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Sample records for illicit drug users

  1. Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Users: Analysis of Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Wills, Judy

    1983-01-01

    Summarized a 16-hour marathon group for illicit drug users (N=12) in residential treatment. Content analysis showed the group spent more time on interpersonal relationships and relatively little time on group process. Drug users were able to successfully participate in therapeutic group discussions involving self-investment. (JAC)

  2. Perspectives on Health among Adult Users of Illicit Stimulant Drugs in Rural Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Harvey A.; Draus, Paul J.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan

    2006-01-01

    Context: Although the nonmedical use of stimulant drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine is increasingly common in many rural areas of the United States, little is known about the health beliefs of people who use these drugs. Purpose: This research describes illicit stimulant drug users' views on health and health-related concepts that may…

  3. [Illicit drug use and the critical perspectives of drug users' relatives and acquaintances in Northern Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the partial results of a multicenter, cross-temporal study, which was performed using multiple methods, and involved seven Latin-American countries and Canada. The results presented refer to the city center of Rio de Janeiro (n=108). The central question of the study was: 'How do illicit drug users' relatives and acquaintances describe protective and risk factors, prevention initiatives, treatment services, laws and policies regarding illicit drugs?' The quantitative data was collected using an instrument containing closed questions. In total, 108 young adults (18 years of age or older) were interviewed, who stated being affected by the drug although they were not users. For 104 interviewees (96%), negligence is the family dynamics that causes the greatest exposure to drugs, and 106 (98%) consider that parent support is what offers the greatest protection. Policies, the police and the criminal system have neither reduced drug use nor do they protect users.

  4. Spirometry findings among drug users in the Indonesian National Narcotics and illicit drug Bureau Rehabilitation Center

    PubMed Central

    Samoedro, Erlang; Yunus, Faisal; Antariksa, Budhi; Nurwidya, Fariz

    2017-01-01

    Background: The increasing prevalence of drug user in Indonesia is affecting the health sectors. The lungs health were affected by the use of the illicit drug. However, lung function among drug users is still unclear. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study involves 144 drug users who met the inclusion criteria. Chest X-ray was performed to identify the subject with pulmonary tuberculosis to exclude from the study. Subjects were then undergone spirometry test and interviewed using questionnaires. Results: One hundred and forty-four subjects were included in this study. One hundred and twenty-one (84.03%) were male and 128 subjects showed normal lung function. Proportion of abnormal spirometry was 10.4% (n = 15). The restriction was found in ten subjects, and obstruction was found in four subjects. There was significant correlation between the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and age (P = 0.000; r = −0.454, moderate correlation), time of using cannabis (P = 0.01; r = −0.345, weak correlation), time of using methamphetamine inhalation (P = 0.004; r = −0.25, weak correlation), duration of using heroin injection (P = 0.025; r = −0.337, weak correlation), time of using cigarette (P = 0.000; r = −0.365, weak correlation), and the amount of cigarette consumption/day (P = 0.04; r = −0.238, weak correlation). Conclusion: This study found that there was a weak correlation between declined FEV1/FVC with a time of smoking, the amount of cigarette consume per day, time of cannabis inhalation, time of methamphetamine inhalation, and time of heroin injection. PMID:28250678

  5. Transactional Sex among Noninjecting Illicit Drug Users: Implications for HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Rodovalho, Aurélio Goulart; Fernandes, Inaina Lara; Silva, Graciele Cristina; de Felipe, Rodrigo Lopes; Vera, Ivânia; Gregório, Valéria Duarte; Lucchese, Roselma

    2016-01-01

    Noninjecting illicit drug users (NIDUs) present high risk for HIV infection, due especially to transactional sex. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for transactional sex among NIDUs in the Southwest region of Goiás State, Central Brazil. The prevalence of self-reported transactional sex was 22.8%. Prevalence in women and men was 52.7% and 16.8%, respectively, a significant difference (p < 0.001). Crack use and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI) were risk factors for transactional sex in men. Homelessness, crack use, sex under the influence of drugs, and history of sexual violence were risk factors for transactional sex in women. A high prevalence of transactional sex was observed among NIDUs. This risk behavior may contribute to the high rates of HIV among this population and their social networks and in the general population. PMID:27648467

  6. Factors Associated with Willingness To Participate in a Pharmacologic Addiction Treatment Clinical Trial Among Illicit Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Uhlmann, Sasha; Milloy, MJ; Ahamad, Keith; Nguyen, Paul; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Richardson, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although new medications are needed to address the harms of drug addiction, rates of willingness to participate in addictions treatment trials among people who use drugs (PWUD) have not been well characterized. Methods One thousand twenty PWUD enrolled in two community-recruited cohorts in Vancouver, Canada, were asked whether they would be willing to participate in an addiction treatment trial. Logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with a willingness to participate. Results Among the 1,020 illicit drug users surveyed between June 1, 2013 and November 30, 2013, 58.3% indicated a willingness to participate. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with a willingness to participate in an addiction treatment trial, included: daily heroin injection (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 1.75 [95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.13 – 2.72]); daily crack smoking (AOR = 1.81 [95% CI: 1.23 – 2.66]); sex work involvement (AOR = 2.22 [95% CI: 1.21 – 4.06]); HIV seropositivity (AOR = 1.49 [95% CI: 1.15 – 1.94]); and methadone maintenance therapy participation (AOR = 1.77 [95% CI: 1.37 – 2.30]). Discussion and Conclusions High rates of willingness to participate in an addiction treatment trial were observed in this setting. Importantly, high-risk drug and sexual activities were positively associated with a willingness to participate, which may suggest a desire for new treatment interventions among illicit drug users engaged in high-risk behaviour. Scientific Significance These results highlight the viability of studies seeking to enroll representative samples of illicit drug users engaged in high-risk drug use. PMID:25808644

  7. Rationale to evaluate medically supervised safer smoking facilities for non-injection illicit drug users.

    PubMed

    Collins, Courtney L C; Kerr, Thomas; Tyndall, Mark W; Marsh, David C; Kretz, Patricia S; Montaner, Julio S; Wood, Evan

    2005-01-01

    Many cities are experiencing ongoing infectious disease epidemics and substantial community harm as a result of illicit drug use. In an effort to reduce these public order and public health concerns, consideration has been given to the opening in Vancouver of a safer smoking facility (SSF). The present review was conducted to examine if there is a rationale to support the evaluation of a SSF in the Canadian context. Available evidence suggests that conventional drug control strategies are insufficient to address the health and community harms of non-injection drug use, and that the public order benefits of supervised injection facilities may be relevant to SSFs. In addition, there is persuasive evidence to suggest there is potential for blood-borne disease transmission through the sharing of smoking paraphernalia, and the potential for SSFs to address this concern is a pressing public health question. Also relevant to this topic are interventions to prevent transition into injection drug use, and SSFs may also be evaluated as a potential strategy to address this concern.

  8. Interpersonal Relationship Styles in Marathon Group Therapy: A Study with Illicit Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Bridges, Ned

    1983-01-01

    Assessed how illegal drug users (N=12) related to one another during a 16-hour unstructured group marathon. Interaction analysis supported the effectiveness of the marathon group. Members and facilitators were able to relate to each other by confronting significant behaviors and receiving feedback about ways to cope with personal problems. (JAC)

  9. Physical Health, Illicit Drug Use, and Demographic Characteristics in Rural Stimulant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Thomas F.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: There is growing concern about illicit rural stimulant use, especially regarding methamphetamine use and its health consequences. Purpose: The present study describes associations between aspects of stimulant use and illness experience in rural areas, with additional focus on the role of demographic characteristics in these associations.…

  10. Relationship between hunger, adherence to antiretroviral therapy and plasma HIV RNA suppression among HIV-positive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting.

    PubMed

    Anema, Aranka; Kerr, Thomas; Milloy, M-J; Feng, Cindy; Montaner, Julio S G; Wood, Evan

    2014-04-01

    Food insecurity may be a barrier to achieving optimal HIV treatment-related outcomes among illicit drug users. This study therefore, aimed to assess the impact of severe food insecurity, or hunger, on plasma HIV RNA suppression among illicit drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). A cross-sectional Multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the potential relationship between hunger and plasma HIV RNA suppression. A sample of n = 406 adults was derived from a community-recruited open prospective cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users, in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. A total of 235 (63.7%) reported "being hungry and unable to afford enough food," and 241 (59.4%) had plasma HIV RNA < 50 copies/ml. In unadjusted analyses, self-reported hunger was associated with lower odds of plasma HIV RNA suppression (Odds Ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.90, p = 0.015). In multivariate analyses, this association was no longer significant after controlling for socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics, including 95% adherence (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.37-1.10, p = 0.105). Multivariate models stratified by 95% adherence found that the direction and magnitude of this association was not significantly altered by the adherence level. Hunger was common among illicit drug users in this setting. Although, there was an association between hunger and lower likelihood of plasma HIV RNA suppression, this did not persist in adjusted analyses. Further research is warranted to understand the social-structural, policy, and physical factors shaping the HIV outcomes of illicit drug users.

  11. Attempted Suicide, Self-Harm, and Violent Victimization among Regular Illicit Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darke, Shane; McCrim, Michelle Torok; Kaye, Sharlene; Ross, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Relationships among attempted suicide, nonsuicidal self-harm, and physical assault were examined in 400 regular users of heroin and/or psychostimulants. Twenty-eight percent had episodes of nonsuicidal self-harm, 32% had attempted suicide, and 95% had been violently assaulted. The number of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm incidents were…

  12. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for Fiscal Year 2013 Presidential Documents Other... on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for Fiscal Year 2013... transit and/or major illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia,...

  13. Drug abuse and illicit drug use in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed Central

    Canino, G; Anthony, J C; Freeman, D H; Shrout, P; Rubio-Stipec, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Based on an epidemiologic field survey of community households in Puerto Rico, this study estimates the frequency of illicit drug use and clinically defined drug abuse and/or dependence syndromes. Results are compared with those from surveys on the United States mainland. Suspected risk factors are studied as well, with a special focus on childhood misbehavior. METHODS. Trained lay interviewers administered a Spanish Diagnostic Interview Schedule to 912 respondents aged 17 to 68 years who were selected by multistage probability sampling of island households. RESULTS. An estimated 8.2% of the population had a history of illicit drug use and 1.2% qualified for a standardized lifetime diagnosis of drug abuse, dependence, or both. An estimated 18.4% of the male drug users and 7.7% of the female drug users met criteria for drug abuse and/or dependence. A history of drug use was related to the diagnoses of alcohol abuse and/or dependence and antisocial personality, but few persons who had used illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime reported a history of receiving treatment for alcohol, drug, or mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS. The data were consistent with a suspected association between level of childhood misbehavior and occurrence of illicit drug use, even after statistical control for potentially confounding variables. PMID:8427322

  14. Opana ER abuse and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)-like illness: a rising risk factor in illicit drug users.

    PubMed

    Kapila, Aaysha; Chhabra, Lovely; Chaubey, Vinod K; Summers, Jeffery

    2014-03-03

    We report the case of a 22 year-old-woman who presented with upper extremity cellulitis secondary to an infiltration of illicit intravenous drug use. She confessed to the intravenous use of Opana ER (an extended release oral formulation of oxymorphone) which is an opioid drug approved only for oral use. She was found to have clinical evidence of profound thrombotic microangiopathy which resulted due to the intravenous use of Opana ER. She showed full clinical improvement after withholding drug and supportive clinical care. Recent report of Opana ER intravenous abuse was published from Tennessee county and has now been increasingly recognised as one of the causes of thrombocytopenia which mimicks clinically as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Physicians should be aware of this association as the lack of familiarity to this can pose serious management dilemmas for our patients (especially the polysubstance abusers).

  15. Self reported health status, and health service contact, of illicit drug users aged 50 and over: a qualitative interview study in Merseyside, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Beynon, Caryl M; Roe, Brenda; Duffy, Paul; Pickering, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    Background The populations of industrialised countries are ageing; as this occurs, those who continue to use alcohol and illicit drugs age also. While alcohol use among older people is well documented, use of illicit drugs continues to be perceived as behaviour of young people and is a neglected area of research. This is the first published qualitative research on the experiences of older drug users in the United Kingdom. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Merseyside, in 2008, with drug users aged 50 and over recruited through drug treatment services. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and analysed thematically. Only health status and health service contact are reported here. Results Nine men and one woman were interviewed (age range: 54 to 61 years); all but one had been using drugs continuously or intermittently for at least 30 years. Interviewees exhibited high levels of physical and mental morbidity; hepatitis C was particularly prevalent. Injecting-related damage to arm veins resulted in interviewees switching to riskier injecting practices. Poor mental health was evident and interviewees described their lives as depressing. The death of drug-using friends was a common theme and social isolation was apparent. Interviewees also described a deterioration of memory. Generic healthcare was not always perceived as optimal, while issues relating to drug specific services were similar to those arising among younger cohorts of drug users, for example, complaints about inadequate doses of prescribed medication. Conclusion The concurrent effects of drug use and ageing are not well understood but are thought to exacerbate, or accelerate the onset of, medical conditions which are more prevalent in older age. Here, interviewees had poor physical and mental health but low expectations of health services. Older drug users who are not in contact with services are likely to have greater unmet needs. The number of drug users aged 50 and over is

  16. Illicit Drug Use and Problem Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Wayne Skinner, W. J.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2013-01-01

    Problem gambling, substance use disorders, and their cooccurrence are serious public health concerns. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to understand the present state of the evidence on these coaddictions. Our main focus was illicit drug use rather than misuse of legal substances. The review covers issues related to gambling as a hidden problem in the illicit drug use community; prevalence, problem gambling, and substance use disorders as kindred afflictions; problem gambling as an addiction similar to illicit drug use; risk factors and problems associated with comorbidity, and gender issues. We end with some suggestions for future research. PMID:25938114

  17. Does Respondent Driven Sampling Alter the Social Network Composition and Health-Seeking Behaviors of Illicit Drug Users Followed Prospectively?

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Abby E.; Latkin, Carl; Crawford, Natalie D.; Jones, Kandice C.; Fuller, Crystal M.

    2011-01-01

    Respondent driven sampling (RDS) was originally developed to sample and provide peer education to injection drug users at risk for HIV. Based on the premise that drug users' social networks were maintained through sharing rituals, this peer-driven approach to disseminate educational information and reduce risk behaviors capitalizes and expands upon the norms that sustain these relationships. Compared with traditional outreach interventions, peer-driven interventions produce greater reductions in HIV risk behaviors and adoption of safer behaviors over time, however, control and intervention groups are not similarly recruited. As peer-recruitment may alter risk networks and individual risk behaviors over time, such comparison studies are unable to isolate the effect of a peer-delivered intervention. This analysis examines whether RDS recruitment (without an intervention) is associated with changes in health-seeking behaviors and network composition over 6 months. New York City drug users (N = 618) were recruited using targeted street outreach (TSO) and RDS (2006–2009). 329 non-injectors (RDS = 237; TSO = 92) completed baseline and 6-month surveys ascertaining demographic, drug use, and network characteristics. Chi-square and t-tests compared RDS- and TSO-recruited participants on changes in HIV testing and drug treatment utilization and in the proportion of drug using, sex, incarcerated and social support networks over the follow-up period. The sample was 66% male, 24% Hispanic, 69% black, 62% homeless, and the median age was 35. At baseline, the median network size was 3, 86% used crack, 70% used cocaine, 40% used heroin, and in the past 6 months 72% were tested for HIV and 46% were enrolled in drug treatment. There were no significant differences by recruitment strategy with respect to changes in health-seeking behaviors or network composition over 6 months. These findings suggest no association between RDS recruitment and changes in network

  18. Modeling Illicit Drug Use Dynamics and Its Optimal Control Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of death and disability attributable to illicit drug use, remains a significant threat to public health for both developed and developing nations. This paper presents a new mathematical modeling framework to investigate the effects of illicit drug use in the community. In our model the transmission process is captured as a social “contact” process between the susceptible individuals and illicit drug users. We conduct both epidemic and endemic analysis, with a focus on the threshold dynamics characterized by the basic reproduction number. Using our model, we present illustrative numerical results with a case study in Cape Town, Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Durban communities of South Africa. In addition, the basic model is extended to incorporate time dependent intervention strategies. PMID:26819625

  19. Recovery and identification of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kaymann T; Richardson, Michelle M; Kirkbride, K Paul; McNevin, Dennis; Nelson, Michelle; Pianca, Dennis; Roffey, Paul; Gahan, Michelle E

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial infections, including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), are a common risk associated with illicit drug use, particularly among injecting drug users. There is, therefore, an urgent need to survey illicit drugs used for injection for the presence of bacteria and provide valuable information to health and forensic authorities. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for the extraction of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs and conduct a metagenomic survey of heroin and methamphetamine seized in the Australian Capital Territory during 2002-2011 for the presence of pathogens. Trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug users were also investigated. Methods based on the ChargeSwitch(®)gDNA mini kit (Invitrogen), QIAamp DNA extraction mini kit (QIAGEN) with and without bead-beating, and an organic phenol/chloroform extraction with ethanol precipitation were assessed for the recovery efficiency of both free and cellular bacterial DNA. Bacteria were identified using polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). An isopropanol pre-wash to remove traces of the drug and diluents, followed by a modified ChargeSwitch(®) method, was found to efficiently lyse cells and extract free and cellular DNA from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in heroin and methamphetamine which could then be identified by PCR/ESI-MS. Analysis of 12 heroin samples revealed the presence of DNA from species of Comamonas, Weissella, Bacillus, Streptococcus and Arthrobacter. No organisms were detected in the nine methamphetamine samples analysed. This study develops a method to extract and identify Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from illicit drugs and demonstrates the presence of a range of bacterial pathogens in seized drug samples. These results will prove valuable for future work investigating trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug

  20. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in the blood of impaired drivers, users of illicit drugs, and medical examiner cases.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Wayne; Holmgren, Anita; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) was determined in blood samples from impaired drivers, people arrested for petty drug offenses (non-traffic cases), and GHB-related deaths. The method of analysis involved conversion of GHB into gamma-butyrolactone and determination of the latter by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, and with gamma-valerolactone as the internal standard. The mean and median concentrations of GHB in blood from impaired drivers (N=473) were 90 and 84 mg/L, respectively, and offenders were predominantly men (96%) with an average age of 26 year (range 15-50 year). In 185 cases, GHB was the only drug present in blood at mean and median concentrations of 92 and 86 mg/L, respectively. People arrested for petty drug offenses (N=1061) had slightly higher GHB concentrations in their blood: median 118 mg/L for men and 111 mg/L for women. In GHB-related deaths (N=33), the mean and median concentrations were considerably higher: 307 mg/L and 190 mg/L, respectively, and the highest was 2200 mg/L. The typical signs of drug influence noted by the arresting police officers included sedation, agitation, slurred speech, irrational behaviour, jerky movements, and spitting. The short elimination half-life of GHB means that the concentrations in blood decrease rapidly and are probably a lot lower than at the time of driving, which was 30-90 min earlier.

  1. Subcultural evolution and illicit drug use*

    PubMed Central

    GOLUB, ANDREW; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; DUNLAP, ELOISE

    2011-01-01

    This article articulates a subcultural basis to the evolving popularity for different illicit drugs primarily based on empirical research in the United States, especially among inner-city populations. From this perspective, drug use emerges from a dialectic between drug subcultures with individual identity development. The prevailing culture and subcultures affect drugs’ popularity by imparting significance to their use. Innovations, historical events, and individual choices can cause subcultures to emerge and change over time. This subcultural view provides insight into the widespread use of licit drug, the dynamics of drug eras (or epidemics), the formation of drug generations, and the apparent “gateway” phenomenon. PMID:23805068

  2. Smoking and Illicit Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Mark S., Ed.

    The biological mechanisms of nicotine dependence are described, the prevalence of tobacco dependency among those using other mood-altering drugs is examined, and the most efficacious way to address this dependency is discussed. New data on the relationship of smoking addiction to other addictions are examined. Topics include: (1) "Tobacco…

  3. 77 FR 58915 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Burma, Colombia, Costa Rica... relative importance as a transit zone for illegal substances destined for U.S. markets. Without factoring... to combat the production, distribution, and consumption of various illegal drugs. As part of its...

  4. Co-occurrence of alcohol, smokeless tobacco, cigarette, and illicit drug use by lower ranking military personnel.

    PubMed

    Kao, T C; Schneider, S J; Hoffman, K J

    2000-01-01

    The Worldwide Survey of Health Related Behaviors is administered periodically to a probability sample of military personnel. Earlier reports of these surveys suggested that illicit drug use was highest among the lowest ranking personnel. This paper reports a secondary analysis of the 1992 and 1995 surveys of the lowest ranking personnel. The results suggested that in general illicit drug users tended also to use alcohol, smokeless tobacco, and cigarettes. Heavy drinkers were more likely than light drinkers to use illicit drugs. No such relationship was observed between illicit drug use and the level of use of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco. Moreover, among the heavy drinkers, illicit drug users were especially likely to use cigarettes and among males, smokeless tobacco. The relevance of these results to military policies toward illicit drug use is discussed.

