often, a hand-assistance incision is used to complete the proctectomy, lengthening operative times. Hybrid NOSE and NOTES are emerging as an alternative approach to conventional laparoscopy. We believe that UC patients could benefit from this new hybrid approach in three ways: by easing the proctectomy as performed down to up, avoiding additional incisions and decreasing surgical times. We present the short-term outcomes of our series. All patients with UC who required IPAA were enrolled in a single-arm prospective study (July 2011 to March 2014). A three-step procedure was performed. The first step: laparoscopic colectomy (with transanal removal of the colon) and temporary ileostomy. The second step: "down-to-up" proctectomy (with transanal removal of the rectum) and IPAA with a covering ileostomy. We combined simultaneously transanal and laparoscopic approach. The third step: ileostomy closure. Functional outcomes were assessed 3 months after third step. Eighteen patients were enrolled. Two patients are waiting to complete the second stage, and 16 underwent all surgical steps. Twelve have been evaluated with functional scores. For the first step, the mean operative time was 162.2 min (SD 40.5) and 170 min (SD 50.1) for the second one. The median hospital stay was 6 days (IQR 5-14.75) for the first step and 5.5 (IQR 5-9.75) for the second one. No major complications occurred. Twenty-four-hour defecation frequency was 5.5 per day (SD 1.7), 0.5 per night. Seventy-five percentage of patients may retain stools for more than 30 min; the mean value of Oresland score was 4.7 and Wexner score 1.4. This is a safe and feasible technique to treat UC patients with good short-term outcomes. Long-term outcomes and controlled trials are needed.

  13. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing interventions for peristomal skin care.

    PubMed

    Tam, Ka-Wai; Lai, Jun-Hung; Chen, Hung-Chou; Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Ko, Wang-Sheng; Chen, Shu-Ling; Huang, Tsai-Wei

    2014-10-01

    Standard skin care procedures for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes and peristomal skin care for colostomy and ileostomy patients are not always sufficient to prevent peristomal skin problems. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to compare the effectiveness of standard peristomal skin care to adjunctive techniques or barriers (including glycogel dressings, gelatin- and pectin-based skin barriers, glycerin hydrogel wound dressing, Acacia senegal fiber pockets, hydrocolloid powder crusting, and German chamomile) to manage or treat patients with a stoma. Using systematic literature search techniques, all healthcare databases were searched up through September 2014. No language restrictions were applied. Studies were included if they met criteria for published RCTs or quasi-RCTs that evaluated the outcome of standardized peristomal skin care and other adjunctive techniques or barriers used among patients with a stoma or PEG tube. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate a pooled effect size by using random-effect models for the primary (skin irritation/reaction) and secondary (length of pouch wear time) outcomes. Six RCTs comprising 418 total patients were identified. Four evaluated the outcome of colostomy or ileostomy peristomal skin care, and no significant differences were detected in the incidence of skin problems (RR 0.67; 95% CI: 0.31-1.41). In the two studies that included length of pouch wear time, no significant differences were observed (RR 0.48; 95% CI: 0.03-7.97). No significant differences were seen in the rate of skin irritations of gastrostomy patients (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.20-1.59), but the difference in treatment outcomes of peristomal damage in patients with a colostomy was significant (P = 0.01). The limited number of studies, study quality, heterogeneity of variability in peristomal care strategies and techniques, clinical factors, and nonuniform reporting of clinical parameters

  14. The continent ileal reservoir--an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Meijer, D W

    1992-01-01

    This thesis describes new concepts pertaining to the continent ileostomy. The aim of the study was twofold: to counter valve desinvagination and to simplify pouch construction. In Chapter 1 a survey is given of the history, the present situation of the technique and the complications of the continent ileostomy. It appears that on the one hand the operation improves the quality of the patient's life, but on the other hand the operation gives rise to many complications. The number of complications quoted in the literature varies and has been reported to be as high as 43%. Most of the time this led to repeat surgery, with equally uncertain results. This is the reason why the operation is not very frequently performed. Most of the time the complications concern the valve system and to a lesser degree the reservoir. In order to obtain a better insight into the origin of and possible gain better control over these complications an investigation was carried out on laboratory animals. This investigation involved: the complications of the valve system, the effect of the suturing method on the function of the reservoir and the simplification of the construction of the reservoir. In Chapter 2 the aim of the investigation was formulated in three questions. 1. Is it possible to diminish the chance of complications of the valve system of the continent ileostomy? 2. Does the method of suturing influence the function of the reservoir? 3. Is it possible to simplify the construction of the reservoir, so that the duration of the operation can be shortened? Chapter 3 is the general materials and methods section. Chapter 4 is about the research on the valve system. Up to now, no method of suturing the valve has consistently produced results good enough to make subsequent re-operations unnecessary. In this study two types of valve experiments have been carried out. First the feasibility of circumventing the problems of the nonpermanent form of the valve was investigated combining a

  15. Rationale and early experience with prophylactic placement of mesh to prevent parastomal hernia formation after ileal conduit urinary diversion and cystectomy for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Timothy F.; Cha, Eugene K.; Bochner, Bernard H.

    2016-01-01

    Parastomal hernias represent a clinically significant problem for many patients after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion. The prevalence may be as high as 60% and in some series, up to 30% of patients require surgical intervention due to the complications of pain, poor fit of an ostomy appliance, leakage, urinary obstruction, and bowel obstruction or strangulation. Due to the potential morbidity associated with PH repair, there have been efforts to prevent PH development at the time of the index surgery. Four randomized trials of prophylactic mesh placement at the time of colostomy and ileostomy stoma formation have demonstrated significant reductions in PH rates with acceptably low complication rates. In this review, we describe the clinical and radiographic definitions of PH, the clinical impact and risk factors behind its development, and the rationale behind prophylactic mesh placement for patients undergoing ileal conduit urinary diversion. Additionally, we report our experience with prophylactic mesh placed at radical cystectomy at our institution. PMID:26757903

  16. Colovesical fistula presenting as Listeria monocytogenes bacteraemia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of colovesical fistula presenting with a clinical syndrome of urosepsis subsequently demonstrated to be due to Listeria monocytogenes bacteraemia. The patient had a history of previous rectal cancer with a low anterior resection and a covering ileostomy that had been reversed 6 months prior to this presentation. L. monocytogenes was also isolated among mixed enteric organisms on urine culture. There were no symptoms or signs of acute gastrointestinal listeriosis or meningoencephalitis. This unusual scenario prompted concern regarding the possibility of communication between bowel and bladder, which was subsequently confirmed with CT and a contrast enema. The patient recovered well with intravenous amoxicillin and to date has declined surgical management of his colovesical fistula. This case illustrates the importance of considering bowel pathology when enteric organisms such as Listeria are isolated from unusual sites. PMID:25827919

  17. Infliximab for the treatment of pouchitis

    PubMed Central

    Zippi, Maddalena; Cassieri, Claudio; Avallone, Eleonora Veronica; Pica, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    Pouchitis is not a rare complication that develops after an ileal-pouch anastomosis, performed after colectomy in patients refractory to treatment or with complicated ulcerative colitis. This condition may become chronic and unresponsive to medical therapies, including corticosteroids, antibiotics and probiotics. The advent of biological therapies (tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors) has changed the course of these complications. In particular, in these cases, infliximab (IFX) may represent a safe and effective therapy in order to avoid the subsequent operation for a permanent ileostomy. This article reviews the therapeutic effects of one of the most widely used anti-tumor necrosis factor-α molecules, IFX, for the treatment of complicated pouchitis (refractory to conventional treatment and/or fistulizing). PMID:24303499

  18. Fungal myocarditis in a preterm neonate

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Michael; Ananth Narayan, Srinivas; Orchard, Elizabeth Ann

    2012-01-01

    A male infant born at 25 weeks gestation presented with abdominal distension, was transferred to our institution for surgical management following suspected bowel perforation with severe sepsis. Umbilical catheter cultures grew Candida parapsilosis. At laparotomy, there was a large ileal perforation with peritonitis, he was treated with amphotericin, antibiotics and had an ileostomy. He had persistent pulmonary hypertension, requiring nitric oxide and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Serial echocardiograms revealed a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), but also demonstrated increasing left ventricular hypertrophy and the development of bright areas within the septal myocardium. Further bright areas developed over a course of 2 weeks in his right ventricular outflow tract. After treatment for candidal infection, there was improvement in left ventricular thickness and brightness of the echogenic lesions was reduced. Biopsy of the lesions was discounted due to the risk of the procedure, the size of the infant and his improving clinical status. PMID:23166173

  19. Ulcerative colitis: a challenge to surgeons.

    PubMed

    Parray, Fazl Q; Wani, Mohd L; Malik, Ajaz A; Wani, Shadab N; Bijli, Akram H; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan

    2012-11-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease that specifically affects the mucosa of the rectum and colon. Although the etiology of this recurring inflammatory disorder remains essentially unknown, there have been significant advances in identifying the likely genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its pathogenesis. The clinical course of the disease typically manifests with remissions and exacerbations characterized by rectal bleeding and diarrhea. Since ulcerative colitis most commonly affects patients in their youth or early middle age, the disease can have serious long-term local and systemic consequences. There is no specific medical therapy that is curative. Although medical therapy can ameliorate the inflammatory process and control most symptomatic flares, it provides no definitive treatment for the disease. Proctocolectomy or total removal of the colon and rectum provides the only complete cure; however, innovative surgical alternatives have eliminated the need for a permanent ileostomy. The aim of this review is to provide a detailed account of the surgical management of ulcerative colitis.

  20. [Therapy of complicated Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Scharl, Michael; Barthel, Christiane; Rogler, Gerhard

    2014-03-12

    During their disease course, the majority of Crohn's disease patients will develop a complicated disease which is characterized by the occurrence of fistulas and/or stenosis. Symptomatic, perianal fistulas should be surgically drained before anti-inflammatory therapy will be initiated. Antibiotics, such as metronidazole, improve disease symptomatic however, they are not sufficient to induce continuous fistula closure. For this purpose, azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine as well as anti-TNF antibodies are useful when administered continuously. Surgical options include seton drainage, fistula excision, fistula plugs and mucosa flaps. As ultima ratio, temporary ileostomy and proctectomy are to be discussed. Non-perianal fistulas often require surgical approaches. Symptomatic strictures or stenosis can be treated by anti-inflammatory medications (only if they are cause by inflammation), endoscopic balloon dilatation or surgery.

  1. [Volvulus of the small bowel due to ascaris lumbricoides package: about a case].

    PubMed

    Diouf, Cheikh; Kane, Ahmed; Ndoye, Ndeye Aby; Ndour, Oumar; Faye-Fall, Aimé Lakh; Fall, Mbaye; Alumeti, Désiré Munyali; Ngom, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We report an exceptional case of a 7 year-old patient with necrotic small bowel volvulus due to adult ascaris lumbricoides. At the admission, the child had intestinal obstruction evolving since two days with alteration of general state. Abdominal radiography without preparation showed small bowel air-fluid levels and tiger-stripe appearance evoking the diagnosis of acute intestinal obstruction associated with abdominal mass. After resuscitation, the surgical treatment consisted of laparotomy which showed necrotic volvulus of the terminal ileum containing adult ascaris lumbricoides. The patient underwent small bowel resection, approximately one meter of affected section was removed and then an ileostomy was performed. The evolution was favorable. The patient underwent ileorectal anastomosis four weeks later. After a 2 year follow-up period the child had no symptoms.

  2. Total laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's procedure.

    PubMed

    Masoni, Luigi; Mari, Francesco Saverio; Nigri, Giuseppe; Favi, Francesco; Pindozzi, Fioralba; Dall'Oglio, Anna; Pancaldi, Alessandra; Brescia, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Hartmann's procedure is still performed in those cases in which colorectal anastomosis might be unsafe. Reversal of Hartmann's procedure (HR) is considered a major surgical procedure with a high morbidity (55 to 60%) and mortality rate (0 to 4%). To decrease these rates, laparoscopic Hartmann's reversal procedure was successfully experienced. We report our totally laparoscopic Hartmann's reversal technique. Between 2004 and 2010 we performed 27 HRs with a totally laparoscopic approach. The efficacy and safety of this technique were demonstrated evaluating the operative data, postoperative complications, and the outcome of the patients. There were no open conversions or major intraoperative complications. Anastomotic leaking occurred in one patient requiring an ileostomy; one patient needed a blood transfusion and one had a nosocomial pneumonia. The mean postoperative hospitalization was 5.7 days. Laparoscopic HR is a feasible and safe procedure and can be considered a valid alternative to open HR.

  3. Management of necrotising appendicitis associated with widespread necrotising enterocolitis of the small and large bowel and perforated duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vaibhav; Zani, Augusto; Jackson, Paul; Singh, Shailinder

    2015-06-08

    A 7-year-old boy presented in septic shock secondary to appendicitis with generalised peritonitis. Following crystalloid resuscitation, he underwent surgery. Faecopurulent contamination and free air were found. This was secondary to a perforated and gangrenous appendix, multiple large and small bowel segments with perforations, patches of necrosis, interspersed with healthy bowel and segments of questionable viability. There was also a perforated duodenal ulcer. Necrotic segments were resected using a 'clip-and-drop' technique to shorten operative duration and guide resection to preserve bowel length. After six laparotomies and multiple bowel resections, the child was discharged home with an ileostomy that was subsequently reversed. He is currently on a normal diet and pursuing all activities appropriate for his age. Perforated appendicitis can be associated with widespread bowel necrosis and multiple perforations. A conservative damage limitation approach using the 'clip-and-drop' technique and relook laparotomies is useful in the management of extensive bowel necrosis in children.

  4. Duodenocolic fistula diagnosed by endoscopy: a rare complication of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Timbol, Aeden Bernice G; Co, Vanessa Charlene O; Djajakusuma, Angela V; Banez, Virgilio P

    2017-02-07

    Duodenocolic fistula (DCF) is a rare complication of colon cancer with only 70 cases reported since its first description in 1862. Owing to its rarity, current knowledge on DCF still relies on single case reports. We present 2 cases of DCF from a hepatic flexure adenocarcinoma demonstrated initially by endoscopy. 2 adult male patients were admitted due to a 2-3-month history of right-upper quadrant pain, vomiting, diarrhoea and a palpable right upper quadrant mass. In both cases, a circumferential, friable mass was noted on upper endoscopy at the second portion of the duodenum, leading to the ascending colon. A similar-looking lesion was also noted on colonoscopy. Biopsies in both cases confirmed colonic adenocarcinoma. Owing to the advanced nature of the disease, en bloc resection was not achieved. Instead, tube jejunostomy and loop ileostomy were created. Both patients were discharged tolerating feeding with improvement in symptoms.

  5. [Acute abdomen with actinomycosis of the colon: A case report].

    PubMed

    García-Zúñiga, Beatriz; Jiménez-Pastrana, Marco Tulio

    2016-01-01

    Actinomyces infection is a chronic inflammatory process that can sometimes, clinically and radiographically, closely mimic a malignant tumour, which may lead to giving a delayed or inappropriate treatment. Male 41 years old, with no previous history, with abdominal pain of one month onset, as well as weight loss, intermittent fever and diarrhoea. He developed acute abdomen and underwent surgery, finding a tumour in the distal ileum with necrosis and punctiform perforations. A resection was performed on the affected part of the ileum and colon, as well as an ileostomy using Hartmann's procedure. Actinomycosis is a disease that must be considered by the surgeon when faced with a clinical picture of subacute onset with intermittent fever, weight loss, abdominal pain, and even anaemia in patients with abdominal and retroperitoneal abscesses or previous history of surgery. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Ulcerative colitis associated with the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut

    PubMed Central

    Sivarajah, Vernon; Abdul, Quddus; Pardoe, Helen; Lunniss, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old Iranian gentleman was admitted to hospital with severe bloody diarrhoea and abdominal pain. He had similar episodes in the past. On each occasion his symptoms developed following the consumption of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut Hardcore X. On this admission, a (CT) scan demonstrated bowel wall thickening and peri-colonic fat stranding in the sigmoid colon. On flexible sigmoidoscopy, a continuous length of congested mucosa with multiple small ulcers was seen extending up to the mid-transverse colon, in keeping with ulcerative colitis. Histological analysis of biopsies was taken at the time and confirmed this. He was started on steroids early during his admission but this only provided a transient clinical improvement. The addition of cyclosporine, which was later changed to azathioprine, did not improve his condition either. He therefore underwent an open subtotal colectomy with end ileostomy. He made a slow but steady recovery and was discharged 3 weeks later. PMID:23291814

  7. Burst abdomen: an unusual complication of silicosis in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sivabalasubramaniam, Gajatheepan; Sagili, Haritha; Dasari, Papa; Gowda, Mamatha

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of silicosis in a 37-year-old pregnant woman, a second gravida with previous caesarean section. She was referred to our hospital at 42 weeks of gestation with breathlessness and oligohydramnios. She had worked in a glass and talc powder factory for 11 years and was diagnosed as having silicosis 2 years prior; she was on treatment. Following admission, she was evaluated for dyspnoea and underwent emergency Caesarean section for poor cervical dilation. She developed a burst abdomen on the third postoperative day with loops of gangrenous bowel protruding outside the abdomen. Emergency laparotomy with ileal resection and ileostomy was carried out. She was discharged on day 14 and is on follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of silicosis in pregnancy presenting with an unusual complication. PMID:26109620

  8. Non-Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis: A Clinical Approach to Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rastegar, Mandana; Nagami, Glenn T

    2017-02-01

    Acid-base disturbances can result from kidney or nonkidney disorders. We present a case of high-volume ileostomy output causing large bicarbonate losses and resulting in a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis. Non-anion gap metabolic acidosis can present as a form of either acute or chronic metabolic acidosis. A complete clinical history and physical examination are critical initial steps to begin the evaluation process, followed by measuring serum electrolytes with a focus on potassium level, blood gas, urine pH, and either direct or indirect urine ammonium concentration. The present case was selected to highlight the differential diagnosis of a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis and illustrate a systematic approach to this problem. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Deferasirox pharmacokinetics evaluation in a woman with hereditary haemochromatosis and heterozygous β-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Allegra, Sarah; De Francia, Silvia; Longo, Filomena; Massano, Davide; Cusato, Jessica; Arduino, Arianna; Pirro, Elisa; Piga, Antonio; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    We present the deferasirox pharmacokinetics evaluation of a female patient on iron chelation, for the interesting findings from her genetic background (hereditary haemochromatosis and heterozygous β-thalassaemia) and clinical history (ileostomy; iron overload from transfusions). Drug plasma concentrations were measured by an HPLC-UV validated method, before and after ileum resection. Area under deferasirox concentration curve over 24h (AUC) values were determined by the mixed log-linear rule, using Kinetica software. AUC was low also with high deferasirox dose as well as tolerability. Non invasive tissue iron quantification by magnetic resonance imaging or superconducting quantum interference device were prevented by a metal hip replacement. Good efficacy and normalisation of iron markers was obtained on long term. Therapeutic drug monitoring in patient in critical conditions may help to understand reasons for non response and set individualised treatment.

  10. Blowhole Colostomy for Clostridium difficile-Associated Toxic Megacolon

    PubMed Central

    Kerstens, Jeroen; de Gheldere, Charles; Vanclooster, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 58-year-old man who underwent urgent blowhole colostomy for toxic megacolon (TM) secondary to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). This infection occurred under antibiotic coverage with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, four days after laparoscopic sigmoidectomy in our hospital. Although prospective clinical research regarding the surgical management of TM is lacking, decompressive procedures like blowhole colostomy are reported to carry a high risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality and are widely regarded as obsolete. Subtotal or total colectomy with end ileostomy is currently considered the procedure of choice. After presenting our case, we discuss the literature available on the subject to argue that the scarce evidence on the optimal surgical treatment for TM is primarily based on TM associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and that there might be a rationale for considering minimally invasive procedures like blowhole colostomy for CDI-associated TM. PMID:28097034

  11. [Synchronous diverticulitis: a case report.].

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Argáiz, R; Rodríguez-Zentner, H A; Tapia, H; González-Contreras, Q H

    2010-01-01

    Diverticular colonic disease is not as common in developing nations as in western and industrialized societies, accounting for approximately 130 000 hospitalizations per year in the United States, being diverticulitis the most frequent complication. Synchronous presentation of this complication is very rare, with only one case reported in literature. We present a patient who presented with diffuse abdominal pain. Colonoscopy was performed identifying a mass in the sigmoid colon and a perforation in the cecum. Patient underwent total abdominal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis and protective loop ileostomy. Histopathologic examination revealed synchronous complicated diverticular disease of the sigmoid and cecum. In this report we disclose this type of atypical presentation of diverticular disease and establish that the approach taken is safe and feasible.

  12. [Caesarean section for ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Unda-Franco, Eduardo; Ramírez-Avilés, Eva María; Moreno-de Gante, Leonardo; González, Quintín Héctor

    2011-02-01

    We present a case of a 35-year-old patient with diagnosis of ulcerative colitis that presented failure and complications associated with medical treatment; with a report of a colonoscopy and biopsy of pancolitis with severe activity. The patient was submitted to laparoscopic restorative total proctocolectomy with ileal "J" pouch anal anastomosis. Two months later the ileostomy was reversed. The patient received progesterone at the same time she was receiving immunosuppressive drugs. This was suspended two months after the second colon surgery. The patient did not require treatment with ovulation induction to achieve pregnancy. At the fourth month of gestation, the patient developed a perianal abscess, which was successfully drained. After multidisciplinary assessment in week 38 of gestation, it was decided to perform cesarean birth as a way to not affect the ileal pouch and the anastomosis of the digestive tract. At present time, the patient has had no further complications.

  13. A Case of Stercoral Perforation Detected on CT Requiring Proctocolectomy in a Heroin-Dependent Patient.

    PubMed

    Seligman, William H; Alam, Fahreyar; Planner, Andy; Alexander, Roderick J

    2016-01-01

    Stercoral perforation of the colon is rare but carries with it significant morbidity and mortality. Stercoral perforation usually occurs in elderly, immobile patients with chronic constipation. In this manuscript, we report the case of stercoral perforation in a patient due to chronic heroin dependence. We report the case of a 56-year-old male patient with stercoral perforation, diagnosed by computed tomography, secondary to heroin dependence, requiring proctocolectomy and an end ileostomy. There are very few reports in the literature describing cases of stercoral perforation and questions have been asked about the importance of preoperative cross-sectional imaging. In our case, the diagnosis of stercoral perforation was made only on CT. Although this is not the first such case to be reported, it is significant as preoperative CT imaging was influential not only in determining the aetiology of the abdominal distension seen on the plain film, but also in detecting the pneumoperitoneum which was not evident clinically or on plain radiographs.

  14. [A Case of Ascending Colon Cancer Showing Marked Reduction of Ascites by Bevacizumab Combination Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Kusama, Toshiyuki; Higashida, Akihiro; Komatsubara, Takashi; Nishigori, Hideaki; Kokado, Yujiro; Ishii, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented to our hospital with abdominal fullness. Computed tomography(CT)revealed ascites and massive tumors in the abdominal cavity. She was diagnosed with ascending colon cancer with peritoneal dissemination and ovarian metastasis. After ileostomy, panitumumab plus mFOLFOX6 therapy was initiated, but it was discontinued due to adverse events. As the ascites rapidly increased, her chemotherapy was changed to bevacizumab(BV)plus FOLFIRI. BV combination therapy resulted in a dramatic decrease in ascites and improved her quality of life, whereas the therapy did not reduce the primary and metastatic lesions. Our case suggested that BV could decrease ascites by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)-induced vascular permeability.

  15. Nutrition considerations surrounding restorative proctocolectomy.

    PubMed

    Buckman, Sara A; Heise, Charles P

    2010-06-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the surgical treatment of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis coli syndromes. Pouch construction uses the distal 30-40 cm of ileum, and there exists a potential for postoperative nutrition consequences. These include vitamin B(12) deficiency, iron deficiency, bile acid malabsorption, and abnormalities of trace elements, fluids, and electrolytes. Patients who have undergone an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis procedure often describe specific food sensitivities that may require diet alteration, even more so than do patients with permanent ileostomy. There may be roles for postoperative probiotic supplementation in an attempt to decrease the rate of "pouchitis" and appropriate preoperative nutrition support to minimize the risk of perioperative complications.

  16. [High output stoma: detection and approach].

    PubMed

    Arenas Villafranca, Jose Javier; Abilés, Jimena; Moreno, Gloria; Tortajada Goitia, Begoña; Utrilla Navarro, Pilar; Gándara Adán, Norberto

    2014-12-01

    High output stoma is a frequent complication in patients with ileostomies that is not well identified and is not often properly addressed by clinicians. It has not been described properly, and can vary between debits of 2.000ml in 24 h to 1.500 ml in 3-5 days, according to different authors. Frequently presents both short-term and long-term negative implications for patients and is associated with readmissions. We present a review of published literature focusing in surgical resection-related factors that influence a later appearance of this complication, causes involved in its development, the need to establish a clear and objective concept of high ouput as well as the negative implications it presents. Also we develop how should we the management of these patients regarding treatment and nutritional approach.

  17. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B (IND B), concerning one case].

    PubMed

    Junquera Bañares, S; Oria Mundín, E; Córdoba Iturriagagoitia, A; Botella-Carretero, J J

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B (IND B) is an infrequent disease due to hyperplasia of the parasympathetic submucous plexus which causes alteration of intestinal motility, giving rise to symptoms of constipation and subocclusive manifestations. The disease is difficult to diagnose. It requires high clinical suspicion and should include differential diagnosis of patients with repeated subocclusive manifestations in order to make an early and correct diagnosis and avoid complications derived from unnecessary surgery that worsens the prognosis. We present the case of a 33-year-old Moroccan male who was admitted to our hospital on 2 occasions in 11 months, requiring total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for five months. The immunohistochemical analysis of the ileostomy and colostomy stoma led to a diagnosis of IND B. Eighteen months later, the patients is leading a normal life and has recovered the 25 kilos lost following the dietary indications and with the enzymatic supplements.

  18. Ileum perforation due to delayed operation in obturator hernia: a case report and review of literatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Cong, Jin-Chun; Chen, Chun-Sheng

    2010-01-07

    A 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of intermittent abdominal colicky pain and vomiting for 26 h. The pain localized over the periumbilical area with radiation along the medial side of the thigh. Computed tomography scan with three-dimensional reconstruction revealed a loop of small bowel protruding into the left obturator canal. Incarcerated obturator hernia was diagnosed and emergency laparotomy was arranged immediately. Unfortunately, her family refused surgery because of her worsening condition. On the third evening after admission, the patient developed peritonitis and sepsis. Perforation of small bowel due to the incarceration was noted during laparotomy. Bowel resection and an end-ileostomy were performed. She recovered well despite of the complication of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Literature is reviewed, and the pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, imaging features and treatment are discussed.

  19. Ileal J-Pouch Perforation: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dogan, U; Dogan, B; Habibi, M; Erol, M K; Mayir, B; Aslaner, A; Bulbuller, N

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old male patient who had undergone total colectomy and J-pouch ileanal anastomosis subsequent to diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis five years previously was admitted to the emergency room with complaints of severe abdominal pain of a four-day duration. Physical examination revealed widespread tenderness throughout the abdomen, especially in the lower quadrant. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed fluid between intestinal loops and computed tomography revealed free air and fluid in the abdomen. During laparotomy to expand the ileal J-pouch to approximately 12 cm in diameter, a 2-mm perforation was detected in the blind end of the ileal J-pouch. The perforation was repaired primarily and protective ileostomy was performed. During postoperative endoscopy, neither obstruction nor stasis was observed, but pouchitis was observed in the ileal J-pouch. The patient was postoperatively discharged on the 20th day and followed endoscopically. The endoscopic findings were normal in the sixth month postsurgery.

  20. Surgical therapy for necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ricketts, R R

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-one infants were treated surgically for necrotizing enterocolitis utilizing a uniform protocol from July 1980 through July 1983. The indications for surgery were pneumoperitoneum or a paracentesis indicative of bowel infarction. Segmental intestinal resection and exteriorization of the bowel ends through the upper abdominal transverse incision was the usual procedure. Intestinal continuity was reestablished when the patient reached 10 pounds, or sooner if he was failing to thrive with his ileostomy. The overall survival was 72.5%, and it was 82% for those patients have a definitive surgical procedure. This survival rate was not adversely affected by the patient's weight or age at the time of operation, nor by the presence of bowel perforation. The 37 survivors endured multiple postoperative complications. The most significant long-term sequela was short-gut syndrome, which occurred in 11% of survivors. PMID:6486914

  1. Ulcerative colitis associated with the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut.

    PubMed

    Sivarajah, Vernon; Abdul, Quddus; Pardoe, Helen; Lunniss, Peter

    2013-01-03

    A 25-year-old Iranian gentleman was admitted to hospital with severe bloody diarrhoea and abdominal pain. He had similar episodes in the past. On each occasion his symptoms developed following the consumption of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut Hardcore X. On this admission, a (CT) scan demonstrated bowel wall thickening and peri-colonic fat stranding in the sigmoid colon. On flexible sigmoidoscopy, a continuous length of congested mucosa with multiple small ulcers was seen extending up to the mid-transverse colon, in keeping with ulcerative colitis. Histological analysis of biopsies was taken at the time and confirmed this. He was started on steroids early during his admission but this only provided a transient clinical improvement. The addition of cyclosporine, which was later changed to azathioprine, did not improve his condition either. He therefore underwent an open subtotal colectomy with end ileostomy. He made a slow but steady recovery and was discharged 3 weeks later.

  2. Single-Site Laparoscopic Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bedros, Nicole; Hakiman, Hekmat; Araghizadeh, Farshid Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Single-site laparoscopic colorectal surgery has been firmly established; however, few reports addressing this technique in the inflammatory bowel disease population exist. Methods: We conducted a case-matched retrospective review of 20 patients who underwent single-site laparoscopic procedures for inflammatory bowel disease compared with 20 matched patients undergoing multiport laparoscopic procedures. Data regarding these patients were tabulated in the following categories: demographic characteristics, operative parameters, and perioperative outcomes. Results: A wide range of cases were completed: 9 ileocolic resections, 7 cases of proctocolectomy with end ileostomy or ileal pouch anal anastomosis, 2 cases of proctectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, and 2 total abdominal colectomies with end ileostomy were all matched to equivalent multiport laparoscopic cases. No single-incision cases were converted to multiport laparoscopy, and 2 single-incision cases (10%) were converted to an open approach. For single-incision cases, the mean length of stay was 7.7 days, the mean time to oral intake was 3.3 days, and the mean period of intravenous analgesic use was 5.0 days. There were no statistically significant differences between single-site and multiport cases. Conclusions: Single-site laparoscopic surgery is technically feasible in inflammatory bowel disease. The length of stay and period of intravenous analgesic use (in days) appear to be higher than those in comparable series examining outcomes of single-site laparoscopic colorectal surgery, and the outcomes are comparable with those of multiport laparoscopy. This may be because of the nature of inflammatory bowel disease, limiting the benefits of a single-site approach in this population. PMID:24960490

  3. Nausea, vomiting and return of bowel function after colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Karen L; Zhu, Ying-Yan; Tacey, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    Although patterns of return of bowel function (ROBF) following colorectal surgery with enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programmes have been well delineated, regular morphine use is uncommon. This study describes the patterns of post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and ROBF in this context. Patients undergoing elective major colorectal surgery on an ERAS programme over 1 year were included. Patient details, intra-operative course, post-operative management, outcomes and complications were collected retrospectively from clinical records. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata version 12. A total of 136/142 (96%) patients received morphine for post-operative analgesia. Most (112/142, 79%) experienced either no vomiting (87/142, 61%) or small amounts (25/142, 18%). On average, patients without an ileostomy passed flatus and opened their bowels after 2.4 and 4.3 days, those with an ileostomy taking 1.5 and 2.1 days. Vomiting was not related to ROBF (P = 0.370) or overall complications; wound complications (odds ratio (OR) = 8.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0-32.5), electrolyte abnormalities (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-7.1) and length of stay (hazard ratio = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2-1.5) were related. Most patients do not experience PONV in this context. ROBF is predictable without prolonged delays. This information could be used to allow confident early discharge and identify patients whose deviation from normal may indicate complications. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. Minimal invasive single-site surgery in colorectal procedures: Current state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Michele; Dhumane, Parag; Cahill, R A; Mortensen, N; Leroy, Joel; Marescaux, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive single-site (MISS) surgery has recently been applied to colorectal surgery. We aimed to assess the current state of the art and the adequacy of preliminary oncological results. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Medline, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. Keywords used were “Single Port” or “Single-Incision” or “LaparoEndoscopic Single Site” or “SILS™” and “Colon” or “Colorectal” and “Surgery”. RESULTS: Twenty-nine articles on colorectal MISS surgery have been published from July 2008 to July 2010, presenting data on 149 patients. One study reported analgesic requirement. The final incision length ranged from 2.5 to 8 cm. Only two studies reported fascial incision length. There were two port site hernias in a series of 13 patients (15.38%). Two “fully laparoscopic” MISS procedures with preparation and achievement of the anastomosis completely intracorporeally are reported. Future site of ileostomy was used as the sole access for the procedures in three studies. Lymph node harvesting, resection margins and length of specimen were sufficient in oncological cases. CONCLUSIONS: MISS colorectal surgery is a challenging procedure that seems to be safe and feasible, but the existing clinical evidence is limited. In selected cases, and especially when an ileostomy is planned, colorectal surgery may be an ideal indication for MISS surgery leading to a no-scar surgery. Despite preliminary oncological results showing the feasibility of MISS surgery, we want to stress the need to standardize the technique and carefully evaluate its application in oncosurgery under ethical committee control. PMID:21197243

  5. Laser ablation of complex perianal fistulas preserves continence and is a rectum-sparing alternative in Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Bodzin, J H

    1998-07-01

    A 20-year review of the inflammatory bowel disease surgical database of the author was analyzed for Crohn's disease (CD) patients who had a surgical approach to perianal fistula disease (PAD). Of 333 patients with CD operated between July 1977 and February 1997, 51 had procedures for PAD (15.3%), and 7 of these patients had laser ablation of severe, debilitating complex PAD (13.7%). These patients have traditionally been treated by diverting ileostomy or proctectomy with permanent diversion. Others have advocated conservative management with long-term antibiotics, staged operations, and insertion of multiple loose setons to promote drainage. This technique was adapted from the laser procedure now advocated for severe hydradenitis suppurativa. The hand-held CO2 laser was used to unroof all fistulas external to the external sphincter. Fistulas were identified by probing. Infected granulation tissue was removed by laser ablation until normal fat or muscle was revealed. Intersphincteric abscesses were unroofed, and a single seton was placed around the external sphincter for all but submucous fistulas. Patients were usually operated as outpatients with pain control effected with oral and transnasal agents. A laparoscopically performed temporary diverting ileostomy was used in one early patient in the series. Patients were followed, and progress was documented by physical examination and photographs. Quality of life was assessed. All patients improved remarkably from their preoperative state. The 4 patients in the group operated more than 1 year before this review have all demonstrated complete healing. The three more recent patients are in various stages of healing. Continence was preserved in 7 of 7 patients. No patient has required rectal excision. Recurrence thought to be related to associated hydradenitis has occurred in 1 patient. Laser ablation is a valuable technique in the management of patients with severe, debilitating complex PAD complicating CD. It

  6. Sphincter-sparing intersphincteric rectal resection as an alternative to proctectomy in long-standing fistulizing and stenotic Crohn's proctitis?

