Science.gov

Sample records for illegal immigration defense

  1. Illegal Immigration. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explore many aspects of illegal immigration. Contrary depictions of the aspirations and attitudes of illegal immigrants fuel…

  2. Political instability and illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Campos, J E; Lien, D

    1995-01-01

    "Economic theory suggests that transnational migration results from the push-pull effect of wage differentials between host and source countries. In this paper, we argue that political instability exacerbates the migration flow, with greater instability leading to relatively larger flows. We conclude then that an optimal solution to the illegal immigration problem requires proper coordination of immigration and foreign policies by the host country. A narrow preoccupation with tougher immigration laws is wasteful and may be marginally effective." Emphasis is on the United States as a host country.

  3. Illegal immigration: a supply side analysis.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, S; Bandyopadhyay, S C

    1998-12-01

    "This paper analyzes the supply-side determinants of illegal immigration using a three-sector general equilibrium model of the source country. Agricultural liberalization raises illegal immigration while liberalization of the high tech sector reduces it. In contrast, capital mobility in the source country renders trade policy ineffective for controlling illegal immigration. Paradoxically, increased enforcement (by the host country) may raise source country unskilled wages, although illegal immigration falls. Finally, under capital mobility, a rise in the source country restrictions on capital inflow raises the level of illegal immigration and reduces the effectiveness of border enforcement efforts by the host country."

  4. Creating illegal immigrants.

    PubMed

    Epstein, G S; Hillman, A L; Weiss, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the prospects of implementation of guest-worker programs by governments that are based on an intended temporary presence of foreign workers. The purpose of guest- worker programs is to alleviate sector-specified labor shortages. The intention of a temporary stay is reflected in families left behind, and in the employers that often take responsibility for their workers' housing, health care, and other services during the temporary stay. Yet, some foreign workers prefer not to return home. In this case, the government and the employer ensure that the worker returns home after his legal employment. The government's intention is revealed through a policy granting the worker a temporary admission to the country. The legal employer pays a bond to bring in the foreign worker, and should the worker switch to illegal employment, the employer loses the value of the bond. Despite the intentions of the government, the legal employer can find his position to be quite precarious. If his legal workers are still with him at the end of the legal period of employment, it is only because they have rejected an illegal offer or they have never received an offer; and, if the worker leaves the legal employer just before he is to be deported, the employer has paid twice, once through the higher second-period wage and the second time by way of the forfeited bond. The anticipations for success of the intentions of temporary guest-worker programs can only be overly optimistic if the instruments used to enforce the policy are a bond and duration of permissible stay. The accumulation of an illegal population appears to be an inevitable consequence of a guest-worker program.

  5. Venezuela: illegal immigration from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, A

    1984-01-01

    The influx of illegal Colombian immigrants into Venezuela is studied using data from a variety of sources, including the 1971 census and several studies conducted in 1979-1980. The author examines the origins and destinations of migrants; age, sex, educational status, and occupational data; reasons for migration; and geographic distribution of the migrating population. Tables from Venezuela's General Foreign-Born Register of December 1980 are presented in an appendix.

  6. Illegal Immigrants in Canada: Recent Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, W. G.

    1984-01-01

    Naturally protected by its distance from most migrant routes and with a long undefended border with the U.S., a parliamentary system capable of responding rapidly to problems, and a small legal and even smaller illegal immigrant population, Canada has experimented with novel immigration policies to encourage and control its population increase.…

  7. State Legislatures Debate Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2007-01-01

    With plans for a sweeping federal immigration bill stuck in Congress, Arizona and a growing number of states have decided to try to deal with the in-state-tuition issue themselves. This spring lawmakers in at least 22 states have already considered or are debating legislation concerning in-state tuition to illegal immigrants. In about half of…

  8. The Impact of Growing and Illegal Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, William L.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the tenuous status of illegal immigrants in the United States, emphasizing the implications of the presence of a large class of people so alienated from the social system. Holds that undocumented immigrants should be permitted to become productive members of society. (Author/GC)

  9. Methods of analysis of illegal immigration into the United States.

    PubMed

    Briggs, V

    1984-01-01

    The inadequacy of existing data on illegal immigration to the United States is described. The attempts that have been made by various government agencies and individual researchers to measure the extent and employment impact of illegal immigrants are then reviewed.

  10. Health care and the illegal immigrant.

    PubMed

    Glen, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether illegal immigrants should be entitled to some form of health coverage in the United States sits at the intersection of two contentious debates: health reform and immigration reform. Proponents of extending coverage argue that the United States has a moral obligation to provide health care to all those within its borders. Conversely, those against doing so argue that immigrants illegally present in the country should not be entitled to public benefits. This Article seeks to chart a middle course between these extremes while answering two questions. First, does constitutional law mandate extending health coverage to illegal immigrants? Second, even if not legally mandated, are there compelling policy reasons for extending such coverage? This Article concludes that while health coverage for illegal immigrants is not required under prevailing constitutional norms, extending coverage as a matter of policy would serve the broader interests of the United States. Extending coverage would be beneficial as a matter of economics and public health, generating spillover benefits for all US citizens and those in the US healthcare and health insurance systems.

  11. Illegal aliens, unemployment and immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Djajic, S

    1987-02-01

    "This paper develops a simple two-country model of illegal immigration in an attempt to examine the interaction among variables such as the stock of migrant labor, the unemployment rates of the two economies, and the rate of spending by the host country on the enforcement of its immigration restrictions. The focus of the analysis is on the dynamics of immigration policy and on its role in determining the nature of the mechanism by which disturbances to the labor market of one country are transmitted to that of the other in the short run and in the long run."

  12. Malaria in illegal Chinese immigrants, Italy.

    PubMed

    Matteelli, A; Volonterio, A; Gulletta, M; Galimberti, L; Maroccolo, S; Gaiera, G; Giani, G; Rossi, M; Dorigoni, N; Bellina, L; Orlando, G; Bisoffi, Z; Castelli, F

    2001-01-01

    A cluster of 22 imported malaria cases, 21 caused by Plasmodium falciparum, was observed among illegal Chinese immigrants in northern Italy in the summer of 2000. The rate of severe disease was high because the patients were not immune and they sought health-care services late in their illness because of their clandestine status. Recognition of the outbreak was delayed because no regional alert system among infectious diseases hospitals was in place.

  13. Parables and Politics: Clergy Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickersham, Mary Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The passage of a stringent immigration law in Alabama in 2011 makes relevant the juxtaposition of clergy and congregant attitudes and behaviors toward illegal immigrants as related to Biblical teachings that require charity to aliens. In order to examine the relationship between religious attitudes and illegal immigration, approximately 426…

  14. Parables and Politics: Clergy Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickersham, Mary Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The passage of a stringent immigration law in Alabama in 2011 makes relevant the juxtaposition of clergy and congregant attitudes and behaviors toward illegal immigrants as related to Biblical teachings that require charity to aliens. In order to examine the relationship between religious attitudes and illegal immigration, approximately 426…

  15. Malaria clusters among illegal Chinese immigrants to Europe through Africa.

    PubMed

    Bisoffi, Zeno; Matteelli, Alberto; Aquilini, Donatella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Magnani, Giacomo; Orlando, Giovanna; Gaiera, Giovanni; Jelinek, Tomas; Behrens, Ron H

    2003-09-01

    Between November 2002 and March 2003, 17 cases of malaria (1 fatal) were observed in illegal Chinese immigrants who traveled to Italy through Africa. A further cluster of 12 was reported in August, 2002. Several immigrants traveled by air, making the risk of introducing sudden acute respiratory syndrome a possibility should such illegal immigrations continue.

  16. Illegal immigration in the presence of labor unions.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J G

    1994-01-01

    "This paper develops a general equilibrium framework of a two-sector economy which incorporates illegal immigration in the presence of labor unions. It demonstrates that stricter enforcement of immigration laws, by reducing the demand for or supply of illegal aliens, benefits all legal workers in the economy. The model is used to evaluate the impact of these policy changes on national income. Results indicate that national income does not necessarily fall when immigration controls are tightened. The existence of a union mitigates the negative welfare impact of a reduction in the number of illegal immigrants."

  17. Immigration and Youthful Illegalities in a Global Edge City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinovitzer, Ronit; Hagan, John; Levi, Ron

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on immigration and youthful illegalities in the Toronto area, one of the world's most ethnically diverse global cities. While current research documents a negative relationship between crime and immigration, there is little attention to individual level mechanisms that explain the paths through which immigrant youth refrain…

  18. The message of 187: facing up to illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Schuck, P H

    1995-01-01

    The author makes the case that the adoption of Proposition 187, the anti-illegal immigrant initiative, in California in 1994 was "an expression of public frustration with a government and civil society that seem out of touch and out of control, and with external convulsions that our borders can no longer contain." He suggests that the general public is increasingly concerned about the services provided to illegal aliens and their costs, and that responsible leadership should admit that illegal immigration, even at current levels, is not an unmitigated evil, and be prepared to set and enforce immigration limits.

  19. Toward a Structural Analysis of Illegal (Undocumented) Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro

    1978-01-01

    In this introduction to a compilation of articles that examine different aspects of illegal immigration, the guest editor situates the articles in the present context of research and policy, summarizes some of the ideas common to all, and analyzes the significance of the current administration's plan to deal with the illegal flow. (Author/EB)

  20. The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996: an overview.

    PubMed

    Fragomen, A T

    1997-01-01

    "On September 30, 1996, President Clinton signed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (1996 Act), Pub. L. No. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009. After an intense lobbying effort by the business community, most provisions relating to legal immigration were omitted from the final bill. Instead, the 1996 Act focuses on illegal immigration reform and includes some of the toughest measures ever taken against illegal immigration." Aspects considered include border enforcement, penalities against alien smuggling and document fraud, deportation and exclusion proceedings, employer sanctions, welfare provisions, and changes to existing refugee and asylum procedures.

  1. The new illegal immigration in Japan, 1980-1992.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Sassen, S

    1994-01-01

    "This article presents some of the latest available figures on illegal immigration in Japan, a process that did not assume significant proportions until the mid-1980s. It also discusses briefly the latest developments around 'immigration' policy--more precisely, the law on the entry and exit of aliens."

  2. Illegal Immigration and the Colonization of the American Labor Market. Center for Immigration Studies Paper 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip L.

    This paper finds that the ready availability of illegal-immigrant workers from Mexico in major industries in the Southwest region of the United States is having far-reaching and often unanticipated consequences for patterns of investment, employment, and business competition. It reviews the displacement of U.S. workers by illegal immigrants in…

  3. Party Identification, Contact, Contexts, and Public Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration

    PubMed Central

    Gravelle, Timothy B.

    2016-01-01

    Illegal immigration is a contentious issue on the American policy agenda. To understand the sources of public attitudes toward immigration, social scientists have focused attention on political factors such as party identification; they have also drawn on theories of intergroup contact to argue that contact with immigrants shapes immigration attitudes. Absent direct measures, contextual measures such as respondents’ ethnic milieu or proximity to salient geographic features (such as borders) have been used as proxies of contact. Such a research strategy still leaves the question unanswered – is it contact or context that really matters? Further, which context, and for whom? This article evaluates the effects of party identification, personal contact with undocumented immigrants, and contextual measures (county Hispanic population and proximity to the US–Mexico border) on American attitudes toward illegal immigration. It finds that contextual factors moderate the effects of political party identification on attitudes toward illegal immigration; personal contact has no effect. These findings challenge the assumption that contextual measures act as proxies for interpersonal contact. PMID:27257305

  4. Party Identification, Contact, Contexts, and Public Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration.

    PubMed

    Gravelle, Timothy B

    2016-01-01

    Illegal immigration is a contentious issue on the American policy agenda. To understand the sources of public attitudes toward immigration, social scientists have focused attention on political factors such as party identification; they have also drawn on theories of intergroup contact to argue that contact with immigrants shapes immigration attitudes. Absent direct measures, contextual measures such as respondents' ethnic milieu or proximity to salient geographic features (such as borders) have been used as proxies of contact. Such a research strategy still leaves the question unanswered - is it contact or context that really matters? Further, which context, and for whom? This article evaluates the effects of party identification, personal contact with undocumented immigrants, and contextual measures (county Hispanic population and proximity to the US-Mexico border) on American attitudes toward illegal immigration. It finds that contextual factors moderate the effects of political party identification on attitudes toward illegal immigration; personal contact has no effect. These findings challenge the assumption that contextual measures act as proxies for interpersonal contact.

  5. Developing attitude statements toward illegal immigration: transcultural reliability and utility.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Reidar; van der Veer, Kees; Le, Hao Van; Krumov, Krum; Larsen, Knud S

    2007-06-01

    This is a report on the utility of a scale measuring attitudes toward illegal immigrants in two samples from nations that have more people moving out of the country than moving into the country. The Attitude toward Illegal Immigrants Scale was administered to 219 undergraduates from Sofia University in Bulgaria, and 179 undergraduates from Hanoi State University in Vietnam. Results yielded a scale with no sex differences, and acceptable alpha coefficients. Item analysis identified the most contributory and least contributory items, with considerable overlap in the two samples. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was carried out to examine the structure.

  6. On financing the internal enforcement of illegal immigration policies.

    PubMed

    Bucci, G A; Tenorio, R

    1996-02-01

    "We introduce a government budget constraint into an illegal immigration model, and show that the effect of increasing internal enforcement of immigration laws on the host country's disposable national income depends on the mix of employer fines and income taxation used to finance the added enforcement. These issues are addressed under alternative assumptions about (a) the ability of host country employers to discern between legal and illegal workers, and (b) host country labor market conditions. Empirical evidence for the United States indicates that the employer sanctions program may have had a negative impact on disposable national income."

  7. Essays on Legal and Illegal Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozo, Susan, Ed.

    Major issues of the debate that led to the passage of an immigration reform bill are discussed and analyzed in this collection of six papers that were delivered as public lectures at Western Michigan University during the 1984-85 academic year. The essays reflect a broad range of views on the effects of immigration on the United States economy and…

  8. Methods of Analysis of Illegal Immigration into the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Vernon M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Existing data on illegal immigration in the U.S. is inadequate. The limited availability of macrodata on the size of the annual flows and of the accumulated stock of individuals as well as of microdata on their influence on selected labor markets has been used to forestall policy reform efforts. (Author/RDN)

  9. Battle Continues over In-State Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Ten states now offer in-state college tuition rates to illegal immigrant students. Others are struggling to enact similar policies. But while many advocates want to open the doors to higher education for undocumented students, critics say the laws granting in-state tuition discriminate against other low-income students and legal residents of the…

  10. Illegal Immigration: Causes, Consequences, and National Security Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    history .” 1 Immigration, both legal and illegal, is becoming an ever more important element in international relations. Furthermore, it is a...this phenomenon as many countries are not well prepared for competition. For example the decreasing price of cacao product has caused the economic

  11. The making of Amerexico: (mis)handling illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Andreas, P

    1994-01-01

    The border and social policies that the United States shares with Mexico have had only a modest impact on the level of illegal immigration. Alternative methods could reduce the social backlash against Mexican immigrants in US states of destination. Federal Relief Aid to states affected by new arrivals would ameliorate hostility. Although economic stagnation may depress the flow of immigrants or job opportunities, legal or illegal, economic recovery is dependent on the hard work of immigrants. The political solution has been to tighten border controls. Other options are possible. There should be pressure placed on multilateral institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to incorporate immigration issues in economic policy decisions. Many market reforms have contributed to greater emigration. The US has the option to use both supply and demand side options. Enforcement of workplace rules on minimum wages and health and safety standards would make it more difficult to exploit immigrant workers and would decrease the incentive to hire illegal workers. In a deregulated market stricter work standards were considered difficult to attain. A 1993 opinion poll revealed that 65% thought immigration was not beneficial. Border apprehension rates have increased dramatically over the past 30 years. The most recent policies aim to encourage the mobility of capital and trade through the NAFTA free trade agreement while trying to discourage human resource mobility. The push factors in Mexico are identified as high levels of poverty and unemployment, overpopulation, and economic stagnation. NAFTA and prior economic development efforts have not addressed the push factors. Disruption of traditional ways and changes toward greater industrialization spur emigration. The US program to develop border export industry encouraged migration from the interior of Mexico to border areas. Recent Mexican policies have changed the incentives for small farmers to stay on

  12. Coping with Illegal Immigrants in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Superintendent Steve Joel had reason to be concerned when he got a call from the police chief telling him that federal immigration authorities were coming to the local Swift & Company meat-packing plant to round up undocumented workers as part of a six-state raid. Of the 8,000 students in the Grand Island School District in Central Nebraska,…

  13. Illegal Immigration: Is It a Threat To National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    Cuba has provided Andy Garcia and Gloria Estefan, while Spain has furnished Penelope Cruz to the list of notable immigrant personalities...systematically crossed our southern border intending to stay permanently in the United States. Since 2001, numbers of illegals crossing per year from Mexico...ran a billboard in Los Angeles California depicting the state suffix crossed -out and ‘Mexico’ superimposed in its place.59 Needless to say the

  14. Legal versus illegal U.S. immigration and source country characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bratsberg, B

    1995-01-01

    "Based on micro data from the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) on legal immigrants as well as on legalization applications that followed the passage of IRCA [the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986], this study exploits the variation in legal and illegal immigration flows across seventy source countries to examine the sensitivity of immigration flows to underlying source country characteristics. The study finds that earnings in the source country and the distance from the United States form significant deterrents of both legal and illegal immigration flows. We also find that illegal immigration is more sensitive to such factors than is legal immigration." The impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on U.S. immigration from Mexico is also assessed. excerpt

  15. Structure of attitudes toward illegal immigration: development of cross-national cumulative scales.

    PubMed

    van der Veer, Kees; Ommundsen, Reidar; Larsen, Knud S; Le, Hao Van; Krumov, Krum; Pernice, Regina E; Romans, Gerardo Pastor

    2004-06-01

    This research examined the possibility of developing Mokken cumulative scales measuring attitudes toward illegal immigrants in a 9-nation sample. A total of 1,407 respondents primarily from national and regional universities participated in the surveys including the 20-item Illegal Immigration Scale. The scales displayed acceptable reliability with coefficients alpha ranging from .79 to .93. A Procrustes analysis yielded coefficients of congruence with the previously established three-factor solution. The amount of variance accounted for varied between 33.1 and 54.7%, supporting the presence of other factors in attitudes toward illegal immigrants. Mokken scale analysis yielded robust and economical scales in two clusters of national samples.

  16. A computable general equilibrium assessment of the impact of illegal immigration on the Greek economy.

    PubMed

    Sarris, A H; Zografakis, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the impact of illegal immigrants on the small type economy of Greece by using the multisectoral computable general equilibrium model. The theoretical analysis utilizes a model showing that there is no equivocal case for illegal immigration leading to the decline in the real wages of unskilled labor and increases in the real wages of skilled labor. The empirical analysis uses an applied general equilibrium model for Greece, showing that the inflow of illegal immigrants has resulted in declines of the real disposable incomes of two classes of households, namely, those headed by an unskilled person, and those belonging to the poor and middle class income bracket. The results, on the other hand, showed that the large increase in the influx of illegal immigrants is macroeconomically beneficial, having significant adverse distribution implications when flexible wage adjustment is assumed in various labor markets. It appears that unskilled and hired agricultural workers are among those that are severely affected by the inflow of illegal workers. The results also appear to be fairly sensitive with respect to the elasticities of labor supply and demand, while they appear to be quite insensitive to the elasticity of substitution in import demand and export supply. Furthermore, it is also insensitive to the various parameters concerning the structure of the illegal labor market such as the amount of wage differential between illegal and domestic unskilled labor as well as the monetary amounts that illegal laborers remit abroad.

  17. Illegal immigration and local labour markets: the case of northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Lianos, T P; Sarris, A H; Katseli, L T

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of the present study is to enhance knowledge on the impact of illegal immigrants in Greece from both Eastern European and other developing countries. Our analysis is based on direct survey information from the four regions in Greece which employ considerable numbers of illegal aliens." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  18. Attitudes toward illegal immigration: a cross-national methodological comparison.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Reidar; Hak, Tony; Mörch, Sven; Larsen, Knud S; Van der Veer, Kees

    2002-01-01

    This research is an examination of the generalizability of a Likert-type scale originally devised to measure attitudes toward illegal immigrants (IA) in the United States. The current authors administered this scale across 4 national samples using several methodological procedures. Undergraduate students (631) responded to the IA scale (R. Ommundsen & K. S. Larsen, 1997) at the University of Oslo, Oregon State University, the University of Copenhagen, and Vrije University of Amsterdam. The authors' main purpose was to evaluate the adequacy of the 20-item IA scale by examining possible problems with method and translation. A translation study carried out with the Danish, Norwegian, and Dutch samples (N = 299) showed that the various national versions were fairly accurate and contained largely the same meanings. The use of procrustes analysis of the IA scale yielded 3 factors in all 4 national samples. The coefficient of congruence of these 3 orthogonally rotated factor matrices, with the U.S. factor matrix as target, varied from .80 to .95, supporting the cross-national robustness of the scale. In the search for a more economical cumulative scale, a Mokken analysis yielded a 5-item scale that represented the aforementioned 3 factors and was stable across national samples.

  19. The net national costs of illegal immigration into the United States.

    PubMed

    Huddle, D L

    1995-04-01

    "This article examines the major economic pros and cons of illegal immigration and answers the question: what, if any, are the public and private costs of illegal immigration in the United States? In brief, the article finds that between four and 5.4 million illegal immigrants reside here.... The article also finds that illegal immigrants and their own citizen children cost taxpayers an additional $12 to $16.2 billion annually for education, public services, and incarceration after deducting all local, state, and federal taxes paid in by them. In the private sector, illegal aliens are found to save their employers and owners of capital about $1.5 billion more than U.S. workers lose due to wage depression. The article also considers what legal and enforcement reforms would be necessary to dramatically slow the current flow of 300,000 illegals yearly and concludes that, although improvements in the system are now being proposed, the actual reforms will be insufficient to more than stem the currently rising tide of illegals due to economic instability in Mexico and the Third World."

  20. Addressing Illegal Immigrants Inside the United States: A Policy Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    20 Ibid., 1–44. 21 Roberto Suro , “Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy: Surveys among Latinos in the U.S. and in Mexico,” Pew...February 16, 2007. Suro , Roberto. “Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy: Surveys among Latinos in the U.S. and in Mexico.” Pew Hispanic

  1. Illegal female immigrants in The Netherlands have unmet needs in sexual and reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Schoevers, Maria A; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria E T C; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2010-12-01

    To determine the reproductive health problems of illegal female immigrants and what obstacles they experience when seeking help for these problems. One hundred illegal female immigrants in The Netherlands aged more than 18 years were provided with a structured list of common reproductive and sexual health problems. Further semi-structured interviews were conducted regarding their experiences with reproductive health facilities. Obstacles accessing reproductive health facilities were frequently reported. Illegal female immigrants were not able to exercise control over their own reproductive and sexual health. The reasons for obstacles accessing reproductive health facilities include lack of information about reproductive health services and contraception, problems with paying for services, sexual and physical violence and fear of deportation. Obstacles accessing reproductive health facilities resulted in lacking or delayed pregnancy care (19% never received antenatal care), infrequent use of contraception and high abortion rates (64.9/1000). Of all interviewed women, 70% reported gynaecologic or sexual problems, and 28% reported past exposure to sexual violence. The reproductive health status of illegal female immigrants in The Netherlands is worrisome. There is an urgent need to empower illegal women through education. The Dutch government should make efforts to improve access to reproductive health and family planning services.

  2. [Self-medication amongst illegal Latino-American immigrants: necessary or inapropriate].

    PubMed

    Besson, M; Desmeules, J; Wolff, H; Gaspoz, J M

    2007-10-03

    Self-medication is well known risk in Latin America. This situation can partly be explain by the difficult access to doctors and poorly regulated drug sales. Illegal Latino-American immigrants import their practice of self-medication and their drugs with them. The economic advantage of this practice makes it popular and confronts medical practitioners to question the benefice/risk of such behavior. Taking the particular situation of illegal Latino-American immigrants, this review discusses the necessity of abording systematically the question of self-medication during a medical consultation.

  3. An elusive concept: the changing definition of illegal immigrant in the practice of immigration control in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Couper, K; Santamaria, U

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines changing concepts of immigration practice in the UK. Immigration control at the port of entry has extended to internal control within the UK. The burden of proof of legality of status is increasingly on the immigrant, against a background of administrative rather than criminal justice. The changing and broadening definition of illegal immigration in the UK is part of a set of policies, which are governmental responses to what is conceived of as public opinion. THE GUARDIAN suggested that the Home Office has tightened up its application of the rules as the price to the Tory Right for their silence over further changes to the immigration law, thus demonstrating the political aspects of the concept of illegality. The Home Office replied that the UK was now one of the most densely populated countries in Europe and that, in terms of services, the country simply could not support all those who would like to come there. Nor can more than a certain number of newcomers be absorbed by any host community without the risk of friction. However, the host community is now multi-ethnic, and there is a black vote. The growth of administrative justice against which there is little effective appeal, the retrospective application of the 1971 Immigration Act, the ever-widening definition of the concept of illegality along with the fact that there is no time limit under the 1971 Act for one of the most common offenses, that of over-staying, have given rise to an increasing number of campaigns in support of individuals or families. These campaigns against the deportation of "illegal" immigrants may be an indication of a change in public opinion.

  4. The Politics of Illegal Immigration, Bilingual Education, and the Commodity of the Post-Technological Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Heliodoro T., Jr.; Sanchez, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing number of undocumented workers entering the United States and the costs associated with educating their children, bilingual education may soon become the target of opponents of illegal immigration. Furthermore, recent leftist shifts in Latin American governments have provided an impetus for an educated biliterate population…

  5. The Labor Market and Illegal Immigration: The Outlook for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachter, Michael L.

    1980-01-01

    A labor supply forecast is developed for the U.S. labor market in the 1980s, focusing on the effects of the low fertility rates of recent years. That forecast is then compared with the Bureau of Labor Statistics projection of employment demand in the next decade. Effects of illegal immigrants are also discussed. (CT)

  6. The Labor Market and Illegal Immigration: The Outlook for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachter, Michael L.

    1980-01-01

    A labor supply forecast is developed for the U.S. labor market in the 1980s, focusing on the effects of the low fertility rates of recent years. That forecast is then compared with the Bureau of Labor Statistics projection of employment demand in the next decade. Effects of illegal immigrants are also discussed. (CT)

  7. The Politics of Illegal Immigration, Bilingual Education, and the Commodity of the Post-Technological Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Heliodoro T., Jr.; Sanchez, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing number of undocumented workers entering the United States and the costs associated with educating their children, bilingual education may soon become the target of opponents of illegal immigration. Furthermore, recent leftist shifts in Latin American governments have provided an impetus for an educated biliterate population…

  8. The Dark Side of Illegal Immigration: Cause for National Concern

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-28

    decide to enter the U.S. by crossing the borders without being inspected by an immigration officer at a Port of Entry (POE), with or without a valid...are not the only “illegals” crossing the Mexican border . Increasingly, global trafficking and human smuggling networks use that border as one option...of crossing the U.S. – Mexico border , this has ranged from self-smuggling, to local-level individual smuggling entrepreneurs (the traditional

  9. Supervised preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis infection in illegal immigrants in Italy.

    PubMed

    Matteelli, A; Casalini, C; Raviglione, M C; El-Hamad, I; Scolari, C; Bombana, E; Bugiani, M; Caputo, M; Scarcella, C; Carosi, G

    2000-11-01

    In a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label study of isoniazid-preventive therapy (IPT) for latent tuberculosis infection, illegal immigrants from countries where tuberculosis is highly endemic were enrolled at two clinical sites in Northern Italy. Of 208 eligible subjects, 82 received supervised IPT at a dose of 900 mg twice weekly for 6 mo (Regimen A), 73 received unsupervised IPT 900 mg twice weekly for 6 mo (Regimen B), and 53 received unsupervised IPT 300 mg daily for 6 mo (Regimen C). Supervised IPT was delivered at either one tuberculosis clinic or one migrant clinic. The probability of completing a 26-wk regimen was 7, 26, and 41% in Regimens A, B, and C, respectively (p < 0.005, Log- rank test calculated using Kaplan-Meier plots). The mean time to dropout was 3. 8, 6, and 6.2 wk in Regimens A, B, and C, respectively (p = 0.003 for regimen A versus either Regimens B or C). Treatment was stopped in five subjects (2.4%) because of adverse events. The rate of completion of preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis infection among illegal immigrants was low. Supervised, clinic-based administration of IPT significantly reduced adherence. Alternative strategies to implement preventive therapy in illegal immigrants are clearly required.

  10. Differences in illegal drug consumption between native and immigrants in a large sample of injected drug users in Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Saigí, Núria; Espelt, Albert; Folch, Cinta; Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Castellano, Yolanda; Majó, Xavier; Meroño, Mercè; Brugal, M Teresa; Casabona, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe illegal drug abuse patterns in relation to the migration process and use of drug treatment centers among immigrant injected drug users (IDUs) involved in harm reduction programs, and to compare the characteristics of immigrant and native IDUs. Cross-sectional study of 748 IDUs aged ≥18 years attending harm reduction centers between 2008 and 2009. We explored differences in socio-economic status, illegal drug consumption, health status and use of treatment centers in native versus immigrant IDUs. We also described whether immigrant IDUs started using injected drugs before or after entering the host country. Immigrant IDUs tend to live alone more frequently, start injection at later ages, use heroin and inject it more frequently and use drug treatment centers less frequently than native IDUs. Seventy-six percent of immigrants began using illegal drugs before arriving at the host country. Those who started in other countries were residing in the host country for 5 years or less (63.9%). Overall, immigrant IDUs attended drug treatment centers (36.9%) less frequently than native IDUs (71.8%). In conclusion, migration could be a risk factor for illegal drug abuse initiation or increase in consumption, often with the adoption of local consumption patterns and aggravated due to a lower access to drug treatment centers.

  11. [Caring for illegal immigrants within the public hospital: the need for an urgent solution].

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eyal; Elkayam, Ori

    2003-06-01

    There are a quarter of a million or more foreign laborers that work in Israel. Most of these foreign laborers lack a work permit and medical insurance. Hence, this population has low access to ambulatory medical care, with obvious consequences. When being treated in the public hospital, these illegal immigrants and the doctors caring for them face many problems, both practical and ethical. We review a number of cases illustrating some of these problems, and the danger they present to the work ethics and integrity of the public medical facility.

  12. Overcrowded motor vehicle trauma from the smuggling of illegal immigrants in the desert of the Southwest.

    PubMed

    Lumpkin, Mary F; Judkins, Dan; Porter, John M; Latifi, Rifat; Williams, Mark D

    2004-12-01

    Overcrowded motor vehicle crashes caused by the very active criminal enterprise of smuggling illegal immigrants in the desert of the Southwest is a recent and under-recognized trauma etiology. A computerized database search from 1990 through 2003 of local newspaper reports of overcrowded motor vehicle crashes along the 281 miles of Arizona's border with Mexico was conducted. This area was covered by two level I trauma centers, but since July 2003 is now served only by the University Medical Center. Each of these crashes involved a single motor vehicle in poor mechanical shape packed with illegal immigrants. Speeding out of control on bad tires, high-speed rollovers result in ejection of most passengers. Since 1999, there have been 38 crashes involving 663 passengers (an average of 17 per vehicle) with an injury rate of 49 per cent and a mortality rate of 9 per cent. This relatively recent phenomenon (no reports from before 1998) of trauma resulting from human smuggling is lethal and demonstrates the smugglers' wanton disregard for human life, particularly when facing apprehension. Even a few innocent bystanders have been killed. These crashes overwhelm a region's trauma resources and must be recognized when planning the distribution of trauma resources to border states.

  13. The Secure Fence Act: The Expected Impact on Illegal Immigration and Counterterrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    surveillance—will best protect society from terrorist attack.”12 Tony Payan argues that the U.S. has pumped billions of dollars into fortifying the borders...Overcome Defensive Technologies (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Homeland Security, 2007), 10. 13 Tony Payan , The Three U.S.-Mexico Border Wars: Drugs...of International Law 10:3, no. 391 (Spring 2007): 390. Payan , Tony. The Three U.S.-Mexico Border Wars: Drugs, Immigration, and Homeland Security

  14. Access to health care for illegal immigrants: a specific organisation in France.

    PubMed

    Duguet, Anne-Marie; Bévière, Bénédicte

    2011-01-01

    Health care is a fundamental human right in Europe, and all Member States recognise everyone's right to the access to preventive healthcare and to receive medical care in the event of sickness or pregnancy. Nevertheless, this right is focused on citizens and the application to migrants, particularly undocumented migrants, varies widely in the EU. The French legislation is organized with a humanitarian approach. In this article, the authors present the French system of social protection, the "Couvernture médicale universelle" or CMU, which provides the same protection to asylum seekers and documented immigrants as to nationals, and the "Aide médicale d'état" or AME, that is open to every person who does not fulfil the legal conditions to obtain the CMU, such as illegal immigrants. Created in 1995, recently access to the AME has been restricted. A claim of discrimination has been rejected by the Conseil d'Etat and 215,000 persons received the AME in 2009. The expenses incurred by the AME increased by 17% in 2010, and there is a debate in Parliament to limit care and to ask the recipient for a financial contribution.