  5. Emerging and Underrecognized Complications of Illicit Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Wurcel, Alysse G.; Merchant, Elisabeth A.; Clark, Roger P.; Stone, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Illicit drug use can result in a wide range of medical complications. As the availability, synthesis, and popularity of illicit drugs evolve over time, new syndromes associated with their use may mimic infections. Some of these symptoms are anticipated drug effects, and others are complications of adulterants mixed with drugs or complications from the method of using drugs. Some illicit drugs are associated with rare infections, which are difficult to diagnosis with standard microbiological techniques. The goal of this review is to orient a wide range of clinicians—including general practitioners, emergency medicine providers, and infectious diseases specialists—to complications of illicit drug use that may be underrecognized. Improving awareness of infectious and noninfectious complications of illicit drug can expedite diagnosis and medical treatment of persons who use drugs and facilitate targeted harm reduction counseling to prevent future complications. PMID:26270683

  6. The insults of illicit drug use on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Fronczak, Carolyn M; Kim, Edward D; Barqawi, Al B

    2012-01-01

    One-third of infertile couples may have a male factor present. Illicit drug use can be an important cause of male factor infertility and includes use of anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, opioid narcotics, cocaine, and methamphetamines. The use of these illicit drugs is common in the United States, with a yearly prevalence rate for any drug consistently higher in males compared with females. We aim to provide a review of recent literature on the prevalence and effects of illicit drug use on male fertility and to aid health professionals when counseling infertile men whose social history suggests illicit drug use. Anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamines, and opioid narcotics all negatively impact male fertility, and adverse effects have been reported on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, sperm function, and testicular structure. The use of illicit drugs is prevalent in our society and likely adversely impacting the fertility of men who abuse drugs.

  7. Is cannabis a gateway drug? Testing hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne D; Lynskey, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We outline and evaluate competing explanations of three relationships that have consistently been found between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs, namely, (1) that cannabis use typically precedes the use of other illicit drugs; and that (2) the earlier cannabis is used, and (3) the more regularly it is used, the more likely a young person is to use other illicit drugs. We consider three major competing explanations of these patterns: (1) that the relationship is due to the fact that there is a shared illicit market for cannabis and other drugs which makes it more likely that other illicit drugs will be used if cannabis is used; (2) that they are explained by the characteristics of those who use cannabis; and (3) that they reflect a causal relationship in which the pharmacological effects of cannabis on brain function increase the likelihood of using other illicit drugs. These explanations are evaluated in the light of evidence from longitudinal epidemiological studies, simulation studies, discordant twin studies and animal studies. The available evidence indicates that the association reflects in part but is not wholly explained by: (1) the selective recruitment to heavy cannabis use of persons with pre-existing traits (that may be in part genetic) that predispose to the use of a variety of different drugs; (2) the affiliation of cannabis users with drug using peers in settings that provide more opportunities to use other illicit drugs at an earlier age; (3) supported by socialisation into an illicit drug subculture with favourable attitudes towards the use of other illicit drugs. Animal studies have raised the possibility that regular cannabis use may have pharmacological effects on brain function that increase the likelihood of using other drugs. We conclude with suggestions for the type of research studies that will enable a decision to be made about the relative contributions that social context, individual characteristics, and drug effects make

  8. Illicit drug use in seven Latin American countries: critical perspectives of families and familiars.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment.

  9. Governance in EU illicit drugs policy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Carel; Galla, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    This commentary represents the authors' views on EU governance in illicit drug policy, a field in which they were active for more than 10 years between them. EU drug policy has a narrow legal basis in the European Treaties and is mostly non-binding. The main policy instruments are 8-year EU Drug Strategies, underpinned by 4-year Action Plans which set out specific objectives at national, EU or international level. The approach that guides EU drug policy is known as the 'balanced approach'. It is remarkably restrained and reflects the reality that very few Member States have either the socio-political culture or the resources to consistently apply the punitive sanctions foreseen by the UN conventions. An important feature of EU governance in the field of drugs is the proactive support that is provided to non-governmental organisations both within the EU as well as in accession, associated or third countries. At a global level, the EU is a major financial aid donor also in this field. This position is not however reflected in corresponding political clout for the EU within the UN system. EU governance on drugs has made it possible for many of its Member States to accommodate the problem rather than to "solve" what by all the evidence from the last 100 years may well be insoluble, at least by means of criminalisation and prohibition. The big question is where EU drug policy is headed in the next few years. The EU has been promoting measures and practices that target real problems. It has done so without indulging too much in unhelpful rhetoric. However, like all successful formulae this one also has a sell-by date. EU governance in the field of drugs cannot afford to stand still. It needs to find a second wind.

  10. Allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics.

    PubMed

    Swerts, S; Van Gasse, A; Leysen, J; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

    2014-03-01

    Despite their frequent use, allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics is rarely reported in literature. We present a review of the different classes of drugs of abuse that might be involved in allergies: central nervous system (CNS) depressants (such as cannabis, opioids and kava), CNS stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, khat and ephedra) and hallucinogens such as ketamine and nutmeg. Diagnosis of drug and narcotic allergy generally relies upon careful history taking, complemented with skin testing eventually along with quantification of sIgE. However, for various reasons, correct diagnosis of most of these drug allergies is not straightforward. For example, the native plant material applied for skin testing and sIgE antibody tests might harbour irrelevant IgE-binding structures that hamper correct diagnosis. Diagnosis might also be hampered due to uncertainties associated with the non-specific histamine releasing characteristics of some compounds and absence of validated sIgE tests. Whether the introduction of standardized allergen components and more functional tests, that is, basophil activation and degranulation assays, might be helpful to an improved diagnosis needs to be established. It is anticipated that due to the rare character of these allergies further validation is although necessary.

  11. Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis. Part I: heterogeneity study of illicit drugs in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dujourdy, L; Csesztregi, T; Bovens, M; Franc, A; Nagy, J

    2013-09-10

    Sampling of illicit drugs for qualitative and quantitative analysis would normally be considered as routine and comparable tasks in forensic drugs laboratories and previously similar statistical sampling approaches have been applied. However, we believe that two different sampling approaches, based on two different theoretical and statistical backgrounds are more appropriate. Furthermore the application of the qualitative sampling approach can be impractical for quantitative sampling as it could generate many analytical samples from a single seizure. In some countries the purity of the illicit drug in a seizure may affect the criminal sentence and therefore, reliable results for quantitative analysis are crucial. It was decided to investigate a new approach, which although incorporating some statistics also took account of our background knowledge about the composition of the drugs we were analysing. The ultimate goal was to produce recommendations for a practical sampling plan for quantitative analysis. It was found that the two key factors which had a significant effect on obtaining a representative analytical sample from a bulk seizure were the heterogeneity of the drug powder and the particle sizes of its components. This article concentrates on drug heterogeneity. Particle size effects will be addressed in part II of this study. A sampling plan was devised for a range of drug seizure types and asked ENFSI member laboratories to use it when analysing real drug seizures to provide heterogeneity data for the most common illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA and cannabis (herbal and resin)). It was found that for routine quantitative drugs analysis, the sampling problems caused by heterogeneity can be solved by using an incremental sampling protocol. Furthermore, the number of increments that need to be taken for a particular drug is dependent on the relative standard deviation (RSD) required by an individual laboratory and the analytical method that

  12. Identification of Substances Interfering with Illicit Drug Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    several concentrations to 222 EIA positive specimens confirmed by gas chromotography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for illicit drugs. Specimens were...specimens confirmed by gas chromotography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for illicit drugs. Specimens were reanalyzed by the EIA screening procedures...studies reported herein, these substances were introduced into EIA-positive urine specimens which had also been confirmed positive by gas chromotography and

  13. Illicit Drug Use, Hypertension, and Chronic Kidney Disease in the U.S. Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Ricardo, Ana C.; Patel, Amishi; Das, Arjun; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Brecklin, Carolyn; Fischer, Michael J.; Lash, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Illicit drug use has been associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in select populations but it is unknown if the same association exists in the general population. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5,861 adults who were questioned about illicit drug use including cocaine, methamphetamines, or heroin during their lifetime. The primary outcome was CKD as defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤60mL/min/1.73m2 using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation or by microalbuminuria. We also examined the association between illicit drug use and blood pressure (BP) ≥120/80, ≥130/85, and ≥140/90. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between illicit drug use and CKD and BP. Mean eGFR was similar between illicit drug users and non-users (100.7 vs. 101.4mL/min/1.73m2, p=0.4) as was albuminuria (5.7 vs. 6.0mg/g creatinine, p=0.5). Accordingly, illicit drug use was not significantly associated with CKD in logistic regression models (odds ratio [OR] 0.98, confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.27) after adjusting for other important factors. However, illicit drug users had higher systolic (120 vs. 118mmHg, p=0.04) and diastolic BP (73 vs. 71mmHg, p=0.0003) compared to non-users. Also, cocaine use was independently associated with BP≥130/85 (OR 1.24, CI 1.00-1.54), especially when used more during a lifetime (6-49 times, OR 1.42, CI 1.06-1.91). In a representative sample of the U.S. population, illicit drug use was not associated with CKD but cocaine users were more likely to have elevated blood pressures. PMID:22735028

  14. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  15. Correlates of overdose risk perception among illicit opioid users

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Christopher; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Behar, Emily; Coffin, Philip O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioid-related mortality continues to increase in the United States. The current study assesses demographic and behavioral predictors of perceived overdose risk among individuals who use opioids illicitly. By examining these correlates in the context of established overdose risk factors, we aim to assess whether characteristics and behaviors that have been associated with actual overdose risk translate to higher perception of risk. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 172 adult illicit opioid users in San Francisco, CA and used multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of perception of high risk for opioid overdose. Results Age (aOR=0.96, 95%CI=0.93-1.00) and number of injection days per month (0.91, 0.86-0.97) were associated with a lower odds of perceived high overdose risk. There was no independent association between use of opioid analgesics, concurrent use of opioids and benzodiazepines or cocaine, or HIV status and overdose risk perception. Conclusions Opioid users who injected more frequently and those who were older were less likely to perceive themselves as being at risk of overdose, notwithstanding that those who inject more are at higher risk of overdose and those who are older are at higher risk overdose mortality. In addition, despite being established overdose risk factors, there was no relationship between use of opioid analgesics, concurrent use of opioids and cocaine or benzodiazepines, or self-reported HIV status and overdose risk perception. These findings highlight key populations of opioid users and established risk factors that may merit focused attention as part of education-based overdose prevention and opioid management strategies. PMID:26754425

  16. Improvement in laboratory diagnosis of wound botulism and tetanus among injecting illicit-drug users by use of real-time PCR assays for neurotoxin gene fragments.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, D; Grant, K A; McLauchlin, J

    2005-09-01

    An upsurge in wound infections due to Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani among users of illegal injected drugs (IDUs) occurred in the United Kingdom during 2003 and 2004. A real-time PCR assay was developed to detect a fragment of the neurotoxin gene of C. tetani (TeNT) and was used in conjunction with previously described assays for C. botulinum neurotoxin types A, B, and E (BoNTA, -B, and -E). The assays were sensitive, specific, rapid to perform, and applicable to investigating infections among IDUs using DNA extracted directly from wound tissue, as well as bacteria growing among mixed microflora in enrichment cultures and in pure culture on solid media. A combination of bioassay and PCR test results confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 10 of 25 cases of suspected botulism and two of five suspected cases of tetanus among IDUs. The PCR assays were in almost complete agreement with the conventional bioassays when considering results from different samples collected from the same patient. The replacement of bioassays by real-time PCR for the isolation and identification of both C. botulinum and C. tetani demonstrates a sensitivity and specificity similar to those of conventional approaches. However, the real-time PCR assays substantially improves the diagnostic process in terms of the speed of results and by the replacement of experimental animals. Recommendations are given for an improved strategy for the laboratory investigation of suspected wound botulism and tetanus among IDUs.

  17. Improvement in Laboratory Diagnosis of Wound Botulism and Tetanus among Injecting Illicit-Drug Users by Use of Real-Time PCR Assays for Neurotoxin Gene Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, D.; Grant, K. A.; McLauchlin, J.

    2005-01-01

    An upsurge in wound infections due to Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani among users of illegal injected drugs (IDUs) occurred in the United Kingdom during 2003 and 2004. A real-time PCR assay was developed to detect a fragment of the neurotoxin gene of C. tetani (TeNT) and was used in conjunction with previously described assays for C. botulinum neurotoxin types A, B, and E (BoNTA, -B, and -E). The assays were sensitive, specific, rapid to perform, and applicable to investigating infections among IDUs using DNA extracted directly from wound tissue, as well as bacteria growing among mixed microflora in enrichment cultures and in pure culture on solid media. A combination of bioassay and PCR test results confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 10 of 25 cases of suspected botulism and two of five suspected cases of tetanus among IDUs. The PCR assays were in almost complete agreement with the conventional bioassays when considering results from different samples collected from the same patient. The replacement of bioassays by real-time PCR for the isolation and identification of both C. botulinum and C. tetani demonstrates a sensitivity and specificity similar to those of conventional approaches. However, the real-time PCR assays substantially improves the diagnostic process in terms of the speed of results and by the replacement of experimental animals. Recommendations are given for an improved strategy for the laboratory investigation of suspected wound botulism and tetanus among IDUs. PMID:16145075

  18. Childhood victimization and illicit drug use in middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Marmorstein, Naomi R; White, Helene Raskin

    2006-12-01

    Using a prospective cohort design, the authors examined in this study whether childhood victimization increases the risk for illicit drug use and related problems in middle adulthood. Court-documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect and matched controls (N = 892) were first assessed as young adults (mean age = 29 years) during 1989-1995 and again in middle adulthood (mean age = 40 years) during 2000-2002. In middle adulthood, abused and neglected individuals were about 1.5 times more likely than controls to report using any illicit drug (in particular, marijuana) during the past year and reported use of a greater number of illicit drugs and more substance-use-related problems compared with controls. The current results reveal the long-term impact of childhood victimization on drug use in middle adulthood. These new results reinforce the need for targeted interventions with abused and neglected children, adolescents, and adults, and particularly for women.

  19. Contested Cultural Spaces: Exploring Illicit Drug-Using through "Trainspotting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemingway, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Contending that culture is one of the most potentially divisive signifiers of human activity, this paper probes some of the complexities that attend the (un)popular culture of illicit drug-using with which many young people in contemporary Britain are identified. Irvine Welsh's multi-media drugs narrative "Trainspotting" is drawn on to…

  20. Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Meihong; Shen, Jingling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cunlin; Liang, Laishun; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2006-11-01

    We demonstrated an advanced terahertz imaging technique for detection and identification of illicit drugs by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. As an explanation, the characteristic fingerprint spectra and refractive index of ketamine were first measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy both in the air and nitrogen. The results obtained in the ambient air indicated that some absorption peaks are not obvious or probably not dependable. It is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection. The spatial distributions of several illicit drugs [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, heroin, acetylcodeine, morphine, and ketamine], widely consumed in the world, were obtained from terahertz images using absorption spectra previously measured in the range from 0.2to2.6THz in the ambient air. The different kinds of pure illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes were inspected and identified. It could be an effective method in the field of safety inspection.

  1. Dazzled by unity? Order and chaos in public discourse on illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Suzanne; Moore, David

    2008-02-01

    One of the ways in which researchers, policy makers and practitioners routinely characterise illicit drug use is through a taxonomy of two paired conditions, the negative state of 'chaos' and the positive state of 'order' in the form of 'stability.' In this article, we explore some of the ways in which this taxonomy operates in public discourse on illicit drug use. Google searches were conducted in order to gather a corpus of Australian, United Kingdom and United States materials making use of notions of chaos and stability in discussing illicit drug use. The chaos/stability pairing was identified in a large number of materials, including government policy documents, internet web sites for drug related services, newspaper articles and research papers. Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault and Michel Serres, we argue that references to chaos and stability within public discourse produce at least three different ontological registers in which drug users are positioned: (1) the drug user as chaotic, (2) the drug using way of life as chaotic and (3) drug use activities as chaotic. These registers produce different semantic effects in that each locates the 'problem' of chaos differently and invokes it for different political and regulatory ends. Further, we argue that the taxonomy serves mainly to affirm the illegitimacy of injecting drug use by establishing and policing boundaries between the ostensibly unproductive, disorderly lives of drug users and the 'normal,' orderly and productive lives of non-injecting drug users. In concluding, we question the adequacy of chaos, as conventionally defined, in accounting for the circumstances and actions of drug users, and canvass alternative ways of viewing chaos that might offer useful critical tools for drugs research, policy and practice.

  2. Serum antioxidant micromineral (Cu, Zn, Fe) status of drug dependent subjects: Influence of illicit drugs and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Kazi Jahangir; Kamal, Md Mustafa; Ahsan, Monira; Islam, SK Nazrul

    2007-01-01

    Background Use of illicit drugs induces multiple nutrient deficiencies. Drug habit, sexual practice and socioeconomic factors influence the nutrient profile of drug dependent subjects. The literature on this issue is still insufficient. This study has tested the hypothesis that illicit drug use and lifestyle impair mineral status. To test this hypothesis, 253 men multiple drug users of age 18–45 years were recruited to investigate their serum copper, zinc and iron levels. Influence of illicit drugs and their lifestyle on the mineral levels was also examined. The study subjects were drug dependent who had shared needles and had sexual activity with multiple partners. Serum concentrations of the minerals were estimated by atomic absorption flame spectrometry. Results Results showed a significant increase in serum copper and zinc concentrations, and decrease in iron level in drug dependent subjects. The increase of copper level was found to be much higher than that of zinc. Period of drug abuse had made a significant positive influence on the copper and iron levels, but it was apparently reversed for zinc concentration. Multiple sexual partnerships had significant influence on zinc status. There also were significant relationships observed between body mass index (BMI) as well as certain socioeconomic factors, and mineral status of drug dependent subjects and non-drug dependent controls. A series of multiple linear regression analysis predicted mineral values for education, age and BMI. The group (drug dependent subject = 1, non-drug dependent control = 2) had a significant influence on these parameters. However, after controlling these factors, it was shown that illicit drug use significantly contributed to influence the serum mineral levels. Conclusion Illicit drug use impairs serum mineral value causing an increase in copper and zinc and a decrease in iron. Lifestyle and nutritional status of drug dependent subjects influence serum mineral concentrations. PMID

  3. Occurrence of illicit drugs in surface waters in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaiyang; Du, Peng; Xu, Zeqiong; Gao, Tingting; Li, Xiqing

    2016-06-01

    Illicit drugs have been recognized as a group of emerging contaminants. In this work, occurrence of common illicit drugs and their metabolites in Chinese surface waters was examined by collecting samples from 49 lakes and 4 major rivers across the country. Among the drugs examined, methamphetamine and ketamine were detected with highest frequencies and concentration levels, consistent with the fact that these are primary drugs of abuse in China. Detection frequencies and concentrations of other drugs were much lower than in European lakes and rivers reported in the literature. In most Chinese surface waters methamphetamine and ketamine were detected at concentrations of several ng L(-1) or less, but in some southern lakes and rivers, these two drugs were detected at much higher concentrations (up to several tens ng L(-1)). Greater occurrence of methamphetamine and ketamine in southern surface waters was attributed to greater abuse and more clandestine production of the two drugs in southern China.

  4. Global Reach of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Using Social Media for Illicit Online Drug Sales

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. Objective To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. Methods We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Results Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Conclusions Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media–based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing. PMID:23718965

  5. Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

  6. Licit and illicit drug use in cluster headache.

    PubMed

    Govare, Amelie; Leroux, Elizabeth

    2014-05-01

    Cluster headache patients seem to use more licit and illicit substances than the general population. The epidemiologic data supporting this is growing. We included the licit drugs in this review because their use seems to be driven by the same addiction mechanisms leading to illicit drug abuse. Some drugs may be used in an attempt to treat cluster headache, especially cocaine and hallucinogens. Drug exposure may also play a role in CH pathophysiology, as suggested by interesting data on tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure. A common factor may contribute both to CH and drug use predisposition. Genetic factors may be at play, and the dopaminergic and orexinergic pathways could be targeted for future studies.

  7. 76 FR 59495 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... to the most recent U.S. interagency assessment of cocaine flows, the amount of this illicit substance... percent of some 700 metric tons of cocaine shipped annually from Colombia and other producing nations... trafficking. According to the U.S. assessment of cocaine movement, about a third of cocaine destined...

  8. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the most recent U.S. interagency assessment of cocaine flows, the amount of this illicit substance... percent of some 700 metric tons of cocaine shipped annually from Colombia and other producing nations... trafficking. According to the U.S. assessment of cocaine movement, about a third of cocaine destined...

