Science.gov

Sample records for illegal immigration defense

  1. State Legislatures Debate Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2007-01-01

    With plans for a sweeping federal immigration bill stuck in Congress, Arizona and a growing number of states have decided to try to deal with the in-state-tuition issue themselves. This spring lawmakers in at least 22 states have already considered or are debating legislation concerning in-state tuition to illegal immigrants. In about half of…

  2. Health care and the illegal immigrant.

    PubMed

    Glen, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether illegal immigrants should be entitled to some form of health coverage in the United States sits at the intersection of two contentious debates: health reform and immigration reform. Proponents of extending coverage argue that the United States has a moral obligation to provide health care to all those within its borders. Conversely, those against doing so argue that immigrants illegally present in the country should not be entitled to public benefits. This Article seeks to chart a middle course between these extremes while answering two questions. First, does constitutional law mandate extending health coverage to illegal immigrants? Second, even if not legally mandated, are there compelling policy reasons for extending such coverage? This Article concludes that while health coverage for illegal immigrants is not required under prevailing constitutional norms, extending coverage as a matter of policy would serve the broader interests of the United States. Extending coverage would be beneficial as a matter of economics and public health, generating spillover benefits for all US citizens and those in the US healthcare and health insurance systems.

  3. Parables and Politics: Clergy Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickersham, Mary Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The passage of a stringent immigration law in Alabama in 2011 makes relevant the juxtaposition of clergy and congregant attitudes and behaviors toward illegal immigrants as related to Biblical teachings that require charity to aliens. In order to examine the relationship between religious attitudes and illegal immigration, approximately 426…

  4. Illegal immigration in the presence of labor unions.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J G

    1994-01-01

    "This paper develops a general equilibrium framework of a two-sector economy which incorporates illegal immigration in the presence of labor unions. It demonstrates that stricter enforcement of immigration laws, by reducing the demand for or supply of illegal aliens, benefits all legal workers in the economy. The model is used to evaluate the impact of these policy changes on national income. Results indicate that national income does not necessarily fall when immigration controls are tightened. The existence of a union mitigates the negative welfare impact of a reduction in the number of illegal immigrants."

  5. Illegal Immigration and the Colonization of the American Labor Market. Center for Immigration Studies Paper 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip L.

    This paper finds that the ready availability of illegal-immigrant workers from Mexico in major industries in the Southwest region of the United States is having far-reaching and often unanticipated consequences for patterns of investment, employment, and business competition. It reviews the displacement of U.S. workers by illegal immigrants in…

  6. Developing attitude statements toward illegal immigration: transcultural reliability and utility.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Reidar; van der Veer, Kees; Le, Hao Van; Krumov, Krum; Larsen, Knud S

    2007-06-01

    This is a report on the utility of a scale measuring attitudes toward illegal immigrants in two samples from nations that have more people moving out of the country than moving into the country. The Attitude toward Illegal Immigrants Scale was administered to 219 undergraduates from Sofia University in Bulgaria, and 179 undergraduates from Hanoi State University in Vietnam. Results yielded a scale with no sex differences, and acceptable alpha coefficients. Item analysis identified the most contributory and least contributory items, with considerable overlap in the two samples. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was carried out to examine the structure.

  7. Developing attitude statements toward illegal immigration: transcultural reliability and utility.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Reidar; van der Veer, Kees; Le, Hao Van; Krumov, Krum; Larsen, Knud S

    2007-06-01

    This is a report on the utility of a scale measuring attitudes toward illegal immigrants in two samples from nations that have more people moving out of the country than moving into the country. The Attitude toward Illegal Immigrants Scale was administered to 219 undergraduates from Sofia University in Bulgaria, and 179 undergraduates from Hanoi State University in Vietnam. Results yielded a scale with no sex differences, and acceptable alpha coefficients. Item analysis identified the most contributory and least contributory items, with considerable overlap in the two samples. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was carried out to examine the structure. PMID:17688110

  8. Essays on Legal and Illegal Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozo, Susan, Ed.

    Major issues of the debate that led to the passage of an immigration reform bill are discussed and analyzed in this collection of six papers that were delivered as public lectures at Western Michigan University during the 1984-85 academic year. The essays reflect a broad range of views on the effects of immigration on the United States economy and…

  9. Methods of Analysis of Illegal Immigration into the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Vernon M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Existing data on illegal immigration in the U.S. is inadequate. The limited availability of macrodata on the size of the annual flows and of the accumulated stock of individuals as well as of microdata on their influence on selected labor markets has been used to forestall policy reform efforts. (Author/RDN)

  10. Battle Continues over In-State Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Ten states now offer in-state college tuition rates to illegal immigrant students. Others are struggling to enact similar policies. But while many advocates want to open the doors to higher education for undocumented students, critics say the laws granting in-state tuition discriminate against other low-income students and legal residents of the…

  11. Coping with Illegal Immigrants in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Superintendent Steve Joel had reason to be concerned when he got a call from the police chief telling him that federal immigration authorities were coming to the local Swift & Company meat-packing plant to round up undocumented workers as part of a six-state raid. Of the 8,000 students in the Grand Island School District in Central Nebraska, some…

  12. The making of Amerexico: (mis)handling illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Andreas, P

    1994-01-01

    The border and social policies that the United States shares with Mexico have had only a modest impact on the level of illegal immigration. Alternative methods could reduce the social backlash against Mexican immigrants in US states of destination. Federal Relief Aid to states affected by new arrivals would ameliorate hostility. Although economic stagnation may depress the flow of immigrants or job opportunities, legal or illegal, economic recovery is dependent on the hard work of immigrants. The political solution has been to tighten border controls. Other options are possible. There should be pressure placed on multilateral institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to incorporate immigration issues in economic policy decisions. Many market reforms have contributed to greater emigration. The US has the option to use both supply and demand side options. Enforcement of workplace rules on minimum wages and health and safety standards would make it more difficult to exploit immigrant workers and would decrease the incentive to hire illegal workers. In a deregulated market stricter work standards were considered difficult to attain. A 1993 opinion poll revealed that 65% thought immigration was not beneficial. Border apprehension rates have increased dramatically over the past 30 years. The most recent policies aim to encourage the mobility of capital and trade through the NAFTA free trade agreement while trying to discourage human resource mobility. The push factors in Mexico are identified as high levels of poverty and unemployment, overpopulation, and economic stagnation. NAFTA and prior economic development efforts have not addressed the push factors. Disruption of traditional ways and changes toward greater industrialization spur emigration. The US program to develop border export industry encouraged migration from the interior of Mexico to border areas. Recent Mexican policies have changed the incentives for small farmers to stay on

  13. An elusive concept: the changing definition of illegal immigrant in the practice of immigration control in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Couper, K; Santamaria, U

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines changing concepts of immigration practice in the UK. Immigration control at the port of entry has extended to internal control within the UK. The burden of proof of legality of status is increasingly on the immigrant, against a background of administrative rather than criminal justice. The changing and broadening definition of illegal immigration in the UK is part of a set of policies, which are governmental responses to what is conceived of as public opinion. THE GUARDIAN suggested that the Home Office has tightened up its application of the rules as the price to the Tory Right for their silence over further changes to the immigration law, thus demonstrating the political aspects of the concept of illegality. The Home Office replied that the UK was now one of the most densely populated countries in Europe and that, in terms of services, the country simply could not support all those who would like to come there. Nor can more than a certain number of newcomers be absorbed by any host community without the risk of friction. However, the host community is now multi-ethnic, and there is a black vote. The growth of administrative justice against which there is little effective appeal, the retrospective application of the 1971 Immigration Act, the ever-widening definition of the concept of illegality along with the fact that there is no time limit under the 1971 Act for one of the most common offenses, that of over-staying, have given rise to an increasing number of campaigns in support of individuals or families. These campaigns against the deportation of "illegal" immigrants may be an indication of a change in public opinion.

  14. The Politics of Illegal Immigration, Bilingual Education, and the Commodity of the Post-Technological Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Heliodoro T., Jr.; Sanchez, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing number of undocumented workers entering the United States and the costs associated with educating their children, bilingual education may soon become the target of opponents of illegal immigration. Furthermore, recent leftist shifts in Latin American governments have provided an impetus for an educated biliterate population…

  15. Argentine experience in the field of illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Villar, J M

    1984-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of Argentine policy toward migratory flows from neighboring countries and Europe, and concludes with statistics on the number of foreigners in Argentina in the 1970-80 period. Measures passed during the 1940s and 1950s were aimed at providing amnesty for foreigners who were residing in Argentina without immigrant status. However, the lack of an adequate administrative structure to regulate foreigners at the borders was a drawback for migration authorities and limited the possiblility of applying admission criteria effectively. By 1970, there were 583,000 foreigners from neighboring countries living in Argentina, which represented a 25% increase from 1960. 42% of these migrants were in the metropolitan region of the country, indicative of a shift away from employment in agriculture. Decree No. 87, passed in 1974, represented an extension of a migration policy aimed at granting ample facilities for permanent residence to aliens from contiguous countries and was designed to prevent abuse of clandestine workers by employers. As a result of this measure, 150,000 foreigners were able to settle legally in the country. A 1981 law, yet to be implemented, establishes a new legal framework aimed at fostering immigration and regulating the admission of foreigners. To attain the objective of settling workers in areas of the country considered of prime importance to economic development, the law provides for infrastructural investments and promotional measures in areas such as tax exemption and the granting of credit. The 1980 National Population Census indicated there were 677,000 foreigners from neighboring countries in Argentina. In that year, foreigners comprised 2.4% of the country's population and 3.1% of the inhabitants of the metropolitan region. These figures are indicative of a decline in the growth of immigration, most likely due to the decline in the purchasing power of workers' salaries in the late 1970s.

  16. Argentine experience in the field of illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Villar, J M

    1984-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of Argentine policy toward migratory flows from neighboring countries and Europe, and concludes with statistics on the number of foreigners in Argentina in the 1970-80 period. Measures passed during the 1940s and 1950s were aimed at providing amnesty for foreigners who were residing in Argentina without immigrant status. However, the lack of an adequate administrative structure to regulate foreigners at the borders was a drawback for migration authorities and limited the possiblility of applying admission criteria effectively. By 1970, there were 583,000 foreigners from neighboring countries living in Argentina, which represented a 25% increase from 1960. 42% of these migrants were in the metropolitan region of the country, indicative of a shift away from employment in agriculture. Decree No. 87, passed in 1974, represented an extension of a migration policy aimed at granting ample facilities for permanent residence to aliens from contiguous countries and was designed to prevent abuse of clandestine workers by employers. As a result of this measure, 150,000 foreigners were able to settle legally in the country. A 1981 law, yet to be implemented, establishes a new legal framework aimed at fostering immigration and regulating the admission of foreigners. To attain the objective of settling workers in areas of the country considered of prime importance to economic development, the law provides for infrastructural investments and promotional measures in areas such as tax exemption and the granting of credit. The 1980 National Population Census indicated there were 677,000 foreigners from neighboring countries in Argentina. In that year, foreigners comprised 2.4% of the country's population and 3.1% of the inhabitants of the metropolitan region. These figures are indicative of a decline in the growth of immigration, most likely due to the decline in the purchasing power of workers' salaries in the late 1970s. PMID:12339919

  17. Health of Chinese illegal immigrants who arrived by boat on the West Coast of Canada in 1999.

    PubMed

    Allan, G Michael; Szafran, Olga

    2005-10-01

    This was a retrospective review and descriptive analysis of the findings from the medical screening examinations conducted on the illegal migrants from Fujian Province of China (n = 589) who arrived on four boats on the West Coast of Canada between June 14 and September 9, 1999. The Canadian Navy conducted a screening medical exam of the illegal migrants, with Health Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada providing suggestions on the format of the exam. The illegal Chinese migrants were predominantly young, male adults. The most prevalent medical conditions detected were dermatological (55.2%), dental problems (25%), trauma (9.2%), urogenital (7.6%), and head/neck (6.6%). Recently induced trauma was more prevalent among females (20.5%) than males (6.5%). One case of community-acquired pneumonia was identified and later diagnosed as active pulmonary tuberculosis. Physicians dealing with illegal migrants should look for unusual physical findings and have a higher clinical suspicion regarding infectious diseases (tuberculosis, scabies) and abuse. Future encounters with illegal migrants should include standardized immigration screening exams, with adequate history taking and follow-up.

  18. A Legalization Program for Illegal Aliens Living in the United States. Statement before the Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Immigration, Refugees and International Law, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meissner, Doris M.

    A legalization program for illegal aliens living in the United States is examined in this statement by Doris Meissner, Acting Commissioner of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). Meissner states that the Administration's current proposed legislation is designed to regain control of the immigration process through the development of…

  19. An Elusive Concept: The Changing Definition of Illegal Immigrant in the Practice of Immigration Control in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couper, Kristin; Santamaria, Ulysses

    1984-01-01

    Against a backdrop of administrative rather than criminal justice, examines the changing concepts in United Kingdom immigration practice, where immigration control at the port of entry has extended to internal control within the United Kingdom, the burden of proof of legality of status being increasingly upon the immigrant. (RDN)

  20. An Exploratory Study to Determine the Need for a Program of Research on the Policy Implications of Illegal Immigration for Youth Employment in the Unted States. Final Report, August 1978 through March 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Arlene P.

    A study was conducted to assess the extent of knowledge of the impact of illegal immigration on youth unemployment and to analyze its policy relevance. Data collection methods included source identification and review; interviews with theoreticians, scholars, and administrators; and coordination of information on illegal immigration impact with…

  1. Immigration: an international economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Marshall, R

    1984-01-01

    The creation of an effective US immigration policy has been complicated by the diversity of political interests and the absence of reliable statistics to determine the magnitude of the impact on the American economy. Estimates of the number of illegal aliens in the US range from 1 to 12 million. While political biases and complexities and data inadequacies complicate this analysis, some generalizations seem to be confirmed by worldwide experience. There are 2 mutually-supportive, short-run ways to reduce the flow of undocumented workers: 1) to better police US borders and shorelines and 2) to remove the motive for entry by making it illegal for employers to hire workers who are not authorized to work in the US. To give employers an easy defense and to facilitate their compliance with immigration laws, an effective worker identification system should be developed. To avoid the civil liberties, international relations, and human problems associated with mass deportations, illegal immigrants who entered the US before January 1, 1981 and who have been in continuous residence for at least 1 year, should be permitted to remain in the US as permanent resident aliens. The US should not adopt a new guest worker program. The proper sequence of changes in immigration policy is very important. Dealing with illegal immigration is essential; all these measures should be in place before an amnesty is granted. Because it is important to have friendly relations with neighboring countries and because the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is to reduce the wide disparities in employment opportunities between countries, the US should work with other countries to control illegal immigration, but should not link control to energy, trade, or other policies. It is particularly important to discuss immigration control plans with other countries, especially Mexico, and to do everything consistent with US interests to minimize the adverse impact of our immigration policies on our

  2. Do "illegal" im/migrants have a right to health? Engaging ethical theory as social practice at a Tel Aviv open clinic.

    PubMed

    Willen, Sarah S

    2011-09-01

    As the notion of a "right to health" gains influence, it is increasingly deployed in ways that are diverse, contextually variable, and at times logically inconsistent. Drawing on extended fieldwork at an Israeli human rights organization that advocates for "illegal" migrants and other vulnerable groups, this article contends that medical anthropologists cannot simply rally behind this right. Instead, we must take it as an object of ethnographic analysis and explore bow it is invoked, debated, and resisted in specific contexts. Critical ethnographies of right to health discourse and practice can enlighten us, and help us enlighten scholars in other fields, to the complexity, messiness, and "mushiness" (Sen 2009) of this right, especially in the context of advocacy on unauthorized im/migrants' behalf. It can also deepen understanding of the complicated and sometimes tense relationships among human rights, humanitarianism, and other contemporary idioms of social justice mobilization, especially in the health domain.

  3. Labor Functions of Illegal Aliens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro

    1977-01-01

    Concludes that to the extent that collective defenselessness of workers exists anywhere, movements like illegal immigration, the self-transportation of cheap labor toward the places where needed, are bound to continue. (Author/AM)

  4. [Assessment of the impact of the new health legislation on illegal immigrants in Spain: the case of human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Molina, José A; Pulido Ortega, Federico

    2012-10-01

    The immigrant population in Spain, whether legal or not, has been entitled to healthcare under the same conditions as the Spanish population since the year 2000. The entry into vigour of the Royal Decree-Law 12/2012 of 20 April has significantly restricted this right, so that unauthorized or non-resident foreigners may now only receive emergency care, if they are under 18 or pregnant women. Out of an estimated 459,909 illegal immigrants in our country, 2,700 to 4,600 are probably infected with HIV; 1,800 to 3,220 know that they are infected, and 80% of the latter could receive antiretroviral treatment. The Royal Decree-Law is likely to cause many undesirable consequences in this population infected with HIV: increasing mortality, promoting the emergence of opportunistic diseases, increasing hospital admissions, increasing infections in the population (by HIV and other pathogens), or contributing to mother to child transmission of HIV. The expected increase in morbidity and mortality will be a greater cost in patient care, a cost which will be significantly higher in the more immunosuppressed patients. Therefore, the enforcement of the Royal Decree-Law will be much less cost-effective in the short term than was expected, and will negatively affect our country's public health, especially for those patients infected with HIV who will not be covered, thus increasing healthcare medium to long term costs, and moving away from the international health goals that were established.

  5. Immigration Reform in Its First Year. CIS Paper 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, David S.

    This document assesses the preliminary impact of the first year of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA). The act had three primary goals: (1) to discourage illegal immigration into the United States and to encourage the departure of recent illegal immigrants; (2) to permit the legalization of illegal immigrants who have been in…

  6. Illegal Aliens: Their Employment and Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.

    A study examined various characteristics of the employment of illegal aliens, including wages, job training, job mobility, workplace conditions, and employer characteristics. The study was largely based on data transcribed from a sample of Immigration and Naturalization Service apprehension reports on illegal aliens in the Chicago (Illinois)…

  7. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of illegal landings. 251.2... DEPARTURE MANIFESTS AND LISTS: SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS § 251.2 Notification of illegal landings. As soon as... the United States shall inform the immigration officer in charge of the port where the illegal...

  8. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of illegal landings. 251.2... DEPARTURE MANIFESTS AND LISTS: SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS § 251.2 Notification of illegal landings. As soon as... the United States shall inform the immigration officer in charge of the port where the illegal...

  9. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification of illegal landings. 251.2... DEPARTURE MANIFESTS AND LISTS: SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS § 251.2 Notification of illegal landings. As soon as... the United States shall inform the immigration officer in charge of the port where the illegal...

  10. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of illegal landings. 251.2... DEPARTURE MANIFESTS AND LISTS: SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS § 251.2 Notification of illegal landings. As soon as... the United States shall inform the immigration officer in charge of the port where the illegal...

  11. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of illegal landings. 251.2... DEPARTURE MANIFESTS AND LISTS: SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS § 251.2 Notification of illegal landings. As soon as... the United States shall inform the immigration officer in charge of the port where the illegal...

  12. For Illegal College Students, an Uncertain Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwedel, Dina M.

    2006-01-01

    With almost two million undocumented children in school and an estimated 65,000 graduating from high school every year, higher education is becoming the new frontier in the immigration debate. In 1982, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the children of illegal immigrants have a right to a free K-12 education. However, the court never extended that…

  13. The Human Face of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says. "The hot-button issue became…

  14. In Defense of the Alien. Volume II. Immigration Law and Legal Representation. Proceedings of the Annual Legal Conference on Alien's Rights: Options for the 1980s (Washington, D.C., March 29-30, 1979). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragomen, Austin T., Jr., Ed.; Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    This collection of papers from a 1979 legal symposium presents the views of government representatives and experts from the private sector concerning the rights of legal and illegal aliens in the United States, international trends in aliens' rights, and immigration/refugee policy options and issues for the l980s. Issues considered include: (1)…

  15. Impact of Immigration on the School District Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Gonzalo

    Data on illegal immigration from Mexico into Texas provide accurate information on the impact of this immigration on the generally underfunded and understaffed border school districts in the state. Immigration and Naturalization Service statistics show 20 million illegal immigrants in the United States. A more scientific estimate is 4 million, 2.7…

  16. Immigration: Coming to America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  17. The Chicano/Illegal-Alien Civil Liberties Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Arturo

    The illegal Mexican migration to the U.S. has resulted in judicial and statutory responses that have constrained the constitutional and civil rights of Chicanos. The Supreme Court, in its concern for stopping the flow of illegal immigrants, has ruled in U.S. v. Martinez-Fuerte that it is not a constitutional violation to refer motorists to a…

  18. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on laws that influence U.S. immigration, such as the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (1996), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996), the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996), and the Legal Immigration and Family Equity Act (2000). Includes discussion…

  19. Framing unauthorized immigrants: the effects of labels on evaluations.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Reidar; Van der Veer, Kees; Larsen, Knud S; Eilertsen, Dag-Erik

    2014-04-01

    In the U.S. media, unauthorized immigrants are often interchangeably referred to as "illegal aliens," "illegal immigrants," and undocumented immigrants." In spite of formal equivalence, these terms carry different connotations, but the effects of these labels on people's attitudes toward immigrants are not well documented. In this replication study, 274 undergraduate students in psychology responded to one of three randomly distributed versions of a 20-item scale measuring attitudes toward unauthorized immigration. The items in the three scale versions varyingly referred to immigrants using the three terms. Results showed differences in attitudes toward unauthorized immigration between all experimental conditions. The label "illegal immigrants" yielded significantly less positive attitudes compared to the label "undocumented immigrants," and respondents exposed to the label "illegal aliens" showed the most positive attitudes. Furthermore, the effects of the experimental conditions were not moderated by the respondents' patriotism, sex, or own immigrant background.

  20. America's immigration "problem.".

    PubMed

    Sassen, S

    1989-01-01

    Immigration has traditionally aroused strong passions in the US. Though Americans profess pride in their history as a nation of immigrants, each new wave of immigrants is met with strenuous opposition. Sassen points out that this opposition underestimates the US's capacity to absorb more people and fails to appreciate the political and economic forces that give rise to immigration. The outcry over rising illegal immigration culminated in the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. So far, the law's effectiveness has been limited. 1.8 million immigrants applied to regularize their status. However, there is growing evidence that the employer sanctions program is resulting in discrimination against minority workers who are US citizens, and in various abuses against undocumented workers. Meanwhile, illegal immigration continues to rise. The 1986 law, like earlier laws, is based o a faulty understanding of immigration causes. The US played a crucial role in the 1960s and 1970s in developing today's global economic system. This system contributed to the creation of pools of potential immigrants and to the formation of links between the industrialized and developing countries. In sum, foreign investment and promotion of export-oriented growth i the US in developing countries has served to increase immigration to the US. A workable US immigration policy would be based o the recognition that the US bears a certain amount of responsibility for international labor migrations. The precise features of a fair immigration policy will have to be elaborated. However, it is clear that US immigration policy will continue to be counterproductive as long as it places the responsibility for the formation of international migrations exclusively upon the migrants themselves. PMID:12316282

  1. Dynamics of immigration control.

    PubMed

    Djajic, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic implications of US border control policies and internal enforcement measures for the pattern of illegal immigration and the sectoral allocation of clandestine foreign workers. Efforts to counteract illegal immigration into the US have been increasing steadily following the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. The purpose of the Act is to reduce illegal immigration with the aid of three instruments: 1) employer sanctions; 2) increased controls along the border; and 3) a legalization program designed to meet the existing demand for agricultural labor in geographic locations that are in proximity of Mexico, the principal source of clandestine foreign labor. The effect of tougher border control measures increases the cost of illegal entry, discouraging clandestine inflows. On the other hand, these measures induce migrants to increase their own anti-detection efforts, reducing the probability of detection and the deportation rate. If the latter effect should dominate, the steady-state stock of clandestine foreign labor will actually increase in response to more vigorous border control measures. Explicit consideration of the role of networks in the clandestine labor market suggests the need for a drastic policy change. This policy change should target illegal migration in areas with high concentrations of clandestine foreign workers. Complementary measures should accompany this policy change to prevent unbalanced enforcement measures.

  2. American Immigration Policy and Ethnic Selection: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockett, Ian R.H.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the history of immigration policy in the United States. Emphasizes the persistent failure of policy to control ethnic selection and immigrant volume despite legislative efforts to introduce ethnic equality and reduce the number of illegal migrants. (Author/MJL)

  3. Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

    Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

  4. Fighting for Immigrant Children's Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2007-01-01

    On the morning of Dec. 12, 2006, hundreds of federal agents from Immigration and Customs Enforcement descended upon six Swift and Co. meat-packing plants in Texas, Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota and Utah affecting communities. These federal crackdowns on illegal immigrants reverberate in schools too, forcing superintendents to confront some…

  5. Immigration to the U.S.: The Unfinished Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouvier, Leon F.; Gardner, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    Several times early in the twentieth century total annual immigration exceeded one million people. Current immigration figures may match those record totals. Since 1979, legal immigrants have averaged 566,000 a year; newly arrived refugees and asylees approved have averaged 135,000; and the "settled" illegal immigrant population may be growing by…

  6. Equal Protection, Immigration, and Education: "Plyler v. Doe"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Joseph R.; Doppen, Frans H.; Hollstein, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    When the Texas state legislature passed a law in the 1970s allowing school districts to deny enrollment or charge tuition to illegal immigrant children, the Tyler Independent School District instituted a $1,000 tuition rate for illegal immigrant children. Sixteen undocumented children from four Mexican families in Tyler filed a class-action suit…

  7. Immigration to the U.S.: the unfinished story.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, L F; Gradner, R W

    1986-11-01

    Annual totals of new immigrants and refugees in the US may now be up to the record highs of over a million immigrants counted in 6 years between 1905 and 1914. Since 1979, legal immigrants have averaged 566,000 a year (570,009 in 1985), newly arrived refugees and asylees approved have averaged 135,000, and the "settled" illegal immigrant population is growing by up to 1/2 million a year, according to some estimates. 1/2 of illegal immigrants are persons who entered the US legally but then overstayed the terms of temporary visas. Immigration and Naturalization Service apprehensions of illegal aliens, projected at a record 1.8 million for fiscal year 1986, indicate a sharp increase in illegal border crossers, driven by Mexico's and Central America's mounting population and economic pressures and lured by the prospect of jobs with employers who through a loophole in US immigration law can hire illegal aliens without penalty. The Census Bureau estimates that net immigration now accounts for 28% of US population growth and will account for all growth by the 2030's if fertility stays at the current low 1.8 births per woman. Public opinion strongly favors crubs on illegal immigration and legalization of illegal aliens long resident in the US, and in 1986 Congress enacted legislation to reduce illegal immigration to the US. Asians and Latin Americans now make up over 80% of legal immigrants and Latin Americans comprised 77% of illegal immigrants counted in the 1980 census. Asians far outstrip Latin American immigrants in education, occupational status, and income and might be expected to assimilate in the same manner as earlier immigrant group did. Hispanic immigrants so far appear to favor cultural pluralism, maintaining their own culture and the Spanish language. Research in California indicates that recent Hispanic immigrants (legal and illegal) have helped preserve low-wage industries and agriculture. Illegal immigrants appear to draw more on public health and

  8. Cultural Pluralism and the Future of American Unity: The Impact of Illegal Aliens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lawrence H.

    1984-01-01

    Acculturation will work in the same way for legal and illegal immigrants as it has for other ethnic groups in the past, given comparable levels of education and length of family residence in this country. The long-term impact of illegal migration will be insignificant provided it is reduced substantially in the future. (RDN)

  9. Immigrant workers: health, law, and public policy.

    PubMed

    Guttmacher, S

    1984-01-01

    Immigrant workers are a large segment of the lower echelon of the U.S. labor force, and as many as 3.6 to 6 million of these workers and their families are living in the U.S. illegally. This paper examines who the recent immigrants are: explains why their current situation in the U.S. is an important public health matter; discusses the ethical and policy issues stemming from their health needs and from illegal status; and concludes with a brief look at some implications of the Simpson-Mazzoli Immigration and Reform Act, currently before Congress. The paper suggests that the illegal status of undocumented workers intensifies their health risks; that the immigrants' responsibility for budget short-falls in public services is not as clearcut as frequently assumed; and that legislation aimed at regulating the status of immigrant workers in the U.S. is unlikely to solve many of the central problems.

  10. In Defense of the Alien. Volume VII. Immigration Reform and Refugee Developments. Proceedings of the Center for Migration Studies Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy (7th, Washington, DC, March 29-30, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    The proceedings of the 1984 Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy are collected in this book. Following a brief introduction, 16 papers are presented under three major headings: Immigration Legislation Reform; Immigration Legislation Practice; and Refugees: Policy and Legal Developments. The papers (and their authors)…

  11. The Educational Rights of Unauthorized Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    A 2007 report from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO 2007) estimated that 12 million "unauthorized immigrants" lived in the United States, defining the term "unauthorized immigrants" as "foreign citizens residing in the United States illegally." Without providing exact numbers, in his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama addressed…

  12. Culturally Speaking: Immigrant Authors Writing for Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Sherry

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the memory of a student shot and killed due to suspicion that he was an illegal immigrant, the author has compiled a bibliography of books written by immigrants or their descendents. These books, based on family experiences that include the immigrant experience, can add richness and diversity to U.S. children's literature.