  15. Health of Chinese illegal immigrants who arrived by boat on the West Coast of Canada in 1999.

    PubMed

    Allan, G Michael; Szafran, Olga

    2005-10-01

    This was a retrospective review and descriptive analysis of the findings from the medical screening examinations conducted on the illegal migrants from Fujian Province of China (n = 589) who arrived on four boats on the West Coast of Canada between June 14 and September 9, 1999. The Canadian Navy conducted a screening medical exam of the illegal migrants, with Health Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada providing suggestions on the format of the exam. The illegal Chinese migrants were predominantly young, male adults. The most prevalent medical conditions detected were dermatological (55.2%), dental problems (25%), trauma (9.2%), urogenital (7.6%), and head/neck (6.6%). Recently induced trauma was more prevalent among females (20.5%) than males (6.5%). One case of community-acquired pneumonia was identified and later diagnosed as active pulmonary tuberculosis. Physicians dealing with illegal migrants should look for unusual physical findings and have a higher clinical suspicion regarding infectious diseases (tuberculosis, scabies) and abuse. Future encounters with illegal migrants should include standardized immigration screening exams, with adequate history taking and follow-up.

  16. [Assessing the health and nutritional status of illegal immigrant adolescents from Maghreb].

    PubMed

    Oliván Gonzalvo, G

    2000-07-01

    To assess the health and nutritional status of illegal immigrant adolescents from Maghreb at the time of entry into foster care in Zaragoza, Spain. Cross-sectional study over a 3-year period (1997-1999). Health status via clinical history and physical examination was assessed according to standard protocols and individualized complementary laboratory examinations were performed. Nutritional status was assessed using the anthropometric method. Weight, height, head and upper arm circumferences, tricipital and subscapular skinfold thickness, body-mass index and nutritional index were established and compared with national normal standards of reference (Z-score). Student s t-test was used to assess statistically significant differences. Forty male adolescents (22 Algerians and 18 Moroccans) were admitted during the study period. Mean age was 15 +/- 1.42 years (range: 13-17 years). Health status: anomaly in at least one body system (50%) and more than one anomaly (15%). Most frequent problems were odontologic (32. 5%), dermatological (17.5%), respiratory (12.5%), ophthalmological (7.5%), orthopedic (5%) and otic (2.5%). Tuberculous infection was detected in 5% and iron deficiency anemia in 2.5% of the patients. Nutritional status: except for head circumference (p < 0.05), no statistically significant differences were found in the other variables analyzed. Mean value of nutritional index was found to be within normal intervals. Individualized analysis showed a mild form of acute malnutrition in 12.5% of the patients. The adolescents studied showed prevalent odontological, dermatological and respiratory diseases due infection and lack of hygienic practices. Deficiency diseases, congenital anomalies and undiagnosed chronic diseases were observed in a small number of patients. Concerning nutritional status, a low percentage of patients showed a mild form of acute malnutrition, probably related to food deprivation and poor dietary habits experienced during the immigration

  17. A Legalization Program for Illegal Aliens Living in the United States. Statement before the Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Immigration, Refugees and International Law, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meissner, Doris M.

    A legalization program for illegal aliens living in the United States is examined in this statement by Doris Meissner, Acting Commissioner of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). Meissner states that the Administration's current proposed legislation is designed to regain control of the immigration process through the development of…

  18. An Elusive Concept: The Changing Definition of Illegal Immigrant in the Practice of Immigration Control in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couper, Kristin; Santamaria, Ulysses

    1984-01-01

    Against a backdrop of administrative rather than criminal justice, examines the changing concepts in United Kingdom immigration practice, where immigration control at the port of entry has extended to internal control within the United Kingdom, the burden of proof of legality of status being increasingly upon the immigrant. (RDN)

  19. The health of irregular and illegal immigrants: analysis of day-hospital admissions in a department of migration medicine.

    PubMed

    Affronti, Mario; Affronti, Andrea; Pagano, Salvatore; Soresi, Maurizio; Giannitrapani, Lydia; Valenti, Miriam; La Spada, Emanuele; Montalto, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    It is difficult to trace full details of the path which irregular or illegal immigrants follow when seeking assistance in the network of the various hospital departments and health structures. The aim of this work was to analyze the health needs of immigrant people by reviewing the types of treatment given to them in the day-hospital of our Department of Migration Medicine. Our study analyzed day-hospital admissions between 2003 and 2009. The patient charts used for managing day-hospital activity were adopted in 2002 in conformity with the "OSI project". From these it is possible to draw up a scale picture of the distribution of each pathology in the immigrant population. The sample population consisted of 1,758 subjects, representing 7.4% of potential users. More than half came from Africa, followed by Asia, and then Europe. Gastroenterological diseases ranked first, with dyspeptic syndromes most frequently diagnosed. Infections and parasitic diseases ranked second, and the most frequent diagnoses were sexually transmitted diseases. Third were diseases of the genitourinary system. Metabolic disorders ranked fourth, among them, more than half of the cases were of diabetes mellitus, in patients from south-east Asia. Diseases of the circulatory system were sixth, with hypertension the most frequent pathology. Our data confirm a marked persistence of the phenomenon known as the "healthy immigrant effect" in these types of patients, as well as the prominent role played by "social determinants" in conditioning the health of immigrants, particularly in the case of some infectious diseases.

  20. Military Weapon Injury Among Illegal Immigrants at the Southern Border of Israel: A Single Level I Trauma Center Series.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Gad; Yitzhak, Avraham; Abramovich, Amir; Sebbag, Gilbert; Peleg, Kobi; Davidson, Ehud; Czeiger, David

    2016-06-18

    This article describes the characteristics of injuries of illegal immigrants admitted to a Level I trauma center after being shot at the southern border of Israel. This is a retrospective descriptive study. Some of the variables were compared to a group of soldiers who sustained penetrating injury at the same region where the illegal migrant were injured. The study includes 162 patients. The lower body absorbed a higher percentage of the injuries (61 %). The hospitalization time is longer for the migrant patients compared to the soldiers (13 ± 2 vs. 3 ± 0.3 days p = 0.0001). This study on wounded immigrants shows that a conjoint military and civilian system can result in favourable outcomes. The manuscript is an attempt to bring this unique situation, its type of injuries, and the difficulties of the health system in coping with it, to the notice of all authorities that may address a similar challenge.

  1. Unexpected hazard of illegal immigration: Outbreak of viral myocarditis exacerbated by confinement and deprivation in a shipboard cargo container.

    PubMed

    Li, Melissa K; Beck, Melinda A; Shi, Qing; Harruff, Richard C

    2004-06-01

    We present a group of 18 illegal immigrant stowaways who arrived in a shipboard cargo container suffering from gastroenteritis, dehydration, and malnutrition and showing evidence of viral myocarditis in 3 of 4 fatalities. Our investigation included an evaluation of the 2-week ocean voyage, analysis of medical records and laboratory results of the survivors, autopsies on the decedents, and viral studies on their heart tissue. Of 3 stowaways who died shipboard, 2 showed lymphocytic myocarditis and 1 could not be evaluated histologically due to decomposition. A fourth stowaway died 4 months after arrival with dilated cardiomyopathy and lymphocytic myocarditis. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing of viral isolates from the decedents' heart tissues demonstrated Coxsackie virus B3 genome. We believe that these cases represent an outbreak of viral myocarditis, exacerbated by acute dehydration and malnutrition, due to confinement within the shipping container. Our evidence indicates that close confinement promoted the spread of the virus, and nutritional deprivation increased the stowaways' vulnerability. Furthermore, our observations support the conclusion, based on experimental studies, that nutritionally induced oxidative stress increased the virulence of the etiologic viral agent. In summary, these cases represent a potential infectious disease hazard of illegal immigration.

  2. An Exploratory Study to Determine the Need for a Program of Research on the Policy Implications of Illegal Immigration for Youth Employment in the Unted States. Final Report, August 1978 through March 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Arlene P.

    A study was conducted to assess the extent of knowledge of the impact of illegal immigration on youth unemployment and to analyze its policy relevance. Data collection methods included source identification and review; interviews with theoreticians, scholars, and administrators; and coordination of information on illegal immigration impact with…

  3. Illegal Immigrants and Refugees--Their Economic Adaptation and Impact on Local U.S. Labor Markets: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Robert G.

    This paper presents a review of existing case study literature on the local and regional impacts of illegal immigrants and refugees in the United States. This report is a part of the second phase of the National Commission for Employment Policy's long-term work plan "Changes in the Workplace." While there is an enormous amount of…

  4. The Spillover of US Immigration Policy on Citizens and Permanent Residents of Mexican Descent: How Internalizing "Illegality" Impacts Public Health in the Borderlands.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Samantha; Lee, Alison Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The militarization of the US-Mexico border region exacerbates the process of "Othering" Latino immigrants - as "illegal aliens." The internalization of "illegality" can manifest as a sense of "undeservingness" of legal protection in the population and be detrimental on a biopsychological level. We explore the impacts of "illegality" among a population of US citizen and permanent resident farmworkers of Mexican descent. We do so through the lens of immigration enforcement-related stress and the ability to file formal complaints of discrimination and mistreatment perpetrated by local immigration enforcement agents, including local police authorized to enforce immigration law. Drawing from cross-sectional data gathered through the National Institute of Occupation Safety and Health, "Challenges to Farmworker Health at the US-Mexico Border" study, a community-based participatory research project conducted at the Arizona-Sonora border, we compared Arizona resident farmworkers (N = 349) to Mexico-based farmworkers (N = 140) or Transnational farmworkers who cross the US-Mexico border daily or weekly to work in US agriculture. Both samples of farmworkers experience significant levels of stress in anticipation of encounters with immigration officials. Fear was cited as the greatest factor preventing individuals from reporting immigration abuses. The groups varied slightly in the relative weight attributed to different types of fear. The militarization of the border has consequences for individuals who are not the target of immigration enforcement. These spillover effects cause harm to farmworkers in multiple ways. Multi-institutional and community-centered systems for reporting immigration-related victimization is required. Applied participatory research with affected communities can mitigate the public health effects of state-sponsored immigration discrimination and violence among US citizen and permanent residents.

  5. Undocumented workers in the labor market: an analysis of the earnings of legal and illegal Mexican immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rivera-batiz, F L

    1999-01-01

    "This paper studies the differences in earnings between Mexican legal and illegal immigrants in the United States. The analysis includes a cross-sectional examination of the wage differences between legal and undocumented workers as well as a longitudinal analysis examining the impact of legalization on the earnings of previously-undocumented workers. It is shown that the average hourly wage rate of male Mexican legal immigrants in the United States was 41.8% higher than that of undocumented workers while female legal immigrants earned 40.8% more."

  6. Network-Based Mitigation of Illegal Immigration in Aegean Sea (Greece)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Gigahertz GIS – Geographic Information System GPS – Global Positioning System HCG – Hellenic Coast Guard ID – Identification IEEE – Institute of...them as asylum seekers or to accompany them, pretending that they are also migrants. The Hellenic Coast Guard ( HCG ) is quite often one step behind...capabilities to HCG forces. Surveillance to mitigate such illegalities must be deployed across Greece’s territorial waters in the Eastern Aegean on

  7. Illegal Immigration in the United States: Implications for Rule of Law and National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-15

    living in the United States.”26 Samuel Huntington’s The Clash of Civilizations, deems migration to be the “central issue of our time.” With...Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press, 2007. 26 Romero, Fernando. Hyperborder. New York NY: Princeton Architectural Press, 2008. p 11, 169 27 Samuel ...2005. http://www.cis.org/node/393 (accessed August 20, 2011). Carter, April, Marie Lawrence, and Ann Morse . 2011 Immigration-Related Laws, Bills

  8. The Lost Path: Regulating Transit Illegal Immigration on Mexico’s Southern Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Protecting Immigrant Rights in Mexico,, 116. 459 María da Gloria Marroni, “Capital Social , Redes Migratorias y Ayuda Humanitaria: ¿La Solidaridad a...International and Inter-Agency Cooperation at the Border.” Geneva, Switzerland, March 13–15 (2009). Marroni, María da Gloria. “Capital Social , Redes ...32  2.  Social Networks

  9. The Enduring Costs of Illegal Immgration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    raped and strangled to death with her own rosary beads. The rapist/murderer, Maximiliano Esparza, was an illegal immigrant from Mexico. In 1988, Esparza...Extent of Illegal Immigration 3 Anchor Babies 6 Amnesty 8 Employment...Conclusion: The issues of illegal immigrants in the United States, anchor babies , amnesty, employment, crime, and costs were addressed in the paper

  10. Case report: illegal immigration via overloaded vans and the effects on a trauma system.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Darlene; Plata, Elizabeth; Caruso, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The Arizona-Mexico border consists of 375 square miles of rural desert where temperature extremes, excessive sun exposure, and a lack of food and water are common. The desert poses an especially deadly threat to immigrants who attempt to cross it on foot. In an effort to smuggle humans across this region, smugglers transport people in vans that are loaded beyond the recommended vehicle weight limitations. The unrestrained occupants change the vehicle's center of gravity and increase the propensity for van rollovers. Van rollovers produce multiple casualties that quickly outstrip the resources of rural providers. The purpose of this article is to describe two cases that involved multiple victims injured in van rollovers that occurred on two consecutive days. The rollovers occurred in the rural areas outside of Phoenix, Arizona, and eventually taxed the entire metropolitan Phoenix area trauma system.

  11. Immigration: an international economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Marshall, R

    1984-01-01

    The creation of an effective US immigration policy has been complicated by the diversity of political interests and the absence of reliable statistics to determine the magnitude of the impact on the American economy. Estimates of the number of illegal aliens in the US range from 1 to 12 million. While political biases and complexities and data inadequacies complicate this analysis, some generalizations seem to be confirmed by worldwide experience. There are 2 mutually-supportive, short-run ways to reduce the flow of undocumented workers: 1) to better police US borders and shorelines and 2) to remove the motive for entry by making it illegal for employers to hire workers who are not authorized to work in the US. To give employers an easy defense and to facilitate their compliance with immigration laws, an effective worker identification system should be developed. To avoid the civil liberties, international relations, and human problems associated with mass deportations, illegal immigrants who entered the US before January 1, 1981 and who have been in continuous residence for at least 1 year, should be permitted to remain in the US as permanent resident aliens. The US should not adopt a new guest worker program. The proper sequence of changes in immigration policy is very important. Dealing with illegal immigration is essential; all these measures should be in place before an amnesty is granted. Because it is important to have friendly relations with neighboring countries and because the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is to reduce the wide disparities in employment opportunities between countries, the US should work with other countries to control illegal immigration, but should not link control to energy, trade, or other policies. It is particularly important to discuss immigration control plans with other countries, especially Mexico, and to do everything consistent with US interests to minimize the adverse impact of our immigration policies on our

  12. [Immigration dilemmas].

    PubMed

    Latuch, M

    1998-10-01

    Recent trends in immigration to Poland are reviewed, including both voluntary migration and migration forced by extreme political or economic circumstances. Data are also presented on illegal immigrants and on their countries of origin.

  13. Labor Functions of Illegal Aliens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro

    1977-01-01

    Concludes that to the extent that collective defenselessness of workers exists anywhere, movements like illegal immigration, the self-transportation of cheap labor toward the places where needed, are bound to continue. (Author/AM)

  14. Do "illegal" im/migrants have a right to health? Engaging ethical theory as social practice at a Tel Aviv open clinic.

    PubMed

    Willen, Sarah S

    2011-09-01

    As the notion of a "right to health" gains influence, it is increasingly deployed in ways that are diverse, contextually variable, and at times logically inconsistent. Drawing on extended fieldwork at an Israeli human rights organization that advocates for "illegal" migrants and other vulnerable groups, this article contends that medical anthropologists cannot simply rally behind this right. Instead, we must take it as an object of ethnographic analysis and explore bow it is invoked, debated, and resisted in specific contexts. Critical ethnographies of right to health discourse and practice can enlighten us, and help us enlighten scholars in other fields, to the complexity, messiness, and "mushiness" (Sen 2009) of this right, especially in the context of advocacy on unauthorized im/migrants' behalf. It can also deepen understanding of the complicated and sometimes tense relationships among human rights, humanitarianism, and other contemporary idioms of social justice mobilization, especially in the health domain.

  15. [Assessment of the impact of the new health legislation on illegal immigrants in Spain: the case of human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Molina, José A; Pulido Ortega, Federico

    2012-10-01

    The immigrant population in Spain, whether legal or not, has been entitled to healthcare under the same conditions as the Spanish population since the year 2000. The entry into vigour of the Royal Decree-Law 12/2012 of 20 April has significantly restricted this right, so that unauthorized or non-resident foreigners may now only receive emergency care, if they are under 18 or pregnant women. Out of an estimated 459,909 illegal immigrants in our country, 2,700 to 4,600 are probably infected with HIV; 1,800 to 3,220 know that they are infected, and 80% of the latter could receive antiretroviral treatment. The Royal Decree-Law is likely to cause many undesirable consequences in this population infected with HIV: increasing mortality, promoting the emergence of opportunistic diseases, increasing hospital admissions, increasing infections in the population (by HIV and other pathogens), or contributing to mother to child transmission of HIV. The expected increase in morbidity and mortality will be a greater cost in patient care, a cost which will be significantly higher in the more immunosuppressed patients. Therefore, the enforcement of the Royal Decree-Law will be much less cost-effective in the short term than was expected, and will negatively affect our country's public health, especially for those patients infected with HIV who will not be covered, thus increasing healthcare medium to long term costs, and moving away from the international health goals that were established. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. [Immigration and immigrants in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Bouillon, A

    1998-01-01

    "The reversal of [South Africa's] pro-active (white) immigration policy in 1990 has been supplemented by an unprecedented level of repression of ¿illegal' immigration. Although they have never been recognised as such, black immigrants are the most numerous component of the South African immigrant population. After giving an account of this situation, this article endeavours to take stock of the immigrant population as a whole, by covering the whole range of permanent, temporary, refugee and ¿illegal' immigrant status and populations." (EXCERPT)

  17. Immigration Reform in Its First Year. CIS Paper 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, David S.

    This document assesses the preliminary impact of the first year of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA). The act had three primary goals: (1) to discourage illegal immigration into the United States and to encourage the departure of recent illegal immigrants; (2) to permit the legalization of illegal immigrants who have been in…

  18. [Immigrants and the labor market: a new age of immigration?].

    PubMed

    Dechaux, J

    1991-04-01

    Trends in migration to France since the 1974 legislation restricting immigration are described. The author notes that the growing integration of pre-1974 immigrants into the labor force and society is accompanied by a growth in illegal immigration. He concludes that the present situation concerning immigrant labor remains fluid, and that the characteristics of immigrants are extremely diverse. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  19. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the United States shall inform the immigration officer in charge of the port where the illegal landing... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of illegal landings. 251.2 Section 251.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ARRIVAL...

  20. For Illegal College Students, an Uncertain Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwedel, Dina M.

    2006-01-01

    With almost two million undocumented children in school and an estimated 65,000 graduating from high school every year, higher education is becoming the new frontier in the immigration debate. In 1982, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the children of illegal immigrants have a right to a free K-12 education. However, the court never extended that…

  1. [The fight against clandestine immigration].

    PubMed

    Sayah, J

    1995-01-01

    The history of recent French legislation on immigration is discussed. The author examines the consequences of stricter immigration laws, suggesting that they force more people into illegality and thus increase public suspicion of and action against foreigners.

  2. The Human Face of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says.…

  3. The Human Face of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says.…

  4. U.S. Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Jim

    1981-01-01

    Examines America's responsibility, in a period of economic recession, to the poor of other countries and to the illegal immigrants within the U.S. The author concludes that resident illegal aliens should have their status legalized and be offered social services, while policies for new immigrants should be reformed to encourage legal immigration…

  5. Impact of Immigration on the School District Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Gonzalo

    Data on illegal immigration from Mexico into Texas provide accurate information on the impact of this immigration on the generally underfunded and understaffed border school districts in the state. Immigration and Naturalization Service statistics show 20 million illegal immigrants in the United States. A more scientific estimate is 4 million, 2.7…

  6. Impact of Immigration on the School District Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Gonzalo

    Data on illegal immigration from Mexico into Texas provide accurate information on the impact of this immigration on the generally underfunded and understaffed border school districts in the state. Immigration and Naturalization Service statistics show 20 million illegal immigrants in the United States. A more scientific estimate is 4 million, 2.7…

  7. The Chicano/Illegal-Alien Civil Liberties Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Arturo

    The illegal Mexican migration to the U.S. has resulted in judicial and statutory responses that have constrained the constitutional and civil rights of Chicanos. The Supreme Court, in its concern for stopping the flow of illegal immigrants, has ruled in U.S. v. Martinez-Fuerte that it is not a constitutional violation to refer motorists to a…

  8. In Defense of the Alien. Volume II. Immigration Law and Legal Representation. Proceedings of the Annual Legal Conference on Alien's Rights: Options for the 1980s (Washington, D.C., March 29-30, 1979). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragomen, Austin T., Jr., Ed.; Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    This collection of papers from a 1979 legal symposium presents the views of government representatives and experts from the private sector concerning the rights of legal and illegal aliens in the United States, international trends in aliens' rights, and immigration/refugee policy options and issues for the l980s. Issues considered include: (1)…

  9. In Defense of the Alien. Volume II. Immigration Law and Legal Representation. Proceedings of the Annual Legal Conference on Alien's Rights: Options for the 1980s (Washington, D.C., March 29-30, 1979). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragomen, Austin T., Jr., Ed.; Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    This collection of papers from a 1979 legal symposium presents the views of government representatives and experts from the private sector concerning the rights of legal and illegal aliens in the United States, international trends in aliens' rights, and immigration/refugee policy options and issues for the l980s. Issues considered include: (1)…

  10. Educating Recent Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles all related to the theme of education for recent legal and illegal immigrants. In "Golden Lord with Us from the Main Forest: Some Thoughts on the Education of Recent Immigrants," Aurelio M. Montemayor reflects on his experiences growing up in a bilingual, bicultural extended family of…

  11. Immigration: Coming to America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  12. Immigration: Coming to America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  13. Immigration policy: a selective approach.

    PubMed

    Koike, K

    1988-06-01

    Recommendations are offered concerning Japanese policy on the immigration of foreign workers. The author notes that even those countries that used to welcome such immigrants now restrict their entry. The need for a selective policy that would aid internationalization in Japan and strengthen controls on illegal immigrants by requiring employers to secure permits before hiring foreigners is stressed.

  14. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on laws that influence U.S. immigration, such as the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (1996), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996), the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996), and the Legal Immigration and Family Equity Act (2000). Includes discussion…

  15. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on laws that influence U.S. immigration, such as the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (1996), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996), the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996), and the Legal Immigration and Family Equity Act (2000). Includes discussion…

  16. Framing unauthorized immigrants: the effects of labels on evaluations.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Reidar; Van der Veer, Kees; Larsen, Knud S; Eilertsen, Dag-Erik

    2014-04-01

    In the U.S. media, unauthorized immigrants are often interchangeably referred to as "illegal aliens," "illegal immigrants," and undocumented immigrants." In spite of formal equivalence, these terms carry different connotations, but the effects of these labels on people's attitudes toward immigrants are not well documented. In this replication study, 274 undergraduate students in psychology responded to one of three randomly distributed versions of a 20-item scale measuring attitudes toward unauthorized immigration. The items in the three scale versions varyingly referred to immigrants using the three terms. Results showed differences in attitudes toward unauthorized immigration between all experimental conditions. The label "illegal immigrants" yielded significantly less positive attitudes compared to the label "undocumented immigrants," and respondents exposed to the label "illegal aliens" showed the most positive attitudes. Furthermore, the effects of the experimental conditions were not moderated by the respondents' patriotism, sex, or own immigrant background.

  17. The politics of immigration reform.

    PubMed

    Simpson, A K

    1984-01-01

    The US is the target for international migration, now more than ever. Population growth and economic stragnation in the Third World are increasing the pressures for out-migration, and current immigration law is wholly incapable of responding to the ever increasing flow of illegal immigrants. Border apprehensions of illegal aliens in the US were up 40% during 1983, and total apprehensions reached 1.25 million by the year's end. Recent public opinion polls have disclosed that an overwhelming majority of the American public demands immigration reform, and yet we as a nation have been distinctly unwilling or unable to respond to this clear public sentiment. This paper discusses the politics of the "Simpson-Mazzoli" Immigration Reform and Control Act, previous immigration legislation, current counterproposals for US immigration policy, and the political realities of immigration reform.

  18. Immigration and Prosecutorial Discretion.

    PubMed

    Apollonio, Dorie; Lochner, Todd; Heddens, Myriah

    Immigration has become an increasingly salient national issue in the US, and the Department of Justice recently increased federal efforts to prosecute immigration offenses. This shift, however, relies on the cooperation of US attorneys and their assistants. Traditionally federal prosecutors have enjoyed enormous discretion and have been responsive to local concerns. To consider how the centralized goal of immigration enforcement may have influenced federal prosecutors in regional offices, we review their prosecution of immigration offenses in California using over a decade's worth of data. Our findings suggest that although centralizing forces influence immigration prosecutions, individual US attorneys' offices retain distinct characteristics. Local factors influence federal prosecutors' behavior in different ways depending on the office. Contrary to expectations, unemployment rates did not affect prosecutors' willingness to pursue immigration offenses, nor did local popular opinion about illegal immigration.

  19. Immigration and Prosecutorial Discretion

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie; Lochner, Todd; Heddens, Myriah

    2015-01-01

    Immigration has become an increasingly salient national issue in the US, and the Department of Justice recently increased federal efforts to prosecute immigration offenses. This shift, however, relies on the cooperation of US attorneys and their assistants. Traditionally federal prosecutors have enjoyed enormous discretion and have been responsive to local concerns. To consider how the centralized goal of immigration enforcement may have influenced federal prosecutors in regional offices, we review their prosecution of immigration offenses in California using over a decade's worth of data. Our findings suggest that although centralizing forces influence immigration prosecutions, individual US attorneys' offices retain distinct characteristics. Local factors influence federal prosecutors' behavior in different ways depending on the office. Contrary to expectations, unemployment rates did not affect prosecutors' willingness to pursue immigration offenses, nor did local popular opinion about illegal immigration. PMID:26146530

  20. Dynamics of immigration control.

    PubMed

    Djajic, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic implications of US border control policies and internal enforcement measures for the pattern of illegal immigration and the sectoral allocation of clandestine foreign workers. Efforts to counteract illegal immigration into the US have been increasing steadily following the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. The purpose of the Act is to reduce illegal immigration with the aid of three instruments: 1) employer sanctions; 2) increased controls along the border; and 3) a legalization program designed to meet the existing demand for agricultural labor in geographic locations that are in proximity of Mexico, the principal source of clandestine foreign labor. The effect of tougher border control measures increases the cost of illegal entry, discouraging clandestine inflows. On the other hand, these measures induce migrants to increase their own anti-detection efforts, reducing the probability of detection and the deportation rate. If the latter effect should dominate, the steady-state stock of clandestine foreign labor will actually increase in response to more vigorous border control measures. Explicit consideration of the role of networks in the clandestine labor market suggests the need for a drastic policy change. This policy change should target illegal migration in areas with high concentrations of clandestine foreign workers. Complementary measures should accompany this policy change to prevent unbalanced enforcement measures.

  1. America's immigration "problem.".

    PubMed

    Sassen, S

    1989-01-01

    Immigration has traditionally aroused strong passions in the US. Though Americans profess pride in their history as a nation of immigrants, each new wave of immigrants is met with strenuous opposition. Sassen points out that this opposition underestimates the US's capacity to absorb more people and fails to appreciate the political and economic forces that give rise to immigration. The outcry over rising illegal immigration culminated in the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. So far, the law's effectiveness has been limited. 1.8 million immigrants applied to regularize their status. However, there is growing evidence that the employer sanctions program is resulting in discrimination against minority workers who are US citizens, and in various abuses against undocumented workers. Meanwhile, illegal immigration continues to rise. The 1986 law, like earlier laws, is based o a faulty understanding of immigration causes. The US played a crucial role in the 1960s and 1970s in developing today's global economic system. This system contributed to the creation of pools of potential immigrants and to the formation of links between the industrialized and developing countries. In sum, foreign investment and promotion of export-oriented growth i the US in developing countries has served to increase immigration to the US. A workable US immigration policy would be based o the recognition that the US bears a certain amount of responsibility for international labor migrations. The precise features of a fair immigration policy will have to be elaborated. However, it is clear that US immigration policy will continue to be counterproductive as long as it places the responsibility for the formation of international migrations exclusively upon the migrants themselves.

  2. The Characteristics and Role of Illegal Aliens in the U.S. Labor Market: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, David S.; Houstoun, Marion F.

    Data on the characteristics and labor market experiences of illegal aliens in the U.S. work force were collected by voluntary interviews with 793 apprehended illegal immigrants who had worked at least two weeks in the U.S. From the resulting diverse collection of case histories, it was concluded that (1) illegal workers in the U.S. are likely to…

  3. Borders and Quotas: Immigration and the Affirmative-Action State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerry, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Examines the effect of recent immigration on the following areas: (1) employment in higher education; (2) school desegregation; (3) public-sector employment; (4) voting rights; and (5) Congressional reapportionment. Discusses affirmative action protection for legal and illegal immigrants. (FMW)

  4. Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

    Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

  5. Immigration Policy in the United States: Future Prospects for the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Program for Resarch on Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; And Others

    Immigration to the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the nation's history and has elicited various policy responses at different times. In recent years, concern about undocumented, illegal immigration has given rise to efforts to reform immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 was intended…

  6. Fighting for Immigrant Children's Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2007-01-01

    On the morning of Dec. 12, 2006, hundreds of federal agents from Immigration and Customs Enforcement descended upon six Swift and Co. meat-packing plants in Texas, Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota and Utah affecting communities. These federal crackdowns on illegal immigrants reverberate in schools too, forcing superintendents to confront some…

  7. Can Immigration Laws Be Enforced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Edwin

    1983-01-01

    Current immigration law contains loopholes that make it difficult to restrict illegal immigration. Needed are enforcement strategies that maximize benefits from limited resources and are politically acceptable to American citizens. Such strategies might include increasing cost of entry, and focusing post entry operations on aliens involved in…

  8. Educating Immigrants: The Community College Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szelenyi, Katalin; Chang, June C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines issues related to the immigrant population at the community college, focusing on first-generation immigrants, including naturalized citizens, legal and illegal permanent residents, and individuals who are in the process of legalizing their immigration status. Considers questions of access, educational attainment, institutional services,…

  9. How Do Immigrants Affect Us Economically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Julian L.

    This document summarizes the key data and main findings of the book, "The Economic Consequences of Immigration into the United States." All immigrants, not only those who are illegal, are included in the discussion. Immigrants, it is concluded, raise the standard of living of the residents of the host country, rather than lowering it as is…

  10. Immigration to the U.S.: The Unfinished Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouvier, Leon F.; Gardner, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    Several times early in the twentieth century total annual immigration exceeded one million people. Current immigration figures may match those record totals. Since 1979, legal immigrants have averaged 566,000 a year; newly arrived refugees and asylees approved have averaged 135,000; and the "settled" illegal immigrant population may be…

  11. Equal Protection, Immigration, and Education: "Plyler v. Doe"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Joseph R.; Doppen, Frans H.; Hollstein, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    When the Texas state legislature passed a law in the 1970s allowing school districts to deny enrollment or charge tuition to illegal immigrant children, the Tyler Independent School District instituted a $1,000 tuition rate for illegal immigrant children. Sixteen undocumented children from four Mexican families in Tyler filed a class-action suit…

  12. Equal Protection, Immigration, and Education: "Plyler v. Doe"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Joseph R.; Doppen, Frans H.; Hollstein, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    When the Texas state legislature passed a law in the 1970s allowing school districts to deny enrollment or charge tuition to illegal immigrant children, the Tyler Independent School District instituted a $1,000 tuition rate for illegal immigrant children. Sixteen undocumented children from four Mexican families in Tyler filed a class-action suit…

  13. Anti-Immigration Movements in the 1990s: A New Perspective in the Post Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yatani, Choichiro

    The United States has been through anti-immigration movements every few decades since its founding. A new face of the anti-immigration movement can be seen emerging from current events including: (1) California's Proposition 187, under which illegal immigrants are barred from public education and teachers are required to report illegal immigrants…

  14. Providing health and social services to illegal alien families: a dilemma for community agencies.

    PubMed

    Young, C L; Hall, W T; Collins, J

    1979-01-01

    Proposals for dealing with illegeal migration from Mexico to the United States generally do not recognize it as an international social problem. The proposals also present contradictory solutions. Amnesty, a humanitarian policy, is being suggested as well as increased restrictions and punishments, a policing policy. However, in the absence of a comprehensive national policy, community social and health care programs must provide services to illegal aliens. This article attempts to document some of the issues that illegal immigration presents for community agencies.