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Nicolas; Kim, Mia; Reibetanz, Joachim; Krajinovic, Katica; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Isbert, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    Long-standing fistulizing and stenotic proctitis (LFSP) in Crohn's disease (CD) indicates the end stage of the disease. Definitive diversion such as proctectomy is considered to be the only surgical option. The impact of intersphincteric sphincter-sparing anterior rectal resection (IAR) as an alternative to proctectomy is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility, morbidity, outcome, and quality of life (QL) in patients with LFSP undergoing intended IAR. Out of a single institution database, 15 patients with LFSP intended for surgery from 856 patients with CD were selected for follow-up analyses. In 12/15 cases, IAR was carried out while 3/15 patients underwent primary proctectomy due to malignancy (n = 2) or due to patient's wish (n = 1). In one case, IAR revealed unexpected malignancy, which led to secondary proctectomy. In patients with IAR, complete healing of fistulas and stenosis was observed in 46% (n = 5) while 36% (n = 4) of patients showed relapse of fistula and 18% (n = 2) developed restenosis. Ileostomy closure was performed in seven patients from which six patients remained stoma free. QL and fecal incontinence measured by standardized scoring systems were unchanged while stool frequency was reduced after IAR in patients with ileostomy closure. The rate of malignancy in this cohort was 20% (n = 3). LFSP in CD was associated with 20% of malignant transformation. Although IAR fails to improve QL, it is a suitable procedure for the treatment of fistulas and stenosis associated with acceptable healing rates and can avoid a permanent stoma.

  7. [Quality of Life after colectomy due to ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Gudlaugsdottir, Katrin; Valsdottir, Elsa B; Stefansson, Tryggvi B

    2016-11-01

    A significant proportion of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) undergo colectomy. The aim was to assess the quality of life (QOL) of these patients. All patients with UC who underwent colectomy at The National University Hospital of Iceland or Akureyri Hospital 1995-2009 were included. 106 patients received three questionnaires. SF-36v2 and EORTC are standardised QOL-questionnaires. The third contained functional questions designed by the researchers. Eighty-three patients replied (78%), 45 men (54%) and 38 women (46%). Average age at operation was 45 years (10-91 years). Forty-four (53%) had ileostomy, 28 (34%) ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) and 11 (13%) ileorectal anastomosis. Among patients who had the rectum removed 37% described changes in urinary habits and 46% in sexual life after surgery. Among patients with IPAA 75% admitted to faecal incontinence but this was mild according to Wexner's scale in 83% of the cases. According to SF-36v2 there was no significant difference in the QOL of colectomy patients compared to the general population. Patients generally felt good about their health, body image and weight and had mild symptoms according to EORTC QLQ-CR29. Urinary habits and sexual life were commonly affected after rectal removal. Faecal incontinence among IPAA-patients was much more common than expected. There was not much difference in quality of life compared to the general population. The results of the study are important for patient education and may aid them in their decision making since removing the colon or having a stoma does not seem to affect quality of life. Key words: Quality of life, ulcerative colitis, ileostomy, colectomy. Correspondence: Elsa B. Valsdottir, elsava@landspitali.is.

  8. Endoscopic transanal vacuum-assisted rectal drainage (ETVARD): an optimized therapy for major leaks from extraperitoneal rectal anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Glitsch, A; von Bernstorff, W; Seltrecht, U; Partecke, I; Paul, H; Heidecke, C D

    2008-03-01

    A major leak from a rectal anastomosis is an important surgical complication. Endoscopic transanal vacuum-assisted rectal drainage (ETVARD) is a new method for treating nonseptic major anastomotic leaks after extraperitoneal rectal anastomoses. Between January 2002 and March 2007 a total of 17 patients (mean age 61.2 years) who developed anastomotic leakage after resection of the rectum or rectosigmoid colon were prospectively evaluated. Their treatment began with endoscopic debridement of the leak/cavity; nylon sponges were then endoscopically fitted into the cavity. Continuous suction was applied via suction tubes inserted into the sponges. Repeat endoscopies and sponge exchanges, including further debridement were essential. In 16/17 patients ETVARD was successful, relieving patients quickly from infectious symptoms and other complaints; one patient eventually required a Hartmann's procedure. Cavity sizes varied from 2 cm x 2 cm to 10 cm x 13 cm. The mean duration of drainage was 21.4 days, with a mean of 5.4 sponge exchanges and 10.7 endoscopies, and a mean total time to closure of the cavity of 53.1 days. The total time to closure of the cavity was directly dependent on the size of the cavity ( P< 0.015). Fifteen patients received additional intramural fibrin glue injections. In eight patients ETVARD was continued on an outpatient basis. There was no advantage demonstrated for patients with diverting loop ileostomies. Patients with anastomoses that were 6 cm or less from the anocutaneous line had considerably longer healing times. The healing time depended significantly on age ( P< 0.036). Follow-up endoscopies have shown only minor anastomotic changes in two patients. ETVARD is a well-tolerated and effective therapeutic option for the treatment of major leaks after extraperitoneal rectal anastomoses. In most cases ETVARD obviates the need for additional surgery, in particular diverting loop ileostomy.

  9. Effect of Human Amniotic Membrane on Prevention of Colorectal Anastomosis Leakage in Cases with Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy: An Experimental Animal Study

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Sam; Joraghi, Sajjad Ahmadi; Roshanravan, Reza; Ghahramani, Leila; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Hussein, Ahmed Mohammed Ali; Najibpour, Neda; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy is one of the most important factors which results in negative effects on wound healing and increases anastomosis leakage. Diverting loop ileostomy has been usually performed after colorectal anastomosis in cases of colorectal cancer with a history of neoadjuvant radiotherapy to decrease the chance of leakage. Considering the side effects of diverting loop ileostomy, the objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of human amniotic membrane (HAM) on colorectal anastomosis leakage after neo-adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods: In this experimental animal study, 20 crossbreed rabbits were randomly divided into two groups (case group: 13 rabbits, control group: 7 rabbits) after receiving an equal dose of external beam radiation. Four weeks after irradiation, resection of 4 cm of colorectal segment and end-to-end single layer anastomosis were conducted. In the case group, a 2×2 cm wrap of HAM applied around the site of anastomosis. Eight weeks later, all the survived rabbits were sacrificed. A segment of anastomotic sites was resected in all expired and survived rabbits and sent for pathological evaluation. Mann-Whitney U Test (SPSS for Windows, Ver. 16, Chicago, IL) was applied to analyze healing scores between the two groups. Results: Due to anastomosis dehiscence, 5 rabbits expired in the control group, but all the 13 rabbits (case group) survived after 8 weeks and showed no leakage. In addition, pathological evaluation revealed significant epithelialization and neovascularization in the case group. Statistically, healing score was higher in the case group rather than the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: To prevent post irradiation colorectal anastomosis leakage, the use of HAM might play a significant role and a feasible technical approach. PMID:27853330

  10. Use of Valtrac™-Secured Intracolonic Bypass in Laparoscopic Rectal Cancer Resection

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Feng; Chen, Dong; Wang, Danyang; Lin, Jianjiang; Zheng, Shusen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of anastomotic leakage (AL) remains a major concern in the early postoperative stage. Because of the relatively high morbidity and mortality of AL in patients with laparoscopic low rectal cancer who receive an anterior resection, a fecal diverting method is usually introduced. The Valtrac™-secured intracolonic bypass (VIB) was used in open rectal resection, and played a role of protecting the anastomotic site. This study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of the VIB in protecting laparoscopic low rectal anastomosis and to compare the efficacy and complications of VIB with those of loop ileostomy (LI). Medical records of the 43 patients with rectal cancer who underwent elective laparoscopic low anterior resection and received VIB procedure or LI between May 2011 and May 2013 were retrospectively analyzed, including the patients’ demographics, clinical features, and operative data. Twenty-four patients received a VIB and 19 patients a LI procedure. Most of the demographics and clinical features of the groups, including Dukes stages, were similar. However, the median distance of the tumor edge from the anus verge in the VIB group was significantly longer (7.5 cm; inter-quartile range [IQR] 7.0–9.5 cm) than that of the L1 group (6.0 cm; IQR 6.0–7.0 cm). None of the patients developed clinical AL. The comparisons between the LI and the VIB groups were adjusted for the significant differences in the tumor level of the groups. After adjustment, the LI group experienced longer overall postoperative hospital stay (14.0 days, IQR: 12.0, 16.0 days; P < 0.001) and incurred higher costs ($6300 (IQR: $5900, $6600)) than the VIB group (7.0 days, $4800; P < 0.05). Stoma-related complications in the ileostomy group included dermatitis (n = 2), stoma bleeding (n = 1), and wound infection after closure (n = 2). No BAR-related complications occurred. The mean time to Valtrac™ ring loosening was 14.1 ± 3

  11. Evolution of surgical treatment of amebiasis-associated colon perforation.

    PubMed

    Athié-Gutiérrez, César; Rodea-Rosas, Heriberto; Guízar-Bermúdez, Clemente; Alcántara, Avisaí; Montalvo-Javé, Eduardo E

    2010-01-01

    Amebiasis is a worldwide health problem that mainly affects developing countries. Invasive amebiasis tends to develop complications, and among these, perforation of the colon, although infrequent (1.9-9.1%), is the most lethal. Surgical treatment in these cases should be carried out in a timely fashion prior to the presentation of systemic repercussions or death. In the present study, we analyzed a total of 122 cases of invasive amebiasis-associated colon perforation. We conducted a clinical, retrospective, and observational study and presented cases of colonic perforation observed over the past 30 years at the Medical-Surgical Emergency Service of the Mexico City-based Hospital General de México OD during the 1970-1999 period. During this time, a total of 19,916 emergency abdominal surgeries were performed. One hundred twenty-two of these procedures corresponded to cases of colon perforation by ameba, which represents 0.6%; 80 patients were men (65.6%) and 42 were women (34.4%), with an average age of 48 years. Multiple colon perforation was 74%, with right colon the most affected (90.5%). Depending on the perforation's extension and localization, right hemicolectomy with ileostomy were performed in 53 patients (43.45%), subtotal colectomy with ileostomy in 43 (35.25%), left hemicolectomy with transverse colostomy in 12 (9.83%), exteriorization of perforated left colon (stoma) in 13 (10.65%), and primary closure with exteriorization in one patient (0.8%). Post-operative complications were present in 48 patients (39.3%), and 20 cases were related with the creation of a stoma. Eighteen of these cases were due to persistent abdominal sepsis and ten due to toxic colon; the latter correspond solely to patients with initial nonresective treatment. General mortality was 40%, with 32% (17 of 53 cases) of mortality in those submitted to right hemicolestomy, 16.7% (two of 12) of left hemicolestomy, 44.2% (19 of 43) in those in whom a subtotal colectomy was performed, with

  12. Interpretation of the breath hydrogen profile obtained after ingesting a solid meal containing unabsorbable carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Read, N W; Al-Janabi, M N; Bates, T E; Holgate, A M; Cann, P A; Kinsman, R I; McFarlane, A; Brown, C

    1985-08-01

    The extent to which monitoring breath hydrogen excretion provides information concerning the entry of the residues of a solid test meal into the colon was investigated in 89 normal subjects, and 11 patients with the irritable bowel syndrome. The profile of breath hydrogen concentration showed an early peak, that occurred soon after ingesting the test meal in 89% subjects. This was followed by a later more prolonged rise in breath hydrogen concentration. The early peak occurred well before a radioactive marker, incorporated in the test meal, reached the caecum and the data suggest it was predominantly caused by the emptying of the remnants of the previous meal from the ileum into the colon. This hypothesis was supported by direct measurements of the rate of delivery of ileostomy effluent in 12 subjects with terminal ileostomies. Fermentation of carbohydrate in the mouth may, however, contribute to the initial peak, but this contribution may be avoided by collecting gas samples from the nares. The secondary rise in breath hydrogen excretion was closely correlated with the arrival of the radioactive marker in the caecum (r = 0.91), p less than 0.001), though the time, at which the secondary peak of breath hydrogen excretion occurred was poorly correlated with the time that all the radioactive test meal had entered the colon. When lactulose was infused directly into the colon, as little as 0.5 g produced a discernible hydrogen response, which occurred within two minutes of the infusion. Increasing the rate of colonic infusion of a 50 ml solution of 10% lactulose from 0.02 to 0.15 g/min in five subjects significantly increased the breath hydrogen concentration. At infusion rates below 0.075 g lactulose/minute, the peak breath hydrogen response preceded the end ot the infusion, while at higher rates of infusion, the peak hydrogen response occurred after the end of the infusion. Although these results confirmed that monitoring breath hydrogen concentration usefully

  13. Surgical treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel disease in children.

    PubMed

    Barrena, S; Martínez, L; Hernandez, F; Lassaletta, L; Lopez-Santamaria, M; Prieto, G; Larrauri, J; Tovar, J A

    2011-04-01

    Surgery for chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasingly often necessary in children. This study aimed at assessing the results of these operations in order to facilitate adequate preoperative counseling. We reviewed patients treated from 1992 to 2009. The operations, complications and functional outcome were recorded. For those with preserved rectal defecation, continence (Koivusalo score) and quality of life (standardized questionnaire) were assessed in the long term. Eighty five of 192 patients had Crohn disease (CD), 107 of 192 had ulcerative colitis (UC), and 3 of 192 had indeterminate colitis (IC). 12 of 85 CD patients (15%) aged 14 (12-19) years required 13 resections, 1 stricturoplasty, 1 transplantation and 6 other operations including 3 permanent enterostomies for anorectal involvement. Removal of the involved bowel led to significant improvement of nutritional status, growth and quality of life. The transplanted patient had a striking recovery but eventually died 1 year later of unrelated complications. 29 of 107 UC patients (26%) aged 11 (2-15) years required 87 operations. Nine had emergency colectomy for toxic megacolon (3, one death) or severe hemorrhage (6). 28 had restorative proctocolectomy and ileoanostomy (RPCIA) without (16) or with (12) J-pouch under protective ileostomy. Complications were frequent (40%). Permanent ileostomy was required in five children (17%). Twelve months postoperatively, RPCIA patients had 6.5 (2-13) stools/day; all were continent during daytime, and 25% have nocturnal leaks. Mean Koivusalo score (5-12) was 8.8 ± 2. Quality of life was good in all. All attended normal school and 7 the university, 4 work and 60% of those older than 18 years have sexual partners. Three of 107 children treated as UC with RPCIA had ultimately IC (3%) and were permanently diverted. The nature of IBD involves frustrating surgery. However, it may change life for CD patients and provide a reasonably good quality of life for UC after

  14. [Repair in situ of parastomal hernia with modified sublay-keyhole technique].

    PubMed

    Fei, Yang; Li, Jiye; Yao, Sheng

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the procedure and the effectiveness of modified Sublay-Keyhole technique for repair in situ of parastomal hernia. Between October 2007 and March 2010, 11 patients with parastomal hernia underwent modified Sublay-Keyhole technique for repair in situ. There were 5 males and 6 females with an average age of 63 years (range, 55-72 years). The average body mass index was 28.2 (range, 23.5-32.5). All stomas in patients were permanent, including 6 end colostomies caused by abdominal perineal resection for rectal cancer, 2 end ileostomies secondary to total colon resection for ulcerative colitis, and 3 end ileostomies following ileal conduit for bladder resection. One patient underwent previous prothetic repair with polypropylene mesh. The average time from last operation to admission was 2.5 years (range, 1-4.5 years). According to classification criteria of George Eliot hospital, 3 cases were classified as grade 2b, 2 as grade 3a, 5 as grade 3b, and 1 as grade 4. The average longest diameter of hernia ring was 9.5 cm (range, 6-12 cm). Reconstructions of abdominal wall in all patients were performed successfully through modified Sublay-Keyhole technique. The average size of hernia ring was 75.5 cm2 (range, 30-112 cm2), and the average size of polypropylene mesh was 280.5 cm2 (range, 175-360 cm2). The average operative time was 165 minutes (range, 120-195 minutes) and the average postoperative hospitalization days were 11 days (range, 9-14 days). All patients achieved healing of incision by first intention with no abdominal wall infection. Seroma and hematoma occurred in 2 patients and 1 patient, respectively, and were cured by needle aspiration and pressure bandaging. All patients were followed up 26.3 months on average (range, 10-39 months). One case suffered from parastomal hernia recurrence at 11 months postoperatively because of suture loosening and too wide aperture in mesh; and re-sutures in both mesh aperture and myofascial dehiscence were given and

  15. Necrotizing enterocolitis is associated with earlier achievement of enteral autonomy in children with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Eric A; Khan, Faraz A; Fisher, Jeremy G; Fullerton, Brenna S; Hall, Amber; Raphael, Bram P; Duggan, Christopher; Modi, Biren P; Jaksic, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains one of the most common underlying diagnoses of short bowel syndrome (SBS) in children. The relationship between the etiology of SBS and ultimate enteral autonomy has not been well studied. This investigation sought to evaluate the rate of achievement of enteral autonomy in SBS patients with and without NEC. Following IRB approval, 109 patients (2002-2014) at a multidisciplinary intestinal rehabilitation program were reviewed. The primary outcome evaluated was achievement of enteral autonomy (i.e. fully weaning from parenteral nutrition). Patient demographics, primary diagnosis, residual small bowel length, percent expected small bowel length, median serum citrulline level, number of abdominal operations, status of the ileocecal valve (ICV), presence of ileostomy, liver function tests, and treatment for bacterial overgrowth were recorded for each patient. Median age at PN onset was 0 weeks [IQR 0-0]. Median residual small bowel length was 33.5 cm [IQR 20-70]. NEC was present in 37 of 109 (33.9%) of patients. 45 patients (41%) achieved enteral autonomy after a median PN duration of 15.3 [IQR 7.2-38.4]months. Overall, 64.9% of patients with NEC achieved enteral autonomy compared to 29.2% of patients with a different primary diagnosis (p=0.001, Fig. 1). Patients with NEC remained more likely than those without NEC to achieve enteral autonomy after two (45.5% vs. 12.0%) and four (35.7% vs. 6.3%) years on PN (Fig. 1). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following parameters as independent predictors of enteral autonomy: diagnosis of NEC (p<0.002), median serum citrulline level (p<0.02), absence of a jejunostomy or ileostomy (p=0.013), and percent expected small bowel length (p=0.005). Children with SBS because of NEC have a significantly higher likelihood of fully weaning from parenteral nutrition compared to children with other causes of SBS. Additionally, patients with NEC may attain enteral autonomy even after long

  16. A Cross-sectional, Descriptive Study of Medication Use Among Persons With a Gastrointestinal Stoma.

    PubMed

    Pereira de Paula, Bianca Augusta; da Silva Alves, Geisa Cristina; PercÍnio, Álvaro; Pereira, Mariana Linhares; Moraes, Juliano Teixeira; Sanches, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Research on the use of medications in people with intestinal stomas is lacking, creating gaps in knowledge of pharmacoepidemiology in these patients. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted over a period of 4 months in Divinópolis, Brazil to describe the profile of medication use among people enrolled in the Health Support Service for People with Stoma - Level II (SSPS II) of a municipality in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. All patients from SSPS II with a colostomy or ileostomy were invited by phone to participate; those with incomplete registration data and/or who were <18 years old, hospitalized for any reason, or had their stoma reversed were excluded from participation. During home interviews, researchers obtained sociodemographic profiles (age, gender, education, occupation, and family income) and information on comorbidities, medication use, adherence to medication protocols (per the Morisky Green Levine test), polypharmacy, and adult/pharmaceutical care (medication description and indication, expiration date, self-medication). Drug storage was assessed by visual evaluation. The information was entered onto individual data sheets, numbered to ensure patient anonymity. The data then were entered into and analyzed using SSPS II statistical software using frequency measurements, measures of central tendency, and dispersion of demographic variables, health conditions, and medicine use. The study population included 59 persons (average age 66.9 ± 13.27 years), 36 (61.0%) women, 38 (64.4%) with an incomplete/primary level education, and 44 (74.5%) retired. Forty-nine (49) patients had a colostomy and 10 had an ileostomy; cancer was the main reason for stoma creation (61.1%). Half of the survey participants reported having 1 or 2 comorbidities (average 2.3); the most prevalent (52) was circulatory system disease among which hypertension (38, 64.4%) was most common. Analysis of the pharmacotherapeutic profile (prescribed and used) showed 89.8% of

  17. Synchronous quintuple primary gastrointestinal tract malignancies: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Hong; Park, Byung-Soo; Kim, Hyun Sung; Kim, Jae Hun

    2017-01-01

    Multiple primary malignancy is defined as two or more malignancies detected in an individual person. In particular, synchronous quintuple primary malignancy is extremely rare. A 52-year-old male with anal pain and intermittent blood-tinged stool was diagnosed with malignancies in the stomach, jejunum, ascending colon, transverse colon and rectum. He underwent a subtotal gastrectomy, segmental resection of the jejunum and total protocolectomy with end ileostomy. The postoperative pathologic findings were moderate differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma (pT1bN0M0, pStageIA), combined adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma of the jejunum (pT3N0M0, pStageIIA), three mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon (pT3N0M0, pStageIIA), transverse colon (pT1N0M0, pStageI) and rectum (pT3N1aM0, pStageIIIB). The tumors did not lack MLH-1 and MSH-2 expression, as the markers (bat26, D5S346, bat25, D2S123) suggest MSI-H presence. Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was started according to regimen, FOLFOX 4 for advanced rectal cancer. Six years post-operation, the patient is currently attending regular follow-ups without recurrence or metastasis. PMID:28104993

  18. An isolated vaginal metastasis from rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sadatomo, Ai; Koinuma, Koji; Horie, Hisanaga; Lefor, Alan K; Sata, Naohiro

    2016-02-01

    Isolated vaginal metastases from colorectal cancer are extremely rare. There are only a few reported cases in the English literature, and the characteristics of such cases of metastasis remain relatively unknown. We present a case of isolated vaginal metastasis from rectal cancer in a 78-year-old female patient. The patient had no symptoms related to vaginal tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed thickening of the middle rectum and a vaginal tumor. Biopsy from the vaginal tumor showed adenocarcinoma, similar to the rectal lesion. Low anterior resection with ileostomy, hystero-oophorectomy, and transvaginal tumor resection was performed. After nineteen months, computed tomography scan revealed multiple lung metastases and recurrent tumor in the pelvis. The patient refused chemotherapy and is alive three months after developing recurrent disease. Most cases of primary vaginal carcinoma are squamous cell carcinoma. Other histologic types such as adenocarcinoma are usually metastatic lesions. Primary lesions associated with metastatic vaginal adenocarcinoma are most often the uterus, and are very rarely from the colon or rectum. We review previous case reports of isolated vaginal metastases from colorectal cancer and discuss their symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. We should keep the vagina within the field of view of pelvic MRI, which is one of the preoperative diagnostic tools for colorectal cancer. If female patients show gynecological symptoms, gynecological examination should be recommended. Isolated vaginal metastases are an indication for surgical resection, and adjuvant chemotherapy is also recommended.

  19. Laparoscopic Deloyers procedure for tension-free anastomosis after extended left colectomy: technique and results.

    PubMed

    Sciuto, A; Grifasi, C; Pirozzi, F; Leon, P; Pirozzi, R E M; Corcione, F

    2016-12-01

    The Deloyers procedure, which includes inversion of the right colon around the axis of the ileocolic vessels, can be used to achieve a well vascularized, tension-free colorectal anastomosis after extended left colectomy. The aim of this study is to report our technique and outcome in a series of ten consecutive patients who underwent right colonic transposition by laparoscopic approach. Charts were retrospectively reviewed to analyze postoperative outcome and bowel function. A video was recorded to demonstrate the procedure. Conversion was required in one (10%) patient due to extensive adhesions. No intraoperative complications were recorded. Anastomotic leakage occurred in one (10%) case and was managed with peritoneal lavage and ileostomy. Six months after surgery, all patients reported a median number of 2.5 (range 2-3) bowel movements per day with solid stool consistency. Neither anastomotic stricture nor bowel ischemia was found at 1-year endoscopic follow-up. Our experience shows that laparoscopic right colonic transposition is a safe and feasible procedure and provides good functional outcomes.

  20. Transanal Pull-Through Procedure with Delayed versus Immediate Coloanal Anastomosis for Anus-Preserving Curative Resection of Lower Rectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yong; Huang, Ping; Ren, Qing-Gui

    2016-06-01

    This case-control study compared the effectiveness and safety of transanal pull-through procedure (TPP) with delayed or immediate coloanal anastomosis (CAA) for anus-preserving curative resection of lower rectal cancer. Lower rectal cancer patients (n = 128) were hospitalized between January 2003 and December 2013 for elective anus-preserving curative resection through a TPP with delayed (n = 72) or immediate (n = 56) CAA. Main outcome measures including surgical safety, resection radicality, and defecation function were assessed. The two groups were comparable in age, sex, gross pathology, histology, and tumor-node-metastasis staging. Both the delayed and immediate CAA TPPs had similar resection radicality and safety profiles. The immediate CAA was associated with a significantly higher risk of anastomotic leakage and defecation impairment. None of patients in the delayed CAA group experienced anastomotic leakage. In conclusion, TPP with delayed CAA may be superior to immediate CAA in minimizing the risk of anastomotic leakage and relevant surgical morbidities, and does not require a temporary ileostomy and second-look restoration of ostomy.

  1. Single-Access Laparoscopic Surgery for Ileal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moftah, Mohamed; Burke, John; Narendra, Aaditya; Cahill, Ronan A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Single-access laparoscopic surgery (SALS) can be effective for benign and malignant diseases of the ileum in both the elective and urgent setting. Methods. Ten consecutive, nonselected patients with ileal disease requiring surgery over a twelve month period were included. All had a preoperative abdominopelvic computerized tomogram. Peritoneal access was achieved via a single transumbilical incision and a “surgical glove port” utilized as our preferred access device. With the pneumoperitoneum established, the relevant ileal loop was located using standard rigid instruments. For ileal resection, anastomosis, or enterotomy, the site of pathology was delivered and addressed extracorporeally. Result. The median (range) age of the patients was 42.5 (22–78) years, and the median body mass index was 22 (20.2–28) kg/m2. Procedures included tru-cut biopsy of an ileal mesenteric mass, loop ileostomy and ileotomy for impacted gallstone extraction as well as ileal (n = 3) and ileocaecal resection (n = 4). Mean (range) incision length was 2.5 (2–5) cm. All convalescences were uncomplicated. Conclusions. These preliminary results show that SALS is an efficient and safe modality for the surgical management of ileal disease with all the advantages of minimal access surgery and without requiring a significant increase in theatre resource or cost or incurring extra patient morbidity. PMID:22530116

  2. Delayed endoluminal vacuum therapy for rectal anastomotic leaks after rectal resection in a swine model: a new treatment option.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Laura H; Shada, Amber; Ritter, Lane A; Mauro, David M; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Feldman, Sanford H; Kleiner, Daniel E

    2014-04-01

    Anastomotic leaks are a dreaded surgical complication following colorectal operations. Creation of a temporary proximal diverting ileostomy is used in high-risk anastomoses, however, additional surgical risk is accumulated with its creation and reversal. Endoluminal vacuum therapy has been shown to seal anastomotic defects in the prophylactic setting in a pig model and we hypothesized it could be utilized in a delayed fashion to rescue subjects with an active anastomotic leak. Yorkshire pigs underwent rectal resection, intentional leak confirmed by fluoroscopy, and endoluminal vacuum therapy device placement to low continuous suction. Following treatment, a contrast enema and necropsy was performed for gross and histopathology. Pigs underwent 2 (or 5) days of free intraperitoneal leak prior to device placement and 5 (or 7) subsequent days of endoluminal vacuum therapy. Six of seven early-treated pigs sealed their anastomotic defect, while two of the four treated pigs in this extended group sealed the defect. Endoluminal vacuum therapy is feasible and well tolerated in a pig model, and it has been shown to seal a significant number of freely leaking anastomoses in the early period (86%). This technology warrants further study as it may provide a noninvasive means to treatment of anastomotic leaks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Delayed Endoluminal Vacuum Therapy for Rectal Anastomotic Leaks after Rectal Resection in a Swine Model: A New Treatment Option

    PubMed Central

    Shada, Amber; Ritter, Lane A.; Mauro, David M.; Mentrikoski, Mark J.; Feldman, Sanford H.; Kleiner, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Anastomotic leaks are a dreaded surgical complication following colorectal operations. Creation of a temporary proximal diverting ileostomy is used in high‐risk anastomoses, however, additional surgical risk is accumulated with its creation and reversal. Endoluminal vacuum therapy has been shown to seal anastomotic defects in the prophylactic setting in a pig model and we hypothesized it could be utilized in a delayed fashion to rescue subjects with an active anastomotic leak. Yorkshire pigs underwent rectal resection, intentional leak confirmed by fluoroscopy, and endoluminal vacuum therapy device placement to low continuous suction. Following treatment, a contrast enema and necropsy was performed for gross and histopathology. Pigs underwent 2 (or 5) days of free intraperitoneal leak prior to device placement and 5 (or 7) subsequent days of endoluminal vacuum therapy. Six of seven early‐treated pigs sealed their anastomotic defect, while two of the four treated pigs in this extended group sealed the defect. Endoluminal vacuum therapy is feasible and well tolerated in a pig model, and it has been shown to seal a significant number of freely leaking anastomoses in the early period (86%). This technology warrants further study as it may provide a noninvasive means to treatment of anastomotic leaks. PMID:24456480

  4. Epidemiological investigation of Candida species causing bloodstream infection in paediatric small bowel transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Mallory J; Gomes-Neto, João Carlos; Banjara, Nabaraj; Florescu, Diana F; Mercer, David F; Iwen, Peter C; Hallen-Adams, Heather E

    2017-06-01

    Small bowel transplantation (SBT) can be a life-saving medical procedure. However, these recipients experience high risk of bloodstream infections caused by Candida. This research aims to characterise the SBT recipient gut microbiota over time following transplantation and investigate the epidemiology of candidaemia in seven paediatric patients. Candida species from the recipients' ileum and bloodstream were identified by internal transcribed spacer sequence and distinguished to strain by multilocus sequence typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Antifungal susceptibility of bloodstream isolates was determined against nine antifungals. Twenty-two ileostomy samples harboured at least one Candida species. Fungaemia were caused by Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida pelliculosa. All but three bloodstream isolates showed susceptibility to all the antifungals tested. One C. glabrata isolate showed multidrug resistance to itraconazole, amphotericin B and posaconazole and intermediate resistance to caspofungin. Results are congruent with both endogenous (C. albicans, C. glabrata) and exogenous (C. parapsilosis) infections; results also suggest two patients were infected by the same strain of C. parapsilosis. Continuing to work towards a better understanding of sources of infection-particularly the exogenous sources-would lead to targeted prevention strategies. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Surgery for luminal Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takayuki; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) require surgery. Indications for surgery include failure of medical treatment, bowel obstruction, fistula or abscess formation. The most common surgical procedure is resection. In jejunoileal CD, strictureplasty is an accepted surgical technique that relieves the obstructive symptoms, while preserving intestinal length and avoiding the development of short bowel syndrome. However, the role of strictureplasty in duodenal and colonic diseases remains controversial. In extensive colitis, after total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA), the recurrence rates and functional outcomes are reasonable. For patients with extensive colitis and rectal involvement, total colectomy and end-ileostomy is safe and effective; however, a few patients can have subsequent IRA, and half of the patients will require proctectomy later. Proctocolectomy is associated with a high incidence of delayed perineal wound healing, but it carries a low recurrence rate. Patients undergoing proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis had poor functional outcomes and high failure rates. Laparoscopic surgery has been introduced as a minimal invasive procedure. Patients who undergo laparoscopic surgery have a more rapid recovery of bowel function and a shorter hospital stay. The morbidity also is lower, and the rate of disease recurrence is similar compared with open procedures. PMID:24415860

  6. The human small intestinal microbiota is driven by rapid uptake and conversion of simple carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Zoetendal, Erwin G; Raes, Jeroen; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Booijink, Carien CGM; Troost, Freddy J; Bork, Peer; Wels, Michiel; de Vos, Willem M; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) harbors a complex community of microbes. The microbiota composition varies between different locations in the GI tract, but most studies focus on the fecal microbiota, and that inhabiting the colonic mucosa. Consequently, little is known about the microbiota at other parts of the GI tract, which is especially true for the small intestine because of its limited accessibility. Here we deduce an ecological model of the microbiota composition and function in the small intestine, using complementing culture-independent approaches. Phylogenetic microarray analyses demonstrated that microbiota compositions that are typically found in effluent samples from ileostomists (subjects without a colon) can also be encountered in the small intestine of healthy individuals. Phylogenetic mapping of small intestinal metagenome of three different ileostomy effluent samples from a single individual indicated that Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium sp. and high G+C organisms are most abundant in the small intestine. The compositions of these populations fluctuated in time and correlated to the short-chain fatty acids profiles that were determined in parallel. Comparative functional analysis with fecal metagenomes identified functions that are overrepresented in the small intestine, including simple carbohydrate transport phosphotransferase systems (PTS), central metabolism and biotin production. Moreover, metatranscriptome analysis supported high level in-situ expression of PTS and carbohydrate metabolic genes, especially those belonging to Streptococcus sp. Overall, our findings suggest that rapid uptake and fermentation of available carbohydrates contribute to maintaining the microbiota in the human small intestine. PMID:22258098

  7. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro digestion on polyphenol composition in lingonberries: potential impact on colonic health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emma M; Nitecki, Sonja; Pereira-Caro, Gema; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Rowland, Ian; Crozier, Alan; Gill, Chris I R

    2014-01-01

    The composition of polyphenols in ileal fluid samples obtained from an ileostomy subject after lingonberry intake was compared with lingonberry extracts obtained after simulated in vitro digestion (IVDL) and subsequent faecal fermentation (IVFL). HPLC-PDA-MS/MS analysis confirmed similar patterns of lingonberry (poly)phenolic metabolism after the in vivo and in vitro digestion, with reduced recovery of anthocyanins and a similar pattern of recovery for proanthocyanidins observed for both methods of digestion. On the other hand, the IVFL sample contained none of the original (poly)phenolic components but was enriched in simple aromatic components. Digested and fermented extracts exhibited significant (P < 0.05) anti-genotoxic (Comet assay), anti-mutagenic (Mutation Frequency assay), and anti-invasive (Matrigel Invasion assay) effects in human cell culture models of colorectal cancer at physiologically-relevant doses (0-50 μg/mL gallic acid equivalents). The ileal fluid induced significant anti-genotoxic activity (P < 0.05), but at a higher concentration (200 μg/mL gallic acid equivalents) than the IVDL. Despite extensive structural modification following digestion and fermentation, lingonberry extracts retained their bioactivity in vitro. This reinforces the need for studies to consider the impact of digestion when investigating bioactivity of dietary phytochemicals. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in sera from colectomised ulcerative colitis patients and its relation to the presence of pouchitis.