  13. The Economic Effects of Immigration: Specification of a Model. Impacts of Immigration in California, Policy Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Frank

    Many of the arguments behind efforts to reform this nations's immigration laws allege that immigrants, especially illegal immigrants, take jobs away from native workers, depress wages, and receive public services valued in excess of their tax contributions. To provide a basis for appraising these economic arguments, this paper presents a model for…

  14. The Effects of Gendered Immigration Enforcement on Middle Childhood and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from an ethnographic study on Mexican immigrant fathers and their second-grade children, this article examines the masked realities behind current immigration policies that equate "illegal" with "Mexican immigrant" and how the enforcement of these policies, which overwhelmingly target Mexican immigrant men, affect…

  15. Illegal File Sharing 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

  16. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  17. In Defense of the Alien. Volume IV. U.S. Immigration Today. Proceedings of the Annual National Legal Conference (Washington, D.C., March 26-27, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.; And Others

    This volume presents viewpoints of government representatives, legal experts, economists, and private sector representatives on recommendations for reforms in U.S. immigration policy and legislation submitted to the President and to Congress by the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy. Included are: (1) a report of issues considered…

  18. Pathways to legal immigration

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; MALONE, NOLAN

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use the New Immigrant Survey Pilot Study (NISP) to describe the amount and kind of experience that immigrants accumulate in the United States before they become permanent resident aliens. The NISP surveyed a representative sample of legal immigrants who acquired residence papers during July and August of 1996, yielding a completed sample of 1,135 adults. Our analysis revealed that roughly two-thirds of these newly arrived immigrants had prior experience in the United States within one of six basic categories: illegal border-crossers, visa abusers, non-resident visitors, non-resident workers, students or exchange visitors, and refugees/asylees. Each of these pathways to legal immigration was associated with a different profile with respect to nationality, social background, and economic status. Using simple earnings regressions we demonstrate how these differences can yield misleading conclusions about the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation, even if measured effects are reasonably accurate. We suggest that social scientists should change the way they think and ask about immigrants’ arrival in the United States. PMID:20830313

  19. U.S. Immigration Policy and the National Interest. The Final Report and Recommendations of the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy with Supplemental Views by Commissioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy.

    This final report (March, 1981) of the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy reviews the provisions and effects of the Immigration and Nationality Act and makes recommendations related to the following areas of study: international issues, undocumented/illegal aliens, the admission of immigrants, phasing in new programs, refugee and…

  20. Preteen Children and Illegal Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeganey, Neil; McIntosh, James; MacDonald, Fiona; Gannon, Maria; Gilvarry, Eilish; McArdle, Paul; McCarthy, Steve

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of research on the nature and extent of legal and illegal drug use among preteens and those factors associated with illegal drug use at this young age. The paper is based upon a survey of 2318 ten to twelve year olds in Glasgow and Newcastle. Overall around 30% of children reported having been exposed to illegal…

  1. In Defense of the Alien. Volume III. Immigration Law and Legal Representation. Proceedings of the Annual Legal Conference on the Representation of Aliens (New York, New York, March 20-21, 1980). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragomen, Austin T., Jr., Ed.; Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    This volume presents viewpoints of immigration law experts, policy makers, and representatives from the private sector on reforms of U.S. immigration/refugee law and policy proposed by the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy. Areas analyzed include effects of immigration and immigration policy on the U.S. population and on the…

  2. The impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement on immigrant health: perceptions of immigrants in Everett, Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Leung, Carolyn; Marra, Robert; Pirie, Alex; Brahimi, Mohamed; English, Margaret; Beckmann, Joshua; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Marlin, Robert P

    2011-08-01

    U.S. immigrants have faced a changing landscape with regard to immigration enforcement over the last two decades. Following the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, and the creation of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency after the attacks of September 11, 2001, detention and deportation activity increased substantially. As a result, immigrants today are experiencing heightened fear of profiling and deportation. Little research exists on how these activities affect the health and well-being of U.S. immigrant communities. This study sought to address this gap by using community-based participatory research to investigate the impact of enhanced immigration enforcement on immigrant health in Everett, Massachusetts, USA, a city with a large and diverse immigrant population. Community partners and researchers conducted 6 focus groups with 52 immigrant participants (documented and undocumented) in five languages in May 2009. The major themes across the groups included: 1) Fear of deportation, 2) Fear of collaboration between local law enforcement and ICE and perception of arbitrariness on the part of the former and 3) Concerns about not being able to furnish documentation required to apply for insurance and for health care. Documented and undocumented immigrants reported high levels of stress due to deportation fear, which affected their emotional well-being and their access to health services. Recommendations from the focus groups included improving relationships between immigrants and local police, educating immigrants on their rights and responsibilities as residents, and holding sessions to improve civic engagement. Immigration enforcement activities and the resulting deportation fear are contextual factors that undermine trust in community institutions and social capital, with implications for health and effective integration processes. These factors should be considered by any community seeking to

  3. Integration and immigration pressures in western Europe.

    PubMed

    Bohning, W R

    1991-01-01

    "With xenophobia resurgent in Europe, this article addresses some of the complexities of immigration and integration in EC [European Community] and EFTA [European Free Trade Association] countries. The categories of legal and illegal immigrants (including estimates thereof) are first described, as are the necessary ingredients of an integration policy (a framework law, a secure environment, cultural tolerance, demarginalization in housing and the labour market). The author then considers what types of action would help to ease the present immigration pressure, discussing in turn quota policies, project-tied or training migration and, finally, the use of international aid."

  4. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  5. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or...

  6. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or...

  7. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or...

  8. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or...

  9. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or...

  10. The Mexican "Illegal Alien" Commute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Phil

    1986-01-01

    A photo report of the following three treks by illegal aliens across the border from Mexico to work in Arizona reveals the dangers and disappointments the migrants are exposed to: (1) a "carpool" from Southern Mexico; (2) a train ride from Sinaloa; and (3) a 40-mile hike through the Arizona desert. (PS)

  11. State of Outrage: Immigrant-Related Legislation and Education in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Williams, Tiffany R.

    2012-01-01

    In April 2010, Arizona made national headlines when Governor Jan Brewer signed SB 1070, the "Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act" which was aimed at deterring illegal immigration to Arizona. SB 1070 is the most prominent of a series of laws and other state policies targeting immigrants in Arizona that date back to the late…

  12. Immigration and the Low-Cost Housing Shortage: The Los Angeles Area's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, John

    Rising housing costs, increased homelessness, and the debate over illegal immigrants residing in publically assisted housing have renewed media and public interest in immigration's contribution to the Los Angeles, California area's problems of scarce low-cost housing, homelessness, and housing code violations. Recent data suggest that immigrants…

  13. Immigration to Spain: implications for a unified European Union immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Huntoon, L

    1998-01-01

    A unified immigration policy is one of the prerequisites for establishing the free movement of people within the European Union (EU). This paper considers the difficulties in establishing a joint policy on the free movement of people within the EU by focusing upon changing immigration policies in Spain. By comparing Spain, a country of only recent, small-scale immigration, to Germany, a country with a longer history of non-European immigration, obstacles to developing and effectively implementing coordinated immigration policies among EU members can be elucidated. The administrative control of entry, estimates of legal and illegal immigrants in the country, and the status of bilateral relations with Morocco are examined in order to highlight the political difficulties encountered in a unified immigration policy both within Spanish society and for the EU. Spain is both a threshold to the EU and a destination. Border control may be the easiest part of implementing a joint immigration policy in the EU. It is more difficult to control settlement. In addition, high rates of unemployment may result among the native host country populations as immigrants more readily accept low-skilled, low-paying jobs.

  14. Immigrant Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    In an August 14, 2008 story, the New York Times reported that ethnic and racial minorities will likely be a majority of the U.S. population by 2042. Many of the blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and others constituting this emerging majority will be immigrants or the children of immigrants; the number of foreigners hitting these shores is projected to…

  15. Illegal Passive Smoking at Work

    PubMed Central

    Lesage, François-Xavier; Deschamps, Frédéric; Jurca, Denisa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Exposure to passive smoking at work has been forbidden for few years in France. This study's aim is to estimate the prevalence of passive smoking at work (PSW), the characteristics of illegal passive smoking and to identify eventual respiratory effects. Methods. Occupational practitioners (OPs) of a French county of 320,000 wage earners were contacted by mail. Then OP answered questions from a standardized questionnaire. These questions concerned the practised job, exposure features linked to PSW and health effects in relationship with second-hand smoke in workplace, and the focus on nonsmoker encountered by OP during the most recent occupational medical examination. Results. Ninety-five percent of a total group of 172 OP of Champagne county filled the postal questionnaire. More than 80% of OP's replies identified illegal PSW. The average prevalence of PSW exposure was 0.7% of the total working population. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels were considered between low and medium for most passive smokers (71%). Main features exposure to ETS at work for non-smokers was associated with female gender (69.5%), age between 40 and 49 years (41.2%) and belonging to tertiary sector (75.6%). Environmental tobacco smoke exposures at work was firstly in the office for 49.7% of the subjects and secondly in the restroom for 18% of them. Main medical symptoms encountered by non-smokers were respiratory tractus irritation (81.7%). Eighty-three percent of OPs indicated solution to eradicate PSW. Illegal PSW is really weaker than fifteen years ago. However, the findings support a real ban on smoking in the workplace in order to protect all workers. PMID:21991448

  16. Students Continue to Fuel Activism on Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    Tens of thousands of Latino students helped fuel rallies across the country the week of April 10, 2006 against federal proposals to crack down on immigrants who are in the United States illegally. It was the third week of such rallies, which have put some school officials into politically delicate situations, such as having to decide whether to…

  17. Estimating the worldwide extent of illegal fishing.

    PubMed

    Agnew, David J; Pearce, John; Pramod, Ganapathiraju; Peatman, Tom; Watson, Reg; Beddington, John R; Pitcher, Tony J

    2009-01-01

    Illegal and unreported fishing contributes to overexploitation of fish stocks and is a hindrance to the recovery of fish populations and ecosystems. This study is the first to undertake a world-wide analysis of illegal and unreported fishing. Reviewing the situation in 54 countries and on the high seas, we estimate that lower and upper estimates of the total value of current illegal and unreported fishing losses worldwide are between $10 bn and $23.5 bn annually, representing between 11 and 26 million tonnes. Our data are of sufficient resolution to detect regional differences in the level and trend of illegal fishing over the last 20 years, and we can report a significant correlation between governance and the level of illegal fishing. Developing countries are most at risk from illegal fishing, with total estimated catches in West Africa being 40% higher than reported catches. Such levels of exploitation severely hamper the sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Although there have been some successes in reducing the level of illegal fishing in some areas, these developments are relatively recent and follow growing international focus on the problem. This paper provides the baseline against which successful action to curb illegal fishing can be judged.

  18. Amid Immigration Debate, Settled Ground: High Court's School Access Ruling Endures as a Quiet Fact of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    Illegal immigration is a divisive issue in the politically conservative East Texas community of Tyler, known by many locally as "The Rose Capital of America." Drawn by jobs in the rose fields and iron foundries, Mexican immigrants began settling here with their families in the 1970s. Hispanic children--citizens, legal residents, and illegal…

  19. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    PubMed

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight.

  20. Understanding illegality and corruption in forest governance.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Aksel

    2016-10-01

    This review synthesizes the literature studying illegality and government corruption in forest management. After discussing the theoretical connections between different types of corruption and illegal forest-related activities it describes the major trends in previous studies, examining cross-national patterns as well as local in-depth studies. Both theory and available empirical findings provide a straightforward suggestion: Bribery is indeed a "door opener" for illegal activities to take place in forest management. It then discusses the implications for conservation, focusing first on international protection schemes such as the REDD+ and second on efforts to reduce illegality and bribery in forest management. Key aspects to consider in the discussion on how to design monitoring institutions of forest regulations is how to involve actors without the incentive to engage in bribery and how to make use of new technologies that may publicize illegal behavior in distant localities. The review concludes by discussing avenues for future research. PMID:27444722

  1. Understanding illegality and corruption in forest governance.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Aksel

    2016-10-01

    This review synthesizes the literature studying illegality and government corruption in forest management. After discussing the theoretical connections between different types of corruption and illegal forest-related activities it describes the major trends in previous studies, examining cross-national patterns as well as local in-depth studies. Both theory and available empirical findings provide a straightforward suggestion: Bribery is indeed a "door opener" for illegal activities to take place in forest management. It then discusses the implications for conservation, focusing first on international protection schemes such as the REDD+ and second on efforts to reduce illegality and bribery in forest management. Key aspects to consider in the discussion on how to design monitoring institutions of forest regulations is how to involve actors without the incentive to engage in bribery and how to make use of new technologies that may publicize illegal behavior in distant localities. The review concludes by discussing avenues for future research.

  2. Mobile surveillance units (MSU) for border protection and homeland defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandon, Christopher; Kimber, Paul K.

    2003-09-01

    During the last 12 years the European Union (EU) has financed the new member applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe in their preparation for joining the EU. Based on this enlargement of the EU, funding for border protection has been made available from the overall infrastructure improvement budget. Border protection was required in areas where border conflicts had taken place and to limit illegal immigration and smuggling. After 9/11 defence against terrorist activities will no doubt be added to the requirement. This paper describes the approach taken in the provision of police and para-military Mobile Surveillance Units (MSU's). This approach may also be considered for the US Homeland Defense initiative. These MSU's utilize standard road vehicles converted to use high performance military thermal imagers, such as SiGMA. In future the current, in service, MSU will require increased sensor integration and networking to cover land and coastal borders. The underlying key is affordability for the police and para-military markets while retaining the highest performance derived from the latest military standard thermal imagers.

  3. ["Us" and "them": European and North American attitudes to immigration].

    PubMed

    Livi-bacci, M

    1994-01-01

    This work compares attitudes toward immigration in Europe and North America. Europe has adopted and reinforced a restrictive immigration policy since the 1970s, but family reunification and asylum for refugees have replaced labor migration to maintain the flow of newcomers over the past two decades. Illegal immigration has increased in countries such as Italy and Spain where immigration is a recent phenomenon. Migratory pressure from the former Soviet block, violence against immigrants in Germany and elsewhere, the crisis of social protection systems, economic recession and increasing unemployment have pressured European governments to reinforce their closed door policy. In the US, restrictions against immigration have relaxed greatly since adoption of the Immigration Reform and Control Act in 1986. Over 800,000 immigrants have been admitted annually to the US in recent years. The factors explaining the different immigration policies in North America and Europe are not economic or demographic, but stem rather from history, social structure, the functioning of the labor market and social mobility. North America, more than Europe, has a positive view of immigration as contributing to the vitality and renewal of the culture and promoting development by broadening experience and knowledge. Immigration is regarded in Europe as, at best, a necessity in times of labor shortage and economic expansion. European countries tend to perceive themselves as totally formed and not requiring further cultural contribution. Homogeneity in culture, language, and religion is valued. Social mobility is possible in North America through professional success, but in the older and more hierarchical societies of Europe, social status is determined by birth and family or other connections. Since the early 1990s, public opinion toward immigration has become less favorable on both sides of the Atlantic, with increasing proportions favoring limitation. The positive perception of immigration in

  4. Beware of Illegally Marketed Diabetes Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as hypoglycemia. FDA also looks at illegal marketing of prescription drugs by fraudulent online pharmacies. Signs ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  5. Infectious diseases and the illegal wildlife trade.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Andrés; Aguirre, A Alonso

    2008-12-01

    We provide a compilation of pathogens directly associated with illegally traded wildlife. We find that these pathogens span the gamut of taxonomic origins, affect most vertebrate taxa, and can have negative consequences for human and animal health and the global economy. Significantly, published health assessments of illegally traded wild animals are extremely scarce, making the results of this survey an underestimation of the true extent of the problem. Concerted action aimed at preventing further negative health effects is warranted.

  6. The Influence of Religious Coping on the Acculturative Stress of Recent Latino Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Mariana; Dillon, Frank; Ruffin, Beverly; De La Rosa, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Acculturative stress negatively impacts the physical and mental health of Latino immigrants. Little is known about the pre-immigration resources that may influence the acculturative stress of Latino immigrants. Religion plays a prominent role in Latino culture and may prove to be an influential resource during difficult life transitions, such as those experienced during the immigration process. The present study examines the association between religious coping resources prior to immigration and acculturative stress after immigration within a multiethnic sample of 527 adult Latinos who have lived in the United States for less than 1 year. Path analyses revealed that pre-immigration external religious coping was associated with high levels of post-immigration acculturative stress. Illegal immigrant status was associated with high levels of pre-immigration religious coping as well as post-immigration acculturative stress. These findings expand scientific understanding as to the function and effect of specific religious coping mechanisms among Latino immigrants. Furthermore, results underscore the need for future research, which could serve to inform culturally relevant prevention and treatment programs.

  7. In Defense of the Alien. Volume I. Immigration Law and Legal Representation. Proceedings of the Annual Legal Conference on the Representation of Aliens (Washington, D.C., March 2-3, 1978). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragomen, Austin T., Jr., Ed.; Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    The articles in this volume present the views of government representatives and others on law and policy affecting aliens, especially undocumented aliens, in the United States. Part 1 of the volume deals with legal rights and legal representation. Individual papers discuss the role and activities of the Immigration and Naturalization Service;…

  8. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin.

  9. Demands of immigration among Chinese immigrant nurses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Amy X; Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Capitulo, Katie L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of immigration among Chinese nurses that have immigrated to the USA. The relationship between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA was investigated also. A descriptive correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 128 nurses was recruited. A self-administered survey was conducted using the demands of immigration scale developed by Aroian, along with a demographic questionnaire. The results showed Chinese immigrant nurses have high demands of immigration. There were significant negative relationships between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA. Immigration demands decreased as length of stay increased but remained high even for those who had been in the USA for > 5 years. This information is vital to health-care agencies designing and implementing adaptation programmes targeting these demands to facilitate Chinese nurses' adaptation process.

  10. Controlling illegal stimulants: a regulated market model

    PubMed Central

    Haden, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Prohibition of illegal drugs is a failed social policy and new models of regulation of these substances are needed. This paper explores a proposal for a post-prohibition, public health based model for the regulation of the most problematic drugs, the smokable and injectable stimulants. The literature on stimulant maintenance is explored. Seven foundational principles are suggested that could support this regulatory model of drug control that would reduce both health and social problems related to illegal stimulants. Some details of this model are examined and the paper concludes that drug policies need to be subject to research and based on evidence. PMID:18215317

  11. The New Asian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  12. The corpse that would not die: the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, L H

    1990-01-01

    The various proposals for dealing with illegal migration and regulating legal migration in the United States and the resultant Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 are examined. The author discusses the influence of agriculture, labor, and ethnic group interests and their impact on U.S. migration policy. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  13. Undocumented Immigrants in the Labor Market: Recent Research Findings. Perspectivas Publicas: Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Most early research on the impact of undocumented workers on the labor market held that it results in the widespread displacement of native workers. More recent and more sophisticated theory argues that immigrants, both legal and illegal, create jobs by consuming goods and services, and by starting new businesses. This latter idea may not be as…

  14. Looking Out for Our Country's Illegal Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conde, Carlos D.

    2007-01-01

    Illegal migrants are a nonentity in the United States, and, to a certain extent, many prefer it that way. They exist in society's netherworld, living under their own code of survival by whatever means they can, since the alternatives are less inviting. Mostly, they struggle. People take advantage of them at every opportunity because they are…

  15. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  16. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  17. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  18. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  19. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 104.8 Illegal shipments. (a) Biological products which are presented for importation without a permit...

  20. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... current illegal use of drugs and who— (i) Has successfully completed a supervised drug rehabilitation... Rehabilitation Act to an individual on the basis of that individual's current illegal use of drugs, if the... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section...

  1. 11 CFR 9012.5 - Kickbacks and illegal payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kickbacks and illegal payments. 9012.5 Section... ELECTION FINANCING UNAUTHORIZED EXPENDITURES AND CONTRIBUTIONS § 9012.5 Kickbacks and illegal payments. (a... illegal payment in connection with any qualified campaign expenses of any eligible candidate or his or...

  2. 11 CFR 9012.5 - Kickbacks and illegal payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kickbacks and illegal payments. 9012.5 Section... ELECTION FINANCING UNAUTHORIZED EXPENDITURES AND CONTRIBUTIONS § 9012.5 Kickbacks and illegal payments. (a... illegal payment in connection with any qualified campaign expenses of any eligible candidate or his or...

  3. 26 CFR 1.162-18 - Illegal bribes and kickbacks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Illegal bribes and kickbacks. 1.162-18 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-18 Illegal bribes and kickbacks. (a) Illegal payments to government officials or employees—(1) In general....

  4. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  5. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION § 28.131 Illegal use of... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  6. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  7. 11 CFR 9012.5 - Kickbacks and illegal payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Kickbacks and illegal payments. 9012.5 Section... ELECTION FINANCING UNAUTHORIZED EXPENDITURES AND CONTRIBUTIONS § 9012.5 Kickbacks and illegal payments. (a... illegal payment in connection with any qualified campaign expenses of any eligible candidate or his or...

  8. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  9. 11 CFR 9012.5 - Kickbacks and illegal payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kickbacks and illegal payments. 9012.5 Section... ELECTION FINANCING UNAUTHORIZED EXPENDITURES AND CONTRIBUTIONS § 9012.5 Kickbacks and illegal payments. (a... illegal payment in connection with any qualified campaign expenses of any eligible candidate or his or...

  10. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  11. 11 CFR 9012.5 - Kickbacks and illegal payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kickbacks and illegal payments. 9012.5 Section... ELECTION FINANCING UNAUTHORIZED EXPENDITURES AND CONTRIBUTIONS § 9012.5 Kickbacks and illegal payments. (a... illegal payment in connection with any qualified campaign expenses of any eligible candidate or his or...

  12. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  13. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  14. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  15. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  16. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  17. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  18. Does Human Capital Raise Earnings for Immigrants in the Low-Skill Labor Market?

    PubMed Central

    HALL, MATTHEW; FARKAS, GEORGE

    2008-01-01

    We use monthly Survey of Income and Program Participation data from 1996–1999 and 2001–2003 to estimate the determinants of differentiation in intercepts and slopes for age/earnings profiles of low-skill immigrant and native male workers. Our findings provide further depth of understanding to the “mixed” picture of earnings determination in the low-skill labor market that has been reported by others. On the positive side, many immigrants are employed in similar occupations and industries as natives. Both groups show substantial wage gains over time and generally receive similar returns to years of schooling completed. Immigrants also receive substantial returns to acculturation, measured as age at arrival and English language skill. These results cast doubt on the strong version of segmented labor market theory, in which low-skill immigrants are permanently consigned to dead-end jobs with no wage appreciation. On the negative side, immigrants earn approximately 24% less than natives and are less likely to occupy supervisory and managerial jobs. Latino immigrants receive lower returns to education than do white immigrants. Furthermore, age at arrival and language ability do not explain the lower returns to education experienced by Latino immigrants. These results suggest that Latino immigrants in particular may suffer from barriers to mobility and/or wage discrimination. Whether these negative labor market experiences occur primarily for illegal immigrants remains unknown. PMID:18939664

  19. Immigrants, Germans and national identity in the new Germany: some policy issues.

    PubMed

    Jones, P N

    1996-06-01

    "This paper considers how the role and status of Germany's diverse immigrant population has been affected by its new geopolitical situation, in particular unification, since 1989.... The paper shows how the integration prospects for Germany's older immigrant populations have been dented by the combination of economic restructuring and a huge upsurge in new types of immigration. Prominent among the latter are ethnic German resettlers (or Aussiedler), and the paper examines how these immigrants find themselves in a weak position.... The paper concludes that, although there would appear to be no major labour shortages within the economy, Germany has to develop a more extensive range of migration policies to cater for the huge demand for economically motivated migration. The alternative will inevitably be a further growth in illegal migration, which would not be helpful to the position of established immigrant populations."

  20. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development.

  1. Illegality of international population movements in Poland.

    PubMed

    Okolski, M

    2000-01-01

    Until the beginning of the 1990s Poland did not receive foreign migrants. Thereafter, the situation changed dramatically. A large part of the inflow proved to be illegal migrants, many of whom were in transit to Western Europe. Although these movements gradually declined in the second half of the decade, some became increasingly identified with relatively sophisticated smuggling of people. Foreigners smuggled from the South to the West, together with the international criminal networks assisting them, became typical of the migratory movements of people in Central and Eastern Europe during the 1990s. This article seeks to describe illegal migration from the perspective of Poland, a country often perceived as a major transit area in the smuggling of persons to Western Europe. The conclusions draw on the findings of several surveys recently carried out in Poland. Basic concepts related to illegal migration are defined and juxtaposed, and various myths and stereotypes concerning it that most often stem from the paucity of empirical evidence are examined. Finally, the trends observed in Poland are interpreted within the larger context of contemporary European migration.

  2. Immigration, Diversity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L., Ed.; Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume presents an overview of research and policy issues pertaining to children from birth to 10 who are first- and second-generation immigrants to the U.S., as well as native-born children of immigrants. The contributors offer interdisciplinary perspectives on recent developments and research findings on children of immigrants. By…

  3. The Ideal Immigrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgadillo, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    The public discourse about immigration in the United States has long been fraught with xenophobia and racism. Since 9/11, moreover, the immigration issue has been firmly linked to questions of national security in the public imagination. In this recent period, the state has asserted extraordinary controls over immigrants and citizens that affect…

  4. A New Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummett, Anne

    This book focuses on the issue of immigration to the United Kingdom (U.K.). Causes of migration, such as economic opportunities and emergency political refuge, are discussed in terms of the need for the government to devise an effective and just immigration system. Immigration laws of Norway, Sweden, Australia, Canada, and the U.K. are outlined,…

  5. Illegals and expulsion in Africa: the Nigerian experience.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, A

    1984-01-01

    The persistence and widespread nature of undocumented migration in Africa is due to 1) the absence of barriers or the arbitrariness of national frontiers, 2) the large stretch of unpoliced borders, 3) ignorance about the existence of borders, and 4) the absence or inadequacy of migration laws and regulations in both the countries of origin and destination. The free movement of persons in Africa has a long tradition. Over a large part of Africa, international migration is regarded as an extension of internal migration. The free movement of persons across frontiers in Africa historically has been facilitated by the cultural affinity of communities divided by international boundaries and the colonial policies of both the French and British. The "migration" of nomads pays little regard to international borders and is largely undocumented, even in national censuses. The frontier workers along the borders of Uganda and Kenya where members of the same extended family live on both sides of the borders and commute daily are statistically regarded as international migrants, without regard for the sociocultural realities of the African situation. Political independence substantially altered the erstwhile free movement of persons across African countries as national governments enacted immigration laws and regulations. The newly independent countries wanted to reserve employment for nationals. The Sahelian drought, internal strife in Chad, the deteriorating economic situation in Ghana, the oil-lead economic boom in Nigeria, and the treaty on the free movement of people in the community accelerate the tempo of undocumented migration in West Africa. Also, migration laws and regulations are not always rigorously enforced. Expulsion and deportation are common policy measures directed at illegal migrants resident in African countries. In Nigeria, the events leading to the expulsion of aliens were gradual, but in all cases, the actual expulsion--or decisions to expel--are usually

  6. Explaining immigrant naturalization.

    PubMed

    Yang, P Q

    1994-01-01

    "Prior research on immigrant naturalization has focused mainly on the effects of immigrants' adaptation experiences and demographic characteristics on their propensity to naturalize. This article proposes a broader analytical framework which incorporates immigrants' individual characteristics and larger social contexts in the country of origin and the country of destination to explain the likelihood of citizenship acquisition. The framework is tested for a cohort of recent immigrants, using the PUMS data from the 1980 U.S. census. The results show that economic, political, social, cultural and geographical conditions in the country of origin, and immigrants ethnic communities and urban concentration in the country of destination, to a large extent influence immigrants' propensity for naturalization and that, net of the contextual factors, many of the immigrants' adaptation and demographic characteristics are also significant predictors of citizenship acquisition."

  7. Steep Houses in Basic Writing: Advocating for Latino Immigrants in a North Georgia Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Recounting the controversy surrounding a town hall meeting on "illegal" Latino immigration at a two-year college in North Georgia, this ethnographic narrative details the aftermath that ensued and its consequences for an ESL basic writing instructor. Fallout included the potential loss of her job, the rumored reallocation of a $5 million…

  8. Illegal drugs-related fatalities in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Karlovsek, M Zorec

    2004-12-01

    The study includes 122 medico-legally examined fatal poisonings with illegal drugs in Slovenia (1.96 million inhabitants) in years 1997-2003. The highest death rate expressed per 10(5) inhabitants per year was observed in the year 2002 with 1.17, the average value over 1997-2003 was 0.89; the trend line shows a stabilisation. Heroine/morphine dominated as the cause of death and were responsible for 71.3% of the fatal poisonings. Methadone was found to cause or contributed to death in 28 cases (22.9%). One death by cocaine and two by MDMA were caused in the time observed. Males represent 98.4% of the direct illegal drug-related deaths. The main ages of heroine/morphine group, heroine/morphine only and methadone group were 27.6, 24.1 and 26.8, respectively. Between 1997 and 2003, there was a downward trend in the average age in the group heroine/morphine only. Since 2001, we are the part of the national working group on key indicator "drug-related mortality" applying EMCDDA methodology.

  9. DNA Barcoding Identifies Illegal Parrot Trade.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Priscila F M; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R; Matsumoto, Tania E; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2015-01-01

    Illegal trade threatens the survival of many wild species, and molecular forensics can shed light on various questions raised during the investigation of cases of illegal trade. Among these questions is the identity of the species involved. Here we report a case of a man who was caught in a Brazilian airport trying to travel with 58 avian eggs. He claimed they were quail eggs, but authorities suspected they were from parrots. The embryos never hatched and it was not possible to identify them based on morphology. As 29% of parrot species are endangered, the identity of the species involved was important to establish a stronger criminal case. Thus, we identified the embryos' species based on the analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene [COI] and 16S ribosomal DNA). Embryonic COI sequences were compared with those deposited in BOLD (The Barcode of Life Data System) while their 16S sequences were compared with GenBank sequences. Clustering analysis based on neighbor-joining was also performed using parrot COI and 16S sequences deposited in BOLD and GenBank. The results, based on both genes, indicated that 57 embryos were parrots (Alipiopsitta xanthops, Ara ararauna, and the [Amazona aestiva/A. ochrocephala] complex), and 1 was an owl. This kind of data can help criminal investigations and to design species-specific anti-poaching strategies, and demonstrate how DNA sequence analysis in the identification of bird species is a powerful conservation tool.