  15. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  16. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.9 Prohibition on narcotics and illegal... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a...

  17. Cultural Pluralism and the Future of American Unity: The Impact of Illegal Aliens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lawrence H.

    1984-01-01

    Acculturation will work in the same way for legal and illegal immigrants as it has for other ethnic groups in the past, given comparable levels of education and length of family residence in this country. The long-term impact of illegal migration will be insignificant provided it is reduced substantially in the future. (RDN)

  18. Immigration to the U.S.: the unfinished story.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, L F; Gradner, R W

    1986-11-01

    Annual totals of new immigrants and refugees in the US may now be up to the record highs of over a million immigrants counted in 6 years between 1905 and 1914. Since 1979, legal immigrants have averaged 566,000 a year (570,009 in 1985), newly arrived refugees and asylees approved have averaged 135,000, and the "settled" illegal immigrant population is growing by up to 1/2 million a year, according to some estimates. 1/2 of illegal immigrants are persons who entered the US legally but then overstayed the terms of temporary visas. Immigration and Naturalization Service apprehensions of illegal aliens, projected at a record 1.8 million for fiscal year 1986, indicate a sharp increase in illegal border crossers, driven by Mexico's and Central America's mounting population and economic pressures and lured by the prospect of jobs with employers who through a loophole in US immigration law can hire illegal aliens without penalty. The Census Bureau estimates that net immigration now accounts for 28% of US population growth and will account for all growth by the 2030's if fertility stays at the current low 1.8 births per woman. Public opinion strongly favors crubs on illegal immigration and legalization of illegal aliens long resident in the US, and in 1986 Congress enacted legislation to reduce illegal immigration to the US. Asians and Latin Americans now make up over 80% of legal immigrants and Latin Americans comprised 77% of illegal immigrants counted in the 1980 census. Asians far outstrip Latin American immigrants in education, occupational status, and income and might be expected to assimilate in the same manner as earlier immigrant group did. Hispanic immigrants so far appear to favor cultural pluralism, maintaining their own culture and the Spanish language. Research in California indicates that recent Hispanic immigrants (legal and illegal) have helped preserve low-wage industries and agriculture. Illegal immigrants appear to draw more on public health and

  19. Mexican Immigration and the American State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to place the contemporary situation in historical perspective, this paper outlines the historical dialectics which made illegal immigration the direct consequence of the strength of United States organized labor. (Author/EB)

  20. Reform and retreat in United States immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, G P

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of changes in US Immigration Policy that compartmentalize legal from illegal immigration. Legal immigration was not reformed in the recent past, with the exception of welfare benefit restrictions among legal immigrants who were not citizens and income requirements for sponsors of permanent immigrants. Restrictions on illegal immigration were substantial, and included patrolling the border. Some reforms of illegal immigration were narrowly defeated or defeated through the efforts of organized Christian Coalitions. Reforms of legal immigration included few organized or effective allies, but did include environmental and population control organizations with influence in the capital. After Republican control of Congress in 1994, illegal immigration bargaining was replaced by partisanship. Populist pressures came from Proposition 187 in the state of California (local costs of a failed national policy to control immigration) and Presidential candidate Patrick Buchanan. The courts generally countered populist politics and supported immigrants. At present, expansionist measures continue to be adopted. Client politics that dominated over 3 or 4 decades no longer prevail. Client politics are defined by J. Q. Wilson as confined to small groups of people who are economically supported by the larger population. Congress sets policy according to organized interests which benefit directly from large numbers of legal and illegal permanent and temporary migrants. The most prominent struggle over immigration occurred in 1996. This policy period is reviewed.

  1. Expressing the sense of the Congress that State and local governments should be supported for taking actions to discourage illegal immigration and that legislation should be enacted to ease the burden on State and local governments for taking such actions.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Poe, Ted [R-TX-2

    2009-01-09

    02/09/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Expressing the sense of the Congress that State and local governments should be supported for taking actions to discourage illegal immigration and that legislation should be enacted to ease the burden on State and local governments for taking such actions.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Poe, Ted [R-TX-2

    2009-01-09

    02/09/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Illegal drugs and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Katrin M; Grigoleit, Lisa; Hess, Cornelius; Madea, Burkhard; Musshoff, Frank

    2013-03-10

    An interrelation between consumption of illegal drugs and committing an indictable offence has been repeatedly discussed in literature. In a retrospective study serum concentrations of illegal and legal drugs as well as data originating from police reports and examinations by physicians taking blood from individuals being suspected to be under the influence of drugs were evaluated. Results from 4816 cases were available. Property offences were the most frequent type (36%) as well as consumption of cannabinoids (55%). Psychophysiological conditions of consumers were compared with according serum concentrations. Close correlations between stimulating drugs and violence associated crime could not be found. Stimulated as well as sedated behaviour occurring following the consumption of various drugs might be the reason for no clear correlation between types of offence and consumed illegal or legal drugs in this study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Illegal File Sharing 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

  5. The Educational Rights of Unauthorized Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    A 2007 report from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO 2007) estimated that 12 million "unauthorized immigrants" lived in the United States, defining the term "unauthorized immigrants" as "foreign citizens residing in the United States illegally." Without providing exact numbers, in his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama addressed…

  6. The recent evolution of immigration in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, A

    1985-09-01

    Recent trends in immigration to Venezuela are reviewed. Data are from official sources, including the 1981 census and a 1981 survey of migrants. An analysis of migrants by major country or region of origin is presented that includes consideration of geographic distribution, migrant characteristics, and the characteristics of illegal immigration.

  7. The Educational Rights of Unauthorized Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    A 2007 report from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO 2007) estimated that 12 million "unauthorized immigrants" lived in the United States, defining the term "unauthorized immigrants" as "foreign citizens residing in the United States illegally." Without providing exact numbers, in his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama addressed…

  8. The Labor Market Effects of Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, George E.

    1980-01-01

    The probable effects on the U.S. labor market of a continued high rate of illegal immigration are examined. The impact each additional immigrant has on the employment of the domestic population, on GNP, and on the distribution of income is estimated. (CT)

  9. Immigration and California: Issues for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Kevin F.

    If the immigration pattern of the 1970's persists in the 1980's, California can expect, annually, approximately 250,000 new immigrants, the majority from Latin America and Asia. Of these immigrants, concentrated in the working ages, 60 percent will be poorly educated and generally unskilled refugees and illegals and will be potentially heavy users…

  10. Immigration and Higher Education: The Crisis and the Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David W.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in immigration patterns bring problems and opportunities to higher education. New federal law significantly changes the ethnic and skills mix of the immigrant pool. Issues emerging include potential brain drain; pressure for curriculum change; language as a barrier to access; and the rights of illegal immigrants to higher education. (MSE)

  11. Culturally Speaking: Immigrant Authors Writing for Young Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Sherry

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the memory of a student shot and killed due to suspicion that he was an illegal immigrant, the author has compiled a bibliography of books written by immigrants or their descendents. These books, based on family experiences that include the immigrant experience, can add richness and diversity to U.S. children's literature.

  12. Immigration to the United States: 1996 Update. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keuffel, Eric; Pemberton, Alissa

    Immigration, both legal and illegal, has a profound impact on the United States. The public policy implications of immigration include the impact on population growth, employment, wages, taxes, and social spending. In 1994, a net total of between 900,000 and 1.1 million immigrants were added to the foreign-born population of the United States.…

  13. Immigration and California: Issues for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Kevin F.

    If the immigration pattern of the 1970's persists in the 1980's, California can expect, annually, approximately 250,000 new immigrants, the majority from Latin America and Asia. Of these immigrants, concentrated in the working ages, 60 percent will be poorly educated and generally unskilled refugees and illegals and will be potentially heavy users…

  14. Immigration History and the Future of International Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rystad, Goran

    1992-01-01

    International migration is presented as a permanent phenomenon. Historical changes in migration patterns are traced; and different types of immigration policies, and current and future trends are reviewed. Open and unrestricted immigration is a thing of the past, but selective, and illegal, immigration will continue. (SLD)

  15. A Conceptual Analysis of the "Alien Invasion": Institutionalized Support of Illegal Mexican Aliens in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Ellwyn R.

    1976-01-01

    Organizes and conceptually clarifies the various elements within the illegal Mexican immigration situation, specifically focuses on how many and who the aliens are, why they are here, and which institutions within the society are supportive of them. (Author)

  16. Immigration: Studies of the Immigration Control Act's Impact on Mexico. Briefing Report to the Honorable Dennis DeConcini, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of National Security and International Affairs.

    This report describes research on the impact of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), Public Law 99-603, on Mexico's economy and social structure. The purpose of IRCA is to control illegal immigration to the United States, and a key provision makes it illegal for employers to knowingly hire or continue to employ undocumented…

  17. U.S. Immigration in the 1980s: Reappraisal and Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simcox, David E., Ed.

    The introductory chapter of this volume on immigration into the United States is entitled "Overview: A Time of Reform and Reappraisal" (D. Simcox), and it introduces the topics of reform, legal and illegal immigration, the effect of immigration on the labor market and social welfare, and immigration enforcement methods that are discussed…

  18. The Effects of Gendered Immigration Enforcement on Middle Childhood and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from an ethnographic study on Mexican immigrant fathers and their second-grade children, this article examines the masked realities behind current immigration policies that equate "illegal" with "Mexican immigrant" and how the enforcement of these policies, which overwhelmingly target Mexican immigrant men, affect…

  19. The Effects of Gendered Immigration Enforcement on Middle Childhood and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from an ethnographic study on Mexican immigrant fathers and their second-grade children, this article examines the masked realities behind current immigration policies that equate "illegal" with "Mexican immigrant" and how the enforcement of these policies, which overwhelmingly target Mexican immigrant men, affect…

  20. In Defense of the Alien. Volume VII. Immigration Reform and Refugee Developments. Proceedings of the Center for Migration Studies Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy (7th, Washington, DC, March 29-30, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    The proceedings of the 1984 Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy are collected in this book. Following a brief introduction, 16 papers are presented under three major headings: Immigration Legislation Reform; Immigration Legislation Practice; and Refugees: Policy and Legal Developments. The papers (and their authors)…

  1. In Defense of the Alien. Volume VII. Immigration Reform and Refugee Developments. Proceedings of the Center for Migration Studies Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy (7th, Washington, DC, March 29-30, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    The proceedings of the 1984 Annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy are collected in this book. Following a brief introduction, 16 papers are presented under three major headings: Immigration Legislation Reform; Immigration Legislation Practice; and Refugees: Policy and Legal Developments. The papers (and their authors)…

  2. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  3. Cultural pluralism and the future of American unity: the impact of illegal aliens.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, L H

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the question of the impact of illegal migration on American unity and cultural pluralism in the US. Assuming that over time the descendants of undocumented workers now in the US will behave substantially like descendants of those who immigrate legally, the long-term impact of illegal migration barely will be noticeable provided it is reduced substantially in the future. The process of acculturation will work in the same way for both groups as it has for other ethnic groups in the past, given comparable levels of education and length of family residence in the US. The author takes special notice of the illegal migration of Spanish-speaking workers and hypothesizes that the behavior of their descendants will not differ from that of the descendants of other immigrants, legal or illegal, in ways that disrupt fundamental patterns of American political unity and cultural pluralism.

  4. Toward immigration reform.

    PubMed

    Franken, Mark

    2005-01-01

    For the most part, immigrants in the United States do not have access to the very safety-net benefits supported by their taxes, nor to essential due-process rights, simply because they are not citizens or legal residents. Contemporary demographics of immigration and post-9/11 security concerns have colored our traditional hospitality as a nation of immigrants and made life more difficult for immigrants. The Catholic Church has a rich history of scriptural and social teaching that addresses the question of immigration. Stories of forced migration in the Pentateuch led to commandments regarding strangers and the responsibility to be welcoming. In the New Testament, we see that the Holy Family themselves were refugees. The Gospel of St. Matthew tells us that we will be judged by the way we respond to migrants and others in need. In Exsul Familia, Pope Pius XII reaffirms the commitment of the church to care for pilgrims, aliens, exiles, and migrants. In Ecclesia in America, Pope John Paul II states that the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is the elimination of global underdevelopment and that, in the meantime, the human rights of all migrants must be respected. In 2003, the bishops of Mexico and the United States jointly issued the pastoral letter Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope. In this letter, the bishops say that U.S. immigration policy should protect the human rights and dignity of immigrants and asylum seekers. The bishops also offer a number of proposed public policy responses toward that end. To advance the principles contained in Strangers No Longer, the bishops have decided to mount a national campaign designed to unite and mobilize a growing network of Catholic organizations and individuals, as well as others of good faith. In addition, the campaign will seek to dispel myths and misperceptions about immigrants.

  5. Pathways to legal immigration

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; MALONE, NOLAN

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use the New Immigrant Survey Pilot Study (NISP) to describe the amount and kind of experience that immigrants accumulate in the United States before they become permanent resident aliens. The NISP surveyed a representative sample of legal immigrants who acquired residence papers during July and August of 1996, yielding a completed sample of 1,135 adults. Our analysis revealed that roughly two-thirds of these newly arrived immigrants had prior experience in the United States within one of six basic categories: illegal border-crossers, visa abusers, non-resident visitors, non-resident workers, students or exchange visitors, and refugees/asylees. Each of these pathways to legal immigration was associated with a different profile with respect to nationality, social background, and economic status. Using simple earnings regressions we demonstrate how these differences can yield misleading conclusions about the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation, even if measured effects are reasonably accurate. We suggest that social scientists should change the way they think and ask about immigrants’ arrival in the United States. PMID:20830313

  6. Providing Medical Services to Undocumented Immigrants: Costs and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Fred

    1979-01-01

    Reviews cost estimates for treating illegal aliens made by hospitals and county governments. Discusses patterns of utilization of health services by illegal immigrant groups and the difficulties in arriving at accurate cost estimates. Describes the current status of legislative programs that address this issue. (Author/GC)

  7. Preteen Children and Illegal Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeganey, Neil; McIntosh, James; MacDonald, Fiona; Gannon, Maria; Gilvarry, Eilish; McArdle, Paul; McCarthy, Steve

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of research on the nature and extent of legal and illegal drug use among preteens and those factors associated with illegal drug use at this young age. The paper is based upon a survey of 2318 ten to twelve year olds in Glasgow and Newcastle. Overall around 30% of children reported having been exposed to illegal…

  8. Preteen Children and Illegal Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeganey, Neil; McIntosh, James; MacDonald, Fiona; Gannon, Maria; Gilvarry, Eilish; McArdle, Paul; McCarthy, Steve

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of research on the nature and extent of legal and illegal drug use among preteens and those factors associated with illegal drug use at this young age. The paper is based upon a survey of 2318 ten to twelve year olds in Glasgow and Newcastle. Overall around 30% of children reported having been exposed to illegal…

  9. Is the new immigration less skilled than the old?

    PubMed

    Chiswick, B R

    1986-04-01

    This paper analyzes trends in the skills of immigrants to the US in the post-World War II period. Changes in the supply, demand, and institutional factors determining immigration are analyzed for their implications for immigrant skills. During the past 4 decades immigration has shifted from being predominantly European and Canadian in origin to being predominantly Asian and Latin American, and there have been changes in the criteria for rationing immigration visas. Immigrant skills can be analyzed within the context of a model of the supply of immigrants and the US demand for immigrants. Of the Asian immigrants subject to numerical limitation, the proportion who were occupational preference principals declined from 18.2% in 1970, to 11.9% in 1975, to 8.1% in 1981. A growing stock of the foreign-born population who are illegal aliens may lower immigrant quality; for low-skilled workers in neighboring low-income countries the economic incentives for illegal migration are very large. Immigrants from the UK have the highest annual earnings, with Canadian, other European, South Asian, East Asian, and other American immigrants having successively lower earnings. The Mexicans and the Vietnamese have the lowest earnings. Over the period 1950 to 1980, US immigration changed from primarily drawing immigrants from countries whose nationals have high relative earnings in the US primarily drawing immigrants from countries whose nationals do less well. Recent immigrants are less favorably selected on the basis of their level of schooling. The analysis of the relative earnings of immigrants during the 1970s using 3 data files shows there has been little change for white immigrants, an ambiguous pattern for Mexican immgrants, perhaps a small decline for Cuban immigrants, and a small rise for Asian immigrants. Overall, without returning to rationing by country of origin, public policy could raise immigrant skill levels by changing the balance between kinship and the individual

  10. [French immigration policy at a turning point?].

    PubMed

    Wihtol De Wenden, C

    1995-01-01

    The author examines the changes to French immigration law adopted in 1993 in the light of current trends and pressures affecting migration to France. The focus is on the changes in the rules concerning the acquisition of French nationality, and the assimilation of existing immigrants from developing countries. The difficulties of resolving such problems at the national level while migration regulations are being developed at the European Community level are noted. Problems involving the control of the nation's borders, illegal immigration, and the growing demand for political asylum are also discussed. The author raises the possibility that immigration could be better managed in light of current labor market conditions in France.

  11. U.S. Immigration Policy and the National Interest. The Final Report and Recommendations of the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy with Supplemental Views by Commissioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy.

    This final report (March, 1981) of the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy reviews the provisions and effects of the Immigration and Nationality Act and makes recommendations related to the following areas of study: international issues, undocumented/illegal aliens, the admission of immigrants, phasing in new programs, refugee and…

  12. [Antecedents of and reflections on immigration policy in the United States].

    PubMed

    Velazquez Flores, R

    1994-01-01

    The background and determinants of US migration policy regarding Mexico are analyzed. Examination of migration policy through World War II demonstrates the coexistence of efforts to assure an adequate labor force by stimulating immigration with xenophobic fears and efforts to restrict immigration of specific groups. More recent policy measures--the 1952 McCarran-Walter Act prohibiting work in the US without migration documents, the 1954 "Operation Wetback" program to deport illegal immigrants, and the 1986 Simpson-Rodino law sanctioning employers who hire illegal immigrants--represented juridical and political responses to an essentially economic and social problem. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of the early 1990s largely ignored the difficult issue of illegal immigration, missing an opportunity for bilateral consideration of the problem. In early 1994, the US government increased the budget for border surveillance and initiated other actions to curb illegal immigration. Three states with large undocumented Mexican immigrant populations sued the Federal government for reimbursement of their expenditures, and California's Proposition 187 called for denying educational and medical services to family members of illegal immigrants. US migration policy has always attempted to stop the flow of illegal immigrants. The large numbers still present demonstrate that blockades, deportations, and other measures have been only partially successful.

  13. Right versus right: immigration and refugee policy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1980-01-01

    The author examines various aspects of current immigration to the United States, including the role of the United States as the world's major receiver of refugees and immigrants for permanent settlement and the scale of current immigration in comparison with previous decades. The size of the illegal alien population is considered, and the concentration of Spanish-speaking peoples among illegal aliens is contrasted with the diversity of earlier immigration. The future pressures for increased international migration is noted, and the inadequacy of current U.S. immigration law enforcement is considered. The policy implications of these facts and their perception by the American public are discussed

  14. Immigration and health care reform: shared struggles.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Deborah B

    2007-01-01

    The connection between health care and immigration share overlaping key areas in policy reform. General concern, anger, and fear about immigration has been spreading nationwide. While illegal immigrants' use of expensive emergency department services does add to the cost for uncompensated care, this expenditure is not a primary cost driver but more a symptom of little or no access to preventative or primary health care. As a result of federal inaction, more state politicians are redefining how America copes with illegal residents including how or whether they have access to health care. The overlap of immigration and health care reform offers an opportunity for us to enter the next round of debate from a more informed vantage point.

  15. Guardians at the Bridge: Will Immigrants Maintain Equal Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Describes the national mood toward immigration as evidenced by the 1994 passage of Proposition 187 in California, and its effect on the community college mission. Reviews benefits and drawbacks of the measure for educational institutions and examines approaches to illegal immigration taken in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Florida, and Virginia. (16…

  16. Contemporary American Immigration and Refugee Policy: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Norman L.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an immigrant/refugee entry legitimacy continuum extending from a point of uncontested legal entry to one of uncontested illegal entry. Discusses normal flow immigration, refugee admissions, resettlement, Cuban and Haitian special entrants, economic versus political motivations for migration, and issues involved in immigration…

  17. Immigration Reform and the Browning of America: Tensions, Conflicts and Community Instability in Metropolitan Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James H., Jr.; Farrell, Walter C., Jr.; Guinn, Chandra

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the root causes of nativism against both immigrants and U.S. immigration policy arising from increasing legal and illegal immigration. Further, it outlines the conditions under which diversity can be brought to the forefront as one of society's strengths. (GR)

  18. The Impact of Immigration Enforcement by Local Police on the Civil Rights of Latinos. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    This paper discusses the provisions of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA) (sections 642 and 133) and outlines some concerns with the new Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) Quick Response Team initiative. It also examines the current relationships among local police, the INS, and local Latino…

  19. In Defense of the Alien. Volume IV. U.S. Immigration Today. Proceedings of the Annual National Legal Conference (Washington, D.C., March 26-27, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.; And Others

    This volume presents viewpoints of government representatives, legal experts, economists, and private sector representatives on recommendations for reforms in U.S. immigration policy and legislation submitted to the President and to Congress by the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy. Included are: (1) a report of issues considered…

  20. In Defense of the Alien. Volume IV. U.S. Immigration Today. Proceedings of the Annual National Legal Conference (Washington, D.C., March 26-27, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.; And Others

    This volume presents viewpoints of government representatives, legal experts, economists, and private sector representatives on recommendations for reforms in U.S. immigration policy and legislation submitted to the President and to Congress by the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy. Included are: (1) a report of issues considered…

  1. Do amnesty programs reduce undocumented immigration? Evidence from IRCA.

    PubMed

    Orrenius, Pia M; Zavodny, Madeline

    2003-08-01

    This article examines whether mass legalization programs reduce future undocumented immigration. We focus on the effects of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act, which granted amnesty to nearly 2.7 million undocumented immigrants. We report that apprehensions of persons attempting to cross the U.S.-Mexico border illegally declined immediately following passage of the law but returned to normal levels during the period when undocumented immigrants could file for amnesty and the years thereafter. Our findings suggest that the amnesty program did not change long-term patterns of undocumented immigration from Mexico.

  2. With Immigrants, Districts Balance Safety, Legalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses attempts by schools to navigate stepped-up federal efforts to curb illegal immigration, protection of student privacy, and the safety of students during enforcement operations. In Albuquerque and Santa Fe, New Mexico, for example, school personnel are barred from putting information about a child's immigration…

  3. With Immigrants, Districts Balance Safety, Legalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses attempts by schools to navigate stepped-up federal efforts to curb illegal immigration, protection of student privacy, and the safety of students during enforcement operations. In Albuquerque and Santa Fe, New Mexico, for example, school personnel are barred from putting information about a child's immigration…

  4. Italy: illegal construction hampers basic services.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    Rome illustrates the contradictions in the economic development in Italy. The city is located midway between Italy's most developed region and its southern regions, which lag behind the rest of the country in economic development. The population of Rome is now 3 million. It is the largest city and has the largest land area. Rome accounts for only 5.6% of the total urban population of the country due to the distribution of large and medium-sized cities throughout Italy. In 1964, a public housing construction plan was drafted to meet the needs of lower income groups. It provided for the development, over 10 years, of about 740,000 units distributed throughout 64 new working districts. At the end of the 10-year period allotted for the program, only 25% of the projects were completed or underway. This was due to the lack of government funds for public housing and the lack of political commitment to allocate what little monies were available. This meant that large numbers of immigrants had no chance to obtain housing unless they moved into the illegal buildings located outside the construction zones circumscribed by the Urban Plan, or moved into zones intended for agricultural use. The sale prices of these zones were much lower than the price of the construction zones stipulated by law. The most dangerous consequence of illegal construction is the lack of services. Roads are unpaved and constitute a major source of dust pollution. Other areas of concern are the lack of a public sewer system, solid waste disposal, and the location of worksites near residential areas. After 1978, Rome experienced a marked decline in its growth rate, from 3.2% per year between 1951-1961 to 2.7% per year between 1971-1979. This trend is no longer due to immigration. It is a result of the displacement of people from the inner city. At this time an effort is being made to accommodate the rapid growth of the past while working to improve the quality of life for all residents.

  5. The Impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement on Immigrant Health: Perceptions of Immigrants in Everett, Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Leung, Carolyn; Marra, Robert; Pirie, Alex; Brahimi, Mohamed; English, Margaret; Beckmann, Joshua; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Marlin, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. immigrants have faced a changing landscape with regard to immigration enforcement over the last two decades. Following the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, and the creation of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency after the attacks of September 11, 2001, detention and deportation activity increased substantially. As a result, immigrants today are experiencing heightened fear of profiling and deportation. Little research exists on how these activities affect the health and well-being of U.S. immigrant communities. This study sought to address this gap by using community-based participatory research to investigate the impact of enhanced immigration enforcement on immigrant health in Everett, Massachusetts, USA, a city with a large and diverse immigrant population. Community partners and researchers conducted 6 focus groups with 52 immigrant participants (documented and undocumented) in five languages in May 2009. The major themes across the groups included: 1) Fear of deportation, 2) Fear of collaboration between local law enforcement and ICE and perception of arbitrariness on the part of the former and 3) Concerns about not being able to furnish documentation required to apply for insurance and for health care. Documented and undocumented immigrants reported high levels of stress due to deportation fear, which affected their emotional well-being and their access to health services. Recommendations from the focus groups included improving relationships between immigrants and local police, educating immigrants on their rights and responsibilities as residents, and holding sessions to improve civic engagement. Immigration enforcement activities and the resulting deportation fear are contextual factors that undermine trust in community institutions and social capital, with implications for health and effective integration processes. These factors should be considered by any community seeking to

  6. The impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement on immigrant health: perceptions of immigrants in Everett, Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Leung, Carolyn; Marra, Robert; Pirie, Alex; Brahimi, Mohamed; English, Margaret; Beckmann, Joshua; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Marlin, Robert P

    2011-08-01

    U.S. immigrants have faced a changing landscape with regard to immigration enforcement over the last two decades. Following the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, and the creation of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency after the attacks of September 11, 2001, detention and deportation activity increased substantially. As a result, immigrants today are experiencing heightened fear of profiling and deportation. Little research exists on how these activities affect the health and well-being of U.S. immigrant communities. This study sought to address this gap by using community-based participatory research to investigate the impact of enhanced immigration enforcement on immigrant health in Everett, Massachusetts, USA, a city with a large and diverse immigrant population. Community partners and researchers conducted 6 focus groups with 52 immigrant participants (documented and undocumented) in five languages in May 2009. The major themes across the groups included: 1) Fear of deportation, 2) Fear of collaboration between local law enforcement and ICE and perception of arbitrariness on the part of the former and 3) Concerns about not being able to furnish documentation required to apply for insurance and for health care. Documented and undocumented immigrants reported high levels of stress due to deportation fear, which affected their emotional well-being and their access to health services. Recommendations from the focus groups included improving relationships between immigrants and local police, educating immigrants on their rights and responsibilities as residents, and holding sessions to improve civic engagement. Immigration enforcement activities and the resulting deportation fear are contextual factors that undermine trust in community institutions and social capital, with implications for health and effective integration processes. These factors should be considered by any community seeking to

  7. Integration and immigration pressures in western Europe.

    PubMed

    Bohning, W R

    1991-01-01

    "With xenophobia resurgent in Europe, this article addresses some of the complexities of immigration and integration in EC [European Community] and EFTA [European Free Trade Association] countries. The categories of legal and illegal immigrants (including estimates thereof) are first described, as are the necessary ingredients of an integration policy (a framework law, a secure environment, cultural tolerance, demarginalization in housing and the labour market). The author then considers what types of action would help to ease the present immigration pressure, discussing in turn quota policies, project-tied or training migration and, finally, the use of international aid."

  8. U.S. immigration and ethnicity in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Edmonston, B; Passel, J S

    1992-10-01

    The authors attempt to predict future U.S. immigration trends in light of changing policies. "Changes in policy and the presence of illegal entrants complicates measuring and projecting immigration flows. Acknowledging the risks, this article sketches the possible long-term impact of the immigration trends we observe today, if they were to continue for the next 50 years. This study uses a modified cohort-component approach for population projections by race/ethnicity and immigrant generation."

  9. Attitudes Toward Illegal Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaple, James

    As concern over illegal drugs and drug-related behavior is a relatively recent phenomenon, there are little data available on the correlates and/or determinants of drug-related attitude-behaviors. The research done generates confused and often conflicting results, largely due to failure to specify level of attitude-behavior measured. This project…

  10. The Mexican "Illegal Alien" Commute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Phil

    1986-01-01

    A photo report of the following three treks by illegal aliens across the border from Mexico to work in Arizona reveals the dangers and disappointments the migrants are exposed to: (1) a "carpool" from Southern Mexico; (2) a train ride from Sinaloa; and (3) a 40-mile hike through the Arizona desert. (PS)

  11. No Sanctuary for Illegals Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Burton, Dan [R-IN-5

    2010-04-13

    House - 06/15/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. No Sanctuary for Illegals Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Burton, Dan [R-IN-5

    2010-04-13

    06/15/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. No Sanctuary for Illegals Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Burton, Dan [R-IN-5

    2010-04-13

    06/15/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. In Defense of the Alien. Volume III. Immigration Law and Legal Representation. Proceedings of the Annual Legal Conference on the Representation of Aliens (New York, New York, March 20-21, 1980). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragomen, Austin T., Jr., Ed.; Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    This volume presents viewpoints of immigration law experts, policy makers, and representatives from the private sector on reforms of U.S. immigration/refugee law and policy proposed by the Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy. Areas analyzed include effects of immigration and immigration policy on the U.S. population and on the…

  15. U.S. immigration reform: policy issues and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M J; Mcdowell, J M

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the US immigration issue which has resurfaced in the last 10 years because the foreign born population grew by 4.5 million between 1970 and 1980. Because immigration accounts for 25% of the US population growth during the 1970s, reconsideration of US immigration policy by the government is underway. The Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy was established in 1979 to evaluate existing laws and policies on admitting immigrants into the US. Presently, these policies focus on family reunification, as opposed to labor considerations. In 1984, the Senate and House passed the Simpson-Mazzoli Bill, but the bill died in the conference committee that was established to reconcile the differences between the 2 versions. 3 provisions of debate surround the proposed act: 1) control of illegal immigration - - the Senate arguing for the requirement of a national identification card to verify an individual is authorized for US employment; 2) legalization of alien status - - the House refusing to confer immediate permanent resident status on any alien; and 3) reform of legal immigration - - a provision that the House altogether ignores. Immigration takes jobs from Americans, depresses domestic wages, and worsens working conditions. On the other hand, immigrants fill the jobs which domestic workers find undesirable. The compromises reached by the conference committee concentrate on employer sanctions and the legalization of illegal aliens; reform of legal immigration failed to gain approval.

  16. Illegal Immigration Enforcement and Social Security Protection Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Dreier, David [R-CA-26

    2011-01-05

    House - 01/31/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Border, Maritime, and Global Counterterrorism. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Illegal Immigration Across the U.S. - Mexico Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-22

    www.foreignaffairs.org/ 20060101faessay85106/ enrique - krauze /furthering-democracy-in-mexico.html; Internet; accessed 13 Jan 2006. 17 28 George W. Bush, The...Wall? Now, think Mexico”, available from http://www.miami.com/mld/miamiherald/news/opinion/13197805.htm; Internet, accessed 18 Nov 2005. 27 Enrique ... Krauze , “Furthering Democracy in Mexico,” January/February 2006, linked from Foreign Affairs, January/February 2006 Issue; available from http

  18. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  19. America's post-war immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Batterson, R F

    1984-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective on immigration policy in the US after World War II and assesses the present situation. US immigration and refugee policy has undergone significant change since World War II. The McCarran-Walter Act of 1952, which instituted a system of proportional quotas based on national origins, was discarded in 1965 following years of criticism that it discriminated against nonwhites. Third World immigrants, especially from Asia and the Americas, have benefited from the immigration laws. However, the problems resulting from unrestricted and undifferentiated immigration are now becoming apparent, even to liberal critics of previous national origins policies. During the 1970s, there was a 61% increase in the number of Mexican nationals in the US and Mexicans currently comprise over 20% of the population in 40 Congressional districts in 8 states. 83.3% of legal immigrants, and all illegal immigrants, are of non-European descent--a fact that may retard their assimilation and intensify ethnic tensions. There is a danger that the concept of national borders may become superfluous. The theoreticval liberalism of the 1950s and 1960s is, in the 1970s, being confronted with the reality of large numbers of immigrants unable and unwilling to be absorbed into a previously European-dominated country. It is concluded that the enforced application of the concept of equality in matters of immigration has not been the panacea that its liberal proponents envisioned.