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, M; Mallolas, J; Klaassen, J; Abad-Lacruz, A; González-Huix, F; Cabré, E; Fernández-Bañares, F; Bertrán, X; Condom, E; Martí-Ragué, J; Gassull, M A

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the influence of colectomy on antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positivity in ulcerative colitis (UC). In small series of patients it has been suggested that ANCA positivity in UC might be predictive for development of pouchitis after colectomy. AIMS: To assess the prevalence of ANCA in UC patients treated by colectomy and a Brooke's ileostomy (UC-BI) or ileal pouch anal anastomosis (UC-IPAA), and the relation between the presence of ANCA, the type of surgery, and the presence of pouchitis. SUBJECTS: 63 UC patients treated by colectomy (32 with UC-BI and 31 with UC-IPAA), 54 UC, and 24 controls. METHODS: Samples were obtained at least two years after colectomy. ANCA were detected by indirect immunofluorescent assay. RESULTS: There were no differences between patients with (36.3%) or without pouchitis (35.0%) and between patients with UC (55%), UC-BI (40.6%), and UC-IPAA (35.4%). However, ANCA prevalence significantly decreases in the whole group of operated patients (38.0%) compared with non-operated UC (p = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ANCA in operated patients was significantly lower than in non-operated UC, suggesting that it might be related either to the presence of inflamed or diseased tissue. ANCA persistence is not related to the surgical procedure and it should not be used as a marker for predicting the development of pouchitis. PMID:8984029

  9. Parastomal hernias after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Parastomal hernia, defined as an "incisional hernia related to an abdominal wall stoma", is a frequent complication after conduit urinary diversion that can negatively impact quality of life and present a clinically significant problem for many patients. Parastomal hernia (PH) rates may be as high as 65% and while many patients are asymptomatic, in some series up to 30% of patients require surgical intervention due to pain, leakage, ostomy appliance problems, urinary obstruction, and rarely bowel obstruction or strangulation. Local tissue repair, stoma relocation, and mesh repairs have been performed to correct PH, however, long-term results have been disappointing with recurrence rates of 30%–76% reported after these techniques. Due to high recurrence rates and the potential morbidity of PH repair, efforts have been made to prevent PH development at the time of the initial surgery. Randomized trials of circumstomal prophylactic mesh placement at the time of colostomy and ileostomy stoma formation have shown significant reductions in PH rates with acceptably low complication profiles. We have placed prophylactic mesh at the time of ileal conduit creation in patients at high risk for PH development and found it to be safe and effective in reducing the PH rates over the short-term. In this review, we describe the clinical and radiographic definitions of PH, the clinical impact and risk factors associated with its development, and the use of prophylactic mesh placement for patients undergoing ileal conduit urinary diversion with the intent of reducing PH rates. PMID:27437533

  10. Incidence and risk factors for rectal pain after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Hee Cheol; Huh, Jung Wook; Lim, Hyun Young; Lee, Eun Kyung; Park, Hui Gyeong; Bang, Yu Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to investigate the incidence of and potential risk factors for rectal pain after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 300 patients who underwent laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. We assessed the presence of rectal pain and categorized patients into Group N (no rectal pain) or Group P (rectal pain). Results In total, 288 patients were included. Of these patients, 39 (13.5%) reported rectal pain and 14 (4.9%) had rectal pain that persisted for >3 months. Univariate analysis revealed that patients in Group P had more preoperative chemoradiotherapy, more ileostomies, longer operation times, more anastomotic margins of <2 cm from the anal verge, more anastomotic leakage, and longer hospital stays. Multivariate analysis identified an anastomotic margin of <2 cm from the anal verge and a long operation time as risk factors. The presence of diabetes mellitus was a negative predictor of rectal pain. Conclusions In this study, the incidence of rectal pain after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery was 13.5%. An anastomotic margin of <2 cm from the anal verge and a long operation time were risk factors for rectal pain. The presence of diabetes mellitus was a negative predictor of rectal pain. Thus, the possibility of postoperative rectal pain should be discussed preoperatively with patients with these risk factors. PMID:28415928

  11. Happily hopeless: Adaptation to a permanent, but not to a temporary, disability

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dylan M.; Loewenstein, George; Jankovich, Aleksandra; Ubel, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We tracked patients with either irreversible or reversible colostomies over a six month period, beginning a week after the procedure, to examine how they adapted hedonically over time. Based on prior research and theorizing, we hypothesized that, paradoxically, those with irreversible colostomies would adapt more fully, and become happier, than would those with colostomies that were potentially reversible. Design: We contacted 107 patients who had recently received either a colostomy or ileostomy. The initial interviews were conducted while patients were still in the hospital recovering from their surgery. Consenting participants were mailed surveys at three time points: 1 week after release from the hospital, one month after release, and six months after release. Main Outcome Measures: The surveys included measures of life satisfaction and perceived quality of life. Results: As predicted, overall life satisfaction and quality of life increased with time for patients with permanent, but not temporary, ostomies.. Conclusion: These findings suggest that knowing an adverse situation is temporary can interfere with adaptation, leading to a paradoxical situation in which people who are better off objectively are worse off subjectively. PMID:19916648

  12. Management of low colorectal anastomotic leak: Preserving the anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Blumetti, Jennifer; Abcarian, Herand

    2015-01-01

    Anastomotic leak continues to be a dreaded complication after colorectal surgery, especially in the low colorectal or coloanal anastomosis. However, there has been no consensus on the management of the low colorectal anastomotic leak. Currently operative procedures are reserved for patients with frank purulent or feculent peritonitis and unstable vital signs, and vary from simple fecal diversion with drainage to resection of the anastomosis and closure of the rectal stump with end colostomy (Hartmann’s procedure). However, if the patient is stable, and the leak is identified days or even weeks postoperatively, less aggressive therapeutic measures may result in healing of the leak and salvage of the anastomosis. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of pelvic collections with percutaneous treatments, and newer methods of endoscopic therapies for the acutely leaking anastomosis, such as use of the endosponge, stents or clips, have greatly reduced the need for surgical intervention in selected cases. Diverting ileostomy, if not already in place, may be considered to reduce fecal contamination. For subclinical leaks or those that persist after the initial surgery, endoluminal approaches such as injection of fibrin sealant, use of endoscopic clips, or transanal closure of the very low anastomosis may be utilized. These newer techniques have variable success rates and must be individualized to the patient, with the goal of treatment being restoration of gastrointestinal continuity and healing of the anastomosis. A review of the treatment of low colorectal anastomotic leaks is presented. PMID:26730283

  13. Anastomotic salvage after rectal cancer resection using the Turnbull–Cutait delayed anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Hallet, Julie; Bouchard, Alexandre; Drolet, Sébastien; Milot, Hélène; Desrosiers, Emilie; Lebrun, Aude; Grégoire, Roger Charles

    2014-01-01

    Background Turnbull–Cutait abdominoperineal pull-through followed by delayed coloanal anastomosis (DCA) was first described in 1961. Studies have described its use for challenging colorectal conditions. We reviewed our experience with Turnbull–Cutait DCA as a salvage procedure for complex failure of colorectal anastomosis. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study from October 2010 to September 2011, with analysis of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Results Seven DCAs were performed for anastomotic complications (3 chronic leaks, 2 rectovaginal fistulas, 1 colovesical fistula, 1 colonic ischemia) following surgery for rectal cancer. Six patients had a diverting ileostomy constructed as part of previous treatment for anastomotic complications before the salvage procedure. No anastomotic leaks were observed. All procedures but 1 were completed successfully. One patient who underwent DCA subsequently required an abdominoperineal resection and a permanent colostomy for postoperative extensive colonic ischemia. No 30-day mortality occurred. Conclusion Salvage Turnbull–Cutait DCA appears to be a safe procedure and could be offered to patients with complex anastomotic complications. This procedure could be added to the surgeon’s armamentarium as an alternative to the creation of a permanent stoma. PMID:25421083

  14. Damaged anal canal as a cause of fecal incontinence after surgical repair for Hirschsprung disease - a preventable and under-reported complication.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Andrea; Frischer, Jason; Knod, Jennifer Leslie; Dickie, Belinda; Levitt, Marc A; Holder, Monica; Jackson, Lyndsey; Peña, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Fecal incontinence after the surgical repair of Hirschsprung disease is a potentially preventable complication that carries a negative impact on patient's quality of life. Patients that were previously operated for Hirschsprung disease and presented to our bowel management clinic with the complaint of fecal incontinence were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent a rectal examination under anesthesia looking for anatomic explanations for their incontinence. One hundred three patients were identified. 54 patients had a damaged anal canal. 22 patients also had a patulous anus. The operative reports mentioned the pectinate line in 32 patients, in 12 it was not mentioned, and in 10 patients the operative report was not available. All patients with a damaged anal canal suffered from true fecal incontinence; 45 of them are on daily enemas (41 are clean and 4 are still having "accidents"), 7 are not doing bowel management due to noncompliance and 2 patients have a permanent ileostomy. 49 patients did not have a damaged anal canal, 25 of those responded to changes in diet and medication and are having voluntary bowel movements. Fecal incontinence may occur after an operation for Hirschsprung disease. When the anal canal is damaged, incontinence is always present, severe, and probably permanent. The preservation of the anal canal may avoid this complication. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Clostridium difficile colitis in children following lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rosen, J B; Schecter, M G; Heinle, J S; McKenzie, E D; Morales, D L; Dishop, M K; Danziger-Isakov, L; Mallory, G B; Elidemir, O

    2010-08-01

    Risk factors for Clostridium difficile diarrhea are antibiotic exposure, hospitalization, extreme ages, and immunodeficiency. Patients with CF have a high rate of colonization with C. difficile. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients at Texas Children's Hospital who underwent lung transplantation since the inception of our program in October 2002 until October 2008. There were 78 pediatric lung transplants performed at our institution during the study period. Four patients developed six total episodes of CDC for an overall incidence of 5.4%. CF was the underlying diagnosis in all four patients, leading to an incidence of 8.9% in patients with CF. Two patients developed colitis within the first four months following transplant, and the other two patients developed colitis more than three yr after transplantation. All four patients required hospitalization, and three patients were managed medically while one patient underwent diverting ileostomy. One experienced renal insufficiency and subsequently expired. Overall survival was 75% among patients with CDC following lung transplantation. CDC causes significant morbidity and mortality in children with CF who have undergone lung transplantation.

  16. Rare case of a strangulated intercostal flank hernia following open nephrectomy: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Akinduro, Oluwaseun O.; Jones, Frank; Turner, Jacquelyn; Cason, Frederick; Clark, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Flank incisions may be associated with incisional flank hernias, which may progress to incarceration and strangulation. Compromised integrity of the abdominal and intercostal musculature due to previous surgery may be associated with herniation of abdominal contents into the intercostal space. There have been six previously reported cases of herniation into the intercostal space after a flank incision for a surgical procedure. This case highlights the clinical picture associated with an emergent strangulated hernia and highlights the critical steps in its management. Presentation of case We present a case of a 79-year-old adult man with multiple comorbidities presenting with a strangulated flank hernia secondary to an intercostal incision for a right-sided open nephrectomy. The strangulated hernia required emergent intervention including right-sided hemi-colectomy with ileostomy and mucous fistula. Discussion Abdominal incisional hernias are rare and therefore easily overlooked, but may result in significant morbidity or even death in the patient.. The diagnosis can be made with a thorough clinical examination and ultrasound or computed topographical investigation. Once a hernia has become incarcerated, emergent surgical management is necessary to avoid strangulation and small bowel obstruction. Conclusion Urgent diagnosis and treatment of this extremely rare hernia is paramount especially in the setting of strangulation. PMID:26629848

  17. Changes of CFTR functional measurements and clinical improvements in cystic fibrosis patients with non p.Gly551Asp gating mutations treated with ivacaftor.

    PubMed

    Mesbahi, Myriam; Shteinberg, Michal; Wilschanski, Michael; Hatton, Aurelie; Nguyen-Khoa, Thao; Friedman, Hannah; Cohen, Michael; Escabasse, Virginie; Le Bourgeois, Muriel; Lucidi, Vicenzina; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Bassinet, Laurence; Livnat, Galit

    2017-01-01

    Ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, has been found to improve CFTR function and clinical outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) gating mutations. We investigated the effects of ivacaftor on CFTR functional measurement in CF patients carrying gating mutations other than p.Gly551Asp. Two siblings aged 13 and 12 carrying the p.Ser549Asn mutation, two sisters (45 and 43years old) compound heterozygotes for p.Asp1152His and p.Gly1244Glu, a 37year old man homozygous for the p.Gly1244Glu mutation, and a 7year old girl with p.Arg352Gln and p.Gly1244Glu mutations commenced treatment with ivacaftor. NPD was performed in all the patients and approached normal for four patients who had also clinical improvement (p.Ser549Asn compound heterozygotes, and p.Asp1152His/p.Gly1244Glu siblings). Beta-adrenergic sweat chloride secretion performed in thep.Asp1152His/p.Gly1244Glu patients improved significantly. The p.Gly1244Glu mutation homozygous patient, who had undergone an ileal resection with ileostomy and enterocutaneous fistula, did not respond clinically to ivacaftor and did not modify his sweat test. These results highlight the importance of different CFTR activity measurements to explore CFTR modulator efficacy.

  18. Fecal stream diversion and mucosal cytokine levels in collagenous colitis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Daferera, Niki; Kumawat, Ashok Kumar; Hultgren-Hörnquist, Elisabeth; Ignatova, Simone; Ström, Magnus; Münch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this case report, we examined the levels of cytokines expressed before and during fecal stream diversion and after intestinal continuity was restored in a patient with collagenous colitis. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman with chronic, active collagenous colitis who either failed to achieve clinical remission or experienced adverse effects with the following drugs: loperamide, cholestyramine, budesonide, methotrexate and adalimumab. Due to the intractable nature of the disease and because the patient was having up to 15 watery bowel movements per day, she underwent a temporary ileostomy. Colonic biopsies were analyzed for mucosal cytokine protein levels before and during fecal stream diversion and after intestinal continuity was restored. Mucosal protein levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17 A, IL-23, TNF, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 were all higher during active disease and decreased to non-detectable or considerably lower levels during fecal stream diversion. One month after the restoration of bowel continuity, when the patient experienced a relapse of symptoms, IL-2, IL-23 and IL-21 levels were again increased. Our results indicate that fecal stream diversion in this patient suppressed the levels of all cytokines analyzed in colonic biopsies. With the recurrence of clinical symptoms and histological changes after bowel reconstruction, the levels of primarily proinflammatory cytokines increased. Our findings support the hypothesis that a luminal factor triggers the inflammation observed in collagenous colitis. PMID:26019474

  19. Case Report: Multivisceral Transplantation for an Extensive Cystic Lymphangioma of the Mesenteric Root.

    PubMed

    Moulin, L; Rumbo, C; Romero, P; Pedraza, N; Garcia Hervá, D; Orce, G; Trentadue, J; Ramisch, D; Gondolesi, G

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with intestinal failure owing to a cystic lymphangioma compromising the root of the mesentery, not amenable to resection, leading to intestinal failure. Oncologic treatment was attempted to reduce tumor size with no response; therefore, she was listed for multivisceral transplantation. Resection of the tumor required resection of all abdominal organs with vascular inflow and outflow. A multivisceral graft (liver, stomach, duodenum-pancreas and spleen complex, small bowel, and right colon) was implanted. For vascular reconstruction, donor's superior vena cava was sutured to the recipient's suprahepatic veins in a common patch. For arterial inflow, an arterial conduit was placed directly to the infrarenal aorta, and sutured to an aortic patch of the graft. Cold ischemia time was 8:45 hours; warm ischemia time was 35 minutes. A double-layer gastrogastric anastomosis and piloroplasty was made; and the distal reconstruction was performed with ileocolic side-to-end anastomosis that allowed to perform of a Bishop-Koop ileostomy for endoscopic monitoring. The patient recovered well after the procedure and was discharged 36 days after transplantation with intestinal sufficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing cystic lymphangioma as an indication for multivisceral transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Left-sided transmesocolic herniation of small bowel in an otherwise unaffected abdomen.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Akshay Anand; Sonkar, Abhinav Arun; Singh, Kul Ranjan; Rai, Anurag

    2015-05-15

    Transmesocolic hernia is an uncommon type of internal hernia with incidence ranging from approximately 5-10%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a transmesocolic hernia through a gap within the descending mesocolon presenting clinically as an intestinal obstruction. A 75-year-old man was admitted with clinical features of intestinal obstruction. An abdominal X-ray showed multiple small bowel loops with air fluid levels. Contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen revealed small bowel obstruction not only on the right, but also on the left side of the collapsed descending colon. Emergency surgery was performed. Strangulated bowel loops with gangrenous changes were resected and double-barrel ileostomy was carried out. The postoperative period was uneventful. Restoration of bowel was performed after 6 weeks. Preoperative diagnosis of bowel obstruction caused by a transmesocolic hernia remains difficult despite the currently available imaging techniques. Prompt surgery can prevent serious complications such as peritonitis and sepsis.

  1. Distal third rectal cancer: intersphincteric anterior resection with manual anastomosis using the techniques of Parks or Turnbull-Cutait.

    PubMed

    Biondo, Sebastiano; Trenti, Loris; Kreisler, Esther

    2014-03-01

    Rectal ultralow, intersphincteric anterior resection (RIE) can be used in selected cases with the intention of improving the quality of life of patients avoiding permanent colostomy. RIE is indicated for tumors that are located from 1-2 cm above the anorectal ring to the top of the internal anal sphincter without involvement of the pelvic floor, puborrectalis muscle or external anal sphincter. RIE aims to get a free distal margin tumour not less than 1cm. Correct preoperative staging and anatomical tumour location and relation with adjacent structures and organs is fundamental. Intestinal transit reconstruction can be performed manually with a coloanal anastomosis according with Parks and with a lateral ileostomy or, alternatively, by a two-stage coloanal anastomosis technique as Turnbull-Cutait avoiding the stoma protection. Postoperative morbidity and mortality and the rate of local recurrence and overall disease-free survival at 5 years after RIE are comparable to those observed in standard ultra low anterior resection. Postoperative functional alterations of the RIE can affect the quality of life of patients regardless of reconstructive technique. Published studies do not provide sufficient data to establish the most efficient reconstruction method in terms of functional outcomes.

  2. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage: our experience and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Amilcare; Desiderio, Jacopo; Petrina, Adolfo; Trastulli, Stefano; Grassi, Veronica; Sani, Marco; Pironi, Daniele; Santoro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over the years various therapeutic techniques for diverticulitis have been developed. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage (LPL) appears to be a safe and useful treatment, and it could be an effective alternative to colonic resection in emergency surgery. Aim This prospective observational study aims to assess the safety and benefits of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage in perforated sigmoid diverticulitis. Material and methods We surgically treated 70 patients urgently for complicated sigmoid diverticulitis. Thirty-two (45.7%) patients underwent resection of the sigmoid colon and creation of a colostomy (Hartmann technique); 21 (30%) patients underwent peritoneal laparoscopic lavage; 4 (5.7%) patients underwent colostomy by the Mikulicz technique; and the remaining 13 (18.6%) patients underwent resection of the sigmoid colon and creation of a colorectal anastomosis with a protective ileostomy. Results The 66 patients examined were divided into 3 groups: 32 patients were treated with urgent surgery according to the Hartmann procedure; 13 patients were treated with resection and colorectal anastomosis; 21 patients were treated urgently with laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. We had no intraoperative complications. The overall mortality was 4.3% (3 patients). In the LPL group the morbidity rate was 33.3%. Conclusions Currently it cannot be said that LPL is better in terms of mortality and morbidity than colonic resection. These data may, however, be proven wrong by greater attention in the selection of patients to undergo laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. PMID:27458487

  3. [Long-term results of ileo-rectal anastomosis in familial polyposis].

    PubMed

    Sváb, J; Pesková, M; Jirásek, V; Fried, M; Krska, Z

    1999-04-01

    The authors present their experience with 93 patients operated at the First Surgical Clinic of the General Faculty Hospital and First Medical Faculty, Charles University Prague on account of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) assembled during 36 year starting in 1962. They analyze 91 patients followed up in collaboration with the First Medical Clinic of the General Faculty Hospital and First Medical Clinic Charles University Prague. Seventy-two of the patients were operated and in 55 of them an ileorectoanastomosis was made following subtotal colectomy. Two important findings were made. From the group of 91 patients incl. primary patients who suffered already from advanced malignant disease of the large bowel a total of 38.5% died. In the rectal stump after ileorectoanastomosis on average within 16 years after operation in 16.4% of the patients a malignant tumour was found. This leads to the belief that patients should be recommended colectomy with ileoanoanastomosis with an ileal reservoir. This operation was performed during the last five years in nine patients with this condition, using a one-stage or two-stage procedure with temporary ileostomy.

  4. Development of fatty acid calcium stone ileus after initiation of human milk fortifier.

    PubMed

    Murase, Masahiko; Miyazawa, Tokuo; Taki, Motohiro; Sakurai, Motoichiro; Miura, Fumihiro; Mizuno, Katsumi; Itabashi, Kazuo; Toki, Akira

    2013-02-01

    We report a case who was born with extremely low birth weight infant and had experienced abdominal operation for necrotizing enterocolitis, eventually developed ileus due to fatty acid calcium stones after giving human milk fortifier. He had developed necrotizing enterocolitis on day 30 of his age, such that we performed enterectomy and ileostomy. He could not tolerate enteral feeding fully, because intestinal fistula infection was repeated. Although we administered hindmilk, he grew up slowly and he suffered cholestasis as well. We performed end-to-end anastomosis to prevent fistula infections on day 87. After this operation, breast milk feeding volume was increased easily. However, we started to add HMF of half-strength on day 124, because his body weight gain remained very poor. And we confirmed to intensify the ratio of HMF full-strength on day 128. After that his abdomen had distended on day 131. As there is no effect of conservative therapy to occlusive ileus, we did emergency laparotomy on day 139. Intestinal calculi were impacted at anastomic portion. Although all stones were removed, he died on 144 days due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and renal failure. Calculi analysis revealed that all of them were fatty acid calcium stones. There is no report about like our case. We speculate that the construction of fatty acid calcium result from either high concentration of calcium/phosphorus or rapid increase in the fortification. We could have prevented this case happened by slower increment of fortification.

  5. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations.

    PubMed

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-08-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed abundant populations of Streptococcus spp. most affiliated with S. salivarius, S. thermophilus, and S. parasanguinis, as well as Veillonella spp. affiliated with V. atypica, V. parvula, V. dispar, and V. rogosae. Relative abundances varied per subject and time of sampling. Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates were cultured using selective media from ileostoma effluent samples collected at two time points from a single subject. The richness of the Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates was assessed at species and strain level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and genetic fingerprinting, respectively. A total of 160 Streptococcus and 37 Veillonella isolates were obtained. Genetic fingerprinting differentiated seven Streptococcus lineages from ileostoma effluent, illustrating the strain richness within this ecosystem. The Veillonella isolates were represented by a single phylotype. Our study demonstrated that the small intestinal Streptococcus populations displayed considerable changes over time at the genetic lineage level because only representative strains of a single Streptococcus lineage could be cultivated from ileostoma effluent at both time points.

  6. Optimal treatment for severe neurogenic bowel dysfunction after chronic spinal cord injury: a decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Furlan, J C; Urbach, D R; Fehlings, M G

    2007-09-01

    When conservative management fails in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) and neurogenic bowel dysfunction, clinicians have to choose from a variety of treatment options which include colostomy, ileostomy, Malone anterograde continence enema (MACE) and sacral anterior root stimulator (SARS) implantation. This study employed a decision analysis to examine the optimal treatment for bowel management of young individuals with chronic refractory constipation in the setting of chronic SCI. A decision analysis was created to compare the four surgical strategies using baseline analysis, one-way and two-way sensitivity analyses, 'worst scenario' and 'best scenario' sensitivity analyses, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) was the primary outcome. The baseline analysis indicated that patients who underwent the MACE procedure had the highest QALE value compared with the other interventions. Sensitivity analyses showed that these results were robust. The MACE procedure may provide the best long-term outcome in terms of the probability of improving bowel function, reducing complication rates and the incidence of autonomic dysreflexia, and being congruent with patients' preferences. The analysis was sensitive to changes in assumptions about quality of life/utility, and thus the results could change if more specific estimates of utility became available. Copyright (c) 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Successful Treatment of a Large Pelvic Abscess Using Intraluminal VAC: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Aras, Abbas; Celik, Sebahattin; Kiziltan, Remzi; Yilmaz, Özkan; Kotan, Çetin

    2016-04-01

    The most feared complication of the surgical treatment of rectal cancer is anastomotic leakage, which is related to high rates of mortality and morbidity. Here, we present a patient who could not be treated with surgical drainage but treated by intraluminal Vacuum Associated Closure (VAC). A 34-year-old male patient was treated for rectal cancer by low anterior resection, colorectal anastomosis, and diverting ileostomy following neoadjuvant CRT. The patient reported with a postoperative anastomotic disruption and a large pelvic abscess. Due to the continuation of foul-smell drainage inspite of perianal incision and drainage, intraluminal VAC was applied and the pelvic abscess and the foul-smell were successfully treated. The presence of an adequate anal sphincter tonus is a disadvantage in anastomotic leakage, since it prevents the emptying of the intestinal content and also precludes the drainage of the pelvic abscess. The endoluminal application of VAC, similar to the results of application of VAC in open wounds, has been demonstrated to decrease fibrin and necrotic tissue in the pelvic cavity and increase granulation tissue. VAC, which has long been used in the treatment of open wounds, is a promising method in the treatment of large pelvic abscesses due to anastomotic leakage following rectum resection.

  8. Enterovesical fistula, a rare complication of Meckel's diverticulum: A case report.

    PubMed

    M A, Bourguiba; M, Gharbi; M, Ghalleb; A, Ben Taher; F, Souai; Y, Bensafta; S, Sayari; M, Ben Moussa

    2017-01-01

    Enterovesical fistulas usually result from diverticulitis, Crohn's disease, or colorectal cancer. A perforated Meckel's diverticulum can exceptionally result in an vesico-diverticulum fistula, as noted in only seven previously reported cases. A 35-year old Arabic male, quadriplegic,who presented epigastralgia evolving for a week, associated with abdominal distension and cloudy urine. On examination he was feverish (38.5°C), dehydrated with tenderness in the entire distended abdomen; rectal examination revealed a hypotonic sphincter with no other abnormality. After investigations, acute peritonitis diagnosis was retained. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a vesico-diverticular fistula resulting from a performed Meckel's diverticulum. Diverticulectomy, ileostomy and bladder sutures were performed after peritoneal cleansing. The postoperative course was uneventful. The anatomo-pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a perforated Meckel's diverticulum that did not contain ectopic gastric or pancreatic tissue. Vesico-diverticular fistula resulting from a perforated Meckel's diverticulum is a rare complication. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case which is not associated to inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. A reappraisal of the ileo-rectal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Myrelid, Pär; Øresland, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Colectomy is still frequently required in the care of ulcerative colitis. The most common indications are either non-responding colitis in the emergency setting, chronic active disease, steroid-dependent disease or neoplastic change like dysplasia or cancer. The use of the ileal pouch anal anastomosis has internationally been the gold standard, substituting the rectum with a pouch. Recently the use of the ileorectal anastomosis has increased in frequency as reconstructive method after subtotal colectomy. Data from centres using ileorectal anastomosis have shown the method to be safe, with functionality and risk of failure comparable to the ileal pouch anal anastomosis. The methods have different advantages as well as disadvantages, depending on a number of patient factors and where in life the patient is at time of reconstruction. The ileorectal anastomosis could, together with the Kock continent ileostomy, in selected cases be a complement to the ileal pouch anal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis and should be discussed with the patient before deciding on reconstructive method.

  10. Comparison of Colonic J-pouch and Straight Coloanal anastomosis after Low Anterior Resection.

    PubMed

    Mehrvarz, Shaban; Towliat, Seyed Mohsen; Mohebbi, Hassan Ali; Derakhshani, Saieed; Abavisani, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    The tendency towards sphincter preserving for low rectal cancers with low anterior resection, has led to the technique of straight coloanal anastomosis (SCAA) or colonic J-pouch anal anastomosis (CPAA). The aim of our study was to compare functional outcomes, complication rates and quality of life (QoL) after LAR with either a straight or colonic J pouch anastomosis. In 88 patients with rectal tumors located in lower third, who were candidate for LAR with coloanal anastomosis. They were divided for reconstruction using either SCAA (n= 47) or CPAA (n= 41) from January 2007 to May 2009. Functional results were assessed after closure of temporary loop ileostomy, 6 months postoperatively. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30. The two groups were matched for gender, age, and preoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There were no significant differences between the SCAA and CPAA groups relative to anastomotic leakage. Among patients with CPAA, the mean of 24 hours bowel movements, daytime bowel movements, incontinence scores, and incidence of urgency were significantly lower than those in the SCAA group. Also, patients with a CPAA had a significantly better quality of life. CPAA provided not only better functional results than SCAA, but also improved quality of life, thus may be the better choice.

  11. Intestinal, portal, and peripheral profiles of daikenchuto (TU-100)'s active ingredients after oral administration

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Junko; Kaifuchi, Noriko; Kushida, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Fukutake, Miwako; Nishiyama, Mitsue; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru

    2015-01-01

    A pharmaceutical grade Japanese traditional medicine, daikenchuto (TU-100), consisting of Japanese pepper, processed ginger, and ginseng, has been widely used for various intestinal disorders in Japan and now under development as a new therapeutic drug in the US. It is suggested that TU-100 ingredients exert pharmacological effects on intestines via two routes, from the luminal side before absorption and the peripheral blood stream after absorption. Therefore, in order to fully understand the pharmacological actions of TU-100, it is critically important to know the intraluminal amounts and forms of ingested TU-100 ingredients. In the present study, after administrating TU-100 to rats, the concentrations of TU-100 ingredients and their conjugates in the peripheral and portal blood and ileal contents were determined by LC-MS/MS. Next, TU-100 was administered to patients with ileostomy bags, but whose small intestines are diagnosed as healthy, and the ingredients/conjugates in the ileal effluent were analyzed. The results suggest that: (1) Pepper ingredients hydroxysanshools are rapidly absorbed and enter systemic circulation, (2) Ginseng ingredients ginsenosides are transported to the colon with the least absorption, (3) Ginger ingredients gingerols are absorbed and some conjugated in the small intestine and transported via the portal vein. While only a small amount of gingerols/gingerol conjugates enter systemic circulation, considerable amounts reappear in the small intestine. Thus, the effect of TU-100 on the intestines is believed to be a composite of multiple actions by multiple compounds supplied via multiple routes. PMID:26516578

  12. Dieulafoy lesion of the gallbladder presenting with bleeding and a pseudo-mirizzi syndrome: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Stanes, Aaron; Mackay, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal bleeding can have significant morbidity and mortality. Pathological processes that cause it are diverse, and timely investigation and management are vital. Dieulafoy lesions are a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding and here we describe a case of a gallbladder dieulafoy lesion causing gastrointestinal bleeding. Presentation of case Recently discharged from hospital following an open anterior resection and loop ileostomy for diverticular disease, an 84-year-old female re-presented with lower abdominal pain associated with jaundice and lymphocytosis. Imaging demonstrated two possible rectal stump collections (treated with antibiotics), and heterogeneous material in the gallbladder. The patient deteriorated, developing melena, coffee ground vomitus and right upper quadrant pain. Investigation sourced the bleeding to the gallbladder that resolved following cholecystectomy, and histopathology was consistent with a dieulafoy lesion. The patient made a full recovery. Discussion Dieulafoy lesions have rarely been reported in the gallbladder, and as such can be an occult source of massive gastrointestinal bleeding. It should be considered where gastrointestinal bleeding accompanies jaundice and abdominal pain. Conclusion This case highlights that dieulafoy lesions can occur in the gallbladder. Massive gastrointestinal bleeding can occur within the gallbladder, and a gallbladder dieulafoy lesion should be considered as a potential cause of such, especially when a source has not been identified on endoscopy. It also demonstrates the effectiveness of cholecystectomy as a definitive management strategy. PMID:26878358

  13. Ulcerative Colitis: A Challenge to Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Parray, Fazl Q; Wani, Mohd L; Malik, Ajaz A; Wani, Shadab N; Bijli, Akram H; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease that specifically affects the mucosa of the rectum and colon. Although the etiology of this recurring inflammatory disorder remains essentially unknown, there have been significant advances in identifying the likely genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its pathogenesis. The clinical course of the disease typically manifests with remissions and exacerbations characterized by rectal bleeding and diarrhea. Since ulcerative colitis most commonly affects patients in their youth or early middle age, the disease can have serious long-term local and systemic consequences. There is no specific medical therapy that is curative. Although medical therapy can ameliorate the inflammatory process and control most symptomatic flares, it provides no definitive treatment for the disease. Proctocolectomy or total removal of the colon and rectum provides the only complete cure; however, innovative surgical alternatives have eliminated the need for a permanent ileostomy. The aim of this review is to provide a detailed account of the surgical management of ulcerative colitis. PMID:23189226

  14. Management of low colorectal anastomotic leak: Preserving the anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Blumetti, Jennifer; Abcarian, Herand

    2015-12-27

    Anastomotic leak continues to be a dreaded complication after colorectal surgery, especially in the low colorectal or coloanal anastomosis. However, there has been no consensus on the management of the low colorectal anastomotic leak. Currently operative procedures are reserved for patients with frank purulent or feculent peritonitis and unstable vital signs, and vary from simple fecal diversion with drainage to resection of the anastomosis and closure of the rectal stump with end colostomy (Hartmann's procedure). However, if the patient is stable, and the leak is identified days or even weeks postoperatively, less aggressive therapeutic measures may result in healing of the leak and salvage of the anastomosis. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of pelvic collections with percutaneous treatments, and newer methods of endoscopic therapies for the acutely leaking anastomosis, such as use of the endosponge, stents or clips, have greatly reduced the need for surgical intervention in selected cases. Diverting ileostomy, if not already in place, may be considered to reduce fecal contamination. For subclinical leaks or those that persist after the initial surgery, endoluminal approaches such as injection of fibrin sealant, use of endoscopic clips, or transanal closure of the very low anastomosis may be utilized. These newer techniques have variable success rates and must be individualized to the patient, with the goal of treatment being restoration of gastrointestinal continuity and healing of the anastomosis. A review of the treatment of low colorectal anastomotic leaks is presented.

  15. Ostomy Closures in Children: Variations in Perioperative Care Do Not Change the Outcome.

    PubMed

    Çavuşoğlu, Yusuf Hakan; Karaman, Ayşe; Afşarlar, Çağatay Evrim; Karaman, İbrahim; Erdoğan, Derya; Özgüner, İsmet Faruk

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate ostomy closure applications and outcomes and determine the effect of personal differences among surgeons on patient postoperative course. Ninety-eight patients who underwent elective ostomy (ileostomy and colostomy) closure for 8 years at a pediatric surgery training department were investigated. Postoperative complications included superficial surgical site infection (SSI; 9.4 %), organ/cavity infection (1 %), small bowel adhesions (8.2 %), and incisional hernia (1 %). SSI and postoperative complications were not affected by the preoperative antibiotic regimen used. Operation duration, pre- and postoperative antibiotic use durations, postoperative inpatient period, ostomy type, primary diagnosis, performance of abdominal exploration, SSI, and postoperative complications were not significantly different. However, the time of nasogastric (NG) tube withdrawal, time to oral feeding initiation, abdominal closure method used, and preoperative antibiotic regimen were significantly different among different surgeons. We conclude that while surgeons used different preoperative antibiotic regimens and abdominal closure methods and stipulated different times for NG tube withdrawal and oral feeding initiation, the postoperative course and prognosis were unaffected Thus, the pre- and postoperative inpatient period and antibiotic use duration can be decreased in children by procedure standardization using practice guidelines; the procedures can also be performed with a more aesthetic, acceptable incision.