  10. DNA Barcoding Identifies Illegal Parrot Trade.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Priscila F M; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R; Matsumoto, Tania E; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2015-01-01

    Illegal trade threatens the survival of many wild species, and molecular forensics can shed light on various questions raised during the investigation of cases of illegal trade. Among these questions is the identity of the species involved. Here we report a case of a man who was caught in a Brazilian airport trying to travel with 58 avian eggs. He claimed they were quail eggs, but authorities suspected they were from parrots. The embryos never hatched and it was not possible to identify them based on morphology. As 29% of parrot species are endangered, the identity of the species involved was important to establish a stronger criminal case. Thus, we identified the embryos' species based on the analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene [COI] and 16S ribosomal DNA). Embryonic COI sequences were compared with those deposited in BOLD (The Barcode of Life Data System) while their 16S sequences were compared with GenBank sequences. Clustering analysis based on neighbor-joining was also performed using parrot COI and 16S sequences deposited in BOLD and GenBank. The results, based on both genes, indicated that 57 embryos were parrots (Alipiopsitta xanthops, Ara ararauna, and the [Amazona aestiva/A. ochrocephala] complex), and 1 was an owl. This kind of data can help criminal investigations and to design species-specific anti-poaching strategies, and demonstrate how DNA sequence analysis in the identification of bird species is a powerful conservation tool. PMID:26245790

  11. Contacts and Conflicts; The Asian Immigration Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    In this curriculum guide to the Asian immigration experience, the topics discussed include: major immigration periods, early contributions of Asian immigrants, Chinese immigration, Japanese immigration, Filipino immigration, Korean immigration, early Asian women in America, Asian immigration to Hawaii, anti-Asian hostility, the exploitation of…

  12. Are healthcare professionals working in Australia's immigration detention centres condoning torture?

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David

    2016-07-01

    Australian immigration detention centres are in secluded locations, some on offshore islands, and are subject to extreme secrecy, comparable with 'black sites' elsewhere. There are parallels between healthcare professionals working in immigration detention centres and healthcare professionals involved with or complicit in torture. In both cases, healthcare professionals are conflicted between a duty of care to improve the health of patients and the interests of the government. While this duality of interests has been recognised previously, the full implications for healthcare professionals working in immigration detention have not been addressed. The Australian Government maintains that immigration detention is needed for security checks, but the average duration of immigration detention has increased from 10 weeks to 14 months, and detainees are not informed of the progress of their application for refugee status. Long-term immigration detention causes major mental health problems, is illegal in international law and arguably fulfils the recognised definition of torture. It is generally accepted that healthcare professionals should not participate in or condone torture. Australian healthcare professionals thus face a major ethical dilemma: patients in immigration detention have pressing mental and physical health needs, but providing healthcare might support or represent complicity in a practice that is unethical. Individual healthcare professionals need to decide whether or not to work in immigration detention centres. If they do so, they need to decide for how long and to what extent restrictive contracts and gagging laws will constrain them from advocating for closing detention centres. PMID:26699920

  13. Are healthcare professionals working in Australia's immigration detention centres condoning torture?

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David

    2016-07-01

    Australian immigration detention centres are in secluded locations, some on offshore islands, and are subject to extreme secrecy, comparable with 'black sites' elsewhere. There are parallels between healthcare professionals working in immigration detention centres and healthcare professionals involved with or complicit in torture. In both cases, healthcare professionals are conflicted between a duty of care to improve the health of patients and the interests of the government. While this duality of interests has been recognised previously, the full implications for healthcare professionals working in immigration detention have not been addressed. The Australian Government maintains that immigration detention is needed for security checks, but the average duration of immigration detention has increased from 10 weeks to 14 months, and detainees are not informed of the progress of their application for refugee status. Long-term immigration detention causes major mental health problems, is illegal in international law and arguably fulfils the recognised definition of torture. It is generally accepted that healthcare professionals should not participate in or condone torture. Australian healthcare professionals thus face a major ethical dilemma: patients in immigration detention have pressing mental and physical health needs, but providing healthcare might support or represent complicity in a practice that is unethical. Individual healthcare professionals need to decide whether or not to work in immigration detention centres. If they do so, they need to decide for how long and to what extent restrictive contracts and gagging laws will constrain them from advocating for closing detention centres.

  14. Workplace concentration of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-12-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer-employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37 % of an immigrant's coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14 % of a native-born worker's coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  15. Workplace concentration of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-12-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer-employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37 % of an immigrant's coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14 % of a native-born worker's coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks.

  16. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  17. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants

    PubMed Central

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M.; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  18. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species.

  19. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  20. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  1. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  2. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  3. College Students' Moral Evaluations of Illegal Music Downloading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambon, Marc M.; Smetana, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Although unauthorized music downloading is illegal, a majority of college students have downloaded music for free online. Evaluations of illegal music downloading and their association with downloading behavior were examined using social domain theory in a sample of 188 ethnically diverse college students (M[subscript age] = 19.80 years, SD =…

  4. 50 CFR 12.32 - Effect of prior illegality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 12.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... prior illegality. The effect of any prior illegality on a subsequent holder of any wildlife or plant..., restrictions, conditions, or requirements which apply to a particular species of wildlife or plant under...

  5. 50 CFR 12.32 - Effect of prior illegality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 12.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... prior illegality. The effect of any prior illegality on a subsequent holder of any wildlife or plant..., restrictions, conditions, or requirements which apply to a particular species of wildlife or plant under...

  6. 50 CFR 12.32 - Effect of prior illegality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 12.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... prior illegality. The effect of any prior illegality on a subsequent holder of any wildlife or plant..., restrictions, conditions, or requirements which apply to a particular species of wildlife or plant under...

  7. 50 CFR 12.32 - Effect of prior illegality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 12.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... prior illegality. The effect of any prior illegality on a subsequent holder of any wildlife or plant..., restrictions, conditions, or requirements which apply to a particular species of wildlife or plant under...

  8. Factors Associated with Illegal Drug Use among Older Methadone Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The overall aims of this study are to describe the life stressors of, exposure to illegal drug use of, and illegal drug use by older methadone clients. Design and Methods. The current study focuses on a sub-sample of the larger administrative data of a methadone clinic that is limited to African American and White clients over the age of…

  9. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio); "South Asian…

  10. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  11. Immigrant America. A Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro; Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    This book aims to synthesize the major aspects of recent immigration to the United States, focusing on the diversity of origins of today's immigrants and their contexts of exit and on the diversity of their adaptation experiences and contexts of incorporation. The book consists of seven chapters. Chapter 1, "Who They Are and Why They Come,"…

  12. Explaining Immigrant Naturalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Philip Q.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a broad analytical framework in the study of immigrant naturalization that incorporates an immigrant's individual characteristics with the larger social contexts in the country of origin and the country of destination to explain the likelihood of citizenship acquisition. Results testing of this framework show that such considerations are…

  13. Irelands' Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culleton, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    In industrialised Western nations generally, and European Union (EU) nations particularly, immigration is an issue of considerable concern and debate. In the EU, however, discussion of immigration has tended to centre on a number of policy issues, from reliance on welfare provision, to labour force participation, to healthcare provision, to…

  14. Immigrants and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olneck, Michael R.

    The ways in which educators and schools in the United States have responded to the children of immigrants are explored, and the patterns, causes, and consequences of educational outcomes on immigrants are reviewed. The literature on which this paper draws is diverse, encompassing the work of historians and social scientists. Results of scholarship…

  15. Immigrants in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant youth and children of immigrants make up a large and increasing share of the nation's population, and over the next few decades they will constitute a significant portion of the U.S. workforce. Robert Teranishi, Carola Suarez-Orozco, and Marcelo Suarez-Orozco argue that increasing their educational attainment, economic productivity, and…

  16. Implementation of Congressional intent: a study of amnesty policy and the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

    PubMed

    Arp, W; Baver, S L

    1994-01-01

    Despite the passage of the Immigration and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) the United States Border Patrol arrested about 1 million illegal aliens crossing the border in 1990. This phenomenon suggests that the IRCA has failed to control illegal immigration to the United States. Structural analysis of its implementation by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was analyzed. Under an agreement with the INS to process illegal workers, community-based organizations in Arizona and New York became certified Qualified Designated Entities (QDEs). In 1988 the INS carried out a study to measure the impact of IRCA and solicited data from 9 QDEs. Data were obtained from 308 illegal aliens who failed to apply for amnesty and another 286 temporary legal residents. In the New York study information was collected from the QDEs between 1987 and 1989, and also in the summer of 1989 a group of 171 amnesty applicants were surveyed. All QDEs stated that implementation was hampered by excessive documentation, lack of strong family unification provisions, the financial cost of seeking legalization, and a fear of the INS. The Arizona and New York studies indicated that excessive documentation, fear of the INS (46% in New York), and fear of family separation (47% in New York) were the major factors why the targeted people did not come forward. Instead of seeking a proper balance between the written words of IRCA and the intent of Congress, INS developed guidelines that ignored the relevant facts presented by respected QDEs and Latino groups. In reality, INS sought to prevent illegal entry through amnesty offices throughout the United States. The eligibility requirements issued by the INS for amnesty served to limit and constrain participation in that program.

  17. The world population explosion and the cost of uncontrolled immigration.

    PubMed

    Murphey, D D

    1994-01-01

    This article is a review of the book "The Immigration Invasion" by Wayne Lutton and John Tanton (1994). The book is devoted to considerable discussion of the impact of immigration on health and welfare costs, labor market impact, the politics of race, crime, and quality of life; the facts of immigration and immigration legislation are also addressed. The review places emphasis on the issue of the "intangible" consequences of immigration for the US, such as the loss of a cultural identity as non-Hispanic White. There were almost 880,000 immigrants in 1993. US population is 255 million. Population projections are for 380 million in 2050, of which 52% will be non-Hispanic Whites and 48% will be minorities. News reports illustrate the extent of the invasion: 400,000 Haitians in New York City alone. The geographic areas most impacted include California, Florida, and Texas. Reference is made to a Lawrence Auster analysis of the impact of immigration on the whole society of the US and Japanese professor Yuji Aida's comments that at some point minority groups in the US will assert their power and the country may become ungovernable. The issue of national identity is considered as obscured by "ideological smog," which is manifested in confusing ideas about racism and the "vagaries of classical liberal thought." Auster is cited as saying that "diversity continues to expand beyond the point where genuine assimilation is possible, and the ideal of equality will also decline." The idea of common citizenship is assumed to be in decline. The costs, according to Lutton and Tanton, are identified as immigrants' use of the welfare system, public education, and the Earned Income Tax Credit. Illegal aliens are protected from deportation. Immigrants bring in tuberculosis infections. The loss of professional engineering jobs to the foreign-born becomes acceptable. The teaching of multiculturalism challenge one's identity as an American. Over 25% of federal inmates are non-US citizens

  18. Research on immigrant earnings.

    PubMed

    Duleep, Harriet Orcutt; Dowhan, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    As the first in a trio of pieces devoted to incorporating immigration into policy models, this review of research on immigrant earnings trajectories brings to light several findings. Controlling for demographic and human capital characteristics, immigrants often start their U.S. lives at substantially lower earnings, but experience faster earnings growth than natives with comparable years of education and experience. The extent to which the earnings trajectories of immigrants and natives differ varies by country of origin, with the source-country's level of economic development being a key determinant of the size of the U.S.-born/ foreign-born difference. The earnings profiles of immigrants from economically developed countries such as Japan, Canada, or Western Europe resemble those of U.S. natives who are of the same age and education level. In contrast, the earnings of immigrants from developing nations tend to start well below those of U.S. natives with comparable education levels and experience, but rise more rapidly than their U.S. counterparts. Comparing the earnings profiles of immigrants of similar age, sex, and years of schooling, over time and across groups, a strong inverse relationship emerges between their initial earnings and their subsequent U.S. earnings growth. In other words, the lower (higher) the initial earnings are, the higher (lower) the earnings growth. These and other research results have important implications for the projection of immigrant earnings and emigration in microsimulation models, as discussed in the two articles following this one: (1) "Adding Immigrants to Microsimulation Models" and (2) "Incorporating Immigrant Flows into Microsimulation Models".

  19. Immigration and urban change.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, R

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between the new immigration (migrants who have arrived in the US since 1965) and the changing economic and ecological characteristics of the cities in which they have settled. The author concentrates on New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, San Francisco, and Miami, which together contain 46% of all 1965-1980 immigrants. The new immigration began with the Hart-Cellar Act in 1965, which abolished the old country of origins quota, affirmed family connections as the principal basis for admission to permanent residence in the US, and increased the total numbers of immigrants to be admitted to the US. The undocumented immigrant population also has grown, to an estimated 2-4 million. Recent migrants 1) are overwhelmingly found in metropolitan areas (and disproportionately in central cities), and 2) only occasionally significantly alter the demography of an area. Almost half of the undocumented population counted in 1980 lived in California. The recent wave of newcomers converged on cities just when the cities appeared to be undergoing their period of most severe decline. The new immigrants have converged on those cities that are both post-industrial and heavily oriented toward international business services. The author develops a framework that emphasizes the interaction between supply-side developments that create vacancies for immigrants and those demand-side consequences of their arrival that make immigration a self feeding process. As with labor market developments, compositional changes are likely to have had an important effect on the linkage between the changing internal geography of the immigrant-receiving areas and the settlement patterns of the newcomers. A supply-side account may be the best explanation for why housing vacancies opened for immigrants and gentrifiers simultaneously during the slack housing markets of the 1970s.

  20. Immigrant College Students' Academic Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant college student populations continue to grow on college campuses across the nation; yet, little is known about the experiences of immigrant students. This paper examines differences in perceived academic obstacles between immigrant students and non-immigrant students at six large, public research universities (n = 56,000). The…

  1. Empower Educators to Teach Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…

  2. Immigration: A Teacher's Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banit, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that teachers often need information on a variety of topics. Provides a list of recommended resources on immigration in the United States. Includes a "dictionary" of immigration-related topics, court case summaries related to immigration law and education, and teacher resources on the topic of immigration. (CFR)

  3. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  4. Chromatography in the detection and characterization of illegal pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, Eric; Sacré, Pierre-Yves; Courselle, Patricia; De Beer, Jacques O

    2013-09-01

    Counterfeit and illegal pharmaceutical products are an increasing worldwide problem and constitute a major challenge for analytical laboratories to detect and characterize them. Spectroscopic techniques such as infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have always been the first methods of choice to detect counterfeits and illegal preparations, but due to the evolution in the seized products and the necessity of risk assessment, chromatographic methods are becoming more important in this domain. This review intends to give a general overview of the techniques described in literature to characterize counterfeit and illegal pharmaceutical preparations, focusing on the role of chromatographic techniques with different detection tools.

  5. The 2010 Citizens Clean Elections Voter Education Guide: Constructing the "Illegal Immigrant" in the Arizona Voter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    This "essay" (article) is a close and critical look at The 2010 Citizens Clean Elections Voter Education Guide, a document made available to the Arizona public prior to the 2010 state General elections. Though the guide is described as "a nonpartisan, plain-language handbook" by its authors, it can be implicated in the…

  6. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Gisela's Family Story: A Construal of Deportation, Illegal Immigrants, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I use critical discourse analysis to analyze a student's narrative about the arrest, incarceration, and deportation of her mother to Mexico. The student, Gisela, was a fifth grader in my classroom during the 2008/2009 school year, and I encouraged the students to collect family stories from their relatives. Gisela created this…

  7. The Border Crossed Us: Education, Hospitality Politics, and the Social Construction of the "Illegal Immigrant"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Dennis Carlson explores some of the implications of Derrida's "hospitality politics" in helping articulate a progressive response to a rightist cultural politics in the United States of policing national, linguistic, and other borders. He applies the concept of hospitality politics to a critical analysis of the social construction…

  8. President Clinton signs the welfare reform bill, turning his back on the poorest and most vulnerable populations and undermining health care for legal immigrants.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, M

    1996-01-01

    President Clinton signed a welfare reform responsibility bill in August, following eighteen months of contentious debate. The bill, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, is expected to lead to cuts in food stamp programs, aid to illegal immigrants, and safety net programs for children. Specific program cuts are detailed.

  9. The Education Requirement of the U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: A Case Study of Ineffective Language Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Susan

    An analysis of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), which requires basic English language proficiency and knowledge of United States history and civics of illegal aliens seeking permanent residency status, suggests that the Act is an example of poor language planning. The analysis has three components. First, the legalization…

  10. S&E immigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite an overall decline in immigration to the United States in 1993, the number of scientists and engineers (S&Es) entering the country continued to rise, with women representing 21.3% of the total admitted with permanent resident status. According to the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 23,534 S&Es were admitted to the United States on permanent visas in 1993, 3.1% more than in 1992. Of that total, 5,020 were women. S&Es made up 2.6% of the total U.S. immigration in 1993. The slight 1993 increase followed a large jump in 1992 of 62% over the previous year.

  11. Interpreting the empirical evidence on illegal gun market dynamics.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Wintemute, Garen J; Pierce, Glenn L; Cook, Philip J; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-10-01

    Thousands of Americans are killed by gunfire each year, and hundreds of thousands more are injured or threatened with guns in robberies and assaults. The burden of gun violence in urban areas is particularly high. Critics suggest that the results of firearm trace data and gun trafficking investigation studies cannot be used to understand the illegal supply of guns to criminals and, therefore, that regulatory and enforcement efforts designed to disrupt illegal firearms markets are futile in addressing criminal access to firearms. In this paper, we present new data to address three key arguments used by skeptics to undermine research on illegal gun market dynamics. We find that criminals rely upon a diverse set of illegal diversion pathways to acquire guns, gun traffickers usually divert small numbers of guns, newer guns are diverted through close-to-retail diversions from legal firearms commerce, and that a diverse set of gun trafficking indicators are needed to identify and shut down gun trafficking pathways.

  12. Legal Forum. The Right to an Education: Illegal Aliens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Reviews court litigation in Texas concerning the rights of children who are illegally residing in the United States to public schooling. Focuses particularly on the issue of whether the equal protection clause in the fourteenth amendment applies to noncitizens. (GC)

  13. Illegal Drug Use among Female University Students in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Matejovičová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovičová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Material/Methods Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. Results We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (χ2=10.14; P<0.05). Communication between parents and children and parental attention to children have a significant role in determining risky behavior (illegal drug use, χ2=8.698, P<0.05). Parents of students not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (χ2=16.645; P<0.001) and smoking (χ2=6.226; P<0.05). The first contact with drugs occurs most frequently at high school age. The most consumed “soft” drug in our group of female university students is marijuana. Conclusions Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs. PMID:25602526

  14. Joint ventures and illegal remuneration: the pressure is growing.

    PubMed

    Sax, B M

    1986-03-01

    As the healthcare industry becomes more involved in joint venture activity, it must become more concerned with the possibility of illegal remuneration. Illegal remuneration, or the soliciting, receiving, offering, or paying of remuneration in return for the referral of patients or generation of business, is treated very seriously by HHS and the courts. Therefore, joint ventures must be constructed to avoid the danger areas as much as possible, or at least, minimize the risk.

  15. [Illegal professional conflict of interest from the viewpoint of the attorney].

    PubMed

    Broglie, M G

    1998-10-01

    Since the so called "heart-valve scandal" occurred in Germany, the practice of financially or otherwise supported hospitals and practicing doctors has to be critically re-examined and may be changed. The practice and acceptance of support is common in many areas of our daily life, however, due to governmental social laws regulating the flow of money and due to the various financial forms of support for the health care system, criminal violations and sanctions may arise. Aside from the existing standard criminal violations, a new law, as of has been enacted August 13, 1997-this law specifically deals with bribery and the acceptance of such illegal payments. Proving that such a criminal violation was committed by a physician can be very difficult for the prosecutor. The mass of procedural laws--aside from the substantive law requirements--cause problems for the state. It is also very difficult to determine the exact amount of damages or that a physician has gained an illegal advantage. In these specific and other general cases, a professional defense by a competent attorney is absolutely essential to prevent an unpleasant suit or to resolve charges outside of court. In some cases, it may even be possible to persuade the prosecutor to only levy a fine, if it is not possible to persuade him to drop the charges all together--for lack of good evidence.

  16. [Illegal professional conflict of interest from the viewpoint of the attorney].

    PubMed

    Broglie, M G

    1998-10-01

    Since the so called "heart-valve scandal" occurred in Germany, the practice of financially or otherwise supported hospitals and practicing doctors has to be critically re-examined and may be changed. The practice and acceptance of support is common in many areas of our daily life, however, due to governmental social laws regulating the flow of money and due to the various financial forms of support for the health care system, criminal violations and sanctions may arise. Aside from the existing standard criminal violations, a new law, as of has been enacted August 13, 1997-this law specifically deals with bribery and the acceptance of such illegal payments. Proving that such a criminal violation was committed by a physician can be very difficult for the prosecutor. The mass of procedural laws--aside from the substantive law requirements--cause problems for the state. It is also very difficult to determine the exact amount of damages or that a physician has gained an illegal advantage. In these specific and other general cases, a professional defense by a competent attorney is absolutely essential to prevent an unpleasant suit or to resolve charges outside of court. In some cases, it may even be possible to persuade the prosecutor to only levy a fine, if it is not possible to persuade him to drop the charges all together--for lack of good evidence. PMID:9885174

  17. Defense use and defense understanding in children.

    PubMed

    Cramer, P; Brilliant, M A

    2001-04-01

    This study investigated the relation between children's use of defense mechanisms and their understanding of those defenses. We hypothesized that, once a child understands how a particular defense functions, the use of that defense will no longer be successful and will be replaced by another defense mechanism that is not yet understood. Defense use was assessed from the Thematic Appreception Test (TAT) stories told by 122 children; defense understanding was determined from the children's understanding of stories portraying defenses. The results indicated that younger children (mean age = 7-8) used the defense of denial more than the older children (mean age = 9-11). Older children understood the functioning of denial and projection better than the younger children. A comparison of children who did and did not understand a defense showed that younger children who understood the functioning of denial were less likely to themselves use denial. Likewise, older children who understood the functioning of projection were less likely to use this defense.

  18. Individual and Contextual Factors Associated with Immigrant Youth Feeling Unsafe in School: A Social-Ecological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun Sung; Merrin, Gabriel J; Crosby, Shantel; Jozefowicz, Debra M Hernandez; Lee, Jeoung Min; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing proportion of immigrant youth in U.S. school districts, no studies have investigated their perceptions of their school. This study examines factors associated with perceptions of school safety among immigrant youth within individual, family, peer, and school contexts. Data were drawn from Wave II of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (n = 4288) and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted. African-Americans, females, and youth with limited English proficiency were more likely to perceive their school as unsafe. Youth who reported that family cohesion was important and those who had close friends perceived their school as safe. Also, those who experienced illegal activities in school reported feeling unsafe. Assessment and intervention in schools needs to consider individual and contextual factors associated with perceptions of school safety. Additional research is needed to examine individual and contextual factors related to immigrant youths' perceptions of school.

  19. Warmth of the Welcome: Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy

    PubMed Central

    Fussell, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Natives' attitudes toward immigrants and immigration policy are important factors in the context of reception of immigrants since they contribute to a warm or chilly welcome, which potentially shapes immigrant and ethnic identities and inter-group relations. Public opinion polls show a recent “warming” of Americans' traditional ambivalence about immigration. Empirical research on attitudes toward immigrants and racial groups formed by recent waves of immigrants resonate with the dynamic nature of Blumer's (1958) theory of prejudice as a sense of relative group position. To better understand this dynamism, research that intentionally contrasts study sites on conflict and contact conditions and the presence of absence of symbolic politics, as well as research with different native-born racial and ethnic groups, would reveal a broader range of natives' attitude formation processes and the role they play in immigrant reception. PMID:26966338

  20. America's Newcomers: An Immigrant Policy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Ann, Ed.

    This handbook contains five research papers and extensive reference materials on general immigration, immigrant policy, and related federal and state programs. "Immigration and Immigrant Policy" (Jonathan C. Dunlap) presents an historical overview of U.S. immigration, 1820s-1980s; defines various immigrant statuses and eligibility of each for…

  1. Canada's non-status immigrants: negotiating access to health care and citizenship.

    PubMed

    Miklavcic, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Illegal immigration in Canada is characterized mainly by non-status immigrants who legally enter Canada and stay after their legal status expires and by failed refugee claimants. For these persons, immigration status or its absence plays an important role in determining the degree of access to Canadian health care. This article situates the clinical setting as a site of contention and negotiation of citizenship and care in social networks as well as pragmatic and discursive strategies. Drawing on the case of a patient who faced imminent deportation and became suicidal, in this article I depict how psychiatrists and other health practitioners embrace "bearing witness" as an ethical practice, which intersects the medical and legal spheres.

  2. Canada's non-status immigrants: negotiating access to health care and citizenship.

    PubMed

    Miklavcic, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Illegal immigration in Canada is characterized mainly by non-status immigrants who legally enter Canada and stay after their legal status expires and by failed refugee claimants. For these persons, immigration status or its absence plays an important role in determining the degree of access to Canadian health care. This article situates the clinical setting as a site of contention and negotiation of citizenship and care in social networks as well as pragmatic and discursive strategies. Drawing on the case of a patient who faced imminent deportation and became suicidal, in this article I depict how psychiatrists and other health practitioners embrace "bearing witness" as an ethical practice, which intersects the medical and legal spheres. PMID:21916682

  3. Legacies of Immigration: Children of Immigrants' Experiences Navigating Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Fanny P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Immigration, as a continuous phenomenon, extends beyond a singular migratory event that an individual experiences. The purpose of this research project was to explore the college experiences of second-generation immigrants and how their family relationships, immigrant histories, and socioeconomic status directly and indirectly shaped their…

  4. Immigrant health, our health.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari

    2014-08-01

    This final chapter reviews the main conclusions reached by the Special Issue articles in the areas of EUNAM (EU and North African Migrants: Health and Health Systems) activities, covering well-being, health status, disease panorama and use of health services of immigrants to the EU. The reviewed chapters show that immigrants are a vulnerable population experiencing, in some aspects, discrimination and hardship similar to the socially weakest national population groups. Immigration has changed the disease spectrum, particularly in infectious diseases and recessive conditions such as sickle cell disease and familial Mediterranean fever. Importantly, health questions of immigrants cannot be separated from those of any human health issues. An imminent new immigrant question for the EU will be the massive internal migration. Although the overall disease spectrum may not be vastly different between EU countries, the internal migrants will be exposed to lifestyle-dependent ill health and diseases probably in a similar way as did migrants from outside Europe. Migrant health research requires dedicated funding, which needs to come from central EU sources because multiple nationalities are involved. This funding should be able to project the course of health from the country of origin to the country of destination and back again, which was one of guidelines in the funding that initiated EUNAM.

  5. The political and socioeconomic context of legal and illegal Mexican migration to the United States (1942-1984).

    PubMed

    Hansen, L O

    1988-03-01

    The US manpower shortage in industry and agriculture during World War II, combined with Mexico's burden of an excess number of unemployed laborers, provided the basis for serious labor negotiations between the US and Mexico. The result was the Bracero Agreement of 1942, a bilateral agreement involving annual quotas for the temporary hiring of Mexican braceros. On the surface the program worked well. However, there were points of contention between the 2 countries: 1) in opposition to Mexico's policy of placing recruitment centers in the interior of the country, US policy called for placing the centers near the border, to reduce transportation costs; 2) Texas, which received no braceros because of racial discrimination, relied upon illegal aliens for manual labor; 3) Texas flagrantly violated a 1948 agreement when the Border Patrol welcomed aliens across the river despite Mexican officials' threats to close the border; 4) legal braceros were confronted with competition from illegals who were willing to work for a lower wage; 5) in 1954, the Border patrol physically helped aliens across the border, while Mexican policy were physically restraining them; 6) with the conclusion of a new Bracero agreement in March 1954, illegal aliens were no longer needed, so more than 1 million were apprehended and deported to Mexico's interior. The termination of the Bracero Program in 1964 gave new impetus to illegal trafficking and the number of illegals apprehended began to increase steadily in 1965. The migration flow after 1964 was influenced by the following socioeconomic conditions in Mexico: 1) unemployment, 2) very large disparities in income distribution, 3) a discrimination of the rural sector in favor of the urban in the allocation of government funds, and 4) a dependency on foreign capital and technology. Also, it was cheap labor for the US. Neither the US nor Mexico has adopted policies related to either economic development or immigration that would systematically

  6. The political and socioeconomic context of legal and illegal Mexican migration to the United States (1942-1984).

    PubMed

    Hansen, L O

    1988-03-01

    The US manpower shortage in industry and agriculture during World War II, combined with Mexico's burden of an excess number of unemployed laborers, provided the basis for serious labor negotiations between the US and Mexico. The result was the Bracero Agreement of 1942, a bilateral agreement involving annual quotas for the temporary hiring of Mexican braceros. On the surface the program worked well. However, there were points of contention between the 2 countries: 1) in opposition to Mexico's policy of placing recruitment centers in the interior of the country, US policy called for placing the centers near the border, to reduce transportation costs; 2) Texas, which received no braceros because of racial discrimination, relied upon illegal aliens for manual labor; 3) Texas flagrantly violated a 1948 agreement when the Border Patrol welcomed aliens across the river despite Mexican officials' threats to close the border; 4) legal braceros were confronted with competition from illegals who were willing to work for a lower wage; 5) in 1954, the Border patrol physically helped aliens across the border, while Mexican policy were physically restraining them; 6) with the conclusion of a new Bracero agreement in March 1954, illegal aliens were no longer needed, so more than 1 million were apprehended and deported to Mexico's interior. The termination of the Bracero Program in 1964 gave new impetus to illegal trafficking and the number of illegals apprehended began to increase steadily in 1965. The migration flow after 1964 was influenced by the following socioeconomic conditions in Mexico: 1) unemployment, 2) very large disparities in income distribution, 3) a discrimination of the rural sector in favor of the urban in the allocation of government funds, and 4) a dependency on foreign capital and technology. Also, it was cheap labor for the US. Neither the US nor Mexico has adopted policies related to either economic development or immigration that would systematically

  7. 75 FR 45475 - Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended AGENCY: State Department... CFR Parts 40 and 42 Aliens, Foreign Officials, Immigration, Nonimmigrants, Passports and Visas....