  20. Selectivity of Undocumented Mexico-U.S. Migrants and Implications for U.S. Immigration Reform. Impacts of Immigration in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward

    Proposed United States immigration reforms are founded on the assumption that illegal immigration can be significantly curbed by reducing economic incentives to migrate. Effects of these reforms, however, are not the same for all undocumented workers. Data from 61 rural Mexican households in Michoacan were used to explore which undocumented…

  1. Selectivity of Undocumented Mexico-U.S. Migrants and Implications for U.S. Immigration Reform. Impacts of Immigration in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward

    Proposed United States immigration reforms are founded on the assumption that illegal immigration can be significantly curbed by reducing economic incentives to migrate. Effects of these reforms, however, are not the same for all undocumented workers. Data from 61 rural Mexican households in Michoacan were used to explore which undocumented…

  2. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or...

  3. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or...

  4. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or...

  5. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or...

  6. 32 CFR 700.860 - Customs and immigration inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Customs and immigration inspections. 700.860... Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.860 Customs and immigration inspections. (a) The... a customs officer or immigration officer of the United States to make on board the ship or...

  7. Selected Readings on U.S. Immigration Policy and Law. A Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vialet, Joyce, Comp.

    This is a collection of background readings and opinions on immigration and refugee issues which was prepared by the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States Senate. The book's first section presents articles on the number of illegal immigrants and their impact on the United States. The second section outlines proposed solutions to the…

  8. Interviewing Undocumented Immigrants: Methodological Reflections Based on Fieldwork in Mexico and the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Wayne A.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses research strategy and data collection methods in field studies of unapprehended illegal immigrants living in the United States and suggests ways to increase the reliability and validity of interview responses. Also provides a bibliography of recent field studies of undocumented immigrants. (Author/GC)

  9. Interviewing Undocumented Immigrants: Methodological Reflections Based on Fieldwork in Mexico and the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Wayne A.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses research strategy and data collection methods in field studies of unapprehended illegal immigrants living in the United States and suggests ways to increase the reliability and validity of interview responses. Also provides a bibliography of recent field studies of undocumented immigrants. (Author/GC)

  10. Immigration and the Low-Cost Housing Shortage: The Los Angeles Area's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, John

    Rising housing costs, increased homelessness, and the debate over illegal immigrants residing in publically assisted housing have renewed media and public interest in immigration's contribution to the Los Angeles, California area's problems of scarce low-cost housing, homelessness, and housing code violations. Recent data suggest that immigrants…

  11. State of Outrage: Immigrant-Related Legislation and Education in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Williams, Tiffany R.

    2012-01-01

    In April 2010, Arizona made national headlines when Governor Jan Brewer signed SB 1070, the "Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act" which was aimed at deterring illegal immigration to Arizona. SB 1070 is the most prominent of a series of laws and other state policies targeting immigrants in Arizona that date back to the…

  12. State of Outrage: Immigrant-Related Legislation and Education in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Williams, Tiffany R.

    2012-01-01

    In April 2010, Arizona made national headlines when Governor Jan Brewer signed SB 1070, the "Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act" which was aimed at deterring illegal immigration to Arizona. SB 1070 is the most prominent of a series of laws and other state policies targeting immigrants in Arizona that date back to the…

  13. Illegal abortion in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Viel, B

    1982-08-01

    In Latin American countries abortion on demand is legal only in Cuba and must be performed there in hospitals within the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy. After the 1st trimester, it can be performed only for medical reasons. With regard to the other 18 Latin American countries, abortion is illegal in 2 of them even for saving the life of the pregnant women. In 9 countries therapeutic abortion is permitted only to save the woman's life. It is allowed in 4 countries in the case of severe disease that will be aggravated if the pregnancy continues. In the 3 remaining countries, in addition to medical reasons, it is legal if pregnancy is the consequence of incest or rape. Despite the law, induced abortion is often performed. The complications of illegal abortion are reviewed along with mortality and morbidity and abortions in adolescents. In Colombia in 1974, 58,717 women were hospitalized for complications of abortion. 42,160 women were hospitalized in Chile in 1974 with the same diagnosis. As Colombia and Chile both have family planning programs and effecive contraceptives are easily obtained, the rate could be even higher in those countries without programs or contraceptive availability. From surveys conducted in these 2 countries, it may be concluded that only 1 out of 3 induced abortions is complicated and requires hospitalization. The hospitalization for complications of abortion/1000 women of fertile age in Colombia and Chile suggests that there is an annual average of 15 hospitalized cases/1000 women of fertile age throughout Latin America. Presuming reasonable accuracy for these surveys, the rate of induced abortion in the entire continent can be estimated to be at least 45/1000 women of fertile age. From this, without considering Cuba, a conservative estimate of 3.4 million illegal induced abortions are performed annually in Latin America. It seems that illegal abortions are performed at an even higher rate than that observed in countries where abortion is legal and

  14. Requiring human papillomavirus vaccine for immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Hachey, Krista J; Allen, Rebecca H; Nothnagle, Melissa; Boardman, Lori A

    2009-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of 11- to 12-year-old girls, with catch-up vaccination for girls and women aged 13 to 26 years. Although compulsory HPV vaccination is not currently mandated for any U.S. population, immigrant women aged 11-26 years are now required to receive the first injection of the vaccine (the full series consists of three doses) as a result of the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act. According to this law, immigrants applying for visas to enter the United States or to adjust their immigration status must receive the inoculations that the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends for U.S. residents. In the case of HPV, this law represents not only an undue burden on immigrant women, but also raises scientific and ethical questions regarding the benefit of vaccination in this population. Given these issues, immigrant women should not be required to provide documentation of HPV vaccination at the time of visa application or adjustment of immigration status.

  15. FastStats: Illegal Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Use Illegal Drug Use Body Measurements Diet/Nutrition Disability and Functioning Exercise or Physical Activity Obesity and Overweight Smoking Injuries Accidents or Unintentional Injuries All Injuries ...

  16. Immigration to Spain: implications for a unified European Union immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Huntoon, L

    1998-01-01

    A unified immigration policy is one of the prerequisites for establishing the free movement of people within the European Union (EU). This paper considers the difficulties in establishing a joint policy on the free movement of people within the EU by focusing upon changing immigration policies in Spain. By comparing Spain, a country of only recent, small-scale immigration, to Germany, a country with a longer history of non-European immigration, obstacles to developing and effectively implementing coordinated immigration policies among EU members can be elucidated. The administrative control of entry, estimates of legal and illegal immigrants in the country, and the status of bilateral relations with Morocco are examined in order to highlight the political difficulties encountered in a unified immigration policy both within Spanish society and for the EU. Spain is both a threshold to the EU and a destination. Border control may be the easiest part of implementing a joint immigration policy in the EU. It is more difficult to control settlement. In addition, high rates of unemployment may result among the native host country populations as immigrants more readily accept low-skilled, low-paying jobs.

  17. Estimating the worldwide extent of illegal fishing.

    PubMed

    Agnew, David J; Pearce, John; Pramod, Ganapathiraju; Peatman, Tom; Watson, Reg; Beddington, John R; Pitcher, Tony J

    2009-01-01

    Illegal and unreported fishing contributes to overexploitation of fish stocks and is a hindrance to the recovery of fish populations and ecosystems. This study is the first to undertake a world-wide analysis of illegal and unreported fishing. Reviewing the situation in 54 countries and on the high seas, we estimate that lower and upper estimates of the total value of current illegal and unreported fishing losses worldwide are between $10 bn and $23.5 bn annually, representing between 11 and 26 million tonnes. Our data are of sufficient resolution to detect regional differences in the level and trend of illegal fishing over the last 20 years, and we can report a significant correlation between governance and the level of illegal fishing. Developing countries are most at risk from illegal fishing, with total estimated catches in West Africa being 40% higher than reported catches. Such levels of exploitation severely hamper the sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Although there have been some successes in reducing the level of illegal fishing in some areas, these developments are relatively recent and follow growing international focus on the problem. This paper provides the baseline against which successful action to curb illegal fishing can be judged.

  18. Estimating the Worldwide Extent of Illegal Fishing

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, David J.; Pearce, John; Pramod, Ganapathiraju; Peatman, Tom; Watson, Reg; Beddington, John R.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2009-01-01

    Illegal and unreported fishing contributes to overexploitation of fish stocks and is a hindrance to the recovery of fish populations and ecosystems. This study is the first to undertake a world-wide analysis of illegal and unreported fishing. Reviewing the situation in 54 countries and on the high seas, we estimate that lower and upper estimates of the total value of current illegal and unreported fishing losses worldwide are between $10 bn and $23.5 bn annually, representing between 11 and 26 million tonnes. Our data are of sufficient resolution to detect regional differences in the level and trend of illegal fishing over the last 20 years, and we can report a significant correlation between governance and the level of illegal fishing. Developing countries are most at risk from illegal fishing, with total estimated catches in West Africa being 40% higher than reported catches. Such levels of exploitation severely hamper the sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Although there have been some successes in reducing the level of illegal fishing in some areas, these developments are relatively recent and follow growing international focus on the problem. This paper provides the baseline against which successful action to curb illegal fishing can be judged. PMID:19240812

  19. Immigrant Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    In an August 14, 2008 story, the New York Times reported that ethnic and racial minorities will likely be a majority of the U.S. population by 2042. Many of the blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and others constituting this emerging majority will be immigrants or the children of immigrants; the number of foreigners hitting these shores is projected to…

  20. Understanding illegality and corruption in forest governance.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Aksel

    2016-10-01

    This review synthesizes the literature studying illegality and government corruption in forest management. After discussing the theoretical connections between different types of corruption and illegal forest-related activities it describes the major trends in previous studies, examining cross-national patterns as well as local in-depth studies. Both theory and available empirical findings provide a straightforward suggestion: Bribery is indeed a "door opener" for illegal activities to take place in forest management. It then discusses the implications for conservation, focusing first on international protection schemes such as the REDD+ and second on efforts to reduce illegality and bribery in forest management. Key aspects to consider in the discussion on how to design monitoring institutions of forest regulations is how to involve actors without the incentive to engage in bribery and how to make use of new technologies that may publicize illegal behavior in distant localities. The review concludes by discussing avenues for future research.

  1. U.S. Immigration Policy and the Mexican Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward

    Rural Mexico's economy currently relies heavily on illegal migrants to the United States. Severing the link between rural Mexican households and U.S. labor markets would require restructuring not only affecting U.S. industries, which are the focus of federal immigration reform, but also migrant-sending economies in Mexico. If effectively enforced,…

  2. Students Continue to Fuel Activism on Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    Tens of thousands of Latino students helped fuel rallies across the country the week of April 10, 2006 against federal proposals to crack down on immigrants who are in the United States illegally. It was the third week of such rallies, which have put some school officials into politically delicate situations, such as having to decide whether to…

  3. Absentee Rates Spike as Students Support Pro-Immigrant Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    This brief article reports that on May 1, 2006, tens of thousands of students across the country stayed out of school to join a nationwide boycott, organized mostly by Latinos, to oppose federal proposals that would crack down on illegal immigration. Public school districts in Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, San Diego, and San Francisco reported…

  4. An Analysis of Public Opinion toward Undocumented Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; Calhoun, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Tests five hypotheses about attitudes toward illegal immigration and undocumented migrants using public opinion data from southern California. Data supported cultural affinity between respondents and undocumented migrants and to the role of education. Respondents' evaluations of tangible costs and benefits to themselves also influence their…

  5. Absentee Rates Spike as Students Support Pro-Immigrant Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    This brief article reports that on May 1, 2006, tens of thousands of students across the country stayed out of school to join a nationwide boycott, organized mostly by Latinos, to oppose federal proposals that would crack down on illegal immigration. Public school districts in Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, San Diego, and San Francisco reported…

  6. Students Continue to Fuel Activism on Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    Tens of thousands of Latino students helped fuel rallies across the country the week of April 10, 2006 against federal proposals to crack down on immigrants who are in the United States illegally. It was the third week of such rallies, which have put some school officials into politically delicate situations, such as having to decide whether to…

  7. [A preliminary appraisal of the new Italian immigration law].

    PubMed

    Bonetti, P

    1998-01-01

    Italian Law no. 40, of March 6, 1998, on immigration and foreigners, which entered into force on March 27, 1998, is a complex and detailed document. The objectives of the law were a more efficacious programming of the immigrant labor flow; the increase of prevention and containment of illegal immigration; and the expansion of the measures for effective integration of foreigners with regular permits to stay. The new law also provides annual planning for the immigration flow on the basis of an appropriate quota established by the government. Various types of wages are also determined for menial jobs and every year Italians and foreigners with regular residence permits may apply within the first 60 days from the publication of the annual quota for these jobs. The new law is extremely strict in the matter of prevention and containment of illegal immigration dealing with not only new arrivals at the border, but also with those already illegally in the country. Temporary centers are also set up for their accommodation (but no longer than 30 days) until the expulsions are carried out. The part allowing public security authorities to accompany foreigners to the border for expulsion without prior judiciary review is in violation of the constitutional premise of personal freedom. An illegal alien may also be penalized by immediate expulsion from the country and prohibition of re-entry for at least 5 years. It was estimated that there were 200,000 illegal aliens in Italy in 1998. They are supposed to be expelled within 15 days, although this can be appealed in the case of minors, pregnant women or women with children less than 6 months old, the persecuted, or persons living with Italian citizens. Another new feature is the residency card.

  8. Immigration and foreign people in six Italian metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Golini, A; Strozza, S

    1998-01-01

    "The study deals with size, main features (citizenship, sex and age) and legal status (settled and semi-settled legal migrants, illegal or irregular migrants) of [the] foreign population in six Italian metropolitan areas (Rome, Milan, Turin, Naples, Bologna and Palermo). Available data and their reliability are first analysed. The six metropolitan provinces reveal a very high concentration of foreign population, Rome and Milan in particular. The general picture is that of an increasing concentration of foreign residents in the capital city, but at the same time of the growing scattering in the metropolitan municipalities. Estimates for illegal or irregular migrants, obtained by applying the shares of illegality [emerging] from sample surveys to the regular stock, suggest that the percentage of illegal and irregular immigrants is particularly high in the provinces of Rome and Naples and is mainly connected with flows from Eastern Europe and North Africa." (EXCERPT)

  9. Immigrants and Immigration in Israeli Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yitzhaki, Moshe; Richter, Nava

    Millions of people have immigrated to Israel throughout the 1900s and before. Immigration waves are considered the most important social, political, and economical turning points in the history of Israel. This study analyzes the content of Israeli children's books dealing with immigrants and immigration to determine the image of immigrants and…

  10. Amid Immigration Debate, Settled Ground: High Court's School Access Ruling Endures as a Quiet Fact of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    Illegal immigration is a divisive issue in the politically conservative East Texas community of Tyler, known by many locally as "The Rose Capital of America." Drawn by jobs in the rose fields and iron foundries, Mexican immigrants began settling here with their families in the 1970s. Hispanic children--citizens, legal residents, and…

  11. What Is the Impact of English-Only and New Immigration Laws on Non-English Speaking Patients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deMoraes, Beatriz B.

    The annotated bibliography cites 21 articles and legal documents relating to the effects of English-only policies on the quality and availability of health care for immigrants and limited English-speakers. Article topics include eviction of illegal immigrants from nursing homes, health care for undocumented aliens, welfare reform and care for…

  12. Amid Immigration Debate, Settled Ground: High Court's School Access Ruling Endures as a Quiet Fact of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    Illegal immigration is a divisive issue in the politically conservative East Texas community of Tyler, known by many locally as "The Rose Capital of America." Drawn by jobs in the rose fields and iron foundries, Mexican immigrants began settling here with their families in the 1970s. Hispanic children--citizens, legal residents, and…

  13. One in Ten: Protecting Children's Access to Federal Public Benefits under the New Welfare and Immigration Laws. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sheri A.

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act and Illegal Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act of 1996 revised laws governing privacy and confidentiality of information that government agencies collect from immigrants during the benefits application process. Noting that these changes evoked confusion and anxiety in the…

  14. Unauthorized immigration to the United States.

    PubMed

    Espenshade, T J

    1995-01-01

    "This paper surveys research on the size of the undocumented immigrant population in the United States, the causes and consequences of illegal migrant flows, public attitudes toward unauthorized migrants, and the history of attempts to control the volume of undocumented migration. It concludes that there are powerful push and pull factors that create and sustain the volume of unauthorized migration, that there is little evidence that undocumented migrants have negative labor market consequences despite what the general public thinks, that U.S. policy has been largely powerless to make a permanent dent in undocumented immigration, and that the current level of clandestine U.S. immigration may not be far from what society might view as socially optimal."

  15. [Foreign immigration in Spain (1985-1994)].

    PubMed

    Gozalvez Perez, V

    1996-01-01

    "During the decade 1985-94, Spain [has had]...some growing and unexpected flows of foreign immigrations. The tradition of emigration of Spanish people, some grave difficulties of [the] employment market in the country, irregular entrance of workers from developing countries, the fear of a very rapid growth of these immigrants, the instability and marginality of their work, and the agreement of Spain in the European Union have led the government to develop an active migratory policy, first against the illegal flows and, more recently, in direction of the integration of immigrants in Spanish society.... The article analyzes main features from some different groups of foreign workers, and in particular Africans: spatial repartition, demographic profile, migratory strategies and trajectories, uneasy insertion in the national employment market, and draws lastly the main features of the Spanish migratory policy." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  16. Occupational status and mobility among undocumented immigrants by gender.

    PubMed

    Powers, M G; Seltzer, W

    1998-01-01

    Immigration has long been a national and state concern. The 1989 Legalized Population Survey (LPS-1) collected data on illegal immigrants to the US who subsequently became legalized aliens under the provisions of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. These data are used in a study assessing whether undocumented male and female immigrants improve their earnings and occupational status over time and the extent of variation in occupational status and mobility by gender and region. The data indicate that both undocumented men and women, on average, improved their earnings and occupational status between their first jobs in the US and their jobs just before applying for legalization under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. However, the earnings, occupational status, and occupational mobility of men were greater than for women.

  17. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    PubMed

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight.

  18. Attitudes of Mexican Americans toward irregular immigration.

    PubMed

    Polinard, J L; Wrinkle, R D; Garza, R D

    1984-01-01

    This inquiry focuses on the attitudes of 314 Mexican Americans toward issues relating to current US immigration policy. Telephone and personal interviews were conducted in Hidalgo and Travis counties, Texas, with Mexican-Americans. Virtually all respondent groups oppose an increased rate of immigration, consider illegal immigration to be an important problem, support stricter enforcement of immigration laws, and believe that undocumented workers take jobs no one else wants. Half of the respondents identify illegal immigration as a regional rather than a personal problem. At the same time, the data suggest significant differences in both direction and intensity of attitudes between Mexican Americans of different generations, income, occupational levels, and region. There is general opposition to the requirement of a national identity card, but widespread support for penalizing employers of undocumented workers and for granting amnesty to undocumented workers. These findings allow an examination of the extent to which the Mexican American leadership, which has been overwhelmingly opposed to the Simpson-Mazzoli bill, accurately reflects the views of the Mexican American people. The leadership and the population at large agree on 2 of the 3 issues, amnesty and the national identity card, but disagree on employer sanctions. 1st, it may be that the leadership holds the kinds of jobs for which undocumented workers are unlikely to compete, so they may not feel threatened. 2nd, they may feel that instituting employer sanctions will create incentives for employers to discriminate in their hiring practices against all Latino-looking job applicants. Non-elite Mexican Americans who support employer sanctions may believe that the only way they can compete for jobs is to make it impossible for elites to be hired. Both groups appear to fear that, regardless of the specifics of immigration reform, Mexican Americans are likely to encounter increased discrimination in the job market.

  19. [Illegal abortion with misoprostol in Guadeloupe].

    PubMed

    Manouana, M; Kadhel, P; Koffi, A; Janky, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the typical profile, and to assess the motivations of women who underwent illegal abortion with misoprostol in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). We conducted a 1-year prospective study on women who consulted after failure or complication of an illegal abortion with misoprostol. Fifty-two cases of illegal abortion with misoprostol were recorded. The most common profile was an unemployed woman, who was unmarried, foreign-born, had no medical insurance, and a low level of education; the median age was 28 (range 17 to 40). The justifications given were that the legal procedure was considered to be too slow, the young age of the woman, the ease of the self-medication procedure, a history of illegal abortion by misoprostol in the woman's country of origin, ignorance of the legal process, and financial and/or administrative problems. The problem of illegal abortion is probably underestimated in Guadeloupe and possibly France. This description of the profile of the population concerned and the justifications for choosing illegal abortion by misoprostol provides elements allowing better focus of education concerning abortion, contraception and family planning. Access to legal abortion centers should also be improved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Formal determinants of informal arrangements: housing and undocumented immigrants in Rotterdam.

    PubMed

    Burgers, J

    1998-04-01

    "Using data on undocumented immigrants in the city of Rotterdam, it is argued that peculiarities of the Dutch housing market, especially the large degree of decommodification of the housing stock, lead to a specific housing situation and housing career of illegal immigrants.... The housing situation of undocumented immigrants in Rotterdam clearly shows how formal arrangements create conditions for informal practices.... A comparison between Dutch and U.S. data shows that differences in formal arrangements have substantial effects on the potential of ethnic solidarity within immigrant communities."

  1. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Immigrant women and the emergency department: the juncture with welfare and immigration reform.

    PubMed

    Ivey, S L; Kramer, E J

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act and their potential impact on immigrant women's access to medical services. Current federal mandates assuring access to emergency medical services and new restrictions on financing of health care under federal programs such as Medicaid and Medicare would appear to be on a collision course. Both acts specifically reaffirm federal law on delivery of emergency services without addressing the financing of that care. Unfunded mandates in an era of diminished ability to shift costs onto insured patients are problematic for the institutions that provide uncompensated care. Specific protections for victims of domestic violence are also discussed.

  3. Immigration's Aftermath.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that many children of immigrants are growing up under severely disadvantaged conditions. Poor schools, tough neighborhoods, and lack of role models related to parental poverty make it difficult for these children to achieve academically. Assimilation under these conditions leads to poverty and permanent disadvantage. Asserts that family…

  4. Illegal migration in Taiwan: a preliminary overview.

    PubMed

    Selya, R M

    1992-01-01

    Since 1986, there have been indications that Taiwan (the Republic of China) has been experiencing an increase in illegal migration. Despite a lack of data describing the number, origins, and demographic characteristics of the illegal migrants, an open policy debate has been carried out by economic and social planners, entrepreneurs, and labor leaders. Interviews with representatives of these 3 groups suggest that, contrary to expectations, planners favor the legalization of foreign workers; individual entrepreneurs also consider legalization a wise option. Labor leaders, as expected, are opposed to the use of imported labor. In January 1990, the Executive Yuan (Assembly) adopted regulations permitting limited use of foreign labor. The increase in illegal migrants and the decision to regularize their status suggests the need to review carefully the implications of all planning initiatives as far in advance as possible, and preferably when development plans are being initially implemented.

  5. 2005 Non-Lethal Defense VI Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-16

    Untitled Document 2005 Non Lethal Defense VI Symposium.html[8/22/2016 9:24:13 AM] Non- Lethal Defense "VI" Symposium “Non- Lethal Weapon Options in...Current and Desired Capabilities Forum Army Non- Lethal Requirements, Brigadier General Coker, USA, TRADOC Successful Non- Lethal Illegal Alien...Interdiction Case, Rear Admiral Kunkle, USCG, Non Lethal IPT Member Luncheon Keynote Speaker, by Lieutenant General Jan Huly, USMC, Deputy Commandant for Plans

  6. [Foreign immigration in Spain].

    PubMed

    Serra Yoldi, I

    1997-01-01

    This article, translated from the original Spanish, analyzes recent trends in immigration to Spain. Information is provided on annual totals of immigrants and emigrants, 1976-1991; resident foreigners by nationality, 1990-1994; resident foreigners by province and continent of origin, 1991; occupations of immigrants, 1990-1991; migrant characteristics; attitudes toward immigration; and assimilation of immigrants.

  7. The Influence of Religious Coping on the Acculturative Stress of Recent Latino Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Mariana; Dillon, Frank; Ruffin, Beverly; De La Rosa, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Acculturative stress negatively impacts the physical and mental health of Latino immigrants. Little is known about the pre-immigration resources that may influence the acculturative stress of Latino immigrants. Religion plays a prominent role in Latino culture and may prove to be an influential resource during difficult life transitions, such as those experienced during the immigration process. The present study examines the association between religious coping resources prior to immigration and acculturative stress after immigration within a multiethnic sample of 527 adult Latinos who have lived in the United States for less than 1 year. Path analyses revealed that pre-immigration external religious coping was associated with high levels of post-immigration acculturative stress. Illegal immigrant status was associated with high levels of pre-immigration religious coping as well as post-immigration acculturative stress. These findings expand scientific understanding as to the function and effect of specific religious coping mechanisms among Latino immigrants. Furthermore, results underscore the need for future research, which could serve to inform culturally relevant prevention and treatment programs.

  8. The Influence of Religious Coping on the Acculturative Stress of Recent Latino Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Mariana; Dillon, Frank; Ruffin, Beverly; De La Rosa, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Acculturative stress negatively impacts the physical and mental health of Latino immigrants. Little is known about the pre-immigration resources that may influence the acculturative stress of Latino immigrants. Religion plays a prominent role in Latino culture and may prove to be an influential resource during difficult life transitions, such as those experienced during the immigration process. The present study examines the association between religious coping resources prior to immigration and acculturative stress after immigration within a multiethnic sample of 527 adult Latinos who have lived in the United States for less than 1 year. Path analyses revealed that pre-immigration external religious coping was associated with high levels of post-immigration acculturative stress. Illegal immigrant status was associated with high levels of pre-immigration religious coping as well as post-immigration acculturative stress. These findings expand scientific understanding as to the function and effect of specific religious coping mechanisms among Latino immigrants. Furthermore, results underscore the need for future research, which could serve to inform culturally relevant prevention and treatment programs. PMID:24307865

  9. Mobile surveillance units (MSU) for border protection and homeland defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandon, Christopher; Kimber, Paul K.

    2003-09-01

    During the last 12 years the European Union (EU) has financed the new member applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe in their preparation for joining the EU. Based on this enlargement of the EU, funding for border protection has been made available from the overall infrastructure improvement budget. Border protection was required in areas where border conflicts had taken place and to limit illegal immigration and smuggling. After 9/11 defence against terrorist activities will no doubt be added to the requirement. This paper describes the approach taken in the provision of police and para-military Mobile Surveillance Units (MSU's). This approach may also be considered for the US Homeland Defense initiative. These MSU's utilize standard road vehicles converted to use high performance military thermal imagers, such as SiGMA. In future the current, in service, MSU will require increased sensor integration and networking to cover land and coastal borders. The underlying key is affordability for the police and para-military markets while retaining the highest performance derived from the latest military standard thermal imagers.

  10. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  11. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS §...

  12. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 104.8...

  13. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 104.8...

  14. 9 CFR 104.8 - Illegal shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illegal shipments. 104.8 Section 104.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PERMITS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 104.8...

  15. Looking Out for Our Country's Illegal Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conde, Carlos D.

    2007-01-01

    Illegal migrants are a nonentity in the United States, and, to a certain extent, many prefer it that way. They exist in society's netherworld, living under their own code of survival by whatever means they can, since the alternatives are less inviting. Mostly, they struggle. People take advantage of them at every opportunity because they are…

  16. Looking Out for Our Country's Illegal Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conde, Carlos D.

    2007-01-01

    Illegal migrants are a nonentity in the United States, and, to a certain extent, many prefer it that way. They exist in society's netherworld, living under their own code of survival by whatever means they can, since the alternatives are less inviting. Mostly, they struggle. People take advantage of them at every opportunity because they are…

  17. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: Its Effects on New York City and on City Government. Testimony before the City Council Committee on International Intergroup Relations and Special Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogen, Elizabeth

    The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Simpson-Rodino Act) has many negative consequences for the city of New York (New York). Major provisions that will affect the city include the following: (1) sanctions on employers of illegal aliens; (2) an amnesty program for illegal aliens; (3) a 5-year limitation on newly amnestied aliens'…

  18. Immigration status and HIV-risk related behaviors among female sex workers in South America.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Christian T; Mosquera, Carlos; Serra, Margarita; Gianella, Alberto; Avila, Maria M; Laguna-Torres, Victor; Carr, Jean K; Montano, Silvia M; Sanchez, José L

    2008-03-01

    This study compares immigrant (i.e., foreigner) with non-immigrant (i.e., local/native) HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSW) in South America. A total of 1,845 FSW were enrolled in Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Uruguay. According to their nationality, 10.1% of participants were immigrant FSW. Immigrant FSW were more likely to be younger in Argentina; to work in a disco/bar in Bolivia; to be single and use illegal drugs in Ecuador; and to work in a brothel, consume alcohol, and have sex with foreign clients in Uruguay. HIV-related sexual and drug use behaviors were more common among immigrant FSW in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Uruguay. Country-specific HIV/STI prevention and control programs should be developed for immigrant FSW populations in South America.

  19. Immigration reform and the browning of America: tensions, conflicts and community instability in metropolitan Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J H; Farrell, W C; Guinn, C

    1997-01-01

    "Tensions, conflicts, and community instability associated with heightened immigration--especially of nonwhite immigrant groups--threaten to balkanize America. This article highlights the root causes of the growing opposition to both immigrants and U.S. immigration policy--the nativist backlash, presents a typology of the community-level conflicts that have arisen as a consequence of heightened immigration--legal and illegal--to the United States over the last 30 years, and outlines the conditions under which diversity can be brought to the forefront as one of society's strengths.... The 1992 Los Angeles County Social Survey (LACSS)...provides insights into the nature and magnitude of intergroup stereotyping and prejudice in a community in which large numbers of immigrants have settled."

  20. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  1. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  2. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  3. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall...

  4. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  5. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A...

  6. Economic incentives exist to support measures to reduce illegal logging

    Treesearch

    J.A. Turner; J. Buongiorno; A. Katz; S. Zhu; R. Li

    2008-01-01

    Three studies of the global economic implications of eliminating illegal logging are summarized. Processors of illegally sourced wood would lose from the elimination of illegal logging through high prices for logs and decreased production of wood products. Associated with these changes could be losses in employment and income. Beyond these losses to the processing...

  7. Demands of immigration among Chinese immigrant nurses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Amy X; Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Capitulo, Katie L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of immigration among Chinese nurses that have immigrated to the USA. The relationship between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA was investigated also. A descriptive correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 128 nurses was recruited. A self-administered survey was conducted using the demands of immigration scale developed by Aroian, along with a demographic questionnaire. The results showed Chinese immigrant nurses have high demands of immigration. There were significant negative relationships between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA. Immigration demands decreased as length of stay increased but remained high even for those who had been in the USA for > 5 years. This information is vital to health-care agencies designing and implementing adaptation programmes targeting these demands to facilitate Chinese nurses' adaptation process.

  8. Using US immigration data: undocumented migration from Mexico to south Texas.

    PubMed

    Jones, R C

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of illegal migration between Mexico and Texas is presented using data from the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service's I-213 form on deportable aliens. Consideration is given to migrant characteristics and to origins of migrants in Mexico.

  9. Anti-Immigrant Legislation, Social Justice, and the Right to Equal Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petronicolos, Loucas; New, William S.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a contextual analysis of policies seeking to exclude illegal immigrant youth from public education and the related legal standards, focusing on social justice and the equality issues that are raised by the exclusion of any group of children from educational opportunity. Advances the thesis that every individual's interest in meaningful…

  10. Undocumented Immigrants in the Labor Market: Recent Research Findings. Perspectivas Publicas: Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    Most early research on the impact of undocumented workers on the labor market held that it results in the widespread displacement of native workers. More recent and more sophisticated theory argues that immigrants, both legal and illegal, create jobs by consuming goods and services, and by starting new businesses. This latter idea may not be as…

  11. The corpse that would not die: the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, L H

    1990-01-01

    The various proposals for dealing with illegal migration and regulating legal migration in the United States and the resultant Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 are examined. The author discusses the influence of agriculture, labor, and ethnic group interests and their impact on U.S. migration policy. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  12. Tell Me the Name of Grant's Horse: Language Issues in the 1986 Immigration Act, March 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    The content of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act is described, its current interpretations are examined, and the implications for developing a responsible language and citizenship curriculum to conform to the legislation are discussed. Specific attention is focused on the law's requirement that illegal aliens applying for amnesty and…

  13. Tell Me the Name of Grant's Horse: Language Issues in the 1986 Immigration Act, March 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    The content of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act is described, its current interpretations are examined, and the implications for developing a responsible language and citizenship curriculum to conform to the legislation are discussed. Specific attention is focused on the law's requirement that illegal aliens applying for amnesty and…

  14. [Infectious disease and sociodemographic characteristics of foreign immigrants in the Central Penitentiary for Men in Barcelona].