  16. Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) for rectal cancer: effects on patient-reported quality of life and functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Koedam, T W A; van Ramshorst, G H; Deijen, C L; Elfrink, A K E; Meijerink, W J H J; Bonjer, H J; Sietses, C; Tuynman, J B

    2017-01-01

    Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) has rapidly become an important component of the treatment of rectal cancer surgery. Cohort studies have shown feasibility concerning procedure, specimen quality and morbidity. However, concerns exist about quality of life and ano(neo)rectal function. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate quality of life in patients following TaTME for rectal cancer with anastomosis. Consecutive patients who underwent restorative TaTME surgery for rectal adenocarcinoma in an academic teaching center with tertiary referral function were evaluated. Validated questionnaires were prospectively collected. Quality of life was assessed by the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer's QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR29 and low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) scale. Outcomes of the questionnaires at 1 and 6 months were compared with preoperative (baseline) values. Thirty patients after restorative TaTME for rectal cancer were included. Deterioration for all domains was mainly observed at 1 month after surgery compared to baseline, but most outcomes had returned to baseline at 6 months. Social function and anal pain remained significantly worse at 6 months. Major LARS (score >30) was 33% at 6 months after ileostomy closure. No end colostomies were required. TaTME is associated with acceptable quality of life and functional outcome at 6 months after surgery comparable to published results after conventional laparoscopic low anterior resection.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Bevacizumab Plus Erlotinib for Patients with Recurrent Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, and Fallopian Tube Cancer: A Trial of the Chicago, PMH, and California Phase II Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Nimeiri, Halla S.; Oza, Amit M.; Morgan, Robert J.; Friberg, Gregory; Kasza, Kristen; Faoro, Leonardo; Salgia, Ravi; Stadler, Walter M.; Vokes, Everett E.; Fleming, Gini F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this phase II trial were to assess the activity and tolerability of the combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib in patients with recurrent ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer. Methods This was a single arm, multicenter phase II trial with overall objective response as the primary endpoint. Eligible patients had two or fewer prior chemotherapy regimens for recurrent or refractory disease and no prior anti-VEGF or anti- EGFR agents. Bevacizumab, 15 mg/kg, was administered intravenously every 21 days and erlotinib, 150 mg orally, was given daily. Results Between July and October 2005, 13 patients were enrolled. There were two major objective responses, one complete response of 16+ months duration and one partial response of 11 months duration, for a response rate of 15% (95% CI 1.9% to 45.4%). Seven patients had a best response of stable disease. The most common grade 3 or 4 toxicities included anemia (n=1), nausea (n=2), vomiting (n=1), hypertension (n=1), and diarrhea (n=2). One patient with an ileostomy was removed from the study secondary to grade 3 diarrhea. Two patients had fatal gastrointestinal perforations. Conclusion There was no strong suggestion that this combination was superior to single agent bevacizumab, and the rate of gastrointestinal perforation was of concern. The study was therefore stopped. Identification of risk factors for gastrointestinal perforation will be of importance for the use of bevacizumab in the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:18423560

  18. Early manifestations of cystic fibrosis in a premature patient with complex meconium ileus at birth

    PubMed Central

    Del Ciampo, Ieda Regina Lopes; Oliveira, Tainara Queiroz; Del Ciampo, Luiz Antonio; Sawamura, Regina; Torres, Lidia Alice Gomes Monteiro Marin; Augustin, Albin Eugenio; Fernandes, Maria Inez Machado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of a preterm infant with complex meconium ileus at birth and cystic fibrosis. CASE DESCRIPTION: A male infant was born by vaginal delivery at 33 weeks and 5 days of gestational age with respiratory distress and severe abdominal distension. The exploratory laparotomy in the first day of life identified meconium ileus and secondary peritonitis. Ileal resection and ileostomy were performed, followed by reconstruction of the bowel transit at 20 days of life. At 11 days of life, the first immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) was 154 ng/mL (reference value = 70), and oral pancreatic enzymes replacement therapy was started. After 23 days, the second IRT was 172ng/mL (reference value = 70). At 35 days of age he was discharged with referrals to primary care and to a special clinic for CF for the determination of sweat chloride. He was received in the outpatient clinic for neonatal screening for CF at 65 days of life presenting malnutrition and respiratory distress. The sweat chloride test was performed, with a positive result (126mEq/L). COMMENTS: This case illustrates the rapid evolution of CF in a premature patient with complex meconium ileus as the first clinical manifestation. PMID:25887928

  19. Microscopic colitis: A review of etiology, treatment and refractory disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Tina; Cave, David; Marshall, Christopher

    2015-08-07

    Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic, nonbloody diarrhea. Microscopic colitis is more common in women than men and usually affects patients in their sixth and seventh decade. This article reviews the etiology and medical management of microscopic colitis. The etiology of microscopic colitis is unknown, but it is associated with autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, polyarthritis, and thyroid disorders. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor of microscopic colitis. Exposure to medications, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, is suspected to play a role in microscopic colitis, although their direct causal relationship has not been proven. Multiple medications, including corticosteroids, anti-diarrheals, cholestyramine, bismuth, 5-aminosalicylates, and immunomodulators, have been used to treat microscopic colitis with variable response rates. Budesonide is effective in inducing and maintaining clinical remission but relapse rate is as high as 82% when budesonide is discontinued. There is limited data on management of steroid-dependent microscopic colitis or refractory microscopic colitis. Immunomodulators seem to have low response rate 0%-56% for patients with refractory microscopic colitis. Response rate 66%-100% was observed for use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for refractory microscopic colitis. Anti-TNF and diverting ileostomy may be an option in severe or refractory microscopic colitis.

  20. Presentation and management of rectovaginal fistulas after delivery.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Christl

    2016-06-01

    Obstetric trauma leading to rectovaginal fistula (RVF) formation results from perineal laceration and/or from prolonged ischemia and necrosis following obstructed labor. Due to modern obstetric care fistulas are rare in industrialized countries. Patients undergoing surgery for a RVF between January 2005 and December 2014 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tuebingen, Germany, were identified and their records were reviewed retrospectively. Of 48 patients, 13 developed RVF of obstetric etiology. Parity ranged from 2 to 4. RVF repair was performed in all patients using a transvaginal approach: fistula excision and multilayer closure (7 of 13) with Martius flap interposition (1 of 7) and sphincteroplasty (5 of 13). One RVF closed spontaneously. Due to significant destruction of the anal canal, large RVF and RVF recurrence, 4 of the 13 patients needed a temporary protective ileostomy. Fistula closure was achieved in 12 of 13 patients. The choice of RVF repair should be tailored to the underlying pathology and type of repair done previously and the patient's wishes.

  1. [Appendicitis in neonatal (AN) patients with secondary necrotizing enterocolitis (ECN) due to sepsis in the uterus: a case report].

    PubMed

    López-Valdés, Julio César; Escarcega-Servín, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays appendicitis is the leading cause of acute surgical abdomen. It occurs mainly between the first and third decade of life and is very rare in the neonatal period. The pathophysiology and clinical manifestations differ from the typical signs and symptoms, making it difficult to diagnose, which is in mostly cases at the time of surgery, and 74% of them appear with perforation and peritonitis. During the first day there were no complications; however, antibiotic therapy was initiated due to the risk of sepsis. On the next day there were changes in vital signs, fresh blood by nasogastric probe, acute abdomen data, cyanosis, and decreased tone. A newborn male of 34.3 weeks gestation using the Capurro method, Apgar score 8/9, obtained by emergency caesarean section, in which the maternal abdominal cavity was with copious purulent material and perforated appendix with generalized peritonitis. Surgery was determinate, where they found necrotic ileum and appendix with five perforations in total, so resection and ileostomy was performed. Intubation and dopamine support were required, but removed within a short time, beginning oral alimentation.

  2. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)-A Case Study and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Dalavi, Santosh Bhimrao; Vedpalsingh, Tanwar Harshwardhan; Bankar, Sanket Subhash; Ahmed, Mohd Hamid Shafique; Bhosale, Dattatray Nivrutti

    2015-03-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a syndrome characteristically having numerous (hundreds to thousands) polyps in the epithelium of the large intestines with an autosomal dominant inheritance caused by germ line mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in chromosome 5q21. Most FAP patients have a family history of colorectal polyps and cancer but 25-30% of them are "de novo", without any clinical or genetic evidence of FAP in family members. Prophylactic proctocolectomy is required in almost all patients since all affected patients inevitably develop cancer. We report a case of a 32-year-old man who presented with vague abdominal complaints without any family history, which on evaluation as found to have multiple colorectal polyps and underwent a prophylactic proctocolectomy with end continent ileostomy. Two of his children were evaluated and found to have multiple colorectal polyps on colonoscopy and have been advised regular follow up annually. In conclusion, patients with FAP may present with vague abdominal complaints and without any family history, hence need to be carefully evaluated. Good patient compliance is of prime importance in deciding the treatment and surveillance modality subsequently determining the prognosis of patients with FAP.

  3. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in sera from colectomised ulcerative colitis patients and its relation to the presence of pouchitis.

    PubMed

    Esteve, M; Mallolas, J; Klaassen, J; Abad-Lacruz, A; González-Huix, F; Cabré, E; Fernández-Bañares, F; Bertrán, X; Condom, E; Martí-Ragué, J; Gassull, M A

    1996-06-01

    Few studies have evaluated the influence of colectomy on antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positivity in ulcerative colitis (UC). In small series of patients it has been suggested that ANCA positivity in UC might be predictive for development of pouchitis after colectomy. To assess the prevalence of ANCA in UC patients treated by colectomy and a Brooke's ileostomy (UC-BI) or ileal pouch anal anastomosis (UC-IPAA), and the relation between the presence of ANCA, the type of surgery, and the presence of pouchitis. 63 UC patients treated by colectomy (32 with UC-BI and 31 with UC-IPAA), 54 UC, and 24 controls. Samples were obtained at least two years after colectomy. ANCA were detected by indirect immunofluorescent assay. There were no differences between patients with (36.3%) or without pouchitis (35.0%) and between patients with UC (55%), UC-BI (40.6%), and UC-IPAA (35.4%). However, ANCA prevalence significantly decreases in the whole group of operated patients (38.0%) compared with non-operated UC (p = 0.044). The prevalence of ANCA in operated patients was significantly lower than in non-operated UC, suggesting that it might be related either to the presence of inflamed or diseased tissue. ANCA persistence is not related to the surgical procedure and it should not be used as a marker for predicting the development of pouchitis.

  4. Preoperative stoma siting and education by stomatherapists of colorectal cancer patients: a descriptive study in twelve Spanish colorectal surgical units.

    PubMed

    Millan, Monica; Tegido, Montse; Biondo, Sebastiano; García-Granero, Eduardo

    2010-07-01

    Patients with colorectal cancer who need a stoma should undergo preoperative marking of the stoma site and education by a trained stomatherapist. This study examined the care received by ostomy patients with colorectal cancer in Spanish colorectal surgery units, to assess its quality and to detect areas for improvement. A prospective study was conducted in twelve Spanish colorectal surgery units in Spain including patients visited by the stomatherapist after surgery for colorectal cancer. Each patient answered a questionnaire about their stoma care. Between September 2007 and May 2008, 270 patients were included, (63% colostomies, 37% ileostomies). Of whom; 75% had elective and 25% emergency surgery. Stomatherapist marked the stoma site in 45,6% of patients (0% emergency created stomas and 58,8% elective). However, patients who saw a stoma therapist preoperatively presented significantly lower rates of stoma complications (p < 0.001) and anxiety (p < 0.001) compared to those who did not postoperatively. The study has demonstrated the importance of preoperative stomatherapy assessment.

  5. Acellular dermal matrix provides a good option for abdominal wall closure following small bowel transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Asham, E; Uknis, M E; Rastellini, C; Elias, G; Cicalese, L

    2006-01-01

    Following small bowel transplantation (SBTx), approximating the midline abdominal fascia can be problematic in patients with severely retracted abdominal cavities. We first report the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) for abdominal closure following living related SBTx. A 44-year-old woman with ultra-short gut syndrome secondary to multiple bowel resections received a 160-cm segmental intestinal graft from her daughter. The graft ileocolic vessels were anastomosed end to side to the inferior vena cava and distal aorta. A terminal ileostomy was fashioned because the patient had previous panproctocolectomy. The graft perfused well, and the laparotomy was primarily closed. On postoperative day 1, the patient required surgical exploration for evacuation of hematoma. Due to graft edema in a significantly retracted abdominal cavity, a 12x7 cm fascia defect was evident. Leaving the abdomen open or using a mesh was not entertained as options due to the high risk of infections. Primary closure under tension would also jeopardize the transplant, increasing the risk of thrombosis. The fascia defect was closed using a segment of ADM. The patient did well and went home on the postoperative day 11. At 2-year follow-up she is well and on oral diet without fascia defect or incisional hernia. This is the first report of the use of ADM for abdominal closure in patients receiving a SBTx. ADM is considered safe when used in contaminated sites and can allow primary closure of difficult wounds often seen in SBTx patients.

  6. Serious unconventional complications of surgery with stapler for haemorrhoidal prolapse and obstructed defaecation because of rectocoele and rectal intussusception.

    PubMed

    Naldini, G

    2011-03-01

    Treatment of haemorrhoidal prolapse by stapled haemorrhoidopexy (SH) and obstructed defaecation syndrome with the stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) technique is becoming increasingly popular with patients and surgeons. Unfortunately, serious complications have been identified. The aim of the present study was to analyse the complications and their treatment to see where they might be avoided and to determine best management. All Units of Coloproctology belonging to the Italian Unitary Society of Coloproctology (SIUCP) were asked to return documentation of serious complications following SH and STARR. Forty-six reports were received from 23 centres. Twenty-seven serious complications were reported. Twenty occurred after SH (13 PPH 03, 7 PPH 01) (Endo-surgery Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio, USA) and seven after STARR. Complications were treated by abdominal operation in nine patients [colostomy (3), ileostomy (2), Hartmann's resection (1) and anterior resection (1)]. Stapled haemorrhoidopexy and STARR can result in serious complications requiring major surgery for their treatment. © 2011 The Author. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Clinical approach to severe Clostridium difficile infection: update for the hospital practitioner.

    PubMed

    Pant, Chaitanya; Sferra, Thomas J; Deshpande, Abhishek; Minocha, Anil

    2011-12-01

    The rising incidence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection or CDI is now a problem of pandemic proportions. The NAP1 hypervirulent strain of C. difficile is responsible for a majority of recent epidemics and the widespread use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics may have facilitated the selective proliferation of this strain. The NAP1 strain also is more likely to cause severe and fulminant colitis characterized by marked leukocytosis, renal failure, hemodynamic instability, and toxic megacolon. No single test suffices to diagnose severe CDI, instead; the clinician must rely on a combination of clinical acumen, laboratory testing, and radiologic and endoscopic modalities. Although oral vancomycin and metronidazole are considered standard therapies in the medical management of CDI, recently it has been demonstrated that vancomycin is the more effective antibiotic in cases of severe disease. Moreover, early surgical consultation is necessary in patients who do not respond to medical therapy or who demonstrate rising white blood cell counts or hemodynamic instability indicative of fulminant colitis. Subtotal colectomy with end ileostomy is the procedure of choice for fulminant colitis. When applied to select patients in a judicious and timely fashion, surgery can be a life-saving intervention. In addition to these therapeutic approaches, several investigational treatments including novel antibiotics, fecal bacteriotherapy and immunotherapy have shown promise in the care of patients with severe CDI.

  8. Lactococcus lactis spp lactis infection in infants with chronic diarrhea: two cases report and literature review in children.

    PubMed

    Karaaslan, Ayse; Soysal, Ahmet; Kepenekli Kadayifci, Eda; Yakut, Nurhayat; Ocal Demir, Sevliya; Akkoc, Gulsen; Atici, Serkan; Sarmis, Abdurrahman; Ulger Toprak, Nurver; Bakir, Mustafa

    2016-03-31

    Lactococcus lactis is a gram-positive, facultative anaerobic coccus that is occasionally isolated from human mucocutaneous surfaces such as the intestines. It is used in the dairy industry for milk acidification and is mostly nonpathogenic in immunocompetent humans, however a number of cases of infection with L. lactis have been reported in recent years. In this article, we describe two cases of infection due to L. lactis in patients with chronic diarrhea. The first case is a five-month-old boy who was operated on for volvulus on his first day of life and had ileostomy with subsequent diagnosis of chronic diarrhea and bacteremia due to L. Lactis. The second case is a six-month-old girl with the diagnosis of chronic diarrhea that developed after a catheter-related bloodstream infection. Both of the infections due to L. Lactis spp lactis were successfully treated with intravenous vancomycin therapy. Although Lactococcus species is mostly known as nonpathogenic, it should be kept in mind as a potential pathogen, especially in patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

  9. Single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy.

    PubMed

    Paranjape, Charudutt; Ojo, Oluwatosin J; Carne, David; Guyton, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    To present our experience with a single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy, along with a literature review of all published cases on single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy. A total of 22 cases were published between 2010 and 2011, with our patient being case 23. These procedures were performed in the United States and United Kingdom. Surgical procedures included total colectomy with end ileostomy, proctocolectomy with ileorectal anastomosis, and total proctocolectomy with ileopouch-anal anastomosis. Intraoperative and postoperative data are analyzed. Twenty-two of the 23 cases were performed for benign cases including Crohns, ulcerative colitis, and familial adenomatous polyposis. One case was performed for adenocarcinoma of the cecum. The mean age was 35.3 years (range, 13 to 64), the mean body mass index was 20.1 (range, 19 to 25), mean operative time was 175.9 minutes (range, 139 to 216), mean blood loss was 95.3mL (range, 59 to 200), mean incision length was 2.61cm (range, 2 to 3). Average follow-up was 4.6 months with 2 reported complications. Single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy is feasible and safe in the hands of an experienced surgeon. It has been performed for both benign and malignant cases. It is comparable to the conventional multi-port laparoscopic total colectomy.

  10. Satisfaction in different life domains in children receiving home parenteral nutrition and their families.

    PubMed

    Gottrand, Frédéric; Staszewski, Pierre; Colomb, Virginie; Loras-Duclaux, Irène; Guimber, Dominique; Marinier, Evelyne; Breton, Anne; Magnificat, Sabine

    2005-06-01

    To assess the quality-of-life (QOL) of children receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). A national multicenter study of 72 patients (median age 4 years) presenting with a digestive disease requiring HPN, and 90 siblings, 67 fathers, and 69 mothers of these children. Median duration of HPN was 2 years (3 months-18 years). QOL was measured using validated, nondisease-specific questionnaires appropriate to the children's ages. The QOL scores were high in patients of all ages and were not significantly different from scores in a reference population of healthy children and adolescents. Lower QOL scores were recorded in the domains related to hospital, health, doctors, medications, and obligations. The QOL was not affected in siblings but was significantly impaired in parents, especially in mothers, who showed a lower level of satisfaction than did fathers for items related to work, inner life, and freedom. Presence of an ileostomy was the only factor that influenced QOL, especially of adolescents. QOL of HPN-dependent children and siblings is not different from that of healthy children, suggesting that these children actively use effective coping strategies. In contrast, the QOL of parents of HPN-dependent children is low.

  11. Intestinal, portal, and peripheral profiles of daikenchuto (TU-100)'s active ingredients after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Junko; Kaifuchi, Noriko; Kushida, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Takashi; Fukutake, Miwako; Nishiyama, Mitsue; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru

    2015-10-01

    A pharmaceutical grade Japanese traditional medicine, daikenchuto (TU-100), consisting of Japanese pepper, processed ginger, and ginseng, has been widely used for various intestinal disorders in Japan and now under development as a new therapeutic drug in the US. It is suggested that TU-100 ingredients exert pharmacological effects on intestines via two routes, from the luminal side before absorption and the peripheral blood stream after absorption. Therefore, in order to fully understand the pharmacological actions of TU-100, it is critically important to know the intraluminal amounts and forms of ingested TU-100 ingredients. In the present study, after administrating TU-100 to rats, the concentrations of TU-100 ingredients and their conjugates in the peripheral and portal blood and ileal contents were determined by LC-MS/MS. Next, TU-100 was administered to patients with ileostomy bags, but whose small intestines are diagnosed as healthy, and the ingredients/conjugates in the ileal effluent were analyzed. The results suggest that: (1) Pepper ingredients hydroxysanshools are rapidly absorbed and enter systemic circulation, (2) Ginseng ingredients ginsenosides are transported to the colon with the least absorption, (3) Ginger ingredients gingerols are absorbed and some conjugated in the small intestine and transported via the portal vein. While only a small amount of gingerols/gingerol conjugates enter systemic circulation, considerable amounts reappear in the small intestine. Thus, the effect of TU-100 on the intestines is believed to be a composite of multiple actions by multiple compounds supplied via multiple routes.

  12. Laparoscopic low anterior resection for hematogenous rectal metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sang Woo; Huh, Jung Wook; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Hyeong Rok

    2011-11-11

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world and is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in Korea. Colorectal metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma are known to be very rare. We report an unusual case of rectal metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. We report a case of a 43-year-old female patient with gastric cancer who first presented with epigastric pain. The endoscopic and radiologic findings were suggestive of Borrmann type III advanced gastric cancer with linitis plastica. Radical total gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection was performed. The pathology report was AJCC TNM Stage II gastric adenocarcinoma (T3N0M0). On follow up at 34 months after surgery, the patient complained of difficulty in defecation. On colonoscopy, a hard, indurated extraluminal mass was detected 7 cm proximal to the anal verge. The biopsy demonstrated chronic nonspecific colitis. Abdominal CT, rectal MRI and PET-CT revealed rectal metastasis from gastric cancer. Laparoscopic ultralow anterior resection with diverting ileostomy was performed. The pathology report was metastatic adenocarcinoma, and this diagnosis was identical to the gastric pathology reported in the previous pathology report. The patient was discharged after the 11th postoperative day with no adverse events. Rectal metastasis from gastric cancer is known to be very rare. However, metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis for patients presenting with a colorectal mass and a past history of gastric cancer.

  13. [Case of Colon Metastasis from Early Gastric Cancer 4 Years after Laparoscopic Assisted Distal Gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kosuke; Sato, Tsutomu; Maezawa, Yukio; Kano, Kazuki; Satoyoshi, Tetsuta; Segami, Kenki; Nakajima, Tetsushi; Ogata, Takashi; Cho, Haruhiko; Yoshikawa, Takaki

    2016-11-01

    A 69-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic assisted distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer(pathological T1bN1M0)in June 2011was admitted to the hospital because of abdominal pain in May 2015.A n abdominal CT scan showed ileus caused by a transverse colon tumor and ascending colon perforation.We performed emergency right hemicolectomy and diverting ileostomy.The postoperative pathological findings revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and signetring cell carcinoma similar to the gastric cancer resected 4 years ago.Immunohistochemical findings showed that the colon tumor was positive for CK7, but negative for CK20 and expressed a gastric mucin phenotype.From these findings, the colon tumor was diagnosed as a metastasis from early gastric cancer.Colon metastasis from early gastric cancer is rare and the diagnosis is difficult in some cases.We herein report this case and discuss the clinical and pathologic features of colon metastasis from gastric cancer.

  14. Open Retromuscular Repair of Parastomal Hernias with Synthetic Mesh.

    PubMed

    Beffa, Lucas R; Warren, Jeremy A; Cobb, William S; Knoedler, Bryan; Ewing, Joseph A; Carbonell, Alfredo M

    2017-08-01

    Parastomal hernias (PHs) cause significant morbidity in patients with permanent ostomies, and several laparoscopic and open repair techniques have been described. We report our experience with open retromuscular repair of PHs using permanent synthetic mesh. A prospectively maintained database was retrospectively reviewed to identify patients undergoing PH repair. Primary outcomes are surgical site occurrence, surgical site infection (SSI), and hernia recurrence. Variables were analyzed using Pearson's χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Forty-six patients underwent retromuscular PH repair with permanent synthetic mesh. There were 26 patients with colostomies and 20 with ileostomies. All the patients were repaired using a keyhole retromuscular technique and direct passage of stoma through mesh. Transversus abdominis release was performed in 65.2 per cent of cases. Permanent synthetic polypropylene mesh was used in all cases. Surgical site occurrence occurred in 47.8 per cent of patients, SSI in 17.4 per cent, and hernia recurrence in 21.7 per cent. Resiting the stoma yielded the highest rate of SSI (40%) compared with leaving the stoma in situ (11.8%) or rematuring the stoma (0%; P = 0.011). Open keyhole retromuscular PH repair of PH with permanent synthetic mesh is safe, effective, and durable.

  15. Long-term outcomes of living-related small intestinal transplantation in children: A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Garcia Aroz, Sandra; Tzvetanov, Ivo; Hetterman, Elizabeth Anne; Jeon, Hoonbae; Oberholzer, Jose; Testa, Giuliano; John, Eunice; Benedetti, Enrico

    2017-03-12

    Pediatric patients with irreversible intestinal failure present a significant challenge to meet the nutritional needs that promote growth. From 2002 to 2013, 13 living-related small intestinal transplantations were performed in 10 children, with a median age of 18 months. Grafts included isolated living-related intestinal transplantation (n=7), and living-related liver and small intestine (n=6). The immunosuppression protocol consisted of induction with thymoglobulin and maintenance therapy with tacrolimus and steroids. Seven of 10 children are currently alive with a functioning graft and good quality of life. Six of the seven children who are alive have a follow-up longer than 10 years. The average time to initiation of oral diet was 32 days (range, 13-202 days). The median day for ileostomy takedown was 77 (range, 18-224 days). Seven children are on an oral diet, and one of them is on supplements at night through a g-tube. We observed an improvement in growth during the first 3 years post-transplant and progressive weight gain throughout the first year post-transplantation. Growth catch-up and weight gain plateaued after these time periods. We concluded that living donor intestinal transplantation potentially offers a feasible, alternative strategy for long-term treatment of irreversible intestinal failure in children.

  16. Absorption and isomerization of caffeoylquinic acids from different foods using ileostomist volunteers.

    PubMed

    Erk, T; Renouf, M; Williamson, G; Melcher, R; Steiling, H; Richling, E

    2014-02-01

    Polyphenols are thought to play important roles in human nutrition and health but these health effects are dependent on their bioavailability. This study is one of a series with the aim of determining possible effects of food matrices on caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) bioavailability using ileostomy volunteers. After a CQA-free diet, ileostomists consumed coffee (746 μmol total CQA), and CQAs in excreted ileal fluid were subsequently identified and quantified with HPLC-diode array detection and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. In our previous studies, other food sources such as cloudy apple juice (CAJ) (358 μmol CQA) and apple smoothie (AS) (335 μmol CQA) were investigated with the same model. Interesterification of CQA from both apple matrices was observed during gastrointestinal passage, whereas CQA consumed in coffee was not influenced by interesterification reactions. In total, 74.3, 22.4, and 23.8 % of the CQA from CAJ, AS, and coffee, respectively, were absorbed or degraded. Our results show that variations in food matrices and variations in phenolic composition have a major influence on intestinal bioavailability and interesterification of the investigated subclass of polyphenols, the CQAs.

  17. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: treatment and long term follow up of 44 patients

    PubMed Central

    Heneyke, S; Smith, V; Spitz, L; Milla, P

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To document the long term course of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndrome (CIIPS) in children with defined enteric neuromuscular disease, and the place and type of surgery used in their management; in addition, to identify prognostic factors.
METHODS—Children with CIIPS were investigated and treated prospectively.
RESULTS—Twenty four children presented congenitally, eight during the 1st year of life, and 10 later. Twenty two had myopathy and 16 neuropathy (11 familial). Malrotation was present in 16 patients, 10 had short small intestine, six had non-hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, and 16 had urinary tract involvement. Thirty two patients needed long term parenteral nutrition (TPN): for less than six months in 19 and for more than six months in 13, 10 of whom are TPN dependent; 14 are now enteral feeding. Prokinetic treatment improved six of 22. Intestinal decompression stomas were used in 36, colostomy relieved symptoms in five of 11, and ileostomy in 16 of 31. A poor outcome (death (14) or TPN dependence (10)) was seen with malrotation (13 of 16), short small bowel (eight of nine), urinary tract involvement (12 of 16), and myopathic histology (15 of 22).
CONCLUSIONS—In CIIPS drugs are not helpful but decompression stomas are. Outcome was poor in 24 of 44 children (15 muscle disorder, 10nerve disease).

 PMID:10373127

  18. Endoscopic Evaluation of Surgically Altered Bowel in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sinh, Preetika

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases often undergo surgical procedures for medically refractory disease or colitis associated dysplasia. Endoscopic evaluation of the surgically altered bowel is often needed to assess for disease recurrence, its severity, and for therapy. It is important to obtain and review the operative report and abdominal imaging before performing the endoscopy. Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy can be safely performed in most patients with inflammatory bowel disease with altered bowel anatomy under conscious sedation without fluoroscopy. Carefully planned stricture therapy with balloon dilation or needle knife stricturotomy can be performed for simple, short, and fibrotic strictures. A multidisciplinary approach involving a team of endoscopist, endoscopy nurse, colorectal surgeon, gastrointestinal pathologist, and gastrointestinal radiologist is important for a safe and effective endoscopy. We attempt to review the aspects that need consideration before the endoscopy, the technique of endoscopy, and briefly the therapies that can be performed during endoscopy of the bowel through an ileostomy, a colostomy, in the diverted large bowel or ileal pouch, and small bowel after stricturoplasty and bowel bypass surgery in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:25806847

  19. [Interintestinal anastomoses formation using permanent magnet in surgical treatment of children with intestinal stomas].

    PubMed

    Gatkin, E Ya; Razumovsky, A Yu; Korsunsky, A A; Konovalov, A K; Sergeev, A V; Vinogradov, A Ya; Sein, V A

    2015-01-01

    It was analyzed the results of treatment of 48 children aged from 1 month to 14 years. In these observations by the 6th - 7th days after doubleintestinalstoma formation magnetic dies with inductance from 300 to 360 mTl and energy force at least 255 kJ/m3 were introduced into lumen of afferent and efferent intestinal loops. Attractive or compression force between dies was 600 g, i.e. force per 1 cm2 was 200 g according to dies' surface 1.12.83.0 cm. Magnets are not only surgical instruments but also physiotherapeutic devices improving microcirculation and stimulating regeneration in the area of anastomosis. Interintestinal anastomosis has been completely formed for 5-7 days. Thereafter magnetic dies have been removed. Stool was normalized in 45 of 48 observations after surgery (1-3 times daily). Intestinal discharge from ileostomy reduced to minimal amount. In 2 patients irregular bowel movements was observed due to adhesive stenosis of interintestinal anastomosis. Magnetic dies can't be established in 1 case due to adhesive process. Hospital stay was from 10 to 25 days in 41 children. 7 patients were discharged for outpatient treatment later. All children were under observation for the period 2-4 months after discharge. Signs of hypotrophy including body weight deficit within 10% of age norm were diagnosed only in 3 children with prematurity degree I-II. Hereafter children were repeatedly hospitalized; intestinal stomas were surgically removed using conventional technique. Thus complete convalescence was obtained.

  20. Fat-reduced diet in the symptomatic treatment of small bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, H.; Isaksson, B.; Sjögren, B.

    1974-01-01

    Thirteen patients suffering from Crohn's disease or subjected to small bowel resection were studied under metabolic ward conditions for an average of 32 days. Most of these patients had chronic, severe diarrhoea and varying degrees of steatorrhoea. All were studied at two levels of fat intake, 100 g and 40 g daily. After the introduction of the low-fat diet, there was a marked reduction in the faecal excretion of water and sodium in most patients and 10 of them passed solid faeces. Two other subjects improved only after the addition of cholestyramine. In one patient with an ileostomy, no improvement occurred. On the low-fat diet, there was a positive balance of nitrogen and potassium in many cases. Faecal fat excretion decreased, but there was no change in the fractional absorption of fat. The most gratifying improvement was seen in patients with a functioning gallbladder. Previous resection of the colon seemed to limit the reduction of faecal water and sodium excretion which followed the reduction in fat intake. A fat-reduced diet is recommended in the symptomatic therapy of chronic diarrhoea in patients suffering from diseases of the ileum. PMID:18668843

  1. Parastomal hernia incarceration due to migrated intragastric balloon.

    PubMed

    Limani, P; Steinemann, D C; Clavien, P-A; Hahnloser, D

    2013-02-01

    The temporary placement of intragastric balloons is a common method to achieve rapid weight loss before planned metabolic surgery. We report the case of a 48-year-old morbidly obese patient. Ten years ago the patient underwent emergency sigmoidectomy with creation of a double-barreled ileostomy for perforated diverticulitis. Over time he developed a giant parastomal hernia. For preoperative weight reduction before planned restoration of intestinal continuity, an intragastric balloon was inserted 3 years ago. The patient was admitted to our emergency department with peritonism and a septic shock. After computed tomography showing small bowel ileus, laparotomy was performed, revealing marked ischemia of incarcerated small and large intestine. Only postoperatively was the intragastric balloon found in the resected small bowel, causing a mechanical ileus with consecutive incarceration of the bowel. We review the literature on complications due to the migration of intragastric balloons. This clinical case gives a fair warning of the possible deleterious outcome of intragastric balloons, especially in hernia patients.

  2. Management of Septic Open Abdomen in a Morbid Obese Patient with Enteroatmospheric Fistula by Using Standard Abdominal Negative Pressure Therapy in Conjunction with Intrarectal One

    PubMed Central

    Yetisir, Fahri; Salman, A. Ebru; Acar, Hasan Zafer; Özer, Mehmet; Aygar, Muhittin; Osmanoglu, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Management of open abdomen (OA) with enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF) in morbid obese patient with comorbid disease is challenging. We would like to report the management of septic OA in morbid obese patient with EAF which developed after strangulated recurrent giant incisional hernia repair. We would also like to emphasize, in this case, the conversion of EAF to ileostomy by the help of second Negative Pressure Therapy (NPT) on ostomy side, and the chance of new EAF occurrence was reduced with intrarectal NPT. Case Presentation. 62-year-old morbid obese woman became an OA patient with EAF after strangulated recurrent giant hernia. EAF was converted to ostomy with pezzer drain by the help of second NPT on ostomy. Colonic distention was reduced with the third NPT application via rectum. Abdominal reapproximation anchor (ABRA) system was used for delayed abdominal closure. Conclusions. Using the 2nd NPT on ostomy side may help in the maturation of the ostomy created in a difficult condition in an open abdomen. Using the 3rd NPT through rectum may decrease the chance of EAF formation by reducing the pressure difference between intraluminal pressure and extraluminal pressure in hollow viscera. PMID:26779360

  3. Rare case of a strangulated intercostal flank hernia following open nephrectomy: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Akinduro, Oluwaseun O; Jones, Frank; Turner, Jacquelyn; Cason, Frederick; Clark, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    Flank incisions may be associated with incisional flank hernias, which may progress to incarceration and strangulation. Compromised integrity of the abdominal and intercostal musculature due to previous surgery may be associated with herniation of abdominal contents into the intercostal space. There have been six previously reported cases of herniation into the intercostal space after a flank incision for a surgical procedure. This case highlights the clinical picture associated with an emergent strangulated hernia and highlights the critical steps in its management. We present a case of a 79-year-old adult man with multiple comorbidities presenting with a strangulated flank hernia secondary to an intercostal incision for a right-sided open nephrectomy. The strangulated hernia required emergent intervention including right-sided hemi-colectomy with ileostomy and mucous fistula. Abdominal incisional hernias are rare and therefore easily overlooked, but may result in significant morbidity or even death in the patient.. The diagnosis can be made with a thorough clinical examination and ultrasound or computed topographical investigation. Once a hernia has become incarcerated, emergent surgical management is necessary to avoid strangulation and small bowel obstruction. Urgent diagnosis and treatment of this extremely rare hernia is paramount especially in the setting of strangulation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. De novo Crohn's Disease after Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis for Ulcerative Colitis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unclassified: Long-Term Follow-Up of a Prospective Inflammatory Bowel Disease Registry.

    PubMed

    Zaghiyan, Karen; Kamiński, Jan P; Barmparas, Galinos; Fleshner, Phillip

    2016-10-01

    The risk of de novo Crohn's disease (CD) after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) versus inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBDU) or indeterminate colitis (IC) remains debatable. Here, we present updated results after long-term follow-up of a previously studied cohort of 334 patients with UC, IBDU, or IC who underwent IPAA during a 10-year period ending 2007. Of 334 study patients, 56 per cent were male and median age was 38 years (range: 8-81). Patients were classified as UC (n = 237) or IBDU (n = 97) preoperatively and UC (n = 236) or IC (n = 98) postoperatively. After a median follow-up of 76 months (range: 3-236), 63 patients (19%) developed CD within a median of 22 months (range: 1-213) from ileostomy closure compared with the previously published 40 patients (12%) with 26-month follow-up (P = 0.01). The development of de novo CD was similar for patients undergoing IPAA for UC (n = 40; 17%), IBDU (n = 21; 22%) or those classified as having UC (n = 42; 18%) or IC (n = 19; 19%) postoperatively; P > 0.05. Thus, patients with IBDU and IC can expect equivalent long-term outcome to patients with UC after IPAA. Pouch failure occurred in 13 (4%) study patients and was equal among all four groups.