  8. Immigration: One of Today's Enigmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Ellen G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the issues and questions involved in the current debate on immigration policy. Discusses recent amendments to the immigration laws, closing the borders to the unskilled and poor. Outlines the four types of potentially acceptable immigration applicants and considers the economic impact of the current policy. (MJP)

  9. Immigrants and Welfare Reauthorization. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremstad, Shawn

    Until the 1996 welfare law (which conditioned eligibility on citizenship status) was passed, legal immigrants were generally as eligible for public benefits as citizens. The immigrant restrictions have proven to be extremely controversial. In 1997, Congress restored Supplemental Security Income to most immigrants who were already in the country…

  10. Entry charges on immigrants.

    PubMed

    Clarke, H R

    1994-01-01

    The author analyzes "the various arguments that can be advanced for imposing fees on immigrants to optimize...resident gains.... This article discusses cost recovery and emphasizes the costs of multiculturalism as a possible basis for fees. It then analyzes the effects of inelastic immigrant supplies in providing an optimal tariff motivation for monopsonistically restricting labor flows and deals with the second-best problem of devising an optimal fee policy to accompany a possibly suboptimal immigration quota. Next, attention turns to the role of priceable externalities. Externalities which are expensive to price because of transactions costs are analyzed. Finally, along with summarization of major conclusions, the author considers if, even in the economic interests of existing residents, entry rights should be sold."

  11. [Tuberculosis and immigration].

    PubMed

    Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs. PMID:26851978

  12. Subtypes of Pathological Gambling with Concurrent Illegal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Sauchelli, Sarah; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Islam, Mohammed A; Tàrrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are: to explore empirical clusters in a sample of individuals with a gambling disorder (GD) according to the presence of illegal behaviors, to describe the subgroups at a clinical level and to examine whether a temporal change has taken place across the last 9 years. The sample consisted of 378 patients with a GD who consecutively received outpatient treatment, and who reported the presence of the DSM-IV criteria "presence of illegal behavior". Two-step clustering procedure revealed the existence of four empirical groups, which differed in both sociodemographic and clinical profiles. The patients, who have committed illegal acts due to their gambling behavior, are a heterogeneous group in which it is possible to identify different subtypes, based on sociodemographic, psychopathological, clinical and personality characteristics.

  13. Reducing the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors.

    PubMed

    Altman, D G; Foster, V; Rasenick-Douss, L; Tye, J B

    1989-01-01

    This study reports on an effort to stop the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors. In Santa Clara County, Calif, 412 stores and 30 vending machines were visited by 18 minors aged 14 through 16 years with the intent to purchase cigarettes; they were successful at 74% of the stores and 100% of the vending machines. After an aggressive six-month campaign using communitywide media, direct merchant education, contact with the chief executive officers of chain stores and franchise operations owned by major companies, and grassroots work with community organizations, the percentage of stores with illegal over-the-counter sale of cigarettes to minors was reduced to 39%. Sales from vending machines were not reduced. While much remains to be accomplished in stopping the illegal sale of tobacco to minors, data from this study illustrate that a well-designed community and merchant education campaign can significantly reduce such sales. PMID:2908999

  14. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  15. Diabetes Screening Among Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Creatore, Maria I.; Booth, Gillian L.; Manuel, Douglas G.; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine diabetes screening, predictors of screening, and the burden of undiagnosed diabetes in the immigrant population and whether these estimates differ by ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based retrospective cohort linking administrative health data to immigration files was used to follow the entire diabetes-free population aged 40 years and up in Ontario, Canada (N = 3,484,222) for 3 years (2004–2007) to determine whether individuals were screened for diabetes. Multivariate regression was used to determine predictors of having a diabetes test. RESULTS Screening rates were slightly higher in the immigrant versus the general population (76.0 and 74.4%, respectively; P < 0.001), with the highest rates in people born in South Asia, Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Immigrant seniors (age ≥65 years) were screened less than nonimmigrant seniors. Percent yield of new diabetes subjects among those screened was high for certain countries of birth (South Asia, 13.0%; Mexico and Latin America, 12.1%; Caribbean, 9.5%) and low among others (Europe, Central Asia, U.S., 5.1–5.2%). The number of physician visits was the single most important predictor of screening, and many high-risk ethnic groups required numerous visits before a test was administered. The proportion of diabetes that remained undiagnosed was estimated to be 9.7% in the general population and 9.0% in immigrants. CONCLUSIONS Overall diabetes-screening rates are high in Canada’s universal health care setting, including among high-risk ethnic groups. Despite this finding, disparities in screening rates between immigrant subgroups persist and multiple physician visits are often required to achieve recommended screening levels. PMID:22357181

  16. Fewer scientists immigrating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A recent decline in the number of scientists and engineers immigrating to the United States could indicate that a surge throughout the 1980s and early 1990s may have been temporary.The number of people with science and engineering degrees admitted to the United States on permanent visas with work certificates dropped 26% between 1993 and 1994—from 23,534 to 17,403—according to a new National Science Foundation (NSF) data brief that analyzes information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. A lack of demand for employment-based admissions caused the decline, according to the INS.

  17. Immigration and adult transitions.

    PubMed

    Rumbaut, Rubén G; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Rubén Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage counterparts, including blacks and whites. The authors document the demographic changes in the United States over the past forty years and describe the ways in which generation and national origin shape the experiences of these newcomers as they become adults. Rumbaut and Komaie point out that immigrant groups experience gaps in social, economic, and legal status that are even greater than the gaps between native whites and blacks. By far the most-educated (Indians) and the least-educated (Mexicans) groups in the United States today are first-generation immigrants, as are the groups with the lowest poverty rate (Filipinos) and the highest poverty rate (Dominicans). These social and economic divides reflect three very different ways immigrants enter the country: through regular immigration channels, without legal authorization, or as state-sponsored refugees. For many ethnic groups, significant progress takes place from the first to the second generation. But, say the authors, for millions of young immigrants, a lack of legal permanent residency status blocks their prospects for social mobility. Having an undocumented status has become all the more consequential with the failure of Congress to pass comprehensive federal immigration reforms. In the coming two decades, as the U.S. native-parentage labor force continues to shrink, immigrants and their children are expected to account for most of the growth of the nation's labor force, with the fastest-growing occupations requiring college degrees. Rumbaut and Komaie stress that one key to the nation's future will be how it incorporates young adults of immigrant origin in its

  18. Breaking the vicious circle of illegal logging in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Linkie, Matthew; Sloan, Sean; Kasia, Rahmad; Kiswayadi, Dedy; Azmi, Wahdi

    2014-08-01

    The government of Indonesia, which presides over 10% of the world's tropical forests, has set ambitious targets to cut its high deforestation rates through an REDD+ scheme (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation). This will require strong law enforcement to succeed. Yet, strategies that have accomplished this are rare and, along with past failures, tend not to be documented. We evaluated a multistakeholder approach that seeks to tackle illegal logging in the carbon-rich province of Aceh, Sumatra. From 2008 to 2009, Fauna & Flora International established and supported a community-based informant network for the 738,000 ha Ulu Masen ecosystem. The network reported 190 forest offenses to local law enforcement agencies, which responded with 86 field operations that confiscated illicit vehicles, equipment, and timber, and arrested 138 illegal logging suspects. From 45 cases subsequently monitored, 64.4% proceeded to court, from which 90.0% of defendants received a prison sentence or a verbal warning for a first offense. Spatial analyses of illegal logging and timber storage incidents predicted that illegal activities would be more effectively deterred by law enforcement operations that targeted the storage sites. Although numerous clusters of incidents were identified, they were still widespread reflecting the ubiquity of illegal activities. The multistakeholder results were promising, but illegal logging still persisted at apparently similar levels at the project's end, indicating that efforts need to be further strengthened. Nevertheless, several actions contributed to the law enforcement achievements: strong political will; strong stakeholder support; and funding that could be promptly accessed. These factors are highlighted as prerequisites for achieving Indonesia's ambitious REDD+ goals.

  19. Breaking the vicious circle of illegal logging in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Linkie, Matthew; Sloan, Sean; Kasia, Rahmad; Kiswayadi, Dedy; Azmi, Wahdi

    2014-08-01

    The government of Indonesia, which presides over 10% of the world's tropical forests, has set ambitious targets to cut its high deforestation rates through an REDD+ scheme (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation). This will require strong law enforcement to succeed. Yet, strategies that have accomplished this are rare and, along with past failures, tend not to be documented. We evaluated a multistakeholder approach that seeks to tackle illegal logging in the carbon-rich province of Aceh, Sumatra. From 2008 to 2009, Fauna & Flora International established and supported a community-based informant network for the 738,000 ha Ulu Masen ecosystem. The network reported 190 forest offenses to local law enforcement agencies, which responded with 86 field operations that confiscated illicit vehicles, equipment, and timber, and arrested 138 illegal logging suspects. From 45 cases subsequently monitored, 64.4% proceeded to court, from which 90.0% of defendants received a prison sentence or a verbal warning for a first offense. Spatial analyses of illegal logging and timber storage incidents predicted that illegal activities would be more effectively deterred by law enforcement operations that targeted the storage sites. Although numerous clusters of incidents were identified, they were still widespread reflecting the ubiquity of illegal activities. The multistakeholder results were promising, but illegal logging still persisted at apparently similar levels at the project's end, indicating that efforts need to be further strengthened. Nevertheless, several actions contributed to the law enforcement achievements: strong political will; strong stakeholder support; and funding that could be promptly accessed. These factors are highlighted as prerequisites for achieving Indonesia's ambitious REDD+ goals. PMID:24628366

  20. Immigration and the American century.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, Charles

    2005-11-01

    The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the early decades of the twentieth century, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in twentieth-century American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry.

  1. U.S. immigration policy: the guestworker option revisited.

    PubMed

    Papademetriou, D G; Martin, P L; Miller, M J

    1983-01-01

    In guestworker programs foreign nationals are admitted into another country on a nonmigrant status with severely curtailed social and limited labor market rights. The duration of stay is always finite and compliance with the terms of the contract are entered through a network of legal arrangements which allow officials in the receiving country a substantial amount of administrative discretion. Pro-guestworker arguments say that the borders cannot be closed, that guestworkers can be substituted for illegal aliens, that guestworkers are better than illegal aliens, and that additional labor benefits the US economy. Those against guestworker programs stress longterm socioeconomic issues rather than short-term economic advantages, saying that guestworker programs are no quick answer for illegal immigration, for domestic labor shortages, or for the US poor population. Guestworker programs, its opponents say, provide short-run economic benefits to a few employers and individuals at the expense of more widespread and longterm socioeconomic costs. They oppose: 1) the concept of admitting foreign workers with restricted rights, 2) the concentration of any negative labor market impacts on already disadvantaged domestic groups, 3) the proliferation of "jobs which Americans won't take," 4) many temporary guests ending up permanent residents, and 5) that exporting workers is as likely to impede as accelerate job-creating economic development in immigration countries. Most economists believe that diminishing marginal productivity produces downward-sloping short-run demand for labor schedules. The European experience with these programs has been different than those in the US since foreign workers in Europe were initially recruited in response to actual labor shortages and have always had legal status, but both Europe and the US have experienced large contingents of workers who remain in the countries and are at a pronounced power disadvantage regarding the society's institutions

  2. U.S. immigration policy: the guestworker option revisited.

    PubMed

    Papademetriou, D G; Martin, P L; Miller, M J

    1983-01-01

    In guestworker programs foreign nationals are admitted into another country on a nonmigrant status with severely curtailed social and limited labor market rights. The duration of stay is always finite and compliance with the terms of the contract are entered through a network of legal arrangements which allow officials in the receiving country a substantial amount of administrative discretion. Pro-guestworker arguments say that the borders cannot be closed, that guestworkers can be substituted for illegal aliens, that guestworkers are better than illegal aliens, and that additional labor benefits the US economy. Those against guestworker programs stress longterm socioeconomic issues rather than short-term economic advantages, saying that guestworker programs are no quick answer for illegal immigration, for domestic labor shortages, or for the US poor population. Guestworker programs, its opponents say, provide short-run economic benefits to a few employers and individuals at the expense of more widespread and longterm socioeconomic costs. They oppose: 1) the concept of admitting foreign workers with restricted rights, 2) the concentration of any negative labor market impacts on already disadvantaged domestic groups, 3) the proliferation of "jobs which Americans won't take," 4) many temporary guests ending up permanent residents, and 5) that exporting workers is as likely to impede as accelerate job-creating economic development in immigration countries. Most economists believe that diminishing marginal productivity produces downward-sloping short-run demand for labor schedules. The European experience with these programs has been different than those in the US since foreign workers in Europe were initially recruited in response to actual labor shortages and have always had legal status, but both Europe and the US have experienced large contingents of workers who remain in the countries and are at a pronounced power disadvantage regarding the society's institutions

  3. Academic Mobility and Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Karine

    2005-01-01

    In the late 1990s, sustained economic growth in most Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and the development of the information economy led to a considerable increase in migration of highly skilled individuals, especially in science and technology. Some OECD countries relaxed their immigration policies to attract…

  4. Jewish Immigrant Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Irving

    1976-01-01

    The effect that the immigrant experience had on the work of American Jewish artists is the subject of this paper. It also questions whether there is a distinctive Jewish art while using the examples of specific artists and their development in the United States. (Author/RK)

  5. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What is the…

  6. Immigrant Teachers' Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Young Suk; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine 27 immigrant teachers' understanding of teaching Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Students. The participants were asked to respond to the 18-item survey of Teacher Efficacy of English Language Learners. The implications of the findings for the cultural differences in teacher efficacy are discussed. Appended…

  7. Illegal hunting cases detected with molecular forensics in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to vertebrate populations in tropical regions. This unsustainable practice has serious consequences not only for the target populations, but also for the dynamics and structure of tropical ecosystems. Generally, in cases of suspected illegal hunting, the only evidence available is pieces of meat, skin or bone. In these cases, species identification can only be reliably determined using molecular technologies. Here, we reported an investigative study of three cases of suspected wildlife poaching in which molecular biology techniques were employed to identify the hunted species from remains of meat. Findings By applying cytochrome b (cyt-b) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) molecular markers, the suspected illegal poaching was confirmed by the identification of three wild species, capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) and Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). In Brazil, hunting is a criminal offense, and based on this evidence, the defendants were found guilty and punished with fines; they may still be sentenced to prison for a period of 6 to 12 months. Conclusions The genetic analysis used in this investigative study was suitable to diagnose the species killed and solve these criminal investigations. Molecular forensic techniques can therefore provide an important tool that enables local law enforcement agencies to apprehend illegal poachers. PMID:22863070

  8. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or...

  9. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or...

  10. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or...

  11. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or...

  12. A New Business: Redirecting Black Youth from the Illegal Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox Edmondson, Vickie

    2009-01-01

    Young Black males are an at-risk group for earning a living through illegal activities in the U.S. As with most at-risk groups, concerted efforts have been made to help prepare them to become viable contributors and valued members of society. Anecdotal evidence shows that faculty members have also tried to reach out and influence young Black males…

  13. Summarizing the evidence on the international trade in illegal wildlife.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Gail Emilia; Smith, Katherine F

    2010-08-01

    The global trade in illegal wildlife is a multi-billion dollar industry that threatens biodiversity and acts as a potential avenue for invasive species and disease spread. Despite the broad-sweeping implications of illegal wildlife sales, scientists have yet to describe the scope and scale of the trade. Here, we provide the most thorough and current description of the illegal wildlife trade using 12 years of seizure records compiled by TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network. These records comprise 967 seizures including massive quantities of ivory, tiger skins, live reptiles, and other endangered wildlife and wildlife products. Most seizures originate in Southeast Asia, a recently identified hotspot for future emerging infectious diseases. To date, regulation and enforcement have been insufficient to effectively control the global trade in illegal wildlife at national and international scales. Effective control will require a multi-pronged approach including community-scale education and empowering local people to value wildlife, coordinated international regulation, and a greater allocation of national resources to on-the-ground enforcement.

  14. Radiological Defense. Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This textbook has been prepared under the direction of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA) Staff College for use as a student reference manual in radiological defense (RADEF) courses. It provides much of the basic technical information necessary for a proper understanding of radiological defense and summarizes RADEF planning and expected…

  15. U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip; Martin, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on U.S. immigration, exploring global issues that affect immigration, such as: economic trends, post-cold war events, and transnationalism. Addresses legal immigration, including permanent and temporary status, refugees and asylees, unauthorized migration, integrating immigrants, and administration of immigration programs. (CMK)

  16. Analysis of illegal peptide biopharmaceuticals frequently encountered by controlling agencies.

    PubMed

    Vanhee, Celine; Janvier, Steven; Desmedt, Bart; Moens, Goedele; Deconinck, Eric; De Beer, Jacques O; Courselle, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in genomics, recombinant expression technologies and peptide synthesis have led to an increased development of protein and peptide therapeutics. Unfortunately this goes hand in hand with a growing market of counterfeit and illegal biopharmaceuticals, including substances that are still under pre-clinical and clinical development. These counterfeit and illegal protein and peptide substances could imply severe health threats as has been demonstrated by numerous case reports. The Belgian Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products (FAMHP) and customs are striving, together with their global counterparts, to curtail the trafficking and distributions of these substances. At their request, suspected protein and peptide preparations are analysed in our Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL). It stands to reason that a general screening method would be beneficiary in the battle against counterfeit and illegal peptide drugs. In this paper we present such general screening method employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the identification of counterfeit and illegal injectable peptide preparations, extended with a subsequent quantification method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). The screening method, taking only 30 min, is able to selectively detect 25 different peptides and incorporates the proposed minimum of five identification points (IP) as has been recommended for sports drug testing applications. The group of peptides represent substances which have already been detected in illegal and counterfeit products seized by different European countries as well as some biopharmaceutical peptides which have not been confiscated yet by the controlling agencies, but are already being used according to the many internet users forums. Additionally, we also show that when applying the same LC gradient, it is also possible to quantify these peptides without the need for

  17. Demographic evidence of illegal harvesting of an endangered asian turtle.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yik-Hei; Karraker, Nancy E; Hau, Billy C H

    2013-12-01

    Harvesting pressure on Asian freshwater turtles is severe, and dramatic population declines of these turtles are being driven by unsustainable collection for food markets, pet trade, and traditional Chinese medicine. Populations of big-headed turtle (Platysternon megacephalum) have declined substantially across its distribution, particularly in China, because of overcollection. To understand the effects of chronic harvesting pressure on big-headed turtle populations, we examined the effects of illegal harvesting on the demography of populations in Hong Kong, where some populations still exist. We used mark-recapture methods to compare demographic characteristics between sites with harvesting histories and one site in a fully protected area. Sites with a history of illegal turtle harvesting were characterized by the absence of large adults and skewed ratios of juveniles to adults, which may have negative implications for the long-term viability of populations. These sites also had lower densities of adults and smaller adult body sizes than the protected site. Given that populations throughout most of the species' range are heavily harvested and individuals are increasingly difficult to find in mainland China, the illegal collection of turtles from populations in Hong Kong may increase over time. Long-term monitoring of populations is essential to track effects of illegal collection, and increased patrolling is needed to help control illegal harvesting of populations, particularly in national parks. Because few, if any, other completely protected populations remain in the region, our data on an unharvested population of big-headed turtles serve as an important reference for assessing the negative consequences of harvesting on populations of stream turtles. Evidencia Demográfica de la Captura Ilegal de una Tortuga Asiática en Peligro.

  18. Analysis of illegal peptide biopharmaceuticals frequently encountered by controlling agencies.

    PubMed

    Vanhee, Celine; Janvier, Steven; Desmedt, Bart; Moens, Goedele; Deconinck, Eric; De Beer, Jacques O; Courselle, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in genomics, recombinant expression technologies and peptide synthesis have led to an increased development of protein and peptide therapeutics. Unfortunately this goes hand in hand with a growing market of counterfeit and illegal biopharmaceuticals, including substances that are still under pre-clinical and clinical development. These counterfeit and illegal protein and peptide substances could imply severe health threats as has been demonstrated by numerous case reports. The Belgian Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products (FAMHP) and customs are striving, together with their global counterparts, to curtail the trafficking and distributions of these substances. At their request, suspected protein and peptide preparations are analysed in our Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL). It stands to reason that a general screening method would be beneficiary in the battle against counterfeit and illegal peptide drugs. In this paper we present such general screening method employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the identification of counterfeit and illegal injectable peptide preparations, extended with a subsequent quantification method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). The screening method, taking only 30 min, is able to selectively detect 25 different peptides and incorporates the proposed minimum of five identification points (IP) as has been recommended for sports drug testing applications. The group of peptides represent substances which have already been detected in illegal and counterfeit products seized by different European countries as well as some biopharmaceutical peptides which have not been confiscated yet by the controlling agencies, but are already being used according to the many internet users forums. Additionally, we also show that when applying the same LC gradient, it is also possible to quantify these peptides without the need for

  19. Large-scale immigration and political response: popular reaction in California.

    PubMed

    Clark, W A

    1998-03-01

    Over the past 3 years, the level of political debate has grown over the nature and extent of the recent large-scale immigration to the US in general, and to California in particular. California's Proposition 187 to deny welfare benefits to illegal immigrants brought national attention to the immigration debate, and no doubt influenced recent decisions to significantly change the US's welfare program. The author studied the vote on Proposition 187 in the November 1994 California election to better understand the nature of reaction to large-scale immigration and recent arguments about anti-immigrant sentiment and nativism. The only counties which voted against the proposition were Sonoma, Marin, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, Yolo, Alameda, and Santa Clara, as well as the population of San Francisco. The vote generated political responses from across the border as well as within California. Statements from Mexican and other Central American governments reflected their concern over the possibility of returning populations, for whom there are neither jobs nor public services in their countries of origin. Findings are presented from a spatial analysis of the vote by census tracts in Los Angeles County.

  20. Large-scale immigration and political response: popular reaction in California.

    PubMed

    Clark, W A

    1998-03-01

    Over the past 3 years, the level of political debate has grown over the nature and extent of the recent large-scale immigration to the US in general, and to California in particular. California's Proposition 187 to deny welfare benefits to illegal immigrants brought national attention to the immigration debate, and no doubt influenced recent decisions to significantly change the US's welfare program. The author studied the vote on Proposition 187 in the November 1994 California election to better understand the nature of reaction to large-scale immigration and recent arguments about anti-immigrant sentiment and nativism. The only counties which voted against the proposition were Sonoma, Marin, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, Yolo, Alameda, and Santa Clara, as well as the population of San Francisco. The vote generated political responses from across the border as well as within California. Statements from Mexican and other Central American governments reflected their concern over the possibility of returning populations, for whom there are neither jobs nor public services in their countries of origin. Findings are presented from a spatial analysis of the vote by census tracts in Los Angeles County. PMID:12293589

  1. 48 CFR 552.270-30 - Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Illegal or Improper Activity. 552.270-30 Section 552.270-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.270-30 Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity (JUN 2011) (a) If the...

  2. 48 CFR 552.270-30 - Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Illegal or Improper Activity. 552.270-30 Section 552.270-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.270-30 Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity (JUN 2011) (a) If the...

  3. 48 CFR 52.203-10 - Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-10 Section 52.203-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.203-10 Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(b) insert the following clause: Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or...

  4. 48 CFR 52.203-10 - Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-10 Section 52.203-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.203-10 Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(b) insert the following clause: Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or...

  5. 34 CFR 668.40 - Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. 668... Eligibility § 668.40 Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. (a)(1) A student is ineligible to... of illegal drugs for conduct that occurred during a period of enrollment for which the student...

  6. 48 CFR 552.270-30 - Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Illegal or Improper Activity. 552.270-30 Section 552.270-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.270-30 Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity (JUN 2011) (a) If the...

  7. 48 CFR 52.203-10 - Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-10 Section 52.203-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.203-10 Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(b) insert the following clause: Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or...

  8. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  9. 48 CFR 552.270-30 - Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Illegal or Improper Activity. 552.270-30 Section 552.270-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Clauses 552.270-30 Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Price Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity (JUN 2011) (a) If the...

  10. 34 CFR 668.40 - Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. 668... Eligibility § 668.40 Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. (a)(1) A student is ineligible to... of illegal drugs for conduct that occurred during a period of enrollment for which the student...

  11. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is your policy on illegal... NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  12. 34 CFR 668.40 - Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. 668... Eligibility § 668.40 Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. (a)(1) A student is ineligible to... of illegal drugs for conduct that occurred during a period of enrollment for which the student...

  13. 48 CFR 52.203-10 - Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-10 Section 52.203-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.203-10 Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(b) insert the following clause: Price or Fee Adjustment for Illegal or...

  14. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  15. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You may not use or be in possession of illegal drugs on NARA property. You also may not enter...

  16. 34 CFR 668.40 - Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. 668... Eligibility § 668.40 Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs. (a)(1) A student is ineligible to... of illegal drugs for conduct that occurred during a period of enrollment for which the student...

  17. Immigrants' College Aid May Imperil Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    1988-01-01

    An Immigration and Naturalization Services' interpretation of the 1986 immigration law says immigrants' use of federal aid for purposes other than for books, tuition, and fees, might put their ability to become citizens in jeopardy. (MLW)

  18. [Circumcision of new immigrants].

    PubMed

    Walfisch, S; Ben-Zion, Y Z; Gurman, G

    1994-02-01

    Recent immigration from eastern Europe to Israel (1990-1992) has brought to the Negev many uncircumcised newcomers. The rationale for circumcising healthy children has been a matter of controversy, not yet settled. Healthy adults are not usually circumcised except for ritual reasons. In the past 3 years we circumcised 2857 males 1-64 years old, mostly of Russian origin. All were operated on as outpatients on a 1-day, ambulatory service. 75% of the newcomers were operated on during the first 6 months after immigration. 86% of the circumcisions were done under general anesthesia and the rest under local. After stretching the prepuce backwards, the foreskin was excised. Hemostasis was achieved with the aid of electrocautery and the skin was approximated with in absorbable sutures. All patients were re examined 1 week later. There were complications in 50 (1.75%), consisting mostly of postoperative bleeding and wound infections. We conclude that ritual circumcision is a safe procedure in normal adults.

  19. Allergies in immigrants.

    PubMed

    Geller-Bernstein, C; Kenett, R

    2004-10-01

    We studied the influence of environmental factors on allergy disease in immigrants that came to Israel during the last 20 years from A) Ethiopia and B) former Soviet Union. Immigrants who came from Ethiopia had no allergies upon arrival; they suffered from severe parasitic infections and had extremely elevated IgE levels. They got thorough anti parasitic treatment and were gradually integrated in the old timer Israeli population. After 5-10 years from arrival, follow up assessments showed a significant drop in IgE levels while respiratory allergies with positive skin tests Respiratory allergies with positive skin tests) to aero allergens appeared at a prevalence of 11%. Israeli born newborns and children from Ethiopian descent had no stool parasites and their total IgE levels were similar to those of the indigenous population. Immigrants from former Soviet Union who had respiratory allergies upon arrival, showed skin tested hypersensitivity to pollen common in their Russian, homelands while they were not sensitive to the Mediterranean pollen common in Israel. At yearly follow up testing over the first 10 years in Israel, odds for sensitization to Russian pollen decreased while odds for sensitization to Israeli pollen increased significantly. The results of our studies plead the case for the very important role played by the environment in the dynamics of allergy diseases.

  20. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: America amends its immigration law.

    PubMed

    Papademetriou, D G

    1987-09-01

    This disucssion of the Immigration and Control act of 1986 covers legalization, employer sanctions, and foreign agricultural worker reforms. It also identifies other changes in immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 recognizes 4 types of aliens who are eligible to receive legalization benefits: those who have resided "continuously" in the US since January 1, 1982; those who have worked in US perishable crop agriculture for 90 "man-days" each year ending on May 1, 1984, May 1, 1985 and May 1, 1986 (special agricultural workers) or who have performed such labor for 90 man-days between only May 1, 1985 and May 1, 1986; those who have been in the US since before January 1, 1972; and those classified as "Cuban-Haitian entrants" and who have been in the US since January 1, 1982. Each legalization category has specific eligibility requirements, its own application procedures, and its own process for obtaining legal permanent resident status. The IRCA forbids employers from knowingly employing unauthorized aliens. For the 1st time in US immigration history, an employer would be punished for employing aliens without work authorization. An employer would be able to establish an "affirmative defense" in his or her behalf if the employer examined certain documents which appear to be genuine or the applicant was referred to him by a State employment agency which previously has verified the applicant's employment eligibility. If the employer is found to have violated the provisions, a cease and desist order will be issued with a civil penalty of between $250-2000 for each unauthorized alien for the 1st time the violation occurs, between $2000-5000 for each alien for the 2nd violation, and between $3000-10,000 for each alien for subsequent violations. The Act provides for criminal penalties for employers who engage in a "pattern or practice of violations." Employer sanctions will not be effective for 18 months following passage of the Act. The changes

  1. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: America amends its immigration law.

    PubMed

    Papademetriou, D G

    1987-09-01

    This disucssion of the Immigration and Control act of 1986 covers legalization, employer sanctions, and foreign agricultural worker reforms. It also identifies other changes in immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 recognizes 4 types of aliens who are eligible to receive legalization benefits: those who have resided "continuously" in the US since January 1, 1982; those who have worked in US perishable crop agriculture for 90 "man-days" each year ending on May 1, 1984, May 1, 1985 and May 1, 1986 (special agricultural workers) or who have performed such labor for 90 man-days between only May 1, 1985 and May 1, 1986; those who have been in the US since before January 1, 1972; and those classified as "Cuban-Haitian entrants" and who have been in the US since January 1, 1982. Each legalization category has specific eligibility requirements, its own application procedures, and its own process for obtaining legal permanent resident status. The IRCA forbids employers from knowingly employing unauthorized aliens. For the 1st time in US immigration history, an employer would be punished for employing aliens without work authorization. An employer would be able to establish an "affirmative defense" in his or her behalf if the employer examined certain documents which appear to be genuine or the applicant was referred to him by a State employment agency which previously has verified the applicant's employment eligibility. If the employer is found to have violated the provisions, a cease and desist order will be issued with a civil penalty of between $250-2000 for each unauthorized alien for the 1st time the violation occurs, between $2000-5000 for each alien for the 2nd violation, and between $3000-10,000 for each alien for subsequent violations. The Act provides for criminal penalties for employers who engage in a "pattern or practice of violations." Employer sanctions will not be effective for 18 months following passage of the Act. The changes

  2. The Adolescent Chinese Immigrant Student in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lilian Y. O.

    1977-01-01

    The young Chinese student is seldom psychologically or academically prepared for immigration to Canada. Difficulties confronting Chinese adolescent immigrants include cultural problems and language difficulties. (SW)

  3. Positive urgency predicts illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Cyders, Melissa A; Smith, Gregory T

    2009-06-01

    There are several different personality traits that dispose individuals to engage in rash action. One such trait is positive urgency: the tendency to act rashly when experiencing extremely positive affect. This trait may be relevant for college student risky behavior, because it appears that a great deal of college student risky behavior is undertaken during periods of intensely positive mood states. To test this possibility, the authors conducted a longitudinal study designed to predict increases in risky sexual behavior and illegal drug use over the course of the first year of college (n=407). In a well-fitting structural model, positive urgency predicted increases in illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior, even after controlling for time 1 (T1) involvement in both risky behaviors, biological sex, and T1 scores on four other personality dispositions to rash action. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this finding. PMID:19586152

  4. Two systems and defenses.

    PubMed

    Novick, Jack; Novick, Kerry Kelly

    2013-02-01

    The authors suggest that Freud's concept of defense differentiated psychoanalysis from other medical and psychological theories of personality development and functioning then and now. Reclaiming the concept's centrality and linking it with interdisciplinary research findings, they illustrate their extension of defense into a two-system model of self-protection and self-regulation with a clinical example. The authors suggest that the two-system model allows for the reintegration of defense into a multidimensional psychoanalytic theory and multimodal therapeutic technique.