    PubMed

    García Vidal, J; López del Vallado, J M; García de Olalla Rizo, P; Barnés Vayés, I; Caylá Buqueras, J A

    1998-01-01

    Immigration from socioeconomically under-developed countries is relatively recent in our country. Analyzing the impact of diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis among these populations is of particular interest with regard to public health. Case study and tests conducted at the Male Prison Facility in Barcelona from January 1, 1996 to September 30, 1996, the cases being the foreign immigrants from socioeconomically underdeveloped countries, and the checks of the native prisoners paired by age (+/- 5 years). A description is provided of the epidemiological and sociodemographic characteristics of the immigrants, and a comparison is drawn between the two populations. 450 prisoners, 300 native and 150 immigrants. Sixty-three percent (63%) of the immigrants were from the Maghreb, 72% being in this country illegally, 55% having resided in our country for over 5 years and 53% not living with any family members. The immigrants used less injected drugs that the native prisoners (OR: 0.2; IC95% 0.09-0.41), had less HIV infection (OR: 0.2; IC95% 0.05-0.49) and lived to a lesser extent with family (OR: 0.2; IC95% 1.011-0.36). No differences were found to exist with regard to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis nor tubercular disease. The legal immigrants were older (OR: 1.07; IC95% 1.01-1.13) lived to a greater extent with family (OR: 2.7; IC95% 1.23-5.80) and drank more alcohol (OR: 1.7; IC95% 1.07-2.59) than the illegal residents. The native prisoners had HIV to a greater extent than the immigrants, the use of injected drugs, more common among the natives, bearing an influence on this aspect. As regards the immigrants, the high degree of illegal residence and the absence of a stable core family comprise indicators of a situation of being socially disadvantaged.

  15. Societal and Legal Issues Surrounding Children Born in the United States to Illegal Alien Parents. Joint Hearing on H.R. 705, H.R. 363, H.J. Res. 56, H.J. Res 64, H.J. Res. 87, H.J. Res 88, and H.J. Res. 93 before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Claims and the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session (December 13, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing transcript presents testimony on several House resolutions regarding immigration and citizenship. Two bills propose amending the Immigration and Nationality Act to limit birthright citizenship to persons with citizen or legal resident mothers (HR 705) or to deny such citizenship to children of parents who are not citizens or permanent…

  16. Transmission of zoonoses through immigration and tourism.

    PubMed

    Mavroidi, Nikoletta

    2008-01-01

    More than 200 of the documented zoonoses represent a high proportion of the infectious diseases that cause cases of morbidity and mortality and almost 75% are emerging infections. Immigration and tourism are human activities that are included in the broader field of human migration and travel. Travel plays a significant role in the emergence and spread of disease. The migration of humans has provided the route of spread for infectious diseases and zoonoses (for example, plague, yellow fever, monkey pox and severe acute respiratory syndrome). Tourism constitutes a small fraction of overall movements of humans but a point worthy of note is the number of international travellers has increased by more than 1 300% over the last 50 years. In addition, over 80 million people, mostly from developing countries, are legal or illegal immigrants. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveller to the population visited and the ecosystem. Tourism and immigration may constitute an interface for mixing different genetic and ecological profiles, as well as cultural and social aspects, which is of particular interest in regard to zoonoses. Primary prevention, epidemiological surveillance and health education in the framework of intersectoral and international collaboration remain the cornerstone for response to and control of zoonoses in the context of tourism and immigration.

  17. One century of foreign immigration to the United States: 1880-1979.

    PubMed

    Carlson, A W

    1985-09-01

    , children, or others with no occupation. In the 1970s, 1 in 10 immigrants was a professional or technical worker, probably from Asia. In 1900, most immigrants headed for mainly northern, industrialized cities, especially New York. In recent years, too destinations have included New York, California, Washington, Texas, and Florida. Throughout the century, 3/5 immigrants went to only 5 states, so many states have received very few immigrants since 1900. Due to the amount spent on receiving refugees, and economic and job problems, many Americans think immigration should be greatly limited. Today's 1 million legal and illegal immigrants will continue to change the composition of the American population, as the long established Northern and Western European population declines.

  18. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development.

  19. The New Asian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  20. How Immigration Harms Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matloff, Norman

    1996-01-01

    The negative impacts of immigration are felt most strongly by nonwhite Americans. The significant problems with today's immigration policies can only be solved by reducing immigration levels, something many minority groups support. Immigration is not the root of social problems, but in its present form, it exacerbates them. (SLD)

  1. Dimensions of the new immigration to the United States and the prospects for assimilation.

    PubMed

    Massey, D S

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the substantial increase in migration to the United States that has occurred over the past two decades. The author draws on research from a variety of disciplines in order to describe who these immigrants are and how they are faring. He covers both legal and illegal immigration and presents estimates of a total of 8 million immigrants (excluding Puerto Ricans) for the decade of the 1970s. Various characteristics of migrants are discussed, including family behavior, fertility, residential segregation, intermarriage, and social mobility.

  2. The immigration experience among elderly Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y-M

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this preliminary, qualitative study was to describe elderly Korean immigrants' perception of stressors they experienced through immigration and the acculturation process. The methodology used was naturalistic inquiry, a descriptive approach used to elicit the elderly immigrants' own perception of their immigration and acculturation experiences. The six elderly Korean immigrants were interviewed via a semi-structured, open-ended interview guide. The main stressors identified by the subjects as a result of adjusting to life in the United States were language barriers, isolation and loneliness, fear of dependence upon their children, fear of being a burden, financial problems, transportation problems, discrimination, and fear of death. These Korean elders also perceived changes in the traditional family values of respect for elders and support for the aged. The results of this research help to provide an understanding of the immigration and acculturation experiences of elderly Korean immigrants.

  3. Does human capital raise earnings for immigrants in the low-skill labor market?

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Farkas, George

    2008-08-01

    We use monthly Survey of Income and Program Participation data from 1996-1999 and 2001-2003 to estimate the determinants of differentiation in intercepts and slopes for age/earnings profiles of low-skill immigrant and native male workers. Our findings provide further depth of understanding to the "mixed"picture of earnings determination in the low-skill labor market that has been reported by others. On the positive side, many immigrants are employed in similar occupations and industries as natives. Both groups show substantial wage gains over time and generally receive similar returns to years of schooling completed. Immigrants also receive substantial returns to acculturation, measured as age at arrival and English language skill. These results cast doubt on the strong version of segmented labor market theory, in which low-skill immigrants are permanently consigned to dead-end jobs with no wage appreciation. On the negative side, immigrants earn approximately 24% less than natives and are less likely to occupy supervisory and managerial jobs. Latino immigrants receive lower returns to education than do white immigrants. Furthermore, age at arrival and language ability do not explain the lower returns to education experienced by Latino immigrants. These results suggest that Latino immigrants in particular may suffer from barriers to mobility and/or wage discrimination. Whether these negative labor market experiences occur primarily for illegal immigrants remains unknown.

  4. Does Human Capital Raise Earnings for Immigrants in the Low-Skill Labor Market?

    PubMed Central

    HALL, MATTHEW; FARKAS, GEORGE

    2008-01-01

    We use monthly Survey of Income and Program Participation data from 1996–1999 and 2001–2003 to estimate the determinants of differentiation in intercepts and slopes for age/earnings profiles of low-skill immigrant and native male workers. Our findings provide further depth of understanding to the “mixed” picture of earnings determination in the low-skill labor market that has been reported by others. On the positive side, many immigrants are employed in similar occupations and industries as natives. Both groups show substantial wage gains over time and generally receive similar returns to years of schooling completed. Immigrants also receive substantial returns to acculturation, measured as age at arrival and English language skill. These results cast doubt on the strong version of segmented labor market theory, in which low-skill immigrants are permanently consigned to dead-end jobs with no wage appreciation. On the negative side, immigrants earn approximately 24% less than natives and are less likely to occupy supervisory and managerial jobs. Latino immigrants receive lower returns to education than do white immigrants. Furthermore, age at arrival and language ability do not explain the lower returns to education experienced by Latino immigrants. These results suggest that Latino immigrants in particular may suffer from barriers to mobility and/or wage discrimination. Whether these negative labor market experiences occur primarily for illegal immigrants remains unknown. PMID:18939664

  5. In Defense of the Alien. Volume I. Immigration Law and Legal Representation. Proceedings of the Annual Legal Conference on the Representation of Aliens (Washington, D.C., March 2-3, 1978). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragomen, Austin T., Jr., Ed.; Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    The articles in this volume present the views of government representatives and others on law and policy affecting aliens, especially undocumented aliens, in the United States. Part 1 of the volume deals with legal rights and legal representation. Individual papers discuss the role and activities of the Immigration and Naturalization Service;…

  6. In Defense of the Alien. Volume I. Immigration Law and Legal Representation. Proceedings of the Annual Legal Conference on the Representation of Aliens (Washington, D.C., March 2-3, 1978). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragomen, Austin T., Jr., Ed.; Tomasi, Lydio F., Ed.

    The articles in this volume present the views of government representatives and others on law and policy affecting aliens, especially undocumented aliens, in the United States. Part 1 of the volume deals with legal rights and legal representation. Individual papers discuss the role and activities of the Immigration and Naturalization Service;…

  7. Restrictions on undocumented immigrants' access to health services: the public health implications of welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T

    2003-10-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 greatly restricts the provision of many federal, state, and local public services to undocumented immigrants. These restrictions have prompted intense debates about the provision of free and discounted primary and preventive health care-services and have placed significant burdens on institutions that serve large undocumented immigrant populations. Intended to serve as a tool for reducing illegal immigration and protecting public resources, federal restrictions on undocumented immigrants' access to publicly financed health services unduly burden health care providers and threaten the public's health. These deleterious effects warrant the public health community's support of strategies designed to sustain provision of health services irrespective of immigration status.

  8. Immigrants, Germans and national identity in the new Germany: some policy issues.

    PubMed

    Jones, P N

    1996-06-01

    "This paper considers how the role and status of Germany's diverse immigrant population has been affected by its new geopolitical situation, in particular unification, since 1989.... The paper shows how the integration prospects for Germany's older immigrant populations have been dented by the combination of economic restructuring and a huge upsurge in new types of immigration. Prominent among the latter are ethnic German resettlers (or Aussiedler), and the paper examines how these immigrants find themselves in a weak position.... The paper concludes that, although there would appear to be no major labour shortages within the economy, Germany has to develop a more extensive range of migration policies to cater for the huge demand for economically motivated migration. The alternative will inevitably be a further growth in illegal migration, which would not be helpful to the position of established immigrant populations."

  9. Labour migration and policy formation in a newly industrialized country: a case study of illegal Thai workers in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, G; Gunasekaran, S; Siengthai, S

    1992-07-01

    "Towards the end of 1988, the Singapore Government began to express concern about over-reliance of the economy on foreign workers and later about the presence of large numbers of illegal workers. This article examines the policies and legislation introduced to change these situations, and examines in detail the repatriation of 10,000 unauthorized Thai immigrants. In addition to economic policy and practice, the social and political aspects of migration and labour utilization are considered, as are the implications for international relations." excerpt

  10. Immigrant Children's Reliance on Public Health Insurance in the Wake of Immigration Reform

    PubMed Central

    Danagoulian, Shooshan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether the reversal of the public charge rule of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act, which may have required families to pay for benefits previously received at no cost, led to immigrant children becoming increasingly reliant on public health insurance programs. Methods. We conducted a secondary data analysis focusing on low-income children sampled in the 1997 through 2004 versions of the National Health Interview Survey. Results. Between 1997 and 2004, public health insurance enrollments and the numbers of uninsured foreign-born children in the United States increased by 3.1% and 2.7%, respectively. Using multinomial logistic regression models to account for the substantial differences in socioeconomic status between foreign-born and US-born children, we found that low-income US-born children were just as likely as foreign-born children to have public health insurance coverage (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89, 1.52) and that, after 2000, foreign-born children were 1.59 times (95% CI = 1.24, 2.05) more likely than were US-born children to be uninsured (vs publicly insured). Conclusions. In the wake of the reversal of the public charge rule, immigrant children are increasingly likely to be uninsured as opposed to relying on public health insurance. PMID:18799772

  11. DNA Barcoding Identifies Illegal Parrot Trade.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Priscila F M; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R; Matsumoto, Tania E; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2015-01-01

    Illegal trade threatens the survival of many wild species, and molecular forensics can shed light on various questions raised during the investigation of cases of illegal trade. Among these questions is the identity of the species involved. Here we report a case of a man who was caught in a Brazilian airport trying to travel with 58 avian eggs. He claimed they were quail eggs, but authorities suspected they were from parrots. The embryos never hatched and it was not possible to identify them based on morphology. As 29% of parrot species are endangered, the identity of the species involved was important to establish a stronger criminal case. Thus, we identified the embryos' species based on the analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene [COI] and 16S ribosomal DNA). Embryonic COI sequences were compared with those deposited in BOLD (The Barcode of Life Data System) while their 16S sequences were compared with GenBank sequences. Clustering analysis based on neighbor-joining was also performed using parrot COI and 16S sequences deposited in BOLD and GenBank. The results, based on both genes, indicated that 57 embryos were parrots (Alipiopsitta xanthops, Ara ararauna, and the [Amazona aestiva/A. ochrocephala] complex), and 1 was an owl. This kind of data can help criminal investigations and to design species-specific anti-poaching strategies, and demonstrate how DNA sequence analysis in the identification of bird species is a powerful conservation tool.

  12. Migrants and asylum seekers: policy responses in the United States to immigrants and refugees from Central America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Mcbride, M J

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the complex political environment of US immigration and refugee policies in which tensions exist, especially with regard to Central America and the Caribbean. Recommendations for managing it more effectively in the future are discussed. Several western countries, including the US, have implemented stricter restriction policies as a result of the perceived threats to their economies and cultural homogeneity. In general, US immigration policy has addressed both economic concerns and domestic pressures, whereas US refugee policy has reflected foreign policy concerns. As a result of these policies, there has been an increasing number of immigrants from Mexico, as well as huge numbers of refugees from Cuba and Nicaragua. Yet, there has been limited acceptance of asylum seekers from Haiti, El Salvador and Guatemala. Among the policies passed by the US Congress to reduce illegal immigration and limit assistance to legal immigrants were the Welfare Reform Act, Illegal Immigration Reform, Immigration Responsibility Act of 1996, and the Proposition 187 movement. Revisions in the procedures of the Immigration and Naturalization Service were also made.

  13. Trends: immigration and technology.

    PubMed

    Miller, B A

    1998-01-01

    America is experiencing a new wave of immigration that many say will be larger than the one beginning just before 1900. But this immigration is more global in origin and will result in making many states so diverse that there is no "majority" culture. Immigration will fuel the economy and will be particularly advantageous to those businesses that can recognize and respond to the needs of the new immigrant groups.

  14. A New Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummett, Anne

    This book focuses on the issue of immigration to the United Kingdom (U.K.). Causes of migration, such as economic opportunities and emergency political refuge, are discussed in terms of the need for the government to devise an effective and just immigration system. Immigration laws of Norway, Sweden, Australia, Canada, and the U.K. are outlined,…

  15. Immigration in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogen, Elizabeth

    This book examines the effects of immigration in New York City (New York) today, with particular attention to those "new immigrants" who arrived after 1965. Immigrant interaction with the city's public and private social services is emphasized. Data were drawn from interviews and from the 1980 U.S. Census. Part I: "The…

  16. A New Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummett, Anne

    This book focuses on the issue of immigration to the United Kingdom (U.K.). Causes of migration, such as economic opportunities and emergency political refuge, are discussed in terms of the need for the government to devise an effective and just immigration system. Immigration laws of Norway, Sweden, Australia, Canada, and the U.K. are outlined,…

  17. Immigration, Diversity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L., Ed.; Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume presents an overview of research and policy issues pertaining to children from birth to 10 who are first- and second-generation immigrants to the U.S., as well as native-born children of immigrants. The contributors offer interdisciplinary perspectives on recent developments and research findings on children of immigrants. By…

  18. The Ideal Immigrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgadillo, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    The public discourse about immigration in the United States has long been fraught with xenophobia and racism. Since 9/11, moreover, the immigration issue has been firmly linked to questions of national security in the public imagination. In this recent period, the state has asserted extraordinary controls over immigrants and citizens that affect…

  19. Immigration, Diversity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L., Ed.; Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume presents an overview of research and policy issues pertaining to children from birth to 10 who are first- and second-generation immigrants to the U.S., as well as native-born children of immigrants. The contributors offer interdisciplinary perspectives on recent developments and research findings on children of immigrants. By…

  20. The Ideal Immigrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgadillo, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    The public discourse about immigration in the United States has long been fraught with xenophobia and racism. Since 9/11, moreover, the immigration issue has been firmly linked to questions of national security in the public imagination. In this recent period, the state has asserted extraordinary controls over immigrants and citizens that affect…

  1. Immigrant Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles on immigrant education that focus on successful school programs and educational policy issues. In "Immigrant Education from the Administrators' Perspective" (Pam McCollum, Juanita Garcia), three principals of south Texas secondary schools with successful immigrant programs discuss their views on the…

  2. Steep Houses in Basic Writing: Advocating for Latino Immigrants in a North Georgia Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Recounting the controversy surrounding a town hall meeting on "illegal" Latino immigration at a two-year college in North Georgia, this ethnographic narrative details the aftermath that ensued and its consequences for an ESL basic writing instructor. Fallout included the potential loss of her job, the rumored reallocation of a $5 million…

  3. Challenging Racist Nativist Framing: Acknowledging the Community Cultural Wealth of Undocumented Chicana College Students to Reframe the Immigration Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Huber, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Using the critical race "testimonios" of ten Chicana undergraduate students at a top-tier research university, Lindsay Perez Huber interrogates and challenges the racist nativist framing of undocumented Latina/o immigrants as problematic, burdensome, and "illegal." Specifically, a community cultural wealth framework (Yosso, 2005) is utilized and…

  4. Factors Associated with Illegal Drug Use among Older Methadone Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The overall aims of this study are to describe the life stressors of, exposure to illegal drug use of, and illegal drug use by older methadone clients. Design and Methods. The current study focuses on a sub-sample of the larger administrative data of a methadone clinic that is limited to African American and White clients over the age of…

  5. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants

    PubMed Central

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M.; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  6. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... participation to individuals who engage in illegal use of drugs while they are in the program. (c) Drug testing... procedures, including but not limited to drug testing, designed to ensure that an individual who formerly... of testing for the illegal use of drugs. ...

  7. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... individual is otherwise entitled to such services. (c) Drug testing. (1) This part does not prohibit the... drug testing, designed to ensure that an individual who formerly engaged in the illegal use of drugs is... construed to encourage, prohibit, restrict, or authorize the conduct of testing for the illegal use of drugs. ...

  8. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... individual is otherwise entitled to such services. (c) Drug testing. (1) This part does not prohibit the... drug testing, designed to ensure that an individual who formerly engaged in the illegal use of drugs is... construed to encourage, prohibit, restrict, or authorize the conduct of testing for the illegal use of drugs. ...

  9. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... participation to individuals who engage in illegal use of drugs while they are in the program. (c) Drug testing... procedures, including but not limited to drug testing, designed to ensure that an individual who formerly... of testing for the illegal use of drugs. ...

  10. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  11. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The...

  12. 49 CFR 28.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 28.131 Section 28.131... drugs. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part does not prohibit discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) The agency...

  13. Maritime Transportation of Illegal Drugs from South America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    1 Maritime Transportation of Illegal Drugs from South America • Michael P. Atkinson: Operations Research Department, Naval...2 Maritime Transportation of Illegal Drugs from South America Abstract The US invests considerable effort in searching and interdicting drug ...quantities of drugs , many such vessels manage to avoid detection and arrive safely at their destinations in Central America and Mexico with their

  14. College Students' Moral Evaluations of Illegal Music Downloading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambon, Marc M.; Smetana, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Although unauthorized music downloading is illegal, a majority of college students have downloaded music for free online. Evaluations of illegal music downloading and their association with downloading behavior were examined using social domain theory in a sample of 188 ethnically diverse college students (M[subscript age] = 19.80 years, SD =…

  15. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    PubMed

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-09

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species.

  16. College Students' Moral Evaluations of Illegal Music Downloading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambon, Marc M.; Smetana, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Although unauthorized music downloading is illegal, a majority of college students have downloaded music for free online. Evaluations of illegal music downloading and their association with downloading behavior were examined using social domain theory in a sample of 188 ethnically diverse college students (M[subscript age] = 19.80 years, SD =…

  17. Providing for the Common Defense: Securing the Southwest Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Agua Prieta Mexico.56 Shifting illegal immigration patterns and drug trafficking routes from easily accessible city based routes through Tijauna/San...Snell, “Gamma-Ray Technology: The Practical Container Inspection Alternative,” available from <http://www.saic.com/products/security/ pdf /saic/ pdf ...www.ombwatch.org/info/cii/homelandsecurityact02. pdf >; Internet; accessed on November 25, 2002. 34 107Louie, Gilot, “Same Mission, New Tactics: JTF-6 lays low after

  18. [Immigration and economic development in Eastern Asia].

    PubMed

    Lim, L L

    1994-01-01

    This work describes recent trends in East Asian migration and their economic effects. The great waves of emigration of the past have largely ceased from Japan and the "dragons" of East Asia, and all have become countries of illegal immigration, return of emigrants, and legal entry of professionals. All the countries except Hong Kong have maintained strict immigration policies in order to protect their traditional and homogeneous societies and the employment and income of their own citizens. But despite active encouragement of industrial displacement to countries with cheap and abundant manpower, the labor shortages in these countries have become so severe that they have had to tolerate increased immigration. There is little evidence that immigrants have taken the jobs of natives or caused their incomes to decrease. They appear to complement shrinking local labor forces in these countries of drastically reduced fertility. The annual growth of the active population is predicted to decline from 523,000 in the 1980s to 227,000 in the 1990s in Japan, from 231,000 to 149,000 in Taiwan, and from 400,000 to 300,000 in Korea. Full employment was achieved in Japan in the early 1960s, in Taiwan in the late 1960s, in Hong Kong in the early 1970s, and in Korea in the late 1980s. Full employment was the major factor prompting relaxed immigration controls in these countries. The foreign workers are concentrated in less skilled jobs in dirty or dangerous industries that are shunned by the local population. Opponents of liberalized immigration policies cite the supplementary expenditures for infrastructure and services necessitated by the workers as well as for integration of workers desiring longterm settlement, especially if they are of different ethnicity. No definitive conclusions can be drawn about the overall positive or negative impact of immigration in East Asia without specifying the perspective from which the analysis is made--economic or social, short or long term, from

  19. Patient-held records for undocumented immigrants: a blind spot. A systematic review of patient-held records.

    PubMed

    Schoevers, M A; van den Muijsenbergh, M E T C; Lagro-Janssen, A L M

    2009-10-01

    As a result of inadequate medical record information, the medical care for undocumented immigrants in general practice is time consuming and often unsatisfactory. The availability of medical record information might improve the medical care for undocumented immigrants. Therefore, we executed a systematic review of literature to investigate the potential benefits of a patient-held record (PHR) for undocumented immigrants. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PSYCH info and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Search terms were: patient-held medical records, client-held medical records, PHRs, client-held records, home-based medical record, medical passport and/or illegal immigrants, and undocumented immigrants. Inclusion criteria were: information on patient and/or doctors compliance of PHRs OR information about views of patient and/or doctors on PHRs and age over 18 years. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of the selected articles. No studies were found about undocumented immigrants and PHRs. Therefore, we decided to eliminate the search terms illegal immigrants, and undocumented immigrants, and perform a broader search about the use of PHRs in general. This search yielded 61 articles; 42 articles were excluded. Sixteen articles were screened for methodological quality: seven articles met the criteria, six quantitative studies and one qualitative study. In these studies the use and appreciation of PHRs by patients is satisfactory. The use and appreciation of the PHRs by physicians in the studies is lower than the use by patients. The most important obstacle for physicians is the time investment required. A PHR for undocumented immigrants seems to be appropriate because in most cases there is no other record available. However, the uncertainty of our findings is considerable. Therefore, we recommend a pilot evaluation of the use of PHRs for undocumented immigrants. In addition, a qualitative approach might be useful to solicit the views of

  20. Genetic structure and assignment tests demonstrate illegal translocation of red deer (Cervus elaphus) into a continuous population.

    PubMed

    Frantz, A C; Pourtois, J Tigel; Heuertz, M; Schley, L; Flamand, M C; Krier, A; Bertouille, S; Chaumont, F; Burke, T

    2006-10-01

    Molecular forensic methods are being increasingly used to help enforce wildlife conservation laws. Using multilocus genotyping, illegal translocation of an animal can be demonstrated by excluding all potential source populations as an individual's population of origin. Here, we illustrate how this approach can be applied to a large continuous population by defining the population genetic structure and excluding suspect animals from each identified cluster. We aimed to test the hypothesis that recreational hunters had illegally introduced a group of red deer into a hunting area in Luxembourg. Reference samples were collected over a large area in order to test the possibility that the suspect individuals might be recent immigrants. Due to isolation-by-distance relationships in the data set, inferring the number of genetic clusters using Bayesian methods was not straightforward. Biologically meaningful clusters were only obtained by simultaneously analysing spatial and genetic information using the program baps 4.1. We inferred the presence of three genetic clusters in the study region. Using partial Mantel tests, we detected barriers to gene flow other than distance, probably created by a combination of urban areas, motorways and a river valley used for viticulture. The four focal animals could be excluded with a high certainty from the three genetic subpopulations and it was therefore likely that they had been released illegally.

  1. Political rhetoric, immigration attitudes, and contemporary prejudice: a Mexican American dilemma.

    PubMed

    Short, Robert; Magaña, Lisa

    2002-12-01

    The authors examined political candidates' social stereotypes of Mexican immigrants in mainstream media accounts. From those popular themes, they formed semantic differential scales, which they administered to participants (N = 201) with 1 of 4 scenarios describing an illegal immigrant: of Mexican vs. English Canadian descent and with vs. without several parking tickets. Consistent with contemporary theories of prejudice (J. F. Dovidio & S. L. Gaertner, 1996), the participants indicated the greatest agreement with the pejorative themes when the immigrant described was of Mexican descent and had accumulated parking tickets. Psychologically, the parking tickets served as a nonethnic rationale for discriminating against that ethnic group. The authors discuss the social and public policy implications of Mexican immigration as a political phenomenon.

  2. Chromatography in the detection and characterization of illegal pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, Eric; Sacré, Pierre-Yves; Courselle, Patricia; De Beer, Jacques O

    2013-09-01

    Counterfeit and illegal pharmaceutical products are an increasing worldwide problem and constitute a major challenge for analytical laboratories to detect and characterize them. Spectroscopic techniques such as infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have always been the first methods of choice to detect counterfeits and illegal preparations, but due to the evolution in the seized products and the necessity of risk assessment, chromatographic methods are becoming more important in this domain. This review intends to give a general overview of the techniques described in literature to characterize counterfeit and illegal pharmaceutical preparations, focusing on the role of chromatographic techniques with different detection tools.

  3. Contacts and Conflicts; The Asian Immigration Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    In this curriculum guide to the Asian immigration experience, the topics discussed include: major immigration periods, early contributions of Asian immigrants, Chinese immigration, Japanese immigration, Filipino immigration, Korean immigration, early Asian women in America, Asian immigration to Hawaii, anti-Asian hostility, the exploitation of…

  4. Access to health services for undocumented immigrants in Apulia.

    PubMed

    Brindicci, G; Trillo, G; Santoro, C R; Volpe, A; Monno, L; Angarano, G

    2015-04-01

    This paper, part of a larger epidemiological study carried out between 2004 and 2010, analyzed immigrants frequenting the largest Apulian regional hospital (Bari Policlinico). Our aim was to evaluate the perception on the part of undocumented immigrants of their rights of access to the National Health Care services and whether this privilege is actually utilized. An anonymous multi-language questionnaire was distributed to all patients with STP (code number for temporary presence of foreigners) at the immigrant outpatient Infectious Diseases Clinic of Bari from June 2009 to June 2010. Questions were related to nationality, date of arrival in Italy, use of health facilities in the 2 years prior to the compilation of the questionnaire, and their understanding of STP. The patients were also screened for infectious diseases (HIV-Ab, HBsAg, HCV-Ab, VDRL, TPHA and Mantoux). A total of 256/272 patients completed the questionnaire; the meaning of STP was unknown to 156/256 (60.9%) patients, only 54/256 (21%) knew the exact meaning of STP and only 42/54 (76.6%) of the latter knew how long STP was valid. Moreover, 128/256 (50.7%) were aware that doctors from the emergency unit were not allowed to notify police regarding presence of illegal immigrants. Regarding clinical data 3% were HIV+ (8/256), 5% (13 patients) positive for TPHA, 5% for HBsAg, 2% were HCV (five patients). A >10 mm diameter infiltrate of Mantoux test was noted for 44% of patients. A lower prevalence than expected for infections such as HIV, HBV or HCV was noted for immigrants compared to data from their countries of origin. At present, large-scale political solutions to the challenges of facilitating access to health facilities for undocumented immigrants are lacking in Italy. The development of communication systems is fundamental to improving access to health services and to creating links between immigrants and the healthcare system.

  5. Unintended consequences of immigration reform: discrimination and Hispanic employment.

    PubMed

    Lowell, B L; Teachman, J; Jing, Z

    1995-11-01

    The record-keeping requirements of the Immigration Reform and Control Act(IRCA), and fines for illegal employment, may induce employers to discriminate against foreign-appearing workers. The General Accounting Office (GAO) reported widespread IRCA-related discrimination but did not link reported discriminatory practices to discriminatory employment behavior. We analyze the GAO's random survey and, controlling for selectivity effects, demonstrate that employers who report discriminatory practices actually employ fewer Hispanics. Although the measured reduction of Hispanic employment due to IRCA is fairly small, this finding parallels research alerting us to adverse consequences of a law that so far has achieved few of its intended effects.

  6. [Hysteria and psychosomatic disorders in Portuguese immigrants].

    PubMed

    de Barros-Ferreira, M

    1976-01-01

    Seventy patients presenting symptoms of hysteria (49 women and 21 men) were selected among patients observed at the Institute Minkowska during the year. This work is part of a research work on socio-cultural and environmental factors which can change mental status of immigrants. These are all portugese workers presenting for the first time atypical mental troubles called by the author: "bastard hysterical syndrome of the immigrant" and characterized partly or totally by the following symptoms: fatigue, anxiety, sense of suffocation, dyspnea, coughing, unilateral chills or generalized chil, abdominal or gastric pains, headaches and "diffused pains", paresthesia, aching back, tears and sorrow, fear of dying or having a cancer, asthenia, leg paresthesia and contractions, vomiting, diarrhea, cardiac pains, palpitations, dizziness and collapsing. These troubles appear sometimes without apparent motives but they are almost always due to a precipitating cause expressed by the patient: a delivery, a familial death, a homosexual proposition, a trauma without importance, a working conflict etc... But the most frequent cause invoked is "the french climate" without knowing precisely what the word "climate" means: atmospheric conditions, athmosphere or reception milieu? This latest interpretation seems more likely after months of psychotherapy. Most patients are not french speaking and cannot write; their origin is rural (familial villages well structured regarding their food and sexual economy), and people well "armed" by a system of defense mechanisms and well adopted conditioned reflexes. In this work, hysteria of the portugese immigrant is compared to childhood hysteria. As the hysterical burst of the child is aimed at calling attention, love of the mother, at finding a solution to a familial or social conflict, the hysterical burst of the immigrant is aimed at the absent family or at its substitutes, the bos, social security, the doctor. Furthermore, the attitude of the

  7. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  8. HIV/STI risk among male Mexican immigrants in Dallas, Texas: findings from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kate S; Eggleston, Elizabeth; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia, Sandra G

    2010-12-01

    Rates of HIV and STIs are higher among Latinos than the general U.S. population. A number of factors place Latino immigrants at particularly high risk. 128 male Mexican immigrants in Dallas, Texas completed personal interviews. We measured the prevalence of HIV/STI risk factors and identified sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics associated with higher risk. 9% of the total sample had 3 or more sexual partners in the past year. 5% had sex with a commercial sex worker (CSW). 11% had sex with another man. 11% had a previous STI diagnosis. Risk behaviors and STI history were more prevalent among men who had used illegal drugs or frequently consumed alcohol (18% of the sample) than among others. The overall prevalence of HIV/STI risk factors in this population was moderate. However, men who drank alcohol frequently and used illegal drugs were more likely than others to report engaging in behaviors that put them at risk for acquiring HIV/STI.