  5. [The effect of permanent ostomy on body image, self-esteem, marital adjustment, and sexual functioning].

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Esra; Taycan, Okan; Belli, Ahmet Korkut; Ozmen, Mine

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of permanent ostomy on body image, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and marital adjustment. SCID-I outpatient forms were administered to 52 subsequent patients that underwent permanent colostomy or ileostomy operations, and 40 of them that did not fit any of the diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders were then administered a sociodemographic data questionnaire, and the Body Image Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Golombok Rust Sexual Functions scale. The control group consisted of 20 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Body Image, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale scores were higher in permanent ostomy patients compared to controls, indicating more ostomy-related disturbance. Sexual functions were found to be impaired as well, except impotence and rapid ejaculation parameters. Complaints of anorgasmia were more frequent among female colostomy patients. Body image, and the touch, communication, and frequency parameters of sexual functioning were less disturbed in male patients than in females. Female patients with a psychiatric history experienced vaginismus problems more frequently. Patients with a history early childhood separation from parents had lower self-esteem scores and more frequently avoided sexual activity. Following ostomy surgery, the frequency of male impotence decreased over time. Permanent ostomy causes impairment in perceived body image, dyadic adjustment, and sexual functioning.

  6. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: Points of controversy.

    PubMed

    Trigui, A; Frikha, F; Rejab, H; Ben Ameur, H; Triki, H; Ben Amar, M; Mzali, R

    2014-09-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the most commonly used procedure for elective treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Since its original description, the procedure has been modified in order to obtain optimal functional results with low morbidity and mortality, and yet provide a cure for the disease. In this review of the literature of restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, we discuss these technical modifications, limiting our discussion to the current points of controversy. The current "hot topics" for debate are: indications for ileal pouch-anal or ileo-rectal anastomosis, indications for pouch surgery in the elderly, indeterminate colitis and Crohn's disease, the place of the laparoscopic approach, transanal mucosectomy with hand-sewn anastomosis vs. the double-stapled technique, the use of diverting ileostomy and the issue of the best route for delivery of pregnant women. Longer follow-up of patients and increased knowledge and experience with pouch surgery, coupled with ongoing prospective evaluation of the procedure are required to settle these issues. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Usefulness of Anorectal Manometry for Diagnosing Continence Problems After a Low Anterior Resection

    PubMed Central

    Samalavicius, Narimantas E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose For several decades, the low anterior resection (LAR) with total mesorectal excision (TME) has been the gold standard for treating patients with rectal cancer. Up to 90% of patients undergoing sphincter-preserving surgery will have changes in bowel habits, so-called 'anterior resection syndrome.' This study examined patients' continence after a LAR for the treatment of rectal cancer. Methods This prospective study was performed between September 2014 and August 2015 at the National Cancer Institute and included 30 patients who underwent anorectal manometry preoperatively and at 3 and 4 months after a LAR, but 10 were excluded from further evaluation for various reasons. Wexner score was recorded preoperatively and 4 months after LAR (1 month after ileostomy repair). Results Postoperatively, 70% of patients complained of some degree of soiling (incontinence to liquid stool), and 30% experienced urgent defecation. Four months after surgery, these symptoms had somewhat abated. The anal resting pressure and the maximum squeezing pressure did not change significantly. Rectal capacity and compliance were reduced in all patients. The majority of patients demonstrated manometric anorectal changes and clinical anorectal function disorders during the first 4 months after surgery. The Wexner scores and the manometric findings showed no correlation. Conclusion Many patients undergoing a LAR with TME for the treatment of rectal cancer experience some degree of incontinence postoperatively. Anorectal manometry may be used as an additional tool for evaluating problems with continence after a LAR. No correlation between the Wexner score and the manometric findings was observed. PMID:27437391

  8. Optimal management of collagenous colitis: a review.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Aoibhlinn

    2016-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is an increasingly recognized cause of chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by watery non-bloody diarrhea. As a lesser studied inflammatory bowel disease, many aspects of the CC's natural history are poorly understood. This review discusses strategies to optimally manage CC. The goal of therapy is to induce clinical remission, <3 stools a day or <1 watery stool a day with subsequent improved quality of life (QOL). Antidiarrheal can be used as monotherapy or with other medications to control diarrhea. Budesonide therapy has revolutionized treatment and is superior to prednisone, however, the treatment is associated with high-relapse rates and the management of refractory disease is challenging. Ongoing trials will address the safety and efficacy of low-dose maintenance therapy. For those with refractory disease, case reports and case series support the role of biologic agents. Diversion of the fecal stream normalizes colonic mucosal changes and ileostomy may be considered where anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents are contraindicated. Underlying celiac disease, bile salt diarrhea, and associated thyroid dysfunction should be ruled out. The author recommends smoking cessation as well as avoidance of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories as well as other associated medications.

  9. ETVARD (endoscopic transanal vacuum-assisted rectal drainage) leads to complete but delayed closure of extraperitoneal rectal anastomotic leakage cavities following neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Glitsch, Anne; Schreiber, André; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Heidecke, Claus Dieter

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to prospectively assess the impact of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy on the formation of major anastomotic rectal leaks and treatment by endoscopic transanal vacuum-assisted rectal drainage (ETVARD). Twenty six patients with malignancies with rectal anastomotic leaks were prospectively treated, including 14 of 26 patients following neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. ETVARD was the first-line treatment. In 23 of 26 patients, ETVARD was successfully completed. In patients following neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy sizes of leakage cavities, duration of ETVARD, number of sponge exchanges, and endoscopies as well as time to closure of cavities were significantly increased (0.009 < p < 0.035) compared to patients after primary surgery. Increased age showed similar correlations, whereas the level of anastomoses did not influence these parameters. Patients without (ile)ostomies could also be treated by ETVARD. Follow-up endoscopies have not shown any major changes. Radiochemotherapy has a significant impact on development and treatment of major anastomotic rectal leaks. Most patients can be successfully treated by ETVARD, avoiding additional resective surgery or permanent (col)ostomies.

  10. [A Case of Double Cancer of Initially Unresectable Sigmoid Colon Cancer and Advanced Gastric Cancer Treated with Curative Resection after mFOLFOX6 Therapy].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Toru; Aoki, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Yuto; Tomiura, Satoko; Suto, Akiko; Miura, Takuya; Ikenaga, Shojirokazunori; Shibasaki, Itaru; Endo, Masaaki

    2016-03-01

    A 61-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a complaint of blood in stool. He was diagnosed with advanced colon and gastric cancers. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a sigmoid tumor with invasion to the bladder, a metastatic tumor in the lateral segmental branch of the left hepatic lobe, and ascites. He was diagnosed with initially unresectable double cancer. Ileostomy was performed immediately, and he was treated with modified (m) FOLFOX6 regimen (oxaliplatin in combination with infusional 5-fluorouracil/Leucovorin). After 6 courses of the mFOLFOX6 regimen, CT revealed that the primary lesion of the sigmoid colon and liver metastasis had reduced in size, and the ascites had disappeared. Gastroscopy revealed that the gastric cancer had disappeared. Biopsy results were negative. Accordingly, his gastric cancer was diagnosed as treatment effect Grade 3. After 8 courses of mFOLFOX6 therapy, sigmoidectomy, partial resection of the bladder, and partial resection of the liver were performed. Gastric cancer was not resected in accordance with his will. Although 40 months has passed after the radical resection, neither the sigmoid colon cancer nor the gastric cancer recurred.

  11. Chylolymphatic Cyst of Mesentery of Terminal Ileum: A Case Report in 8 Year-old Boy

    PubMed Central

    More, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare benign intra peritoneal tumor and more than half of the mesenteric cysts involve the mesentery of the terminal ileum. We present 8 year-old boy, who presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction. Ultrasonography (USG) of the abdomen revealed a cystic mass in the peritoneal cavity with dilated loops of bowel. Exploration of the abdomen revealed a solitary cyst of the mesentery of the terminal ileum measured 10 x 8 cm. There was twisting of the part of the ileum (volvulus) due to the cyst. It also involved the wall and lumen of the adjacent ileum and there were dilated bowel loops proximal to the cyst. Complete cyst excision and resection of the part of the ileum involved with the cyst was done en bloc. An ileostomy was created due to gross disparity in the lumen of the ileum, which was closed two and half month later. Histopathology of the excised cyst was consistent with the chylolymphatic cyst (mesenteric cyst). PMID:25584262

  12. Chylolymphatic Cyst of Mesentery of Terminal Ileum: A Case Report in 8 Year-old Boy.

    PubMed

    Ghritlaharey, Rajendra K; More, Santosh

    2014-11-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare benign intra peritoneal tumor and more than half of the mesenteric cysts involve the mesentery of the terminal ileum. We present 8 year-old boy, who presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction. Ultrasonography (USG) of the abdomen revealed a cystic mass in the peritoneal cavity with dilated loops of bowel. Exploration of the abdomen revealed a solitary cyst of the mesentery of the terminal ileum measured 10 x 8 cm. There was twisting of the part of the ileum (volvulus) due to the cyst. It also involved the wall and lumen of the adjacent ileum and there were dilated bowel loops proximal to the cyst. Complete cyst excision and resection of the part of the ileum involved with the cyst was done en bloc. An ileostomy was created due to gross disparity in the lumen of the ileum, which was closed two and half month later. Histopathology of the excised cyst was consistent with the chylolymphatic cyst (mesenteric cyst).

  13. Plaque and Deposits in Nine Human Stone Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Fredric L; Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E; Worcester, Elaine M

    2011-01-01

    Data concerning nine forms of human stone disease, along with observations on normal people give new insights into formation of interstitial apatite plaque and intra-tubular crystal deposits. In general, across multiple disease states, one can reproduce the same relationships between plaque abundance as is seen among patients within individual disease states, so that the link between plaque and high urine calcium excretion, and low urine volume and pH seems increasingly secure. From this, one can propose a specific model of plaque formation, susceptible to experimental test. In many diseases, formation of inner medullary collecting duct and Bellini duct deposits is compatible with simple crystallization driven by urine supersaturations; this is expected in that these segments contain tubule fluid quite close in composition to final urine. But in ileostomy, small bowel disease and obesity bypass patients, crystals found in deposits are not those expected: apatite and urates in deposits, despite formation of highly acidic urine. Also, this discrepancy suggests the possibility of divergence between bulk urine pH and pH of focal collecting ducts, a new kind of possibility that is susceptible to experimental test. PMID:20625890

  14. Beneficial effects of naloxone in a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Schang, J.C.; Devroede, G.

    1985-06-01

    A 15-day course of Naloxone treatment was given to a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction who had previously undergone subtotal colectomy with terminal ileostomy for invalidating constipation. The effects of the drug were assessed according to symptoms, by recording the myoelectric activity of the stomach, and by measuring gastric emptying of a radiolabeled solid-liquid meal and the intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers. All tests were performed 1) at baseline; 2) after 2 wk with Naloxone 1.6 mg subcutaneous per day; and 3) after 8 days of placebo. Results showed that before treatment gastric emptying of solids was delayed, emptying of liquids was normal, myoelectric activity of the stomach was normal, small intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers was considerably increased while ileal output was markedly decreased. After Naloxone, gastric emptying of solids was markedly accelerated, emptying of liquids remained normal, gastric electrical spiking activity increased, small intestinal transit time strikingly decreased, and ileal output increased. After placebo, a tendency to return to pretreatment values was observed. This observation suggests that Naloxone may be helpful in the treatment of some patients with intestinal pseudoobstruction.

  15. Effect of radiation and radioprotection on small intestinal function in canines

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, J.L.; Vigneulle, R.M.; Gage, T.; MacVittie, T.J.; Nold, J.B.; Dubois, A.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation with doses >7.5 Gy damages the canine intestinal mucosa, and pretreatment with WR2721 reduces this damage. However, the effects of radiation and of WR2721 on in vivo intestinal transport are unclear. Therefore, we determined canine survival, intestinal transport, and mucosal histology following unilateral abdominal irradiation. Isoperistaltic ileostomies were prepared in 23 dogs under general anesthesia and aseptic conditions. After a three-week recovery period, animals were given either placebo or WR2721, 150 mg/kg intravenously, 30 min prior to 10 Gy cobalt-60 abdominal irradiation. Ileal transport and histology were determined in both groups before exposure and one, four, and seven days after irradiation. Seven-day survival was significantly improved by pretreatment with WR2721 (91% vs 33%, P < 0.02). On day 4, both mucosal integrity and net intestinal absorption were significantly better (P < 0.05) after WR2721 than after placebo. Thus, radiation-induced damage to the ileal mucosa is accompanied by a reduction in net ileal absorption of water and electrolytes in vivo. In addition, pretreatment with WR2721 improves animal survival while reducing ileal damage and improving intestinal absorption.

  16. The appearance of free-air in the abdomen with related pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis: Three case reports and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Aziret, Mehmet; Erdem, Hasan; Ülgen, Yiğit; Kahramanca, Şahin; Çetinkünar, Süleyman; Bozkurt, Hilmi; Bali, İlhan; İrkörücü, Oktay

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pneumatosis sistoides intestinalis (PSI) is a rare condition with unknown origin, defined as the appearance of gas-filled cysts in the intestinal wall. It usually occurs due to respiratory infections, tumor or collagen disease, traumas, immunosuppression. PRESENTATION OF CASE Three patients with PSI were examined that followed up and treated in our clinic. The first patient was hospitalized for emergency treatment of previously diagnosed free-air under the diaphragm. He had a defense on physical examination and free-air was detected in X-ray and abdomen CT. We decided to laparatomy and peroperatively, stenotic pylorus with an abnormally increased stomach and gas-filled cysts were seen in the terminal ileum. Antrectomy and gastrojejunostomy with partial ileum and cecum resection and end ileostomy were performed. The second patient underwent laparatomy because of intraperitoneal free-air and acute abdomen. Partial ileum and cecum resection and ileotransversostomy were performed. The third patient with intraperitoneal free-air was treated with antibiotics, oxygen treatment and bowel rest. DISCUSSION PSI is usually asymptomatic. Plain radiographs, USG, CT, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy can use for diagnosis. Treatment of PSI depends on the underlying cause; include elemental diet, antibiotics, steroids, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and surgery. CONCLUSION In patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic PSI are different treat. Symptomatic PSI can be safely treated antrectomy and gastrojejunostomy with partial ileum and cecum resection. PMID:25460434

  17. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Total Colectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Oluwatosin J.; Carne, David; Guyton, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To present our experience with a single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy, along with a literature review of all published cases on single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy. Methods: A total of 22 cases were published between 2010 and 2011, with our patient being case 23. These procedures were performed in the United States and United Kingdom. Surgical procedures included total colectomy with end ileostomy, proctocolectomy with ileorectal anastomosis, and total proctocolectomy with ileopouch-anal anastomosis. Intraoperative and postoperative data are analyzed. Results: Twenty-two of the 23 cases were performed for benign cases including Crohns, ulcerative colitis, and familial adenomatous polyposis. One case was performed for adenocarcinoma of the cecum. The mean age was 35.3 years (range, 13 to 64), the mean body mass index was 20.1 (range, 19 to 25), mean operative time was 175.9 minutes (range, 139 to 216), mean blood loss was 95.3mL (range, 59 to 200), mean incision length was 2.61cm (range, 2 to 3). Average follow-up was 4.6 months with 2 reported complications. Conclusions: Single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy is feasible and safe in the hands of an experienced surgeon. It has been performed for both benign and malignant cases. It is comparable to the conventional multi-port laparoscopic total colectomy. PMID:22906326

  18. Study of peristomal skin disorders in patients with permanent stomas.

    PubMed

    Herlufsen, P; Olsen, A G; Carlsen, B; Nybaek, H; Karlsmark, T; Laursen, T N; Jemec, G B E

    The aim of this article was to investigate the frequency, severity and diversity of peristomal skin disorders among individuals with a permanent stoma in a community population. All individuals with a permanent stoma (n=630) in a Danish community population were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. A total of 202 individuals (101 men; 101 women) agreed to participate. Data were collected through questionnaires and clinical examinations. It was found that peristomal skin disorders were higher for participants with an ileostomy (57%) and urostomy (48%) than in those with a colostomy (35%). Of the diagnoses of skin disorders, 77% could be related to contact with stoma effluent. Only 38% of diagnosed participants agreed that they had a skin disorder and more than 80% did not seek professional health care. The study revealed a high frequency of peristomal skin disorders. Participants frequently failed to perceive that they had a skin irritation and did not seek help. This suggests that more education and perhaps regular, annual follow-up visits at local stoma care clinics are needed.

  19. Slow Transit Constipation.

    PubMed

    Wald, Arnold

    2002-08-01

    conceptually, it is worth attempting and certainly so in patients with associated pelvic floor dyssynergia. Subtotal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis is often effective in those patients with colonic inertia, normal anorectal function, and lack of evidence of generalized intestinal dysmotility. However, morbidity is significant both early and late in the disease process and must be balanced against current disability. Ileostomy is preferred in the presence of anorectal dysfunction or with associated impairment of continence mechanisms. Similar considerations apply to the patient with disabling functional megacolon. An alternative approach is ileostomy with disconnection of the colon, which is more acceptable to some patients who may hope for future reconnection if recovery occurs. An additional alternative approach for patients with colonic inertia or megacolon who are not good surgical risks is tube cecostomy (or in children, use of the appendix as a conduit to the cecum). This permits either decompression (in megacolon) or antegrade enemas (in colonic inertia). Our surgeons are not enthusiastic about this approach, and I have little experience with it. In general, the use of partial resections of the colon should be discouraged, because marker studies do not define pathophysiology in patients with slow transit constipation.

  20. Prevalence of Parastomal Hernia and Factors Associated With Its Development.

    PubMed

    Temple, Beverley; Farley, Trevor; Popik, Kristine; Ewanyshyn, Carisa; Beyer, Elaine; Dufault, Brenden

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for development of a parastomal hernia (PH). Cross-sectional survey. The target population comprised 2854 persons receiving services from the Manitoba Ostomy Program. Seven hundred sixty-four responses were received, yielding a response rate of 29.3%. Respondents average age was 70 years (SD = 12.8); 425 (55.6%) had a colostomy, 236 (30.8%) had an ileostomy, 63 (8.2%) had a urostomy, and 40 (5.2%) indicated other types of stomas or fistula. A questionnaire was developed by the authors that collected the following data: demographics, relevant medical history, personal and lifestyle factors, surgery-related factors, pre- and postoperative care factors, and information about the presence of a PH and physical and lifestyle effects related to a PH. Devices to enable respondents to measure the size of their stoma and abdominal girth were included in the survey package. The survey tool took approximately 30 to 45 minutes to complete. An informational pamphlet and introductory letter were mailed 2 weeks before the survey was mailed. This was followed by a reminder letter. Bivariate analyses were completed in order to identify potential associations between all variables and a diagnosis of a PH; multivariate analysis was then completed to determine which factors were associated with an increased likelihood of a PH. Significant univariate associations were found between a diagnosis of a PH and diverticulitis, cirrhosis, benign prostatic enlargement, previous diagnosis of hernia, a smoking history, type of ostomy, stoma size, and continuous variables age and abdominal girth. Multiple regression analysis indicated that patients who underwent stoma surgery for cancer had larger stomas (1.5 to >3 in), and a colostomy were more likely to develop a PH. The results of this study indicate that PHs are prevalent. Additional research is needed to determine more effective intervention for preventing and managing a PH.

  1. Incidence, Risk Factors, Management, and Complications of Rectal Injuries During Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Philipp; Linnemannstöns, Anna; Chun, Felix; Schlomm, Thorsten; Pompe, Raisa; Budäus, Lars; Rosenbaum, Clemens; Ludwig, Tim; Dahlem, Roland; Fisch, Margit; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Tilki, Derya; Steuber, Thomas

    2017-02-07

    Rectal injury (RI) during radical prostatectomy (RP) is a severe complication. So far, only limited data describing the incidence, risk factors, management, and complications of RI are available. In an analysis of data for 24178 patients, we identified 113/24076 patients (0.47%) undergoing open or robotic RP and 7/102 patients (6.86%) after salvage RP who experienced an RI. Besides salvage RP, local tumor stage, Gleason grade, lymph node status, and surgical experience, but not surgical approach (robotic vs open), could be identified as risk factors for RI in univariate and multivariate analysis. Intraoperative management of RI comprised closure with two to three layers. In 13/109 patients (11.9%), a diverting colostomy/ileostomy was carried out. Some 12% of men with closure of an RI developed a recto-anastomosis fistula, and 57% of those who had an additional diverting enterostomy. Thus, the overall incidence of recto-anastomosis fistula after RP was <0.1%. The extent of rectal laceration, prior radiation, and intraoperative signs of rectal infiltration were associated with the development of a subsequent recto-anastomosis fistula. Some 83% of patients with a recto-anastomosis fistula needed further intervention. We analyzed the incidence, risk factors, management, and complications of rectal injury during radical prostatectomy. Overall, the incidence of rectal injury and subsequent development of recto-anastomosis fistulas is low unless the patient has significant risk factors. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: update of the treatment guidance document for Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Debast, S B; Bauer, M P; Kuijper, E J

    2014-03-01

    In 2009 the first European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infection (ESCMID) treatment guidance document for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was published. The guideline has been applied widely in clinical practice. In this document an update and review on the comparative effectiveness of the currently available treatment modalities of CDI is given, thereby providing evidence-based recommendations on this issue. A computerized literature search was carried out to investigate randomized and non-randomized trials investigating the effect of an intervention on the clinical outcome of CDI. The Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to grade the strength of our recommendations and the quality of the evidence. The ESCMID and an international team of experts from 11 European countries supported the process. To improve clinical guidance in the treatment of CDI, recommendations are specified for various patient groups, e.g. initial non-severe disease, severe CDI, first recurrence or risk for recurrent disease, multiple recurrences and treatment of CDI when oral administration is not possible. Treatment options that are reviewed include: antibiotics, toxin-binding resins and polymers, immunotherapy, probiotics, and faecal or bacterial intestinal transplantation. Except for very mild CDI that is clearly induced by antibiotic usage antibiotic treatment is advised. The main antibiotics that are recommended are metronidazole, vancomycin and fidaxomicin. Faecal transplantation is strongly recommended for multiple recurrent CDI. In case of perforation of the colon and/or systemic inflammation and deteriorating clinical condition despite antibiotic therapy, total abdominal colectomy or diverting loop ileostomy combined with colonic lavage is recommended.

  3. [Primary adenocarcinoma of the terminal ileum, synchronous].

    PubMed

    Candia-de la Rosa, René Francisco; Sampayo-Candia, Raúl; Bretón-Toral, José Christian; Candia-Archundia, Francisco; Candia-García, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Among the rarest types of cancer found are the small intestine malignancies, representing only 2% of all gastrointestinal cancer and 0.1-0.3% of all malignancies. The most common subtype of this tumour is the adenocarcinoma, which is located mainly in the duodenum, jejunum and, rarely, in ileum. A 75 year-old male, with no any surgical history, who in the previous three months, referred to two clinical episodes of partial bowel obstruction and unquantified weight loss. When admitted into the surgical service, the patient referred to a partial bowel obstruction of more than one week onset. A laparotomy was performed, finding 3 stenosis rings at the ileum end portion, carrying out an intestinal resection and enteral-enteral anastomosis. On the seventh day there was dehiscence of the anastomosis and abdominal sepsis. New surgery was performed with the resection of the intestinal anastomosis and an ileostomy. The pathologist report indicated a small bowel adenocarcinoma moderately differentiated, ulcerated, and multifocal. It was classified as stage III or T3N1M0. The patient progress was satisfactorily, managed as outpatient with postoperative chemotherapy with 5 fluorouracil and cisplatin. The patient died a year later due to liver metastases. Due to the extreme rarity of the case, is very likely that general surgeons may find one or two cases of adenocarcinoma of the ileum in their professional career. Thus, they must suspect this pathology when faced with an episode of intestinal obstruction in the adult. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Minilaparoscopy-assisted transrectal low anterior resection (LAR): a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Antonio M; Adelsdorfer, Cedric; Delgado, Salvadora; Sylla, Patricia; Rattner, David W

    2013-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) represents the evolution of surgery towards less invasive procedures. The feasibility of NOTES transrectal approach has increased its clinical applicability. This report describes a first series of minilaparoscopy-assisted transrectal low anterior resection with double purse-string end-to-end circular stapler anastomoses. Between March and April 2012 three selected patients underwent transrectal minilaparoscopy-assisted natural orifice surgery total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. All the oncologic principles of open/laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer were strictly fulfilled. Two patients underwent neoadjuvant treatment. Laparoscopic visualization and assistance was provided through one 10-mm umbilical port and two ports, one of which was used as stoma site (5 mm) and the other as a drain site (2 mm needle port). The specimen was transected transanally followed by the confection of double purse-string lateral/end-to-end anastomoses. There were no intraoperative complications. Mean operative time was 143 min. Oral intake was initiated on the second postoperative day. Patients were discharged home by day 5. The pathology unit confirmed that distal and circumferential margins were free of tumor invasion, and quality of mesorectum resection was reported satisfactory. One patient had to be readmitted because of severe dehydration due to increased ileostomy output. The patient was discharged at the third day after the readmission without renal failure. In this preliminary report, transrectal minilaparoscopy-assisted low anterior resection was feasible and safe. Lateral/end-to-end anastomoses can be considered an interesting alternative to the double-stapling technique. However, it is necessary to further study and develop these procedures, along with careful patient selection, before transrectal low anterior resection may be considered for routine clinical use.

  5. Changes in starch physical characteristics following digestion of foods in the human small intestine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongkai; Topping, David L; Morell, Matthew K; Bird, Anthony R

    2010-08-01

    Factors controlling the concentration of resistant starch (RS) in foods are of considerable interest on account of the potential for this type of fibre to deliver health benefits to consumers. The present study was aimed at establishing changes in starch granule morphology as a result of human small-intestinal digestion. Volunteers with ileostomy consumed six selected foods: breakfast cereal (muesli), white bread, oven-baked French fries, canned mixed beans and a custard containing either a low-amylose maize starch (LAMS) or a high-amylose maize starch (HAMS). Analysis showed that digesta total RS (as a fraction of ingested starch) was: muesli, 8.9 %; bread, 4.8 %; fries, 4.2 %; bean mix, 35.9 %; LAMS custard, 4.0 %; HAMS custard, 29.1 %. Chromatographic analysis showed that undigested food contained three major starch fractions. These had average molecular weights (MW) of 43,500 kDa, 420 kDa and 8.5 kDa and were rich in amylopectin, higher-MW amylose and low-MW amylose, respectively. The low-MW amylose fraction became enriched preferentially in the stomal effluent while the medium-MW starch fraction showed the greatest loss. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy showed that absorbance at 1022 per cm decreased after digestion while the absorbance band at 1047 per cm became greater. Such changes have been suggested to indicate shifts from less ordered to more ordered granule structures. Further analysis of amylose composition by scanning iodine spectra indicated that the MW of amylose in ileal digesta was lower than that of undigested amylose. It appears that high-MW amylose is preferentially digested and that MW, rather than amylose content alone, is associated with resistance of starch to digestion in the upper gut of humans.

  6. Introduction of percutaneous-tunneled transfontanellar external ventricular drainage in the management of hydrocephalus in extremely low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Zucchelli, Mino; Lefosse, Mariella; Corvaglia, Luigi; Martini, Silvia; Sandri, Fabrizio; Soffritti, Silvia; Ancora, Gina; Mammoliti, Palma; Gargano, Giancarlo; Galassi, Ercole

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Hydrocephalus treatment in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants still represents a challenge for the pediatric neurosurgeon, particularly when the patient weighs far less than 1000 g. In such cases, the benefits in terms of neurological outcome following early treatment do not always outweigh the surgical risks, especially considering the great difference in the surgical risk before patient weight increases. To assess the efficacy and reliability of a percutaneous-tunneled, transfontanellar external ventricular drain (PTTEVD) in ELBW infants, the authors started a new protocol for the early surgical treatment of hydrocephalus. METHODS Ten cases of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) in ELBW infants (5 cases < 700 g, range for all cases 550-1000 g) were treated with a PTTEVD that was implanted at bedside as the first measure in a stepwise approach. RESULTS The average duration of the procedure was 7 minutes, and there was no blood loss. The drain remained in place for an average of 24 days (range 8-45 days). In all cases early control of the hydrocephalus was achieved. One patient had a single episode of CSF leakage (due to insufficient CSF removal). In another patient Enterococcus in the CSF sample was detected the day after abdominal surgery with ileostomy (infection resolved with intrathecal vancomycin). One patient died of Streptococcus sepsis, a systemic infection existing prior to drain placement that never resolved. One patient had Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis prior to drain insertion; a PTTEVD was implanted, the infection resolved, and the hydrocephalus was treated in the same way as with a traditional EVD, while the advantages of a quick, minimally invasive, bedside procedure were maintained. Once a patient reached 1 kg in weight, when necessary, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was implanted and the PTTEVD was removed. CONCLUSIONS The introduction of PTTEVD placement in our standard protocol for the management of PHH has proved to be a wise

  7. Stoma Creation and Reversal After Cytoreductive Surgery with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Doud, Andrea N.; Levine, Edward A.; Fino, Nora F.; Stewart, John H.; Shen, Perry; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cytoreductive surgery with heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) often includes stoma creation. We evaluated the indications, morbidity, and mortality associated with stoma creation and reversal after CRS/HIPEC. Methods Retrospective analysis of a prospective database of 1149 CRS–HIPEC procedures was performed. Patient demographics, type of malignancy, comorbidities, Claviengraded morbidity, mortality, indications for stoma creation, and outcomes of subsequent reversal were abstracted. Results Sixteen percent (186/1149) of CRS/HIPEC procedures included stoma creation, whereas 1.1 % (11/963) of patients without initial stoma creation developed anastomotic leaks requiring stoma. Patients who required a stoma had worse preoperative performance status (ECOG 0/1: 77.2 vs. 86.1 %, p = 0.002), greater burden of disease (PCI 17.6 vs. 12.9, p < 0.0001), and were more likely to have R2 resections (74.5 vs. 48.8 %, p < 0.0001) than those without stoma creation. Stomas were intended to be permanent in 17.5 % (35/199). Of 164 patients with potentially reversible ostomies, only 26.2 % (43/164) underwent reversal. Disease progression (43/164, 26.2 %) and death (40/164, 24.3 %) most commonly precluded reversal. After reversal, 27.9 % (12/43) suffered a Clavien I/II morbidity, 27.9 % (12/43) suffered Clavien III/IV morbidity, and 30-day mortality was 4.7 % (2/43). Anastomotic leak occurred after 9 % (3/33) of ileostomy and 10 % (1/10) of colostomy reversals. Conclusions Stomas are more common among CRS/HIPEC patients with a high burden of disease and poor functional status. Reversal is uncommon and is associated with significant major morbidity. Preoperative counseling for those with high disease burden and poor functional status should include the risk of permanent stoma. PMID:26077915

  8. Asbestos-induced peritoneal mesothelioma in a construction worker.

    PubMed Central

    Fonte, Rodolfo; Gambettino, Salvatore; Melazzini, Mario; Scelsi, Mario; Zanon, Claudio; Candura, Stefano M

    2004-01-01

    Occupational and environmental asbestos exposure continues to represent a public health problem, despite increasingly restrictive laws adopted by most industrialized countries. Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive asbestos-related malignancy. We present the case of a 65-year-old man who developed recurrent ascites after having been exposed to asbestos in the building industry for > 40 years. Liver function and histology were normal. Abdominal computed tomography initially excluded the presence of expansive processes, and no abnormal cells were found in the ascitic fluid. Laparoscopy showed diffuse neoplastic infiltration of the peritoneum. Histopathology of bioptic samples revealed epithelioid neoplastic proliferation with a tubulopapillary pattern, falsely suggesting metastatic adenocarcinomatosis. In consideration of the occupational history, and after further diagnostic procedures had failed to identify the hypothetical primitive tumor, immunostaining of the neoplastic tissue was performed. Results were negative for carcinoembrionary antigen and the epithelial glycoprotein Ber-EP4, whereas results were positive for the mesothelial markers cytokeratins, calretinin, epithelial membrane antigen, and HBME-1, thus leading to the correct diagnosis of peritoneal epithelial mesothelioma. The Italian Workers' Compensation Authority recognized the occupational origin of the disease. Cytoreductive surgery associated with continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion (cisplatin at 42 degrees C, for 1 hr) was performed. The disease relapsed after 4 months and was later complicated by a bowel obstruction requiring palliative ileostomy. The patient died 23 months after diagnosis. This case illustrates the insidious diagnostic problems posed by peritoneal mesothelioma, a tumor which often simulates other malignancies (e.g., metastatic carcinomas) at routine histopathological examination. Occupational history and immunohistochemistry are helpful for the correct

  9. Development and Validation of an in vitro Experimental GastroIntestinal Dialysis Model with Colon Phase to Study the Availability and Colonic Metabolisation of Polyphenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Breynaert, Annelies; Bosscher, Douwina; Kahnt, Ariane; Claeys, Magda; Cos, Paul; Pieters, Luc; Hermans, Nina

    2015-08-01

    The biological effects of polyphenols depend on their mechanism of action in the body. This is affected by bioconversion by colon microbiota and absorption of colonic metabolites. We developed and validated an in vitro continuous flow dialysis model with colon phase (GastroIntestinal dialysis model with colon phase) to study the gastrointestinal metabolism and absorption of phenolic food constituents. Chlorogenic acid was used as model compound. The physiological conditions during gastrointestinal digestion were mimicked. A continuous flow dialysis system simulated the one-way absorption by passive diffusion from lumen to mucosa. The colon phase was developed using pooled faecal suspensions. Several methodological aspects including implementation of an anaerobic environment, adapted Wilkins Chalgren broth medium, 1.10(8) CFU/mL bacteria suspension as inoculum, pH adaptation to 5.8 and implementation of the dialysis system were conducted. Validation of the GastroIntestinal dialysis model with colon phase system showed a good recovery and precision (CV < 16 %). Availability of chlorogenic acid in the small intestinal phase (37 ± 3 %) of the GastroIntestinal dialysis model with colon phase is comparable with in vivo studies on ileostomy patients. In the colon phase, the human faecal microbiota deconjugated chlorogenic acid to caffeic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl propionic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3- or 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol and 3-phenylpropionic acid. The GastroIntestinal dialysis model with colon phase is a new, reliable gastrointestinal simulation system. It permits a fast and easy way to predict the availability of complex secondary metabolites, and to detect metabolites in an early stage after digestion. Isolation and identification of these metabolites may be used as references for in vivo bioavailability experiments and for investigating their bioactivity in in vitro experiments.