  9. DETECTION OF ILLICIT DRUGS IN MUNICIPAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A technique has been developed which has the potential to map regions of concern for increased drug usage and/or production by monitoring the input of chemical into the waterways. This approach can provide near

  10. Illicit Drug Related Anomalous Behaviour in Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covell, Geoff

    1990-01-01

    Drug users who participate in outdoor education pose a potentially dangerous situation. Tables detail how drug users feel and act when using certain drugs and provide other information on commonly abused drugs. This information may help outdoor facilitators to identify symptoms and to deal with drug-induced states. (KS)

  11. Analysis of illicit drugs by direct ablation of solid samples.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Celina; Cabezas, Carlos; Mata, Santiago; Berdakin, Matias; Tejedor, Jesús M; Alonso, José L

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of illicit drugs arises as an important field of work given the high social impacts presented by drugs in the modern society. Direct laser ablation of solid compounds allows their analysis without sampling or preparation procedures. For that purpose, an experimental set-up that combines laser ablation with time-of- flight mass spectrometry has been constructed very recently to perform studies on the mass spectra of such drugs as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine, commonly known as MDMA or ecstasy. Analysis of the observed fragmentation pattern in mass spectra may elucidate the ablation-induced photofragmentation phenomena produced, which differ from those previously observed with conventional ionization methods.

  12. Assessing illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Young, M. Scott; Sellers, Brian G.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate drug use assessment is vital to understanding the prevalence, course, treatment needs, and outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia because they are thought to remain at long-term risk for negative drug use outcomes, even in the absence of drug use disorder. This study evaluated self-report and biological measures for assessing illicit drug use in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study (N=1460). Performance was good across assessment methods, but differed as a function of drug type, measure, and race. With the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R as the criterion, self-report evidenced greater concordance, accuracy and agreement overall, and for marijuana, cocaine, and stimulants specifically, than did urinalysis and hair assays, whereas biological measures outperformed self-report for detection of opiates. Performance of the biological measures was better when self-report was the criterion, but poorer for black compared white participants. Overall, findings suggest that self-report is able to garner accurate information regarding illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia. Further work is needed to understand the differential performance of assessment approaches by drug type, overall and as a function of race, in this population. PMID:22796100

  13. Acute lead poisoning in two users of illicit methamphetamine

    SciTech Connect

    Allcott, J.V. III; Barnhart, R.A.; Mooney, L.A.

    1987-07-31

    Acute lead poisoning can present a difficult diagnostic dilemma, with symptoms that mimic those of hepatitis, nephritis, and encephalopathy. The authors report two cases in intravenous methamphetamine users who presented with abnormal liver function values, low hematocrit values, basophilic stippling of red blood cells, and elevated blood lead levels. Both patients excreted large amounts of lead in their urine after treatment with edetic acid, followed by resolution of their symptoms. Lead contamination was proved in one drug sample. Basophilic stippling of the red blood cells was the one key laboratory result that led to the definitive diagnosis in both cases.

  14. Illicit Drug Use and Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D.; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance abuse treatment admissions in south africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic and social structures within south africa both before and after apartheid make the country more vulnerable to drug use. based on national surveys current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%) and hallucinogens (0.1%). The primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (Tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC 2.6%. An increase in substance abuse treatment admissions has occurred. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the USA and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review. PMID:21039113

  15. Illicit Drug and Injecting Equipment Markets inside English Prisons: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Rhidian

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, disrupting the supply of illicit drugs and injecting equipment inside Her Majesty's (HM) prisons has become an important focus for prison drug policy. This paper presents findings from qualitative research, which invited 24 drug injectors with prison experience to discuss the role and operation of illicit drug and injecting…

  16. Detection of Illicit Drugs with the EURITRACK System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Franulovic, A.

    2009-03-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) inspection system has been developed within the 6th EU Framework Program to complement X-ray scanners in the detection of explosives and other illicit materials hidden in cargo containers. Gamma rays are produced inside the cargo materials by 14 MeV tagged neutron beams, which yields information about the chemical composition of the transported goods. In the beginning of year 2007, the EURITRACK system was implemented in the Seaport of Rijeka, Croatia, primarily to carry out a demonstration using real containers to conduct a series of detection tests. This article reports tests performed with real samples of illicit drugs hidden in a metallic cargo with an average density of 0.2 g/cm3. Heroin and cocaine have been distinguished from benign substances based on their chemical composition. Marijuana, which chemical composition is similar to benign materials, cannot be distinguished from common organic goods. However, the detection of an unexpected organic substance inside the metallic cargo indicates that a suspicious object has been hidden in the container.

  17. What America's Users Spend on Illegal Drugs. An Office of National Drug Control Policy Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of illicit drugs consumed and available for consumption in the United States. Estimates of the number of drug users were multiplied by estimates of the average amount of drugs consumed. Then the supply of drugs available for consumption was examined by estimating the amount of drugs that enters the…

  18. ILLICIT DOPAMINE TRANSIENTS: RECONCILING ACTIONS OF ABUSED DRUGS

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abused drugs. We argue here that reclassification also identifies generating burst firing by dopamine neurons as a keystone action. Unlike natural rewards, which are processed by sensory systems, drugs act directly on the brain. Consequently, to mimic natural reward and exploit reward circuits, dopamine transients must be elicited de novo. Of available drug targets, only burst firing achieves this essential outcome. PMID:24656971

  19. Quantitative analysis of the mixtures of illicit drugs using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dejun; Zhao, Shusen; Shen, Jingling

    2008-03-01

    A method was proposed to quantitatively inspect the mixtures of illicit drugs with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The mass percentages of all components in a mixture can be obtained by linear regression analysis, on the assumption that all components in the mixture and their absorption features be known. For illicit drugs were scarce and expensive, firstly we used common chemicals, Benzophenone, Anthraquinone, Pyridoxine hydrochloride and L-Ascorbic acid in the experiment. Then illicit drugs and a common adulterant, methamphetamine and flour, were selected for our experiment. Experimental results were in significant agreement with actual content, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs.

  20. Combinations of Prescription Drug Misuse and Illicit Drugs among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Wells, Brooke E.; Pawson, Mark; LeClair, Amy; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prescription drug misuse remains a critical drug trend. Data indicate that young adults in nightlife scenes misuse prescription drugs at high rates. As such, continued surveillance of the patterns of prescription drug misuse among young adults is necessary, particularly assessments that spotlight specific areas of risk, such as polydrug use. Methods Prevalence and correlates of recent combinations of prescription drugs and other substances among urban young adults recruited at nightlife venues using time-space sampling are assessed via prevalence estimates and logistic regression analyses. Results Overall, 16.4% of the sample reported combining illicit drug use with prescription drug misuse. Of those who reported any prescription drug misuse, 65.9% used prescription drugs in combination with at least one of the illicit drugs assessed. The most common combination was marijuana, followed by alcohol, cocaine, ecstasy, and psychedelics. Being male and identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual predicted the combination of prescription drugs with ecstasy, cocaine, and psychedelics. Conclusions Rates of combining alcohol and illicit drug use with prescription drug misuse were high, especially among men and those identified as a sexual minority. These rates are alarming in light of the host of negative health outcomes associated with combining prescription and illicit drugs. PMID:24462348

  1. Illicit drugs, infectious disease and public health: A historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Virginia; Bourne, Shawna

    2005-01-01

    The present report outlines a presentation by Professor Virginia Berridge at the Second Stanier Lecture held in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on November 5, 2002. The relationship among public health concepts, illicit drug use prevention and policy, and infection control strategies in England and other locations is paralleled over the course of two centuries. This historical journey analyzes changes in public health and demonstrates how history and public health have intersected at various times to result in the public health approaches used today. PMID:18159543

  2. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  3. Relationships between Illicit Drug Use and Body Mass Index among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstone, Sarah R.; Herrmann, Lynn K.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has established associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, little research has been done investigating the relationship between other common illicit drugs and BMI trends. The present study investigated whether adolescents who reported using illicit drugs showed differences in BMI…

  4. Contracting for Treatment Termination to Reduce Illicit Drug Use among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Failures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Michael P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of a contingency contracting intervention on reducing illicit drug use by methadone maintenance outpatients. Illicit drug use was significantly reduced during the 30-day intervention and remained below baseline levels during 60-day follow-up. (Author/MCF)

  5. Comparisons between the attitudes of student nurses and other health and social care students toward illicit drug use: An attitudinal survey.

    PubMed

    Harling, Martyn R

    2017-01-01

    In the context of a recent emphasis on compassion in the delivery of health care, the current study set out to measure the attitudes of different groups of health and social care students toward illicit drug users. Previous research has identified variations in the attitudes of different groups of health and social care professionals toward working with illicit drug users. Nurses, in particular, have been reported as holding moralistic or stereotypical views of illicit drug users. However, few studies have measured the attitudes of student nurses or compared their attitudes to other health and social care students. This article describes the use of a bespoke attitude scale to measure the attitudes of cohorts of student nurses, clinical psychology trainees, health and social care, social work and midwifery students at the start of their course (N=308). Results indicated that student nurses had the least tolerant attitudes, reinforcing the need for a specific educational focus on working with illicit drug users in nurse education. Variations between student groups indicate that Interprofessional Education can provide an opportunity to improve attitudes toward illicit drug users, particularly amongst student nurses.

  6. Computer-based programmes for the prevention and management of illicit recreational drug use: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sara K; Eckley, Lindsay; Hughes, Karen; Hardcastle, Katherine A; Bellis, Mark A; Schrooten, Jochen; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Voorham, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    The last few decades have seen increasing use of computer-based programmes to address illicit recreational drug use but knowledge about their effectiveness is limited. We conducted a systematic review to examine evidence on these programmes. Eight electronic databases were searched to identify primary research studies evaluating computer-based programmes to prevent or reduce use of illicit recreational drugs. From an initial 3413 extracted studies, 10 were identified for inclusion, covering a range of intervention types, target groups and settings. Universal drug prevention programmes were effective in reducing the frequency of recreational drug use in the mid-term (<12 months), but not immediately post intervention. Programmes targeting recreational drug users showed more inconsistent results but were generally effective in reducing use of drugs both immediately and in the mid-term. Computer-based programmes have the potential for use in addressing recreational drug use when targeted both universally and at illicit drug users, at least in the mid-term. However, longer term evaluations are needed to better understand the duration of effects. Given the benefits that computer-based programmes can have over traditional delivery methods, research is needed to better understand the value of human contact in health interventions and help inform whether, and how much, professional contact should be involved in computer-based programmes.

  7. Illicit Drug Markets Among New Orleans Evacuees Before and Soon After Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D.; Morse, Edward

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes illicit drug markets in New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina and access to drug markets following evacuation at many locations and in Houston. Among New Orleans arrestees pre-Katrina, rates of crack and heroin use and market participation was comparable to New York and higher than in other southern cities. Both cities have vigorous outdoor drug markets. Over 100 New Orleans evacuees provide rich accounts describing the illicit markets in New Orleans and elsewhere. The flooding of New Orleans disrupted the city’s flourishing drug markets, both during and immediately after the storm. Drug supplies, though limited, were never completely unavailable. Subjects reported that alcohol or drugs were not being used in the Houston Astrodome, and it was a supportive environment. Outside the Astrodome, they were often approached by or could easily locate middlemen and drug sellers. Evacuees could typically access illegal drug markets wherever they went. This paper analyzes the impact of a major disaster upon users of illegal drugs and the illegal drug markets in New Orleans and among the diaspora of New Orleans evacuees following Hurricane Katrina. This analysis includes data from criminal justice sources that specify what the drug markets were like before this disaster occurred. This analysis also includes some comparison cities where no disaster occurred, but which help inform the similarities and differences in drug markets in other cities. The data presented also include an initial analysis of ethnographic interview data from over 100 New Orleans Evacuees recruited in New Orleans and Houston. PMID:19081751

  8. [Critical perspective of the family and acquaintances on family and community risk factors in illicit drug use in São Jose, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Granados Hernández, Mabell; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a quantitative study. The purpose was to describe the perspective of family members and acquaintances of illicit drug users about family and community risk factors that can contribute to addiction to illicit drugs. A questionnaire was used for data collection. The population consisted of 100 individuals, 18 years of age or older, who reported being affected by their relationship with an illicit drug user (relative or acquaintance). Most users (82%) were men, with an average age of 27.3 years. Family risk factors included: family rejection (99%), not feeling loved (98%), lack of communication (95%), family conflicts and violence (95%). Social or community factors included: 99% having friends who use drugs, 99% peer pressure, 93% living in an unsafe area, and 99% experienced a stressful event. The critical perspective proposes to use more prevention strategies to avoid risk factors in the family and community.

  9. A series of forensic toxicology and drug seizure cases involving illicit fentanyl alone and in combination with heroin, cocaine or heroin and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, Laureen J; Ehlers, Brooke J

    2014-10-01

    The Montgomery County Coroner's Office Toxicology Section and the Miami Valley Regional Crime Lab (MVRCL) Drug Chemistry Section have been receiving case work in drug seizures, death cases and human performance cases involving products marketed as heroin or as illicit fentanyl. Upon analysis by the Drug Chemistry Section, these products were found to contain various drug(s) including illicit fentanyl only, illicit fentanyl and heroin, illicit fentanyl and cocaine and illicit fentanyl, heroin and cocaine. Both the Chemistry and Toxicology Sections began seeing these combinations starting in late October 2013. The percentage of the combinations encountered by the MVRCL as well as the physical appearance of the product, and the results of presumptive screening tests will be discussed. The demographics of the users and the results of toxicology and autopsy findings on the decedents will also be discussed. According to regional drug task force undercover agents, there is evidence that some of the products are being sold as illicit fentanyl and not just as a heroin product. Also, there is no evidence to support that the fentanyl source is being diverted from pharmaceutical grade fentanyl. The chemistry section currently has over 109 confirmed cases, and the toxicology section currently has 81 confirmed drug deaths, 8 driving under the influence of drugs and 1 suicidal hanging. Both sections are continuing to see these cases at the present time.

  10. Perinatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women Users of Illegal Drugs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tenilson Amaral; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Santos, Tatiana Fiorelli Dos; Aquino, Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de; Mariani Neto, Corintio

    2016-04-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Methods A retrospective observational study of patients who, at the time of delivery, were sent to or who spontaneously sought a public maternity hospital in the eastern area of São Paulo city. We compared the perinatal outcomes of two distinct groups of pregnant women - illicit drugs users and non-users - that gave birth in the same period and analyzed the obstetric and neonatal variables. We used Student's t-test to calculate the averages among the groups, and the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical data from each group. Results We analyzed 166 women (83 users and 83 non-users) in both groups with a mean of age of 26 years. Ninety-five percent of the drug users would use crack or pure cocaine alone or associated with other psychoactive substances during pregnancy. Approximately half of the users group made no prenatal visit, compared with 2.4% in the non-users group (p < 0.001). Low birth weight (2,620 g versus 3,333 g on average, p < 0.001) and maternal syphilis (15.7% versus 0%, p < 0.001) were associated with the use of these illicit drugs. Conclusions The use of illicit drugs, mainly crack cocaine, represents an important perinatal risk. Any medical intervention in this population should combine adherence to prenatal care with strategies for reducing maternal exposure to illicit drugs.

  11. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... European destinations, recorded an unprecedented 2.2 metric tons of cocaine. With its vast terrain and... home, especially the use of cocaine, cocaine base, and crack cocaine, primarily from Bolivia; and... drug traffickers, the countries of Central America are increasingly targeted for trafficking of...

  12. 75 FR 67019 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... European destinations, recorded an unprecedented 2.2 metric tons of cocaine. With its vast terrain and... home, especially the use of cocaine, cocaine base, and crack cocaine, primarily from Bolivia; and... drug traffickers, the countries of Central America are increasingly targeted for trafficking of...

  13. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... region. In 2008, approximately 42 percent of the cocaine destined for the United States transited Central... enforcement forces. Panama is a major drug transit country that seized 51 metric tons of cocaine in 2008 while... the Salvadoran government seized 1.4 metric tons of cocaine, 300 kilograms of marijuana, and...

  14. An Increasing Trend of Illicit Drug use among Romanian University Students from 1999 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    LOTREAN, Lucia Maria; SANTILLAN, Edna Arillo; THRASHER, James; LAZA, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Aim The present study investigates the evolution of illicit drug use among Romanian university students from 1999 to 2011. Methods The study was performed in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in three phases: in 1999 (T1), in 2003 (T2) and in 2011 (T3). The study was carried out by means of anonymous questionnaires among university students aged 19–24. Results The results show that among girls the lifetime illicit drugs use increased statistically significantly from 2.5% in 1999 to 7.5% in 2003 and to 15% in 2011. Among boys the trend was also increasing, the prevalence of illicit drug use was 14.2% at T1, 18.1% at T2, and it increased dramatically to 30.6% at T3. The percentage of students reporting cannabis use was almost identical with the total prevalence of illicit drug use. Ecstasy was the second most frequent drug used by the students; its consumption had also an increasing trend during the examined periods (from 0 to 5.6% among girls and from 0.8% to 11.2% among boys). The results of the bivariate correlation analyses show that lifetime illicit drug use was associated with having friends who experimented with illicit drugs both among boys and girls. Moreover, girls who declared stress management problems and depressive episodes were more likely to try illicit drugs, while among boys illicit drug use was associated with poorer academic performance. Conclusions The data pointed out by our study call for comprehensive actions regarding the prevention of illicit drug use among Romanian young people. PMID:27647089

  15. Illicit drugs, testing, prevention and work in France: ethical and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Fantoni-Quinton, Sophie; Bossu, Bernard; Morgenroth, Thomas; Frimat, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The use of illicit drugs in the workplace raises issues pertaining to prevention and safety and the responsibility of the various members of staff. It also brings into question the interface between work and private life. If employees are in theory responsible for their own safety and risk heavy penalties in the event of the consumption of illicit drugs in the workplace, such behaviour has to be proved. In reality, the worker can only be partially and marginally held liable, given the fact that the employer is prohibited from infringing on their rights and liberties (restrictions on the searching of their personal belongings and lockers as well as on the carrying out of breath testing and saliva testing under restrictive conditions). Employers have for their part a broader range of responsibilities and, above all, an absolute obligation to achieve specific goals in terms of health and safety resulting in the need to take action. In accordance with the International Labour Organization recommendations, European and national legislation, the employer has to implement a suitable preventive policy. However, where is the balance between prevention and repression? Very few studies have raised these issues and our aim is to precisely situate the place of drug testing in the employer's repressive arsenal in France and to try to answer the legal and ethical issues raised. Thus, for example, repression can only be acceptable when it deals with moderate and non-addicted users, or it could be tantamount to discrimination.

  16. Impurities in Illicit Drug Preparations: Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Verweij, A M

    1989-06-01

    In this review, attention is paid to chromatographic and mass spectral properties of already identified impurities found to be present in frequently abused drug preparations of illegal origin of amphetamine and methamphetamine. The most commonly employed methods of synthesis of drugs of this type are briefly described. Special emphasis is given to the Leuckart route, found to be the preferred method, in the illicit production of amphetamine. Furthermore, some isolation and preconcentration methods for the contaminants are discussed. The importance of identifying impurities present in amphetamine or methamphetamine cannot be overestimated. These impurities originate mostly from the improper purification in the end stage of the different syntheses used in the clandestine manufacture of the substances; it is possible to differentiate between the several kinds of illegal drug preparations, synthesized by various methods, by means of so-called "route specific" impurities. Finally, a survey is given of the impurities already known to be present in amphetamine and methamphetamine, together with their mass spectral and some chromatographic properties.

  17. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog “alert” is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors. PMID:26083377

  18. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  19. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Security Initiative (CARSI), initiated in 2008, supports local government efforts to strengthen the rule of... the national interests of the United States. Drug Producing and Trafficking Trends in Strategic Areas... Province. Instability in these regions allows criminal networks, insurgent groups, and illicit...

  20. [Acting out and psychoactive substances: alcohol, drugs, illicit substances].