  9. [Immigration and sexually transmitted diseases: risk factors, prevention and health education].

    PubMed

    Cuniato, V; Bellitti, F; Di Martino, M; Nocera, E; Esposito, S; Noviello, S

    2001-12-01

    Assessment of behaviour at risk of HIV-infection and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) in high-risk subjects, such as illegal immigrants is the first step for successful prevention measures. In order to assess knowledge of AIDS, STDs, risk behaviour and condom use, a sexual behaviour questionnaire was administered to all illegal immigrants living in the Domitia area (north-west of naples) and coming to our ambulatory for several pathologies. The following risk markers identified were: low level of knowledge concerning HIV and STD transmission and prevention, multiple sexual partners, casual sex, low frequencies of condom use, drugs and alcohol use. Therefore prevention campaigns should include educational activities concerning AIDS and STD transmission and prevention, and condom promotion. Particular attention should be given to improve access to STD services that provide treatment and counselling. Moreover, commercial sex workers require counselling at each visit, screening and treatment.

  10. Where should they go? Undocumented immigrants and long-term care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wike, Victoria S

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, I consider the question of where illegal immigrants should go once their lives have been saved in hospitals and they are ready to be transferred to long-term care situations. I highlight three recent cases in which such a decision was made. In one case, the patient was kept at the hospital, in another the patient was repatriated to his home country, and in the third, the patient was discharged to his family. I consider the relevant moral values and argue that for reasons of fairness we must develop a policy that treats similar cases in similar ways. In order to best uphold patient well-being and minimize costs, the plan proposed here calls for illegal immigrants to be covered by insurance for long-term care.

  11. Injury Patterns Among Illegal Migrants from Africa in Israel.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Amotz; Radomislensky, Irina; Peleg, Kobi

    2015-08-01

    In recent years Israel has become a destination for many migrants from Africa that illegally cross the Egyptian-Israeli border. The objective of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of injuries among illegal migrants in Israel. The study was carried out retrospectively using data from 19 trauma centers that participated in the Israel National Trauma Registry between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011. Illegal migrants from Africa were compared to the local population. Migrants were injured more often than the local population from intentional injuries (57.11 %). Migrants were also less likely than the local population (58.38 %) to sustain a minor injury (i.e., injury severity ≤8). The study also shows the hospitalization cost as a result of injuries among migrants from Africa. Preventive measures among illegal migrants from Africa should prioritize intentional injuries and industrial site injuries.

  12. Legal Forum. The Right to an Education: Illegal Aliens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Reviews court litigation in Texas concerning the rights of children who are illegally residing in the United States to public schooling. Focuses particularly on the issue of whether the equal protection clause in the fourteenth amendment applies to noncitizens. (GC)

  13. Interpreting the empirical evidence on illegal gun market dynamics.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Wintemute, Garen J; Pierce, Glenn L; Cook, Philip J; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-10-01

    Thousands of Americans are killed by gunfire each year, and hundreds of thousands more are injured or threatened with guns in robberies and assaults. The burden of gun violence in urban areas is particularly high. Critics suggest that the results of firearm trace data and gun trafficking investigation studies cannot be used to understand the illegal supply of guns to criminals and, therefore, that regulatory and enforcement efforts designed to disrupt illegal firearms markets are futile in addressing criminal access to firearms. In this paper, we present new data to address three key arguments used by skeptics to undermine research on illegal gun market dynamics. We find that criminals rely upon a diverse set of illegal diversion pathways to acquire guns, gun traffickers usually divert small numbers of guns, newer guns are diverted through close-to-retail diversions from legal firearms commerce, and that a diverse set of gun trafficking indicators are needed to identify and shut down gun trafficking pathways.

  14. 7 CFR 160.35 - Illegible inspection marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.35 Illegible inspection...

  15. 7 CFR 160.35 - Illegible inspection marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.35 Illegible inspection...

  16. Burns from illegal drug manufacture: case series and management.

    PubMed

    Porter, C J W; Armstrong, J R

    2004-01-01

    This case series presents our experience with burns sustained while manufacturing illegal drugs. All adult burn admissions in an 18-month period were retrospectively reviewed. All patients suspected of sustaining burns from illegal drug manufacture were contacted. Information regarding the burn mechanism was sought. Nine of the 64 adult burn admissions were caused by explosions during the manufacture of cannabis oil. Young males with hand and face burns were heavily represented. First-aid treatment was often ignored in favor of hiding incriminating evidence. Only two patients gave honest admission histories. Illegal drug manufacture is becoming more common as synthetic drugs become more consumer desirable. Burns sustained may be thermal and/or chemical. Dishonest patient histories negatively influence burn management. A high level of suspicion is required for diagnosing and treating burns from illegal drug manufacture. Public education is unlikely to be effective as the financial rewards outweigh the perceived risks.

  17. Implementation of Congressional intent: a study of amnesty policy and the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

    PubMed

    Arp, W; Baver, S L

    1994-01-01

    Despite the passage of the Immigration and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) the United States Border Patrol arrested about 1 million illegal aliens crossing the border in 1990. This phenomenon suggests that the IRCA has failed to control illegal immigration to the United States. Structural analysis of its implementation by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was analyzed. Under an agreement with the INS to process illegal workers, community-based organizations in Arizona and New York became certified Qualified Designated Entities (QDEs). In 1988 the INS carried out a study to measure the impact of IRCA and solicited data from 9 QDEs. Data were obtained from 308 illegal aliens who failed to apply for amnesty and another 286 temporary legal residents. In the New York study information was collected from the QDEs between 1987 and 1989, and also in the summer of 1989 a group of 171 amnesty applicants were surveyed. All QDEs stated that implementation was hampered by excessive documentation, lack of strong family unification provisions, the financial cost of seeking legalization, and a fear of the INS. The Arizona and New York studies indicated that excessive documentation, fear of the INS (46% in New York), and fear of family separation (47% in New York) were the major factors why the targeted people did not come forward. Instead of seeking a proper balance between the written words of IRCA and the intent of Congress, INS developed guidelines that ignored the relevant facts presented by respected QDEs and Latino groups. In reality, INS sought to prevent illegal entry through amnesty offices throughout the United States. The eligibility requirements issued by the INS for amnesty served to limit and constrain participation in that program.

  18. Illegal Drug Use among Female University Students in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Matejovičová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovičová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Material/Methods Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. Results We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (χ2=10.14; P<0.05). Communication between parents and children and parental attention to children have a significant role in determining risky behavior (illegal drug use, χ2=8.698, P<0.05). Parents of students not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (χ2=16.645; P<0.001) and smoking (χ2=6.226; P<0.05). The first contact with drugs occurs most frequently at high school age. The most consumed “soft” drug in our group of female university students is marijuana. Conclusions Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs. PMID:25602526

  19. Immigration to Greece: a critical evaluation of Greek policy.

    PubMed

    Lazaridis, G

    1996-04-01

    "In the light of the EU's interest in the movement of labour within the Union, the first part of this article looks at the character of Greek migrant labour with the aim of providing an overview of changes in the flow of migrant labour into Greece and of the policies adopted in relation to immigrant labour. It discusses the failure of the Greek government to formulate strategic measures to combat illegal immigration...and the limited (if any) efforts being made to aid the integration of Albanians. The second part of the article concentrates on [the experiences of] Albanian migrant labourers in Greece....[It] also assesses the similarities and differences in the employment positions of Albanian men and women in Greece and the way in which mechanisms of marginalisation differently affect these two categories."

  20. [Sudan and other illegal dyes--food adulteration].

    PubMed

    Gajda, Joanna; Switka, Agnieszka; Kuźma, Katarzyna; Jarecka, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    As foodstuffs adulterated by illegal dyes, such as Sudan I, II, III IIV, para-Red, have appeared on the European Union market, the emergency measures to eliminate this problem have been taken. The illegal dyes are added to dried, ground chilli, curry, curcuma and to palm oil. These products are imported from countries outside the E.U. The adulteration concerns also ready to eat products which contain the ingredients mentioned above. Apart from the adulteration, the presence of illegal dyes in foodstuffs can be a threat to consumer's health. In 2003-2005 three Commission Decisions on emergency measures regarding some products which can contain illegal dyes were published. Since May 2003 to March 2006, 651 notifications on food adulteration by illegal dyes were sent to the RASFF system. As a result of the taken measures, the number of notifications have decreased. The possibility of food adulteration by illegal dyes different from the ones which are used now are considered. This is the reason why the continuation of food control and cooperation between official control authorities and food producers are necessary.

  1. Hepatotoxicity of illegal home-made alcohols.

    PubMed

    Gökce, Hasan; Akcan, Ramazan; Celikel, Adnan; Zeren, Cem; Ortanca, Ibrahim; Demirkiran, Sumeyra

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol-related hepatotoxicity is not only caused by excessive alcohol consumption but also caused and even accelerated by hepatotoxic ingredients other than ethanol. Concentrations of hepatotoxic substances might be significantly high, particularly in illegally produced home-made alcohols. In this study we aim to analyze the hepatotoxic effects of a home-made alcohol traditionally called "bogma raki" in Turkey. Fifty Wistar albino male rats were used. Five groups were randomly formed with ten animals in each. Besides laboratory diets, groups were fed as follows: Group 1 (control group) distilled water; Group 2 bogma raki with distilled water (%44 (v/v), 9.2 ml/kg/day); Group 3 bogma raki with distilled water (%44 (v/v), 9.2 ml/kg/day)+walnut (10 g/kg/day); Group 4 whisky with distilled water (%40 (v/v), 9.2 ml/kg/day); Group 5 distilled water + walnut (10 g/kg/day), for 28 days. The toxicological analysis of The spirits were analyzed using Hewlett-Packard (Palo Alto, CA) GC/MS system with HP 6890 gas chromatograph, an HP 5972 mass selective detector (MSD) and an HP 6890 automatic liquid sampler GC/MS; the pressure of the carrier gas helium was 6.0 bar and the split value with a ratio of 1:100. The injection unit temperature set to 250 °C and MS quadrupole temperature set to 280 °C. The MS quadrupole detector ionization energy set to 70 eV. The initial column temperature was 60 °C (for 4 min) programmed by 6 °C/min to final temperature 160 °C and kept for 8 min at 160 °C. Utilized whisky and bogma raki samples were analyzed for the amounts of trans-anethole, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanolol, butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanolol (isobutanol) and 3-methylbutanol (isoamyl alcohol). Histopathological changes in liver tissues were graded as follows; normal = 0 (<10%), mild = 1 (10%-40%), moderate = 2 (40%-70%), severe = 3 (above 70%). Chemical composition of illegally produced raki sample (%v/v) was as follows: trans-anethole %1

  2. The Border Crossed Us: Education, Hospitality Politics, and the Social Construction of the "Illegal Immigrant"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Dennis Carlson explores some of the implications of Derrida's "hospitality politics" in helping articulate a progressive response to a rightist cultural politics in the United States of policing national, linguistic, and other borders. He applies the concept of hospitality politics to a critical analysis of the social construction…

  3. The 2010 Citizens Clean Elections Voter Education Guide: Constructing the "Illegal Immigrant" in the Arizona Voter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    This "essay" (article) is a close and critical look at The 2010 Citizens Clean Elections Voter Education Guide, a document made available to the Arizona public prior to the 2010 state General elections. Though the guide is described as "a nonpartisan, plain-language handbook" by its authors, it can be implicated in the…

  4. The Border Crossed Us: Education, Hospitality Politics, and the Social Construction of the "Illegal Immigrant"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Dennis Carlson explores some of the implications of Derrida's "hospitality politics" in helping articulate a progressive response to a rightist cultural politics in the United States of policing national, linguistic, and other borders. He applies the concept of hospitality politics to a critical analysis of the social construction…

  5. The 2010 Citizens Clean Elections Voter Education Guide: Constructing the "Illegal Immigrant" in the Arizona Voter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Justin G.

    2013-01-01

    This "essay" (article) is a close and critical look at The 2010 Citizens Clean Elections Voter Education Guide, a document made available to the Arizona public prior to the 2010 state General elections. Though the guide is described as "a nonpartisan, plain-language handbook" by its authors, it can be implicated in the…

  6. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Gisela's Family Story: A Construal of Deportation, Illegal Immigrants, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I use critical discourse analysis to analyze a student's narrative about the arrest, incarceration, and deportation of her mother to Mexico. The student, Gisela, was a fifth grader in my classroom during the 2008/2009 school year, and I encouraged the students to collect family stories from their relatives. Gisela created this…

  7. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Gisela's Family Story: A Construal of Deportation, Illegal Immigrants, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I use critical discourse analysis to analyze a student's narrative about the arrest, incarceration, and deportation of her mother to Mexico. The student, Gisela, was a fifth grader in my classroom during the 2008/2009 school year, and I encouraged the students to collect family stories from their relatives. Gisela created this…

  8. Immigration and immigrant generations in population projections.

    PubMed

    Edmonston, B; Passel, J S

    1992-11-01

    This paper proposes a new model for population projections. This model projects an initial population under conditions of fertility, mortality, and international migration (like standard cohort-component models), but considers the population arrayed by generation. The model incorporates 4 generations: a foreign-born first generation (the immigrants), a second generation (sons and daughters of immigrants), a third generation (grandsons and granddaughters of immigrants), and fourth-and-higher generations. The model requires fertility, mortality, and migration equations by generation, which take a somewhat different form than in conventional cohort-component population projection. Consideration of the model also makes apparent that assignment of births to generations may not follow a simple form: the paper presents a method for including the empirical description of intergenerational births within the generational framework. As an example, the authors examine the next century of population growth for the Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White non-Hispanic populations in the US, comparing their growth rates and their composition within the total US population. With annual net immigration of 950,000, the total US population of 249 million in 1990 will top 400 million in 2070 and reach about 432 million in 2090. Thus, the level of immigration and emigration assumed in these projections suggests considerable population growth for the next hundred years. The racial/ethnic composition of the US will shift markedly during the next century, as described in the paper.

  9. The world population explosion and the cost of uncontrolled immigration.

    PubMed

    Murphey, D D

    1994-01-01

    This article is a review of the book "The Immigration Invasion" by Wayne Lutton and John Tanton (1994). The book is devoted to considerable discussion of the impact of immigration on health and welfare costs, labor market impact, the politics of race, crime, and quality of life; the facts of immigration and immigration legislation are also addressed. The review places emphasis on the issue of the "intangible" consequences of immigration for the US, such as the loss of a cultural identity as non-Hispanic White. There were almost 880,000 immigrants in 1993. US population is 255 million. Population projections are for 380 million in 2050, of which 52% will be non-Hispanic Whites and 48% will be minorities. News reports illustrate the extent of the invasion: 400,000 Haitians in New York City alone. The geographic areas most impacted include California, Florida, and Texas. Reference is made to a Lawrence Auster analysis of the impact of immigration on the whole society of the US and Japanese professor Yuji Aida's comments that at some point minority groups in the US will assert their power and the country may become ungovernable. The issue of national identity is considered as obscured by "ideological smog," which is manifested in confusing ideas about racism and the "vagaries of classical liberal thought." Auster is cited as saying that "diversity continues to expand beyond the point where genuine assimilation is possible, and the ideal of equality will also decline." The idea of common citizenship is assumed to be in decline. The costs, according to Lutton and Tanton, are identified as immigrants' use of the welfare system, public education, and the Earned Income Tax Credit. Illegal aliens are protected from deportation. Immigrants bring in tuberculosis infections. The loss of professional engineering jobs to the foreign-born becomes acceptable. The teaching of multiculturalism challenge one's identity as an American. Over 25% of federal inmates are non-US citizens

  10. 10 Myths about Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Myths about immigration and immigrants are common. This article presents a few of the most frequently heard misconceptions, along with information to help teachers and their students separate fact from fear. Teachers should debunk the misinformation students bring to school--and help them think for themselves. They must guide students to find a…

  11. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  12. 10 Myths about Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Myths about immigration and immigrants are common. This article presents a few of the most frequently heard misconceptions, along with information to help teachers and their students separate fact from fear. Teachers should debunk the misinformation students bring to school--and help them think for themselves. They must guide students to find a…

  13. Immigrant America. A Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro; Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    This book aims to synthesize the major aspects of recent immigration to the United States, focusing on the diversity of origins of today's immigrants and their contexts of exit and on the diversity of their adaptation experiences and contexts of incorporation. The book consists of seven chapters. Chapter 1, "Who They Are and Why They…

  14. Immigrant America. A Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro; Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    This book aims to synthesize the major aspects of recent immigration to the United States, focusing on the diversity of origins of today's immigrants and their contexts of exit and on the diversity of their adaptation experiences and contexts of incorporation. The book consists of seven chapters. Chapter 1, "Who They Are and Why They…

  15. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio);…

  16. Explaining Immigrant Naturalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Philip Q.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a broad analytical framework in the study of immigrant naturalization that incorporates an immigrant's individual characteristics with the larger social contexts in the country of origin and the country of destination to explain the likelihood of citizenship acquisition. Results testing of this framework show that such considerations are…

  17. [Spanish immigration in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Suarez, D

    1988-01-01

    Trends in immigration to Cuba from Spain in the first three decades of the twentieth century are analyzed. The author notes that this immigration was responsible for more than 25 percent of the population growth that occurred during this period. The impact of changes in Spanish and Cuban law on migration flows is considered.

  18. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio);…

  19. The child immigrant.

    PubMed

    Bonovitz, Jennifer M

    2004-06-01

    This article uses a developmental perspective to look at the effects of immigration on the young child. Factors influencing the way in which the immigrant family negotiates the ongoing process of settling into the new country are considered. It is argued that the ability of parents to provide an adequate holding environment to protect the young child from too much loss or dislocation is probably the most critical factor in determining whether the child's internal world will be enriched or impoverished by the immigration experience. It is emphasized that immigration is an ongoing process for the entire family. Some clinical material is presented to illustrate how the child's engagement in the process of separation-individuation both shapes and is shaped by, the immigration experience.

  20. President Clinton signs the welfare reform bill, turning his back on the poorest and most vulnerable populations and undermining health care for legal immigrants.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, M

    1996-01-01

    President Clinton signed a welfare reform responsibility bill in August, following eighteen months of contentious debate. The bill, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, is expected to lead to cuts in food stamp programs, aid to illegal immigrants, and safety net programs for children. Specific program cuts are detailed.

  1. Making and Becoming in the Undocumented Student Policy Regime: A Post-Qualitative [Discourse] Analysis of U.S. Immigration and Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely

    2017-01-01

    This paper discursively analyzes the public conversation around immigration as it intrasects with state and federal policy, particularly in relation to higher education. I take in-state resident tuition policy as a departure point for an effort to explain how "undocumented" and "illegal" subject positions are produced through…

  2. The Education Requirement of the U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: A Case Study of Ineffective Language Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Susan

    An analysis of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), which requires basic English language proficiency and knowledge of United States history and civics of illegal aliens seeking permanent residency status, suggests that the Act is an example of poor language planning. The analysis has three components. First, the legalization…

  3. The Education Requirement of the U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: A Case Study of Ineffective Language Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Under the 1986 Immigration Reform Act, illegal aliens could fulfill English, history, and civics knowledge requirements by attending instructional programs. Because the goal was to grant these aliens residency before foreign nationals applying under other programs, not to help individuals achieve English competency, the language policy has been…

  4. Transforming Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    or agency each week?” 47 By way of just one example, Madrid’s La Razon reported on September 13 , 2004, that Spain would lose U.S. bases to Portugal...public release, distribution unlimited 13 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...DEFENSE 7 responsibilities. The homeland security JOC envisions a layered and comprehensive defense requiring geographical and functional integra- tion. 13

  5. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  6. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  7. Immigrant College Students' Academic Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant college student populations continue to grow on college campuses across the nation; yet, little is known about the experiences of immigrant students. This paper examines differences in perceived academic obstacles between immigrant students and non-immigrant students at six large, public research universities (n = 56,000). The…

  8. Empower Educators to Teach Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…

  9. Empower Educators to Teach Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…

  10. Teaching History through Immigration Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauter, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Recommends and discusses texts that enable students to investigate the "typical" immigrant story, the parallels and differences in immigration experiences, and characteristics of immigrants. Provides vivid jumping-off points into complex and differentiated lives of real people often hidden beneath labels such as "immigrant." (CMK)

  11. Immigrants in community colleges.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Robert T; Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant youth and children of immigrants make up a large and increasing share of the nation's population, and over the next few decades they will constitute a significant portion of the U.S. workforce. Robert Teranishi, Carola Suárez-Orozco, and Marcelo Suárez-Orozco argue that increasing their educational attainment, economic productivity, and civic engagement should thus be a national priority. Community colleges offer one particularly important venue for achieving this objective. Because they are conveniently located, cost much less than four-year colleges, feature open admissions, and accommodate students who work or have family responsibilities, community colleges are well suited to meet the educational needs of immigrants who want to obtain an affordable postsecondary education, learn English-language skills, and prepare for the labor market. The authors explore how community colleges can serve immigrant students more effectively. Already, more immigrant students attend community colleges than any other type of post-secondary institution. But community colleges could attract even more immigrant students through outreach programs that help them to apply and to navigate the financial aid system. Federal reforms should also allow financial aid to cover tuition for English as a Second Language courses. Community colleges themselves could raise funds to provide scholarships for immigrants and undocumented students. Although there are many good ideas for interventions that can boost enrollment and improve the performance of immigrant students in community colleges, rigorous research on effective programs is scant. The research community and community colleges need to work together closely to evaluate these programs with a view toward what works and why. Without such research, policy makers will find it difficult to improve the role of community colleges in increasing the educational achievement of immigrant students.

  12. Immigration, assimilation and growth.

    PubMed

    Durkin, J T

    1998-01-01

    "This paper analyzes the welfare effects of immigration and its subsequent effect on ethnic diversity in a model featuring human capital spillovers which depend on the degree of ethnic heterogeneity, variation rates of time preference across individuals and endogenous levels of immigration and assimilation. In the model, an increase in ethnic diversity reduces the spillovers effect for the majority. Nonetheless, immigration can be welfare improving for the majority ethnic group even if it increases the degree of diversity as long as it raises the average human capital level and/or growth rate by increasing the proportion of people with low rates of time preference."

  13. S&E immigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite an overall decline in immigration to the United States in 1993, the number of scientists and engineers (S&Es) entering the country continued to rise, with women representing 21.3% of the total admitted with permanent resident status. According to the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 23,534 S&Es were admitted to the United States on permanent visas in 1993, 3.1% more than in 1992. Of that total, 5,020 were women. S&Es made up 2.6% of the total U.S. immigration in 1993. The slight 1993 increase followed a large jump in 1992 of 62% over the previous year.

  14. Immigration measures, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Government of Norway undertook the following immigration measures: 1) it merged the Office of Immigration, which deals with asylum matters, and the Government Refugee Agency, which handles reception and settlement, into a new Directorate for Immigration under the Ministry of Local Government and Labour; 2) it instituted visa requirements for Chileans; and 3) it established a new reception program, under which five regional reception centers are to be created accommodating 200 to 300 people each, where asylum seekers will be placed until they have completed their police interview and a municipality has agreed to accept them.

  15. The political and socioeconomic context of legal and illegal Mexican migration to the United States (1942-1984).

    PubMed

    Hansen, L O

    1988-03-01

    The US manpower shortage in industry and agriculture during World War II, combined with Mexico's burden of an excess number of unemployed laborers, provided the basis for serious labor negotiations between the US and Mexico. The result was the Bracero Agreement of 1942, a bilateral agreement involving annual quotas for the temporary hiring of Mexican braceros. On the surface the program worked well. However, there were points of contention between the 2 countries: 1) in opposition to Mexico's policy of placing recruitment centers in the interior of the country, US policy called for placing the centers near the border, to reduce transportation costs; 2) Texas, which received no braceros because of racial discrimination, relied upon illegal aliens for manual labor; 3) Texas flagrantly violated a 1948 agreement when the Border Patrol welcomed aliens across the river despite Mexican officials' threats to close the border; 4) legal braceros were confronted with competition from illegals who were willing to work for a lower wage; 5) in 1954, the Border patrol physically helped aliens across the border, while Mexican policy were physically restraining them; 6) with the conclusion of a new Bracero agreement in March 1954, illegal aliens were no longer needed, so more than 1 million were apprehended and deported to Mexico's interior. The termination of the Bracero Program in 1964 gave new impetus to illegal trafficking and the number of illegals apprehended began to increase steadily in 1965. The migration flow after 1964 was influenced by the following socioeconomic conditions in Mexico: 1) unemployment, 2) very large disparities in income distribution, 3) a discrimination of the rural sector in favor of the urban in the allocation of government funds, and 4) a dependency on foreign capital and technology. Also, it was cheap labor for the US. Neither the US nor Mexico has adopted policies related to either economic development or immigration that would systematically

  16. Distinguishing Between Legally and Illegally Produced Gold in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Richard J; Dixon, Roger D; Merkle, Roland K W

    2016-01-01

    The identification of gold-bearing material is essential for combating the theft of gold in South Africa. Material seized in police operations is generally a mixture of gold from different mines, and as such cannot be traced back to a single location. ICP-OES analysis of material dissolved by acid dissolution provided a database of gold compositions comprising gold from South African mines, illegal gold stolen from the mines, and commercial gold alloys and jewelery. Discrimination between legal and illegal gold was possible due to the presence of Pb, As, Sb, Sn, Se, and Te in the stolen material, elements which are not present in legally produced gold. The presence of these elements is a quick and simple way to distinguish between gold alloys based on refined gold, such as in commercially manufactured jewelery, and gold alloys containing a proportion of unrefined and therefore illegally obtained gold.

  17. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US–Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms. PMID:24743552

  18. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  19. Reducing the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors.

    PubMed

    Altman, D G; Foster, V; Rasenick-Douss, L; Tye, J B

    1989-01-06

    This study reports on an effort to stop the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors. In Santa Clara County, Calif, 412 stores and 30 vending machines were visited by 18 minors aged 14 through 16 years with the intent to purchase cigarettes; they were successful at 74% of the stores and 100% of the vending machines. After an aggressive six-month campaign using communitywide media, direct merchant education, contact with the chief executive officers of chain stores and franchise operations owned by major companies, and grassroots work with community organizations, the percentage of stores with illegal over-the-counter sale of cigarettes to minors was reduced to 39%. Sales from vending machines were not reduced. While much remains to be accomplished in stopping the illegal sale of tobacco to minors, data from this study illustrate that a well-designed community and merchant education campaign can significantly reduce such sales.

  20. Subtypes of Pathological Gambling with Concurrent Illegal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Sauchelli, Sarah; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Islam, Mohammed A; Tàrrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are: to explore empirical clusters in a sample of individuals with a gambling disorder (GD) according to the presence of illegal behaviors, to describe the subgroups at a clinical level and to examine whether a temporal change has taken place across the last 9 years. The sample consisted of 378 patients with a GD who consecutively received outpatient treatment, and who reported the presence of the DSM-IV criteria "presence of illegal behavior". Two-step clustering procedure revealed the existence of four empirical groups, which differed in both sociodemographic and clinical profiles. The patients, who have committed illegal acts due to their gambling behavior, are a heterogeneous group in which it is possible to identify different subtypes, based on sociodemographic, psychopathological, clinical and personality characteristics.

  1. Breaking the vicious circle of illegal logging in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Linkie, Matthew; Sloan, Sean; Kasia, Rahmad; Kiswayadi, Dedy; Azmi, Wahdi

    2014-08-01

    The government of Indonesia, which presides over 10% of the world's tropical forests, has set ambitious targets to cut its high deforestation rates through an REDD+ scheme (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation). This will require strong law enforcement to succeed. Yet, strategies that have accomplished this are rare and, along with past failures, tend not to be documented. We evaluated a multistakeholder approach that seeks to tackle illegal logging in the carbon-rich province of Aceh, Sumatra. From 2008 to 2009, Fauna & Flora International established and supported a community-based informant network for the 738,000 ha Ulu Masen ecosystem. The network reported 190 forest offenses to local law enforcement agencies, which responded with 86 field operations that confiscated illicit vehicles, equipment, and timber, and arrested 138 illegal logging suspects. From 45 cases subsequently monitored, 64.4% proceeded to court, from which 90.0% of defendants received a prison sentence or a verbal warning for a first offense. Spatial analyses of illegal logging and timber storage incidents predicted that illegal activities would be more effectively deterred by law enforcement operations that targeted the storage sites. Although numerous clusters of incidents were identified, they were still widespread reflecting the ubiquity of illegal activities. The multistakeholder results were promising, but illegal logging still persisted at apparently similar levels at the project's end, indicating that efforts need to be further strengthened. Nevertheless, several actions contributed to the law enforcement achievements: strong political will; strong stakeholder support; and funding that could be promptly accessed. These factors are highlighted as prerequisites for achieving Indonesia's ambitious REDD+ goals. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. A Systematic Review of the Physical, Mental, Social, and Economic Problems of Immigrant Women in the Perinatal Period in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kita, Sachiko; Minatani, Mariko; Hikita, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi

    2015-12-01

    The perinatal mortality of immigrants in Japan is higher than that of Japanese women. However, details of the problems of immigrant perinatal women that contribute to worsening of their health are still unknown. This review describes the physical, psychological, social, and economic problems of immigrant women during the perinatal period in Japan. Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Igaku-Chuo Zasshi were searched and 36 relevant articles were reviewed. The related descriptions were collected and analyzed by using content analysis. The results showed that immigrant perinatal women in Japan experienced the following problems: language barriers, a problematic relationship with a partner, illegal residency, emotional distress, physical distress, adjustment difficulties, lack of utilization of services, social isolation, lack of support, lack of information, low economic status, unsatisfactory health care, and discrimination. These results indicated that multilingual services, strengthening of social and support networks, and political action are necessary to resolve their problems.

  3. Canada's non-status immigrants: negotiating access to health care and citizenship.

    PubMed

    Miklavcic, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Illegal immigration in Canada is characterized mainly by non-status immigrants who legally enter Canada and stay after their legal status expires and by failed refugee claimants. For these persons, immigration status or its absence plays an important role in determining the degree of access to Canadian health care. This article situates the clinical setting as a site of contention and negotiation of citizenship and care in social networks as well as pragmatic and discursive strategies. Drawing on the case of a patient who faced imminent deportation and became suicidal, in this article I depict how psychiatrists and other health practitioners embrace "bearing witness" as an ethical practice, which intersects the medical and legal spheres.

  4. [HIV infection in immigrants].

    PubMed

    López-Vélez, Rogelio; Navarro Beltrá, Miriam; Hernando Jerez, Asunción; del Amo Valero, Julia

    2008-05-01

    Immigration to Spain has greatly increased since 1995. Currently, more than 4 million foreigners are resident in the country. The immigration process increases vulnerability. The most common route of HIV infection in the immigrant population and ethnic minorities is heterosexual transmission. The number of people living with HIV worldwide (39.5 million people in 2006) and the number of those dying from AIDS continues to increase. In 2006, there were an estimated 30,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Spain. The number of cases of AIDS in immigrants has risen in the last few years. AIDS in immigrants from any country, and especially in those from sub-Saharan Africa, is associated with a greater frequency of tuberculosis disease. Knowledge of opportunistic pathogens with tropical distribution is required for a correct differential diagnosis. Throughout the European Union, the number of AIDS cases has progressively decreased since the introduction of highly effective anti- HIV treatment, but this decrease has been significantly lower in immigrants. The difference may be due to lower access to health systems caused by administrative, legal, cultural and linguistic barriers.

  5. [Immigration policies in Argentine law].

    PubMed

    Vichich, N P

    1988-12-01

    This paper analyzes contents of Argentine immigration laws in different periods of Argentine history and refers those contents to the State which enforced the corresponding immigration policies and to the socioeconomic structure they support. The Argentine constitution (1852) and subsequent immigration laws define 2 principal guidelines in population and immigration policies: 1) from 1852 until 1955 immigrants are seen as a part of socioeconomic growth, and 2) after 1955 the theory of national security prevails over considerations of an economic nature. With the return to democracy it should be possible to redefine immigration policies considering the country's demographic requirements and the migrants' own needs.