  10. The Oral β-Lactamase SYN-004 (Ribaxamase) Degrades Ceftriaxone Excreted into the Intestine in Phase 2a Clinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Kokai-Kun, John F; Roberts, Tracey; Coughlin, Olivia; Sicard, Eric; Rufiange, Marianne; Fedorak, Richard; Carter, Christian; Adams, Marijke H; Longstreth, James; Whalen, Heidi; Sliman, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    SYN-004 (ribaxamase) is a β-lactamase designed to be orally administered concurrently with intravenous β-lactam antibiotics, including most penicillins and cephalosporins. Ribaxamase's anticipated mechanism of action is to degrade excess β-lactam antibiotic that is excreted into the small intestine. This enzymatic inactivation of excreted antibiotic is expected to protect the gut microbiome from disruption and thus prevent undesirable side effects, including secondary infections such as Clostridium difficile infections, as well as other antibiotic-associated diarrheas. In phase 1 clinical studies, ribaxamase was well tolerated compared to a placebo group and displayed negligible systemic absorption. The two phase 2a clinical studies described here were performed to confirm the mechanism of action of ribaxamase, degradation of β-lactam antibiotics in the human intestine, and were therefore conducted in subjects with functioning ileostomies to allow serial sampling of their intestinal chyme. Ribaxamase fully degraded ceftriaxone to below the level of quantitation in the intestines of all subjects in both studies. Coadministration of oral ribaxamase with intravenous ceftriaxone was also well tolerated, and the plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone were unchanged by ribaxamase administration. Since ribaxamase is formulated as a pH-dependent, delayed-release formulation, the activity of ribaxamase in the presence of the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole was examined in the second study; coadministration of these drugs did not adversely affect ribaxamase's ability to degrade ceftriaxone excreted into the intestine. These studies have confirmed the in vivo mechanism of action of ribaxamase, degradation of β-lactam antibiotics in the human intestine (registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT02419001 and NCT02473640). Copyright © 2017 Kokai-Kun et al.

  11. Traumatic colon injury in damage control laparotomy-A multicenter trial: Is it safe to do a delayed anastomosis?

    PubMed

    Tatebe, Leah Carey; Jennings, Andrew; Tatebe, Ken; Handy, Alexandra; Prajapati, Purvi; Smith, Michael; Do, Tai; Ogola, Gerald O; Gandhi, Rajesh R; Duane, Therese M; Luk, Stephen; Petrey, Laura Bruce

    2017-04-01

    Delayed colonic anastomosis after damage control laparotomy (DCL) is an alternative to colostomies during a single laparotomy (SL) in high-risk patients. However, literature suggests increased colonic leak rates up to 27% with DCL, and various reported risk factors. We evaluated our regional experience to determine if delayed colonic anastomosis was associated with worse outcomes. A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed across three Level I trauma centers encompassing traumatic colon injuries from January 2006 through June 2014. Patients with rectal injuries or mortality within 24 hours were excluded. Patient and injury characteristics, complications, and interventions were compared between SL and DCL groups. Regional readmission data were utilized to capture complications within 6 months of index trauma. Of 267 patients, 69% had penetrating injuries, 21% underwent DCL, and the mortality rate was 4.9%. Overall, 176 received primary repair (26 in DCL), 90 had resection and anastomosis (28 in DCL), and 26 had a stoma created (10 end colostomies and 2 loop ileostomies in DCL). Thirty-five of 56 DCL patients had definitive colonic repair subsequent to their index operation. DCL patients were more likely to be hypotensive; require more resuscitation; and suffer acute kidney injury, pneumonia, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and death. Five enteric leaks (1.9%) and three enterocutaneous fistulas (ECF, 1.1%) were identified, proportionately distributed between DCL and SL (p = 1.00, p = 0.51). No difference was seen in intraperitoneal abscesses (p = 0.13) or surgical site infections (SSI, p = 0.70) between cohorts. Among SL patients, pancreas injuries portended an increased risk of intraperitoneal abscesses (p = 0.0002), as did liver injuries in DCL patients (p = 0.06). DCL was not associated with increased enteric leaks, ECF, SSI, or intraperitoneal abscesses despite nearly two-thirds having delayed repair. Despite this being a multicenter study, it is

  12. Case Report: Spleen-preserving Multivisceral Transplant for Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moulin, L; Pedraza, N; Padin, J; Niveyro, S; Tuhay, G; Rumbo, C; Schelotto, P Barros; Crivelli, A; Solar Muñiz, H; Ramisch, D; Gondolesi, G

    2016-03-01

    A 24-year-old man diagnosed with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome as a child underwent multiple surgeries owing to intussusception. Pretransplant workup showed >150 polyps along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, some of them with high-grade dysplasia. Despite having intestinal sufficiency, a modified multivisceral transplantation was offered. An 18-year-old donor was procured using University of Wisconsin solution. The recipient's surgery started with a midline incision. Mobilization of the right colon and the root of the mesentery was done to isolate the superior mesenteric artery. The same maneuver was done with the left and sigmoid colon. The common bile duct was then isolated and transected at the cystic duct level. The abdominal portion of the esophagus and the proximal stomach were isolated and divided at the gastroesophageal junction. After that, the pancreas was mobilized, preserving the spleen with the splenic vessels. The distal GI tract was transacted at the level of the proximal rectum. For engraftment, an arterial conduit was placed in the infrarenal aorta and anastomosed to the graft's aortic patch. End-to-side portal reconstruction was made at the level of the portal vein, allowing performing a duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction over a 5-Fr T-tube. A hand-sewn gastrogastric anastomosis and piloroplasty were performed; the distal anastomosis was done with circular staplers. A gastrojejunostomy and a loop ileostomy were the final steps of the procedure. The patient stayed in intensive care for 2 days and enteral feeds were started on day 7. Currently, 23 months after transplant he is alive with an excellent quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Colonic catabolism of dietary phenolic and polyphenolic compounds from Concord grape juice.

    PubMed

    Stalmach, Angelique; Edwards, Christine A; Wightman, Jolynne D; Crozier, Alan

    2013-01-01

    After acute ingestion of 350 ml of Concord grape juice, containing 528 μmol of (poly)phenolic compounds, by healthy volunteers, a wide array of phase I and II metabolites were detected in the circulation and excreted in urine. Ingestion of the juice by ileostomists resulted in 40% of compounds being recovered intact in ileal effluent. The current study investigated the fate of these undigested (poly)phenolic compounds on reaching the colon. This was achieved through incubation of the juice using an in vitro model of colonic fermentation and through quantification of catabolites produced after colonic degradation and their subsequent absorption prior to urinary excretion by healthy subjects and ileostomy volunteers. A total of 16 aromatic and phenolic compounds derived from colonic metabolism of Concord grape juice (poly)phenolic compounds were identified by GC-MS in the faecal incubation samples. Thirteen urinary phenolic acids and aromatic compounds were excreted in significantly increased amounts after intake of the juice by healthy volunteers, whereas only two of these compounds were excreted in elevated amounts by ileostomists. The production of phenolic acids and aromatic compounds by colonic catabolism contributed to the bioavailability of Concord grape (poly)phenolic compounds to a much greater extent than phase I and II metabolites originating from absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Catabolic pathways are proposed, highlighting the impact of colonic microbiota and subsequent phase II metabolism prior to excretion of phenolic compounds derived from (poly)phenolic compounds in Concord grape juice, which pass from the small to the large intestine.

  14. The effect of haem in red and processed meat on the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lunn, J C; Kuhnle, G; Mai, V; Frankenfeld, C; Shuker, D E G; Glen, R C; Goodman, J M; Pollock, J R A; Bingham, S A

    2007-03-01

    Red and processed meat (PM) consumption increases the risk of large bowel cancer and it has been demonstrated that haem in red meat (RM) stimulates the endogenous production of N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) within the human intestine. To investigate whether N-nitrosation occurs in the upper gastrointestinal tract, 27 ileostomists were fed diets containing no meat, or 240 g RM or 240 g PM in a randomly assigned crossover intervention design carried out in a volunteer suite. Endogenous NOC were assessed as apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) in the ileostomy output. ATNC concentration in the diets was 22 microg ATNC/kg (RM) and 37 microg ATNC/kg (PM), and 9 microg ATNC/kg in the no meat diet. Levels significantly increased to 1175 microg ATNC/kg SEM = 226 microg ATNC/kg) following the RM (P=0.001) and 1832 microg ATNC/kg (SEM=294 microg ATNC/kg) following PM (P<0.001) compared to the no meat diet (283 microg ATNC/kg, SEM=74 microg ATNC/kg). ATNC concentrations in the ileal output were equivalent to those measured in faeces in similarly designed feeding studies. Supplementation with either 1 g ascorbic acid or 400 IU alpha-tocopherol had no effect on the concentration of ATNC detected in the ileal output. In in vitro experiments, N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor) was formed in the presence of nitrosated haemoglobin, at pH 6.8 but not in the absence of nitrosated haemoglobin. These findings demonstrate that haem may facilitate the formation of NOC in the absence of colonic flora in the upper human gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) in patients with cystic fibrosis after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Morton, Jonathan R; Ansari, Nabila; Glanville, Allan R; Meagher, Alan P; Lord, Reginald V N

    2009-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the commonest inherited life-threatening disease in Caucasians. With increased longevity, more patients with CF are developing gastrointestinal complications including the distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS), in which ileocecal obstruction is caused by viscid mucofeculent material. The optimal management of DIOS is uncertain. The medical records of all patients with CF who underwent lung transplantation at this institution during a 15-year period were reviewed. The definition of DIOS required the presence of both clinical and radiological features of ileocecal obstruction. One hundred twenty-one patients with CF underwent lung transplantation during the study period. During a minimum 2-year follow-up, there were 17 episodes of DIOS in 13 (10.7%) patients. The development of DIOS was significantly associated with a past history of meconium ileus (odds ratio 20.7, 95% C.I. 5.09-83.9) or previous laparotomy (odds ratio 4.93, 95% C.I. 1.47-16.6). All six patients who developed DIOS during the transplantation admission had meconium ileus during infancy, and five had undergone pretransplant laparotomy for CF complications. First-line treatment for all patients was a combination of medication (laxatives, stool softeners, and bowel preparation formulas). This was successful in 14 of the 17 DIOS but needed to be given for up to 14 days. The other three patients required laparotomy with enterotomy and fecal disimpaction. This provided definitive resolution of DIOS except in one patient who presented late and died despite ileal decompression and ileostomy. DIOS occurred in approximately 10% of CF patients after lung transplantation. Patients with a history of meconium ileus or previous laparotomy are at high risk of developing DIOS. Patients with DIOS require early aggressive management with timely laparotomy with enterotomy and possible stoma formation when non-operative therapy is unsuccessful.

  16. Botulinum toxin is efficient to treat obstructive symptoms in children with Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Wester, Tomas; Granström, Anna Löf

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive symptoms are common after pull-through for Hirschsprung disease. Botulinum toxin injection treatment may improve the bowel function if internal sphincter achalasia is the cause of obstructive symptoms. The aim of this study was to review the outcome in patients treated with intrasphincteric botulinum toxin injections after pull-through for Hirschsprung disease. The operative records were used to identify children with Hirschsprung disease who were treated with botulinum toxin injections at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, from September 2007 to November 2014. Data on age, sex, associated syndromes, length of aganglionic segment, age at pull-through, type of pull-through, age at first botulinum toxin injection, indication for botulinum toxin injection, and effect of first botulinum toxin injection were retrieved from the case records. Bowel function at last follow-up visit or telephone contact was recorded. Nineteen patients were identified. All had biopsy-verified Hirschsprung disease. Eighteen (15 males and 3 females) children had undergone intrasphincteric botulinum toxin injection treatment for obstructive symptoms after pull-through, which was done at 127 (18-538) days of age. Four children had total colonic aganglionosis. The first botulinum toxin injection was given at 2.4 (0.53-6.9) years of age. Thirteen children (72 %) had a good response to the first injection treatment. The children underwent 3 (1-13) injection treatments. At follow-up four patients had improved and did not need treatment for obstruction, four were scheduled for further botulinum toxin injections, eight had persistent obstructive symptoms treated with laxatives or enemas, and two children had an ileostomy. Botulinum toxin injection treatment improves the obstructive symptoms in children after pull-through for Hirschsprung disease. The effect is reversible and a majority of patients need repeat injections. When injection treatment is not repeated, a large

  17. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt with a rare twist: small-bowel ischemia and necrosis secondary to knotting of peritoneal catheter.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; Moftakhar, Roham; Munoz, Lorenzo F

    2014-09-01

    Small-bowel ischemia and necrosis due to knotting of the peritoneal catheter is an extremely rare complication related to a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). A 3-month-old girl, with a history of Chiari II malformation and myelomeningocele (MM) after undergoing right occipital VPS insertion and MM repair at birth, presented to the emergency department with a high-grade fever. Examination of a CSF sample obtained via shunt tap raised suspicion for the presence of infection. Antibiotic therapy was initiated, and subsequently the VPS was removed and an external ventricular drain was placed. Intraoperatively, as attempts at pulling the distal catheter from the scalp incision were met with resistance, the distal catheter was cut and left in the abdomen while the remainder of the shunt system was successfully removed. While the patient was awaiting definitive shunt revision surgery to replace the VPS, she developed abdominal distension due to small-bowel obstruction. An emergency exploratory laparotomy revealed a knot in the distal catheter looping around and strangulating the distal ileum, causing small-bowel ischemia and necrosis in addition to the obstruction. A small-bowel resection with ileostomy was performed, with subsequent placement of ventriculoatrial shunt for treatment of hydrocephalus. The authors report this exceedingly rare clinical scenario to highlight the fact that any retained distal catheter must be carefully managed with immediate abdominal exploration to remove the distal catheter to avoid bowel necrosis as pulling of a knotted peritoneal catheter may strangulate the bowel and cause ischemia, with significant clinical morbidity and possible mortality.

  18. The Oral β-Lactamase SYN-004 (Ribaxamase) Degrades Ceftriaxone Excreted into the Intestine in Phase 2a Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Tracey; Coughlin, Olivia; Sicard, Eric; Rufiange, Marianne; Fedorak, Richard; Carter, Christian; Adams, Marijke H.; Longstreth, James; Whalen, Heidi; Sliman, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT SYN-004 (ribaxamase) is a β-lactamase designed to be orally administered concurrently with intravenous β-lactam antibiotics, including most penicillins and cephalosporins. Ribaxamase's anticipated mechanism of action is to degrade excess β-lactam antibiotic that is excreted into the small intestine. This enzymatic inactivation of excreted antibiotic is expected to protect the gut microbiome from disruption and thus prevent undesirable side effects, including secondary infections such as Clostridium difficile infections, as well as other antibiotic-associated diarrheas. In phase 1 clinical studies, ribaxamase was well tolerated compared to a placebo group and displayed negligible systemic absorption. The two phase 2a clinical studies described here were performed to confirm the mechanism of action of ribaxamase, degradation of β-lactam antibiotics in the human intestine, and were therefore conducted in subjects with functioning ileostomies to allow serial sampling of their intestinal chyme. Ribaxamase fully degraded ceftriaxone to below the level of quantitation in the intestines of all subjects in both studies. Coadministration of oral ribaxamase with intravenous ceftriaxone was also well tolerated, and the plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone were unchanged by ribaxamase administration. Since ribaxamase is formulated as a pH-dependent, delayed-release formulation, the activity of ribaxamase in the presence of the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole was examined in the second study; coadministration of these drugs did not adversely affect ribaxamase's ability to degrade ceftriaxone excreted into the intestine. These studies have confirmed the in vivo mechanism of action of ribaxamase, degradation of β-lactam antibiotics in the human intestine (registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT02419001 and NCT02473640). PMID:28052855

  19. Vascular High Ligation and Embryological Dissection in Laparoscopic Restorative Proctocolectomy for Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, Deniz; Aghayeva, Afag; Bayraktar, Onur; Ozben, Volkan; Baca, Bilgi; Hamzaoglu, Ismail; Karahasanoglu, Tayfun

    2017-01-01

    After its description in 1980, restorative proctocolectomy has become the procedure of choice for ulcerative colitis (UC). The supposed advantages of the laparoscopy have proven beneficial for colorectal operations but a standard technique in laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy (LRP) is still lacking. In this study, we present our technique of LRP with vascular high ligation (VHL) and embryological dissection (ED). This retrospective study reviewed patients who underwent LRP with VHL for UC from January 2009 to June 2015. Of these, only two-stage LRP patients were included to the study. The LRP technique was performed by five ports through a medial-to-lateral approach. The dissection was carried out between the embryological planes and all the vessel roots were highly divided. A diverting ileostomy was performed in all of the patients. Forty-six patients were operated for UC with the laparoscopic approach. Among these patients, there were 19 (8 females) patients who were performed LRP with VHL. The median age was 42 (range 25-62) years. No intraoperative complications occurred. There was no conversion to open procedure. Early postoperative complications were observed in 3 (15.8%) patients, including postoperative mechanical bowel obstruction (n = 1), wound infection (n = 1), and ileal pouch bleeding (n = 1). High ligation of the vessels is not routinely performed except in the presence of malignancy. In our study, we focus on the importance of high ligation and ED for better observation and preservation of the important anatomical structures. According to our opinion, this approach aids in the preservation of the ureters, nerves, and the duodenum providing better observation of dissection planes.

  20. Endoluminal negative-pressure therapy for preventing rectal anastomotic leaks: a pilot study in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Shada, Amber L; Rosenberger, Laura H; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Silva, Michael A; Feldman, Sanford H; Kleiner, Daniel E

    2014-04-01

    Anastomotic leak after rectal resection carries substantial morbidity and mortality. A diverting ileostomy is beneficial for high-risk anastomoses, but its creation and reversal carry a surgical risk in addition to that of resection itself. We sought an alternative method for managing complications of rectal anastomosis. We developed an endoluminal negative-pressure technology with a diverting proximal sump, and hypothesized that it would close anastomotic disruptions in pigs. We performed rectal resections on pigs, with primary anastomoses and the creation of an anastomotic defect. In animals in the treatment group we inserted an endoluminal negative-pressure device and kept it at a low level of continuous suction for 5 d. No device was inserted in a control group of animals. After the 5-d period of treatment we evaluated the anastomoses in both the treatment and control groups of animals for leakage, using contrast enemas. Specimens of anastomosed rectum were evaluated histologically for mucosal integrity and for the location and density of inflammatory responses. Fourteen pigs were assigned to either the treatment (n=10) or control (n=4) group. Of the pigs in the treatment group, 90% had complete closure of their rectal defect, as compared with 25% of the animals in the control group (χ(2) test, p=0.04). The animals in the treatment group had only minimal mucosal and serosal inflammation, whereas those in the control group had extensive mucosal damage with associated serositis. Endoluminal negative-pressure therapy was well-tolerated and led to successful closure of 90% of the anastomic rectal defects in the treatment group of animals in the present study. Additional evaluation of this therapy is warranted.

  1. Unexpected rectal cancer after TEM: outcome of completion surgery compared with primary TME.

    PubMed

    van Gijn, W; Brehm, V; de Graaf, E; Neijenhuis, P A; Stassen, L P S; Leijtens, J W A; Van De Velde, C J H; Doornebosch, P G

    2013-11-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) has gained wide-spread acceptance as a safe and useful technique for the resection of rectal adenomas and selected T1 malignant lesions. If the lesion appears >T1 rectal cancer after resection with TEM, a completion TME resection is recommended. The aim of this study was to investigate the results of TME surgery after TEM for rectal cancer. In four tertiary referral hospitals for TEM, all patients with completion TME surgery after initial TEM were selected. All eligible patients who were treated with 5 × 5 Gy radiotherapy followed by TME surgery from the Dutch TME trial were selected as reference group. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratio's (OR) for colostomies and for colo- and ileostomies combined. Local recurrence and survival rates were compared in hazard ratio's (HR) using the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Fifty-nine patients were included in the TEM-COMPLETION group and 881 patients from the TME trial. In the TEM-COMPLETION group, 50.8% of the patients had a colostomy compared to 45.9% in the TME trial, OR 2.51 (p < 0.006). There is no significant difference when ileo- and colostomies are analyzed together. In the TEM-COMPLETION group, 10.2% developed a local recurrence compared to 5.2% in the TME trial, HR 6.8 (p < 0.0001). Completion TME surgery after TEM for unexpected rectal adenocarcinoma results in more colostomies and higher local recurrence rates compared to one stage TME surgery preceded with preoperative 5 × 5 Gy radiotherapy. Pre-operative investigations must be optimized to distinguish malignant and benign lesions and prevent avoidable local recurrence and colostomies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Initial experience in robot-assisted colorectal surgery in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Sáenz, Eduardo; Ramírez-Ramírez, Moisés Marino; Zubieta-O'Farrill, Gregorio; García-Hernández, Luis

    Colorectal surgery has advanced notably since the introduction of the mechanical suture and the minimally invasive approach. Robotic surgery began in order to satisfy the needs of the patient-doctor relationship, and migrated to the area of colorectal surgery. An initial report is presented on the experience of managing colorectal disease using robot-assisted surgery, as well as an analysis of the current role of this platform. A retrospective study was conducted in order to review five patients with colorectal disease operated using a robot-assisted technique over one year in the initial phase of the learning curve. Gender, age, diagnosis and surgical indication, surgery performed, surgical time, conversion, bleeding, post-operative complications, and hospital stay, were analysed and described. A literature review was performed on the role of robotic assisted surgery in colorectal disease and cancer. The study included 5 patients, 3 men and 2 women, with a mean age of 62.2 years. Two of them were low anterior resections with colorectal primary anastomoses, one of them extended with a loop protection ileostomy, a Frykman-Goldberg procedure, and two left hemicolectomies with primary anastomoses. The mean operating time was 6hours and robot-assisted 4hours 20minutes. There were no conversions and the mean hospital stay was 5 days. This technology is currently being used worldwide in different surgical centres because of its advantages that have been clinically demonstrated by various studies. We report the first colorectal surgical cases in Mexico, with promising results. There is enough evidence to support and recommend the use of this technology as a viable and safe option. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation and handling of constipation in critical patients.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, J; Fernández-Boronat, J; Martínez-Méndez, E; Marín-Cagigas, M L; Mota-Puerto, D; Pérez-Román, M C; Martínez-Estalella, G

    2017-06-07

    To evaluate the effectiveness of nursing care against constipation and to identify, analyze and evaluate causes and consequences. Observational, descriptive and prospective study in polyvalent ICU tertiary hospital (2013-2015). >18 years, stay >7 days, connected to respiratory support, with nasogastric tube and enteral or mixed nutrition. Patients with gastrointestinal pathology, encephalopathic and jejunostomy/ileostomy were excluded. The studied variables (age, sex, weight, height, pathology, medical treatment, nutrition and volume type, depositional characteristics, quantity and frequency, corrective measures and complications) were collected by ad hoc grill. It is authorized by the CEIC. 139 patients with a mean age of 62 years and average stay of 11 days were analyzed; 63% suffered from constipation. Opiates and antacid were the drugs administered most frequently (99%), even though patients who took muscle relaxants, iron supplements and/or calcium and anti-hypertensive were the ones who suffered most from constipation (77%; 75%; 70%) The fiber free diet was the most widely used (60% constipated), followed by dietary fiber (51% constipated), and the combination of both (85% constipated). 56% used laxatives as a corrective measure, Magnesium Hydroxide being the most widely used; 54% began the first day. Gastric retention was the most relevant complication (49%). Constipation is a real multifactorial problem. We recommend: • Intensified surveillance in patients with drugs that promote constipation. • Use high-fiber diets from the outset. • Apply laxatives and prokinetics early and in combination. We need to create a protocol for prophylaxis and management of constipation. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. New minimally invasive technique of parastomal hernia repair – methods and review

    PubMed Central

    Skoneczny, Paweł; Przywózka, Alicja; Czyżewski, Piotr; Bury, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parastomal hernia is described as the most common complication in patients with ostomy. It is reported that its incidence varies from 3% to 39% for colostomies and 0 to 6% for ileostomies. Surgical repair remains the treatment of choice. There are three types of surgical treatment – fascial repair, stoma relocation and repair using prosthetic mesh via a laparoscopic or open approach. Recently there have been several meta-analyses and systematic reviews aiming to compare the results of surgical treatment, and the authors agreed that the quality of evidence precludes firm conclusions. Aim To describe the novel concept of parastomal hernia repair – HyPER/SPHR technique (hybrid parastomal endoscopic re-do/Szczepkowski parastomal hernia repair) and its early results in 12 consecutive cases. Material and methods Twelve consecutive patients were operated on due to parastomal hernia using the new HyPER hybrid technique between June 2013 and May 2014. The patients’ condition was evaluated during the perioperative period, 6 weeks and then every 3 months after surgery. Results After 6 weeks of follow-up we have not observed any mesh-related complications. All 12 patients were examined 3 months and 6 months after repair surgery for evaluation. No recurrence, stoma site infection or stoma-related problems were found. None of the patients complained of pain and none of them needed to be hospitalized again. Reported quality of life on a 0–10 scale after 6 weeks of follow-up was 8 (range: 7–10). Conclusions The HyPER procedure for treatment of parastomal hernias proposed by the authors is a safe and feasible surgical technique with a high patient satisfaction rate and a low number of complications. The hybrid procedure seems to be a promising method for parastomal hernia repair. PMID:25960785

  5. Confusing untypical intestinal Behcet’s disease: Skip ulcers with severe lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen-Kai; Shi, Hui; Wang, Shao-Dong; Liu, Jiong; Zhu, Wei-Ming; Yang, Miao-Fang; Liu, Chan; Lu, Heng; Wang, Fang-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Behcet’s disease (BD) is a rare and life-long disorder characterized by inflammation of blood vessels throughout the body. BD was originally described in 1937 as a syndrome involving oral and genital ulceration in addition to ocular inflammation. Intestinal BD refers to colonic ulcerative lesions documented by objective measures in patients with BD. Many studies have shown that over 40% of BD patients have gastrointestinal complaints. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, anorexia and abdominal distension. Although gastrointestinal symptoms are common, the demonstration of gastrointestinal ulcers is rare. This so-called intestinal BD accounts for approximately 1% of cases. There is no specific test for BD, and the diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. The manifestations of intestinal BD are similar to those of other colitis conditions such as Crohn’s disease or intestinal tuberculosis, thus, it is challenging for gastroenterologists to accurately diagnose intestinal BD in patients with ileo-colonic ulcers. However, giant ulcers distributed in the esophagus and ileocecal junction with gastrointestinal hemorrhage are rare in intestinal BD. Here, we present a case of untypical intestinal BD. The patient had recurrent aphthous ulceration of the oral mucosa, and esophageal and ileo-colonic ulceration, but no typical extra-intestinal symptoms. During examination, the patient had massive acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient underwent ileostomy after an emergency right hemicolectomy and partial ileectomy, and was subsequently diagnosed with incomplete-type intestinal BD by pathology. The literature on the evaluation and management of this condition is reviewed. PMID:24527178

  6. Efficacy and safety of a NiTi CAR 27 compression ring for end-to-end anastomosis compared with conventional staplers: A real-world analysis in Chinese colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenhai; Peng, Jianhong; Li, Cong; Wang, Fulong; Jiang, Wu; Fan, Wenhua; Lin, Junzhong; Wu, Xiaojun; Wan, Desen; Pan, Zhizhong

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new nickel-titanium shape memory alloy compression anastomosis ring, NiTi CAR 27, in constructing an anastomosis for colorectal cancer resection compared with conventional staples. In total, 234 consecutive patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer receiving sigmoidectomy and anterior resection for end-to-end anastomosis from May 2010 to June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The postoperative clinical parameters, postoperative complications and 3-year overall survival in 77 patients using a NiTi CAR 27 compression ring (CAR group) and 157 patients with conventional circular staplers (STA group) were compared. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients in the two groups in terms of general demographics and tumor features. A clinically apparent anastomotic leak occurred in 2 patients (2.6%) in the CAR group and in 5 patients (3.2%) in the STA group (p=0.804). These eight patients received a temporary diverting ileostomy. One patient (1.3%) in the CAR group was diagnosed with anastomotic stricture through an electronic colonoscopy after 3 months postoperatively. The incidence of postoperative intestinal obstruction was comparable between the two groups (p=0.192). With a median follow-up duration of 39.6 months, the 3-year overall survival rate was 83.1% in the CAR group and 89.0% in the STA group (p=0.152). NiTi CAR 27 is safe and effective for colorectal end-to-end anastomosis. Its use is equivalent to that of the conventional circular staplers. This study suggests that NiTi CAR 27 may be a beneficial alternative in colorectal anastomosis in Chinese colorectal cancer patients.

  7. Robotic Low Ligation of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery for Rectal Cancer Using the Firefly Technique.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung Uk; Min, Byung Soh; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2015-07-01

    By integrating intraoperative near infrared fluorescence imaging into a robotic system, surgeons can identify the vascular anatomy in real-time with the technical advantages of robotics that is useful for meticulous lymphovascular dissection. Herein, we report our initial experience of robotic low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) with real-time identification of the vascular system for rectal cancer using the Firefly technique. The study group included 11 patients who underwent a robotic total mesorectal excision with preservation of the left colic artery for rectal cancer using the Firefly technique between July 2013 and December 2013. The procedures included five low anterior resections and six ultra-low anterior resections with loop ileostomy. The median total operation time was 327 min (226-490). The low ligation time was 10 min (6-20), and the time interval between indocyanine green injection and division of the sigmoid artery was 5 min (2-8). The estimated blood loss was 200 mL (100-500). The median time to soft diet was 4 days (4-5), and the median length of stay was 7 days (5-9). Three patients developed postoperative complications; one patients developed anal stricture, one developed ileus, and one developed non-complicated intraabdominal fluid collection. The median total number of lymph nodes harvested was 17 (9-29). Robotic low ligation of the IMA with real-time identification of the vascular system for rectal cancer using the Firefly technique is safe and feasible. This technique can allow for precise lymph node dissection along the IMA and facilitate the identification of the left colic branch of the IMA.

  8. Food intolerance in functional bowel disorders.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Peter R

    2011-04-01

    Food-related symptoms are commonly described by patients with functional bowel disorders, but dietary change as an evidence-based therapy has not been part of routine management strategies. This reviews aims to discuss strategies commonly applied. Published literature was reviewed. Traditional approaches involve elimination diets followed by placebo-controlled reintroduction of specific foods, which is tedious at best and not applied in routine practice. Pathogenically-based approaches include determining what food components are inducing food hypersensitivity responses using specific biomarkers, but this is probably applicable to a small proportion of patients only and has met with only limited success. Food bioactive chemicals, such as salicylates, have been targeted, but there is a paucity of quality evidence for or against this approach. In contrast, targeting poorly absorbed dietary components that might induce luminal distension via osmotic effects and rapid fermentation (FODMAPs) has been successful and the efficacy of the dietitian-delivered low FODMAP diet is now supported by high quality evidence. Improvement of all symptoms of FBD in three out of four patients has been achieved. The diet may potentially improve stool frequency in patients with an ileal pouch or a high output ileostomy, or functional symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. FODMAPs in enteral formulas may also be responsible for diarrhoea induced by enteral nutrition. Dietary restriction of FODMAPs is an effective therapy in the majority of patients with functional bowel symptoms and, provided dietitians are trained in the technique, should be first line therapy. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision of low rectal cancer with preservation of anal sphincter: A report of 82 cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zong-Guang; Wang, Zhao; Yu, Yong-Yang; Shu, Ye; Cheng, Zhong; Li, Li; Lei, Wen-Zhang; Wang, Tian-Cai

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess the feasibility and efficacy of laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LTME) of low rectal cancer with preservation of anal sphincter. METHODS: From June 2001 to June 2003, 82 patients with low rectal cancer underwent laparoscopic total mesorectal excision with preservation of anal sphincter. The lowest edge of tumors was below peritoneal reflection and 1.5-7 cm from the dentate line (1.5-5 cm in 48 cases, 5-7 cm in 34 cases). RESULTS: LTME with anal sphincter preservation was performed on 82 randomized patients with low rectal cancer, and 100% sphincter preservation rate was achieved. There were 30 patients with laparoscopic low anterior resection (LLAR) at the level of the anastomosis below peritoneal reflection and 2 cm above from the dentate line; 27 patients with laparoscopic ultralow anterior resection (LULAR) at the level of anastomoses 2 cm below from the dentate line; and 25 patients with laparoscopic coloanal anastomoses (LCAA) at the level of the anastomoses at or below the dentate line. No defunctioning ileostomy was created in any case. The mean operating time was 120 min (ranged from 110-220 min), and the mean operative blood loss was 20 mL (ranged from 5-120 mL). Bowel function was restored and diet was resumed on day 1 or 2 after operation. The mean hospital stay was 8 d (ranged from 5-14). Postoperative analgesics were used in 45 patients. After surgery, 2 patients had urinary retention, one had anastomotic leakage, and another 2 patients had local recurrence one year later. No interoperative complication was observed. CONCLUSION: LTME with preservation of anal sphincter is a feasible, safe and minimally invasive technique with less postoperative pain and rapid recovery, and importantly, it has preserved the function of the sphincter. PMID:12854145

  10. Pediatric preoperative blood ordering: when is a type and screen or crossmatch really needed?

    PubMed

    Fernández, Allison M; Cronin, Jessica; Greenberg, Robert S; Heitmiller, Eugenie S

    2014-02-01

    Unnecessary testing for and ordering of blood products adds to overall healthcare costs. Determine intraoperative red blood cell (RBC) product utilization for pediatric procedures and costs associated with perioperative testing and ordering. A retrospective chart review captured perioperative blood testing and intraoperative transfusion data for patients <19 years of age who underwent noncardiac surgery over a 13-month period at one tertiary care hospital. The main outcome measure was cost associated with testing for blood products in patients undergoing procedures that had a zero rate of transfusion. The intraoperative transfusion rate for 8620 noncardiac pediatric procedures was 2.78%. Of 8380 nontransfused patients, 707 (8.4%) had type and screen, and of those, 420 (5%) were crossmatched for RBC products in preparation for surgery. The 10 surgical procedures that had the highest perioperative blood testing but no instances of transfusion were as follows: colostomy or ileostomy takedown, spinal cord untethering, tunneled catheter placement, laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication, elbow reduction and fixation, lumbar puncture, suboccipital craniectomy, hip arthrogram, percutaneous intravascular central line, and tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Procedures with low transfusion probability and high crossmatch testing were ventriculoperitoneal shunt revision and growing rod distraction. For all nontransfused patients, the cost of obtaining type and screen was $31,815, and the cost for crossmatch was $25,200. Patients may undergo preoperative type and screen or crossmatch for procedures rarely associated with transfusion. Historic transfusion probability may be used to predict need for transfusion for specific surgical procedures and reduce unnecessary perioperative testing and associated costs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision With Single-Incision Laparoscopy for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Dominic Chi-chung; Choi, Hok Kwok; Wei, Rockson; Yip, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: There has been great enthusiasm for the technique of transanal total mesorectal excision. Coupled with this procedure, we performed single-incision laparoscopic surgery for left colon mobilization. This is a description of our initial experience with the combined approach. Methods: Patients with distal or mid rectal cancer were included. The operation was performed by 2 teams: one team performed the single-incision mobilization of the left colon via the right lower quadrant ileostomy site, and the other team performed the total mesorectal excision with a transanal platform. Results: During the study period, 10 patients (5 men) with cancer of the rectum underwent the surgery. The mean age was 62.2 ± 11.1 years, and the mean body mass index was 23.4 ± 3.2 kg/m2. The tumor's mean distance from the anal verge was 5.1 ± 2.5 cm. The median operating time was 247.5 minutes (range, 188–462 minutes). The mean estimated blood loss was 124 ± 126 mL (range, 10–188 mL). Conversion to multiport laparoscopy was needed in one case (10%). Postoperative pain, as reflected by the pain score, was minimal. The mean number of lymph nodes harvested was 15.6 ± 3.8. All specimens had clear distal and circumferential radial margins. The overall complication rate was 10%. Conclusion: Our experience showed transanal total mesorectal excision with single-incision laparoscopy to be a feasible option for rectal cancer. Patients reported minimal postoperative pain. Further studies on the long-term outcome are warranted. PMID:27186068

  12. Nitrogen losses from the human small bowel: obligatory losses and the effect of physical form of food.

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, A; Cummings, J H

    1988-01-01

    The amount and form of nitrogen lost from the human small intestine and the dietary factors which influence it have been studied in six ileostomists. Over a six day period the subjects were fed a series of diets including low nitrogen (LND) 0.17 g N/day, LND + soya beans (5.87 g N/day) and a high fibre diet (HFD) (10.6 g N/day). The soya beans were fed either whole or pureed to test the effect of physical form of food. Total N, protein, amino acids, urea, and ammonia were measured in ileostomy effluent which was collected throughout the study. Total N excretion was LND 0.91 (0.04) (SE) g/day; LND + whole soya beans (WSB) 2.26 (0.15) g/day; LND + pureed soya beans (PSB) 1.42 (0.12) g/day (WSB v PSB, p less than 0.001); and HFD 2.17 (0.11) g/day (HFD v PSB, p less than 0.001, HFD v WSB, NS). N losses as urea, ammonia, and free amino acids were less than 10-15% of total N, the remainder being protein (48-51%) and (by difference) peptides (20-30%). Eighty to 85% of effluent N was in the insoluble (pellet) fraction except on the low N diet where it was 66%. The physical form of food clearly influenced N digestibility in the soya beans whilst changes in dietary fibre seem not to have a significant effect. PMID:2838402

  13. Nonuniform irradiation of the canine intestine. I. Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneulle, R.M.; Herrera, J.; Gage, T.; MacVittie, T.J.; Taylor, P.; Zeman, G.; Nold, J.B.; Dubois, A. )

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the effects of nonuniform irradiation on the small intestine, we prepared 24 dogs for continent isoperistaltic ileostomies under aseptic surgical conditions and general anesthesia. After a 3-week recovery period, the ileum was catheterized with a fiberoptic endoscope to observe the intestinal mucosa and to harvest mucosal biopsies. The baseline macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the intestinal mucosa was determined. Two weeks later, the ileum was catheterized with a 100-cm soft tube containing 40 groups of three thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at equally spaced intervals, and a dose of either 4.5, 8, 10, 11, or 15 Gy 60Co gamma rays was delivered to the right abdomen (nonuniform exposure). This method allowed a direct and precise assessment of the dose received at 40 sites located in the 100-cm intestinal segment. The intestinal mucosa was again evaluated 1, 4, and 6 days after irradiation. All animals exposed to 4.5 and 8 Gy survived, whereas none survived after 11 and 15 Gy. After exposure to 10 Gy, 60% of the animals died within 4-6 days and 40% survived with symptoms associated with both the intestinal and the hematopoietic syndromes. Crypt cell necrosis, blunting of villi, and reduction of the mucosal lining increased between 1 and 4 days after irradiation, and mucosal damage was correlated with intraintestinal dosimetry at Day 6. The granulocyte counts at Day 4 were significantly lower than baseline level in animals that died within 4-6 days but not in survivors. The present model appears to be realistic and clinically relevant, allowing the concurrent study of the intestinal and hematopoietic effects of high-dose nonuniform irradiation similar to that received by patients during radiation therapy as well as by radiation accident victims.