  5. Dynamic defense workshop :

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  6. The military insanity defense.

    PubMed

    Lande, R G

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the military insanity defense. The success of the litigated insanity defense is explored through the number of insanity acquittals over a 28-month period. A questionnaire distributed to all United States Army psychiatrists provided information on the number of forensic evaluations performed, the number of not criminally responsible (NCR) opinions made, and the disposition of noncontested NCR opinions. The questionnaire also tested the Army psychiatrists' knowledge about recent changes in the military insanity defense. This pilot study raises interesting questions about the military insanity defense that further research can address.

  7. Technologies for distributed defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiders, Barbara; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of 'citizen soldiers', with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  8. Technologies for Distributed Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Seiders, Barbara AB; Rybka, Anthony J.

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of "citizen soldiers," with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  9. The big crossing: illegal boat migrants in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Hassène; Dourgnon, Paul

    2014-08-01

    This article explores illegal migration routes and groups across North Africa to Europe. We describe sub-Saharan and cross-Mediterranean routes, and how they changed during the years. We propose an analytical framework for the main factors for these migrations, from local to international and regulatory context. We then describe sea-migrants' nationalities and socio-economic and demographic characteristics, from studies undertook in Tunisia and Morocco. While boat migration represents only a fraction of illegal migration to Europe, it raises humanitarian as well as ethical issues for European and North African (NA) countries, as a non-negligible amount of them end up in death tolls of shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, existing statistics show that illegal trans-Mediterranean migration is growing exponentially. Ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are likely to prompt even larger outflows of refugees in the near future. This should induce NA countries to share closer public policy concerns with European countries. PMID:25107993

  10. The big crossing: illegal boat migrants in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Hassène; Dourgnon, Paul

    2014-08-01

    This article explores illegal migration routes and groups across North Africa to Europe. We describe sub-Saharan and cross-Mediterranean routes, and how they changed during the years. We propose an analytical framework for the main factors for these migrations, from local to international and regulatory context. We then describe sea-migrants' nationalities and socio-economic and demographic characteristics, from studies undertook in Tunisia and Morocco. While boat migration represents only a fraction of illegal migration to Europe, it raises humanitarian as well as ethical issues for European and North African (NA) countries, as a non-negligible amount of them end up in death tolls of shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, existing statistics show that illegal trans-Mediterranean migration is growing exponentially. Ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are likely to prompt even larger outflows of refugees in the near future. This should induce NA countries to share closer public policy concerns with European countries.

  11. "For export only" medicines come back to Europe: a RP-LC method for the screening of six glucocorticoids in illegal and counterfeit anti-inflammatory and lightening creams.

    PubMed

    Gaudiano, M C; Lucente, D; Antoniella, E; Bertocchi, P; Muleri, N; Manna, L; Bartolomei, M; Alimonti, S; Valvo, L; Rodomonte, A L

    2010-10-10

    "For export only" anti-inflammatory and lightening creams are medicinal products sold in African countries for their skin whitening action. In the last years, Rapid Alerts from European Medicinal Regulatory Agencies evidenced the presence of a large number of illegal and counterfeit anti-inflammatory products advertised for their whitening action on black skin in the European market. These drugs, containing glucocorticoids, are illegally sold in Europe in unauthorized ethno-cosmetics-shops and mainly bought by immigrants. This paper reports a new RP-LC method for the rapid simultaneous screening of six different active ingredients in anti-inflammatory and whitening products (creams, ointment and suspension): betamethasone dipropionate, dexamethasone, fluocinonide, fluocinolone acetonide, clobetasol propionate, methyl-prednisolone acetate. The method was developed and validated in view of its possible application in quality control laboratories, mainly those appointed to the control of illegal/counterfeit medicinal products. The associated measurement uncertainty was calculated from validation data. The method was then applied to the analysis of whitening products obtained from the Italian illegal market.

  12. "Reasonable suspicion" about tough immigration legislation: enforcing laws or ethnocentric exclusion?

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sahana; Molina, Ludwin E; Adams, Glenn

    2013-07-01

    We examined whether support for tough immigration legislation reflects identity-neutral enforcement of law or identity-relevant defense of privilege. Participants read a fabricated news story in which law-enforcement personnel detained a person due to "reasonable suspicion" that he was an undocumented immigrant. We manipulated descriptions of the detainee so that he was either (a) an undocumented immigrant (both studies), (b) a documented immigrant (Study 1), or (c) a U.S. citizen (Study 2) of either Mexican or Canadian origin. Participants in both studies endorsed tougher punishment of an undocumented detainee and rated tough treatment as more fair when the detainee was of Mexican than Canadian origin (regardless of documentation status). Across both studies, the patterns of ethnocentric exclusion-harsher treatment toward Mexican immigrants than Canadian immigrants-were particularly pronounced among participants who defined American identity in terms of assimilation to Anglocentric cultural values (e.g., being able to speak English). Overall, results suggest that people may support tough measures to restrict immigration to defend against symbolic threats-especially threats that cultural "others" pose to Anglocentric understandings of American identity.

  13. Sweeping Changes in Immigration Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danilov, Dan P.

    1978-01-01

    Among the changes in Immigration Laws are the rectification of the long-standing inequity between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres by instituting identical preference systems, the provision for the adjustment from a non-immigrant visa status to that of a permanent resident, and amendments to the Labor Certification requirements. (NQ)

  14. Immigration Law & the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin) explains how the…

  15. Engaging Immigrant Students. Classroom Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lynn; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras

    2011-01-01

    For an educator who speaks only English, engaging immigrant English language learners (ELL) in the classroom can be a significant challenge. As a former classroom teacher, elementary school principal and guidance counselor, the authors have worked with immigrant student populations in K-12 schools. They have found that a good way to overcome the…

  16. Immigration and the American Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan

    1995-01-01

    Examines the debate over immigration in the United States and its influence on national racial and ethnic demographics as well as the economic and social impact. Questions of environmentalism and multiculturalism coupled with American racism and the need for immigration restriction are addressed. (GR)

  17. Lasting Reductions in Illegal Moves Following an Increase in Their Cost: Evidence from River-Crossing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Martin E.; Delaney, Peter F.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present 3 experiments demonstrating ways to reduce illegal moves in problem-solving tasks. They propose a 3-stage framework for the rejection of illegal moves. An illegal move must come to mind and be selected, checked for legality, and correctly rejected. Illegal move reduction can occur at any stage. Control group participants…

  18. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  19. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  20. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  1. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  2. 22 CFR 130.4 - Defense articles and defense services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defense articles and defense services. 130.4 Section 130.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.4 Defense articles and defense services. Defense articles and...

  3. Immigration, ethnicity, and the pandemic.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Alan M

    2010-04-01

    The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 coincided with a major wave of immigration to the United States. More than 23.5 million newcomers arrived between 1880 and the 1920s, mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia, Canada, and Mexico. During earlier epidemics, the foreign-born were often stigmatized as disease carriers whose very presence endangered their hosts. Because this influenza struck individuals of all groups and classes throughout the country, no single immigrant group was blamed, although there were many local cases of medicalized prejudice. The foreign-born needed information and assistance in coping with influenza. Among the two largest immigrant groups, Southern Italians and Eastern European Jews, immigrant physicians, community spokespeople, newspapers, and religious and fraternal groups shouldered the burden. They disseminated public health information to their respective communities in culturally sensitive manners and in the languages the newcomers understood, offering crucial services to immigrants and American public health officials.

  4. The unstoppable immigrant.

    PubMed

    Tapinos, G P

    1990-01-01

    The author examines the effects of the restrictive immigration policies instituted by the European countries in the mid-1970s. "This article considers the following questions. Should one expect significant migrant supply pressure from the countries that formerly sent workers, as a result of their demographic, economic and labour market prospects? Have the European countries devised any development-assistance policy with the explicit intent of cutting down emigration from these countries? And would such a policy, if it existed, be efficient enough to decrease the incentives to migrate?"

  5. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  6. Schools and Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Civil defense is a planned, coordinated action to protect the population during any emergency whether arising from thermonuclear attack or natural disaster. The Federal Government has assumed four responsibilities--(1) to keep track of the nature of the threat which the civil defense program must meet, (2) to prepare and disseminate information…

  7. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…

  8. Defense Workforce Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J. D.; And Others

    This report discusses the amount and kinds of Department of Defense (DoD) interactive courseware (ICW) programs that are candidates for transfer to the private sector. Candidates for transfer were identified through an analysis of the Defense Instructional Technology Information System (DITIS). Out of 4,644 ICW programs that have been reported to…

  9. Undocumented immigration status and diabetes care among Mexican immigrants in two immigration "sanctuary" areas.

    PubMed

    Iten, A Elizabeth; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Lahiff, Maureen; Fernández, Alicia

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between immigration status and the patient experience of health care, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes among Mexican immigrants with diabetes receiving health care in two immigration sanctuary cities. We used data from the Immigration, Culture and Health Care study, a cross-sectional survey and medical record study of low-income patients with diabetes recruited from public hospitals and community clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area and Chicago. Undocumented Mexican, documented Mexican immigrants, and US-born Mexican-Americans' health care experiences, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes were compared using multivariate linear and logistic regressions. We found no significant differences in reports of physician communication, or in measures of diabetes management between undocumented and documented immigrants. All three groups had similar clinical outcomes in glycemic, systolic blood pressure, and lipid control. These results indicate that, at least in some settings, undocumented Mexican immigrants with diabetes can achieve similar clinical outcomes and report similar health care experiences as documented immigrants and US-born Mexican-Americans.

  10. Bordering the Civic Imaginary: Alienization, Fence Logic, and the Minuteman Civil Defense Corps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeChaine, D. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Current figurations of the "immigration problem" in the United States challenge our understanding of the rhetoricity of contemporary bordering practices. The public discourse of the Minuteman Civil Defense Corps serves to chart the alienization of undocumented migrants and the enactment of alien abjection on the U.S.-Mexico border. Alienization…

  11. Immigrant Children's Swedish--A New Variety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt

    1988-01-01

    Posits two hypotheses arising from the great immigration to Sweden and the immigrants' use and learning of Swedish: (1) Swedish as used by immigrant children may show certain features, related to a creolization process; and (2) the Swedish language may in future show signs of influence from the varieties used by persons with immigrant background.…

  12. Teacher Education and Immigrant Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faltis, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1980s, well more than half of all immigrants and children of recent immigrants are of people of color. Many recent immigrants of color communicate in their daily lives via a language (or via languages) other than English, and many immigrant children of color are emerging bilinguals, who acquire hybrid varieties of English. While almost…

  13. Counseling Immigrant Students in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Karen D.; Davis, Terah

    2014-01-01

    According to the 2010 United States Census, one out of every five children live in an immigrant family with either one or both parents being immigrants. This paper will explore the unique needs of children of immigrants who come to school as immigrant students. A discussion of the use of Reality Therapy as a counseling approach with this…

  14. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  15. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  16. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  17. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  18. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  19. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  20. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  1. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  2. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  3. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  4. Zapotec Immigration: The San Lucas Quiavini Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Felipe H.; Munro, Pamela

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 20 Zapotec immigrants from Oaxaca (Mexico) to Los Angeles examined their immigration experiences and adjustment to life in the United States. Discussion covers immigration from Oaxaca; living conditions, illiteracy, education, and language usage in the village of San Lucas Quiavini; immigration patterns; ethnicity and Oaxacan…

  5. ETHNICITY AND THE IMMIGRATION OF HIGHLY SKILLED WORKERS TO THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Jasso, Guillermina

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines ethnicity among highly skilled immigrants to the United States. The paper focuses on five classic components of ethnicity – country of birth, race, skin color, language, and religion – among persons admitted to legal permanent residence in the United States in 2003 in the three main employment categories (EB-1, EB-2, and EB-3), using data collected in the U.S. New Immigrant Survey. Initial findings include: (1) The visa categories have distinctive ethnic configurations. India dominates EB-2 and European countries EB-1. (2) The ethnicity portfolio contains more languages than religions. (3) Language is shed before religion, and religion may not be shed at all, except among the ultra highly skilled of EB-1. (4) Highly skilled immigrants are mostly male; they are not immune from lapsing into illegality; they have a shorter visa process than their cohortmates; smaller proportions than in the cohort overall intend to remain in the United States. (5) Larger proportions in EB-2 and EB-3 sent remittances than in the cohort overall. (6) A little measure of assimilation – using dollars to describe earnings in the country of last residence, even when requested to use the country's currency – suggests that highly skilled immigrants are more likely to “think in dollars” than their cohortmates. Further work is taking a deeper look at these patterns in a multivariate context, attentive to selectivity processes and the Globalista impulse. PMID:21915158

  6. ETHNICITY AND THE IMMIGRATION OF HIGHLY SKILLED WORKERS TO THE UNITED STATES.

    PubMed

    Jasso, Guillermina

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines ethnicity among highly skilled immigrants to the United States. The paper focuses on five classic components of ethnicity - country of birth, race, skin color, language, and religion - among persons admitted to legal permanent residence in the United States in 2003 in the three main employment categories (EB-1, EB-2, and EB-3), using data collected in the U.S. New Immigrant Survey. Initial findings include: (1) The visa categories have distinctive ethnic configurations. India dominates EB-2 and European countries EB-1. (2) The ethnicity portfolio contains more languages than religions. (3) Language is shed before religion, and religion may not be shed at all, except among the ultra highly skilled of EB-1. (4) Highly skilled immigrants are mostly male; they are not immune from lapsing into illegality; they have a shorter visa process than their cohortmates; smaller proportions than in the cohort overall intend to remain in the United States. (5) Larger proportions in EB-2 and EB-3 sent remittances than in the cohort overall. (6) A little measure of assimilation - using dollars to describe earnings in the country of last residence, even when requested to use the country's currency - suggests that highly skilled immigrants are more likely to "think in dollars" than their cohortmates. Further work is taking a deeper look at these patterns in a multivariate context, attentive to selectivity processes and the Globalista impulse.

  7. Media in the lives of immigrant youth.

    PubMed

    Louie, Josephine

    2003-01-01

    This chapter uses data from the Longitudinal Immigrant Student Adaptation Study to examine media use patterns among immigrant teens. Similarities and differences in media ownership levels, use patterns, and content preferences between immigrant teens and the U.S. teen population as a whole, as well as across immigrant groups and gender, are explored. Implications for educators and others who work with immigrant youth include active discussion with youth about their media choices and media messages.

  8. Games of corruption: how to suppress illegal logging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joung-Hun; Sigmund, Karl; Dieckmann, Ulf; Iwasa, Yoh

    2015-02-21

    Corruption is one of the most serious obstacles for ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. In particular, more than half of the loss of forested area in many tropical countries is due to illegal logging, with corruption implicated in a lack of enforcement. Here we study an evolutionary game model to analyze the illegal harvesting of forest trees, coupled with the corruption of rule enforcers. We consider several types of harvesters, who may or may not be committed towards supporting an enforcer service, and who may cooperate (log legally) or defect (log illegally). We also consider two types of rule enforcers, honest and corrupt: while honest enforcers fulfill their function, corrupt enforcers accept bribes from defecting harvesters and refrain from fining them. We report three key findings. First, in the absence of strategy exploration, the harvester-enforcer dynamics are bistable: one continuum of equilibria consists of defecting harvesters and a low fraction of honest enforcers, while another consists of cooperating harvesters and a high fraction of honest enforcers. Both continua attract nearby strategy mixtures. Second, even a small rate of strategy exploration removes this bistability, rendering one of the outcomes globally stable. It is the relative rate of exploration among enforcers that then determines whether most harvesters cooperate or defect and most enforcers are honest or corrupt, respectively. This suggests that the education of enforcers, causing their more frequent trialing of honest conduct, can be a potent means of curbing corruption. Third, if information on corrupt enforcers is available, and players react opportunistically to it, the domain of attraction of cooperative outcomes widens considerably. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our results.

  9. Two systems and defenses.

    PubMed

    Novick, Jack; Novick, Kerry Kelly

    2013-02-01

    The authors suggest that Freud's concept of defense differentiated psychoanalysis from other medical and psychological theories of personality development and functioning then and now. Reclaiming the concept's centrality and linking it with interdisciplinary research findings, they illustrate their extension of defense into a two-system model of self-protection and self-regulation with a clinical example. The authors suggest that the two-system model allows for the reintegration of defense into a multidimensional psychoanalytic theory and multimodal therapeutic technique. PMID:23421665

  10. Judgments about illegal performance-enhancing substances: reasoned, reactive, or both?

    PubMed

    Dodge, Tonya; Stock, Michelle; Litt, Dana

    2013-07-01

    This study applied aspects of the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Prototype/Willingness model to understand cognitions associated with the use of illegal performance-enhancing substances. There were two study objectives. One was to investigate whether the illegal-is-effective heuristic (i.e. belief that illegal performance-enhancing substances are more effective than legal performance-enhancing substances) affects willingness to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The second was to examine whether attitudes, norms, and prototypes influence the willingness and intentions to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The illegal-is-effective heuristic was a significant predictor of willingness but was not a significant predictor of intentions. Implications for future research and prevention efforts are discussed.

  11. Judgments about illegal performance-enhancing substances: reasoned, reactive, or both?

    PubMed

    Dodge, Tonya; Stock, Michelle; Litt, Dana

    2013-07-01

    This study applied aspects of the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Prototype/Willingness model to understand cognitions associated with the use of illegal performance-enhancing substances. There were two study objectives. One was to investigate whether the illegal-is-effective heuristic (i.e. belief that illegal performance-enhancing substances are more effective than legal performance-enhancing substances) affects willingness to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The second was to examine whether attitudes, norms, and prototypes influence the willingness and intentions to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The illegal-is-effective heuristic was a significant predictor of willingness but was not a significant predictor of intentions. Implications for future research and prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:23027783

  12. Why assisted suicide must remain illegal in the UK.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Vicky; Scott, Helen

    Many people with life-limiting disease are vulnerable to emotional distress associated with physical, spiritual, psychological and social stressors. Psychological stress and affective disorders have the potential to influence decision making, particularly at the end of life. This article discusses the main reasons why assisted suicide and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) should remain illegal in the UK. In particular, it explores the problems associated with safeguarding 'vulnerable' patient groups and assessing mental capacity. The article also examines guidance for nurses regarding what to do if a patient asks for assistance to die or for information on assisted suicide and PAS. PMID:22272539

  13. A case of electrocution during illegal fishing activities.

    PubMed

    Di Nunno, Nunzio; Vimercati, Luigi; Viola, Luigi; Vimercati, Francesco

    2003-06-01

    The passage of electric current through the human body causes variable harm, ranging from loss of consciousness to death caused by paralysis of the bulbar nerve centers. This report describes a fatal case caused by an illegal fishing practice involving stunning fish with electric shocks produced by an electric generator carried through the water inside the carcass of an old refrigerator to keep it afloat. This occurrence is unusual because of the circumstances giving rise to the use of electric current and the cause of death, which resulted from the combination of the electric current produced by the generator and the saltwater, bringing about death by drowning.

  14. Why assisted suicide must remain illegal in the UK.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Vicky; Scott, Helen

    Many people with life-limiting disease are vulnerable to emotional distress associated with physical, spiritual, psychological and social stressors. Psychological stress and affective disorders have the potential to influence decision making, particularly at the end of life. This article discusses the main reasons why assisted suicide and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) should remain illegal in the UK. In particular, it explores the problems associated with safeguarding 'vulnerable' patient groups and assessing mental capacity. The article also examines guidance for nurses regarding what to do if a patient asks for assistance to die or for information on assisted suicide and PAS.

  15. How Do Tougher Immigration Measures Affect Unauthorized Immigrants?

    PubMed Central

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Puttitanun, Thitima; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    The recent impetus of tougher immigration-related measures passed at the state level raises concerns about the impact of such measures on the migration experience, trajectory, and future plans of unauthorized immigrants. In a recent and unique survey of Mexican unauthorized immigrants interviewed upon their voluntary return or deportation to Mexico, almost a third reported experiencing difficulties in obtaining social or government services, finding legal assistance, or obtaining health care services. Additionally, half of these unauthorized immigrants reported fearing deportation. When we assess how the enactment of punitive measures against unauthorized immigrants, such as E-Verify mandates, has affected their migration experience, we find no evidence of a statistically significant association between these measures and the difficulties reported by unauthorized immigrants in accessing a variety of services. However, the enactment of these mandates infuses deportation fear, reduces interstate mobility among voluntary returnees during their last migration spell, and helps curb deportees’ intent to return to the United States in the near future. PMID:23532619

  16. Attitudes toward unauthorized immigrants, authorized immigrants, and refugees.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kate E; Marx, David M

    2013-07-01

    Rates of human migration are steadily rising and have resulted in significant sociopolitical debates over how to best respond to increasing cultural diversity and changing migration patterns. Research on prejudicial attitudes toward immigrants has focused on the attitudes and beliefs that individuals in the receiving country hold about immigrants. The current study enhances this literature by examining how young adults view authorized and unauthorized immigrants and refugees. Using a between-groups design of 191 undergraduates, we found that participants consistently reported more prejudicial attitudes, greater perceived realistic threats, and greater intergroup anxiety when responding to questions about unauthorized compared with authorized immigrants. Additionally, there were differences in attitudes depending on participants' generational status, with older-generation participants reporting greater perceived realistic and symbolic threat, prejudice, and anxiety than newer-generation students. In some instances, these effects were moderated by participant race/ethnicity and whether they were evaluating authorized or unauthorized immigrants. Lastly, perceived realistic threat, symbolic threat, and intergroup anxiety were significant predictors of prejudicial attitudes. Overall, participants reported positive attitudes toward refugees and resettlement programs in the United States. These findings have implications for future research and interventions focused on immigration and prejudice toward migrant groups.

  17. How do tougher immigration measures affect unauthorized immigrants?

    PubMed

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Puttitanun, Thitima; Martinez-Donate, Ana P

    2013-06-01

    The recent impetus of tougher immigration-related measures passed at the state level raises concerns about the impact of such measures on the migration experience, trajectory, and future plans of unauthorized immigrants. In a recent and unique survey of Mexican unauthorized immigrants interviewed upon their voluntary return or deportation to Mexico, almost a third reported experiencing difficulties in obtaining social or government services, finding legal assistance, or obtaining health care services. Additionally, half of these unauthorized immigrants reported fearing deportation. When we assess how the enactment of punitive measures against unauthorized immigrants, such as E-Verify mandates, has affected their migration experience, we find no evidence of a statistically significant association between these measures and the difficulties reported by unauthorized immigrants in accessing a variety of services. However, the enactment of these mandates infuses deportation fear, reduces interstate mobility among voluntary returnees during their last migration spell, and helps curb deportees' intent to return to the United States in the near future.

  18. [Immigration in the world economy].

    PubMed

    Sassen, S

    1995-01-01

    "Immigration is at least partly an outcome of the actions of the governments and major private economic actors of the developed countries. The case of Japan is of interest here because it allows us to capture the intersection of economic internationalization and immigration in its inception.... This paper argues that [Japan's] new immigration is part of the globalisation of [its] economy. Japan is a major presence in a regional Asian economic system where it is the leading investor, foreign aid donor, and exporter of consumer goods (including cultural products). The new immigration to Japan is not unrelated to these processes of internationalization. Internationalization provides a context within which bridges are built with the countries of origin of potential emigrants and internationalization contributes to make the Japanese economy more porous, particularly so in the case of large cities." (EXCERPT)

  19. Prevalence of legal and illegal stimulating agents in sports.

    PubMed

    Deventer, K; Roels, K; Delbeke, F T; Van Eenoo, P

    2011-08-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of legal and illegal stimulants in relation to doping-control analysis. Stimulants are among the oldest classes of doping agents, having been used since ancient times. Despite the ease with which they can be detected and the availability of sensitive detection methods, stimulants are still popular among athletes. Indeed, they remain one of the top three most popular classes of prohibited substances. Because the list of legal and illegal stimulants is extensive only a selection is discussed in detail. The compounds selected are caffeine, ephedrines, amphetamine and related compounds, methylphenidate, cocaine, strychnine, modafinil, adrafinil, 4-methyl-2-hexaneamine, and sibutramine. These compounds are mainly prevalent in sport or are of therapeutic importance. Because stimulants are the oldest doping class the first detection methods were for this group. Several early detection techniques including GC-NPD, GC-ECD, and TLC are highlighted. The more novel detection techniques GC-MS and LC-MS are also discussed in detail. In particular, the last technique has been shown to enable successful detection of stimulants difficult to detect by GC-MS or for stimulants previously undetectable. Because stimulants are also regularly detected in nutritional (food) supplements a section on this topic is also included. PMID:21479548

  20. Detection of illegal border crossing, a pattern recognition approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.E.; Frerking, C.J.; Myers, D.W.

    1993-09-29

    This report describes a new algorithm developed for the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) in support of the INSENS project for classifying vehicles and pedestrians using seismic data. This algorithm is less sensitive to nuisance alarms due to environmental events than the previous algorithm. Furthermore, the algorithm is simple enough that it scan be; implemented in the 8-bit microprocessor used in the INSENS system.

  1. Health status and Canada's immigrant population.

    PubMed

    Newbold, K Bruce; Danforth, Jeff

    2003-11-01

    Given the framework of the 1984 Canada Health Act, the health status of immigrants should be similar to average levels within whole of Canada. Yet, assuming equality of health status between immigrant and non-immigrants, or between immigrant groups is likely an unrealistic and simplistic assumption, given unseen barriers affecting accessibility, the restructuring of the Canadian health care system, and problems with the provision of health care resources to the immigrant population. Using the National Population Health Survey, this paper focuses upon the health status of the immigrant population relative to that of non-immigrants within Canada, with reference to diagnosed conditions, self-assessed health, and the Health Utilities Index Mark 3. Findings indicate that, with the exception of the most recent arrivals, immigrants experience worse health status across most dimensions relative to non-immigrants. Multivariate analysis reveals that age, income adequacy, gender, and home ownership are dimensions upon which health status differs between the two groups.

  2. The complexity and ambivalence of immigration attitudes: ambivalent stereotypes predict conflicting attitudes toward immigration policies.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Christine; Dobria, Ovidiu; Wetherell, Geoffrey

    2013-07-01

    Americans' conflicted attitudes toward immigrants and immigration has stymied immigration reform for decades. In this article, we explore the nuanced nature of stereotypes about immigrants and how they relate to ambivalent attitudes toward immigrant groups and the disparate array of immigration policies that affect them. Using item response theory and multiple regression analysis, we identified and related stereotypes of different immigrant groups to group-based and policy attitudes. Results demonstrate that ambivalent stereotypes mapped onto ambivalent group-based and immigration policy attitudes. Specifically, stereotypes that portray groups in positive or sympathetic ways predicted positive attitudes toward the group and more supportive attitudes toward policies that facilitate their immigration to the United States. Conversely, negative qualities predicted negative attitudes toward the same group and support for policies that prevent the group from immigrating. Results are discussed in light of current theory related to stereotype content, complementarity of stereotypes, and broader implications for immigration attitudes and policy.

  3. [Marriage and immigrants from Turkey and Morocco].

    PubMed

    Hooghiemstra, E; Manting, D

    1997-10-01

    "In this article marriage and immigration of Turkish and Moroccan persons residing in the Netherlands are analysed on the basis of data extracted from the municipal population registers.... About 56 thousand married Turkish and Moroccan women of the first generation living in the Netherlands were marriage-related immigrants compared with 24 thousand married men.... Most male marriage-related immigrants married women who were born in the Netherlands or immigrated there as a child. Many female marriage-related immigrants joined a spouse who was already 18 years or over at the moment of immigration." (EXCERPT)

  4. Moscow's defense intellectuals

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    This essay was originally written two decades ago as a seminar paper. A substantial portion of it addresses what were then only the first steps toward the establishment of a community of professional civilian defense analysts in the Soviet Union. Throughout most of the intervening period, that community found itself mired in immobilism as jurisdiction over such key Soviet national security inputs as military doctrine, force requirements, resource needs, and to a considerable degree, arms negotiating positions remained an exclusive prerogative of the Defense Ministry and the General Staff. Today, this former military monopoly has come to be challenged with increasing success by a host of newcomers to the Soviet defense scene, including the Foreign Ministry, the Supreme Soviet, and an ambitious cadre of civilian analysts attached to the social science research institutes of the Academy of Sciences. These individuals are making a determined bid for greater influence over Soviet defense policy, with the express encouragement of President Gorbachev and his supporters. The result has been an unprecedented infusion of pluralism into Soviet defense politics and a significant change in the content and goals of Soviet military policy.

  5. 7 CFR 1788.4 - Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... General (OIG). See 7 CFR 1773.9(c)(3) for OIG addresses. The reporting requirements for borrowers are the... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts. 1788.4... TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.4 Disclosure of irregularities and illegal...

  6. 19 CFR 4.66a - Illegal discharge of oil and hazardous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Illegal discharge of oil and hazardous substances. 4.66a Section 4.66a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Illegal discharge of oil and hazardous substances. If a port director receives a request from an...

  7. 7 CFR 1788.4 - Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... General (OIG). See 7 CFR 1773.9(c)(3) for OIG addresses. The reporting requirements for borrowers are the... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts. 1788.4... TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.4 Disclosure of irregularities and illegal...