  6. Does fear of immigration authorities deter tuberculosis patients from seeking care?

    PubMed

    Asch, S; Leake, B; Gelberg, L

    1994-10-01

    Physician groups are concerned that legislation requiring physicians to report illegal immigrants to immigration authorities will delay curative care. In particular, patients with tuberculosis may delay seeking care for infectious symptoms and spread the disease. We surveyed 313 consecutive patients with active tuberculosis from 95 different facilities to examine the relationship of immigration-related variables, symptoms, and delay in seeking care. Most patients (71%) sought care for symptoms rather than as a result of the efforts of public health personnel to screen high-risk groups or to trace contacts of infectious persons. At least 20% of respondents lacked legal documents allowing them to reside in the United States. Few (6%) feared that going to a physician might lead to trouble with immigration authorities. Those who did were almost 4 times as likely to delay seeking care for more than 2 months, a period of time likely to result in disease transmission. Patients potentially exposed an average of 10 domestic and workplace contacts during the course of the delay. Any legislation that increases undocumented immigrants' fear that health care professionals will report them to immigration authorities may exacerbate the current tuberculosis epidemic.

  7. Warmth of the Welcome: Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy

    PubMed Central

    Fussell, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Natives' attitudes toward immigrants and immigration policy are important factors in the context of reception of immigrants since they contribute to a warm or chilly welcome, which potentially shapes immigrant and ethnic identities and inter-group relations. Public opinion polls show a recent “warming” of Americans' traditional ambivalence about immigration. Empirical research on attitudes toward immigrants and racial groups formed by recent waves of immigrants resonate with the dynamic nature of Blumer's (1958) theory of prejudice as a sense of relative group position. To better understand this dynamism, research that intentionally contrasts study sites on conflict and contact conditions and the presence of absence of symbolic politics, as well as research with different native-born racial and ethnic groups, would reveal a broader range of natives' attitude formation processes and the role they play in immigrant reception. PMID:26966338

  8. America's Newcomers: An Immigrant Policy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Ann, Ed.

    This handbook contains five research papers and extensive reference materials on general immigration, immigrant policy, and related federal and state programs. "Immigration and Immigrant Policy" (Jonathan C. Dunlap) presents an historical overview of U.S. immigration, 1820s-1980s; defines various immigrant statuses and eligibility of each for…

  9. Illegal hunting cases detected with molecular forensics in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to vertebrate populations in tropical regions. This unsustainable practice has serious consequences not only for the target populations, but also for the dynamics and structure of tropical ecosystems. Generally, in cases of suspected illegal hunting, the only evidence available is pieces of meat, skin or bone. In these cases, species identification can only be reliably determined using molecular technologies. Here, we reported an investigative study of three cases of suspected wildlife poaching in which molecular biology techniques were employed to identify the hunted species from remains of meat. Findings By applying cytochrome b (cyt-b) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) molecular markers, the suspected illegal poaching was confirmed by the identification of three wild species, capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) and Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). In Brazil, hunting is a criminal offense, and based on this evidence, the defendants were found guilty and punished with fines; they may still be sentenced to prison for a period of 6 to 12 months. Conclusions The genetic analysis used in this investigative study was suitable to diagnose the species killed and solve these criminal investigations. Molecular forensic techniques can therefore provide an important tool that enables local law enforcement agencies to apprehend illegal poachers. PMID:22863070

  10. Summarizing the evidence on the international trade in illegal wildlife.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Gail Emilia; Smith, Katherine F

    2010-08-01

    The global trade in illegal wildlife is a multi-billion dollar industry that threatens biodiversity and acts as a potential avenue for invasive species and disease spread. Despite the broad-sweeping implications of illegal wildlife sales, scientists have yet to describe the scope and scale of the trade. Here, we provide the most thorough and current description of the illegal wildlife trade using 12 years of seizure records compiled by TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network. These records comprise 967 seizures including massive quantities of ivory, tiger skins, live reptiles, and other endangered wildlife and wildlife products. Most seizures originate in Southeast Asia, a recently identified hotspot for future emerging infectious diseases. To date, regulation and enforcement have been insufficient to effectively control the global trade in illegal wildlife at national and international scales. Effective control will require a multi-pronged approach including community-scale education and empowering local people to value wildlife, coordinated international regulation, and a greater allocation of national resources to on-the-ground enforcement.

  11. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the program. (c) Drug testing. (1) This part does not prohibit a public accommodation from adopting or administering reasonable policies or procedures, including but not limited to drug testing, designed to ensure..., restrict, or authorize the conducting of testing for the illegal use of drugs. ...

  12. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the program. (c) Drug testing. (1) This part does not prohibit a public accommodation from adopting or administering reasonable policies or procedures, including but not limited to drug testing, designed to ensure..., restrict, or authorize the conducting of testing for the illegal use of drugs. ...

  13. Infants' Acceptance of Phonotactically Illegal Word Forms as Object Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukatana, Ena; Curtin, Suzanne; Graham, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated 16- and 20-month-olds' flexibility in mapping phonotactically illegal words to objects. Using an associative word-learning task, infants were presented with a training phase that either highlighted or did not highlight the referential status of a novel label. Infants were then habituated to two novel objects, each paired with a…

  14. Behavioral Indicators of Legal and Illegal Gun Carrying

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    of behavioral indicators to identify persons carrying legal and illegal firearms . This report specifically focuses on behavioral indicators of persons...carrying a firearm and their reaction to perceived threats. In total, we have identified six behaviors associated with weight and carrying, and eleven...5 Fig. 3 — Example of firearm weight distribution and shifting ..................................................................... 6 Fig. 4

  15. Infants' Acceptance of Phonotactically Illegal Word Forms as Object Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukatana, Ena; Curtin, Suzanne; Graham, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated 16- and 20-month-olds' flexibility in mapping phonotactically illegal words to objects. Using an associative word-learning task, infants were presented with a training phase that either highlighted or did not highlight the referential status of a novel label. Infants were then habituated to two novel objects, each paired with a…

  16. Factors Associated with Illegal Drug Use in Rural Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Ted L.; And Others

    To ascertain the incidence of drug use in a rural area and to provide insight into the covariates of illegal drug use which might be useful in developing prevention programs, data were collected in the spring of 1981 from 2,060 or 83.2% of all students grades 8 through 12 in a southern Georgia county. Data were collected during regularly scheduled…

  17. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or golden...

  18. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or golden...

  19. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or golden...

  20. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or golden...

  1. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... trade, at any time or in any manner, any bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), or any golden eagle... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS General Requirements § 22.12 What activities are illegal? (a... authorize these acts. (b) You may not transport into or out of the United States any live bald or golden...

  2. Handicap Parking: A Demographic Study of Legal and Illegal Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordeaux, Monica N.; And Others

    Studies on handicap parking reveal the existence of a significant problem of unauthorized use of designated handicap spaces. This study examined various demographic variables involved in the illegal use of handicap parking spaces. Subjects (N=266) were drivers of vehicles observed in handicap parking spaces in three grocery store parking lots.…

  3. 50 CFR 12.32 - Effect of prior illegality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of prior illegality. 12.32 Section 12.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES...

  4. A New Business: Redirecting Black Youth from the Illegal Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox Edmondson, Vickie

    2009-01-01

    Young Black males are an at-risk group for earning a living through illegal activities in the U.S. As with most at-risk groups, concerted efforts have been made to help prepare them to become viable contributors and valued members of society. Anecdotal evidence shows that faculty members have also tried to reach out and influence young Black males…

  5. A New Business: Redirecting Black Youth from the Illegal Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox Edmondson, Vickie

    2009-01-01

    Young Black males are an at-risk group for earning a living through illegal activities in the U.S. As with most at-risk groups, concerted efforts have been made to help prepare them to become viable contributors and valued members of society. Anecdotal evidence shows that faculty members have also tried to reach out and influence young Black males…

  6. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or desertion occurred, in writing, of the name, nationality, passport number and, if known, the... any passport surrendered pursuant to § 252.1(d) of this chapter. Failure to file notice of illegal landing or desertion and to furnish any surrendered passport within 24 hours of the time of such landing...

  7. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or desertion occurred, in writing, of the name, nationality, passport number and, if known, the... any passport surrendered pursuant to § 252.1(d) of this chapter. Failure to file notice of illegal landing or desertion and to furnish any surrendered passport within 24 hours of the time of such landing...

  8. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or desertion occurred, in writing, of the name, nationality, passport number and, if known, the... any passport surrendered pursuant to § 252.1(d) of this chapter. Failure to file notice of illegal landing or desertion and to furnish any surrendered passport within 24 hours of the time of such landing...

  9. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or desertion occurred, in writing, of the name, nationality, passport number and, if known, the... any passport surrendered pursuant to § 252.1(d) of this chapter. Failure to file notice of illegal landing or desertion and to furnish any surrendered passport within 24 hours of the time of such landing...

  10. 50 CFR 300.202 - Identification and certification of nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... nations engaged in illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. 300.202 Section 300.202 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS... illegal, unreported, or unregulated fishing activities. (a) Procedures to identify nations whose fishing...

  11. Demographic evidence of illegal harvesting of an endangered asian turtle.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yik-Hei; Karraker, Nancy E; Hau, Billy C H

    2013-12-01

    Harvesting pressure on Asian freshwater turtles is severe, and dramatic population declines of these turtles are being driven by unsustainable collection for food markets, pet trade, and traditional Chinese medicine. Populations of big-headed turtle (Platysternon megacephalum) have declined substantially across its distribution, particularly in China, because of overcollection. To understand the effects of chronic harvesting pressure on big-headed turtle populations, we examined the effects of illegal harvesting on the demography of populations in Hong Kong, where some populations still exist. We used mark-recapture methods to compare demographic characteristics between sites with harvesting histories and one site in a fully protected area. Sites with a history of illegal turtle harvesting were characterized by the absence of large adults and skewed ratios of juveniles to adults, which may have negative implications for the long-term viability of populations. These sites also had lower densities of adults and smaller adult body sizes than the protected site. Given that populations throughout most of the species' range are heavily harvested and individuals are increasingly difficult to find in mainland China, the illegal collection of turtles from populations in Hong Kong may increase over time. Long-term monitoring of populations is essential to track effects of illegal collection, and increased patrolling is needed to help control illegal harvesting of populations, particularly in national parks. Because few, if any, other completely protected populations remain in the region, our data on an unharvested population of big-headed turtles serve as an important reference for assessing the negative consequences of harvesting on populations of stream turtles. Evidencia Demográfica de la Captura Ilegal de una Tortuga Asiática en Peligro. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. 287(g): Cross-Delegating State and Local Law Enforcement Officers with Federal Immigration Authority - Homeland Security Remedy or Rue?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    recommendations on policies dealing with illegal immigrants, Sen. Scott Jenkins , R-Plain City: SB52-Identity Theft Amendment: Authorizes restitution...interests (both right and left 85 Comment by Utah U.S. Attorney Brett Tolman during a meeting in St. George...gangs, U.S. Attorney Brett Tolman said his office also has the option to go after these gangs as criminal organizations.123 During the operation this

  13. Legacies of Immigration: Children of Immigrants' Experiences Navigating Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Fanny P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Immigration, as a continuous phenomenon, extends beyond a singular migratory event that an individual experiences. The purpose of this research project was to explore the college experiences of second-generation immigrants and how their family relationships, immigrant histories, and socioeconomic status directly and indirectly shaped their…

  14. Legacies of Immigration: Children of Immigrants' Experiences Navigating Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Fanny P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Immigration, as a continuous phenomenon, extends beyond a singular migratory event that an individual experiences. The purpose of this research project was to explore the college experiences of second-generation immigrants and how their family relationships, immigrant histories, and socioeconomic status directly and indirectly shaped their…

  15. Teaching about Immigration Issues [and] Immigration: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interchange (Population Education Newsletter), 1982

    1982-01-01

    This issue of "Interchange" contains a reading, discussion questions, activities, and ideas to help educators teach secondary students and adults about immigration issues. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading entitled "Immigration: Questions and Answers." This reading analyzes the concerns about current levels of immigration and…

  16. Children of Immigrants: Immigration Trends. Fact Sheet No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuny, Karina; Chaudry, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet is the first in a series of publications on children of immigrants. The series updates the Urban Institute's May 2006 fact sheet that described the characteristics of children of immigrants in the early 2000s. The current series profiles the population of children of immigrants in the United States using data from the 2007 American…

  17. Immigrant sex: the transport of affection and sensuality across cultures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Frederick Y; Akhtar, Salman

    2005-06-01

    This paper outlines the ways in which an individual's notions of sexuality are challenged by immigration. It describes four basic facets of sexuality and the ways in which each are rooted in culture. These include (1) the relative importance of sexuality in daily life; (2) potential or overt homosexuality; (3) marriage-whether based on arrangement or love; and (4) cross-cultural romantic and marital relationships. Immigration can stir up conflicts in each of these realms and lead to defensive retreat into familiar customs or a counter-phasic plunge into new cultural avenues. Ideally, it would lead to a working-through of these conflicts and subsequent growth in the immigrant's understanding of his or her sexual self.

  18. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol... property while under the influence of illegal drugs or alcohol. Using alcoholic beverages on NARA...

  19. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol... property while under the influence of illegal drugs or alcohol. Using alcoholic beverages on NARA...

  20. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol... property while under the influence of illegal drugs or alcohol. Using alcoholic beverages on NARA...

  1. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that illegal... prevents the family from finding or leasing a suitable unit with assistance under the program. The PHA must...

  2. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that illegal... prevents the family from finding or leasing a suitable unit with assistance under the program. The PHA must...

  3. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that illegal... prevents the family from finding or leasing a suitable unit with assistance under the program. The PHA must...

  4. 24 CFR 982.304 - Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Illegal discrimination: PHA... Leasing a Unit § 982.304 Illegal discrimination: PHA assistance to family. A family may claim that illegal... prevents the family from finding or leasing a suitable unit with assistance under the program. The PHA must...

  5. Long-term effects of eliminating illegal logging on the world forest industries, trade, and inventory

    Treesearch

    Ruhong Li; J. Buongiorno; J.A. Turner; S. Zhu; J. Prestemon

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the impact on the world forest sector of a progressive elimination of illegal logging. The analysis compared predictions from 2007 to 2020, with and without a gradual reduction of illegally logged industrial roundwood from 2007 to 2011. A large part of the curtailment of timber supply due to the stoppage of illegal logging would be compensated by increased...

  6. The Impact of Illegal and Legal Migration on the Defense Security of South Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-19

    Defence and Security Management at the Graduate School of Public and Development at the University of the Witwatersrand . He says security, including...According to Loren Landau, director of the African Centre for Migration and Society at the University of Witwatersrand , as long as regional economic

  7. Russian criminal culture among drug-addicted former soviet union immigrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Liat, Yakhnich

    2017-07-05

    This article explores the cultural context of substance abuse among drug-addicted Former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrants in Israel. Using a qualitative approach, it focuses on immigrant users' affiliation with the Russian criminal culture. The data analysis elicited a number of themes, including the key components of this culture, its attitude toward drug consumption, and its role in the users' lives and rehabilitation. It is argued that drug-addicted immigrants suffer multiple marginalization. Their affiliation with the ethnic criminal subculture serves as a defense reaction that protects their identities and grants them a sense of mastery not afforded in the wider society.

  8. Immigrants and Welfare Reauthorization. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremstad, Shawn

    Until the 1996 welfare law (which conditioned eligibility on citizenship status) was passed, legal immigrants were generally as eligible for public benefits as citizens. The immigrant restrictions have proven to be extremely controversial. In 1997, Congress restored Supplemental Security Income to most immigrants who were already in the country…

  9. Introduction: Immigration and Its Aftermath.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro

    1994-01-01

    Provides comments on the long-term growth and adaptation of immigrant youth born after 1965 and living in the United States. The author explores the impact of immigration laws, discrimination, and economic opportunities in American society on today's children of immigrants and how these conditions can drive them into the lower socioeconomic…

  10. Immigration: One of Today's Enigmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Ellen G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the issues and questions involved in the current debate on immigration policy. Discusses recent amendments to the immigration laws, closing the borders to the unskilled and poor. Outlines the four types of potentially acceptable immigration applicants and considers the economic impact of the current policy. (MJP)

  11. Building Partnerships with Immigrant Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, Andrea; Kugler, Eileen Gale

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, immigrant-rich Annandale High School in the Virginia suburbs of Washington, D.C., launched a focused effort to bring more parents of students from immigrant families into school leadership. Nearly half of the parents of Annandale High students are immigrants to the United States--and they come from more than 80 different countries.…

  12. [Tuberculosis and immigration].

    PubMed

    Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs.

  13. Welfare and immigration reform and use of prenatal care among women of Mexican ethnicity in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Loue, Sana; Cooper, Marlene; Lloyd, Linda S

    2005-01-01

    Foreign-born women and, in particular, Hispanic foreign-born women, are less likely to have insurance, are less likely to have insurance that covers prenatal care, and are less likely to utilize prenatal care compared with US-born Hispanic women. Significant concern has been raised regarding the ability of immigrant women to access prenatal care services because of severe restrictions imposed on immigrants' eligibility for Medicaid-funded services following the passage in 1996 of the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reform Act (PRWORA) and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRAIRA). We conducted an interview-based study of prenatal care utilization with women of Mexican ethnicity and diverse immigration statuses in San Diego County, California. Our findings indicate that, despite increased levels of fear associated with recent immigration and with undocumented status, there were no statistically significant differences across immigration statuses in length of time to receipt of medical care for gynecological events and for prenatal care.

  14. Immigration and adult transitions.

    PubMed

    Rumbaut, Rubén G; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Rubén Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage counterparts, including blacks and whites. The authors document the demographic changes in the United States over the past forty years and describe the ways in which generation and national origin shape the experiences of these newcomers as they become adults. Rumbaut and Komaie point out that immigrant groups experience gaps in social, economic, and legal status that are even greater than the gaps between native whites and blacks. By far the most-educated (Indians) and the least-educated (Mexicans) groups in the United States today are first-generation immigrants, as are the groups with the lowest poverty rate (Filipinos) and the highest poverty rate (Dominicans). These social and economic divides reflect three very different ways immigrants enter the country: through regular immigration channels, without legal authorization, or as state-sponsored refugees. For many ethnic groups, significant progress takes place from the first to the second generation. But, say the authors, for millions of young immigrants, a lack of legal permanent residency status blocks their prospects for social mobility. Having an undocumented status has become all the more consequential with the failure of Congress to pass comprehensive federal immigration reforms. In the coming two decades, as the U.S. native-parentage labor force continues to shrink, immigrants and their children are expected to account for most of the growth of the nation's labor force, with the fastest-growing occupations requiring college degrees. Rumbaut and Komaie stress that one key to the nation's future will be how it incorporates young adults of immigrant origin in its

  15. Fewer scientists immigrating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A recent decline in the number of scientists and engineers immigrating to the United States could indicate that a surge throughout the 1980s and early 1990s may have been temporary.The number of people with science and engineering degrees admitted to the United States on permanent visas with work certificates dropped 26% between 1993 and 1994—from 23,534 to 17,403—according to a new National Science Foundation (NSF) data brief that analyzes information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. A lack of demand for employment-based admissions caused the decline, according to the INS.

  16. Mental Health and Immigration

    PubMed Central

    Misri, Shaila

    1986-01-01

    The author reviews the psychosocial implications of immigration. Immigration is a complex, emotionally charged process which involves leaving behind old values, relationships, security, and resettling in an unknown culture with a new set of norms and boundaries. Some studies report a higher incidence of psychiatric illness in a migrant population than among the native born. Preventive and early therapeutic intervention is mandatory. In order to facilitate acculturation and eventual adaptation, the host society should promote easy access to the health-care systems, educational facilities, housing requirements and community organizations. PMID:21267172

  17. Are healthcare professionals working in Australia's immigration detention centres condoning torture?

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David

    2016-07-01

    Australian immigration detention centres are in secluded locations, some on offshore islands, and are subject to extreme secrecy, comparable with 'black sites' elsewhere. There are parallels between healthcare professionals working in immigration detention centres and healthcare professionals involved with or complicit in torture. In both cases, healthcare professionals are conflicted between a duty of care to improve the health of patients and the interests of the government. While this duality of interests has been recognised previously, the full implications for healthcare professionals working in immigration detention have not been addressed. The Australian Government maintains that immigration detention is needed for security checks, but the average duration of immigration detention has increased from 10 weeks to 14 months, and detainees are not informed of the progress of their application for refugee status. Long-term immigration detention causes major mental health problems, is illegal in international law and arguably fulfils the recognised definition of torture. It is generally accepted that healthcare professionals should not participate in or condone torture. Australian healthcare professionals thus face a major ethical dilemma: patients in immigration detention have pressing mental and physical health needs, but providing healthcare might support or represent complicity in a practice that is unethical. Individual healthcare professionals need to decide whether or not to work in immigration detention centres. If they do so, they need to decide for how long and to what extent restrictive contracts and gagging laws will constrain them from advocating for closing detention centres. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Immigration and the American century.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, Charles

    2005-11-01

    The full impact of immigration on American society is obscured in policy and academic analyses that focus on the short-term problems of immigrant adjustment. With a longer-term perspective, which includes the socioeconomic roles of the children of immigrants, immigration appears as one of the defining characteristics of twentieth-century America. Major waves of immigration create population diversity with new languages and cultures, but over time, while immigrants and their descendants become more "American," the character of American society and culture is transformed. In the early decades of the twentieth century, immigrants and their children were the majority of the workforce in many of the largest industrial cities; in recent decades, the arrival of immigrants and their families has slowed the demographic and economic decline of some American cities. The presence of immigrants probably creates as many jobs for native-born workers as are lost through displacement. Immigrants and their children played an important role in twentieth-century American politics and were influential in the development of American popular culture during the middle decades of the twentieth century. Intermarriage between the descendants of immigrants and old-stock Americans fosters a national identity based on civic participation rather than ancestry.

  19. Positive Urgency Predicts Illegal Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Cyders, Melissa A.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    There are several different personality traits that dispose individuals to engage in rash action. One such trait is positive urgency: the tendency to act rashly when experiencing extremely positive affect. This trait may be relevant for college student risky behavior, because it appears that a great deal of college student risky behavior is undertaken during periods of intensely positive mood states. To test this possibility, the authors conducted a longitudinal study designed to predict increases in risky sexual behavior and illegal drug use over the course of the first year of college (n = 407). In a well-fitting structural model, positive urgency predicted increases in illegal drug use and risky sexual behavior, even after controlling for time 1 (T1) involvement in both risky behaviors, biological sex, and T1 scores on four other personality dispositions to rash action. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this finding. PMID:19586152

  20. [The gateway to illegal substance use in Colombia: violations of the gateway rule].

    PubMed

    Posada-Villa, Jose A; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2009-01-01

    Establishing the frequency of gateway illegal substance use with alcohol or nicotine being violated amongst Colombian adults in the general population. A descriptive study was carried out on adults from the general Colombian population. Gateway frequencies were determined for illegal substance use regarding substances other than alcohol or nicotine. A total of 4,426 adults participated in this research. A group of 127 people (3.3%) reported that they had started illegal substance use before using alcohol or nicotine; 2.3% of them had used other illegal substance before using cannabis, 0,6 % had smoked cannabis before using alcohol or nicotine and 0,4 % had used other illegal substances before using alcohol or nicotine. A small group of people who use illegal substances in Colombia start with substances different to alcohol or nicotine. The factors associated with gateway use of illegal substances (regarding substance other than alcohol or nicotine) should be investigated.

  1. Theories on immigrant women's health.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Yang, Kyeongra

    2006-09-01

    Our purpose in this article is to review theories critically that have been used to explain immigrant women's health based on 4 case studies of Korean immigrant women's experiences in the United States and suggest directions for future development of theories on immigrant women's health. First, 3 existing theories on immigration and health (selective migration, negative effect of immigration, and acculturation) are concisely described. Then, the daily experiences of 4 low-income Korean immigrant women are described in a narrative mode, and the 3 existing theories are critiqued in terms of how they can explain the women's narratives. Finally, implications for future theory development on immigrant women's health experience are proposed based on the discussion.

  2. [Illegal purchase of psychotropic drugs from the internet].

    PubMed

    Mutschler, J; Diehl, A; Kiefer, F

    2007-07-01

    Several national institutions are registering a significant increase in sales of prescription and illegal drugs from internet pharmacies. Psychoactive drugs are preferred; the clients are particularly young. Considering the current amount of data available, the extent and relevance to addiction medicine remain unclear. In the following report we present the case of a patient from our outpatient department who has suffered from an opioid dependency for several years and has been using a Spanish internet pharmacy to purchase tramadol without prescription.

  3. Detention of Immigrant Children.

    PubMed

    Linton, Julie M; Griffin, Marsha; Shapiro, Alan J

    2017-05-01

    Immigrant children seeking safe haven in the United States, whether arriving unaccompanied or in family units, face a complicated evaluation and legal process from the point of arrival through permanent resettlement in communities. The conditions in which children are detained and the support services that are available to them are of great concern to pediatricians and other advocates for children. In accordance with internationally accepted rights of the child, immigrant and refugee children should be treated with dignity and respect and should not be exposed to conditions that may harm or traumatize them. The Department of Homeland Security facilities do not meet the basic standards for the care of children in residential settings. The recommendations in this statement call for limited exposure of any child to current Department of Homeland Security facilities (ie, Customs and Border Protection and Immigration and Customs Enforcement facilities) and for longitudinal evaluation of the health consequences of detention of immigrant children in the United States. From the moment children are in the custody of the United States, they deserve health care that meets guideline-based standards, treatment that mitigates harm or traumatization, and services that support their health and well-being. This policy statement also provides specific recommendations regarding postrelease services once a child is released into communities across the country, including a coordinated system that facilitates access to a medical home and consistent access to education, child care, interpretation services, and legal services. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Immigration Lessons through Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coviello, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the typical approach to immigration in U.S. history may not be interesting or exciting to students. Describes an interdisciplinary program using primary sources and computer databases to encourage student participation and enhance academic achievement. Includes three appendices with information and raw data used in the program. (CFR)

  5. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What…

  6. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What…

  7. Academic Mobility and Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Karine

    2005-01-01

    In the late 1990s, sustained economic growth in most Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and the development of the information economy led to a considerable increase in migration of highly skilled individuals, especially in science and technology. Some OECD countries relaxed their immigration policies to attract…

  8. [Focus on Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Chester, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This journal issue consists of articles and other information about immigration issues, as well as discussions of the utility of racial and ethnic categories. "An International Perspective on Migration" (Cathi Tactaquin) examines the intertwined economic, political, and environmental causes of international migration; discusses how…

  9. The creativity of immigrants.

    PubMed

    2017-02-24

    Countries that have benefitted from immigration to dominate the scientific research landscape cannot expect to maintain their lead after they close their borders. Nations aspiring to lead in the knowledge economy must not only be open, but also need to respect freedom of communication and free expression of ideas.

  10. [On the question of the illegality of abortion].

    PubMed

    Salton, J A

    1985-08-01

    The illegality of abortion in Brazil is questioned more and more. It would seem obvious that the prohibition of abortion would result in a decrease in the number of abortions, but upon closer observation, the opposite is true. Abortion related legislation in Brazil is among the most severe in the world. Both the physician and the patient are equally punishable, but this did not stop Brazilian women from having 3.5 million abortions/year. Countries with less severe laws have a much lower abortion rate. There have been extreme physiological and social consequences in Brazil as a result of abortion's illegality. The woman is not only a criminal, she is also a sinner in the eyes of the Church. In most cases, especially in low-income areas, abortion can lead to complications and death. Although there are no statistical data on the number of deaths due to illegal abortion, they would no doubt be alarming. An unwanted, unterminated pregnancy can have disastrous effects upon the mother, the child, and their relationship. These negative effects have been well documented. Prohibition will keep abortion out of the mainstream of national debate and aggravate the situation. A person's sexuality cannot be suppressed and considered evil. In lower income levels, unwanted pregnancy should not be a punishment for being poor. The legalization movement will grow, as it has in developed nations. The members of the Brazilian Society for Scientific Progress must remain active in the debate, because they cannot ignore something of such national importance.

  11. The big crossing: illegal boat migrants in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Hassène; Dourgnon, Paul

    2014-08-01

    This article explores illegal migration routes and groups across North Africa to Europe. We describe sub-Saharan and cross-Mediterranean routes, and how they changed during the years. We propose an analytical framework for the main factors for these migrations, from local to international and regulatory context. We then describe sea-migrants' nationalities and socio-economic and demographic characteristics, from studies undertook in Tunisia and Morocco. While boat migration represents only a fraction of illegal migration to Europe, it raises humanitarian as well as ethical issues for European and North African (NA) countries, as a non-negligible amount of them end up in death tolls of shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, existing statistics show that illegal trans-Mediterranean migration is growing exponentially. Ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are likely to prompt even larger outflows of refugees in the near future. This should induce NA countries to share closer public policy concerns with European countries.

  12. [Estimating mortality attributed to illegal drug use in Spain].

    PubMed

    Brugal, M Teresa; Barrio, Gregorio; Royuela, Luis; Bravo, María J; de la Fuente, Luis; Regidor, Enrique

    2004-12-04

    The impact of illegal drug consumption on general mortality in Spain is unknown. We aimed to quantify this impact for the period 1994-2000. Number of directly drug-related deaths from HIV among injecting drug users as well as others -- both taken from the General Mortality Register (GMR). Next, corrections were made, multiplying the aforementioned figures by the percentage of injecting drug users in the AIDS register in the first case, and by the underestimation index in the second. This index was calculated comparing the GMR with the specific drug-related register in certain areas. In Spain, mortality from illegal drug use fell from 22.7 per 100,000 inhabitants, aged 15-49 years (16.4% of all deaths) in 1996 to 8.9/100,000 in 2000 (7.8% of all deaths), meaning a 58% decrease in general mortality. In 2000, drug-related deaths surpassed AIDS mortality in the group of men aged 15-49 years. Illegal drug use continues to be an important cause of death among young people in Spain. Overdose is the most likely primary cause of death in drug consumers.

  13. Stemming the tide? Assessing the deterrent effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act.

    PubMed

    Donato, K M; Durand, J; Massey, D S

    1992-05-01

    This study uses a new source of data to assess the degree to which the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) deterred undocumented migration from Mexico to the United States. Data were collected from migrants interviewed in seven Mexican communities during the winters of 1987 through 1989, as well as from out-migrants from those communities who subsequently located in the United States. We conduct time-series experiments that examine changes in migrants' behavior before and after passage of the IRCA in 1986. We estimate trends in the probability of taking a first illegal trip, the probability of repeat migration, the probability of apprehension by the Border Patrol, the probability of using a border smuggler, and the costs of illegal border crossing. In none of these analyses could we detect any evidence that IRCA has significantly deterred undocumented migration from Mexico.

  14. Implementing and expanding HIV testing in immigrant populations in Europe: Comparing guideline's recommendations and expert's opinions.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Del Arco, Débora; Monge, Susana; Rivero-Montesdeoca, Yaiza; Burns, Fiona; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Immigrant populations, especially those from endemic countries, living in the European Union (EU) suffer a disproportionate burden of HIV, delayed diagnosis and poorer access to antiretroviral treatment. While International Organisations are developing recommendations aimed at increasing the uptake of HIV testing, the feasibility and real outcomes of these measures remain unexplored. The aim of this review was, firstly to identify the recommendations of the main International Organisations (IO) on HIV testing in immigrants. Secondly, to describe the challenges for implementing and expanding HIV testing and counselling interventions targeting immigrants by interviewing key informants. The importance of HIV testing in immigrants is discussed, along with the appropriateness of universal HIV testing approaches vs most at risk targeted approaches. Also addressed is, pre- and post-HIV test counselling characteristics and community initiatives suitable to reach this population and, finally the legal issues regarding access to treatment for illegal immigrants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. Large-scale immigration and political response: popular reaction in California.

    PubMed

    Clark, W A

    1998-03-01

    Over the past 3 years, the level of political debate has grown over the nature and extent of the recent large-scale immigration to the US in general, and to California in particular. California's Proposition 187 to deny welfare benefits to illegal immigrants brought national attention to the immigration debate, and no doubt influenced recent decisions to significantly change the US's welfare program. The author studied the vote on Proposition 187 in the November 1994 California election to better understand the nature of reaction to large-scale immigration and recent arguments about anti-immigrant sentiment and nativism. The only counties which voted against the proposition were Sonoma, Marin, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, Yolo, Alameda, and Santa Clara, as well as the population of San Francisco. The vote generated political responses from across the border as well as within California. Statements from Mexican and other Central American governments reflected their concern over the possibility of returning populations, for whom there are neither jobs nor public services in their countries of origin. Findings are presented from a spatial analysis of the vote by census tracts in Los Angeles County.