  14. Safety and efficacy of the NiTi Shape Memory Compression Anastomosis Ring (CAR/ColonRing) for end-to-end compression anastomosis in anterior resection or low anterior resection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeonghyun; Park, Min Geun; Hur, Hyuk; Min, Byung Soh; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2013-04-01

    Compression anastomoses may represent an improvement over traditional hand-sewn or stapled techniques. This prospective exploratory study aimed to assess the efficacy and complication rates in patients undergoing anterior resection (AR) or low anterior resection (LAR) anastomosed with a novel end-to-end compression anastomosis ring, the ColonRing. In all, 20 patients (13 male) undergoing AR or LAR were enrolled to be anastomosed using the NiTi Shape Memory End-to-End Compression Anastomosis Ring (NiTi Medical Technologies Ltd, Netanya, Israel). Demographic, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected. Patients underwent AR (11/20) or LAR using laparoscopy (75%), robotic (10%) surgery, or an open laparotomy (15%) approach, with a median anastomotic level of 14.5 cm (range, 4-25 cm). Defunctioning loop ileostomies were formed in 6 patients for low anastomoses. Surgeons rated the ColonRing device as either easy or very easy to use. One patient developed an anastomotic leakage in the early postoperative period; there were no late postoperative complications. Mean time to passage of first flatus and commencement of oral fluids was 2.5 days and 3.2 days, respectively. Average hospital stay was 12.6 days (range, 8-23 days). Finally, the device was expelled on average 15.3 days postoperatively without difficulty. This is the first study reporting results in a significant number of LAR patients and the first reported experience from South Korea; it shows that the compression technique is surgically feasible, easy to use, and without significant complication rates. A large randomized controlled trial is warranted to investigate the benefits of the ColonRing over traditional stapling techniques.

  15. Novel findings on the metabolic effects of the low glycaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose (Palatinose).

    PubMed

    Holub, Ines; Gostner, Andrea; Theis, Stephan; Nosek, Leszek; Kudlich, Theodor; Melcher, Ralph; Scheppach, W

    2010-06-01

    The slow digestible disaccharide isomaltulose (iso; Palatinose) is available as novel functional carbohydrate ingredient for manufacturing of low glycaemic foods and beverages. Although basically characterised, various information on physiological effects of iso are still lacking. Thus, the objective of the present study was to expand scientific knowledge of physiological characteristics of iso by a set of three human intervention trials. Using an ileostomy model, iso was found to be essentially absorbed, irrespective of the nature of food (beverage and solid food). Apparent digestibility of 50 g iso from two different meals was 95.5 and 98.8 %; apparent absorption was 93.6 and 96.1 %, respectively. In healthy volunteers, a single dose intake of iso resulted in lower postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses than did sucrose (suc), while showing prolonged blood glucose delivery over 3 h test. In a 4-week trial with hyperlipidaemic individuals, regular consumption of 50 g/d iso within a Western-type diet was well tolerated and did not affect blood lipids. Fasting blood glucose and insulin resistance were lower after the 4-week iso intervention compared with baseline. This would be consistent with possible beneficial metabolic effects as a consequence of the lower and prolonged glycaemic response and lower insulinaemic burden. However, there was no significant difference at 4 weeks after iso compared with suc. In conclusion, the study shows that iso is completely available from the small intestine, irrespective of food matrix, leading to a prolonged delivery of blood glucose. Regular iso consumption is well tolerated also in subjects with increased risk for vascular diseases.

  16. Novel findings on the metabolic effects of the low glycaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose (Palatinose™)

    PubMed Central

    Holub, Ines; Gostner, Andrea; Theis, Stephan; Nosek, Leszek; Kudlich, Theodor; Melcher, Ralph; Scheppach, W.

    2010-01-01

    The slow digestible disaccharide isomaltulose (iso; Palatinose™) is available as novel functional carbohydrate ingredient for manufacturing of low glycaemic foods and beverages. Although basically characterised, various information on physiological effects of iso are still lacking. Thus, the objective of the present study was to expand scientific knowledge of physiological characteristics of iso by a set of three human intervention trials. Using an ileostomy model, iso was found to be essentially absorbed, irrespective of the nature of food (beverage and solid food). Apparent digestibility of 50 g iso from two different meals was 95·5 and 98·8 %; apparent absorption was 93·6 and 96·1 %, respectively. In healthy volunteers, a single dose intake of iso resulted in lower postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses than did sucrose (suc), while showing prolonged blood glucose delivery over 3 h test. In a 4-week trial with hyperlipidaemic individuals, regular consumption of 50 g/d iso within a Western-type diet was well tolerated and did not affect blood lipids. Fasting blood glucose and insulin resistance were lower after the 4-week iso intervention compared with baseline. This would be consistent with possible beneficial metabolic effects as a consequence of the lower and prolonged glycaemic response and lower insulinaemic burden. However, there was no significant difference at 4 weeks after iso compared with suc. In conclusion, the study shows that iso is completely available from the small intestine, irrespective of food matrix, leading to a prolonged delivery of blood glucose. Regular iso consumption is well tolerated also in subjects with increased risk for vascular diseases. PMID:20211041

  17. Adenocarcinoma of the ileoanal pouch for ulcerative colitis--a complication of severe chronic atrophic pouchitis?

    PubMed

    Knupper, N; Straub, E; Terpe, H J; Vestweber, K H

    2006-07-01

    The appearance of a carcinoma in the ileal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative proctocolitis is rare. Most of these adenocarcinomas previously described in literature develop from residual viable rectal mucosa. We report a case of an adenocarcinoma arising in all probability from the ileal pouch after malignant transformation of the ileal pouch mucosa based on a chronic atrophic pouchitis. A 34-year-old man developed an adenocarcinoma after a double-stapled ileorectal J-pouch for ulcerative colitis (UC) proceeded from malignant ileal transformation. Before surgery, he had a 20-year history of UC refractory to medical therapy, but no occurrence of backwash ileitis, dysplasia or colitis-associated illness. He experienced severe pouchitis after IPAA since the ileostomy closure. Carcinoma was ensured by endoscopy, and the patient underwent an abdominoperineal pouch extirpation combined with excision of perirectal tissues and anal canal. Histology after surgery showed a pT4,pN2(4/16)pM0,G3 adenocarcinoma with global severe chronic atrophic pouchitis (CAP), villous atrophy and malignant ileal transformation. No metaplasia of the rectal mucosa was found, not even malignant epithelial transformation of the anal canal. This case suggests that a malignant transformation of the ileal pouch mucosa may occur as a pure complication of severe CAP, even in the absence of backwash ileitis or a previous history of cancer. The absence of metaplasia of the rectal mucosa revealed the passage from CAP to dysplastic epithelium and to cancer. A multifactorial development of carcinogenesis is supposed, but we emphasize the importance of severe CAP, and that careful surveillance is needed in patients after IPAA. We must submit that this is just a case report and cannot stand for general cancer development in ulcerative colitis, but it may point out the risk factor of chronic inflammation and leads the surgeon to skillful working

  18. Effects of planned group interactions on the social adaptation of individuals with an intestinal stoma: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Hatice K; Dinç, Leyla; Karadag, Ayişe

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effects of a planned group interaction method on the social adjustment of individuals with an intestinal stoma. Individuals with a stoma often experience physiological, psychological and social problems that affect their social adaptation. Quasi-experimental. The population included ileostomy and colostomy patients registered at the Gazi University Health Research and Implementation Centre Stoma therapy Unit between September 2011-June 2012. They were assigned to experimental (n = 23) and control (n = 27) groups based on their willingness to attend planned group interaction meetings. Experimental group members participated in the 'planned group interaction method' for six weeks. Control group members only received routine care services. Weekly group interaction meetings lasted for average of 90 minutes. The Ostomy Adjustment Inventory and Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self-Report Scale were administered to experimental group members on three occasions: prior to the first group meeting, after the six-week meeting process ended and during the first month after group meetings ended. Control group evaluations were conducted simultaneously. Experimental group members' ostomy adjustment mean scores after planned group interaction meetings gradually increased. No changes occurred in the control group's average scores. The experimental and control groups' average psychosocial adjustment scores eventually changed and showed a tendency towards adjustment. Experimental group members aged 51-60 and 61-70, who were married, had primary and higher education, had permanent stomas, had stomas for periods between 12 months or less and 61 months and longer and had sufficient stoma care knowledge demonstrated higher adjustment values (p < 0·05). Furthermore, experimental group members reported they received psychological support during interactions and learned how to solve problems encountered in stoma care and daily life. Planned group interactions

  19. [Hypotension from endocrine origin].

    PubMed

    Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Douillard, Claire; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie

    2012-11-01

    Hypotension is defined by a low blood pressure either permanently or only in upright posture (orthostatic hypotension). In contrast to hypertension, there is no threshold defining hypotension. The occurrence of symptoms for systolic and diastolic measurements respectively below 90 and 60 mm Hg establishes the diagnosis. Every acute hypotensive event should suggest shock, adrenal failure or an iatrogenic cause. Chronic hypotension from endocrine origin may be linked to adrenal failure from adrenal or central origin, isolated hypoaldosteronism, pseudohypoaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, neuro-endocrine tumors (carcinoïd syndrome) or diabetic dysautonomia. Hypotension related to hypoaldosteronism associates low blood sodium and above all high blood potassium levels. They are generally classified according to their primary (hyperreninism) or secondary (hyporeninism) adrenal origin. Isolated primary hypoaldosteronisms are rare in adults (intensive care unit, selective injury of the glomerulosa area) and in children (aldosterone synthase deficiency). Isolated secondary hypoaldosteronism is related to mellitus diabetes complicated with dysautonomia, kidney failure, age, iatrogenic factors, and HIV infections. In both cases, they can be associated to glucocorticoid insufficiency from primary adrenal origin (adrenal failure of various origins with hyperreninism, among which congenital 21 hydroxylase deficiency with salt loss) or from central origin (hypopituitarism with hypo-reninism). Pseudohypoaldosteronisms are linked to congenital (type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism) or acquired states of resistance to aldosterone. Acquired salt losses from enteric (total colectomy with ileostomy) or renal (interstitial nephropathy, Bartter and Gitelman syndromes…) origin might be responsible for hypotension and are associated with hyperreninism-hyperaldosteronism. Hypotension is a rare manifestation of pheochromocytomas, especially during surgical removal when the patient has not been

  20. Complications After Sphincter-Saving Resection in Rectal Cancer Patients According to Whether Chemoradiotherapy Is Performed Before or After Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chan Wook; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yu, Chang Sik; Shin, Ui Sup; Park, Jin Seok; Jung, Kwang Yong; Kim, Tae Won; Yoon, Sang Nam; Lim, Seok-Byung; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the influence of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with postoperative CRT on the incidence and types of postoperative complications in rectal cancer patients who underwent sphincter-saving resection. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 285 patients who received preoperative CRT and 418 patients who received postoperative CRT between January 2000 and December 2006. Results: There was no between-group difference in age, gender, or cancer stage. In the pre-CRT group, the mean level of anastomosis from the anal verge was lower (3.5 {+-} 1.4 cm vs. 4.3 {+-} 1.7 cm, p < 0.001) and the rate of T4 lesion and temporary diverting ileostomy was higher than in the post-CRT group. Delayed anastomotic leakage and rectovaginal fistulae developed more frequently in the pre-CRT group than in the post-CRT group (3.9% vs. 1.2%, p = 0.020, 6.5% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.027, respectively). Small bowel obstruction (arising from radiation enteritis) requiring surgical intervention was more frequent in the post-CRT group (0% in the pre-CRT group vs. 1.4% in the post-CRT group, p = 0.042). Multivariate analysis identified preoperative CRT as an independent risk factor for fistulous complications (delayed anastomotic leakage, rectovaginal fistula, rectovesical fistula), and postoperative CRT as a risk factor for obstructive complications (anastomotic stricture, small bowel obstruction). The stoma-free rates were significantly lower in the pre-CRT group than in the post-CRT group (5-year stoma-free rates: 92.8% vs. 97.0%, p = 0.008). Conclusion: The overall postoperative complication rates were similar between the pre-CRT and the Post-CRT groups. However, the pattern of postoperative complications seen after sphincter- saving resection differed with reference to the timing of CRT.

  1. Robotic coloanal anastomosis with or without intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer: starting with the perianal approach followed by robotic procedure.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeonghyun; Hur, Hyuk; Min, Byung Soh; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2012-01-01

    ligament was noted on the posterior side of the anal canal. Intersphincteric dissection through the puborectalis ended at the intra-anal canal. Finally, the dissection plane could meet the perianal dissection plane. At this point, we could identify the gauze, which was packed via the perianal approach before beginning robotic dissection. The muscular rectal wall was divided by a cautery at the level of the puborectalis muscle by robotic arms. While performing the CAA/ISR, secure and meticulous dissection through the pelvic floor is important for oncological safety, which could be easily performed with the aid of robotic ergonomic Endowrist function and a magnified three-dimensional view even in a narrow pelvic cavity. Specimen extraction was done through the anus or additional minilaparotomy skin incision. In some cases, a planned ileostomy site was used as the minilaparotomy incision. For patients with bulky and heavy mesorectum, it is difficult and even dangerous to extract the specimen via the anus, which could induce traction injuries to the marginal vessels. Hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis was performed after removing the robotic cart from the operation field. The entire operative procedure is shown in the video. Early surgical outcomes, morbidity, and short-term follow-up data were extracted from a prospectively collected database. Robotic CAA/ISR for low rectal cancer was performed on 47 patients between August 2007 and December 2010. Forty-one patients underwent robotic CAA, and six patients underwent robotic ISR. There were 28 male and 19 female patients. The median age was 58 (range 32-86) years. The median body mass index was 23.3 (range 14.6-28.0) kg/m(2). Five patients (10.6%) had a history of abdominal surgery. According to American Society of Anesthesiology disease classification, 35 patients (74.5%) were class I, and 12 (25.5%) patients class II. The median distance between adenocarcinoma and the anal verge was 4 (range 1-6) cm. Preoperative

  2. Transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) for rectal cancer: a training pathway.

    PubMed

    McLemore, Elisabeth C; Harnsberger, Christina R; Broderick, Ryan C; Leland, Hyuma; Sylla, Patricia; Coker, Alisa M; Fuchs, Hans F; Jacobsen, Garth R; Sandler, Bryan; Attaluri, Vikram; Tsay, Anna T; Wexner, Steven D; Talamini, Mark A; Horgan, Santiago

    2016-09-01

    With increasing interest in natural orifice surgery, there has been a dramatic evolution of transanal and endoluminal surgical techniques. These techniques began with transanal endoluminal surgical removal of rectal masses and have progressed to transanal radical proctectomy for rectal cancer. The first transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) was performed in 2009 by Sylla, Rattner, Delgado, and Lacy. The improved visibility and working space associated with the taTME technique is intriguing. This video manuscript outlines the training pathway followed by pioneers in the taTME technique, the process of implementation into clinical practice, and initial case report. A double board-certified colorectal surgeon with expertise in rectal cancer, minimally invasive total mesorectal excision, transanal endoscopic surgery (TES), and intersphincteric dissection, underwent taTME training in male cadaver models. Institutional review board (IRB) approval for a phase I clinical trial was achieved. The entire operative team including surgeons, nurses, and operative staff underwent taTME cadaver training the day prior to the first clinical case. The case was proctored by an expert in taTME. A 66-year-old male with uT3N1M0 rectal cancer located in the posterior distal rectum, underwent taTME with laparoscopic abdominal assistance, hand sewn coloanal anastomosis, and diverting loop ileostomy. The majority of the TME was performed transanally with laparoscopic assistance for exposure, splenic flexure mobilization, and high ligation of the vascular pedicles. Operative time was 359 min. There were no intraoperative complications. Pathology revealed a ypT2N1 moderately differentiated invasive adenocarcinoma, grade I TME, 1 cm circumferential radial margin, and 2/13 positive lymph nodes. Implementation of taTME into practice can be achieved by surgeons with expertise in minimally invasive TME, TES, pre-clinical taTME training in cadavers, case observation, proctoring, and ongoing

  3. A systematic literature search and review of sodium concentrations of body fluids
.

    PubMed

    Kaptein, Elaine M; Sreeramoju, Divya; Kaptein, John S; Kaptein, Matthew J

    2016-10-01

    Wide ranges of sodium concentrations for different body fluid losses have been noted with minimal substantiating data and variability among sources, leading to use of "cumulative fluid balance" regardless of composition in hospitalized patients. To define the sodium concentrations of fluid losses from the body. We performed a systematic search and literature review in adult humans using PubMed database. Inclusion criteria were met for 107 full-text articles. Mean sodium concentrations were significantly lower for acidic (mean ± SD: 44 ± 12 mEq/L) than for alkaline (55 ± 13 mEq/L) gastric fluid, higher for bile (185 ± 24 mEq/L) or pancreatic fluid (156 ± 3 mEq/L) than for all other body fluids, and similar for intact small bowel (119 ± 14 mEq/L) and ileostomy outputs (116 ± 25 mEq/L). Sodium concentrations were significantly greater for cholera-induced diarrhea (128 ± 18 mEq/L) and lower for osmotic-induced diarrhea (28 ± 16 mEq/L) than all other causes of diarrhea. For osmotic diarrheas, sorbitol-induced diarrhea sodium concentration was higher (63 ± 17 mEq/L) than for carbohydrate malabsorption (43 ± 20 mEq/L), lactulose (26 ± 19 mEq/L), Idolax (16 ± 13 mEq/L), or polyethylene glycol (13 ± 7 mEq/L). For secretory diarrheas, sodium concentration for idiopathic causes (53 ± 22 mEq/L) was lower than for neuroendocrine and villous tumors (75 ± 13 mEq/L) or nonosmotic laxatives (88 ± 33 mEq/L). For pleural, peritoneal, and edema fluid, sodium concentrations (137 ± 13 mEq/L) were similar to plasma. No data were found for wound fluid. Sodium concentration for sweat was 44 ± 17 mEq/L. This is the first in-depth review of verifiable sodium concentrations of body fluids most commonly lost in hospitalized patients. Sodium concentrations are fluid-specific and consistent. Sodium concentrations for diarrhea are associated with specific mechanisms/causes. These data should be useful to more accurately

  4. Determination of protein and amino acid digestibility in foods including implications of gut microbial amino acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Malcolm

    2012-08-01

    To meet the protein and amino acid requirements of individuals and of populations requires information not only about their requirements but also about the capacity of available foods to meet those requirements. Most of our current knowledge of the digestibility of food proteins and the methods to estimate it has been derived from work with animals. Because the microbiota of the large intestine alter the amino acid composition of the digesta, and because only trivial quantities of amino acids are absorbed intact from the large intestine, the current method of choice for assessing amino acid digestibility is ileal digestibility corrected for basal endogenous losses, that is, standardized ileal digestibility. For protein as a whole, however, because nitrogen absorbed in forms other than as amino acids can contribute to the nitrogen economy, the absorption of nitrogen over the whole digestive tract is the more appropriate measure. Most of the methods developed for estimating ileal amino acid outflow in animals are not directly applicable to man: the exception is the use of volunteers with an ileostomy. The flow and composition of ileal digesta in human subjects can also be measured by the infusion of a marker and withdrawal of samples through a naso-intestinal tube. However, this method is too demanding for routine use and is likely to be restricted to validating the application to humans of digestibility data obtained either from animals, of which the pig seems most suitable, or in vitro methods. Microbial activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is not confined to the large intestine: the numbers and metabolic activity of the upper GI microbiota lead to substantial amounts of microbial protein leaving the ileum. It appears however that a large proportion of the amino acids used by the upper GI microbiota are preformed - from the diet or from endogenous materials - rather than from de novo synthesis. Although there are still uncertainties about the impact of

  5. Urolithiasis and crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Sandro Roberto da Silva; Mendonça, Tiago; Oliveira, Pedro; Oliveira, Tiago; Dias, José; Lopes, Tomé

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present an updated description of the relation between Crohn's disease (CD) and Urolithiasis. Patients and Methods: A literature search for English-language original and review articles was conducted in Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases in the month of December 2014 for papers either published or e-published up to that date, addressing the association between CD and urolithiasis as its consequence. All articles published in English language were selected for screening based on the following search terms: “CD,” “renal calculus,” “IBD,” and “urolithiasis.” We restricted the publication dates to the last 15 years (2000–2014). Results: In total, 901 patients were included in this review of which 95 were identified as having CD and urolithiasis simultaneously, for a total of 10.5%. Average age was 45.07 years old, irrespective of gender. 28.6% of patients received some kind of medical intervention without any kind of surgical technique involved, 50% of patients were submitted to a surgical treatment, and the remaining 21.4% were submitted to a combination of surgical and medical treatment. Urolithiasis and pyelonephritis incidence ranged from 4% to 23% with a risk 10–100 times greater than the risk for general population or for patients with UC, being frequent in patients with ileostomy and multiple bowel resections. We found that urolithiasis occurred in 95 patients from a total of 901 patients with CD (10.5%); 61.81% in men and 38.19% in women. Stone disease seems to present approximately 4–7 years after the diagnosis of bowel disease and CaOx seems to be the main culprit. Conclusions: CD is a chronic, granulomatous bowel disease, with urolithiasis as the most common extraintestinal manifestation (EIM), particularly frequent in patients submitted to bowel surgery. This complication needs to be recognized and addressed appropriately, especially in patients with unexplained renal dysfunction, abdominal pain, or recurrent urinary

  6. [Multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with dehiscence of colorectal anastomosis after anterior or lower anterior resection for sigmoid or rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Luna-Pérez, Pedro; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Saúl E; Gutiérrez de la Barrera, Marcos; Labastida, Sonia

    2002-01-01

    Clinical anastomotic leakage remains a major problem after anterior or low anterior resection for rectal or sigmoid cancer. To analyze risk factors associated with this complication. From January 1992 to December 2000, 232 anterior or low anterior resections were performed. An univariate and multivariate analysis were performed as to find the risk factors. There were 122 females and 110 males, mean age was 58.5 +/- 14.1. Tumors were located as follows: low third (n = 10), middle third (n = 104), upper third (n = 52) and sigmoid (n = 66). Ninety-two patients received preoperative radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy. Twenty-six (11.6%) had diabetes mellitus, 52 (22.4%) hypertension and 31 (13.4%) mixed cardiopathy. Forty-six patients (19.8%) had > 90% of tumor obstruction. Mean levels of serum albumin and lymphocytes were 3.7 +/- .62 g/L y de 2,026 +/- 1,576/mm3, respectively. Tumors mean distance from the anal verge was 10.2 +/- 6.7 cm. Colorectal anastomoses were performed with the following techniques: double stapled (n = 92), single stapled (n = 85) and manual (n = 55). Multivisceral resection was performed in 29 patients (12.5%); a diverting colostomy was performed in 54 patients (23.2%). Mean intraoperative haemorrhage was 505.3 +/- 393.5 mL. Mean operative time was 267.4 +/- 83 min. Sixty patients (27.2%) received blood transfusion. Mean tumor size was 4.8 +/- 2.6 cm. Tumor stage was as follows: T0-, T2, N0 (n = 60), T3, T4, N0 (n = 103), any T, N+ (n = 55) y T3-4, N+, M+ (n = 14). Nineteen patients (8.1%) developed clinical anastomotic leakage. No operative mortality was observed. Adverse risk factors for clinical anastomotic leakage were: gender (male), preoperative albumin levels < 3 g/L, preoperative tumor obstruction (> 90%) and distance of the anastomosis from the anal verge (< 7 cm). In patients with these adverse risk factors a diverting colostomy or ileostomy should be performed, as to avoid fecal peritonitis.

  7. [Comparison of oncology outcomes and anal function among laparoscopic partial, subtotal and total intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancers].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Quanlong; Zhao, Yujuan; Zhuo, Guangzuan; Yin, Shuhui; Zhu, Jun; Zhao, Ke; Ding, Jianhua

    2017-08-25

    To compare the oncology outcomes and anal function among laparoscopic partial, subtotal and total intersphincteric resection(ISR) for low rectal cancers. From June 2011 to February 2016, a total of 79 consecutive patients with low rectal cancers underwent laparoscopic ISR with hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis at our department. According to the distal tumor margin, partial ISR (internal sphincter resection at the dentate line) was used to treat tumors with distance <1 cm from the anal sphincter (n=28), subtotal ISR was adopted for the tumors locating between the dentate line and intersphincteric groove (n=34), and total ISR (resection at the dentate line) was applied in the treatment of intra-anal tumors (n=17). Anal function was evaluated by a standardized gastrointestinal questionnaire, Wexner incontinence score and Kirwan's classification. Metaphase oncological results and postoperative anal function were compared among three groups, and. Other than the distance of tumor low margin to dentate line (P=0.000) and serum CEA level (P=0.040), no significant differences were noted in baseline data among 3 groups (all P>0.05). The median follow up was 21(8-61) months. The 3-year disease-free survival rates in laparoscopic partial, subtotal and total ISR groups were 91.1%, 88.9%, 88.2% (P=0.901) and the 3-year local relapse-free survival rates were 91.1%, 72.9%, 80.2%(P=0.658), whose all differences were not significant. Thirty-eight patients who did not receive neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and underwent ileostomy closure for at least 24 months completed the evaluation of anal function, including 14 cases in partial group, 15 cases in subtotal group and 9 cases in total group. Of 38 patients, 73.7%(28/38) was classified as good function (Wexner incontinence score ≤10) and no patient adopted a colostomy because of severe fecal incontinence(Kirwan classification=grade 5). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in Wexner incontinence score and Kirwan

  8. Efficacy and safety of the C-Qur™ Film Adhesion Barrier for the prevention of surgical adhesions (CLIPEUS Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stommel, Martijn W J; Strik, Chema; ten Broek, Richard P G; van Goor, Harry

    2014-09-26

    Adhesions develop in over 90% of patients after intra-abdominal surgery. Adhesion barriers are rarely used despite the high morbidity caused by intra-abdominal adhesions. Only one of the currently available adhesion barriers has demonstrated consistent evidence for reducing adhesions in visceral surgery. This agent has limitations through poor handling characteristics because it is sticky on both sides. C-Qur™ Film is a novel thin film adhesion barrier and it is sticky on only one side, resulting in better handling characteristics. The objective of this study is to assess efficacy and safety of C-Qur™ Film to decrease the incidence of adhesions after colorectal surgery. This is a prospective, investigator initiated, randomized, double-blinded, multicenter trial. Eligible patients undergoing colorectal resection requiring temporary loop ileostomy or loop/split colostomy by laparotomy or hand assisted laparoscopy will be included in the trial. Before closure, patients are randomized 1:1 to either the treatment arm (C-Qur™ Film) or control arm (no adhesion barrier). Patients will return 8 to 16 weeks post-colorectal resection for take down of their ostomy. During ostomy takedown, adhesions will be evaluated for incidence, extent, and severity. The primary outcome evaluation will be assessment of adhesions to the incision site. It is hypothesized that the use of C-Qur™ Film underneath the primary incision reduces the incidence of adhesion at the incision by 30%. To demonstrate 30% reduction in the incidence of adhesions, a sample size of 84 patients (32 + 10 per group (25% drop out)) is required (two-sided test, α = 0.05, 80% power). Results of this study add to the evidence on the use of anti-adhesive barriers in open and laparoscopic 'hand-assisted' colorectal surgery. We chose incidence of adhesions to the incision site as primary outcome measure since clinical outcomes such as small bowel obstruction, secondary infertility and adhesiolysis related

  9. Perianal Crohn's disease: predictive factors and genotype-phenotype correlations.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Ziad; Ahmad, Surriya; Bilchuk, Natalia; Vahrenhold, Crystal; Pan, Jianmin; Galandiuk, Susan

    2012-01-01

    To investigate genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with perianal Crohn's disease (PCD) in order to determine which factors predispose to development of perianal disease in Crohn's patients. Seven-hundred and ninety-five Caucasian individuals (317 CD patients and 478 controls without inflammatory bowel disease, IBD) were prospectively enrolled into a clinical/genetic database. Demographic and clinical data, as well as peripheral blood leukocyte DNA were obtained from all patients. The following were evaluated: three NOD2/CARD15 polymorphisms: R702W, G908R, and 1007insC; five IL-23r risk alleles: rs1004819, rs10489629, rs2201841, rs11465804, and rs11209026; a well-characterized single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the IBD5 risk haplotype (OCTN1) and two peripheral tag SNPs (IGR2060 and IGR3096). PCD occurred in 147 (46%) of CD patients. There was no significant difference in the age at disease diagnosis between non-PCD and PCD patients (33 vs. 29 years, respectively). PCD patients were more likely to have disease located in the colon and ileocolic regions (79 PCD vs. 57% non-PCD; n = 116 vs. n = 96; p < 0.001), whereas patients with non-PCD were more likely to have Crohn's within the terminal ileum and upper gastrointestinal tract (43% non-PCD vs. 21% PCD; n = 73 vs. n = 31; p < 0.05). Thirty-four percent of patients with PCD required a permanent ileostomy (n = 50) compared to only 4% of non-PCD patients (n = 6; p < 0.05). Mutations in CARD15/NOD2 and IL-23r were risk factors for CD overall; however, in contrast to prior reports, in this patient population, OCTN1 and IGR variations within the IBD5 haplotype were not significant predictors of PCD. Colon/ileocolic CD location appears to be a significant predictor of perianal manifestations of CD. Patients with PCD are more likely to require permanent fecal diversion. We did not identify any genetic variations or combination of clinical findings and genetic variations within the CARD15/NOD2, IL-23r, and OCTN1

  10. Factors affecting cost and length of stay associated with the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Brian R; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Koltun, Walter A

    2003-06-01

    complications provide the least costly result and the shortest hospital stay. For patients with severe disease, the two-stage modified pathway (total abdominal colectomy followed by pouch creation without a protecting ileostomy) appears to have fewer complications, lower costs, and a shorter length of stay than the traditional three-stage pathway.

  11. Ileal perforation due to typhoid fever - review of operative management and outcome in an urban centre in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, A I; Amu, O C; Nzegwu, M A

    2013-01-01

    The management of ileal typhoid perforation is a challenging task in our environment. Lack of incidence data base and poor financial resources preclude adequate prevention of this public health menace. For now the focus will remain the effective and strategic management of this complication to reduce the morbidity and mortality. 86 cases of ileal typhoid perforation were seen over a two year period. Most were male children and male young adults. Data collection was by retrieving information from the medical records of Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital (ESUTH). All were resuscitated with 1v fluids, iv antibiotics, nasogastric tube suction and where indicated blood transfusions. Majority had bacteriological, biochemical, haematological and radiological investigations. Laparotomy was undertaken after adequate resuscitation. Most had been febrile for 2-6weeks prior to admission, with the majority having been labelled resistant malaria cases. Most presented more than 24 h after onset of peritonitis and were therefore explored late, some as late at 96 h. At laparotomy 97% had large volumes of pus and small bowel contents in the peritoneal cavity and 3% had localized intraabdominal abscesses. No attempt at healing or omental localization of the perforation was observed. Fifty two (60.5%) patient underwent simple closure, 18(21%) had ileal resection and enteroanastomosis, 7(8.1%) had tube ileostomy, 5(5.8%) had primary suture and proximal ileo-transverse anastomosis and 4(4.7%) limited right hemicolectomy. All had liberal peritoneal lavage with normal saline. The group that presented relatively early, with minimal pathological changes, had primary suture and mortality in this groups was 11.5%. The group with gross pathological changes seen mainly in patients that presented late had higher mortality rates, even as high as 50%. However our overall mortality rate was 18.6%. The authors affirm that typhoid ileal perforation must be treated

  12. Determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life in patients with temporary enterostomy: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Su, Xi; Zhen, Li; Zhu, Mulan; Kuang, Yinyi; Qin, Fang; Ye, Xinmei; Yin, Xuexia; Wang, Huizhen

    2017-02-01

    To identify determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life in patients with temporary enterostomy. Anterior resection with temporary enterostomy is the preferred treatment for patients with rectal cancer, which may impair patients' quality of life. So far, most studies have focused on quality of life in patients with permanent enterostomy, but few studies have looked at that in those with temporary enterostomy. Self-efficacy may determine quality of life in these patients, but few studies have identified determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life. Multicentre, cross-sectional survey and regression analysis to identify determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life. A convenience sample of patients undergoing temporary enterostomy at five hospitals in Guangdong Province (China) were surveyed at least four weeks after stoma surgery using validated Chinese versions of internationally recognised questionnaires, including a Stoma Self-Efficacy Scale and the City of Hope Quality of Life-Ostomy Questionnaire. Backward multiple regression analysis was performed to identify whether quality of life was determined by self-efficacy and other clinico-demographic characteristics. Of the 180 questionnaires distributed, 149 (82·8%) were returned, and 135 (75%) were used in the final analysis. Mean global quality of life was 5·40 ± 1·58, and mean global self-efficacy was 79·59 ± 20·21. Significant determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life were identified (β = 0·62, p < 0·01). Quality of life was determined by type of enterostomy (β = 0·18, p = 0·01) and payment method (β = 0·14, p = 0·03). Quality of life may be determined by self-efficacy, type of enterostomy and payment method, after temporary enterostomy. Promoting stoma-related self-efficacy in patients with temporary enterostomy may improve their quality of life. Healthcare providers should focus on quality of life in those either with temporary loop ileostomy or entirely

  13. True NOTES TME resection with splenic flexure release, high ligation of IMA, and side-to-end hand-sewn coloanal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Marks, John H; Lopez-Acevedo, Nicolas; Krishnan, Barath; Johnson, Matthew N; Montenegro, Grace A; Marks, Gerald J

    2016-10-01

    Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) represents the ultimate expression of minimally invasive surgery. We have developed and present here an initial feasibility and safety study of transanal total mesorectal excision (TME) with splenic flexure release, high ligation of the IMA and IMV, and side-to-end coloanal anastomosis with temporary diverting ileostomy for rectal cancer. A program of full NOTES TME resection with release of the splenic flexure, high ligation of the IMA/IMV, with side-to-end coloanal anastomosis was performed transanally from December 2013 to July 2014. Demographics, preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative data were prospectively obtained. Operative components were broken into TME, colonic mobilization, splenic flexure release, IMA/IMV transection, transanal extraction of specimen, and coloanal anastomosis for analysis of performance completion. There were 3 women and 1 man on whom we operated. Mean age was 56 (46-65). Mean BMI was 26 (23.8-30.2). The operation was completed entirely transanally in 2 patients. Transanal component completion of the operation was as follows: TME in 3/4; colonic mobilization in 4/4; splenic flexure release in 3/4; IMA/IMV transection in 3/4; transanal specimen extraction in 4/4; coloanal anastomosis in 4/4. Abdominal time for completion of component parts was: splenic flexure release 4:53 (min:s), IMA/IMV 19:43, completion of TME 13:41. Mean EBL was 194 cc (25-500). Aside from stoma site, there were no abdominal incisions. There were no mortalities. Mesorectum was intact in all 4 patients and with negative circumferential and distal margins. This experience supports the feasibility and safety of a true NOTES TME. The critical anatomic views demonstrated on video affirm the potential of this approach for distal rectal cancer. Colorectal surgery represents the most logical application for NOTES. While highly promising, a great deal of work remains to develop the technique and applicability

  14. [Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction and Berdon syndrome: still a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the pediatric surgeon].