    PubMed

    Gillet, C; Polard, E; Mauduit, N; Allain, H

    2001-01-01

    In humans, some psychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, illicit substances) have been suggested to play a role in the occurrence of major behavioural disorders, mainly due to the suppression of psychomotor inhibition. Behavioural disinhibition is a physiological mechanism which allows humans to behave appropriately according to a given environmental situation. The behavioural disinhibition induced by either therapeutic dosage or misuse involves the loss of restraint over certain types of social behaviour and may increase the risk of auto or hetero-aggression and acting out. The increased use of psychotropic agents in recent years and the occurrence of unwanted effects are worrying and must be detected and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to establish a causal relationship between psychoactive substance use and occurrence of major behavioural disorders, such as paradoxical rage reactions and suicidal behaviour, based on a literature analysis. It consisted of reviewing reports of drug-induced violent reactions in healthy volunteers and demonstrating, where possible, a cause-effect relationship. Patients with schizophrenia and psychopathic personalities were not included in our study since psychiatric comorbidity could influence behavioural responses. Psychotropic agents included drugs, licit and illicit substances already associated with violence in the past. Many reports used the "Go/No Go test" to evaluate the disinhibiting effect of psychotropic substances; this allows the "cognitive mapping" of drugs. The results suggest that only alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne are related to aggressive behaviour. The best known precipitant of behavioural disinhibition is alcohol, which induces aggressive behaviour. However, there are large differences between individuals, and attentional mechanisms are now recognised as being important in mediating the effects of alcohol. Suicidal tendency as an adverse antidepressant reaction is rare

  1. The use of token economy to reduce illicit drug use among methadone maintenance clients.

    PubMed

    Glosser, D S

    1983-01-01

    The effects of a token economy in modifying the illicit polydrug use of 97 methadone maintenance clients was investigated over a period of two and a half years. Subjects' drug-free urinalysis reports were reinforced with points which could be redeemed to obtain methadone. Each subject's daily dose level varied with the point balance. A multiple baseline analysis showed that when methadone acquisition was in part made contingent upon drug-free urinalyses, illicit drug use declined rapidly. After six months, the token economy group's urines were 14% positive for illicit drugs compared to 39% in the traditional treatment group. As time in treatment increased, illicit drug use further declined. These results suggest a more effective and practical strategy for the treatment of polydrug abusing methadone maintenance clients than has previously been available.

  2. Trends in marijuana and other illicit drug use among college students: results from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study surveys: 1993-2001.

    PubMed

    Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Lee, Jae Eun; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The authors examined changes in college students' illicit drug use, patterns of polydrug use, and the relationship between students' ages of initiation of substance use and later use of marijuana and other illicit drugs between 1993 and 2001. Data from 119 US colleges and universities in the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study were used in the study. They found significant increases in percentages of students' use of marijuana in the past 30 days (from 13% to 17%), past year (from 23% to 30%), and lifetime (from 41% to 47%) between 1993 and 2001, with most of the increase occurring between 1993 and 1997. Past 30-day use of other illicit drugs increased from 4% to 7% and past year use increased from 11% to 14%. More than 98% of marijuana and other illicit drug users used another substance. They also either smoked, were binge drinkers, and/or were users of another illicit drug. Drug prevention programs should emphasize heavy alcohol use and smoking and should start when students are in high school or earlier.

  3. Illicit Drugs: Contaminants in the Environment and Utility in Forensic Epidemiology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The published literature surrounding the origin, occurrence, fate, and effects of illicit drug ingredients (IDIs) in the environment is examined. Similarities exist with medical pharmaceuticals, particularly with regard to the basic processes by which these ingredients enter the ...

  4. Urine drug testing of chronic pain patients: licit and illicit drug patterns.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Caplan, Yale H; Black, David L; Robert, Timothy; Moser, Frank

    2008-10-01

    Chronic pain patients are frequently maintained on one or more powerful opioid medications in combination with other psychoactive medications. Urine tests provide objective information regarding patient compliance status. Little information is available on testing this unique population. The goal of this study was to characterize drug disposition patterns in urine specimens collected from a large population of pain patients. Confirmation data for 10,922 positive specimens were collated into 11 drug Classes. The number of drug/metabolites tested (#) and number of confirmed positive specimens were as follows: amphetamines (7), 160; barbiturates (5), 308; benzodiazepines (6), 2397; cannabinoids (1), 967; carisoprodol (2), 611; cocaine (1), 310; fentanyl (1), 458; meperidine (2), 58; methadone (2), 1209; opiates (7), 8996; and propoxyphene (2), 385. Subdivision into 19 distinct drug Groups allowed characterization of drug use patterns. Of the 10,922 positive specimens, 15,859 results were reported as positive in various drug Classes, and 27,197 drug/metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The frequency of illicit drug use (cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy) was 10.8%. Being the first study of this type, these data present a large array of information on licit and illicit drug use, drug detection frequencies, drug/metabolite patterns, and multi-drug use combinations in pain patients.

  5. Capturing illicit drug use where and when it happens: an ecological momentary assessment of the social, physical and activity environment of using versus craving illicit drugs

    PubMed Central

    Linas, Beth S.; Latkin, Carl; Westergaard, Ryan P.; Chang, Larry W.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Genz, Andrew; Kirk, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To understand the environmental and contextual influences of illicit cocaine and heroin use and craving using mobile health (mHealth) methods. Design Interactive mHealth methods of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) were utilized in the Exposure Assessment in Current Time (EXACT) study to assess drug use and craving among urban drug users in real time. Participants were provided with mobile devices and asked to self-report every time they either craved (without using) or used heroin or cocaine for 30 days from November 2008 through May 2013. Setting Baltimore, MD, USA. Participants A total of 109 participants from the AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience (ALIVE) study. Measurements For each drug use or craving event, participants answered questions concerning their drug use, current mood and their social, physical and activity environments. Odds ratios (OR) of drug use versus craving were obtained from logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations of all reported events. Findings Participants were a median of 48.5 years old, 90% African American, 52% male and 59% HIV-infected. Participants were significantly more likely to report use rather than craving drugs if they were with someone who was using drugs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13, 1.86), in an abandoned space (aOR = 6.65, 95% CI = 1.78, 24.84) or walking/wandering (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.11, 2.54). Craving drugs was associated with being with a child (aOR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.59), eating (aOR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.85) or being at the doctor’s office (aOR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.80). Conclusions There are distinct drug using and craving environments among urban drug users, which may provide a framework for developing real-time context-sensitive interventions. PMID:25311241

  6. Prevalence of illicit drug use in patients without controlled substance abuse in interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D; Barnhill, Renee C

    2003-04-01

    Drug abuse with illicit drugs and licit drugs has been increasing steadily over the past decade. A recent National Household Survey on Drug Abuse found statistically significant increases between 2000 and 2001 in the use of multiple drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, and non-medical use of pain relievers and tranquilizers. Prescription controlled substance abuse is a major issue in chronic pain management. Various means suggested to avoid or monitor abuse in patients in treatment include urine/serum drug screening whenever requested, along with other precautions including one prescribing physician and one designated pharmacy, etc. Based on the present evidence, physicians assume that patients adhering to controlled substance agreements and without obvious dependency behavior do not abuse either illicit or licit drugs. Thus, it is accepted that there is no necessity to perform routine urine/drug testing in this specific group of the patient population. One hundred patients undergoing interventional pain management and receiving controlled substances were randomly selected for evaluation of illicit drug abuse by urine drug testing. They were selected from a total of 250 patients who were identified as non-abusers of prescription drugs. Results showed that illicit drug abuse in patients without history of controlled substance abuse was seen in 16 patients. Thirteen of the 16 patients tested positive for marijuana and 3 patients tested positive for cocaine. Only one patient tested positive for a combined use of both marijuana and cocaine. This study showed that, in an interventional pain management setting, there is significant use of illicit drugs (16%) with 13% use of marijuana and 3% use of cocaine in patients who are considered as non-abusers of prescription controlled substances and those who are adherent to controlled substance agreements. However, if cocaine is considered as a hardcore drug in contrast to marijuana, abuse of hardcore illicit drugs is only 3%.

  7. Non-medical prescription drug and illicit street drug use among young Swiss men and associated mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is increasing among the general population, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Although prescription drugs are considered safer than illicit street drugs, NMUPD can lead to detrimental consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between drug use (NMUPD on the one side, illicit street drugs on the other side) with mental health issues and then compare these associations. A representative sample of 5719 young Swiss men aged around 20 years filled in a questionnaire as part of the ongoing baseline Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). Drug use (16 illicit street drugs and 5 NMUPDs, including sleeping pills, sedatives, pain killers, antidepressants, stimulants) and mental health issues (depression, SF12) were assessed. Simple and multiple linear regressions were employed. In simple regressions, all illicit and prescription drugs were associated with poorer mental health. In multiple regressions, most of the NMUPDs, except for stimulants, were significantly associated with poorer mental health and with depression. On the contrary, the only associations that remained significant between illicit street drugs and mental health involved cannabis. NMUPD is of growing concern not only because of its increasing occurrence, but also because of its association with depression and mental health problems, which is stronger than the association observed between these problems and illicit street drug use, excepted for cannabis. Therefore, NMUPD must be considered in screening for substance use prevention purposes.

  8. Occurrence of illicit drugs and selected pharmaceuticals in Slovak municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bodík, Igor; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Fáberová, Milota; Ivanová, Lucia

    2016-10-01

    We analyzed illicit drugs and their metabolites and pharmaceuticals in wastewater from 15 selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Slovakia. Our results indicate that methamphetamine is one of the most commonly used illegal drugs in all the regions of Slovakia monitored in this study. Compared with the international results, the Slovak cities of Dunajská Streda (479 mg/day/1000inh) and Trnava (354 mg/day/1000inh) are among the cities with the largest numbers of methamphetamine users in Europe. These results indicate an increase in the incidence of drugs in big cities and in the satellite cities (Trnava and Dunajská Streda) near Bratislava. These results also confirm the police statistics about production and use of illicit drugs in Slovakia. The highest specific loads of cocaine were found in Bratislava (112 mg/day/1000inh), followed by Petržalka (74 mg/day/1000inh). Compared with other European cities, Bratislava and the other Slovak cities in this study have a relatively low number of COC consumers. The ecstasy load in wastewater from larger cities also significantly increased over the weekend and during music festivals. The highest 2-year mean concentrations of THC-COOH, a cannabis biomarker, were observed in the sewage from BA-Petržalka and BA-Central (191 and 171 ng/L, respectively). A first complex monitoring of pharmaceuticals in all therapeutic groups was also realized in selected Slovak WWTPs. Occurrence of wide spectrum of pharmaceuticals with very high concentrations as well as consumptions were observed mainly in small Slovak cities. Considering all 120 monitored pharmaceuticals, Valsartan had the highest concentrations: 6000 ng/L, on average.

  9. Technical Report for the Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs: 1981 - 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    A. Overview ................................................................................................ V-1 B. Side -by- Side Comparisons...drugs to drug abusers and youth • Anticipation of the attractiveness of illicit drugs and their physical effects based upon purity and likely form of...calibration of trends. Knowing short-term variation provides useful information on several important topics: • Measures of effectiveness of recent

  10. Patterns of lifetime drug use among intravenous drug users.

    PubMed

    Dinwiddie, S H; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R

    1992-01-01

    To obtain a clearer description of the natural history of intravenous drug use (IVDU), 92 intravenous drug users (IVDUs), not selected through treatment or contact with the legal system, were identified. Concerning lifetime use, central nervous system (CNS) stimulants were the most common class of drug to be injected (by 72.8% of IVDUs), followed by opiates (by 50.0% of IVDUs). Mean age of onset of IVDU in this sample was 18.5 years, following initiation of alcohol use by an average of 4.6 years and cannabis use by an average of 2.1 years. Any history of IVDU in this sample indicated substantial lifetime use of illicit drugs and early onset of psychoactive substance use.

  11. Medical Use, Illicit Use, and Diversion of Abusable Prescription Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large, public,…

  12. High-intensity cannabis use and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people who use illicit drugs in a Canadian setting.

    PubMed

    Slawson, Gregory; Milloy, M-J; Balneaves, Lynda; Simo, Annick; Guillemi, Silvia; Hogg, Robert; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis is increasingly prescribed clinically and utilized by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to address symptoms of HIV disease and to manage side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In light of concerns about the possibly deleterious effect of psychoactive drug use on adherence to ART, we sought to determine the relationship between high-intensity cannabis use and adherence to ART among a community-recruited cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users. We used data from the ACCESS study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of HIV-seropositive illicit drug users linked to comprehensive ART dispensation records in a setting of universal no-cost HIV care. We estimated the relationship between at least daily cannabis use in the last 6 months, measured longitudinally, and the likelihood of optimal adherence to ART during the same period, using a multivariate linear mixed-effects model accounting for relevant socio-demographic, behavioral, clinical and structural factors. From May 2005 to May 2012, 523 HIV-positive illicit drug users were recruited and contributed 2,430 interviews. At baseline, 121 (23.1 %) participants reported at least daily cannabis use. In bivariate and multivariate analyses we did not observe an association between using cannabis at least daily and optimal adherence to prescribed HAART (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.12, 95 % Confidence Interval [95 % CI]: 0.76-1.64, p value = 0.555.) High-intensity cannabis use was not associated with adherence to ART. These findings suggest cannabis may be utilized by PLWHA for medicinal and recreational purposes without compromising effective adherence to ART.

  13. Migration and illicit drug use among two types of male migrants in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wong, Frank Y; He, N; Huang, Z J; Young, D; O'Conor, C; Ding, Y Y; Fu, C; Arayasirikul, S

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale internal migrations within China have led to speculation of increased drug use, but with little empirical evidence. This cross-sectional study examines the association between migration characteristics and illicit drug use in 100 general male migrants and 239 "money boys" (i.e., male migrants engaging in same-sex transactional sex) in Shanghai, China. Only three general male migrants reported any drug use. Among money boys, lifetime illicit drug use was 12%; Ecstasy and methamphetamine appeared to be the most popular drugs. In addition, depression prevalence was very high among both types of male migrants. Depression was associated with lifetime soft- and hard-drug use, while earning a higher income was associated with lifetime soft-drug use. These findings provide the first set of quantitative evidence of illicit drug use among Chinese male migrants. Although illicit drug use among male migrants is low compared to Western countries, its resurgence after 30 years of drug control gives cause for concern.

  14. Studying illicit drug trafficking on Darknet markets: Structure and organisation from a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Broséus, J; Rhumorbarbe, D; Mireault, C; Ouellette, V; Crispino, F; Décary-Hétu, D

    2016-07-01

    Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces that are part of the Dark Web and mainly devoted to the sale of illicit drugs. They combine tools to ensure anonymity of participants with the delivery of products by mail to enable the development of illicit drug trafficking. Using data collected on eight cryptomarkets, this study provides an overview of the Canadian illicit drug market. It seeks to inform about the most prevalent illicit drugs vendors offer for sale and preferred destination countries. Moreover, the research gives an insight into the structure and organisation of distribution networks existing online. In particular, we provide information about how vendors are diversifying and replicating across marketplaces. We inform on the number of listings each vendor manages, the number of cryptomarkets they are active on and the products they offer. This research demonstrates the importance of online marketplaces in the context of illicit drug trafficking. It shows how the analysis of data available online may elicit knowledge on criminal activities. Such knowledge is mandatory to design efficient policy for monitoring or repressive purposes against anonymous marketplaces. Nevertheless, trafficking on Dark Net markets is difficult to analyse based only on digital data. A more holistic approach for investigating this crime problem should be developed. This should rely on a combined use and interpretation of digital and physical data within a single collaborative intelligence model.

  15. A further component analysis for illicit drugs mixtures with THz-TDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling; He, Ting; Pan, Rui

    2009-07-01

    A new method for quantitative analysis of mixtures of illicit drugs with THz time domain spectroscopy was proposed and verified experimentally. In traditional method we need fingerprints of all the pure chemical components. In practical as only the objective components in a mixture and their absorption features are known, it is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection and identification. Our new method of quantitatively inspect of the mixtures of illicit drugs is developed by using derivative spectrum. In this method, the ratio of objective components in a mixture can be obtained on the assumption that all objective components in the mixture and their absorption features are known but the unknown components are not needed. Then methamphetamine and flour, a illicit drug and a common adulterant, were selected for our experiment. The experimental result verified the effectiveness of the method, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs. This THz spectroscopy technique is great significant in the real-world applications of illicit drugs quantitative analysis. It could be an effective method in the field of security and pharmaceuticals inspection.

  16. Comparison of the performance of different silicon-based SALDI substrates for illicit drug detection.

    PubMed

    Guinan, T; Ronci, M; Vasani, R; Kobus, H; Voelcker, N H

    2015-01-01

    Surface-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) is an emerging technique used for the detection of small molecules (<700 Da) such as illicit drugs. In recent times, this technique has been employed for the detection of illicit drugs in various body fluids including saliva. Three common SALDI techniques, desorption ionization on porous silicon (DIOS), nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) and nanostructured laser desorption ionization (NALDI(™)) are compared for the detection of four drug classes, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, opiates and tropane alkaloids. We focus in our comparison on structural and chemical characteristics, as well as analytical performance and longevity.

  17. A risk profile of elite Australian athletes who use illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Matthew; Thomas, Johanna O

    2012-01-01

    Much of the literature investigating the relationship between sports participation and substance use has focused upon student populations, with little focus being given to athletes who participate at elite levels. Identifying why some athletes may be at a greater risk for substance use can help in the design and implementation of prevention initiatives. Data for the current study was from 1684 self-complete surveys with elite Australian athletes. Eight percent (n=134) of the sample reported the use of at least one of the six illicit drugs under investigation (ecstasy, cannabis, cocaine, meth/amphetamine, ketamine and GHB) in the past year. Having been offered or having had the opportunity to use illicit drugs in the past year, knowing other athletes who use drugs and identifying as a 'full-time athlete' were significant predictors of past-year illicit drug use, while having completed secondary education or a post-school qualification was associated with a lower likelihood of past-year illicit drug use. Athletes are part of a sportsnet that includes family, coaches, support staff and other athletes, and these relationships may encourage the use, supply and demand for drugs. The current findings suggest that relationships with some of those in the sportsnet may play an important role when understanding illicit drug use among elite athletes. As education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of illicit drug use among this group, initiatives should encourage athletes to engage in off-field pursuits which may also help prepare them for life after sport.

  18. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ≥1 to ≥3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ≥1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  19. Illicit Drug Trafficking in West Africa -- Primary Surveillance Radar Introduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    social cohesion.9 West African Trade West Africa has a long history of trade . This was not restricted to the export of slaves and tropical...Kola stimulant, cannabis and alcohol were all legally traded between Europe, the Middle East and the Sahara. Given West Africa’s long history of...West African Membership in Multilateral Anti-Crime Agreements or Bodies West African nations know and understand the problem of illicit trade but

  20. Pie Graph Data: Number of Americans Dependent on or Abusing Alcohol and Illicit Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age 12 and Older Dependent on or Abusing Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Alcohol / 17,876 Marijuana / 4,476 Pain Relievers / 1,921 Sedatives / 162 Tranquilizers / 521 Stimulants / 357 Heroin / ... Health Services Administration, 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health

  1. Marital Homophily on Illicit Drug Use among Young Adults: Assortative Mating or Marital Influence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Kandel, Denise

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of longitudinal and current survey data on 545 married/cohabiting couples found highest marital homophily for ethnicity, fertility expectations, religion, educational attainment, marital satisfaction, and illicit drug use. On drug use, data best supported a model of marital selection and assortative mating but was inconclusive concerning…

  2. DETECTION OF ILLICIT DRUGS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER STREAMS USING INTEGRATIVE SAMPLERS AND LC MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technique has been developed which has the potential to map regions of concern for increased drug usage and/or production by monitoring the input of chemical into the waterways. This approach can provide near "real-time" data on illegal activities. Determination of illicit drug...

  3. Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

  4. Non-destructive inspections of illicit drugs in envelope using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Shen, Jingling; Lu, Meihong; Jia, Yan; Sun, Jinhai; Liang, Laishun; Shi, Yanning; Xu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Cunlin

    2006-09-01

    The absorption spectra of two illicit drugs, methylenedioxyamphetarnine (MDA) and methamphetamine (MA), within and without two conventional envelopes are studied using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The characteristic absorption spectra of MDA and MA are obtained in the range of 0.2 THz to 2.5 THz. MDA has an obvious absorption peak at 1.41 THz while MA has obvious absorption peaks at 1.23 THz, 1.67 THz, 1.84 THz and 2.43 THz. We find that the absorption peaks of MDA and MA within the envelopes are almost the same as those without the envelopes respectively although the two envelopes have some different absorption in THz waveband. This result indicates that the type of illicit drugs in envelopes can be determined by identifying their characteristic absorption peaks, and THz time-domain spectroscopy is one of the most powerful candidates for illicit drugs inspection.

  5. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M; Reichman, Nancy E; Das, Dhiman

    2013-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use.

  6. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

  7. Human Drug Discrimination: Elucidating the Neuropharmacology of Commonly Abused Illicit Drugs.

    PubMed

    Bolin, B Levi; Alcorn, Joseph L; Reynolds, Anna R; Lile, Joshua A; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    2016-06-07

    Drug-discrimination procedures empirically evaluate the control that internal drug states have over behavior. They provide a highly selective method to investigate the neuropharmacological underpinnings of the interoceptive effects of drugs in vivo. As a result, drug discrimination has been one of the most widely used assays in the field of behavioral pharmacology. Drug-discrimination procedures have been adapted for use with humans and are conceptually similar to preclinical drug-discrimination techniques in that a behavior is differentially reinforced contingent on the presence or absence of a specific interoceptive drug stimulus. This chapter provides a basic overview of human drug-discrimination procedures and reviews the extant literature concerning the use of these procedures to elucidate the underlying neuropharmacological mechanisms of commonly abused illicit drugs (i.e., stimulants, opioids, and cannabis) in humans. This chapter is not intended to review every available study that used drug-discrimination procedures in humans. Instead, when possible, exemplary studies that used a stimulant, opioid, or Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis) to assess the discriminative-stimulus effects of drugs in humans are reviewed for illustrative purposes. We conclude by commenting on the current state and future of human drug-discrimination research.