  16. "For export only" medicines come back to Europe: a RP-LC method for the screening of six glucocorticoids in illegal and counterfeit anti-inflammatory and lightening creams.

    PubMed

    Gaudiano, M C; Lucente, D; Antoniella, E; Bertocchi, P; Muleri, N; Manna, L; Bartolomei, M; Alimonti, S; Valvo, L; Rodomonte, A L

    2010-10-10

    "For export only" anti-inflammatory and lightening creams are medicinal products sold in African countries for their skin whitening action. In the last years, Rapid Alerts from European Medicinal Regulatory Agencies evidenced the presence of a large number of illegal and counterfeit anti-inflammatory products advertised for their whitening action on black skin in the European market. These drugs, containing glucocorticoids, are illegally sold in Europe in unauthorized ethno-cosmetics-shops and mainly bought by immigrants. This paper reports a new RP-LC method for the rapid simultaneous screening of six different active ingredients in anti-inflammatory and whitening products (creams, ointment and suspension): betamethasone dipropionate, dexamethasone, fluocinonide, fluocinolone acetonide, clobetasol propionate, methyl-prednisolone acetate. The method was developed and validated in view of its possible application in quality control laboratories, mainly those appointed to the control of illegal/counterfeit medicinal products. The associated measurement uncertainty was calculated from validation data. The method was then applied to the analysis of whitening products obtained from the Italian illegal market.

  17. Lasting Reductions in Illegal Moves Following an Increase in Their Cost: Evidence from River-Crossing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Martin E.; Delaney, Peter F.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present 3 experiments demonstrating ways to reduce illegal moves in problem-solving tasks. They propose a 3-stage framework for the rejection of illegal moves. An illegal move must come to mind and be selected, checked for legality, and correctly rejected. Illegal move reduction can occur at any stage. Control group participants…

  18. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration...

  19. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration...

  20. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration...

  1. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration...

  2. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration...

  3. Analysis of illegal peptide biopharmaceuticals frequently encountered by controlling agencies.

    PubMed

    Vanhee, Celine; Janvier, Steven; Desmedt, Bart; Moens, Goedele; Deconinck, Eric; De Beer, Jacques O; Courselle, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in genomics, recombinant expression technologies and peptide synthesis have led to an increased development of protein and peptide therapeutics. Unfortunately this goes hand in hand with a growing market of counterfeit and illegal biopharmaceuticals, including substances that are still under pre-clinical and clinical development. These counterfeit and illegal protein and peptide substances could imply severe health threats as has been demonstrated by numerous case reports. The Belgian Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products (FAMHP) and customs are striving, together with their global counterparts, to curtail the trafficking and distributions of these substances. At their request, suspected protein and peptide preparations are analysed in our Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL). It stands to reason that a general screening method would be beneficiary in the battle against counterfeit and illegal peptide drugs. In this paper we present such general screening method employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the identification of counterfeit and illegal injectable peptide preparations, extended with a subsequent quantification method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). The screening method, taking only 30 min, is able to selectively detect 25 different peptides and incorporates the proposed minimum of five identification points (IP) as has been recommended for sports drug testing applications. The group of peptides represent substances which have already been detected in illegal and counterfeit products seized by different European countries as well as some biopharmaceutical peptides which have not been confiscated yet by the controlling agencies, but are already being used according to the many internet users forums. Additionally, we also show that when applying the same LC gradient, it is also possible to quantify these peptides without the need for

  4. The health of homeless immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Shirley; Redelmeier, Donald A.; Tolomiczenko, George; Kiss, Alex; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study examined the association between immigrant status and current health in a representative sample of 1,189 homeless people in Toronto, Canada. Methods Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between immigrant status and current health status (assessed using the SF-12) among homeless recent immigrants (≤10 years since immigration), non-recent immigrants (>10 years since immigration), and Canadian-born individuals recruited at shelters and meal programs (response rate 73%). Results After adjusting for demographic characteristics and lifetime duration of homelessness, recent immigrants were significantly less likely to have chronic conditions (RR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9), mental health problems (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7), alcohol problems (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5), and drug problems (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.4) compared to non-recent immigrants and Canadian-born individuals. Recent immigrants were also more likely to have better mental health status (+3.4 points, SE ±1.6) and physical health status (+2.2 points, SE ±1.3) on scales with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10 in the general population. Conclusion Homeless recent immigrants are a distinct group who are generally healthier and may have very different service needs compared to other homeless people. PMID:19654122

  5. Adding immigrants to microsimulation models.

    PubMed

    Duleep, Harriet Orcutt; Dowhan, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    Forecasts of the financial status of Social Security's Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) programs and forecasts of the effects of various OASDI policy options on Americans would be improved if information about the earnings and labor force behavior of various population subgroups were included in projection models. Focusing on the projection of immigrant earnings, this article proffers a conceptual basis for incorporating immigration into microsimulation models. Key results from research on immigrant earnings, as described in the first article in this trilogy--"Research on Immigrant Earnings"--are linked to methods for forecasting individual earnings in microsimulation models. The research on immigrant earnings also inspires new methods for forecasting earnings in microsimulation models as well as the projection of immigrant emigration. Forecasting immigrant earnings and emigration is discussed in the context of a "closed system"--that is, forecasts are only made for a given population, which is represented in the base sample of the microsimulation model. The third article in our trilogy--"Incorporating Immigrant Flows into Microsimulation Models"--explores how to project immigrant earnings in the context of an "open system," which includes future immigrants.

  6. A GIS-based zoning of illegal dumping potential for efficient surveillance.

    PubMed

    Tasaki, Tomohiro; Kawahata, Takatsune; Osako, Masahiro; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Takagishi, Susumu; Morita, Akihiro; Akishima, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    To assist in the efficient surveillance against illegal dumping, this study examined and evaluated two methods to illustrate the illegal dumping potential of sites using GIS (Geographic Information System) data. One approach focused on the occurrence of illegal dumping sites; the other on the size of the illegal dumping. Both approaches to zoning were implemented for the Kanto region of Japan, utilizing seven or eight major geographical attributes most closely related to illegal dumping. The zoning results revealed the areas requiring patrols against illegal dumping. Evaluation of the zoning results using the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve showed the number of illegal dumping sites detectable under certain surveillance conditions and that the size-based zoning was superior, but this superiority was insignificant for revealing sites with higher potential for large illegal dumping, for which it would be sufficient to use the occurrence-based zoning. The evaluation also showed the contribution of each geographical attribute. Finally, application of the ROC curve to the surveillance planning process was examined, which enables the total social cost of pollution by illegal dumping, rehabilitation of dumping sites, and illegal dumping surveillance to be minimized.

  7. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL METHOD OF ILLEGAL PARKING BICYCLES BASED ON THE QUANTITATIVE CHANGE AFTER REMOVAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toi, Satoshi; Kajita, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Shuichirou

    This study aims to find an effective removal method of illegal parking bicycles based on the analysis on the numerical change of illegal bicycles. And then, we built the time and space quantitative distribution model of illegal parking bicycles after removal, considering the logistic increase of illegal parking bicycles, several behaviors concerning of direct return or indirect return to the original parking place and avoidance of the original parking place, based on the investigation of real condition of illegal bicycle parking at TENJIN area in FUKUOKA city. Moreover, we built the simulation model including above-mentioned model, and calculated the number of illegal parking bicycles when we change the removal frequency and the number of removal at one time. The next interesting four results were obtained. (1) Recovery speed from removal the illegal parking bicycles differs by each zone. (2) Thorough removal is effective to keep the number of illegal parking bicycles lower level. (3) Removal at one zone causes the increase of bicycles at other zones where the level of illegal parking is lower. (4) The relationship between effects and costs of removing the illegal parking bicycles was clarified.

  8. Trends in Regional Patterns of Migration, Immigration, and Economic Activity: Implications for Army Recruiting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    16.2 Legal and Illegal Flows 1971-80 25.6 12.0 1981-90 38.2 23.1 Source: J. Abowd and R. Freeman, ’The Internationalization of the U.S. Labor Market...Residence and Period of Entry." Source: J. Abowd and R. Freeman, ’The Internationalization of the U.S. Labor Market,’ Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of...Census of Population and Housing Public Use Microdata A- sample. (From Abowd and Freeman, 1990.) 59 TABLE 30. FLOW OF IMMIGRANTS INTO SELECTED SMSAS

  9. The economic consequences of immigration.

    PubMed

    Borjas, G J; Tienda, M

    1987-02-06

    Available research supports several major conclusions about the economic consequences of immigration. (i) The aggregate impacts of foreign workers on the earnings and employment of native workers are quite small, but differ for selected population subgroups and high ethnic density labor markets. (ii) Immigrants who arrived during the 1970s are less skilled than earlier arrivals, and their earnings will remain substantially below those of natives throughout their working lives. (iii) The evidence on immigrants' receipt of public assistance income is inconclusive.

  10. Bridging the gap: healthcare reform and illegal aliens.

    PubMed

    Pallarito, K; Kertesz, L; Lutz, S; Greene, J

    1994-07-04

    As the cost grows for providing healthcare to the at least 3.8 million undocumented immigrants in this country, leaders in many states are calling for more aid from the federal government. But have legislators crafting reform forgotten this billion-dollar minority?

  11. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: America amends its immigration law.

    PubMed

    Papademetriou, D G

    1987-09-01

    This disucssion of the Immigration and Control act of 1986 covers legalization, employer sanctions, and foreign agricultural worker reforms. It also identifies other changes in immigration law. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 recognizes 4 types of aliens who are eligible to receive legalization benefits: those who have resided "continuously" in the US since January 1, 1982; those who have worked in US perishable crop agriculture for 90 "man-days" each year ending on May 1, 1984, May 1, 1985 and May 1, 1986 (special agricultural workers) or who have performed such labor for 90 man-days between only May 1, 1985 and May 1, 1986; those who have been in the US since before January 1, 1972; and those classified as "Cuban-Haitian entrants" and who have been in the US since January 1, 1982. Each legalization category has specific eligibility requirements, its own application procedures, and its own process for obtaining legal permanent resident status. The IRCA forbids employers from knowingly employing unauthorized aliens. For the 1st time in US immigration history, an employer would be punished for employing aliens without work authorization. An employer would be able to establish an "affirmative defense" in his or her behalf if the employer examined certain documents which appear to be genuine or the applicant was referred to him by a State employment agency which previously has verified the applicant's employment eligibility. If the employer is found to have violated the provisions, a cease and desist order will be issued with a civil penalty of between $250-2000 for each unauthorized alien for the 1st time the violation occurs, between $2000-5000 for each alien for the 2nd violation, and between $3000-10,000 for each alien for subsequent violations. The Act provides for criminal penalties for employers who engage in a "pattern or practice of violations." Employer sanctions will not be effective for 18 months following passage of the Act. The changes

  12. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants.

  13. Judgments about illegal performance-enhancing substances: reasoned, reactive, or both?

    PubMed

    Dodge, Tonya; Stock, Michelle; Litt, Dana

    2013-07-01

    This study applied aspects of the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Prototype/Willingness model to understand cognitions associated with the use of illegal performance-enhancing substances. There were two study objectives. One was to investigate whether the illegal-is-effective heuristic (i.e. belief that illegal performance-enhancing substances are more effective than legal performance-enhancing substances) affects willingness to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The second was to examine whether attitudes, norms, and prototypes influence the willingness and intentions to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The illegal-is-effective heuristic was a significant predictor of willingness but was not a significant predictor of intentions. Implications for future research and prevention efforts are discussed.

  14. Games of corruption: how to suppress illegal logging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joung-Hun; Sigmund, Karl; Dieckmann, Ulf; Iwasa, Yoh

    2015-02-21

    Corruption is one of the most serious obstacles for ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. In particular, more than half of the loss of forested area in many tropical countries is due to illegal logging, with corruption implicated in a lack of enforcement. Here we study an evolutionary game model to analyze the illegal harvesting of forest trees, coupled with the corruption of rule enforcers. We consider several types of harvesters, who may or may not be committed towards supporting an enforcer service, and who may cooperate (log legally) or defect (log illegally). We also consider two types of rule enforcers, honest and corrupt: while honest enforcers fulfill their function, corrupt enforcers accept bribes from defecting harvesters and refrain from fining them. We report three key findings. First, in the absence of strategy exploration, the harvester-enforcer dynamics are bistable: one continuum of equilibria consists of defecting harvesters and a low fraction of honest enforcers, while another consists of cooperating harvesters and a high fraction of honest enforcers. Both continua attract nearby strategy mixtures. Second, even a small rate of strategy exploration removes this bistability, rendering one of the outcomes globally stable. It is the relative rate of exploration among enforcers that then determines whether most harvesters cooperate or defect and most enforcers are honest or corrupt, respectively. This suggests that the education of enforcers, causing their more frequent trialing of honest conduct, can be a potent means of curbing corruption. Third, if information on corrupt enforcers is available, and players react opportunistically to it, the domain of attraction of cooperative outcomes widens considerably. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A case of electrocution during illegal fishing activities.

    PubMed

    Di Nunno, Nunzio; Vimercati, Luigi; Viola, Luigi; Vimercati, Francesco

    2003-06-01

    The passage of electric current through the human body causes variable harm, ranging from loss of consciousness to death caused by paralysis of the bulbar nerve centers. This report describes a fatal case caused by an illegal fishing practice involving stunning fish with electric shocks produced by an electric generator carried through the water inside the carcass of an old refrigerator to keep it afloat. This occurrence is unusual because of the circumstances giving rise to the use of electric current and the cause of death, which resulted from the combination of the electric current produced by the generator and the saltwater, bringing about death by drowning.

  16. The Adolescent Chinese Immigrant Student in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lilian Y. O.

    1977-01-01

    The young Chinese student is seldom psychologically or academically prepared for immigration to Canada. Difficulties confronting Chinese adolescent immigrants include cultural problems and language difficulties. (SW)

  17. Educational Progression of Second-Generation Immigrants and Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colding, Bjorg; Husted, Leif; Hummelgaard, Hans

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides important new insights into the reasons for the observed gap in educational attainment between children of immigrants and natives in Denmark using a dynamic discrete model of educational choices to determine at what stages of their educational careers children of immigrants face barriers to educational progression and how…

  18. "Reasonable suspicion" about tough immigration legislation: enforcing laws or ethnocentric exclusion?

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sahana; Molina, Ludwin E; Adams, Glenn

    2013-07-01

    We examined whether support for tough immigration legislation reflects identity-neutral enforcement of law or identity-relevant defense of privilege. Participants read a fabricated news story in which law-enforcement personnel detained a person due to "reasonable suspicion" that he was an undocumented immigrant. We manipulated descriptions of the detainee so that he was either (a) an undocumented immigrant (both studies), (b) a documented immigrant (Study 1), or (c) a U.S. citizen (Study 2) of either Mexican or Canadian origin. Participants in both studies endorsed tougher punishment of an undocumented detainee and rated tough treatment as more fair when the detainee was of Mexican than Canadian origin (regardless of documentation status). Across both studies, the patterns of ethnocentric exclusion-harsher treatment toward Mexican immigrants than Canadian immigrants-were particularly pronounced among participants who defined American identity in terms of assimilation to Anglocentric cultural values (e.g., being able to speak English). Overall, results suggest that people may support tough measures to restrict immigration to defend against symbolic threats-especially threats that cultural "others" pose to Anglocentric understandings of American identity.

  19. Cutaneous tuberculosis: a rare presentation in an immigrant.

    PubMed

    Gulisano, G; Mariani, L

    1998-09-01

    The increased incidence of tubercular diseases in industrialized countries appears to be due to several factors, including development of resistance to the most commonly used specific chemotherapeutic substances, unsuitable control programmes, HIV infection, the increased influx of immigrants, and homelessness. Different forms of cutaneous tuberculosis are caused by different species of mycobacteria (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. avium). Determining the species of mycobacteria is relevant when disease is suspected to be linked to the type of employment of the patient, mainly because the clinical features do not always indicate which species is the cause of the infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) usually infects through the lung, but in rare cases can penetrate the skin or mucous membranes. Skin transmission can be exogenous by inoculation, or endogenous by diffusion (lymphatic or hematic) or by contiguity. The immunologic status of the patient is a crucial factor which influences the clinical variants and the course of disease itself. Here we report a case of an illegal immigrant who presented with a bilateral, symmetrical ulcer on the neck.

  20. Illegal drug abuse and the community camp strategy in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, W

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1980s, China has experienced major changes in its traditional drug use patterns which included mostly tobacco and alcohol use. The introduction of opium, marijuana, heroin, and cocaine is the most noticeable change. In 1995, there were about 520,000 reported drug users in China and the rate of increase was about 200 percent. During the 1990 Strictly Against Illegal Drug Campaign (Yan Da), the Chinese government implemented a compulsory detoxification plan and a Community Drug Rehabilitation Camp strategy to deal with the diverse aspects of the illegal drug control. This article provides an initial evaluation of the community camp approach to drug detoxification and rehabilitation. Open-ended interviewing schedules were given to two samples from two government sponsored rehabilitation community camps in 1994. These interviews reveal that: 1) the social and cultural reorientation of drug addicts is facilitated by an intensive mass media propaganda; 2) there is a mobilization of the health care and social security systems to provide detoxification, rehabilitation, and employment to drug addicts in a relatively short period of time; 3) "recidivist" addicts and drug traffickers are condemned to a long-term incarceration in work camps; and 4) the camp strategy experiences some problems. Results show that in the two community camps, an average of twelve month's training yielded a rehabilitation rate of 80 percent.

  1. Prevalence of legal and illegal stimulating agents in sports.

    PubMed

    Deventer, K; Roels, K; Delbeke, F T; Van Eenoo, P

    2011-08-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of legal and illegal stimulants in relation to doping-control analysis. Stimulants are among the oldest classes of doping agents, having been used since ancient times. Despite the ease with which they can be detected and the availability of sensitive detection methods, stimulants are still popular among athletes. Indeed, they remain one of the top three most popular classes of prohibited substances. Because the list of legal and illegal stimulants is extensive only a selection is discussed in detail. The compounds selected are caffeine, ephedrines, amphetamine and related compounds, methylphenidate, cocaine, strychnine, modafinil, adrafinil, 4-methyl-2-hexaneamine, and sibutramine. These compounds are mainly prevalent in sport or are of therapeutic importance. Because stimulants are the oldest doping class the first detection methods were for this group. Several early detection techniques including GC-NPD, GC-ECD, and TLC are highlighted. The more novel detection techniques GC-MS and LC-MS are also discussed in detail. In particular, the last technique has been shown to enable successful detection of stimulants difficult to detect by GC-MS or for stimulants previously undetectable. Because stimulants are also regularly detected in nutritional (food) supplements a section on this topic is also included.

  2. Illegal use patterns, side effects, and analytical methods of ketamine.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunyoung; Kwon, Nam Ji; Feng, Ling-Yi; Li, Jih-Heng; Chung, Heesun

    2016-11-01

    In Asian countries, such as China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, ketamine (KT) is one of the most prevalent illicit use drugs. KT is regulated by various drug-related laws in many countries, such as Korea, Taiwan, China, U.S.A, Netherlands, UK, Australia, Mexico, and Canada. This review research explored pharmacology and side effects of KT, the illicit use patterns of KT, the analytical methods of KT in biological samples, and the concentrations of KT from abusers and non-abusers. Many side effects of KT have been reported mental and physical problems. Although many studies conducted various analytical methods for KT, this research focused on the urine and hair analysis and compared some parameters of samples, instruments, columns, extraction methods, internal standards, LOD/LOQ levels, metabolites, NK/K ratio, cut off values, and m/z values. Our research also compared the concentrations of KT in biological samples from abusers and non-abusers. Many rapid and precise analytical methods for illegal KT use are needed to be developed and applied to real samples. To minimize and prevent harm from KT, the authorities and appropriate agencies require a careful assessment, evaluation, early identification, and surveillance of KT users in both clinical and social settings. In addition, there is a need to construct a stricter legislative management and provide preventive education to younger individuals because illegal KT use is relatively common among the young populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Current situation with abortion in Colombia: between illegality and reality].

    PubMed

    González Vélez, Ana Cristina

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the illegality of abortion in Colombia, situating this country within the 0.4% of the world population where abortion is completely banned. Absolute criminalization of abortion turns it into a public health matter and produces social inequality. The Colombian legislation has always disregarded women as individuals and as persons in full possession of their legal rights. In contrast to a comprehensive conceptualization of sexual and reproductive rights, the various abortion bills merely refer either to "morally unacceptable" situations such as pregnancy resulting from rape or to therapeutic motives. Contradictions between illegality and reality give rise to a public discourse that features rejection of abortion practices, in keeping with the prevailing stance of the ecclesiastic hierarchy, while in practice, and at the private level, people resort to voluntary interruption of pregnancy under conditions of safety and confidentiality, at least for women from the higher socioeconomic strata. This situation not only causes social inequality but also reflects how laws lose meaning and create the collective impression of being useless or unnecessary, thus undermining the state's governing role.

  4. Illegal pedestrian crossing at signalised intersections: incidence and relative risk.

    PubMed

    King, Mark J; Soole, David; Ghafourian, Ameneh

    2009-05-01

    Illegal pedestrian behaviour is common and is reported as a factor in many pedestrian crashes. Since walking is being promoted for its health and environmental benefits, minimisation of its associated risks is of interest. The risk associated with illegal road crossing is unclear, and better information would assist in setting a rationale for enforcement and priorities for public education. An observation survey of pedestrian behaviour was conducted at signalised intersections in the Brisbane CBD (Queensland, Australia) on typical workdays, using behavioural categories that were identifiable in police crash reports. The survey confirmed high levels of crossing against the lights, or close enough to the lights that they should legally have been used. Measures of exposure for crossing legally, against the lights, and close to the lights were generated by weighting the observation data. Relative risk ratios were calculated for these categories using crash data from the observation sites and adjacent midblocks. Crossing against the lights and crossing close to the lights both exhibited a crash risk per crossing event approximately eight times that of legal crossing at signalised intersections. The implications of these results for enforcement and education are discussed, along with the limitations of the study.

  5. Sexually transmissible infections among illegal female sex workers in Israel.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, Julie G; Lazer, Tal; Press, Fernanda; Lazer, Simcha

    2006-12-01

    Due to the mobile and clandestine nature of those who enter a country illegally, female sex workers (FSWs) who are working without papers or work permits often have no access to sexual health care. This study reports on the sexually transmissible infection (STI) prevalence among a sample of 43 sex workers working illegally. Brothel workers from republics of the Former Soviet Union (FSU), working in two locales in Israel were tested for the presence of eight pathogens and the presence of pathology by Pap smear. Of these brothel workers, 48.8% had at least one positive STI result, 14% had two STIs and one woman had three STIs. There were no cases of HIV, gonorrhoea or malignancy detected; high rates of ureaplasma (26.8%) and chlamydia were found (16.7%). Four cases of hepatitis C (9%) and three cases of hepatitis B (7%) and mycoplasma (7%) were detected. There was no relationship between reported symptoms and the detection of STIs. The level of STIs is high among this population of FSWs and it is imperative to develop more accessible health services for these women.

  6. Assisting Foreign Trained Immigrant Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadkhoda, Anahita

    Too often career counselors hear of, or work with, unemployed or underemployed foreign trained immigrant professionals. With the globalization of economy and shortages in skilled labor in Canada, the number of immigrant professionals is on the rise. It is becoming clear that services and programs are necessary to assist such individuals to ensure…

  7. Health Selection Among New Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Akresh, Ilana Redstone

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to quantify the extent of health selection (i.e., the degree to which potential immigrants migrate, or fail to migrate, on the basis of their health status) among contemporary US immigrant groups and evaluate the degree that selection explains variation in self-rated health among US legal permanent residents. Methods. Data came from the New Immigrant Survey 2003 cohort. We estimated the extent of positive and negative health selection through a unique series of questions asking immigrants in the United States to evaluate their health and compare it to that of citizens in their country of origin. Results. The extent of positive health selection differed significantly across immigrant groups and was related to compositional differences in the socioeconomic profiles of immigrant streams. Conclusions. The salience of socioeconomic status and English-language ability in explaining health differentials across immigrant groups reinforces the importance of further research on the role of these factors in contributing to the health of immigrants above and beyond the need for additional attention to the health selection process. PMID:18309141

  8. Towards an Environmentalist Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alternatives, 1975

    1975-01-01

    This article presents Zero Population Growth - Canada's recommendations on immigration policy. It suggests that immigration be used to stabilize population by establishing a ceiling and specifying a selection procedure. Also Canada should not base its economy on imported skilled and nonskilled labor and employers should not hire illegal…

  9. Immigration Law & the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin)…

  10. Engaging Immigrant Students. Classroom Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lynn; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras

    2011-01-01

    For an educator who speaks only English, engaging immigrant English language learners (ELL) in the classroom can be a significant challenge. As a former classroom teacher, elementary school principal and guidance counselor, the authors have worked with immigrant student populations in K-12 schools. They have found that a good way to overcome the…

  11. Engaging Immigrant Students. Classroom Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lynn; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras

    2011-01-01

    For an educator who speaks only English, engaging immigrant English language learners (ELL) in the classroom can be a significant challenge. As a former classroom teacher, elementary school principal and guidance counselor, the authors have worked with immigrant student populations in K-12 schools. They have found that a good way to overcome the…

  12. Immigrant Education: A Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This report provides information on immigrant education in the United States in the areas of funding, participation, population, services, and allocation method. Additionally, it explores reauthorization issues confronting the Emergency Immigrant Education Act for fiscal year 1994. The report shows that: (1) there has been a steady decrease in…

  13. Immigrant Identity in Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Candice C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I report research on representations of immigrant identities in one university where teacher candidates matriculated in undergraduate and graduate degree programs. The case study occurred in a community where immigrants were highly visible. A content analysis of curriculum for teacher preparation provided a view of factors that…

  14. Immigration, ethnicity, and the pandemic.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Alan M

    2010-04-01

    The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 coincided with a major wave of immigration to the United States. More than 23.5 million newcomers arrived between 1880 and the 1920s, mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia, Canada, and Mexico. During earlier epidemics, the foreign-born were often stigmatized as disease carriers whose very presence endangered their hosts. Because this influenza struck individuals of all groups and classes throughout the country, no single immigrant group was blamed, although there were many local cases of medicalized prejudice. The foreign-born needed information and assistance in coping with influenza. Among the two largest immigrant groups, Southern Italians and Eastern European Jews, immigrant physicians, community spokespeople, newspapers, and religious and fraternal groups shouldered the burden. They disseminated public health information to their respective communities in culturally sensitive manners and in the languages the newcomers understood, offering crucial services to immigrants and American public health officials.

  15. Brazilian immigration to North America.

    PubMed

    Goza, F

    1994-01-01

    "This article is a comparative study of Brazilian immigration to Canada and the United States. Analysis of recently collected data in Toronto, Ontario and in a medium-size U.S. community facilitated the examination of the adaptation and adjustment experiences of a new group of immigrants to North America. This article begins with a discussion of the origins of this recent immigrant group and its rapid expansion. Next, it focuses on the labor force activities of Brazilian immigrants and compares and contrasts their experiences in the United States and Canada. A final section examines social adaptation in North America by exploring linguistic and cultural dimensions. This article closes with a section on the future aspirations of these immigrants."

  16. Detection of illegal border crossing, a pattern recognition approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, J.E.; Frerking, C.J.; Myers, D.W.

    1993-09-29

    This report describes a new algorithm developed for the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) in support of the INSENS project for classifying vehicles and pedestrians using seismic data. This algorithm is less sensitive to nuisance alarms due to environmental events than the previous algorithm. Furthermore, the algorithm is simple enough that it scan be; implemented in the 8-bit microprocessor used in the INSENS system.

  17. Undocumented immigration status and diabetes care among Mexican immigrants in two immigration "sanctuary" areas.

    PubMed

    Iten, A Elizabeth; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Lahiff, Maureen; Fernández, Alicia

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between immigration status and the patient experience of health care, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes among Mexican immigrants with diabetes receiving health care in two immigration sanctuary cities. We used data from the Immigration, Culture and Health Care study, a cross-sectional survey and medical record study of low-income patients with diabetes recruited from public hospitals and community clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area and Chicago. Undocumented Mexican, documented Mexican immigrants, and US-born Mexican-Americans' health care experiences, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes were compared using multivariate linear and logistic regressions. We found no significant differences in reports of physician communication, or in measures of diabetes management between undocumented and documented immigrants. All three groups had similar clinical outcomes in glycemic, systolic blood pressure, and lipid control. These results indicate that, at least in some settings, undocumented Mexican immigrants with diabetes can achieve similar clinical outcomes and report similar health care experiences as documented immigrants and US-born Mexican-Americans.

  18. The immigrant paradox on internalizing symptoms among immigrant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Anica G

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the immigrant paradox on health outcomes among UK's immigrant adolescents will greatly complement the research on immigrants that has already been established there by economists and interdisciplinary fields. This study used the first Longitudinal Study of Young People in England 2004-2010 database (N = 15,770) to determine a) whether there was evidence of the immigrant paradox on internalizing mental health symptoms between first generation (n = 753) and second plus generation (n = 3042) 14/15 year old immigrant adolescents in England and b) whether differences (if any) were moderated by ethnicity group membership (Black African, Black Caribbean, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Asian Other, White Immigrant). Findings demonstrate that overall first generation adolescent immigrants had statistically fewer internalizing symptoms as compared to second plus generation, and that this was especially true for Black African adolescents. Effect sizes measures however indicated that these differences were negligible. Implications for protective factors and future studies are briefly discussed.

  19. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeConcini, Christina; Piller, Jeanine S.; Fisher, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Outlines historical legislation affecting immigration to the United States, explains current laws and how they affect immigration, summarizes the process for obtaining citizenship, describes the experience of immigrants with the legal system, introduces the work of pro bono (free) legal services for immigrants, and presents related teaching…

  20. Counseling Immigrant Students in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Karen D.; Davis, Terah

    2014-01-01

    According to the 2010 United States Census, one out of every five children live in an immigrant family with either one or both parents being immigrants. This paper will explore the unique needs of children of immigrants who come to school as immigrant students. A discussion of the use of Reality Therapy as a counseling approach with this…

  1. Immigrant Children's Swedish--A New Variety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt

    1988-01-01

    Posits two hypotheses arising from the great immigration to Sweden and the immigrants' use and learning of Swedish: (1) Swedish as used by immigrant children may show certain features, related to a creolization process; and (2) the Swedish language may in future show signs of influence from the varieties used by persons with immigrant background.…

  2. Zapotec Immigration: The San Lucas Quiavini Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Felipe H.; Munro, Pamela

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 20 Zapotec immigrants from Oaxaca (Mexico) to Los Angeles examined their immigration experiences and adjustment to life in the United States. Discussion covers immigration from Oaxaca; living conditions, illiteracy, education, and language usage in the village of San Lucas Quiavini; immigration patterns; ethnicity and Oaxacan…

  3. Zapotec Immigration: The San Lucas Quiavini Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Felipe H.; Munro, Pamela

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 20 Zapotec immigrants from Oaxaca (Mexico) to Los Angeles examined their immigration experiences and adjustment to life in the United States. Discussion covers immigration from Oaxaca; living conditions, illiteracy, education, and language usage in the village of San Lucas Quiavini; immigration patterns; ethnicity and Oaxacan…

  4. A Guide to Immigration Facts and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Immigration Forum, Washington, DC.

    This packet contains fact sheets and issue briefs on immigration and immigrants. Fact sheets, most of which are presented in 1994 and 1997 versions, contain brief summaries of information on immigration law and regulations, the status of immigrants, their countries of origin, and where they settle. These fact sheets make it clear that most…

  5. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  6. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  7. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  8. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  9. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  10. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  11. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  12. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  13. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  14. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  15. Teacher Education and Immigrant Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faltis, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1980s, well more than half of all immigrants and children of recent immigrants are of people of color. Many recent immigrants of color communicate in their daily lives via a language (or via languages) other than English, and many immigrant children of color are emerging bilinguals, who acquire hybrid varieties of English. While almost…

  16. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  17. 10 CFR 707.10 - Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. 707.10 Section 707.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary...

  18. 10 CFR 707.14 - Action pursuant to a determination of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Action pursuant to a determination of illegal drug use. 707.14 Section 707.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.14 Action pursuant to a determination of illegal drug use. (a) When an applicant...

  19. 10 CFR 707.14 - Action pursuant to a determination of illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Action pursuant to a determination of illegal drug use. 707.14 Section 707.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.14 Action pursuant to a determination of illegal drug use. (a) When an applicant...

  20. 10 CFR 707.13 - Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. 707.13 Section 707.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.13 Medical review of results of tests for illegal drug use. (a) All test results shall...