    PubMed

    Andrés, A M; Miguel, M; De la Torre, C; Barrena, S; Ramírez, M; Hernández, F; Martínez, L; Leal, N; Ramos, E; Prieto, G; López Santamaría, M; Tovar, J A

    2010-10-01

    Chronic Intestinal Pseudo Obstruction (CIPO) and Berdon Syndrome (BS) are motility disorders with still unclear pathophysiology, and challenging diagnosis and management. Patient and methods. 26 patients (8M/18F) treated of CIPO (21) or BS (5) at our institution between 1982-2009 were retrospectively reviewed and clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic and follow-up data were analyzed. 77% had a neonatal onset by the 3rd month of life (5 had a prenatal diagnosis of megacystis). Abdominal distension (87%), recurrent suboclusive episodes (70%) and malnourishment (60%) were the main symptoms followed by vomits, chronic diarrhea, constipation and dysfagia. The urinary tract was involved in 12 patients (46%): 8 had megacystis, 8 had vesicoureteral reflux. Arrythmias were seen in 2, deafness in 1, hydrocephalia in 1 and malrotation in 5. Radiological studies were consistent for CIPO in all of them: the disease was limited to the esophagus in 1, 3 had segmentary involvement of the small bowel, 6 had microcolon, and the rest had all the digestive tract involved. Anorectal manometry ruled out aganglionosis in 12, esophageal manometry showed aperistalsis in 9 and antro-duodenal manometry confirmed the diagnosis in 9 (visceral myopathy in 4 y neuropathy in 5). Rectal biopsies (16) and muscular biopsies (5) were normal in all of them. Full thickness biopsies (in 18, after surgery) showed myopathy in 12 and neuropathy in 6. Prokinetics and antibiotics for bacterial overgrowth were employed in 100%, 17 required long-time parenteral nutrition (PN), 21 required surgery and 7 were transplanted (4 isolated small bowel, 3 multivisceral). Symptoms improved in 9/15 with an ileostomy. 19 weaned from PN. After a median follow-up of 7.9 years (range 5m-17a), 3 were lost, 17/23 patients are alive and only 2 on home PN. Six died, 3 after being transplanted. CIPO and/or BS have a wide clinical spectrum and a complex diagnosis; however, the knowledge of the disease and an appropriate treatment

  15. Reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileoanal pouches.

    PubMed Central

    Fonkalsrud, E W; Bustorff-Silva, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A retrospective review was performed to determine the results after surgical reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileal pouch-anal procedures for ulcerative colitis and familial colonic polyposis at a university medical center. METHODS: During the 20-year period from 1978 to 1998, 601 patients underwent colectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis, familial colonic polyposis, or Hirschsprung's disease. A J pouch was used for 351 patients, a lateral pouch for 221, an S pouch for 6, and a straight pull-through for 23. Acute complications after pouch construction have been detailed in previous publications and are not included in this study. Chronic pouch stasis with diarrhea, frequency, urgency, and soiling gradually became more severe in 164 patients (27.3%), associated with pouch enlargement, an elongated efferent limb, and obstruction to pouch outflow, largely related to the pouch configuration used during the authors' early clinical experience. These patients were sufficiently symptomatic to be considered for reconstruction (mean 68 months after IPAA). Transanal resection of an elongated IPAA spout was performed on 58 patients; abdominoperineal mobilization of the pouch with resection and tapering of the lower end (AP reconstruction) and ileoanal anastomosis on 83; pouch removal and new pouch construction on 7; and conversion of a straight pull-through to a pouch on 16. RESULTS: Good long-term results (mean 7.7 years) with improvement in symptoms occurred in 98% of transanal resections, 91.5% of AP reconstructions, 86% of new pouch constructions, and 100% of conversions of a straight pull-through to a pouch. The average number of bowel movements per 24 hours at 6 months was 4.8. Complications occurred in 11.6% of reconstructed patients. Five of the 164 patients (3.1%) required eventual pouch removal and permanent ileostomy. The high rate of pouch revision in this series of patients undergoing IPAA is due to a policy of

  16. Influence of Surgical Technique, Performance Status, and Peritonitis Exposure on Surgical Site Infection in Acute Complicated Diverticulitis: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Zonta, Sandro; De Martino, Michela; Podetta, Michele; Viganò, Jacopo; Dominioni, Tommaso; Picheo, Roberto; Cobianchi, Lorenzo; Alessiani, Mario; Dionigi, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Acute generalized peritonitis secondary to complicated diverticulitis is a life-threatening condition; the standard treatment is surgery. Despite advances in peri-operative care, this condition is accompanied by a high peri-operative complication rate (22%-25%). No definitive evidence is available to recommend a preferred surgical technique in patients with Hinchey stage III/IV disease. A matched case-control study enrolling patients from four surgical units at Italian university hospital was planned to assess the most appropriate surgical treatment on the basis of patient performance status and peritonitis exposure, with the aim of minimizing the surgical site infection (SSI). A series of 1,175 patients undergoing surgery for Hinchey III/IV peritonitis in 2003-2013 were analyzed. Cases (n=145) were selected from among those patients who developed an SSI. control ratio was 1:3. Cases and control groups were matched by age, gender, body mass index, and Hinchey grade. We considered three surgical techniques: T1=Hartman's procedure; T2=sigmoid resection, anastomosis, and ileostomy; and T3=sigmoid resection and anastomosis. Six scoring systems were analyzed to assess performance status; subsequently, patients were divided into low, mild, and high risk (LR, MR, HR) according to the system producing the highest area under the curve. We classified peritonitis exposition as P1=<12 h; P2=12-24 h; P3=>24 h. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed. The Apgar scoring system defined the risk groups according to performance status. Lowest SSI risk was expected when applying T3 in P1 (OR=0.22), P2 (OR=0.5) for LR and in P1 (OR=0.63) for MR; T2 in P2 (OR=0.5) in LR and in P1 (OR=0.61) in MR; T1 in P3 (OR=0.56) in LR; in P2 (OR=0.63) and P3 (OR=0.54) in MR patients, and in each P subgroup (OR=0.93;0.97;1.01) in HR. Pre-operative assessment based on Apgar scoring system integrated with peritonitis exposure in complicated diverticulitis may offer a ready-to-use tool

  17. [To evaluate the quality of life and peristomal skin ostomy patient with the new device Sensura].

    PubMed

    Crespo Fontán, Beatriz; Caparrós Sanz, María Rosario; Lainez Pardos, Pilar Lourdes; Davín Durban, Inmaculada

    2010-10-01

    In 2006, Coloplast launched in several European countries a new device for ostomy care called Sensura. This clinical research report includes only the results of the subpopulation included in Spain as a part of an international study involving many countries such as Denmark, United States, Canada, Australia, Poland, Netherlands, France, Slovakia, Germany, UK, Italy, Iceland, Japan, Czech Republic, Portugal, South Korea and Argentina. OBJECTIVES AND STUDY VARIABLES: The main purpose of the study is to evaluate the experience with Sensura, under normal conditions of use, with special attention to skin condition and quality of life. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the quality of life, through Quality of Life Questionnaire called "Stoma QoL". A secondary objective, is to study the correlation between quality of life and the peristomal skin condition. Other Secondary objectives include the evaluation of the patient's current device at the time of entering the study and by the other hand, the device Sensura and safety evaluation throughout the study. The study was designed as an open label non-comparative, multi-national Post Market study. The study period for each patient is 6 to 8 weeks +/- 4 days, which includes an initial visit and a final visit. The study population included people who carry a colostomy or ileostomy. Regarding Spain, a total of 10 sites participated and included a total of 131 patients. This report only presents results for nine sites and a total of 123 patients. The reason is that the last participating site began the study with a considerable delay The remaining subjects included in this site together with the other centers in Spain and the other participating countries will be included in the final international report, that will present the overall results. MEASUREMENT TOOLS. Stoma-QoL (Quality of Life Questionnaire for people with an ostomy). OST (Ostomy Skin Tool) instrument for the assessment of peristomal skin. As for the

  18. Urinary patterns of patients with renal stones associated with chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Lizzano, Renata; Castelnuovo, Chiara; Zanetti, Giampaolo; Pisani, Enrico

    2002-06-01

    ulcerative colitis, especially if an ileostomy is present, urine are scanty and concentrated, and urine pH falls, leading to uric acid or mixed stones. Mild hyperoxaluria of idiopathic renal stone formers is not related to subtle intestinal malabsorption.

  19. Outcomes of Rectovaginal Fistula Repair.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Jenifer N; Schmitt, Jennifer J; Faustich, Benjamin M; Mara, Kristin C; Weaver, Amy L; Chua, Heidi K; Occhino, John A

    Rectovaginal fistulae (RVF) often represent surgical challenges, and treatment must be individualized. We describe outcomes after primary surgical repair stratified by fistula etiology and surgical approach. This retrospective cohort study included women who underwent surgical management of RVF at a tertiary care center between July 1, 2001 and December 31, 2013. Cases were stratified according to the following etiology: cancer (RVF-C), inflammatory bowel disease or infectious (RVF-I), and other (RVF-O). Patients with prior surgical treatment of RVF were excluded. Surgical approaches included local (seton, plug), transvaginal or endorectal, abdominal, diversion alone, or definitive (completion proctocolectomy with permanent colostomy or pelvic exenteration). Recurrence-free survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and comparisons between subgroups were evaluated based on fitting Cox proportional hazards models. Censoring occurred at last relevant clinical follow-up. Factors contributing to recurrence-free survival were evaluated including age, body mass index, smoking status, fistula etiology, ileostomy, and surgical approach. During the study period, 107 women underwent surgical repair of RVF. The most common fistula etiology was RVF-I (54.2%), followed by RVF-O (23.4%), and RVF-C (22.4%). Ninety-four women underwent fistula repair by the local (29.9%), transvaginal/endorectal (25.2%), abdominal approach (19.6%), or diversion alone (13.1%), whereas 13 underwent definitive surgery (12.2%). Recurrence-free survival was significantly different depending on surgical approach (P < 0.001), but not etiology (P = 0.71). Recurrence-free survival (95% confidence interval) at 1 year after surgery was 35.2% (21.8%-56.9%) for the local approach, 55.6% (37.0%-83.3%) for the transvaginal or endorectal approach, 95% (85.9%-100%) for the abdominal approach, and 33.3% (15%-74.2%) for those with diversion only. Recurrence rates after RVF repair are high and did not

  20. Emergency surgery for perforated diverticulitis in the immunosuppressed patient.

    PubMed

    Golda, T; Kreisler, E; Mercader, C; Frago, R; Trenti, L; Biondo, S

    2014-09-01

    Immunosuppression is believed to worsen outcomes for patients who require surgery for perforated diverticulitis. The aim of this study was to compare surgical outcomes between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients undergoing surgery for complicated diverticulitis. All patients who underwent emergency surgery for complicated diverticulitis between 2004 and 2012 in a single unit were studied. Patients were classified as immunosuppressed (group I) or immunocompetent (group II). Operation type and postoperative morbidity and mortality were compared between groups. The impact of operating surgeons' specialization and the Peritonitis Severity Score (PSS) were also evaluated to determine their impact on the restoration of gastrointestinal (GI) continuity. One-hundred and sixteen patients (mean age: 63.7 years), 41.4% women, were included. Fifty-three (45.7%) patients were immunosuppressed (group I): 42 underwent Hartmann's procedure (HP) (79.2%), nine (17.0%) underwent resection and primary anastomosis (RPA) with ileostomy (IL) and two (3.8%) underwent RPA without IL. In group II, 15 HP (23.8%), nine RPA with IL (14.3%) and 39 RPA without IL (61.9%) were performed. Postoperative morbidity and mortality were 79.2% and 26.4%, respectively, in group I and 63.5% and 6.3%, respectively, in group II. The overall mean PSS was 9.5, with a mean PSS of 11.1 in group I and of 8.1 in group II. The decision to perform a primary anastomosis differed significantly between colorectal surgeons and general surgeons in the patients with a PSS of 9-10-11. In immunocompromised patients, RPA with IL can be a safe surgical option, whereas HP should be reserved for patients with a PSS of > 11. Colorectal surgical specialization is associated with higher rates of restoration of GI continuity in patients with perforated diverticulitis, especially in patients with an intermediate PSS score. Evaluation of each patient's PSS facilitates decision making in surgery for perforated

  1. Quality of Life in Persons Living With an Ostomy Assessed Using the SF36v2: Mental Component Summary: Vitality, Social Function, Role-Emotional, and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Thom R

    The purpose of this study was to assess the Mental Health Component of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in community-dwelling persons with ostomies residing in the United States. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Two thousand three hundred twenty-nine participants completed the survey for a response rate of 14.9% and a margin of error of 2.03%. Study respondents were geographically distributed throughout the United States, representing all 50 states. Fifty-three percent of study respondents were male. Respondents had a median age of 65 years. Forty percent have colostomies, 44% are living with ileostomies, and 13% have urostomies. The remaining 3% are living with multiple stomas or they indicated that they were uncertain as to the type of stoma. The SF36v2 was used to assess HRQOL. This instrument was selected because it has the ability to measure HRQOL in a target population and it allows comparison with the general population. Potential participants were randomly selected from an electronic database of 15,591 persons with ostomies. They were contacted by e-mails and provided with an electronic nontransferable link to the survey. This is a secondary analysis of findings from the Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the SF36v2. Persons who have undergone ostomy surgery did not score as well as the general population when components of the MCS were compared. While overall differences were identified, they differed based on age and cumulative MCS score levels. Analysis of individuals found to have significant impairment in MCS scores (cumulative soccer <40) tended to report less negative response than persons with comparable scores in the general population. Analysis also revealed that respondents aged 55 years or older had mental component domain scores that remained with the normal range of the general population. In contrast, participants who were younger than 55 years had lower scores that the general population. The overall MCS score of community

  2. Parastomal hernias -- clinical study of therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Târcoveanu, E; Vasilescu, A; Cotea, E; Vlad, N; Palaghia, M; Dănilă, N; Variu, M

    2014-01-01

    Parastomal hernias are parietal defects adjacent to the stomasite, after ileostomy and colostomy. Their incidence is variable and they are generally underestimated. Between 2001 and 2010 at the First Surgical Clinic Iasi, we treated 861 incisional hernias, of which there were 31 parastomal hernias in 26 patients (3%), 5 of which were recurrent parastomal hernias. Parastomal hernias have been explored clinically, through imaging and intraoperatively.Because our experience and literature review have demonstrated that a mesh repair is a safe procedure in the treatment of parastomal hernia, in 2010 we initiated a prospective randomized trial on the use of prophylactic polypropylene mesh at the time of stoma formation to reduce the risk of parastomal hernia. We enrolled in the study 20 patients with mesh implanted at the primary operation and 22 patients without mesh. The inclusion criteria were: patients with low rectal cancer, stage II-III, irradiated, obese, with a history of hernias, patients who do physical work. Most parastomal hernias were asymptomatic; only six cases with parastomal hernias required emergency surgical treatment. We performed local tissue repair in 16 cases (4 cases with recurrent parastomal hernia, stoma relocation in one case), sublay mesh repair in 15 cases (one case with recurrent parastomal hernia; stoma relocation in 5 cases). Postoperative morbidity registered included 4 wound infections (one case after mesh repair which required surgical reintervention) and stoma necrosis in one case with strangulation parastomal hernia with severe postoperative evolution and death. After local tissue repair recurrences were seen in 6 cases, after mesh repair we registered recurrence only in one case and no relapse after the relocation of the stoma. The patients with prophylactic mesh at the time of stoma formation to reduce the risk of parastomal hernia were followed for a median of 20 months(range 12 to 28 months) by clinical examination and ultrasound

  3. Precision real-time evaluation of bowel perfusion: accuracy of confocal endomicroscopy assessment of stoma in a controlled hemorrhagic shock model.

    PubMed

    Diana, Michele; Noll, Eric; Charles, Anne-Laure; Diemunsch, Pierre; Geny, Bernard; Liu, Yu-Yin; Marchegiani, Francesco; Schiraldi, Luigi; Agnus, Vincent; Lindner, Veronique; Swanström, Lee; Dallemagne, Bernard; Marescaux, Jacques

    2017-02-01

    Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) can provide real-time evaluation of bowel perfusion. We aimed to evaluate CLE perfusion imaging in a hemorrhagic shock model. Five pigs were equipped to ensure hemodynamic monitoring. Three ileostomies per animal (total n = 15) were randomly created (T0). Blood was withdrawn targeting a mean arterial pressure of 40 mmHg (shock phase, T1), for 90 min. Infusion of Ringer's lactate was started and continued for 90 min (T2). At the different time points: (a) stomas' mucosa was scanned with CLE; (b) capillary lactates were measured on blood obtained by puncturing stomas' mucosa; and (c) full-thickness stomas' biopsies were sampled for histology, mitochondrial respiratory rate (V 0 = basal and V ADP = respiratory rate in excess of adenosine diphosphate), and levels of superoxide anion evaluation. Functional capillary density (FCD) was measured using ad hoc software. Confocal scanning provided consistent and specific imaging of bowel hypoperfusion at T1: vascular hyperpermeability (blurred and enlarged capillaries) and edema (enhanced visualization of the brush border due to increased intercellular spaces and fluorescein leakage). At the end of T2, there was an improved capillary flow. FCD-A index expressed statistically significant correlation with (1) stoma capillary lactates (p = 0.023); (2) systemic capillary lactates (p = 0.031); (3) inflammation pathology score (p = 0.048); (4) central venous pressure (p = 0.0043); and (5) pulmonary artery pressure (p = 0.01). Stoma capillary lactates (mmol/L) were significantly increased at T1 (8.81 ± 4.23; p < 0.0001) and at T2 (4.77 ± 3.13; p < 0.01) when compared to T0 inclusion values (1.86 ± 0.56). V 0 and V ADP (pmol O2/min/mg tissue) were both significantly decreased at T1 versus T0 (p < 0.007 and p < 0.01, respectively) and recovered by the end of reanimation (T2 vs. T0, p = n.s.). Mean O 2(·-) production (µmol/min/mg/dry tissue) increased at T1

  4. Surgical Repair of Rectovaginal Fistula Using the Modified Martius Procedure: a Step by Step Guide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Chen, Juan; Zhu, Lan; Sang, Mingchen; Yu, Fan; Zhou, Qing

    2017-09-06

    observed at a follow up of 4 months. A protective ileostomy or colostomy could be avoided. The patient reestablished intestinal continuity. The functional and cosmetic results were excellent with high patient satisfaction and greatly improved quality of life. The Martius flap is easy to harvest with minimal external disfigurement and minimal recovery time. The modified Martius procedure is a feasible adjuvant technique for rectovaginal fistula with excellent postoperative outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Bridging the gap: perceived educational needs in the inpatient to home care setting for the person with a new ostomy.

    PubMed

    Werth, Sherry Lynn; Schutte, Debra L; Stommel, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what specific ostomy self-care educational content is considered the most useful by the new ostomy patient after discharge. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used to address study aims. The sample comprised 33 men and 27 women with a mean age of 55.58 ± 15.56 (mean ± SD) years, range 27 to 79 years old. The study setting was a 587-bed teaching hospital, level 1 trauma center in the Midwest, with Magnet designation. Demographic data were collected during the patients' hospital stay as part of routine care. This information is used for follow-up with all ostomy patients who have surgery in this hospital. All of the participants in this study completed an interview administered by phone or in person. A semistructured interview guide was used to elicit participant perceptions of the usefulness of 4 categories of ostomy care, including (1) ostomy information (ostomy function), (2) activities of daily living (strategies to manage travel, bathing, intimacy, odor), (3) ostomy care (strategies for managing the ostomy), and (4) other informational needs (social support resources). Participants were asked to rate these 4 areas from most useful to least useful, using a 4-point scale. At the end of the interview, participants were asked, "Has there been anything that has happened or event related to your ostomy that your ostomy teaching did not prepare you for?" The interview took place several weeks after surgery or during their readmission visit for surgical ostomy takedown. Sixty-two patients were enrolled into the study, and 60 participants completed the data collection. The sample included 26 (43%) patients with ileostomies, 18 (30%) with colostomies, and 16 (27%) with urostomies. Ninety percent ranked the education category of ostomy self-care as the most useful content, 55% ranked information on resuming activities of daily living as the second most useful category, and 55% ranked general information as third most

  6. A national review of the frequency of minimally invasive surgery among general surgery residents: assessment of ACGME case logs during 2 decades of general surgery resident training.

    PubMed

    Richards, Morgan K; McAteer, Jarod P; Drake, F Thurston; Goldin, Adam B; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Gow, Kenneth W

    2015-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has created a shift in how many surgical diseases are treated. Examining the effect on resident operative experience provides valuable insight into trends that may be useful for restructuring the requirements of resident training. To evaluate changes in general surgery resident operative experience regarding MIS. Retrospective review of the frequency of MIS relative to open operations among general surgery residents using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs for academic years 1993-1994 through 2011-2012. General surgery residency training among accredited programs in the United States. We analyzed the difference in the mean number of MIS techniques and corresponding open procedures across training periods using 2-tailed t tests with statistical significance set at P < .05. Of 6,467,708 operations with the option of MIS, 2,393,030 (37.0%) were performed with the MIS approach. Of all MIS operations performed, the 5 most common were cholecystectomy (48.5%), appendectomy (16.2%), groin hernia repair (10.0%), abdominal exploration (nontrauma) (4.4%), and antireflux procedures (3.6%). During the study period, there was a transition from a predominantly open to MIS approach for appendectomy, antireflux procedures, thoracic wedge resection, and partial gastric resection. Cholecystectomy is the only procedure for which MIS was more common than the open technique throughout the study period (P < .001). The open approach is more common for all other procedures, including splenectomy (0.7% MIS), common bile duct exploration (24.9% MIS), gastrostomy (25.9% MIS), abdominal exploration (33.1% MIS), hernia (20.3% MIS), lung resection (22.3% MIS), partial or total colectomy (39.1%), enterolysis (19.0% MIS), ileostomy (9.0% MIS), enterectomy (5.2% MIS), vagotomy (1.8% MIS), and pediatric antireflux procedures (35.9% MIS); P < .001. Minimally invasive surgery has an increasingly prominent role in contemporary

  7. [Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the course of time - an issue only for the internist?].

    PubMed

    Weis, S; John, E; Lippmann, N; Mössner, J; Lübbert, C

    2014-08-01

    Toxigenic strains of Clostridium (C.) difficile are the most prevalent pathogens of antibiotic associated intestinal disease and nosocomial diarrhoea. During the last 10 years, incidences of C. difficile infection (CDI) have increased worldwide. With clinical and microbiological original data for 2002-2012 from the University Hospitals Leipzig and Halle (Saale), Germany, the authors illustrate the current situation regarding CDI in the states of Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt and exemplify the latest developments in terms of incidence, prevalence of resistance, diagnosis and treatment strategies regarding CDI with an emphasis on surgical options. Following the general trend, at the University Hospitals of Leipzig and Halle (Saale) there was also an increase in incidence of CDI, especially of severe clinical courses. In primary and secondary care facilities, prevention of CDI is based on hygiene management and restricted usage of antibiotics, preferably as "Antibiotic Stewardship" programmes. In 2012, the new macrocyclic antibiotic Fidaxomicin was approved in the European Union for the treatment of CDI. The therapeutic armamentarium, previously based on metronidazole or vancomycin, has now been enriched by a substance that presumably will reduce the rate of recurrence of CDI. Moreover, early data from case series and controlled trials suggest that the re-establishment of eubiosis in the colon of patients with recurrent CDI by stool transplantation from healthy donors is an alternative to antibiotics. Standard surgical intervention for refractory CDI is subtotal colectomy with terminal ileostomy. In patients with adequate life expectancy and without organ dysfunction, a colon-saving surgical technique should be considered. Taking antibiotics for most remains the main risk factor for suffering from symptomatic CDI. With the introduction of Fidaxomicin there is hope for an improvement in the conservative treatment of CDI. Stool transplants from healthy donors are now

  8. Small bowel obstruction in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis related desmoid disease.

    PubMed

    Xhaja, X; Church, J

    2013-12-01

    Intra-abdominal desmoid disease is one of the most common extra-intestinal manifestations of familial adenomatous polyposis. Small bowel obstruction occurs frequently in affected patients and is notoriously difficult to treat. The aim of this study was to review the management and outcome of desmoid-related small bowel obstruction. This was a retrospective, descriptive study of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and intra-abdominal desmoid disease who developed small bowel obstruction. Demographic data and data concerning the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the bowel obstructions were abstracted from the polyposis database or patients' records. Patients with obstruction unrelated to desmoid disease were excluded. There were 47 patients (30 women and 17 men). Median age at first bowel obstruction was 24.2 (interquartile range 19.2-34.2) years. The median time from index surgery to first bowel obstruction was 4.1 (interquartile range 1.5-9.0) years. Twenty-two patients had a colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis and 21 a proctocolectomy and ileoanal pouch. Obstruction was treated medically in 29% of cases and surgically in 69%. Thirteen patients had total parental nutrition. Thirty (63.8%) had a second episode of small bowel obstruction at a mean of 5.3 years after the first, 50% of which were treated medically. Eighteen (37.5%) patients had more than two episodes of bowel obstruction. There were 118 operations, including lysis of adhesions (29), small bowel resection (14), bypass (12), ileostomy (12), desmoid excision (9) and stricturoplasty (2). Desmoid-related small bowel obstruction in familial adenomatous polyposis patients requires multiple surgical strategies to restore a patent gastrointestinal tract. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO THE LITERATURE?: This is the only series in the literature specifically addressing small bowel obstruction in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and intra-abdominal desmoid disease. The data show that small

  9. Extensive colorectal lymphomatous polyposis complicated by acute intestinal obstruction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Waisberg, Jaques; Anderi, Amanda do Val; Cardoso, Pedro Augusto Soffner; Borducchi, José Henrique Miranda; Germini, Demetrius Eduardo; Franco, Maria Isete Fares; Vasconcellos, Cidia

    2017-07-13

    Multiple lymphomatous polyposis is a rare type of gastrointestinal lymphoma that extensively infiltrates the intestine. Multiple lymphomatous polyposis originates from the mantle zone of the lymphoma follicle and is considered to be a mantle cell lymphoma, which is a relatively aggressive type of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report an unusual case of a patient with multiple lymphomatous polyposis with extensive colorectal involvement and acute intestinal obstruction, an atypical complication of this rare disease. On the basis of this case study, the pitfalls in gastrointestinal tract lymphomatous polyposis diagnosis and prognosis, as well as the treatment options, are discussed. Our patient was a 76-year-old white woman with asthenia, cramps, and swelling in the lower left quadrant of the abdomen, as well as weight loss within the previous 5 months. A colonoscopy revealed polyps in the rectum, sigmoid colon, descending colon, and right and left colic flexures. A biopsy revealed lymphomatous infiltration of the intestinal wall. Because of the large size of the polypoid masses, which narrowed the colonic lumen in multiple locations, the patient developed acute intestinal obstruction and was referred for laparotomy. She underwent a total proctocolectomy with a permanent ileostomy and a left salpingo-oophorectomy. Microscopic examination showed the presence of a multicentric, low-grade, small lymphocytic lymphoma. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed positive immunostaining for CD79a, CD20, and CD45. These results were consistent with the diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma. Two weeks after surgery and prior to discharge, but before the beginning of chemotherapy, the patient's general condition worsened as she experienced a severe and progressive respiratory tract infection, advanced respiratory insufficiency, and septic shock, and she ultimately died. Mantle cell lymphoma develops as a progressive and aggressive disease with widespread polyposis of the

  10. A Descriptive Study Assessing Quality of Life for Adults With a Permanent Ostomy and the Influence of Preoperative Stoma Site Marking.

    PubMed

    Maydick, Diane

    2016-05-01

    Diseases or anomalies of the genitourinary or gastrointestinal tract often require removal of organs and creation of an artificial opening (stoma) to allow for elimination of urine or stool. Preoperative stoma site marking can affect quality of life (QoL). A descriptive study was conducted to assess the relationship between QoL and preoperative stoma site marking in adults with a permanent ostomy. Using convenience sampling methods, 230 eligible participants attending a United Ostomy Association of America conference were invited to complete a survey of demographics regarding age, gender, time since surgeries, and ostomy type and the City of Hope National Medical Center Quality of Life Ostomy Questionnaire. The latter contains 2 sections of 30 and 43 items each that address life impact and quality of life, respectively. The researcher explained the study and provided a study packet to volunteers who were interested in participating. Volunteers were to complete the surveys over a 4-day period while at the conference; the investigator collected all study materials. Inclusion criteria stipulated study participants must be English writing/reading persons at least 18 years of age with a colostomy, ileostomy, or urostomy. All descriptive statistics (means, standard deviation, frequency, and percents) used to describe demographic and surgical history and quantitative data (logistic regression, cross-tabulation, Pearson product moment correlations, and analysis of covariance) used to determine relationships among factors were entered and analyzed using a computer software program. Of the 140 participants who met inclusion criteria and provided data, the majority (85, 60.7%) had their stoma site marked by a wound, ostomy, continence (WOC) nurse. WOC nurse marking was more likely in recent years, and WOC nurse marking was 1.03 times more likely for each year since stoma surgery (M = 13.44, SD = 13.48). Mean QoL was 7.56 (SD = 1.59, range 3.84-10.00) and was positively

  11. Relationship between gastrointestinal transit time and daily stool frequency in patients after Ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Ryouichi; Fujisaki, Shigeru; Tanjoh, Katsuhisa

    2004-01-01

    To investigate how the gastrointestinal transit function changes after ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) and to study whether gastrointestinal transit time (GTT) has an influence on daily stool frequency, we investigated the relationship between GTT and stool frequency per day. Forty patients with UC who had undergone restorative proctocolectomy, with ileostomy closure at least 48 to 120 months (mean 96.3) previously, and who had no preoperative and postoperative complications were recruited. They were divided into two groups on the basis of their stool frequency: 26 patients had a stool frequency of less than 6 times per day (group A: 16 men, 10 women; aged 15 to 59 years old, average 36.6) and 14 patients had a stool frequency of 7 or more times per day (group B: 10 men, 4 women; 24 to 56 years old, average 40.9). The GTTs using a radiopaque marker were studied. Interviews concerning the defecation states were performed at the examination. High nocturnal stool frequency was significantly noted more in group B than in group A (P <0.001). All cases in group A and 12 cases in group B could discriminate flatus from feces, and there were significant differences between groups A and B (P <0.05). Feeling of stool remaining was significantly noted more in group B than in group A (P <0.01). Stool consistency in group A was harder than that in group B (P <0.001). Patients with soiling were significantly noted more in group B compared with those in group A (P <0.001). Incontinence was detected in only 2 cases in group B. Group A showed a better defecation state than group B. In the GTT study, the GTT was almost the same in groups A and B. The small bowel transit, pouch transit, and whole gut transit times in group B were faster than those of group A (P <0.001). Removal length of the terminal ileum in patients after IPAA: patients in group B (13.8 +/- 3.9 cm) had significantly more ileum removed compared with patients in group A (6.3 +/- 2

  12. [Per os early nutrition for colorectal pathology susceptible of laparoscopy-assisted surgery].

    PubMed

    Fernández de Bustos, A; Creus Costas, G; Pujol Gebelli, J; Virgili Casas, N; Pita Mercé, A M

    2006-01-01

    Current less invasive surgical techniques, the use of new analgesic and anesthetic drugs, and early mobilization ("multimodal surgical strategies") reduce the occurrence of post-surgery paralytic ileus and vomiting, making possible early nutrition by the digestive route. With these premises, a nutrition protocol was designed for its implementation in colorectal pathology susceptible of laparoscopy-assisted surgery. to assess the efficacy of this protocol that comprises 3 phases. Phase I: home preparation with 7 days duration; low-residues and insoluble fiber diet, supplemented with 400 mL of hyperproteic polymeric formula with no lactose or fiber, bowel cleansing 2 days prior to surgery and hydration with water, sugared infusions, and vegetable broth. Phase II: immediate post-surgical period with watery diet for 3 days with polymeric diet with no fiber. Phase III: semi-solid diet with no residues, nutritional formula and progressive reintroduction of food intake in four stages of varying duration according to surgery and digestive tolerance. prospective study performed at our hospital with patients from our influence area, from February 2003 to May 2004, including 25 patients, 19 men and 6 women, with mean age of 63.3 years (range = 33-79) and mean body mass index of 26.25 kg/m2 (range = 20.84-31.3), all of them suffering from colorectal pathology susceptible of laparoscopy-assisted surgery, and to which the study protocol was applied. Fourteen left hemicolectomies, 5 right hemicolectomies, 4 low anterior resections with protective colostomy, and subtotal colectomies and lateral ileostomy were done. Final diagnoses were: 3 diverticular diseases; 3 adenomas; 7 rectosigmoidal neoplasms; and 12 large bowel neoplasms in other locations. The pathology study confirmed: pT3N0 (n = 7), pT3N1 (n = 3), pT3N2 (n = 1), and pT3N1M1 (n = 1), pT1N0 (n = 4), pT1N1 (n = 2), pTis (n = 1). Twelve patients were started on adjuvant therapy of which 3 had received an initial treatment