  8. Illicit Drug Trade-Impact on United States National Health Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    research projects. The fiscal year 2013 National Drug Control budget requested $25.6 billion to reduce drug use and its consequences in the United States...formal review of current research on case studies of countries who have legalized certain drugs or put controls on illicit drugs which are...in this student academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army

  9. Illicit drug use as a challenge to the delivery of end-of-life care services to homeless persons: perceptions of health and social services professionals.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Ryan; Guirguis-Younger, Manal

    2012-06-01

    Homeless persons tend to die younger than the housed population and have complex, often unmet, end-of-life care needs. High levels of illicit drug use among this population are a particular challenge for health and social services professionals involved in end-of-life care services delivery. This article explores the challenges of end-of-life care services to homeless illicit drug users based on data collected during a national study on end-of-life care services delivery to homeless persons in Canada. The authors conducted qualitative interviews with 50 health and social services professionals involved in health services delivery to homeless persons in five cities. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Themes were organised into two domains. First, barriers preventing homeless illicit drug users from accessing end-of-life care services, such as competing priorities (e.g. withdrawal management), lack of trust in healthcare providers and discrimination. Second, challenges to end-of-life care services delivery to this population in health and social care settings, including non-disclosure of illicit drug use, pain and symptom management, interruptions in care, and lack of experience with addictions. The authors identify a need for increased research on the role of harm reduction in end-of-life care settings to address these challenges.

  10. Harassment, discrimination, violence, and illicit drug use among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carolyn F; Weiss, George; Ayala, George; Kipke, Michele D

    2010-08-01

    We examined the relationship among social discrimination, violence, and illicit drug use among an ethnically diverse cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) residing in Los Angeles. Five Hundred twenty-six YMSM (aged 18-24 years) were recruited using a venue-based, stratified probability sampling design. Surveys assessed childhood financial hardship, violence (physical assault, sexual assault, intimate partner violence), social discrimination (homophobia and racism), and illicit drug use in the past 3 months. Analyses examined main and interaction effects of key variables on drug use. Experiences of financial hardship, physical intimate partner violence and homophobia predicted drug use. Although African American participants were less likely to report drug use than their Caucasian peers, those who experienced greater sexual racism were at significantly greater risk for drug use. Racial/ethnic minority YMSM were at increased risk for experiencing various forms of social discrimination and violence that place them at increased risk for drug use.

  11. Values and beliefs of psychedelic drug users: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Michael; Lyvers, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Psychedelic drugs such as LSD and psilocybin are often claimed to be capable of inducing life-changing experiences described as mystical or transcendental, especially if high doses are taken. The present study examined possible enduring effects of such experiences by comparing users of psychedelic drugs (n = 88), users of nonpsychedelic illegal drugs (e.g., marijuana, amphetamines) (n = 29) and non illicit drug-using social drinkers (n = 66) on questionnaire measures of values, beliefs and emotional empathy. Samples were obtained from Israel (n = 110) and Australia (n = 73) in a cross-cultural comparison to see if values associated with psychedelic drug use transcended culture of origin. Psychedelic users scored significantly higher on mystical beliefs (e.g., oneness with God and the universe) and life values of spirituality and concern for others than the other groups, and lower on the value of financial prosperity, irrespective of culture of origin. Users of nonpsychedelic illegal drugs scored significantly lower on a measure of coping ability than both psychedelic users and non illicit drug users. Both groups of illegal drug users scored significantly higher on empathy than non illicit drug users. Results are discussed in the context of earlier findings from Pahnke (1966) and Doblin (1991) of the transformative effect of psychedelic experiences, although the possibility remains that present findings reflect predrug characteristics of those who chose to take psychedelic drugs rather than effects of the drugs themselves.

  12. Illicit Drug Use Among South Korean Offenders: Assessing the Generality of Social Learning Theory.

    PubMed

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

    2015-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, illicit drug use has become a problem in Korean society. This trend is likely due to the rapid globalization and expansion that occurred with the Internet revolution, which led to greater numbers of people socially learning about drug culture. The current study attempts to uncover criminogenic causality of such social learning about drug use by studying adult felony drug offenders in South Korea. The data used for the study were obtained from self-reported surveys, originally collected by the Korean Institution of Criminology (KIC). The final sample comprised 1,452 felony offenders convicted of illicit drug use, and their responses were analyzed with a set of multiple logistic regression tests. The current study found supportive evidence for the generalizability of social learning theory from the sample of the South Korean adult drug offenders. We argue that the current study provides additional empirical evidence that supports the generalizability of social learning theory.

  13. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  14. Searching for Truth: Internet Search Patterns as a Method of Investigating Online Responses to a Russian Illicit Drug Policy Debate

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, James A; Quinn, Casey

    2012-01-01

    Background This is a methodological study investigating the online responses to a national debate over an important health and social problem in Russia. Russia is the largest Internet market in Europe, exceeding Germany in the absolute number of users. However, Russia is unusual in that the main search provider is not Google, but Yandex. Objective This study had two main objectives. First, to validate Yandex search patterns against those provided by Google, and second, to test this method's adequacy for investigating online interest in a 2010 national debate over Russian illicit drug policy. We hoped to learn what search patterns and specific search terms could reveal about the relative importance and geographic distribution of interest in this debate. Methods A national drug debate, centering on the anti-drug campaigner Egor Bychkov, was one of the main Russian domestic news events of 2010. Public interest in this episode was accompanied by increased Internet search. First, we measured the search patterns for 13 search terms related to the Bychkov episode and concurrent domestic events by extracting data from Google Insights for Search (GIFS) and Yandex WordStat (YaW). We conducted Spearman Rank Correlation of GIFS and YaW search data series. Second, we coded all 420 primary posts from Bychkov's personal blog between March 2010 and March 2012 to identify the main themes. Third, we compared GIFS and Yandex policies concerning the public release of search volume data. Finally, we established the relationship between salient drug issues and the Bychkov episode. Results We found a consistent pattern of strong to moderate positive correlations between Google and Yandex for the terms "Egor Bychkov" (r s = 0.88, P < .001), “Bychkov” (r s = .78, P < .001) and “Khimki”(r s = 0.92, P < .001). Peak search volumes for the Bychkov episode were comparable to other prominent domestic political events during 2010. Monthly search counts were 146,689 for “Bychkov” and

  15. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ort, Christoph; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Griffiths, Paul; Hernández, Félix; González-Mariño, Iria; Grabic, Roman; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Mastroianni, Nicola; Meierjohann, Axel; Nefau, Thomas; Östman, Marcus; Pico, Yolanda; Racamonde, Ines; Reid, Malcolm; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Terzic, Senka; Thomaidis, Nikolaos; Thomas, Kevin V

    2014-01-01

    Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 cities, total population 11.50 million); 2013: 47 WWTPs in 21 countries (42 cities, total population 24.74 million). Measurements Excretion products of five illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine, cannabis) were quantified in wastewater samples using methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Findings Spatial differences were assessed and confirmed to vary greatly across European metropolitan areas. In general, results were in agreement with traditional surveillance data, where available. While temporal changes were substantial in individual cities and years (P ranging from insignificant to <10−3), overall means were relatively stable. The overall mean of methamphetamine was an exception (apparent decline in 2012), as it was influenced mainly by four cities. Conclusions Wastewater analysis performed across Europe provides complementary evidence on illicit drug consumption and generally concurs with traditional surveillance data. Wastewater analysis can measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than is the current norm for national surveys, and creates estimates where such data does not exist. PMID:24861844

  16. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  17. Behavioral Outcomes of Young Children Prenatally Exposed to Illicit Drugs: Review and Analysis of Experimental Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carta, Judith J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews 46 experimental studies on behavioral and developmental outcomes associated with prenatal exposure to illicit drugs. Only half of the 460 individual outcomes significantly indicated adverse effects of prenatal exposure. The greatest number of these outcomes was for infants younger than one month, with relatively few outcomes…

  18. Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Abusers: Effects on Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared effects, for illicit drug abusers, of five 16-hour unstructured marathon groups, and five matched, randomly selected control groups. Used semantic differential consisting of the specific adjective pairs and the evaluative scale of the concept My Real Self. Marathon group members rated some adjective pairs differently and rated the…

  19. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  20. Use of illicit stimulant drugs in Finland: a wastewater study in ten major cities.

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, Aino; Ariniemi, Kari; Heinonen, Mari; Kuoppasalmi, Kimmo; Gunnar, Teemu

    2014-07-15

    Estimations of drug use at the national level are generally based on various sources of information, such as drug seizures, socio-scientific studies, toxicological data and hospital records. Nevertheless, all of these approaches have limitations that cannot be overcome, even if conclusions are drawn from combined data retrieved from different sources. Drug epidemiology through wastewater analysis has the potential to provide unique perspectives, internationally comparable data, and up-to-date information on the use of both traditional illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPSs). In Finland, no large-scale studies on regional illicit drug consumption, based on a wastewater approach, have been reported. In this study, 24-h influent composite samples were collected during two 1-week study periods from ten different wastewater treatment plants in May and November-December 2012. The cities included in the study represent the geographical areas throughout Finland and cover 40% of the Finnish population. The samples were analyzed with an in-house validated, ultra high-performance liquid-chromatography mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for various common illicit drugs and some NPS type stimulant drugs. The results were also compared with available statistics, information on drug seizures and laboratory-confirmed toxicological data, as well as other studies available based on wastewater analysis. The data show that illicit stimulant drug use is more common in the larger cities of Southern Finland. Amphetamine was the most commonly used drug in all 10 cities during both collection periods (excluding the collection period in May in Lappeenranta). Cocaine consumption remains very low in Finland in comparison to other European countries; it was concentrated in the biggest cities in Southern Finland. This study shows interesting temporal and spatial differences in drug use in Finland, as well as the possibilities of using wastewater analytics to reveal local

  1. Detection of illicit drugs in impaired driver saliva by a field-usable SERS analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    One of the greatest dangers of drug use is in combination with driving. According to the most recent National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies, more than 11% of drivers tested positive for illicit drugs, while 18% of drivers killed in accidents tested positive for illicit, prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Consequently, there is a need for a rapid, noninvasive, roadside drug testing device, similar to the breathalyzers used by law enforcement officials to estimate blood alcohol levels of impaired drivers. In an effort to satisfy this need we have been developing a sampling kit that allows extraction of drugs from 1 mL of saliva and detection by surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy using a portable Raman analyzer. Here we describe the development of the sampling kit and present measurements of diazepam at sub μg/mL concentrations measured in ~15 minutes.

  2. Drugged Driving: Increased Traffic Risks Involving Licit and Illicit Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkinton, Melinda W.; Robertson, Angela; McCluskey, D. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Driving under the influence of drugs poses risks for traffic safety. Most research attention has been focused on the most prevalent drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescription drugs with high abuse potential. The objectives of this study were to determine the types of drugs used by convicted DUI offenders on the day of their…

  3. Wastewater-based assessment of regional and temporal consumption patterns of illicit drugs and therapeutic opioids in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Krizman, Ivona; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Terzic, Senka

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study of spatial and temporal consumption patterns of the selected illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, cannabis) and therapeutic opioids (codeine, methadone) has been performed in six Croatian cities by applying wastewater-based epidemiology. The investigated cities (Bjelovar, Vinkovci, Varazdin, Karlovac, Zadar and Zagreb) varied widely in the population size (27,000-688,000 inhabitants) as well as in the number of registered drug consumers included in compulsory and voluntary medical treatment and rehabilitation programs (30-513 persons/100,000 inhabitants of age 15-64). The most consumed illicit drugs were cannabis (10-70doses/day/1000 inhabitants), heroin (<0.2-10doses/day/1000 inhabitants) and cocaine (0.2-8.7doses/day/1000 inhabitants), while the consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (<0.01-4.4doses/day/1000 inhabitants). Enhanced consumption of illegal drugs was generally associated with larger urban centers (Zagreb and Zadar) however comparatively high consumption rate of cocaine, MDMA and methadone was determined in some smaller cities as well. The overall average dose number of 3 major illegal stimulants (cocaine, MDMA, amphetamine) was rather similar to the number of corresponding heroin doses, which is in disagreement with a comparatively much higher proportion of heroin users in the total number of registered drug users in Croatia. Furthermore, the illicit drug consumption pattern in the large continental city (Zagreb) was characterized by a significant enhancement of the consumption of all stimulants during the weekend, which could not be confirmed neither for the coastal city of Zadar nor for the remaining small continental cities. On the other hand, the city of Zadar exhibited a significant increase of stimulant drug usage during summer vacation period, as a result of pronounced seasonal changes of the population composition and lifestyle in coastal tourist centers. The obtained results

  4. Refining correction factors for back-calculation of illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Lor, Emma; Zuccato, Ettore; Castiglioni, Sara

    2016-12-15

    The estimation of illicit drugs use through wastewater analysis has become an important issue in the last few years due to their large worldwide consumption, which results in economic, social and health costs. The amounts of urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs (selected drugs or their metabolites) measured in wastewater are used to back-calculate the consumption of a particular drug by the population and to monitor temporal and spatial trends of illicit drug use in a community. The reliability of back-calculation depends on different factors, one being the accuracy of correction factors. A wide range of correction factors have been used in different studies and some biases must be expected when comparing results. Most of the correction factors were developed several years ago, so they need to be updated to include the latest information on pharmacokinetics. Moreover, new comprehensive methods to treat data should be adopted. The goal of this study is to refine current correction factors for back-calculation of the most widely used illicit drugs: amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The mean percentages of excretion of the parent drugs and their metabolites were calculated for each route of administration, utilizing all accessible pharmacokinetic studies in the literature. This allowed to select the most suitable drug target residue and a refined correction factor was obtained for each substance considering the most frequent route of administration. The refined correction factors we propose can be used in wastewater based epidemiology to standardize the back-calculation of these drugs. These results can be included in the best practice protocol currently adopted in EU studies in order to reduce uncertainty and improve the comparability of results.

  5. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  6. Screening for drugs in oral fluid: illicit drug use and drug driving in a sample of Queensland motorists.

    PubMed

    Davey, J; Leal, N; Freeman, J

    2007-05-01

    Police Services in a number of Australian states have indicated random roadside drug testing will be implemented to target drug driving. This paper outlines research conducted to provide an estimate of the prevalence of drug driving in a sample of Queensland drivers. Oral fluid samples were collected from 781 drivers who volunteered to participate at Random Breath Testing (RBT) sites in a large Queensland regional area. Illicit substances tested for included cannabis (delta 9 tetrahydrocannibinol [THC]), amphetamine type substances, heroin and cocaine. Drivers also completed a self-report questionnaire regarding their drug-related driving behaviour. Samples that were drug-positive at initial screening were sent to a government laboratory for confirmation. Oral fluid samples from 27 participants (3.5%) were confirmed positive for at least one illicit substance. The most common drugs detected in oral fluid were cannabis (delta 9 THC) (n = 13) followed by amphetamine type substances (n = 11). A key finding was that cannabis was also confirmed as the most common self-reported drug combined with driving and that individuals who tested positive to any drug through oral fluid analysis were also more likely to report the highest frequency of drug driving. Furthermore, a comparison between drug vs drink driving detection rates for the study period revealed a higher detection rate for drug driving (3.5%) vs drink driving (0.8%). This research provides evidence that drug driving is relatively prevalent on Queensland Roads. The paper will further outline the study findings and present possible directions for future drug driving research.

  7. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB.

  8. Can price get the monkey off our back? A meta-analysis of illicit drug demand.

    PubMed

    Gallet, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Because of the increased availability of price data over the past 15 years, several studies have estimated the demand for illicit drugs, providing 462 estimates of the price elasticity. Results from estimating several meta-regressions reveal that these price elasticity estimates are influenced by a number of study characteristics. For instance, the price elasticity differs across drugs, with its absolute value being smallest for marijuana, compared with cocaine and heroin. Furthermore, price elasticity estimates are sensitive to whether demand is modeled in the short-run or the long-run, measures of quantity and price, whether or not alcohol and other illicit drugs are included in the specification of demand, and the location of demand. However, a number of other factors, including the functional form of demand, several specification issues, the type of data and method used to estimate demand, and the quality of the publication outlet, have less influence on the price elasticity.

  9. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  10. Use of illicit drugs among high-school students in Jamaica.

    PubMed Central

    Soyibo, K.; Lee, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of a survey to assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among high-school students in Jamaica. A total of 2417 high-school students in 26 schools were covered: 1063 boys and 1354 girls of whom 1317 were grade-10 students (mean age 15.7 years) and 1100 were grade-11 students (mean age 16.8 years). Of the students, 1072 and 1345 were from rural and urban schools, respectively, while 1126 and 1291 were children of parents who were professionals and nonprofessionals, respectively. The following drugs were used by the students: marijuana (10.2%), cocaine (2.2%), heroin (1.5%) and opium (1.2%). Illicit drug use among males, urban students and children of professionals was higher than that among females, rural students and children of nonprofessionals, respectively. PMID:10212517

  11. Searching for safety: addressing search engine, website, and provider accountability for illicit online drug sales.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Online sales of pharmaceuticals are a rapidly growing phenomenon. Yet despite the dangers of purchasing drugs over the Internet, sales continue to escalate. These dangers include patient harm from fake or tainted drugs, lack of clinical oversight, and financial loss. Patients, and in particular vulnerable groups such as seniors and minorities, purchase drugs online either naïvely or because they lack the ability to access medications from other sources due to price considerations. Unfortunately, high risk online drug sources dominate the Internet, and virtually no accountability exists to ensure safety of purchased products. Importantly, search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and MSN, although purportedly requiring "verification" of Internet drug sellers using PharmacyChecker.com requirements, actually allow and profit from illicit drug sales from unverified websites. These search engines are not held accountable for facilitating clearly illegal activities. Both website drug seller anonymity and unethical physicians approving or writing prescriptions without seeing the patient contribute to rampant illegal online drug sales. Efforts in this country and around the world to stem the tide of these sales have had extremely limited effectiveness. Unfortunately, current congressional proposals are fractionated and do not address the key issues of demand by vulnerable patient populations, search engine accountability, and the ease with which financial transactions can be consummated to promote illegal online sales. To deal with the social scourge of illicit online drug sales, this article proposes a comprehensive statutory solution that creates a no-cost/low-cost national Drug Access Program to break the chain of demand from vulnerable patient populations and illicit online sellers, makes all Internet drug sales illegal unless the Internet pharmacy is licensed through a national Internet pharmacy licensing program, prohibits financial transactions for illegal online drug

  12. Recruitment, Follow-Up and Characteristics of HIV Infected Adults who Use Illicit Drugs in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Marianna K; Campa, Adriana; Page, J Bryan; Lai, Shenghan; Tsalaile, Lesedi; Martinez, Sabrina Sales; Burns, Patricia; Williams, O’Dale; Li, Yinghui; van Widenfelt, Erik; Bussmann, Herman; Sikhulele, Moyo; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Myron; Marlink, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background With one of the worst HIV prevalence rates in the world, Botswana has made great strides in addressing AIDS. Nevertheless, to fully contain the epidemic, outreach to marginalized groups, including illicit drug users, is critical. Objective To conduct targeted outreach within an intervention trial to recruit HIV-infected drug users and assess HIV disease and nutritional status. Method Recruitment strategies included safeguarding confidentiality, involving ocal health-care professionals, advertising, and participation incentives. Urine toxicology, CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, blood chemistry, plasma micronutrients, dietary history, drug use and morbidity were assessed for two years. Results Targeted outreach identified 138 HIV-infected persons who used marijuana; 18.1% had CD4 cell counts ≤ 350 cells/μL and 39.9% had low BMI. Eligible marijuana users (N=52) had significantly lower BMI (21.8 3.7 vs. 24.3 ± 5.3 kg/m2, P=0.001), higher HIV viral load (4.36 ± 0.89 vs. 4.09 ± 0.89 log10, P=0.018), and higher kilocalorie intake (1924 ± 1055 vs. 1620 ± 926 Kcalories, P=0.025) than those who did not use marijuana (N=748) with similar CD4 cell count. Marijuana users ≥ 40 years old had more opportunistic diseases (P=0.020) than non-users of the same age. Benzodiazepine use was detected among 57 participants and they had higher BMI than marijuana users (24.4 ± 6.8 vs. 21.8 ± 3.7 kg/m2, P= 0.017). Conclusion A population stigmatized by illicit drug use and HIV-infection can be brought into a clinical research setting in Africa. HIV-infected marijuana users were at a risk for higher HIV viral load, lower BMI and more comorbidities than nonusers. Outreach to this marginalized group is important for containing the HIV epidemic. PMID:26855969

  13. The Exploitation of Drug Users.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Shirley; Montagne, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drug users have been exploited in research studies and clinical practice. We explore ways in which exploitation has occurred and strategies to help patients, research subjects and communities to prevent or avoid exploitation.