  8. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that...

  9. 19 CFR 4.66a - Illegal discharge of oil and hazardous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illegal discharge of oil and hazardous substances. 4.66a Section 4.66a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Illegal discharge of oil and hazardous substances. If a port director receives a request from an...

  10. 7 CFR 1788.4 - Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... General (OIG). See 7 CFR 1773.9(c)(3) for OIG addresses. The reporting requirements for borrowers are the... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts. 1788.4... TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.4 Disclosure of irregularities and illegal...

  11. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that...

  12. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that...

  13. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  14. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  15. 50 CFR 300.202 - Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. 300.202 Section 300.202... illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. (a) Procedures to identify nations whose...

  16. 50 CFR 300.202 - Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. 300.202 Section 300.202... illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. (a) Procedures to identify nations whose...

  17. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that...

  18. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  19. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  20. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. 982.304 Section 982.304 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that...

  1. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. 127.6 Section 127.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a)...

  2. 7 CFR 1788.4 - Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... General (OIG). See 7 CFR 1773.9(c)(3) for OIG addresses. The reporting requirements for borrowers are the... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts. 1788.4... TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.4 Disclosure of irregularities and illegal...

  3. 19 CFR 4.66a - Illegal discharge of oil and hazardous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Illegal discharge of oil and hazardous substances. 4.66a Section 4.66a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Illegal discharge of oil and hazardous substances. If a port director receives a request from an...

  4. 7 CFR 1788.4 - Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... General (OIG). See 7 CFR 1773.9(c)(3) for OIG addresses. The reporting requirements for borrowers are the... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Disclosure of irregularities and illegal acts. 1788.4... TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.4 Disclosure of irregularities and illegal...

  5. 19 CFR 4.66a - Illegal discharge of oil and hazardous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Illegal discharge of oil and hazardous substances. 4.66a Section 4.66a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Illegal discharge of oil and hazardous substances. If a port director receives a request from an...

  6. The Role of Family Experiences for Adolescents' Readiness to Use and Participate in Illegal Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatz, Terese; Dahl, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This study used reactance theory as a starting point to explain what role a perceived undemocratic and controlling family has for adolescents' readiness to use illegal political activity. Additionally, we examined whether adolescents' readiness to use illegal political means was related to actual political behaviour, which has been lacking in…

  7. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL...

  8. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...

  9. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...

  10. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  11. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  12. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  13. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...

  14. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...

  15. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  16. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...

  17. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  18. Doping Attitudes and the Use of Legal and Illegal Performance-Enhancing Substances among Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio; Zelli, Arnaldo; Violani, Cristiano

    2013-01-01

    Using retrospective self-reporting, rates of illegal and legal performance-enhancing substance (PES) use in the past three months among more than 3,400 Italian high school adolescents were obtained and estimated. The study focused on the extent to which these sociodemographic characteristics and illegal PES use were associated with adolescents'…

  19. Educators, Illegal Behavior, and Deterrence: A Resource Allocation Approach to Malpractice in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, F. Howard

    1982-01-01

    Views illegal behavior in education, from sexual discrimination to professional malpractice, as a problem in optimal resource allocation. Urges effective use of fines or their equivalent, so administrators can weigh the benefits of illegal activity against the costs of apprehension and punishment. (Author/RW)

  20. Legal and Illegal Patterns of Drug Distribution in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P.

    1976-01-01

    Along with large supply sources of legal and illegal drug substances, diversion and distribution systems have developed to feed and maintain the demand. This presentation provides information on the diverting of drugs from legal and illegal sources as well as the characteristics of the distribution patterns. (Author)

  1. Canvasback mortality from illegal hunting on the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, C.E.; Kenow, K.P.; Nissen, J.M.; Wetzel, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    To quantify the consequences of local hunting on illegal kill of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), we studied the behavior of hunters on a 646-ha area open to duck hunting (closed to canvasback hunting) on Lake Onalaska, Navigation Pool 7, Wisconsin, during the 1991 and 1992 waterfowl hunting seasons. Law enforcement officers observed 258 hunting parties for 419 hours. Of 94 hunting parties encountering canvasbacks, 41 (44%) shot at the ducks on 56 occasions, or 27% of 207 encounters observed, Based on a ratio estimator, there were 790 (95% CI = 376) attempts to shoot at canvasbacks on the Lake Onalaska study area during 1991 and 837 (95% CI = 390) during 1992. Mortality of canvasbacks, excluding crippling loss, was estimated to be 128 during 1991 and 166 during 1992. Thus, total canvasback losses may be higher than currently estimated on a flyway or national basis. This estimating technique offers a promising method for enumerating hunter take of protected and legal species.

  2. Zoonotic viruses associated with illegally imported wildlife products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kristine M.; Anthony, Simon J.; Switzer, William M.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Seimon, Tracie; Jia, Hongwei; Sanchez, Maria D.; Huynh, Thanh Thao; Galland, G. Gale; Shapiro, Sheryl E.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; McAloose, Denise; Stuchin, Margot; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Lipkin, W. Ian; Karesh, William B.; Daszak, Peter; Marano, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus) and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus) in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence.

  3. Lessons learned from poisoning cases caused by 2 illegal rodenticides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongshuai; Zhuo, Luo; Wang, Yunyun; Ren, Liang; Liu, Qian; Liu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Tetramine (tetramethylene disulphotetramine, TETS) and fluoroacetamide (FAA) are known as illegal rodenticides with high toxicity to animal species and human beings, which could lead to severe clinical features, including reduction of consciousness, convulsions, coma, and even death. Methods and Results: We presented 2 cases that involved rodenticides poisoning. Even though the patients showed severe manifestations, they were initially misdiagnosed, resulting in 2 persons finally died from TETS and FAA poisoning in homicide cases. Conclusion: From the clinical and forensic experience of these 2 cases, we suggest that physicians should consider TETS and FAA poisoning when patients present generalized seizures, especially in some cases without clear cause and diagnosis of disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for positive management and criminal investigation in intentional poisoning cases. Moreover, clinical toxicology education should be reinforced. PMID:27741126

  4. Zoonotic Viruses Associated with Illegally Imported Wildlife Products

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Seimon, Tracie; Jia, Hongwei; Sanchez, Maria D.; Huynh, Thanh Thao; Galland, G. Gale; Shapiro, Sheryl E.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; McAloose, Denise; Stuchin, Margot; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Lipkin, W. Ian; Karesh, William B.; Daszak, Peter; Marano, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus) and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus) in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence. PMID:22253731

  5. [Current situation and issues for analyzing illegal drug products].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunaga; Saijo, Masaaki; Fukiwake, Tomohide; Motoki, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-two psychotropic substances (31 compounds and one plant) have been controlled as designated substances (Shitei-yakubutsu) in Japan by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law since April 2007. Although the trafficking of these drugs has decreased because of this regulation, new designer drugs (synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones) have appeared, one after the other. As of October 2011, 40 compounds had been newly added to this category. Analytical methods have become more complicated due to this increase in the number of designated substances. Moreover, many reference substances for such designated substances and other new designer drugs are not commercially available. For the reasons stated above, a lot of time and effort is required to analyze the illegal drug products available on the market. PMID:23292013

  6. Skipping syntactically illegal the previews: the role of predictability

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Matthew J.; Angele, Bernhard; Ahn, Y. Danbi; Rayner, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Readers tend to skip words, particularly when they are short, frequent, or predictable. Angele and Rayner (2013) recently reported that readers are often unable to detect syntactic anomalies in parafoveal vision. In the present study, we manipulated target word predictability to assess whether contextual constraint modulates the-skipping behavior. The results provide further evidence that readers frequently skip the article the when infelicitous in context. Readers skipped predictable words more often than unpredictable words, even when the, which was syntactically illegal and unpredictable from the prior context, was presented as a parafoveal preview. The results of the experiment were simulated using E-Z Reader 10 by assuming that cloze probability can be dissociated from parafoveal visual input. It appears that when a short word is predictable in context, a decision to skip it can be made even if the information available parafoveally conflicts both visually and syntactically with those predictions. PMID:26076325

  7. [Clandestine places: illegal sale of alcohol for urban worker populations].

    PubMed

    Hamel, P; Asún, D

    1978-03-01

    The authors have studied the illegal commerce of alcohol in popular urban communities. This sale is done in so called clandestine places. The study was approached from a cultural-anthropological point of view and its objective is a descriptive-exploratory study based on observation and interview techniques. A definition and a tipology of these places was attempted, emphasizing group dynamics and interpersonal relations between the owner of the place and the customer; among the customers; among the place itself and the rest of the community organizations, formal and informal ones. A primary analysis was done, according to which these clandestine places appear legitimized by nets of interpersonal relations, critical economic situations and places that satisfy recreational needs of the inhabitants. In order to eliminate the former, adecuate substitutes for recreation and social interaction ought to be considered. PMID:685704

  8. Zoonotic viruses associated with illegally imported wildlife products.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kristine M; Anthony, Simon J; Switzer, William M; Epstein, Jonathan H; Seimon, Tracie; Jia, Hongwei; Sanchez, Maria D; Huynh, Thanh Thao; Galland, G Gale; Shapiro, Sheryl E; Sleeman, Jonathan M; McAloose, Denise; Stuchin, Margot; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Lipkin, W Ian; Karesh, William B; Daszak, Peter; Marano, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus) and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus) in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence.

  9. 76 FR 67361 - Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Part 42 RIN 1400-AC86 Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as... the IASA into law, modifying the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) as regards adoptions from... Subjects in 22 CFR Part 42 Immigration, Passports and Visas. Accordingly, for the reasons set forth in...

  10. Value of space defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-10-29

    This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

  11. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. PMID:25962882

  12. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants.

  13. [Abortion in unsafe conditions. Concealment, illegality, corruption and negligence].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Ortega, A

    1993-01-01

    "Abortion practiced under conditions of risk" is a phrase used to refer to illegal abortion. The phrase does not highlight the disappearance of risk when legislation changes. Rather, it calls attention to the fact that legal restrictions significantly increase dangers while failing to discourage women determined to terminate pregnancies. The International Planned Parenthood Federation defines abortion under conditions of risk as the use of nonoptimal technology, lack of counseling and services to orient the woman's decision and provide postabortion counseling, and the limitation of freedom to make the decision. The phrase encompasses concealment, illegality, corruption, and negligence. It is designed to impose a reproductive health perspective in response to an unresolved social conflict. Steps have been developed to improve the situation of women undergoing abortion even without a change in its legal status. Such steps include training and purchase of equipment for treatment of incomplete abortions and development of counseling and family planning services. The central difficulty of abortion induced in conditions of risk derives from the laws imposing the need for secrecy. In Mexico, the abortion decision belongs to the government and the society, while individual absorb the consequences of the practice of abortion. Public decision making about abortion is dominated by the concept that the female has an obligation to carry any pregnancy to term. Women who interfere with male descendency and practice a sexuality distinct from reproduction are made to pay a price in health and emotional balance. Resolution of the problem of abortion will require new concepts in terms of legal status, public health issues, and the rights of women. The problem becomes more pressing as abortion becomes more common in a country anxious to advance in the demographic transition. Only a commitment to the reproductive health of women and the full development of their rights as citizens will

  14. Canada's Immigration Policy, 1962-74

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parai, Louis

    1975-01-01

    Recent developments in Canada's immigration policy are examined, and it is stressed that economic considerations play an increasingly important role in determining the composition of immigration into Canada. (Author)

  15. Immigration Patterns, Public Opinion, and Government Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for illustrating how shifting patterns of immigration and public reaction have influenced public policy toward immigration restriction. Details objectives and procedures for activities using National Archives documents. Includes a worksheet and copies of government documents. (CH)

  16. Immigration and social justice: towards a progressive European immigration policy?

    PubMed

    Black, R

    1996-01-01

    "Stepping back from current debates over immigration in the new 'Fortress Europe', this paper examines moral and philosophical arguments for an alternative and more 'progressive' immigration policy. Despite recent interest within geography in principles of social justice, the extent to which such principles reach beyond particular societies or nations has rarely been considered explicitly. The notion of social justice may be extended to the question of immigration, without taking the position that migration should itself be seen as a 'human right'. Even within relatively conservative contractarian and communitarian conceptions of social justice, a number of suggestions can be made for 'progressive' policy options, in particular by focusing on the communal rights and duties of societies rather than the human rights of individual migrants."

  17. Fewer immigrants settle in nonmetro areas and most fare less well than metro immigrants.

    PubMed

    Effland, A B; Butler, M A

    1997-01-01

    "Recent attention to the issue of immigration in the United States has led to the addition of questions about immigration status to the Current Population Survey. Data from the March 1996 version show that Mexico has been the single largest source of immigration to the nonmetro United States, that a large proportion of nonmetro immigrants are children, and that nonmetro immigrants generally have lower earnings, higher unemployment, and higher poverty rates than metro immigrants and nonmetro natives. Fewer immigrants live in nonmetro areas than in metro, but they are concentrated in particular areas." PMID:12294840

  18. Spatiotemporal trends of illegal activities from ranger-collected data in a Ugandan national park.

    PubMed

    Critchlow, R; Plumptre, A J; Driciru, M; Rwetsiba, A; Stokes, E J; Tumwesigye, C; Wanyama, F; Beale, C M

    2015-10-01

    Within protected areas, biodiversity loss is often a consequence of illegal resource use. Understanding the patterns and extent of illegal activities is therefore essential for effective law enforcement and prevention of biodiversity declines. We used extensive data, commonly collected by ranger patrols in many protected areas, and Bayesian hierarchical models to identify drivers, trends, and distribution of multiple illegal activities within the Queen Elizabeth Conservation Area (QECA), Uganda. Encroachment (e.g., by pastoralists with cattle) and poaching of noncommercial animals (e.g., snaring bushmeat) were the most prevalent illegal activities within the QECA. Illegal activities occurred in different areas of the QECA. Poaching of noncommercial animals was most widely distributed within the national park. Overall, ecological covariates, although significant, were not useful predictors for occurrence of illegal activities. Instead, the location of illegal activities in previous years was more important. There were significant increases in encroachment and noncommercial plant harvesting (nontimber products) during the study period (1999-2012). We also found significant spatiotemporal variation in the occurrence of all activities. Our results show the need to explicitly model ranger patrol effort to reduce biases from existing uncorrected or capture per unit effort analyses. Prioritization of ranger patrol strategies is needed to target illegal activities; these strategies are determined by protected area managers, and therefore changes at a site-level can be implemented quickly. These strategies should also be informed by the location of past occurrences of illegal activity: the most useful predictor of future events. However, because spatial and temporal changes in illegal activities occurred, regular patrols throughout the protected area, even in areas of low occurrence, are also required. PMID:25996571

  19. Spatiotemporal trends of illegal activities from ranger-collected data in a Ugandan national park.

    PubMed

    Critchlow, R; Plumptre, A J; Driciru, M; Rwetsiba, A; Stokes, E J; Tumwesigye, C; Wanyama, F; Beale, C M

    2015-10-01

    Within protected areas, biodiversity loss is often a consequence of illegal resource use. Understanding the patterns and extent of illegal activities is therefore essential for effective law enforcement and prevention of biodiversity declines. We used extensive data, commonly collected by ranger patrols in many protected areas, and Bayesian hierarchical models to identify drivers, trends, and distribution of multiple illegal activities within the Queen Elizabeth Conservation Area (QECA), Uganda. Encroachment (e.g., by pastoralists with cattle) and poaching of noncommercial animals (e.g., snaring bushmeat) were the most prevalent illegal activities within the QECA. Illegal activities occurred in different areas of the QECA. Poaching of noncommercial animals was most widely distributed within the national park. Overall, ecological covariates, although significant, were not useful predictors for occurrence of illegal activities. Instead, the location of illegal activities in previous years was more important. There were significant increases in encroachment and noncommercial plant harvesting (nontimber products) during the study period (1999-2012). We also found significant spatiotemporal variation in the occurrence of all activities. Our results show the need to explicitly model ranger patrol effort to reduce biases from existing uncorrected or capture per unit effort analyses. Prioritization of ranger patrol strategies is needed to target illegal activities; these strategies are determined by protected area managers, and therefore changes at a site-level can be implemented quickly. These strategies should also be informed by the location of past occurrences of illegal activity: the most useful predictor of future events. However, because spatial and temporal changes in illegal activities occurred, regular patrols throughout the protected area, even in areas of low occurrence, are also required.

  20. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  1. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board...

  2. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation. SUMMARY: The Defense...

  3. Development in Children of Immigrant Families.

    PubMed

    Cowden, John D; Kreisler, Kelly

    2016-10-01

    Children of immigrant families experience developmental processes in the contexts of migration and settlement, presenting immigration-specific challenges. Child health providers can use awareness of the cultural-ecological model of immigrant child development to explore how acculturation, ethnic identity formation, and bilingualism affect the children and families under their care. Cross-cultural strategies for evaluating and supporting immigrant child development are presented to guide the provider in clinical interactions and community efforts.

  4. [Measles and chickenpox susceptibility among immigrants].

    PubMed

    Gétaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Wolff, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Exposure of immigrants to infectious diseases in their country of origin influences their susceptibility to infections later in life. Susceptibility to certain infections may significantly differs between immigrants depending on their regions of origin. Both measles and chickenpox (varicella) are conditions for which the level of exposure in the country of origin influences the preventive measures that immigrant health providers should propose. Through these two illustrative examples, this article summarizes the practical implications for clinicians who care for immigrants originating from southern countries.

  5. Development in Children of Immigrant Families.

    PubMed

    Cowden, John D; Kreisler, Kelly

    2016-10-01

    Children of immigrant families experience developmental processes in the contexts of migration and settlement, presenting immigration-specific challenges. Child health providers can use awareness of the cultural-ecological model of immigrant child development to explore how acculturation, ethnic identity formation, and bilingualism affect the children and families under their care. Cross-cultural strategies for evaluating and supporting immigrant child development are presented to guide the provider in clinical interactions and community efforts. PMID:27565358

  6. [The territorial dimension of Quebec's international immigration].

    PubMed

    Seguin, A; Termote, M

    1993-09-01

    "This paper is devoted to the spatial distribution of Quebec's international immigrants, and to the main territorial stakes related to this type of migration. After analysing international immigration as a flow (distribution of the cohorts of immigrants who entered Quebec during a given period) as well as a stock (distribution of all immigrants surviving in Quebec and their redistribution through internal migration), a critical analysis of the territorial stakes as defined by various agents (active at different levels) is proposed." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  7. Mental health of immigrants and refugees.

    PubMed

    Pumariega, Andrés J; Rothe, Eugenio; Pumariega, Joanne B

    2005-10-01

    The United States is a country of immigrants. With the exception of Native-Americans, every other American is, or descends from, an immigrant. First and second generation immigrant children are the most rapidly growing segment of the American population, with the great majority of this population being of non-European origin. This paper reviews the unique risk factors and mental health needs of our new immigrant populations, as well as treatment and services approaches to address their unique needs. PMID:16142540

  8. In Defense of Rubrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spandel, Vicki

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author expresses her views in defense of writing rubrics. She explains that when rubrics are thoughtfully crafted and used with discretion and understanding, they can be among the most useful instructional tools that teachers have. A rubric captures the essence of performance at various levels. Because rubric demands…

  9. Radiological Defense Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Originally prepared for use as a student textbook in Radiological Defense (RADEF) courses, this manual provides the basic technical information necessary for an understanding of RADEF. It also briefly discusses the need for RADEF planning and expected postattack emergency operations. There are 14 chapters covering these major topics: introduction…

  10. Children of Immigrants: A Statistical Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmelech, Yuval; McCaskie, Katie; Lennon, Mary Clare; Lu, Hsein-Hen

    This report describes demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the children of immigrants, focusing on their economic status. Major findings include the following: (1) immigrant children are more likely to be poor than native-born children; (2) among children whose parents work full-time, immigrant children are at a greater risk of living…

  11. Culturally Competent Qualitative Research with Latino Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Morales, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for conducting culturally competent qualitative research with Latino immigrants, a historically exploited group that represents more than half of all U.S. immigrants and is continuously growing. Limited research exists on Latino immigrants despite their large presence in the United States. The authors draw…

  12. Intergroup Relations and Predictors of Immigrant Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danso, Kofi; Lum, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Using survey data from 1,036 participants, which included 4 immigrant groups, we examined the factors that influence immigrants' experiences as they interact with nonimmigrant Americans. Logistic and multinomial regression results indicate that non-European immigrants were more likely to report negative experiences with Americans. The odds of…

  13. Immigrant Education in Sweden: Lessons for America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Gunilla; Farber, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Although state services for immigrants are quite generous, immigrant communities have struggled, socially and economically, to enter mainstream Swedish society. A growing sense of transgenerational isolation is evident. Education of immigrant children is characterized by "negative tolerance" and lack of bilingual support. Conceptions of…

  14. The Transnationalization of Families: Immigrant Separations & Reunifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Todorova, Irina; Louie, Josephine

    This study examined how children experienced immigrant separations when families migrated in a stepwise fashion. The study offers evidence that separation between children and one or both parents during the migratory process is common to a majority of immigrant children. Data came from the Longitudinal Immigrant Student Adaptation Study, which…

  15. The Power of the Immigrant Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exposito, Sara

    2012-01-01

    For teachers to effectively teach students who enter the U.S. educational system from other countries, they must first learn about the complexity of the immigrant experience, taking into account themes such as race, generational immigration, class, formal education, and language. When these themes are taught through the immigrant narrative, they…

  16. Immigration Reform: An Analysis of Employer Sanctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Estevan T.; And Others

    Recent immigration legislation has potential impacts on migrant education and Mexican American education. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 was passed after nine years of intense debate. The heart of so-called immigration reform is employer sanctions, which seek to restrict migration to the United States by prohibiting employers from…

  17. Beyond "Culture Clash" Understandings of Immigrant Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Bic

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the ways in which the experiences of immigrant youth and families in U.S. schools and society have been conceptualized primarily as conflicts between immigrant cultures and dominant U.S. culture. Exemplified by the discourse of culture clash or of immigrants being torn between two worlds, this prevalent understanding…

  18. The Inner World of the Immigrant Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igoa, Cristina

    Written in narrative form, this book describes the development of immigrant children and the development of a teacher who works with immigrant children. Part 1 portrays the immigrant experience of uprooting, culture shock, and adjustment to a new world. Part 2 describes a threefold theoretical model of cultural/academic/psychological interventions…

  19. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... jurisdiction as provided in 8 CFR 1003.1. (d) Governing standards. Immigration judges shall be governed by the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL...

  20. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... jurisdiction as provided in 8 CFR 1003.1. (d) Governing standards. Immigration judges shall be governed by the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL...

  1. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... jurisdiction as provided in 8 CFR 1003.1. (d) Governing standards. Immigration judges shall be governed by the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL...

  2. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... jurisdiction as provided in 8 CFR 1003.1. (d) Governing standards. Immigration judges shall be governed by the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL...

  3. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... jurisdiction as provided in 8 CFR 1003.1. (d) Governing standards. Immigration judges shall be governed by the... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL...

  4. Immigrants as Portrayed in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard; Fu, Danling; Lowery, Ruth McKoy

    2004-01-01

    America is a nation of immigrants, many of whom came as part of families, who left their home countries for different reasons to settle here. In the late nineteenth century, immigrants came from Northern Europe and then from Southern Europe, but recent immigrants tend to come from Eastern Europe (mostly old Soviet Union countries), Hispanic, and…

  5. The Mixed Economic Progress of Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeni, Robert F.; And Others

    This report examines whether the economic well-being of male immigrants to the United States improves substantially over time, details differences in economic progress of immigrants from different countries of origin, and assesses the impact of educational attainment on immigrants' earnings. Analyses are based on Public Use Micro Samples of the…

  6. The Effect of Literacy on Immigrant Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Ana; Green, David A.; Riddell, W. Craig

    2006-01-01

    We examine the impact of literacy on immigrant earnings and the sources of lower returns to education and experience among immigrants. We find that the native-born literacy distribution dominates that for immigrants. However, the two groups obtain similar returns to literacy skills, contrary to discrimination-based explanations for…

  7. Immigrant women and their health.

    PubMed

    Aroian, K J

    2001-01-01

    Immigrant women's health is a relatively new research area. At the beginning of the 1990s, nurse scholars concluded that there was insufficient research on this topic. They recommended broadening the overly narrow research foci on immigrant women's childbearing and on select populations, developing national data bases, identifying high-risk groups, and developing population-specific interventions. This chapter reviews 292 research articles published in journals during the 1990s about adult immigrant women's health. It: (1) summarizes research findings on topics that were the major foci of research conducted in the 1990s, (2) evaluates progress over the last decade in the research agenda proposed above, and (3) makes recommendations for research in the new millennium. PMID:11439781

  8. Illnesses among recently immigrated children.

    PubMed

    Schwarzwald, Heidi

    2005-04-01

    The number of children immigrating to the United States has increased steadily during the last decade. American families are adopting a significant portion of these children, more than 20,000. Recently immigrated children face many different health risks when compared to children born in the United States. They are subject to many infectious diseases no longer seen commonly in the United States such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV. They are more likely to have inadequate immunity to vaccine-preventable illnesses. Recent immigrants have a higher likelihood of having malnutrition and developmental delay. Finally, many will have suffered psychological trauma in either institutions or refugee camps. These children require specialized testing, care, and treatment in the pediatric office. PMID:15825138

  9. [Immigrants in geriatric institutional care].

    PubMed

    Koch-Straube, U

    1999-10-01

    To an increasing extent, elder immigrants make use of institutional caring support. Immigrants in need of care--a new challenge or chance? Taking nursing homes as an example, it is shown that nursing even within our own cultural context is characterized by many phenomena of strangeness and unfamiliarity. Confronted with strangeness, nurses react with feelings of anxiety and fascination. Old people react predominantly with retreat in fantasies and confusion. Will the situation change fundamentally when elder immigrants are increasingly admitted into nursing homes? Which conditions should be created, so that we can accept strangeness as a ubiquitous phenomenon in nursing homes? And is there not a chance to introduce fundamental changes to our present concepts of nursing in general if we are willing to confront ourselves with issues of multicultural nursing?

  10. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  11. 48 CFR 52.203-8 - Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-8 Section 52.203-8 Federal Acquisition... for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(a), insert the following clause: Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity (JAN 1997) (a) If...

  12. 48 CFR 52.203-8 - Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-8 Section 52.203-8 Federal Acquisition... for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(a), insert the following clause: Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity (MAY 2014) (a) If...

  13. 48 CFR 52.203-8 - Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-8 Section 52.203-8 Federal Acquisition... for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(a), insert the following clause: Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity (JAN 1997) (a) If...

  14. 48 CFR 52.203-8 - Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity. 52.203-8 Section 52.203-8 Federal Acquisition... for Illegal or Improper Activity. As prescribed in 3.104-9(a), insert the following clause: Cancellation, Rescission, and Recovery of Funds for Illegal or Improper Activity (JAN 1997) (a) If...

  15. Food insecurity and its sociodemographic correlates among Afghan immigrants in Iran.

    PubMed

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Ghazi-Tabatabie, Mahmoud; Sadeghi, Rasoul; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal

    2013-09-01

    The study determined the prevalence of food insecurity and its sociodemographic determinants among Afghan immigrants in two major cities of Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 310 adult females from immigrant Afghan households in Tehran (n=155) and Mashhad (n=155), who were recruited through multistage sampling. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews, using a questionnaire. Food security was measured by a locally-adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. More than 60% suffered from moderate-to-severe food insecurity, 37% were mildly food-insecure while about 23% were food-secure. Food insecurity was significantly more prevalent in female-headed households, households whose head and spouse had lower level of education, belonged to the Sunni sect, and those with illegal residential status, unemployment/low job status, not owning their house, low socioeconomic status (SES), and living in Mashhad. Prevalence of food insecurity was relatively high among Afghan immigrants in Iran. This calls for the need to develop community food security strategies for ensuring their short- and long-term health.

  16. Immigration and unemployment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tsokhas, K

    1994-01-01

    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  17. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A V; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little attempt to develop a richer understanding of the motivations behind contemporary illegal wildlife hunting. As a first step, we reviewed the academic and policy literatures on poaching and illegal wildlife use and considered the meanings of poverty and the relative importance of structure and individual agency. We placed motivations for illegal wildlife hunting within the context of the complex history of how wildlife laws were initially designed and enforced to indicate how hunting practices by specific communities were criminalized. We also considered the nature of poverty and the reasons for economic deprivation in particular communities to indicate how particular understandings of poverty as material deprivation ultimately shape approaches to illegal wildlife hunting. We found there is a need for a much better understanding of what poverty is and what motivates people to hunt illegally.

  18. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A V; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little attempt to develop a richer understanding of the motivations behind contemporary illegal wildlife hunting. As a first step, we reviewed the academic and policy literatures on poaching and illegal wildlife use and considered the meanings of poverty and the relative importance of structure and individual agency. We placed motivations for illegal wildlife hunting within the context of the complex history of how wildlife laws were initially designed and enforced to indicate how hunting practices by specific communities were criminalized. We also considered the nature of poverty and the reasons for economic deprivation in particular communities to indicate how particular understandings of poverty as material deprivation ultimately shape approaches to illegal wildlife hunting. We found there is a need for a much better understanding of what poverty is and what motivates people to hunt illegally. PMID:26332105

  19. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A. V.; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little attempt to develop a richer understanding of the motivations behind contemporary illegal wildlife hunting. As a first step, we reviewed the academic and policy literatures on poaching and illegal wildlife use and considered the meanings of poverty and the relative importance of structure and individual agency. We placed motivations for illegal wildlife hunting within the context of the complex history of how wildlife laws were initially designed and enforced to indicate how hunting practices by specific communities were criminalized. We also considered the nature of poverty and the reasons for economic deprivation in particular communities to indicate how particular understandings of poverty as material deprivation ultimately shape approaches to illegal wildlife hunting. We found there is a need for a much better understanding of what poverty is and what motivates people to hunt illegally. PMID:26332105

  20. Ethnic enclaves and the earnings of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yu; Gough, Margaret

    2011-11-01

    A large literature in sociology concerns the implications of immigrants' participation in ethnic enclaves for their economic and social well-being. The "enclave thesis" speculates that immigrants benefit from working in ethnic enclaves. Previous research concerning the effects of enclave participation on immigrants' economic outcomes has come to mixed conclusions as to whether enclave effects are positive or negative. In this article, we seek to extend and improve upon past work by formulating testable hypotheses based on the enclave thesis and testing them with data from the 2003 New Immigrant Survey (NIS), employing both residence-based and workplace-based measures of the ethnic enclave. We compare the economic outcomes of immigrants working in ethnic enclaves with those of immigrants working in the mainstream economy. Our research yields minimal support for the enclave thesis. Our results further indicate that for some immigrant groups, ethnic enclave participation actually has a negative effect on economic outcomes.