  14. The frequency of alcohol, illicit and licit drug consumption in the general driving population in South-East Hungary.

    PubMed

    Institóris, László; Tóth, Anita Réka; Molnár, Attila; Arok, Zsófia; Kereszty, Eva; Varga, Tibor

    2013-01-10

    In the framework of the DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) EU-6 project, a roadside survey was performed in South-East Hungary to determine the incidence of alcohol and the most frequent illicit and licit drug consumption (amphetamines, THC, illicit and medical opiates, cocaine, ketamine, benzodiazepines, zopiclone and zolpidem) in the general driving population. All 3110 drivers stopped between 01 January 2008 and 31 December 2009 were checked for alcohol, and among them 2738 persons (87.7%) participated in the further examinations, on a voluntary basis. Licit and illicit drugs were determined from their oral fluid samples by GC-MS analysis. Illicit drugs were detected in 27 cases (0.99%), licit drugs in 85 cases (3.14%), and alcohol (cut off: 0.1g/l) was found in 4 (0.13%) cases. Illicit drug consumption was the highest among men of the ages 18-34, during the spring, and on the week-end nights. With respect to licit drugs, the highest incidence was found among women over the age of 50, during the summer, and on the week-days. All alcohol positive cases were men over the age of 35. In comparison to international European averages, the alcohol and illicit drug consumption was low, but the licit drug consumption was over the European average.

  15. Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Kodo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Watanabe, Yuuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2003-10-01

    The absence of non-destructive inspection techniques for illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes has resulted in such drugs being smuggled across international borders freely. We have developed a novel basic technology for terahertz imaging, which allows detection and identification of drugs concealed in envelopes, by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. The spatial distributions of the targets are obtained from terahertz multispectral transillumination images, using absorption spectra measured with a tunable terahertz-wave source. The samples we used were methamphetamine and MDMA, two of the most widely consumed illegal drugs in Japan, and aspirin as a reference.

  16. Perinatal screening for illicit drugs: policies in hospitals in a large metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Birchfield, M; Scully, J; Handler, A

    1995-01-01

    More data are needed regarding the screening policies of perinatal units for illicit drugs, especially in states where positive drug test results are linked with child neglect. The process by which pregnant women and infants are selected for illicit drug testing has caused concern because it may lead to bias and overrepresentation of certain populations in the drug-using groups. To examine hospital policies for screening women and newborn infants in prenatal, labor, and newborn hospital units, we conducted a telephone and follow-up mail survey of 49 Chicago-area hospitals. Nurse administrators or clinical specialists were questioned about the criteria used to select mothers and infants for testing, the extent to which written informed or oral consent was obtained for drug tests, and the actions taken by hospitals in response to positive drug test results in infants. Variations in policy among hospitals and hospital units were evident. The most frequently cited criteria for testing mothers and infants for drug use were verbal admission of drug use, the health provider's suspicion of drug use, a positive diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus or a sexually transmitted disease in the mother, or a combination of these criteria. Universal drug screening may be a viable option when sanctions are the consequence of perinatal drug testing. The removal of sanctions, however, and a return to disclosure within a supportive client-caregiver relationship are the preferred options.

  17. Disposable microfluidic device with ultraviolet detection for highly resolved screening of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Wei; Zhai, Chun; Lei, Jianping; Song, Chaojin; Zhang, Daming; Sheng, Jin; Ju, Huangxian

    2009-09-01

    A disposable microfluidic device was constructed by conveniently integrating one poly(methyl methacrylate) board with four reservoirs and one fractured fused-silica capillary with 50 microm i.d. and 7.5 cm total length on a printed circuit board for applying sampling and separation voltages. The disposable microfluidic device combined with a home-made ultraviolet workstation could be conveniently used for efficient screening and quantitative detection of microg mL(-1) illicit drugs. Using eight illicit drugs as models, they could be baseline-separated within 240 s with the separation efficiency up to 600,047 plates m(-1) at the designed device. The novel device and proposed protocol were successfully used to screen illicit drugs in human urine. This work presented a simple and low-cost method to fabricate the microfluidic device and provided a powerful way for sensitive and specific multi-screening of different drugs with high resolution, fast separation and low-cost.

  18. Left-handedness is statistically linked to lifetime experimentation with illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Preti, Antonio; Usai, Ileana; Pintus, Elisa; Sardu, Cinzia; Petretto, Donatella Rita; Masala, Carmelo

    2012-01-01

    Handedness has been linked to an enhanced risk of alcohol abuse, while less is known about other drugs. A convenience sample of 1004 male and female Italian participants (females=58%) from the general community (18 to 65 years old: average age = 30; standard deviation = 10, median = 25) was asked about: handedness (preference in writing); lifetime use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs; levels of psychological distress, as measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ); and levels of delusion proneness, as measured by the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI). Overall, 92 individuals (9.2%) were classified as left-handed, with no significant difference reported among genders. Lifetime use of illicit drugs, primarily cannabis, was reported by 20% of the sample. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, after taking into account sex, age, and caseness on GHQ and PDI, left-handed people in the sample were statistically more likely to report lifetime experimentation with heroin, ecstasy/amphetamine, and, marginally, hallucinogens, but not alcohol or tobacco. Different mechanisms might contribute to an explanation of greater lifetime experimentation with some illicit drugs among left-handed people as compared to right-handed people. However, replications with clinical samples are necessary before any definitive statements can be made.

  19. Natural attenuation of pharmaceuticals and an illicit drug in a laboratory column experiment.

    PubMed

    Greenhagen, Andrew M; Lenczewski, Melissa E; Carroll, Monica

    2014-11-01

    Trace amounts of pharmaceutical compounds have been detected in waters across the United States. Many compounds are released as the result of human ingestion and subsequent excretion of over-the-counter and prescription medications, and illicit drugs. This research utilized columns (30×30cm) of sand and undisturbed fine-grained sediments to simulate injection of wastewater containing pharmaceuticals and an illicit drug, such as would be found in a septic system, leaky sewer, or landfill. The columns were placed in a temperature-controlled laboratory and each was injected with natural groundwater containing known concentrations of caffeine, methamphetamine, and acetaminophen. Natural attenuation of each chemical was observed in all columns. The highest amount removed (approximately 90%) occurred in the undisturbed column injected with methamphetamine, compared with little reduction in the sand column. When the suite of drugs was injected, loss of methamphetamine was less than when methamphetamine was injected alone. The subsurface sediments exhibit the ability to remove a substantial amount of the injected pharmaceuticals and illicit drug; however, complete removal was not achieved. There was little attenuation of injected pharmaceuticals in the sand column which demonstrates a concern for water quality in the environment if pharmaceuticals were to contaminate a sandy aquifer. Understanding the transport of pharmaceuticals in the subsurface environment is an important component of protecting drinking water supplies from contamination.

  20. Breaking the Taboo: Illicit Drug Use among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hogendorf, Anna M.; Fendler, Wojciech; Sieroslawski, Janusz; Bobeff, Katarzyna; Wegrewicz, Krzysztof; Malewska, Kamila I.; Przudzik, Maciej W.; Szmigiero-Kawko, Malgorzata; Sztangierska, Beata; Mysliwiec, Malgorzata; Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of illicit drug use in a group of Polish adolescents with type 1 diabetes (DM1) in comparison with a national cohort of their healthy peers. Methods. Two hundred and nine adolescents with DM1, aged 15–18 years, were studied in 2013 with an anonymous questionnaire prepared for the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). The control group was a representative sample of 12114 students at the same age who took part in ESPAD in 2011. Metabolic control was regarded as good if self-reported HbA1c was <8% or poor if HbA1c was ≥8%. Results. Lifetime prevalence of illicit drug use was lower among adolescents with DM1 than in the control group [58 (28%) versus 5524 (46%), p = 10−5]. Cannabis preparations were the most frequently used substances [38 (18.3%) versus 3976 (33.1%), p = 10−5], followed by tranquilizers, sedatives, and amphetamine. Lifetime and last 12-month use of cannabis were associated with poorer glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8%), p < 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. Conclusions. Adolescents with DM1 report using illicit drugs to a lesser extent than their healthy peers. The use of cannabis is associated with a poorer metabolic control in teens with DM1. PMID:26858959

  1. Childhood maltreatment and illicit drug use in middle adulthood: the role of neighborhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Preeti; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2012-08-01

    This paper examined whether childhood maltreatment increases the risk of living in neighborhoods with less desirable characteristics (i.e., more disorder and disadvantage, less social cohesion, social control and advantage, and fewer resources) in middle adulthood and whether these neighborhood characteristics influence subsequent illicit drug use. Using a prospective cohort design study, court documented cases of childhood abuse and neglect and matched controls (n = 833) were first interviewed as young adults (mean age = 29 years) from 1989 to 1995 and again in middle adulthood from 2000 to 2002 (mean age = 40 years) and 2003 to 2005 (mean age = 41 years). In middle adulthood, individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect were more likely to live in neighborhoods with more disorder and disadvantage and less social cohesion and advantage compared to controls and to engage in illicit drug use during the past year. Path analyses showed an indirect effect on illicit drug use via neighborhood disorder among maltreated children, even after accounting for drug abuse symptoms in young adulthood, although this was sex specific and race specific, affecting women and Whites. Overall, child abuse and neglect places children on a negative trajectory that dynamically influences negative outcomes at multiple levels into middle adulthood.

  2. The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2010-04-01

    A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

  3. Contamination Profiles and Mass Loadings of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs from a Small Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The ...

  4. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Shana; Nikulina, Valentina; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Morton, Cory; Newsome, Valerie; Gunn, Alana; Hoefinger, Heidi; Aikins, Ross; Smith, Vivian; Barry, Victoria; Downing, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion) of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846) of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group. PMID:26690813

  5. Mexicans’ Use of Illicit Drugs in an Era of Drug Reform: National Comparative Analysis by Migrant Status

    PubMed Central

    Villatoro, Jorge Ameth; Kong, Yinfei; Gamiño, Marycarmen Bustos; Vega, William A.; Mora, Maria Elena Medina

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of illicit drug use are considerably lower in Mexico than in the United States, rates in Mexico have risen significantly. This increase has particular implications for Mexican women and U.S. migrants, who are considered at increased risk of drug use. Due to drug reforms enacted in Mexico in 2008, it is critical to evaluate patterns of drug use among migrants who reside in both regions. We analysed a sample of Mexicans (N = 16,249) surveyed during a national household survey in 2011, the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). Comparative analyses based on Mexicans’ migrant status—(1) never in the United States, (2) visited the United States, or (3) lived in the United States (transnationals)—featured analysis of variance and chi-square global tests. Two multilevel regressions were conducted to determine the relationships among migrant status, women, and illicit drug use. Comparative findings showed significant differences in type and number of drugs used among Mexicans by migrant status. The regression models showed that compared with Mexicans who had never visited the United States, Mexican transnationals were more likely to report having used drugs (OR = 2.453, 95% CI = 1.933, 3.113) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 2.061, 95% CI = 1.626, 2.613). Women were less likely than men to report having used drugs (OR = 0.187, 95% CI = 0.146, 0.239) and using more illicit drugs (IRR = 0.153, 95% CI = 0.116, 0.202). Overall, the findings support further exploration of risk factors for illicit drug use among Mexican transnationals, who exhibit greater drug use behaviours than Mexicans never in the United States. Because drug reform mandates referrals to treatment for those with recurrent issues of drug use, it is critical for the Mexican government and civic society to develop the capacity to offer evidence-based substance abuse treatment for returning migrants with high-risk drug behaviours. PMID:24816376

  6. Multi-residue screening of prioritised human pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and bactericides in sediments and sludge.

    PubMed

    Langford, Katherine H; Reid, Malcolm; Thomas, Kevin V

    2011-08-01

    A robust multi-residue method was developed for the analysis of a selection of pharmaceutical compounds, illicit drugs and personal care product bactericides in sediments and sludges. Human pharmaceuticals were selected for analysis in Scottish sewage sludge and freshwater sediments based on prescription, physico-chemical and occurrence data. The method was suitable for the analysis of the selected illicit drugs amphetamine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, and methamphetamine, the pharmaceuticals atenolol, bendroflumethiazide, carbamazepine, citalopram, diclofenac, fluoxetine, ibuprofen, and salbutamol, and the bactericides triclosan and triclocarban in sewage sludge and freshwater sediment. The method provided an overall recovery of between 56 and 128%, RSDs of between 2 and 19% and LODs of between 1 and 50 ng g(-1). Using the methodology the human pharmaceuticals atenolol, carbamazepine and citalopram and the bactericides triclosan and triclocarban were detected in Scottish sewage sludge. The illicit drugs cocaine, its metabolite benzoylecgonine, amphetamine and methamphetamine were not detected in any of the samples analysed. Triclosan and triclocarban were present at the highest concentrations with triclocarban detected in all but one sample and showing a pattern of co-occurrence in both sludge and sediment samples.

  7. Stigmatization of Illicit Drug Use among Puerto Rican Health Professionals in Training1

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Negrón, Salvador Santiago; Neilands, Torsten B.; Bou, Francheska Cintrón; Rivera, Souhail Malavé

    2010-01-01

    Social stigma continues to be a barrier for health promotion in our society. One of the most stigmatized health conditions in our time continues to be addiction to illicit drug use. Although it has been widely recognized as a health concern, criminalizing approaches continue to be common in Puerto Rico. Health professionals need to engage in challenging the stigma of illicit drug use in order to foster policies and government efforts with health-oriented approaches. Still, personal stigmatizing attitudes among them continue to be a barrier for the implementation of this agenda. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to document stigma towards illicit drug use among a sample of health professionals in training, and explore differences in such attitudes among participants from different areas of training. In order to achieve this objective we carried out a sequential mixed method approach with a sample of 501 health professionals in training or practice from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, psychology and social work. Results evidence the continued existence of stigmatizing attitudes among this population. We discuss some of the implications for public health and potential strategies for action. PMID:20496525

  8. Illicit drug use, alcohol use and problem drinking among infrequent and frequent road ragers.

    PubMed

    Butters, Jennifer E; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E; Asbridge, Mark

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between illicit drug and alcohol use, problem drinking, and road rage. Particular attention is devoted to the association between these behaviors and frequent involvement in road rage activities. The data are taken from the 2002 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, a representative telephone survey with a sample of 2421 adults aged 18 and older in Ontario. A cluster analysis was performed and analysis of variance procedures were used to test for group differences. The cluster analysis revealed five distinct groups involved in various types of road rage behavior. Frequent road ragers, accounting for 5.3% of the sample, were involved in the most severe forms of road rage behavior and were most likely (24%) to report problem drinking and past year cannabis (23.8%), cocaine (5.4%), and ecstasy (10%) use. These data indicate that illicit drug use and alcohol problems are significantly greater for those involved in the most serious forms of road rage behavior. Further work is needed to identify the mechanisms by which illicit drug use and problem drinking are linked to road rage.

  9. "Not just eliminating the mosquito but draining the swamp": A critical geopolitics of Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction and Turkey's approach to illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Evered, Kyle T; Evered, Emine Ö

    2016-07-01

    In the 1970s, Turkey ceased to be a significant producer state of illicit drugs, but it continued to serve as a key route for the trade of drugs between East and West. Over the past decade, however, authorities identified two concerns beyond its continued transit state status. These reported problems entail both new modes of production and a rising incidence of drug abuse within the nation-state - particularly among its youth. Amid these developments, new law enforcement institutions emerged and acquired European sponsorship, leading to the establishment of TUBİM (the Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction). Coordinating with and reporting to the European Union agency EMCDDA (the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction), TUBİM's primary assigned duties entail the collection and analysis of data on drug abuse, trafficking, and prevention, the geographic identification of sites of concern (e.g. consumption, drug-related crimes, and peoples undergoing treatment), and the production of annual national reports. In this article, we examine the geopolitical origins of TUBİM as Turkey's central apparatus for confronting drug problems and its role as a vehicle for policy development, interpretation, and enforcement. In doing so, we emphasize the political and spatial dimensions inherent to the country's institutional and policy-driven approaches to contend with drug-related problems, and we assess how this line of attack reveals particular ambiguities in mission when evaluated from scales at world regional, national, and local levels. In sum, we assess how Turkey's new institutional and legislative landscapes condition the state's engagements with drug use, matters of user's health, and policy implementation at local scales and amid ongoing political developments.

  10. Urinalysis and hair analysis for illicit drugs of driver applicants and drivers in the trucking industry.

    PubMed

    Mieczkowski, Tom

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare the differential rate of detection of illicit drugs when using two distinct sample types, hair and urine specimens. The specimens were collected from persons who applied for employment as a truck driver, or were collected from randomly selected currently employed truck drivers. The data is examined for job applicants and employees to determine if any differences in outcomes are associated with employment status or specimen type. The data is also assessed for specific patterns associated with particular drugs and their assay outcomes. Overall, it was determined that drug positive cases are relatively rare. Job applicants are more likely to test positive for an illicit drug than a currently employed driver. Applicants are more frequently positive for a drug by a factor of 3 for both urinalysis and hair analysis when compared to currently employed drivers. Approximately 2% of applicants were urine positive and 9% hair positive for an illegal drug. Considering employed truck drivers 0.6% were drug positive by urinalysis and 3% when using hair analysis. It is concluded that hair assays detect more drug use than urinalysis. It is also concluded that when urine and hair assay outcomes are non-concordant the typical case is a positive hair analysis with a negative urinalysis.

  11. [Critical perspective of relatives and acquaintances regarding protective factors and the use of illicit drugs in Guayaquil, Equador].

    PubMed

    Oviedo Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Gierbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perspectives of drug users' relatives and acquaintances about protective factors for illicit drug use at a health center in Guayaquil. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Data collection was performed through interviews using a questionnaire. Interviews were performed with 100 people who knew a drug user (relative or friend). The results showed that the following personal and family factors could be protective: 97% having solid moral principles, 96% express their feelings, 98% dedicate time for the family, and 95 % have a supportive relationship with one of the parents. Regarding the community, all participants (100%) agree there is a need for a government that understands this issue, 99% refer there should be honest policemen, and 99% state the need for programs that protect people from drug use and institutions that work with prevention. Family, community and personal decisions have effects on becoming involved, hence the need to reinforce protective factors and thus reduce the number of addicted individuals.

  12. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, Shin; Forbes, Thomas P; van Asten, Arian C; Gillen, Greg

    2015-01-01

    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal intensity to the amount of drug deposited on the surface were generated from inkjet-printed arrays of cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin with a deposited-mass ranging nominally from 10 pg to 50 ng per spot. These curves were used to construct concentration maps that visualized the spatial distribution of the drugs on top of a fingerprint, as well as being able to quantify the amount of drugs in a given area within the map. For the drugs on the fingerprint on silicon, ToF-SIMS showed great success, as it was able to generate concentration maps of all three drugs. On the fingerprint on paper, only the concentration map of cocaine could be constructed using ToF-SIMS and DESI-MS, as the signals of methamphetamine and heroin were completely suppressed by matrix and substrate effects. Spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs using imaging mass spectrometry is possible, but the choice of substrates could significantly affect the results.

  13. Illicit drug use and HIV risk in the Dominican Republic: tourism areas create drug use opportunities.

    PubMed

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Lee, Jane J; Ruiz, Yumary; Hagan, Holly; Delva, Marlyn; Quiñones, Zahira; Kamler, Alexandra; Robles, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    While the Caribbean has the second highest global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, insufficient attention has been paid to contributing factors of the region's elevated risk. Largely neglected is the potential role of drugs in shaping the Caribbean HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic. Caribbean studies have almost exclusively focused on drug transportation and seldom acknowledged local user economies and drug-related health and social welfare consequences. While tourism is consistently implicated within the Caribbean HIV epidemic, less is known about the intersection of drugs and tourism. Tourism areas represent distinct ecologies of risk often characterised by sex work, alcohol consumption and population mixing between lower and higher risk groups. Limited understanding of availability and usage of drugs in countries such as the Dominican Republic (DR), the Caribbean country with the greatest tourist rates, presents barriers to HIV prevention. This study addresses this gap by conducting in-depth interviews with 30 drug users in Sosúa, a major sex tourism destination of the DR. A two-step qualitative data analysis process was utilised and interview transcripts were systematically coded using a well-defined thematic codebook. Results suggest three themes: (1) local demand shifts drug routes to tourism areas, (2) drugs shape local economies and (3) drug use facilitates HIV risk behaviours in tourism areas.

  14. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Illicit Drug Use Compared to Biological and Self-Reported Methods

    PubMed Central

    Genz, Andrew; Westergaard, Ryan P; Chang, Larry W; Bollinger, Robert C; Latkin, Carl; Kirk, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of mHealth methods for capturing illicit drug use and associated behaviors have become more widely used in research settings, yet there is little research as to how valid these methods are compared to known measures of capturing and quantifying drug use. Objective We examined the concordance of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of drug use to previously validated biological and audio-computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) methods. Methods The Exposure Assessment in Current Time (EXACT) study utilized EMA methods to assess drug use in real-time in participants’ natural environments. Utilizing mobile devices, participants self-reported each time they used heroin or cocaine over a 4-week period. Each week, PharmChek sweat patch samples were collected for measurement of heroin and cocaine and participants answered an ACASI-based questionnaire to report behaviors and drug using events during the prior week. Reports of cocaine and heroin use captured through EMA were compared to weekly biological or self-report measures through percent agreement and concordance correlation coefficients to account for repeated measures. Correlates of discordance were obtained from logistic regression models. Results A total of 109 participants were a median of 48.5 years old, 90% African American, and 52% male. During 436 person-weeks of observation, we recorded 212 (49%) cocaine and 103 (24%) heroin sweat patches, 192 (44%) cocaine and 161 (37%) heroin ACASI surveys, and 163 (37%) cocaine and 145 (33%) heroin EMA reports. The percent agreement between EMA and sweat patch methods was 70% for cocaine use and 72% for heroin use, while the percent agreement between EMA and ACASI methods was 77% for cocaine use and 79% for heroin use. Misreporting of drug use by EMA compared to sweat patch and ACASI methods were different by illicit drug type. Conclusions Our work demonstrates moderate to good agreement of EMA to biological and standard self-report methods in

  15. The Emerging Threat of Illicit Drug Funding of Terrorist Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    military planner familiar with the terrorist threat, “ Bugs and Drugs are the wave of the future.”56 “The Communist trafficking operation began...sold as Dexedrine, as a “fatigue management tool,” with pilots commonly referring to them as “go pills .” “ B-1 pilots like Col. Robert Gass take the... pills to help stay alert on long missions. “During mission planning, we plan when we are going to take these pills , and its based on what we’re doing

  16. Drug Testing for Newborn Exposure to Illicit Substances in Pregnancy: Pitfalls and Pearls

    PubMed Central

    Farst, Karen J.; Valentine, Jimmie L.; Hall, R. Whit

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of drug usage during pregnancy vary by region and survey tool used. Clinicians providing care to newborns should be equipped to recognize a newborn who has been exposed to illicit drugs during pregnancy by the effects the exposure might cause at the time of delivery and/or by drug testing of the newborn. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature and assess the clinical role of drug testing in the newborn. Accurate recognition of a newborn whose mother has used illicit drugs in pregnancy cannot only impact decisions for healthcare in the nursery around the time of delivery, but can also provide a key opportunity to assess the mother for needed services. While drug use in pregnancy is not an independent predictor of the mother's ability to provide a safe and nurturing environment for her newborn, other issues that often cooccur in the life of a mother with a substance abuse disorder raise concerns for the safety of the discharge environment and should be assessed. Healthcare providers in these roles should advocate for unbiased and effective treatment services for affected families. PMID:21785611

  17. Relationships Between Traumatic Brain Injury and Illicit Drug Use and Their Association With Aggression in Inmates.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Diana; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Ferguson, Pamela L; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Extensive interviews of correctional inmates in South Carolina (2009-2010) were conducted under a Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) grant. We evaluated the extent to which early traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent illicit drug abuse may conjointly influence development of aggression, controlling for alcohol use, and whether cognitive or emotional dysregulation mediated this relationship. Early TBI predicted greater severity and earlier onset of drug use, and an earlier age at first use predicted greater aggression regardless of the age of TBI. Emotional dysregulation mediated effects of TBI on aggression. The potential to design more targeted treatments for this susceptible population are discussed.

  18. Comparing illicit drug use in 19 European cities through sewage analysis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin V; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; Emke, Erik; Grabic, Roman; Hernández, Félix; Karolak, Sara; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Lindberg, Richard H; Lopez de Alda, Miren; Meierjohann, Axel; Ort, Christoph; Pico, Yolanda; Quintana, José B; Reid, Malcolm; Rieckermann, Jörg; Terzic, Senka; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; de Voogt, Pim

    2012-08-15

    The analysis of sewage for urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs is a promising and complementary approach for estimating the use of these substances in the general population. For the first time, this approach was simultaneously applied in 19 European cities, making it possible to directly compare illicit drug loads in Europe over a 1-week period. An inter-laboratory comparison study was performed to evaluate the analytical performance of the participating laboratories. Raw 24-hour composite sewage samples were collected from 19 European cities during a single week in March 2011 and analyzed for the urinary biomarkers of cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine and cannabis using in-house optimized and validated analytical methods. The load of each substance used in each city was back-calculated from the measured concentrations. The data show distinct temporal and spatial patterns in drug use across Europe. Cocaine use was higher in Western and Central Europe and lower in Northern and Eastern Europe. The extrapolated total daily use of cocaine in Europe during the study period was equivalent to 356 kg/day. High per capita ecstasy loads were observed in Dutch cities, as well as in Antwerp and London. In general, cocaine and ecstasy loads were significantly elevated during the weekend compared to weekdays. Per-capita loads of methamphetamine were highest in Helsinki and Turku, Oslo and Budweis, while the per capita loads of cannabis were similar throughout Europe. This study shows that a standardized analysis for illicit drug urinary biomarkers in sewage can be applied to estimate and compare the use of these substances at local and international scales. This approach has the potential to deliver important information on drug markets (supply indicator).

  19. Costs of Screening and Brief Intervention for Illicit Drug Use in Primary Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Zarkin, Gary; Bray, Jeremy; Hinde, Jesse; Saitz, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this article, the authors estimate implementation costs for illicit drug screening and brief intervention (SBI) and identify a key source of variation in cost estimates noted in the alcohol SBI literature. This is the first study of the cost of SBI for drug use only. Method: Using primary data collected from a clinical trial of illicit drug SBI (n = 528) and a hybrid costing approach, we estimated a per-service implementation cost for screening and two models of brief intervention. A taxonomy of activities was first compiled, and then resources and prices were attached to estimate the per-activity cost. Two components of the implementation cost, direct service delivery and service support costs, were estimated separately. Results: Per-person cost estimates were $15.61 for screening, $38.94 for a brief negotiated interview, and $252.26 for an adaptation of motivational interviewing. (Amounts are in 2011 U.S. dollars.) Service support costs per patient are 5 to 7.5 times greater than direct service delivery costs per patient. Ongoing clinical supervision costs are the largest component of service support costs. Conclusions: Implementation cost estimates for illicit drug brief intervention vary greatly depending on the brief intervention method, and service support is the largest component of SBI costs. Screening and brief intervention cost estimates for drug use are similar to those published for alcohol SBI. Direct service delivery cost estimates are similar to costs at the low end of the distribution identified in the alcohol literature. The magnitude of service support costs may explain the larger cost estimates at the high end of the alcohol SBI cost distribution. PMID:25785797

  20. A snapshot of illicit drug use in Sweden acquired through sewage water analysis.

    PubMed

    Ostman, Marcus; Fick, Jerker; Näsström, Elin; Lindberg, Richard H

    2014-02-15

    Analytical measurements of sewage water have been used many times to estimate the consumption of specific drugs in an area. This study measured a large number of illicit drugs and metabolites (>30) at a large number of sewage treatment plants (STPs) distributed across Sweden. Twenty-four illicit and prescription drugs, classified as narcotic substances in Sweden, and seven selected metabolites were included in the study. A 24 hour composite sample of incoming sewage water was collected from 33 different municipalities at various geographic locations across Sweden. Species were analyzed using an on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method. The method proved to be rapid with minimum need for sample work up and was able to detect 13 compounds above their respective limits of quantification. The results for all compounds were presented as per capita loads. Multivariate data analysis was used to relate drug consumption to geographical location and/or population of cities. The results showed that geographical differences in drug consumption were apparent across the country. For the narcotic pharmaceuticals, the geographical differences suggested by the multivariate model were supported by prescription statistics.

  1. Association Between Stillbirth and Illicit Drug Use and Smoking During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Varner, Michael W.; Silver, Robert M.; Hogue, Carol J. Rowland; Willinger, Marian; Parker, Corette B.; Thorsten, Vanessa R.; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Saade, George R.; Dudley, Donald J.; Coustan, Donald; Stoll, Barbara; Bukowski, Radek; Koch, Matthew A.; Conway, Deborah; Pinar, Halit; Reddy, Uma M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare illicit drug and smoking use in pregnancies with and without stillbirth. METHODS The Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network conducted a case-control study from March 2006 to September 2008, covering more than 90% of deliveries to residents of five a priori defined geographically diverse regions. The study attempted to include all stillbirths and representative liveborn controls. Umbilical cord samples from cases and controls were collected and frozen for subsequent batch analysis. Maternal serum was collected at delivery and batch analyzed for cotinine. RESULTS For 663 stillbirth deliveries, 418 (63%) had cord homogenate and 579 (87%) had maternal cotinine assays performed. For 1,932 live birth deliveries, 1,050 (54%) had cord homogenate toxicology and 1,545 (80%) had maternal cotinine assays performed. A positive cord homogenate test for any illicit drug was associated with stillbirth (OR 1.94; 95% CI 1.16, 3.27). The most common individual drug was cannabis (OR 2.34; 95% CI 1.13, 4.81), although the effect was partially confounded by smoking. Both maternal self-reported smoking history and maternal serum cotinine levels were associated in a dose-response relationship with stillbirth. Positive serum cotinine < 3 ng/ml and no reported history of smoking (proxy for passive smoke exposure) also was associated with stillbirth (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.24, 3.41). CONCLUSION Cannabis, smoking, illicit drug use, and apparent exposure to second-hand smoke, separately or in combination, during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. As cannabis use may be increasing with increased legalization, the relevance of these findings may increase as well. PMID:24463671

  2. Illicit drug use research in Latin America: epidemiology service use, and HIV.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Magaña, Cristina G; Vega, William A; Alejo-Garcia, Christina; Quintanar, Tania Real; Vazquez, Lucía; Ballesteros, Patricia D; Ibarra, Juan; Rosales, Heidi

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the research status of illicit drug use and its data sources in Latin America, with particular attention to the research that has been produced in the past 15 years in epidemiology of illicit drug use services utilization, and relationship between HIV and drug use. This article complements the series of articles that are published in this same volume which examine drug abuse research (epidemiology, prevention, and treatment) and HIV prevention in Latinos residing in the United States. This review resulted from extensive international and national searches using the following databases: Current Contents Connect, Social and Behavioral Sciences; EBSCO; EMBASE(R) Psychiatry; Evidence Based Medicine (through OVID); Medline, Neurosciences, PsychINFO, Pubmed, BIREME/PAHO/WHO--Virtual Health Library, and SciELO. Papers selected for further review included those published in Spanish, English, and Portuguese in peer-reviewed journals. From the evidence reviewed, it was found that the published research literature is heavily concentrated on descriptive epidemiologic surveys, providing primarily prevalence rates and general information on associated factors. Evidence on patterns of service delivery and HIV prevention and treatment is limited. The cumulative scope of this research clearly indicates variability in quantity and quality of research across Latin American nations and the need for greater uniformity in data collection elements, methodologies, and the creation of international collaborative research networks.

  3. Young Risk Takers: Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Sexual Practices among a Sample of Music Festival Attendees

    PubMed Central

    Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16–29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported “binge” drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974

  4. Can Brief Alcohol Interventions for Youth Also Address Concurrent Illicit Drug Use? Results from a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T.; Hennessy, Emily A.; Lipsey, Mark W.; Winters, Ken C.

    2015-01-01

    Brief interventions aimed at reducing alcohol use among youth may interrupt a possible developmental progression to more serious substance use if they can also affect the use of other illicit drugs. This meta-analysis examined the findings of recent research on the effects of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults on both alcohol and illicit drug use. Eligible studies were those using randomized or controlled quasi-experimental designs to examine the effects of brief alcohol interventions on illicit drug use outcomes among youth. A comprehensive literature search identified 30 eligible study samples that, on average, included participants age 17, with 57% male participants and 56% White youth. Three-level random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate mean effect sizes and explore variability in effects. Overall, brief interventions targeting both alcohol and other drugs were effective in reducing both of these substances. However, the brief interventions that targeted only alcohol had no significant secondary effects on untargeted illicit drug use. The evidence from current research, therefore, shows modest beneficial effects on outcomes that are targeted by brief interventions for youth, but does not show that those effects generalize to untargeted illicit drug use outcomes. PMID:25600491

  5. Illicit use of LSD or psilocybin, but not MDMA or nonpsychedelic drugs, is associated with mystical experiences in a dose-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Lyvers, Michael; Meester, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Psychedelic drugs have long been known to be capable of inducing mystical or transcendental experiences. However, given the common "recreational" nature of much present-day psychedelic use, with typical doses tending to be lower than those commonly taken in the 1960s, the extent to which illicit use of psychedelics today is associated with mystical experiences is not known. Furthermore the mild psychedelic MDMA ("Ecstasy") is more popular today than "full" psychedelics such as LSD or psilocybin, and the contribution of illicit MDMA use to mystical experiences is not known. The present study recruited 337 adults from the website and newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), most of whom reported use of a variety of drugs both licit and illicit including psychedelics. Although only a quarter of the sample reported "spiritual" motives for using psychedelics, use of LSD and psilocybin was significantly positively related to scores on two well-known indices of mystical experiences in a dose-related manner, whereas use of MDMA, cannabis, cocaine, opiates and alcohol was not. Results suggest that even in today's context of "recreational" drug use, psychedelics such as LSD and psilocybin, when taken at higher doses, continue to induce mystical experiences in many users.

  6. Stuck in limbo: illicit drug users’ experiences with opioid maintenance treatment and the relation to recovery

    PubMed Central

    Sagvaag, Hildegunn

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to gain insight into how individuals who frequent open illicit drug scenes experience opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) and investigate how this appears to affect their recovery processes. Method By means of the ethnographic method, one of the researchers spent time in an open illicit drug scene over a 1-year span, and gathered data on individuals who frequent the scene on a regular basis, and their experiences with OMT. The data are based on field notes and audiotaped interviews. Findings Four themes emerged as relevant for the participants’ experiences with OMT: 1) the loss of hope, 2) trapped in OMT, 3) substitution treatment is not enough, and 4) stigmatization of identity. Conclusion The participants found the OMT to be overruling and degrading. Several of the individuals from the illicit drug scene are part of the OMT programme, but as the treatment does not remove painful emotions, they supplement OMT with illegal substances, violate the OMT regulations, and run the risk of being excluded from the programme. In fear of losing the replacement opioid, they conceal parts of the addiction they seek treatment for and end up lying and cheating instead of exploring strategies for reducing and managing the addiction. The patients’ relation to the OMT personnel is negatively affected by the need to hide a large portion of their issues. The result is a feeling of hopelessness, increased stigmatization, lack of control and being trapped between two worlds—in limbo, an intermediate state which interferes with the recovery process. PMID:27765141

  7. The impact of harm reduction on HIV and illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Ti, Lianping; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-02-21

    There has been widespread support for harm reduction programs as an essential component for responding to the HIV and illicit drug use epidemics. However, despite the growing international acceptance of harm reduction, there continues to be strong opposition to this approach, with critics alleging that harm reduction programs enable drug use. Vancouver, Canada provides a compelling case study that demonstrates that many positive impacts of harm reduction can be attained while addiction treatment-related goals are simultaneously supported. While the evidence for harm reduction is clearly mounting, it is unfortunate that ideological and political barriers to implementing harm reduction programs in Canada remain. As evidenced by Vancouver and elsewhere, harm reduction programs do not exacerbate drug use and undermine treatment efforts and should thereby occupy a well-deserved space within the continuum of programs and services offered to people who inject drugs.

  8. [Use and abuse of illicit drugs, also in the light of the new Italian legislation].

    PubMed

    D'Ettore, A

    2006-01-01

    After presenting the new Italian legislation on the subject, the author describes the operative procedures, employed by the "Centro Ricerche di Laboratorio e di Tossicologia Forense" of the Italian State Police, for detection of illicit drugs' use by personnel on duty. The results obtained from 1998 to 2003 (on over 15,000 subjects/year) are presented. On this sample, sporadic positive (for cannabinoids) cases were found. The number of positive individuals would probably be higher, whether randomised controls were made without notice, and whether non-conventional matrices (e.g. keratinised tissues) were utilized to identify previous abuse.

  9. Impact of Illicit Drug Use on Health-Related Quality of Life in Opioid Dependent Patients Undergoing HIV Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aden, Brandon; Dunning, Allison; Nosyk, Bohdan; Wittenberg, Eve; Bray, Jeremy W.; Schackman, Bruce R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of illicit drug use on health-related quality of life (health utility) among opioid-dependent, HIV-infected patients. Design Secondary analyses of data from the Buprenorphine-HIV Evaluation and Support (BHIVES) cohort of HIV-infected patients with opioid dependence in 9 U.S. HIV clinics between 2004 and 2009. Health status (Short Form-12 (SF-12)), combination antiretroviral treatment (ART) status, CD4 cell count, HCV antibody status, current drug use, and demographics were assessed at an initial visit and quarterly follow-up visits for up to one year. Short Form-6D health utility scores were derived from the SF-12. Multivariate mixed effects regression models were used to assess the impact of illicit drug use on health utility controlling for demographic, clinical and social characteristics. Results Health utility was assessed among 307 participants, 67% male, with median age 46 at 1089 quarterly assessments. In multivariate analyses, illicit opioid use, non-opioid illicit drug use, not being on ART and being on ART with poor adherence were associated with lower health utility. The observed decrement in health utility associated with illicit opioid use was larger for those on ART with good adherence (beta = −0.067; p<0.01) or poor adherence (−0.049; p<0.01) than for those not on ART. Conclusions Illicit opioid and non-opioid drug use are negatively associated with health utility in patients with HIV, however the relative effect of illicit opioid use is smaller than that of not being on ART. Postponing ART until initiation of opioid substitution therapy or abstinence may have limited benefits from the perspective of maximizing health utility. PMID:26218410

  10. HIV, Hepatitis C, and Abstinence from Alcohol Among Injection and Non-injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jennifer C.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Stohl, Malka; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals using illicit drugs are at risk for heavy drinking and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Despite medical consequences of drinking with HIV and/or HCV, whether drug users with these infections are less likely to drink is unclear. Using samples of drug users in treatment with lifetime injection use (n = 1309) and non-injection use (n = 1996) participating in a large, serial, cross-sectional study, we investigated the associations between HIV and HCV with abstinence from alcohol. About half of injection drug users (52.8 %) and 26.6 % of non-injection drug users abstained from alcohol. Among non-injection drug users, those with HIV were less likely to abstain [odds ratio (OR) 0.55; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.58] while those with HCV were more likely to abstain (OR 1.46; AOR 1.34). In contrast, among injection drug users, neither HIV nor HCV was associated with drinking. However, exploratory analyses suggested that younger injection drug users with HIV or HCV were more likely to drink, whereas older injection drug users with HIV or HCV were more likely to abstain. In summary, individuals using drugs, especially non-injection users and those with HIV, are likely to drink. Age may modify the risk of drinking among injection drug users with HIV and HCV, a finding requiring replication. Alcohol intervention for HIV and HCV infected drug users is needed to prevent further harm. PMID:26080690

  11. What users think about the differences between caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Franke, Andreas G; Lieb, Klaus; Hildt, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE) is a topic of increasing public awareness. In the scientific literature on student use of CE as a study aid for academic performance enhancement, there are high prevalence rates regarding the use of caffeinated substances (coffee, caffeinated drinks, caffeine tablets) but remarkably lower prevalence rates regarding the use of illicit/prescription stimulants such as amphetamines or methylphenidate. While the literature considers the reasons and mechanisms for these different prevalence rates from a theoretical standpoint, it lacks empirical data to account for healthy students who use both, caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants, exclusively for the purpose of CE. Therefore, we extensively interviewed a sample of 18 healthy university students reporting non-medical use of caffeine as well as illicit/prescription stimulants for the purpose of CE in a face-to-face setting about their opinions regarding differences in general and morally-relevant differences between caffeine and stimulant use for CE. 44% of all participants answered that there is a general difference between the use of caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for CE, 28% did not differentiate, 28% could not decide. Furthermore, 39% stated that there is a moral difference, 56% answered that there is no moral difference and one participant was not able to comment on moral aspects. Participants came to their judgements by applying three dimensions: medical, ethical and legal. Weighing the medical, ethical and legal aspects corresponded to the students' individual preferences of substances used for CE. However, their views only partly depicted evidence-based medical aspects and the ethical issues involved. This result shows the need for well-directed and differentiated information to prevent the potentially harmful use of illicit or prescription stimulants for CE.