  1. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other's accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  2. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other`s accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  3. On the intended and unintended consequences of enhanced U.S. Border and interior immigration enforcement: evidence from Mexican deportees.

    PubMed

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Pozo, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Since about 2000, a number of federal and state policies have been implemented in the United States with the intention of stemming the flow of illegal immigration. In this article, we focus on two initiatives: (1) Operation Streamline, as an example of increased border enforcement by the federal government; and (2) state-level omnibus immigration laws, as an illustration of enhanced interior enforcement by state governments. We investigate whether these policies have reduced the intentions of deported Mexican immigrants to attempt a new unauthorized crossing. Although state-level omnibus immigration laws reduce the proportion of deportees intending to attempt a new crossing, increased border enforcement has proven to be far less effective. In addition, we ascertain the human costs associated with these policies. Our findings are mixed in this regard. Noteworthy is how the adoption of more stringent interior enforcement seems to result in a "herding" or "ganging-up" effect, whereby the incidence of verbal and physical abuse rises with the number of states enacting such measures. Additionally, our estimates suggest that deportees are more likely to respond that they have risked their lives to cross into the United States as a result of enhanced border enforcement. PMID:25361892

  4. On the intended and unintended consequences of enhanced U.S. Border and interior immigration enforcement: evidence from Mexican deportees.

    PubMed

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Pozo, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Since about 2000, a number of federal and state policies have been implemented in the United States with the intention of stemming the flow of illegal immigration. In this article, we focus on two initiatives: (1) Operation Streamline, as an example of increased border enforcement by the federal government; and (2) state-level omnibus immigration laws, as an illustration of enhanced interior enforcement by state governments. We investigate whether these policies have reduced the intentions of deported Mexican immigrants to attempt a new unauthorized crossing. Although state-level omnibus immigration laws reduce the proportion of deportees intending to attempt a new crossing, increased border enforcement has proven to be far less effective. In addition, we ascertain the human costs associated with these policies. Our findings are mixed in this regard. Noteworthy is how the adoption of more stringent interior enforcement seems to result in a "herding" or "ganging-up" effect, whereby the incidence of verbal and physical abuse rises with the number of states enacting such measures. Additionally, our estimates suggest that deportees are more likely to respond that they have risked their lives to cross into the United States as a result of enhanced border enforcement.

  5. Children of Exiles and Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Ana

    1979-01-01

    Calls attention to problems faced by children of exiles and immigrants as they attend school in places other than their countries of origin. Major problems include problems communicating in the language of the host country, culture shock, inability to readjust patterns of behavior, and inability to preserve an authentic model of their original…

  6. Issei: Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Yukiko

    Coming to Hawaii before July 1, 1924, when the Japanese Exclusion Act became effective, the experiences of the Issei or first generation are described. Divided into four parts, this book examines the experiences of Japanese immigrants in Hawaii from 1885 through 1970. Part 1, "The Formation and Stabilization of the Issei Community," explores the…

  7. A Note to Young Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Mitali

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses several things that young immigrants lose when they settle in a new land. These losses might entail the following: the ability to forget about race; language; the advantage of parents who can interpret the secrets of society; the stabilizing power of traditions; and the chance to disappear into the majority…

  8. Immigration Facts on Foreign Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Neil G.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. policymakers have put forth various immigration reform proposals to improve retention of foreign students obtaining advanced degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) from American universities. These students are considered particularly desirable because they, like their American counterparts, offer the types of…

  9. Students Sound Off on Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean; Greifner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Thousands of students nationwide marched in the streets or rallied in public parks, at state capitols, and in other locations in response to the legislation pending in Congress that would significantly tighten enforcement of immigration laws. Some of the largest demonstrations were in California and Texas, but students have also rallied in…

  10. [New immigrant women and health].

    PubMed

    Vissandjée, B; Carignan, P; Bourdeau-Marchand, M

    1999-04-01

    The Canadian health care system serves an increasingly ethnically diverse clientele, especially in major urban centres. Sustained inflows of immigrants demand that social and health care services partially revise their mission to help these newcomers maintain their health following arrival in Canada, since their health generally tends to deteriorate over time. This poses a special challenge for women who have immigrated recently, because their health is often jeopardized by vulnerability linked to their socioeconomic status. Responding in a culturally appropriate way to each person's needs entails a choice of health promotion and disease prevention strategies. While this choice is based on specific definitions of the concepts, it also must reflect immigrant women's perceptions of what constitutes promotion, prevention and health. The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of their perceptions and use of preventive social and health care services. Our respondents reported that health is the absence of psychological and physical problems and that health promotion is associated primarily with a good diet, physical exercise, control of stress, and continuing to lead an active life (work, education). They believe that disease prevention lies primarily in overcoming financial problems and gaining access to a healthy diet and medical care. These views are similar to North American concepts. Research could confirm the similarities and differences between immigrant women and host populations. Nursing interventions would support culturally appropriate comprehensive action that addresses the individual, family, community and social aspects.

  11. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  12. Identifying Demand Responses to Illegal Drug Supply Interdictions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Scott; Finlay, Keith

    2016-10-01

    Successful supply-side interdictions into illegal drug markets are predicated on the responsiveness of drug prices to enforcement and the price elasticity of demand for addictive drugs. We present causal estimates that targeted interventions aimed at methamphetamine input markets ('precursor control') can temporarily increase retail street prices, but methamphetamine consumption is weakly responsive to higher drug prices. After the supply interventions, purity-adjusted prices increased then quickly returned to pre-treatment levels within 6-12 months, demonstrating the short-term effects of precursor control. The price elasticity of methamphetamine demand is -0.13 to -0.21 for self-admitted drug treatment admissions and between -0.24 and -0.28 for hospital inpatient admissions. We find some evidence of a positive cross-price effect for cocaine, but we do not find robust evidence that increases in methamphetamine prices increased heroin, alcohol, or marijuana drug use. This study can inform policy discussions regarding other synthesized drugs, including illicit use of pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26216390

  13. Determination of six illegal antibiotics in chicken jerky dog treats.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Robert; Mirabile, Jennifer; Hafler, Kristen

    2014-04-30

    In 2007 chicken jerky dog treats were implicated in causing illnesses and death in dogs in several countries. Affected dogs were diagnosed with acquired Fanconi syndrome, which is characterized by kidney malfunction. Known causes of this condition include a chemical assault by various contaminants including certain drugs. For this reason investigations into possible causes of the illnesses included antibiotics that may be used in animal husbandry. Targeted analyte screens of individual imported chicken jerky dog treats using LC-MS/MS detected six illegal antibiotics in imported products of several brands. Trimethoprim, tilmicosin, enrofloxacin, sulfaclozine, and sulfamethoxazole are not allowed in chicken at any level and were found as high as 2800 ng/g (ppb). Sulfaquinoxaline was found in chicken jerky treats as high as 800 ng/g, which is well above the U.S. FDA tolerance of 100 ng/g. Although there is no evidence these contaminants were responsible for the dog illnesses, their misuse could contribute to antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.

  14. Tracking Vessels to Illegal Pollutant Discharges Using Multisource Vessel Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busler, J.; Wehn, H.; Woodhouse, L.

    2015-04-01

    Illegal discharge of bilge waters is a significant source of oil and other environmental pollutants in Canadian and international waters. Imaging satellites are commonly used to monitor large areas to detect oily discharges from vessels, off-shore platforms and other sources. While remotely sensed imagery provides a snap-shot picture useful for detecting a spill or the presence of vessels in the vicinity, it is difficult to directly associate a vessel to an observed spill unless the vessel is observed while the discharge is occurring. The situation then becomes more challenging with increased vessel traffic as multiple vessels may be associated with a spill event. By combining multiple sources of vessel location data, such as Automated Information Systems (AIS), Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) and SAR-based ship detection, with spill detections and drift models we have created a system that associates detected spill events with vessels in the area using a probabilistic model that intersects vessel tracks and spill drift trajectories in both time and space. Working with the Canadian Space Agency and the Canadian Ice Service's Integrated Satellite Tracking of Pollution (ISTOP) program, we use spills observed in Canadian waters to demonstrate the investigative value of augmenting spill detections with temporally sequenced vessel and spill tracking information.

  15. Determination of six illegal antibiotics in chicken jerky dog treats.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Robert; Mirabile, Jennifer; Hafler, Kristen

    2014-04-30

    In 2007 chicken jerky dog treats were implicated in causing illnesses and death in dogs in several countries. Affected dogs were diagnosed with acquired Fanconi syndrome, which is characterized by kidney malfunction. Known causes of this condition include a chemical assault by various contaminants including certain drugs. For this reason investigations into possible causes of the illnesses included antibiotics that may be used in animal husbandry. Targeted analyte screens of individual imported chicken jerky dog treats using LC-MS/MS detected six illegal antibiotics in imported products of several brands. Trimethoprim, tilmicosin, enrofloxacin, sulfaclozine, and sulfamethoxazole are not allowed in chicken at any level and were found as high as 2800 ng/g (ppb). Sulfaquinoxaline was found in chicken jerky treats as high as 800 ng/g, which is well above the U.S. FDA tolerance of 100 ng/g. Although there is no evidence these contaminants were responsible for the dog illnesses, their misuse could contribute to antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. PMID:24437928

  16. Measuring immigration stress of first-generation female Korean immigrants in California: Psychometric evaluation of Demand of Immigration Scale

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Norman, Gregory J.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Chhay, Douglas; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Immigration involves challenges and distress, which affect health and well-being of immigrants. Koreans are a recent, fast growing, but understudied group of immigrants in the US, and no study has established or evaluated any immigration stress measure among this population. This study explores the psychometric properties of Korean-translated Demands of Immigration (DI) Scale among first-generation female Korean immigrants in California. Analyses included evaluation of factor structure, reliability, validity, and descriptive statistics of subscales. Design A surname driven sampling strategy was applied to randomly select a representative sample of adult female Korean immigrants in California. Telephone interviews were conducted by trained bilingual interviewers. Study sample included 555 first-generation female Korean immigrants who were interviewed in Korean language. The 22-item DI scale was used to assess immigration stress in the study sample. Results Exploratory Factor Analysis suggested six correlated factors existed in the DI scale: language barriers, sense of loss, not feeling at home, perceived discrimination, novelty, and occupation. Confirmatory Factor Analysis validated the factor structure. Language barriers accounted for the most variance of the DI Scale (29.11%). The DI scale demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Conclusion Evidence has been offered that the Korean-translated DI scale is a reliable and valid measurement tool to examine immigration stress among Korean immigrants. The Korean-translated DI scale has replicated factor structure obtained in other ethnicities, but addition of cultural-specific items is suggested for Korean immigrants. High levels of language and occupation related stress warrant attention from researchers, social workers and policy makers. Findings from this study will inform future interventions to alleviate stress due to demands of immigration. PMID:21213157

  17. Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Mary C.

    This study of the attitudes and status of West Indian immigrants in the United States, based on interviews with 59 West Indian immigrants, 83 adolescent and young adult children of immigrants, 27 African Americans, 25 White Americans, and 6 coworkers of immigrants shows the changes that occur as immigrants confront the realities of U.S. life. West…

  18. Challenging Preservice Teacher Perspectives: Immigration, Equitable Opportunity, and Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nino, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    In this conceptual article, I use five questions that were posed in 1936 about immigration and the education of immigrant children as a lens to examine contemporary perspectives on immigration and the education of immigrant children. Dispelling myths about immigrant students and English learners has been a consistent concern in our country. These…

  19. Dialogue on Immigration: Should the Golden Door be Closed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durfee, David, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Papers presented by panelists at the Mid-Atlantic Regional Conference for the Social Studies are reprinted. Titles are: "Why the Focus on Immigration,""The Historical Process of Immigration,""Major Areas of Immigration Concern,""Human Implications of Immigration Law and Policies,""Refugee vs. Immigrant," and "How Educational Agencies Serve…

  20. TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND REDEVELOPING BROWNFIELDS SITES: MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS AND ILLEGAL DUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the private sector to address issues related to the redevelopment of Brownfields sites, specifically, municipal landfill and illegal dump sites. The document helps use...

  1. Trends in the Prevalence of Marijuana, Cocaine, and Other Illegal Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... illegal drug on school property (during the 12 months before the survey) Decreased ... on linear and quadratic trend analyses using logistic regression models controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade, p < ...

  2. Detection of whitening agents in illegal cosmetics using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-09-01

    Cosmetic products containing illegal whitening agents are still found on the European market. They represent a considerable risk to public health, since they are often characterised by severe side effects when used chronically. The detection of such products at customs is not always simple, due to misleading packaging and the existence of products containing only legal components. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, was evaluated for that purpose. It was found that the combination of ATR-IR with the simple chemometric technique k-nearest neighbours gave good results. A model was obtained in which a minimum of illegal samples was categorised as legal. The correctly classified illegal samples could be attributed to the illegal components present.

  3. Rapid discrimination of slimming capsules based on illegal additives by electronic nose and flash gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhenzhen; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2015-02-01

    The discrimination of counterfeit and/or illegally manufactured medicines is an important task in the pharmaceutical industry for pharmaceutical safety. In this study, 22 slimming capsule samples with illegally added sibutramine and phenolphthalein were analyzed by electronic nose and flash gas chromatography. To reveal the difference among the different classes of samples, principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were employed to analyze the data acquired from electronic nose and flash gas chromatography, respectively. The samples without illegal additives can be discriminated from the ones with illegal additives by using electronic nose or flash gas chromatography data individually. To improve the performance of classification, a data fusion strategy was applied to integrate the data from electronic nose and flash gas chromatography data into a single model. The results show that the samples with phenolphthalein, sibutramine and both can be classified well by using fused data.

  4. Detection of whitening agents in illegal cosmetics using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-09-01

    Cosmetic products containing illegal whitening agents are still found on the European market. They represent a considerable risk to public health, since they are often characterised by severe side effects when used chronically. The detection of such products at customs is not always simple, due to misleading packaging and the existence of products containing only legal components. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, was evaluated for that purpose. It was found that the combination of ATR-IR with the simple chemometric technique k-nearest neighbours gave good results. A model was obtained in which a minimum of illegal samples was categorised as legal. The correctly classified illegal samples could be attributed to the illegal components present. PMID:24927403

  5. Illegal private clinics: ideal health services choices among rural-urban migrants in China?

    PubMed

    Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to explore the important issues and the role of illegal private clinics in health services access among rural-urban migrants in China. The function that illegal private clinics substantially play on the health among rural-urban migrants in China is rarely discussed in studies. A study on a migrant community in Beijing shows the disadvantaged status of health services choices and the constraints for access to health services among migrants. It argues that the existence of illegal private clinics provides a channel to migrants for medical services in the city and reflects the difficulties and high cost of providing medical services to migrants in urban public hospitals. Occasionally the illegal private clinics can cause danger to the health of migrants.

  6. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  7. To what extent does immigration affect inequality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Yonatan; Aste, Tomaso

    2016-11-01

    The current surge in income and wealth inequality in most western countries, along with the continuous immigration to those countries demand a quantitative analysis of the effect immigration has on economic inequality. This paper presents a quantitative analysis framework providing a way to calculate this effect. It shows that in most cases, the effect of immigration on wealth and income inequality is limited, mainly due to the relative small scale of immigration waves. For a large scale flow of immigrants, such as the immigration to the US, the UK and Australia in the past few decades, we estimate that 10 % ÷ 15 % of the wealth and income inequality increase can be attributed to immigration. The results demonstrate that immigration could possibly decrease inequality substantially, if the characteristics of the immigrants resemble the characteristics of the destination middle class population in terms of wealth or income. We empirically found that the simple linear relation ΔS = 0.18 ρ roughly describes the increase in the wealth share of the top 10 % due to immigration of a fraction ρ of the population.

  8. Immigrant health: legal tools/legal barriers.

    PubMed

    Moua, Mee; Guerra, Fernando A; Moore, Jill D; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2002-01-01

    The United States is a country of immigrants, our government having been formed by recent arrivals. This trend has continued throughout our history; according to the Center for Immigration Studies, more than 26 million immigrants have settled in the United States since 1970, and approximately one million new immigrants come to the United States each year. The immigrant population faces highly diverse health issues that states, cities, and counties must address, many of which pose significant legal and policy issues. Social, cultural, and linguistic factors complicate those challenges, as does the overlay of federal immigration and health policy. Two federal laws, the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 and Title VI of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964, have affected immigrants in two very different ways. The former made it difficult for immigrants to qualify for publicly funded benefits. In contrast, Title VI made it easier for immigrants to obtain benefits by requiring federally funded service providers to offer translating services to persons with limited English language skills. Tuberculosis treatment is perhaps the most pressing health need among recent arrivals to the United States. Methods to slow down and hopefully eliminate this disease are underway, but a more comprehensive approach to not only tuberculosis but to immigrant health in general is needed. Indeed, it will benefit those directly affected by tuberculosis and will have serious implications for the entire population for generations to come.

  9. Boiler suppliers ask for investigation of secret, illegal foreign financing deals

    SciTech Connect

    Smock, R.

    1982-01-01

    The boiler industry has asked the US Department of Commerce to protect it from what it claims may be secret illegal financing deals by foreign suppliers. Complaints by the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA) cite two cases involving French and Swedish suppliers and warn of South American deals under consideration. ABMA suggests that foreign governments may be subsidizing commercial financing to encourage exports in violation of US tariff laws. Those purchasing the impartial boilers deny that anything improper or illegal was done. (DCK)

  10. Synthetic plant defense elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

  11. Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade.

    PubMed

    Efthymiou, Loukia; Mavragani, Amaryllis; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P

    2016-08-05

    As illegal e-waste trade has been significantly growing over the course of the last few years, the consequences on human health and the environment demand immediate action on the part of the global community. Though it is argued that e-waste flows from developed to developing countries, this subject seems to be more complex than that, with a variety of studies suggesting that income per capita is not the only factor affecting the choice of regions that e-waste is illegally shipped to. How is a country's economic and social development associated with illegal e-waste trade? Is legislation an important factor? This paper aims at quantifying macroeconomic (per capita income and openness of economy) and social (human development and social progress) aspects, based on qualitative data on illegal e-waste trade routes, by examining the percentage differences in scorings in selected indicators for all known and suspected routes. The results show that illegal e-waste trade occurs from economically and socially developed regions to countries with significantly lower levels of overall development, with few exceptions, which could be attributed to the fact that several countries have loose regulations on e-waste trade, thus deeming them attractive for potential illegal activities.

  12. Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade.

    PubMed

    Efthymiou, Loukia; Mavragani, Amaryllis; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P

    2016-01-01

    As illegal e-waste trade has been significantly growing over the course of the last few years, the consequences on human health and the environment demand immediate action on the part of the global community. Though it is argued that e-waste flows from developed to developing countries, this subject seems to be more complex than that, with a variety of studies suggesting that income per capita is not the only factor affecting the choice of regions that e-waste is illegally shipped to. How is a country's economic and social development associated with illegal e-waste trade? Is legislation an important factor? This paper aims at quantifying macroeconomic (per capita income and openness of economy) and social (human development and social progress) aspects, based on qualitative data on illegal e-waste trade routes, by examining the percentage differences in scorings in selected indicators for all known and suspected routes. The results show that illegal e-waste trade occurs from economically and socially developed regions to countries with significantly lower levels of overall development, with few exceptions, which could be attributed to the fact that several countries have loose regulations on e-waste trade, thus deeming them attractive for potential illegal activities. PMID:27527200

  13. Illegal trade of regulated and protected aquatic species in the Philippines detected by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Asis, Angelli Marie Jacynth M; Lacsamana, Joanne Krisha M; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-01-01

    Illegal trade has greatly affected marine fish stocks, decreasing fish populations worldwide. Despite having a number of aquatic species being regulated, illegal trade still persists through the transport of dried or processed products and juvenile species trafficking. In this regard, accurate species identification of illegally traded marine fish stocks by DNA barcoding is deemed to be a more efficient method in regulating and monitoring trade than by morphological means which is very difficult due to the absence of key morphological characters in juveniles and processed products. Here, live juvenile eels (elvers) and dried products of sharks and rays confiscated for illegal trade were identified. Twenty out of 23 (87%) randomly selected "elvers" were identified as Anguilla bicolor pacifica and 3 (13%) samples as Anguilla marmorata. On the other hand, 4 out of 11 (36%) of the randomly selected dried samples of sharks and rays were Manta birostris. The rest of the samples were identified as Alopias pelagicus, Taeniura meyeni, Carcharhinus falciformis, Himantura fai and Mobula japonica. These results confirm that wild juvenile eels and species of manta rays are still being caught in the country regardless of its protected status under Philippine and international laws. It is evident that the illegal trade of protected aquatic species is happening in the guise of dried or processed products thus the need to put emphasis on strengthening conservation measures. This study aims to underscore the importance of accurate species identification in such cases of illegal trade and the effectivity of DNA barcoding as a tool to do this.

  14. Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade

    PubMed Central

    Efthymiou, Loukia; Mavragani, Amaryllis; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2016-01-01

    As illegal e-waste trade has been significantly growing over the course of the last few years, the consequences on human health and the environment demand immediate action on the part of the global community. Though it is argued that e-waste flows from developed to developing countries, this subject seems to be more complex than that, with a variety of studies suggesting that income per capita is not the only factor affecting the choice of regions that e-waste is illegally shipped to. How is a country’s economic and social development associated with illegal e-waste trade? Is legislation an important factor? This paper aims at quantifying macroeconomic (per capita income and openness of economy) and social (human development and social progress) aspects, based on qualitative data on illegal e-waste trade routes, by examining the percentage differences in scorings in selected indicators for all known and suspected routes. The results show that illegal e-waste trade occurs from economically and socially developed regions to countries with significantly lower levels of overall development, with few exceptions, which could be attributed to the fact that several countries have loose regulations on e-waste trade, thus deeming them attractive for potential illegal activities. PMID:27527200

  15. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  16. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  17. "Why we stay": immigrants' motivations for remaining in communities impacted by anti-immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carmen R; Lewis Valentine, Jessa; Padilla, Brian

    2013-07-01

    Although restrictive immigration policy is intended to reduce incentives for unauthorized immigrants to remain in the United States, many immigrants remain in their U.S. community despite the anti-immigration climate surrounding them. This study explores motivations shaping immigrants' intentions to stay in Arizona after passage of Senate Bill 1070 in 2010, one of the most restrictive immigration policies in recent decades. We conducted three focus groups in a large metropolitan city in Arizona with Mexican immigrant parents (N = 25). Themes emerging from the focus groups described multiple and interlocking personal, family and community, and contemporary sociopolitical motivations to stay in their community, and suggest that some important motivating factors have evolved as a result of immigrants' changing environment. Implications for research and social policy reform are discussed.

  18. Are Latino Immigrants a Burden to Safety Net Services in Nontraditional Immigrant States? Lessons From Oregon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The significant growth of the Latino population in the midst of an economic recession has invigorated anti-Latino, anti-immigrant sentiments in many US states. One common misconception is that Latino immigrants are a burden to safety net services. This may be particularly true in nontraditional immigrant states that have not historically served Latino immigrants. Oregon data suggest that despite a higher prevalence of poverty, use of safety net services among Latino immigrants in Oregon is lower than that among non-Latino Whites. Immigration status, costs, lack of insurance coverage, and discrimination are among the reasons for this group’s limited use of services. Nevertheless, policies designed to strengthen community and institutional support for Latino immigrant families should be considered in the context of current health care and immigration reform efforts. PMID:24625168

  19. Health insurance disparities among immigrants: are some legal immigrants more vulnerable than others?

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shanta; Kagotho, Njeri

    2010-11-01

    This study examined health insurance disparities among recent immigrants. The authors analyzed all working-age adult immigrants between the ages of 18 and 64 using the New Immigrant Survey data collected in 2003.This survey is a cross-sectional interview of recent legal permanent residents on their social, economic, and health status. Respondents were interviewed in English or in their preferred languages. Nearly two-thirds of immigrants were uninsured, in spite of their strong labor force participation. Of the four key classes of immigration--employment based, family sponsored, refugee/asylum program, and diversity program--the diversity program immigrants were least likely to be insured, controlling for a wide array of demographic, human capital, acculturation, and assets-related variables. Strategies to increase health insurance coverage among legal immigrants, especially diversity immigrants, are discussed.

  20. Do undocumented migrants earn lower wages than legal immigrants? New evidence from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Massey, D S

    1987-01-01

    "This article examines the extent to which undocumented status lowers wage rates among immigrants to the United States from four Mexican communities. Regression equations were estimated to determine the effect of legal status on wages independent of other demographic, social and economic variables, and special efforts were made to control for possible sample selection biases. Findings suggest that the data are relatively free from selectivity problems that have characterized earlier studies, and that legal status had no direct effect on wage rates earned by male migrants from the four communities. Legal status also had little effect on the kind of job that migrants take in the United States, but it does play an important indirect role in determining the length of time that migrants stay in that country. By reducing the duration of stay, illegal status lowers the amount of employer-specific capital accruing to undocumented migrants, and thereby lowers wage rates relative to legal migrants." Data are for 1982-1983.

  1. Thermoregulatory defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sessler, Daniel I

    2009-07-01

    Core body temperature is normally tightly regulated by an effective thermoregulatory system. Thermoregulatory control is sometimes impaired by serious illness, but more typically remains intact. The primary autonomic defenses against heat are sweating and active precapillary vasodilation; the primary autonomic defenses against cold are arteriovenous shunt vasoconstriction and shivering. The core temperature triggering each response defines its activation threshold. Temperatures between the sweating and vasoconstriction thresholds define the inter-threshold range. The shivering threshold is usually a full 1 degrees C below the vasoconstriction threshold and is therefore a "last resort" response. Both vasoconstriction and shivering are associated with autonomic and hemodynamic activation; and each response is effective, thus impeding induction of therapeutic hypothermia. It is thus helpful to accompany core cooling with drugs that pharmacologically induce a degree of thermal tolerance. No perfect drug or drug combination has been identified. Anesthetics, for example, induce considerable tolerance, but are rarely suitable. Meperidine-especially in combination with buspirone-is especially effective while provoking only modest toxicity. The combination of buspirone and dexmedetomidine is comparably effective while avoiding the respiratory depression association with opioid administration.

  2. Language, culture, and adaptation in immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Toppelberg, Claudio O; Collins, Brian A

    2010-10-01

    In this article the authors discuss first why it is crucial, from a clinical and public health perspective, to better understand the development as well as risk and protection processes for the mental health of immigrant children. The authors then shift focus to the main tenet of this article, namely, that specific aspects of the dual language development of immigrant children are highly relevant to their mental health and adaptation. This argument is illustrated with empirical studies on Latino immigrant children, as they represent the majority of immigrant children in America and as a way of exemplifying the risks and circumstances that are potentially shared by other immigrant groups. Finally, the authors conceptually differentiate dual language development and its mental health impact from the dual-culture (bicultural) development and circumstance of immigrant children and their mental health impact.

  3. Mental health concerns among African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Venters, Homer; Adekugbe, Olayinka; Massaquoi, Jacob; Nadeau, Cheryl; Saul, Jack; Gany, Francesca

    2011-08-01

    African immigrants represent a rapidly expanding group of immigrants in the United States. In New York City, Africans constitute the fastest growing segment of immigrants but the needs and practices of African immigrants in the U.S. remain poorly understood. A community based organization (CBO) serving African immigrants in Staten Island, NY began a health screening program in 2008 with the goal of promoting access to primary care. Over 18 months, 296 visits were recorded at African Refuge health screenings, representing a total of 87 people who averaged just over 3 visits per person. The screenings identified mental health among the top three medical problems of clients but referral to mental health services was rare. Dedicated services are required to better screen for mental health concerns and refer African immigrants to mental health care.

  4. Human rights and immigrants' access to care.

    PubMed

    Parmet, Wendy; Fischer, Simon

    2013-12-01

    Although the human right to health is well established under international law, many states limit non-citizens' participation in public insurance programs. In the United States, immigrants face especially high barriers due to the lack of recognition of a broad right to health as well as federal statutes restricting many immigrants' eligibility to federally-funded insurance. High rates of uninsurance among immigrants have a detrimental effect on their health, as well as on the health of citizens who live in their communities. Finch vs. Commonwealth Health Insurance Connector, a recent case decided by the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, recognized the rights of legal immigrants in Massachusetts to state-supported health care, and demonstrates the importance of insuring immigrants in broadly-based, rather than immigrant-specific, programs.

  5. Residential independence of elderly immigrants in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sharon M; Edmonston, Barry

    2014-12-01

    This article addresses three questions: Are elderly immigrants less likely than Canadian-born elderly people to reside independently? What are the effects of economic, cultural, and life course factors on residential independence among elderly immigrants? What are the effects of immigrant-specific characteristics such as duration of residence and cultural background? Descriptive results show that elderly immigrants are less likely to reside independently, but the large gap of over 15 per cent is reduced to 5 per cent once economic, cultural, life course, and other factors are considered in the multivariate analysis. Effects of economic, cultural, and life course factors are mostly as expected, as are those of immigrant-specific characteristics such as duration of residence. Although aging immigrants have more-varied living arrangements than their Canadian-born peers, these are likely to increasingly include residential independence.

  6. Contextualizing immigrant access to health resources.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joshua S

    2010-06-01

    A vast majority of our understanding of immigrant health centers around traits of individuals and groups. While useful, current approaches to research on immigrant health decontextualize the experience of immigrants in the United States. This paper uses a historical case study of the Chinese community in San Francisco to develop a contextual framework to understand the levels of influence that impact the availability of health resources in immigrant communities. International, transnational, transcommunity, and enclave contexts have shaped health care access for Chinese immigrants in San Francisco. The conceptual framework provides a basis for future research, programmatic, and policy work that integrates individual and contextual factors in assessing and improving immigrant access to health resources.

  7. Human rights and immigrants' access to care.

    PubMed

    Parmet, Wendy; Fischer, Simon

    2013-12-01

    Although the human right to health is well established under international law, many states limit non-citizens' participation in public insurance programs. In the United States, immigrants face especially high barriers due to the lack of recognition of a broad right to health as well as federal statutes restricting many immigrants' eligibility to federally-funded insurance. High rates of uninsurance among immigrants have a detrimental effect on their health, as well as on the health of citizens who live in their communities. Finch vs. Commonwealth Health Insurance Connector, a recent case decided by the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, recognized the rights of legal immigrants in Massachusetts to state-supported health care, and demonstrates the importance of insuring immigrants in broadly-based, rather than immigrant-specific, programs. PMID:24715016

  8. The Effect of Immigrant Concentration in Schools on Native and Immigrant Children's Reading and Math Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Wurtz

    2011-01-01

    Using a unique and very rich PISA dataset from Denmark, we show that the immigrant concentration in the school influences reading and math skills for both immigrant children and native children. Overall, children in schools with a high immigrant concentration score lower on reading and math test scores. The negative effects associated with…

  9. Brokering Identity and Learning Citizenship: Immigration Settlement Organizations and New Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yidan

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines citizenship learning and identity construction of new Chinese immigrants in a Canadian immigration settlement organization (ISO). I address the gap between the concept of "settlement" and "citizenship" generated by government-funded ISOs and new immigrants' actual practices in these programs. I adopt Dorothy…

  10. Immigrants as Active Citizens: Exploring the Volunteering Experience of Chinese Immigrants in Vancouver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that immigration has played an important role in transforming Canada into an ethno-culturally diverse and economically prosperous nation, immigrants themselves are often criticised as passive citizens. This study attempts to deconstruct this myth by investigating the volunteering experiences of Chinese immigrants in Vancouver. The…

  11. Health Insurance Disparities among Immigrants: Are Some Legal Immigrants More Vulnerable than Others?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Kagotho, Njeri

    2010-01-01

    This study examined health insurance disparities among recent immigrants. The authors analyzed all working-age adult immigrants between the ages of 18 and 64 using the New Immigrant Survey data collected in 2003. This survey is a cross-sectional interview of recent legal permanent residents on their social, economic, and health status. Respondents…

  12. Returns to Pre-Immigration Education for Non-Western Immigrants: Why so Low?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardoy, Inés; Schøne, Pål

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the return to pre-immigration education for non-western immigrants, and explain why it is so low. Returns to one extra year of education is three times higher for ethnic Norwegians than for non-western immigrants. Using the method "Over-Required-Under" (ORU) education approach, we reveal that…

  13. Assimilation Attitudes Predict Lower Immigration-Related Self-Efficacy among Israeli Immigrant Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe; Ben-Uri, Ina; Horenczyk, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on self-efficacy among teachers working in culturally diverse educational contexts. We put forward the notion of immigration-related self-efficacy and provide initial support for its relationship with the acculturation attitudes held by immigrant teachers. One hundred thirty-three teachers who immigrated to Israel from the…

  14. 78 FR 31398 - Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Part 42 RIN 1400-AD39 Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as.... Section 203(e)(3) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) requires the Department of State to... of the Paperwork Reduction Act, 44 U.S.C., Chapter 35. List of Subjects in 22 CFR Part 42...

  15. Immigrant Narratives: Power, Difference, and Representation in Young-Adult Novels with Immigrant Protagonists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Elizabeth; Kalyanpur, Maya

    2011-01-01

    As of 2008, about 23% of children in the United States were immigrants or the children of immigrants. This paper examines how immigrants are portrayed in books aimed at teenagers. From a sample of 20 young-adult novels we look at the demographics of both protagonist and author and examine how three main themes are addressed: (1) experiences prior…

  16. Immigrants, Your Community, and U.S. Immigration Policy. Public Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Study Circles Resource Center, Pomfret, CT.

    The discussion guide explores the policy debate over immigration to the United States with regard to economic and quality of life concerns, environmental issues, and ethical considerations. The first article discusses the growing sentiments against immigration while using an historical account of U.S. immigration history and laws. While a…

  17. Heritage, Culture, and Immigration: The Family Connection = Heritage, culture et immigration: Les relations familiales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.; Eisner, Kathy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the Canadian journal "Transitions," presented in French- and English-language editions, deals with immigration as it relates to families. "Immigration, Integration, Families, Values: Old Wine in New Bottles" (Morton Weinfeld with Kathy Eisner) discusses the process of immigrant integration, which spans generations, and its impact on…

  18. Age at Immigration and the Incomes of Older Immigrants, 1994–2010

    PubMed Central

    Tienda, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Seniors comprise a growing proportion of new U.S. immigrants. We investigate whether late-age immigrants are disadvantaged in older age relative to those arriving earlier in life, based on income, reliance on public benefits, and access to public medical insurance. We test whether the 1996 welfare reform law altered the relationships between age at immigration and these outcomes. Method. Immigrants aged 65 and older in the 1994–2010 Current Population Surveys were classified by age at immigration. Median and logistic regressions are used to estimate the association between age at immigration and several outcomes and to test whether these associations differ for arrivals before and after welfare reform. Results. Late-age immigration is strongly associated with lower personal income, lower rates of Medicare and Social Security receipt, and higher participation in Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. Arrival after 1996 is associated with lower rates of SSI, Medicaid, and Medicare receipt. The association between late-age immigration and income is stronger for post-1996 arrivals relative to earlier arrivals, whereas that between late-age immigration and Medicaid is weaker, suggesting that the penalty conferred by late-age immigration grew after reform. Discussion. Late-age immigrants face formidable economic disadvantages exacerbated by exclusion from public benefits, with implications for immigration, health care, and welfare policy. PMID:24942972

  19. Immigration and the Family: Research and Policy on U.S. Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan, Ed.; And Others

    In 1994, the U.S. population included an estimated 22.6 million immigrants, over one fourth of whom were from Mexico. Family networks play a crucial role in immigration. Based on a national symposium, this book includes 15 chapters that examine the role of the family in international immigration and the impact of migration on families and…

  20. [Assessment of the immigrant child].

    PubMed

    Poch, J; Montesdeoca, A; Hernández Borges, A; Aparicio, J L; Herranz, M; López Almaraz, R; Mateos, M

    2006-01-01

    In the last twenty years Spain has turned into one of the principal countries recipients of foreign population. As consequence of this massive entry of people, our country is among the first ones of Europe for interannual increase of population. The concept of immigrant child is very wide and includes minors of very diverse characteristics, as the proceeding from international adoptions, the children coming from developing countries or those that come from other developed countries. The immigrant children do not represent health risk for the autochthonous population, on the contrary, they are in situation of defenselessness for their scanty vaccination coverages, their situation of marginality and the precarious sanitary systems of the countries of origin. At the moment of offering medical paediatric attention to foreign children, we must individualize our actions in conformity with the characteristics of each patient. It is not possible to simplify in one unique protocol the best studies to resolve a problem of health in an immigrant child. The attention of these children implies an overstrain for the pediatrician and the sanitary personnel that receives them, because it is necessary to conquer idiomatic, cultural and social barriers to optimize the level of health of these patients. The syndromic initial description can help to prioritize the studies in each case (according to the most probable diagnoses). The children who return to the native land of their parents meet in a special situation of risk, for not being prepared to resist the attack of pathogen that do not exist or are rare in Spain.

  1. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    PubMed Central

    Eamranond, Pracha P.; Hu, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status. PMID:21572847

  2. [Measles and chickenpox susceptibility among immigrants].

    PubMed

    Gétaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Wolff, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Exposure of immigrants to infectious diseases in their country of origin influences their susceptibility to infections later in life. Susceptibility to certain infections may significantly differs between immigrants depending on their regions of origin. Both measles and chickenpox (varicella) are conditions for which the level of exposure in the country of origin influences the preventive measures that immigrant health providers should propose. Through these two illustrative examples, this article summarizes the practical implications for clinicians who care for immigrants originating from southern countries. PMID:27323481

  3. Access to HAART in HIV-infected immigrants: a retrospective multicenter Italian study.

    PubMed

    Saracino, A; El-Hamad, I; Prato, R; Cibelli, D C; Tartaglia, A; Palumbo, E; Pezzoli, M C; Angarano, G; Scotto, G

    2005-09-01

    Since 1996, AIDS has declined in the Italian population, but cases in foreign patients, including both recent immigrants and long-term residents, have increased from 3.9% in 1995-1996 to 15.4% in 2001-2002. This increase can only be partly explained by a higher migratory flow and might reflect a delayed access to health facilities and to antiretroviral therapy in migrants. We performed a survey for the year 2003 of HIV-infected immigrants to Italy from countries outside the European Union to verify which factors might influence a lack of access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Italian centers of infectious diseases were requested to send sociodemographic and clinical data of HIV-infected immigrant patients. A total of 553 HIV-infected immigrants (49.9% women) were evaluated, representing 6.5% of all HIV-infected patients from these centers. The mean duration of residency in Italy was 6.6 +/- 5.0 years. The country of origin was Africa (64.5%), North and South America (24.2%), Eastern Europe (7.0%), and Asia (3.8%). A total of 407 of 553 patients (73.6%) were taking antiretroviral drugs at the time of screening. Females presented a younger age (p = 0.001), a lower frequency of Centers for Disease Control (CDC) stage B/C (p = 0.008) and a more frequent heterosexual exposure to HIV (p < 0.001), while no differences were observed for time of first positive serology (p = 0.7). CD4 cell count (p = 0.9) and log plasma HIV-RNA (p = 0.1). Characteristics of HAART patients were compared to those of nontreated patients, despite a CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/mm(3). No significant difference was found for gender, country of origin, risk factor, and years of Italian residence, while legal immigrants (p = 0.018) and registered in the National Health Service (p = 0.014) were significantly more likely to receive HAART compared to illegal immigrants.

  4. Pre- to Post-Immigration Alcohol Use Trajectories among Recent Latino Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario; Blackson, Timothy C.; Sastre, Francisco; Rojas, Patria; Li, Tan; Dillon, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The escalation of alcohol use among some Latino immigrant groups as their time in the United States increases has been well-documented. Yet, little is known about the alcohol use behaviors of Latino immigrants prior to immigration. This prospective longitudinal study examines pre- to post-immigration alcohol use trajectories among a cohort of recent Latino immigrants. Retrospective pre-immigration data were collected at baseline from a sample of 455 Cuban, South American and Central American Latinos ages 18–34 who immigrated to the U.S. less than one year prior. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on their post-immigration alcohol use in the past 90 days. We hypothesized (a) overall declines in pre- to post-immigration alcohol among recent Latino immigrants and (b) gender/documentation specific effects, with higher rates of alcohol use among males and undocumented participants compared to their female and documented counterparts. Growth curve analyses revealed males had higher levels of pre-immigration alcohol use with steeper declines in post-immigration alcohol use compared to females. Declines in alcohol use frequency were observed for documented, but not undocumented males. No changes in pre- to post-immigration alcohol use were found for documented or undocumented females. This study contributes to the limited knowledge of pre- to post-immigration alcohol use patterns among Latinos in the United States. Future research is needed to identify social determinants associated with the alcohol use trajectories of recent Latino immigrants, as it may inform prediction, prevention, and treatment of problem-drinking behaviors among the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority in the United States. PMID:25243834

  5. Defense acquisition programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The continuing instability in the overall defense budget and the recent changes in Eastern Europe are forcing DOD and the military services to reexamine the need, priority, and annual funding levels for many weapon system acquisition programs. GAO reviewed six weapon system acquisition programs that DOD was scheduled to make an acquisition milestone decision on during fiscal year 1991. Under milestone authorization, up to five years funding can be approved to cover the entire acquisition phase for either full-scale development or full-rate production. This report examines the Non-Line-of-Sight Missile, the Light Helicopter, the MK-50 Torpedo, the Sensor Fuzed Weapon, the Advanced Tactical Fighter, and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System Class 2 Terminals.

  6. Employment-based immigrants--Immigration and Naturalization Service. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1991-11-29

    This final rule implements section 121 of the Immigration Act of 1990, Public Law 101-649, November 29, 1990 (IMMACT), by providing petitioning procedures for employment-based immigrants under sections 203(b) (1) through (5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (Act). It will also implement new immigrant classifications and requirements established by Public Law 101-649, and clarify, for the general public and businesses, requirements for classification and admission for these new immigrant classifications. This rule is necessary to help American businesses hire highly skilled, specially trained personnel to fill increasingly sophisticated jobs for which domestic personnel cannot be found.

  7. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  8. Gender differences in immigrant health: the case of Mexican and Middle Eastern immigrants.

    PubMed

    Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Reynolds, Megan M

    2012-03-01

    This article draws on theories of gender inequality and immigrant health to hypothesize differences among the largest immigrant population, Mexicans, and a lesser known population of Middle Easterners. Using data from the 2000-2007 National Health Interview Surveys, we compare health outcomes among immigrants to those among U.S.-born whites and assess gender differences within each group. We find an immigrant story and a gender story. Mexican and Middle Eastern immigrants are healthier than U.S.-born whites, and men report better health than women regardless of nativity or ethnicity. We identify utilization of health care as a primary mechanism that contributes to both patterns. Immigrants are less likely than U.S.-born whites to interact with the health care system, and women are more likely to do so than men. Thus, immigrant and gender health disparities may partly reflect knowledge of health status rather than actual health.

  9. Digital surveillance: a novel approach to monitoring the illegal wildlife trade.

    PubMed

    Sonricker Hansen, Amy L; Li, Annie; Joly, Damien; Mekaru, Sumiko; Brownstein, John S

    2012-01-01

    A dearth of information obscures the true scale of the global illegal trade in wildlife. Herein, we introduce an automated web crawling surveillance system developed to monitor reports on illegally traded wildlife. A resource for enforcement officials as well as the general public, the freely available website, http://www.healthmap.org/wildlifetrade, provides a customizable visualization of worldwide reports on interceptions of illegally traded wildlife and wildlife products. From August 1, 2010 to July 31, 2011, publicly available English language illegal wildlife trade reports from official and unofficial sources were collected and categorized by location and species involved. During this interval, 858 illegal wildlife trade reports were collected from 89 countries. Countries with the highest number of reports included India (n = 146, 15.6%), the United States (n = 143, 15.3%), South Africa (n = 75, 8.0%), China (n = 41, 4.4%), and Vietnam (n = 37, 4.0%). Species reported as traded or poached included elephants (n = 107, 12.5%), rhinoceros (n = 103, 12.0%), tigers (n = 68, 7.9%), leopards (n = 54, 6.3%), and pangolins (n = 45, 5.2%). The use of unofficial data sources, such as online news sites and social networks, to collect information on international wildlife trade augments traditional approaches drawing on official reporting and presents a novel source of intelligence with which to monitor and collect news in support of enforcement against this threat to wildlife conservation worldwide. PMID:23236444

  10. Illegal import of bushmeat and other meat products into Switzerland on commercial passenger flights.

    PubMed

    Falk, H; Dürr, S; Hauser, R; Wood, K; Tenger, B; Lörtscher, M; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2013-12-01

    Illegal imports of meat can present substantial risks to public and animal health. Several European countries have reported considerable quantities of meat imported on commercial passenger flights. The objective of this study was to estimate the quantity of meat illegally imported into Switzerland, with a separate estimation for bushmeat. Data were obtained by participation in intervention exercises at Swiss international airports and by analysing data on seizures during the four-year period 2008 to 2011. The study revealed that a wide array of animal species was imported into Switzerland. From the database, the average annual weight of meat seized during the period analysed was 5.5 tonnes, of which 1.4% was bushmeat. However, in a stochastic model the total annual inflow of illegal meat imports was estimated at 1,013 tonnes (95% CI 226 to 4,192) for meat and 8.6 tonnes (95% CI 0.8 to 68.8) for bushmeat. Thus, even for a small European country such as Switzerland the quantities of illegally imported meat and meat products are substantial and the consequences for public and animal health could be high. To reduce the risk, it is essential that surveillance at European airports is harmonised and that passenger information campaigns clarify the consequences of the illegal import of meat, particularly bushmeat.

  11. Detection of illegal race walking: a tool to assist coaching and judging.

    PubMed

    Lee, James B; Mellifont, Rebecca B; Burkett, Brendan J; James, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Current judging of race walking in international competitions relies on subjective human observation to detect illegal gait, which naturally has inherent problems. Incorrect judging decisions may devastate an athlete and possibly discredit the international governing body. The aim of this study was to determine whether an inertial sensor could improve accuracy, monitor every step the athlete makes in training and/or competition. Seven nationally competitive race walkers performed a series of legal, illegal and self-selected pace races. During testing, athletes wore a single inertial sensor (100 Hz) placed at S1 of the vertebra and were simultaneously filmed using a high-speed camera (125 Hz). Of the 80 steps analyzed the high-speed camera identified 57 as illegal, the inertial sensor misidentified four of these measures (all four missed illegal steps had 0.008 s of loss of ground contact) which is considerably less than the best possible human observation of 0.06 s. Inertial sensor comparison to the camera found the typical error of estimate was 0.02 s (95% confidence limits 0.01-0.02), with a bias of 0.02 (±0.01). An inertial sensor can thus objectively improve the accuracy in detecting illegal steps (loss of ground contact) and, along with the ability to monitor every step of the athlete, could be a valuable tool to assist judges during race walk events.

  12. Digital surveillance: a novel approach to monitoring the illegal wildlife trade.

    PubMed

    Sonricker Hansen, Amy L; Li, Annie; Joly, Damien; Mekaru, Sumiko; Brownstein, John S

    2012-01-01

    A dearth of information obscures the true scale of the global illegal trade in wildlife. Herein, we introduce an automated web crawling surveillance system developed to monitor reports on illegally traded wildlife. A resource for enforcement officials as well as the general public, the freely available website, http://www.healthmap.org/wildlifetrade, provides a customizable visualization of worldwide reports on interceptions of illegally traded wildlife and wildlife products. From August 1, 2010 to July 31, 2011, publicly available English language illegal wildlife trade reports from official and unofficial sources were collected and categorized by location and species involved. During this interval, 858 illegal wildlife trade reports were collected from 89 countries. Countries with the highest number of reports included India (n = 146, 15.6%), the United States (n = 143, 15.3%), South Africa (n = 75, 8.0%), China (n = 41, 4.4%), and Vietnam (n = 37, 4.0%). Species reported as traded or poached included elephants (n = 107, 12.5%), rhinoceros (n = 103, 12.0%), tigers (n = 68, 7.9%), leopards (n = 54, 6.3%), and pangolins (n = 45, 5.2%). The use of unofficial data sources, such as online news sites and social networks, to collect information on international wildlife trade augments traditional approaches drawing on official reporting and presents a novel source of intelligence with which to monitor and collect news in support of enforcement against this threat to wildlife conservation worldwide.

  13. Toward a culture-bound syndrome-based insanity defense?

    PubMed

    Parzen, Micah David

    2003-06-01

    The American Psychiatric Association's recent inclusion of a Glossary of Culture-Bound Syndromes within DSM-IV draws upon decades of medical anthropological and cultural psychiatric research to afford culture-bound syndromes (CBSs) a newfound legitimacy within professional Western psychiatric nosology. While DSM-IV's recognition of the CBS concept as a category of psychosocial distress has important clinical implications for mental health care practitioners throughout the world, it also has significant legal implications. Given that several CBSs involve a degree of psychological impairment that may satisfy the standard for legal insanity under certain circumstances, this essay focuses on the potential emergence of an insanity defense based on the claim that an immigrant or minority defendant was suffering from a CBS at the time of his or her criminal act. Aimed at initiating interdisciplinary debate over the reification of the CBS concept, the essay discusses the theoretical ambiguity and status of CBSs within professional Western psychiatry, describes what a CBS-based insanity defense might look like, and considers the relevant challenges facing medical anthropologists and cultural psychiatrists, on the one hand, and legal practitioners, on the other. The essay identifies a pressing need for interdisciplinary debate concerning the validity, scope, and viability of CBS-based insanity defenses.

  14. The Relationship Between Immigrant School Composition, Classmate Support and Involvement in Physical Fighting and Bullying among Adolescent Immigrants and Non-immigrants in 11 Countries.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sophie D; De Clercq, Bart; Molcho, Michal; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Davison, Colleen M; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Stevens, Gonneke W J M

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Contradictory findings regarding the relationship between immigrant school composition (the percentage of immigrant versus non-immigrant students in a school) and adolescent peer violence necessitate further consideration. The current study examined the relationship between immigrant school composition and peer violence, considering classmate support as a potential moderator among 51,636 adolescents (50.1% female) from 11 countries. The findings showed that a higher percentage of immigrant adolescents in a school was related to higher levels of physical fighting and bullying perpetration for both immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents and lower levels of victimization for immigrants. In environments of low classmate support, the positive relationship between immigrant school composition and fighting was stronger for non-immigrants than in environments with high classmate support. In environments of low classmate support, the negative relationship between immigrant school composition and fighting and bullying victimization was stronger for immigrant adolescents than in environments with high classmate support. In general, the contribution of immigrant school composition was modest in comparison to the contribution of classmate support. The findings emphasize that it is not just the number of immigrants in a class per se, but rather the environment in the classroom which influences levels of peer violence. The results highlight a need for school intervention programs encouraging positive relations in schools with immigrant populations.

  15. The Relationship Between Immigrant School Composition, Classmate Support and Involvement in Physical Fighting and Bullying among Adolescent Immigrants and Non-immigrants in 11 Countries.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sophie D; De Clercq, Bart; Molcho, Michal; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Davison, Colleen M; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Stevens, Gonneke W J M

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Contradictory findings regarding the relationship between immigrant school composition (the percentage of immigrant versus non-immigrant students in a school) and adolescent peer violence necessitate further consideration. The current study examined the relationship between immigrant school composition and peer violence, considering classmate support as a potential moderator among 51,636 adolescents (50.1% female) from 11 countries. The findings showed that a higher percentage of immigrant adolescents in a school was related to higher levels of physical fighting and bullying perpetration for both immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents and lower levels of victimization for immigrants. In environments of low classmate support, the positive relationship between immigrant school composition and fighting was stronger for non-immigrants than in environments with high classmate support. In environments of low classmate support, the negative relationship between immigrant school composition and fighting and bullying victimization was stronger for immigrant adolescents than in environments with high classmate support. In general, the contribution of immigrant school composition was modest in comparison to the contribution of classmate support. The findings emphasize that it is not just the number of immigrants in a class per se, but rather the environment in the classroom which influences levels of peer violence. The results highlight a need for school intervention programs encouraging positive relations in schools with immigrant populations. PMID:26502194

  16. Adolescent Suicide and Defensive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recklitis, Christopher J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between ego defense mechanisms, diagnoses, and suicidality among 200 adolescent psychiatric patients classified as suicide attempters, suicidal ideators, and nonsuicidal patients. Using Defense Mechanisms Inventory, found the suicidal adolescents score higher on turning-against-self and lower on reversal, as compared to…

  17. The Living Arrangements of Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landale, Nancy S.; Thomas, Kevin J. A.; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children of immigrants are a rapidly growing part of the U.S. child population. Their health, development, educational attainment, and social and economic integration into the nation's life will play a defining role in the nation's future. Nancy Landale, Kevin Thomas, and Jennifer Van Hook explore the challenges facing immigrant families as they…

  18. Immigrant Students and the Obstacles to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Tamiko; Pang, Valerie Ooka; Madueno, Marcelina; Park, Cynthia D.; Atlas, Miriam; Page, Cindy; Oliger, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This article describes composites of actual students, but examples of hardworking immigrant students and their families can be found in every state. Many young immigrants are negotiating their place in society. They believe in the American Dream and struggle with issues of poverty, language, cultural assimilation, and the desire to further their…

  19. Adult Education, Migration and Immigrant Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Cossio, Roger Diaz

    Mexico is experiencing major reform in adult education. At the same time, Mexico has been the largest producer of immigrants into the United States in the last 50 years. At the beginning of the century, non-English-speaking immigrants were only required to learn enough English to perform their jobs. As the Mexican-American community grew, it…

  20. Negotiating Identity Development among Undocumented Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Lauren Marie

    2010-01-01

    This purpose of this qualitative dissertation study was to capture the meaning and various dimensions related to being an undocumented immigrant youth in the United States, and to develop a grounded theory regarding how undocumented immigrant students negotiate their identity development in light of these dimensions. A semi-structured interview…

  1. Immigrant Women and Counseling the Invisible Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakushko, Oksana; Chronister, Krista M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau reports that 10.4% of the U.S. population, or approximately 28 million individuals, are immigrants (Schmidley, 2001). The amount of information on recent immigrants in psychological literature is sparse (Hovey, 2000; Pernice, 1994; Yoshihama & Horrucks, 2002), however, and there is even less information about the impact of…

  2. Higher Education and Children in Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Flores, Stella M.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing role that immigrants and their children, especially those from Latin America, are playing in American society, Sandy Baum and Stella Flores argue, makes it essential that as many young newcomers as possible enroll and succeed in postsecondary education. Immigrant youths from some countries find the doors to the nation's colleges…

  3. Membership Contests: Encountering Immigrant Youth in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harinen, Paivi; Suurpaa, Leena; Hoikkala, Tommi; Hautaniemi, Petri; Perho, Sini; Keskisalo, Anne-Mari; Kuure, Tapio; Kunnapuu, Krista

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses different aspects of social and societal membership, when minority groups of young immigrants living in Finland are under consideration. During its history, Finland has mainly been a country of emigration. In the 1990s the direction of moving turned to the contrary and the amount of immigrants in Finland increased relatively…

  4. Work without Justice: Low Wage Immigrant Laborers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Catholic Conference, Washington, DC. Catholic Legal Immigration Network, Inc.

    This report focuses on "at risk" immigrants in the United States. This third report in a series highlights the plight of low-income immigrant laborers in the United States. This series does not seek to advance specific policies or reforms. It intends merely to relate the stories of newcomers in the confidence that they will speak powerfully for…

  5. Immigration and Students' Relationship with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Bondy, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    Students' relationship with teachers is a building block toward student progress and success. Little is known, however, about the relationships the children of immigrants have with their teachers, which is particularly relevant today in the midst of the current social, political, and economic debate over the influence of immigration in U.S.…

  6. Biliterate Immigrants in a Community Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacio-Lindin, Dino

    Every immigrant has a right to literacy in his native language, but native language literacy alone does not guarantee success. The objective of a program begun in the 1970s in New York City was to develop biliteracy in immigrants so they could start and manage small businesses in the community. Despite a lack of political protection for the…

  7. The Pilipino Immigrants: A Discussion Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Library Association, Salem.

    Filipinos are now the largest Asian group immigrating to the United States. Some of the reasons for the great influx of professionals who have immigrated include: (1) the false picture of the good life in the U.S., (2) the political and economic situation at home, (3) the oversupply of college graduates and professionally trained persons, and (4)…

  8. Educational Attainment: Analysis by Immigrant Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; DebBurman, Noyna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the largely ignored issue of the determinants of the educational attainment of adults by immigrant generation. Using current population survey (CPS) data, differences in educational attainment are analyzed by immigrant generation (first, second, and higher order generations), and among…

  9. Critical Quantitative Study of Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The author discusses the importance of critical quantitative research for studies of immigrant students, a large and growing group, whose higher education experience is crucial to the future of the United States. The author outlines some of the distinctions to be made among immigrant students and recommends areas of future inquiry.

  10. Second-Language Literacy, Immigration, and Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto Huerta, M. E.; Pérez, B.

    2015-01-01

    Second language literacy development is a significant factor influencing immigrants' opportunities to integrate with the host society. To examine the opportunities that different immigrant groups have had for obtaining both, we selected four published studies that had been originally analyzed through a sociocultural perspective, a prominent…

  11. Immigration and Student Achievement: Evidence from Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically whether immigrant students in Switzerland perform poorly compared to their native counterparts and provides some explanations. Using a national sample of the 2000 PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) database, we first analyze the impact of immigrant status on pupils' achievement. We find a…

  12. Governor's Task Force on Immigration: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1984

    Texas Governor Mark White established a 28-member Governor's Task Force on Immigration on March 24, 1983 to: (1) examine the impact on Texas and its citizens of the legislative issues in the proposed federal Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1983; (2) hold public hearings to gain input from citizens, business, industry, labor, ranching and…

  13. THE IMMIGRANT POOR AND THE RESIDUAL POOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SEGALMAN, RALPH

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE LIVES OF THE POOR IN AMERICA WILL SHOW DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE IMMIGRANT (AND REFUGEE) POOR AND THE RESIDUAL POOR (NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, LATIN AMERICANS, INDIANS, AND OTHERS). THE IMMIGRANT POOR WERE ACCULTURATED AND ABSORBED INTO THE MAINSTREAM OF AMERICAN LIFE WITHIN THREE GENERATIONS, WHEREAS THE RESIDUAL POOR HAVE BEEN…

  14. Why Excess Immigration Damages the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population-Environment Balance

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between excessive immigration and environmental degradation. Explains the position that a stable United States population size is essential in prevention further deterioration of the natural resource base. Maintains that balancing immigration and emigration will be instrumental in balancing population with environment.…

  15. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... United States under 8 CFR 214.2(b)(4)(i)(E) to conduct business in the United States. (b) Upon expiration... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An...

  16. Connecting the Immigrant Experience through Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Eliza G.

    2016-01-01

    A 3rd-grade teacher used literature to help her immigrant students grapple with some of the larger issues related to immigration. Through the story of one Latino student, the teacher shares the literature that she used and how one student responded.

  17. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... United States under 8 CFR 214.2(b)(4)(i)(E) to conduct business in the United States. (b) Upon expiration... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An...

  18. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... United States under 8 CFR 214.2(b)(4)(i)(E) to conduct business in the United States. (b) Upon expiration... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An...

  19. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... United States under 8 CFR 214.2(b)(4)(i)(E) to conduct business in the United States. (b) Upon expiration... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An...

  20. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... United States under 8 CFR 214.2(b)(4)(i)(E) to conduct business in the United States. (b) Upon expiration... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An...