  12. Social and structural barriers to housing among street-involved youth who use illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Krüsi, Andrea; Fast, Danya; Small, Will; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    In Canada, approximately 150,000 youth live on the street. Street-involvement and homelessness have been associated with various health risks, including increased substance use, blood-borne infections and sexually transmitted diseases. We undertook a qualitative study to better understand the social and structural barriers street-involved youth who use illicit drugs encounter when seeking housing. We conducted 38 semi-structured interviews with street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada from May to October 2008. Interviewees were recruited from the At-risk Youth Study (ARYS) cohort, which follows youth aged 14 to 26 who have experience with illicit drug use. All interviews were thematically analyzed, with particular emphasis on participants' perspectives regarding their housing situation and their experiences seeking housing. Many street-involved youth reported feeling unsupported in their efforts to find housing. For the majority of youth, existing abstinence-focused shelters did not constitute a viable option and, as a result, many felt excluded from these facilities. Many youth identified inflexible shelter rules and a lack of privacy as outweighing the benefits of sleeping indoors. Single-room occupancy hotels (SROs) were reported to be the only affordable housing options, as many landlords would not rent to youth on welfare. Many youth reported resisting moving to SROs as they viewed them as unsafe and as giving up hope for a return to mainstream society. The findings of the present study shed light on the social and structural barriers street-involved youth face in attaining housing and challenge the popular view of youth homelessness constituting a lifestyle choice. Our findings point to the need for housing strategies that include safe, low threshold, harm reduction focused housing options for youth who engage in illicit substance use.

  13. Quantitative analysis of terahertz spectra for illicit drugs using adaptive-range micro-genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Ma, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Peng, Bei; Chen, Qin

    2011-08-01

    In the field of anti-illicit drug applications, many suspicious mixture samples might consist of various drug components—for example, a mixture of methamphetamine, heroin, and amoxicillin—which makes spectral identification very difficult. A terahertz spectroscopic quantitative analysis method using an adaptive range micro-genetic algorithm with a variable internal population (ARVIPɛμGA) has been proposed. Five mixture cases are discussed using ARVIPɛμGA driven quantitative terahertz spectroscopic analysis in this paper. The devised simulation results show agreement with the previous experimental results, which suggested that the proposed technique has potential applications for terahertz spectral identifications of drug mixture components. The results show agreement with the results obtained using other experimental and numerical techniques.

  14. Sport participation and alcohol and illicit drug use in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Matthew; Bobko, Sarah; Faulkner, Guy; Donnelly, Peter; Cairney, John

    2014-03-01

    Sport participation can play an important and positive role in the health and development of children and youth. One area that has recently been receiving greater attention is the role that sport participation might play in preventing drug and alcohol use among youth. The current study is a systematic review of 17 longitudinal studies examining the relationship between sport participation and alcohol and drug use among adolescents. Results indicated that sport participation is associated with alcohol use, with 82% of the included studies (14/17) showing a significant positive relationship. Sport participation, however, appears to be related to reduced illicit drug use, especially use of non-cannabis related drugs. Eighty percent of the studies found sport participation associated with decreased illicit drug use, while 50% of the studies found negative association between sport participation and marijuana use. Further investigation revealed that participation in sports reduced the risk of overall illicit drug use, but particularly during high school; suggesting that this may be a critical period to reduce or prevent the use of drugs through sport. Future research must better understand what conditions are necessary for sport participation to have beneficial outcomes in terms of preventing alcohol and/or illicit drug use. This has been absent in the extent literature and will be central to intervention efforts in this area.

  15. Decline but No Fall? New Millennium Trends in Young People's Use of Illegal and Illicit Drugs in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe trends since 2000 in young people's use of illegal/illicit drugs in Britain, and to place these into a longer-term context alongside recent theorising on youthful drug taking. The implications for health educators are to be examined. Design/methodology/approach: A selective narrative review of…

  16. Decline in the Use of Illicit Drugs by High School Students in New York State: A Comparison with National Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1991-01-01

    A school-based survey administered to 7,611 adolescents in New York State indicates a decline in illicit drug use during the period 1983-88. The decline may be explained by a corresponding decline in the ratio of youths to adults, changes in peer influence, and differences between high and low drug use areas. (CJS)

  17. Constitutive expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and related transcription factors in cattle testis and their modulation by illicit steroids.

    PubMed

    Lopparelli, Rosa Maria; Zancanella, Vanessa; Giantin, Mery; Ravarotto, Licia; Cozzi, Giulio; Montesissa, Clara; Dacasto, Mauro

    2010-10-01

    In veterinary species, little information about extrahepatic drug metabolism is actually available. Therefore, the presence of foremost drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and related transcription factors mRNAs was initially investigated in cattle testis; then, their possible modulation following the in vivo exposure to illicit growth promoters (GPs), which represent a major issue in cattle farming, was explored. All target genes were expressed in cattle testis, albeit to a lower extent compared to liver ones; furthermore, illicit protocols containing dexamethasone and 17β-oestradiol significantly up-regulated cytochrome P450 1A1, 2E1, oestrogen receptor-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α mRNA levels. Overall, the constitutive expression of foremost DMEs and related transcription factors was demonstrated for the first time in cattle testis and illicit GPs were shown to affect pre-transcriptionally some of them, with possible consequences upon testicular xenobiotic drug metabolism.

  18. Harms and benefits associated with psychoactive drugs: findings of an international survey of active drug users

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Celia JA; Noronha, Louise A; Muetzelfeldt, Mark; Fielding, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    There have been several recent efforts in the UK and the Netherlands to describe the harms of psychoactive substances based on ratings of either experts or drug users. This study aimed to assess the perceived benefits as well as harms of widely used recreational drugs, both licit and illicit, in an international sample of drug users. The survey was hosted at https://www.internationaldrugsurvey.org/ and was available in three languages. Residents reported their experience of 15 commonly used drugs or drug classes; regular users then rated their harms and benefits. In all, 5791 individuals from over 40 countries completed the survey, although the majority were from English speaking countries. Rankings of drugs differed across 10 categories of perceived benefits. Skunk and herbal cannabis were ranked consistently beneficial, whilst alcohol and tobacco fell below many classified drugs. There was no correlation at all between users’ harm ranking of drugs and their classification in schedules of the USA or ABC system in the UK. Prescription analgesics, alcohol and tobacco were ranked within the top 10 most harmful drugs. These findings suggest that neither the UK nor US classification systems act to inform users of the harms of psychoactive substances. It is hoped the results might inform health professionals and educators of what are considered to be both the harms and benefits of psychoactive substances to young people. PMID:23438502

  19. Neurotoxicity screening of (illicit) drugs using novel methods for analysis of microelectrode array (MEA) recordings.

    PubMed

    Hondebrink, L; Verboven, A H A; Drega, W S; Schmeink, S; de Groot, M W G D M; van Kleef, R G D M; Wijnolts, F M J; de Groot, A; Meulenbelt, J; Westerink, R H S

    2016-07-01

    Annual prevalence of the use of common illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPS) is high, despite the often limited knowledge on the health risks of these substances. Recently, cortical cultures grown on multi-well microelectrode arrays (mwMEAs) have been used for neurotoxicity screening of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and toxins with a high sensitivity and specificity. However, the use of mwMEAs to investigate the effects of illicit drugs on neuronal activity is largely unexplored. We therefore first characterised the cortical cultures using immunocytochemistry and show the presence of astrocytes, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Neuronal activity is concentration-dependently affected following exposure to six neurotransmitters (glutamate, GABA, serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and nicotine). Most neurotransmitters inhibit neuronal activity, although glutamate and acetylcholine transiently increase activity at specific concentrations. These transient effects are not detected when activity is determined during the entire 30min exposure window, potentially resulting in false-negative results. As expected, exposure to the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline increases neuronal activity. Exposure to a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA-receptor (diazepam) or to glutamate receptor antagonists (CNQX and MK-801) reduces neuronal activity. Further, we demonstrate that exposure to common drugs (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and amphetamine) and NPS (1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) and methoxetamine (MXE)) decreases neuronal activity. MXE most potently inhibits neuronal activity with an IC50 of 0.5μM, whereas 4-FA is least potent with an IC50 of 113μM. Our data demonstrate the importance of analysing neuronal activity within different time windows during exposure to prevent false-negative results. We also show that cortical cultures grown on mwMEAs can successfully be applied to investigate the effects of

  20. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  1. How Early Bonding, Depression, Illicit Drug Use, and Perceived Support Work Together to Influence Drug-Dependent Mothers’ Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Suchman, Nancy E.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Slade, Arietta; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors used an attachment framework to examine how drug-dependent mothers’ early bonding experience, depression, illicit drug use, and perceived support work together to influence the family environment. The authors hypothesized that (a) depression and drug use function as proxies for a stronger risk factor, the perceived absence of support available in everyday life, and (b) associations between mothers’ early bonding experience and family environment are mediated by perceptions of support and nurture available in everyday life. The authors used a “building block” analytic approach and data collected from 125 mothers enrolled in methadone maintenance to test hypotheses. Both hypotheses were confirmed for 1 outcome, family adaptability. For the 2nd outcome, family cohesion, only perceived support was a significant predictor. Although preliminary, the findings suggest that perceptions of relationships in everyday life play a critical role in the etiology of drug-dependent mothers’ parenting. PMID:16060738

  2. Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis--part III: sampling plans and sample preparations.

    PubMed

    Csesztregi, T; Bovens, M; Dujourdy, L; Franc, A; Nagy, J

    2014-08-01

    The findings in this paper are based on the results of our drug homogeneity studies and particle size investigations. Using that information, a general sampling plan (depicted in the form of a flow-chart) was devised that could be applied to the quantitative instrumental analysis of the most common illicit drugs: namely heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, cannabis resin, MDMA tablets and herbal cannabis in 'bud' form (type I). Other more heterogeneous forms of cannabis (type II) were found to require alternative, more traditional sampling methods. A table was constructed which shows the sampling uncertainty expected when a particular number of random increments are taken and combined to form a single primary sample. It also includes a recommended increment size; which is 1 g for powdered drugs and cannabis resin, 1 tablet for MDMA and 1 bud for herbal cannabis in bud form (type I). By referring to that table, individual laboratories can ensure that the sampling uncertainty for a particular drug seizure can be minimised, such that it lies in the same region as their analytical uncertainty for that drug. The table shows that assuming a laboratory wishes to quantitatively analyse a seizure of powdered drug or cannabis resin with a 'typical' heterogeneity, a primary sample of 15×1 g increments is generally appropriate. The appropriate primary sample for MDMA tablets is 20 tablets, while for herbal cannabis (in bud form) 50 buds were found to be appropriate. Our study also showed that, for a suitably homogenised primary sample of the most common powdered drugs, an analytical sample size of between 20 and 35 mg was appropriate and for herbal cannabis the appropriate amount was 200 mg. The need to ensure that the results from duplicate or multiple incremental sampling were compared, to demonstrate whether or not a particular seized material has a 'typical' heterogeneity and that the sampling procedure applied has resulted in a 'correct sample', was highlighted and the setting

  3. Are work stressors related to employee substance use? The importance of temporal context assessments of alcohol and illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Frone, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the author explored the relations of 2 work stressors (work overload and job insecurity) to employee alcohol use and illicit drug use. The primary goal was to explore the importance of temporal context (before work, during the workday, and after work) in the assessment of substance use compared with context-free (overall) assessments. Data were collected from a national sample of U.S. workers (N = 2,790) who took part in a broad cross-sectional survey on workplace health and safety. Consistent with past research, the results fail to support a relation between work stressors and overall measures of alcohol and illicit drug use. However, the results support the relation of work stressors to alcohol and illicit drug use before work, during the workday, and after work. These results provide support for both the stress-induced substance use and stress response dampening propositions of the tension-reduction hypothesis. When exploring the work environment as a potential cause of employee substance use, these results underscore the importance of measures that assess alcohol and illicit drug use in terms of their temporal relation to the workday.

  4. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2010. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Series. Paper 74

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The full 2010 survey results are reported in "Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975;2010: Volume I, Secondary School Students". That monograph contains a description of MTF's design and purposes, as well as extended reporting on substance use of all kinds, licit and illicit, and a number of related factors such as…

  5. Childhood abuse related to nicotine, illicit and prescription drug use by women: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Cathy L; Vanhorn, Daniel R; Wilson, Josephine F; Martorano, Lisa M; Venema, Jana M; Kennedy, Sarah M

    2008-10-01

    A sample of 811 women ages 18 to 59 (M=26.0, SD=6.5) responded to an advertisement by telephone. Inquiries were made about childhood abuse status and adult use of alcohol, nicotine, and prescription and illicit drugs. Significant associations were noted for reported sexual, physical, and emotional childhood abuse with use of nicotine, marijuana, and antidepressants in adulthood. Reported childhood physical and emotional abuses were also significantly associated with use of cocaine and anxiolytics, and sexual abuse with antipsychotic use in adulthood. Only childhood emotional abuse was associated with the use of sleeping pills. Number of types of abuse was significantly related with use of nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiolytics. Alcohol use was not related to any type of abuse. The long-term effects of childhood emotional abuse may be just as severe as physical or sexual abuse.

  6. Fenton-like reaction: a possible way to efficiently remove illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Mosný, Michal; Grabic, Roman; Golovko, Oksana; Koba, Olga; Birošová, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed 13 psychoactive pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent and the possibility of their degradation by biological and chemical processes. Tramadol (413-853 ng/L) and methamphetamine (460-682 ng/L) were the most concentrated compounds in the wastewater in winter and summer, respectively. A significant decrease in the concentration of tramadol in wastewater was measured during the summer. The lowest efficiency was observed for tramadol, venlafaxine, citalopram and oxazepam (∼ 10%) and the highest efficiency was observed for amphetamine and THC-COOH (∼ 80%). The efficiency of compound degradation via the Fenton reaction, a modified Fenton reaction and different degradation (by algae, wood-rotting fungi and enzymes at influent versus effluent) was determined. The Fenton reaction and its modification were efficient at eliminating these substances in comparison with the tested biological processes.

  7. Reliability and clinical validity of a technique to assess lifetime illicit injection drug use.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Barbara; Templin, Thomas N; Birk, Thomas J; Kirsner, Robert S

    2008-02-01

    A lifetime injection drug history is necessary to examine the impact of injection drug use on a physical health problem but it may cover time periods for which information and/or data reported may not be reliable. A test-retest study design was used to examine a technique of questioning persons about lifetime illicit injection drug use history (the Lifetime Injection History Questionnaire), including its reliability and relation to chronic venous disorders as an assessment of validity. Study participants included 104 persons (60 men, 44 women, M age = 49.3 years) provided services at a methadone maintenance treatment center located in a large industrial city in the Midwest. Kappa values for "ever injected" drugs ranged from 1.00 for heroin to .50 for nonprescription methadone (median = .75). High interclass correlations were found for youngest and oldest ages of injecting, years not injecting, and total injecting years (.90 to .98). Interclass correlation values for years injecting in the upper body and lower body were .79 and .70, respectively. Interrater reliability for the clinical portion of the venous disease assessment tool (the Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology - CEAP - classification) was high: .97, right leg; .94, left leg. Controlling for age, gender, comorbidities, and body mass index, a classification of injection drug use based on the Lifetime Injection History scales accounted for 32% of the variance in the clinical CEAP scores. This is the first study to examine years of injection drug use that takes periods not injecting drugs into consideration. Focused substance abuse questioning (eg, drug, route, years of use) may help clinicians evaluate health problems related to drug use.

  8. Neighborhood-level LGBT hate crimes and current illicit drug use among sexual minority youth

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dustin T.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Johnson, Renee M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether past-30 day illicit drug use among sexual minority youth was more common in neighborhoods with a greater prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT, or sexual minority) individuals. Methods We used a population-based survey of public school youth in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting of 1292 9th–12th grade students from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (sexual minority n = 108). Data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults and battery between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Boston Police Department and linked to youths’ residential address. Youth reported past-30 day use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney tests and corresponding p-values were computed to assess differences in substance use by neighborhood-level LGBT assault hate crime rate among sexual minority youth (n = 103). Results The LGBT assault hate crime rate in the neighborhoods of sexual minority youth who reported current marijuana use was 23.7 per 100,000, compared to 12.9 per 100,000 for sexual minority youth who reported no marijuana use (p = 0.04). No associations between LGBT assault hate crimes and marijuana use among heterosexual youth (p > 0.05) or between sexual minority marijuana use and overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes (p > 0.05) were detected, providing evidence for result specificity. Conclusions We found a significantly greater prevalence of marijuana use among sexual minority youth in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of LGBT assault hate crimes. These results suggest that neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in marijuana use. PMID:24326203

  9. Survey on Smoking, Consuming Alcohol, and using Illicit Drugs in Patients with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    YENİ, Naz; TUMAY, Feray; TONGUÇ, Özge; AZAROĞLU, Elvin; BOZOK, Naz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Addiction can be defined as the continuous consumption of addictive substances or repetition of certain behaviors despite adverse consequences. Epilepsy is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no published data regarding addictions in patients with epilepsy. Considering the high incidence of psychopathology, we planned a survey using a self-report questionnaire to study some of the addictive behaviors in patients with epilepsy and in control subjects. Methods Patients from our outpatient epilepsy clinic (n=106) and control subjects (n=96) aged between 18 and 65 years took the 20-question questionnaire that screened for smoking, consuming alcohol, or using other illicit drugs. Results Fifty-three percent of patients with epilepsy were male (n=57) and in the control group, 52% were male (n=50) (p=.062). The mean age was 32.66±2.23 years for patients with epilepsy and 35.70±0.59 years for the control group (p=.810). Mean duration of epilepsy was found to be 14.33±11.26 (1–46) years. Majority of patients with epilepsy (84%) had focal epilepsy. Alcohol intake was found to be significantly lower in patients with epilepsy (p=.0001). There was no difference regarding smoking (p=.530) or using illicit drugs between the groups (p=.262). Smoking cigarettes was lower in new onset epilepsies (<5 years) compared with epilepsies of longer duration (p=.031). Conclusion Recent studies connote to some common substrates in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and addiction. Therefore, we wanted to evaluate some addictive behaviors in patients with epilepsy. Although this study did not show significant differences other than low frequency of alcohol use in patients with epilepsy and low rate of smoking in patients with epilepsy duration of <5 year, further studies among homogeneous epilepsy subgroups with larger scale along with their neuropsychological profiles may still be required. PMID:28360739

  10. The Demand for Antiretroviral Drugs in the Illicit Marketplace: Implications for HIV disease management among vulnerable populations

    PubMed Central

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Surratt, Hilary L.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.; O’Grady, Catherine L.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    The diversion of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) has implications for the integrity and success of HIV care, however little is known about the ARV illicit market. This paper aimed to identify the motivations for buying illicit ARVs and to describe market dynamics. Semi-structured interviews (n=44) were conducted with substance-involved individuals living with HIV with a history of purchasing ARVs on the street. Grounded theory was used to code and analyze interviews. Motivations for buying ARVs on the illicit market were: to repurchase ARVs after having diverted them for money or drugs; having limited access or low quality health care; to replace lost or ruined ARVs; and to buy a back-up stock of ARVs. This study identified various structural barriers to HIV treatment and ARV adherence that incentivized ARV diversion. Findings highlight the need to improve patient-provider relationships, ensure continuity of care, and integrate services to engage and retain high-needs populations. PMID:25092512

  11. The Demand for Antiretroviral Drugs in the Illicit Marketplace: Implications for HIV Disease Management Among Vulnerable Populations.

    PubMed

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Surratt, Hilary L; Levi-Minzi, Maria A; O'Grady, Catherine L; Kurtz, Steven P

    2015-05-01

    The diversion of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) has implications for the integrity and success of HIV care, however little is known about the ARV illicit market. This paper aimed to identify the motivations for buying illicit ARVs and to describe market dynamics. Semi-structured interviews (n = 44) were conducted with substance-involved individuals living with HIV who have a history of purchasing ARVs on the street. Grounded theory was used to code and analyze interviews. Motivations for buying ARVs on the illicit market were: to repurchase ARVs after having diverted them for money or drugs; having limited access or low quality health care; to replace lost or ruined ARVs; and to buy a back-up stock of ARVs. This study identified various structural barriers to HIV treatment and ARV adherence that incentivized ARV diversion. Findings highlight the need to improve patient-provider relationships, ensure continuity of care, and integrate services to engage and retain high-needs populations.

  12. Illicit Drug Use among Rave Attendees in a Nationally Representative Sample of US High School Seniors

    PubMed Central

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Griffin-Tomas, Marybec; Ompad, Danielle C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The popularity of electronic dance music and rave parties such as dance festivals has increased in recent years. Targeted samples of party-goers suggest high rates of drug use among attendees, but few nationally representative studies have examined these associations. Methods We examined sociodemographic correlates of rave attendance and relationships between rave attendance and recent (12-month) use of various drugs in a representative US sample of high school seniors (modal age: 18) from the Monitoring the Future study (2011–2013; Weighted N= 7,373). Results One out of five students (19.8%) reported ever attending a rave, and 7.7% reported attending at least monthly. Females and highly religious students were less likely to attend raves, and Hispanics, students residing in cities, students with higher income and those who go out for fun multiple times per week were more likely to attend. Rave attendees were more likely than non-attendees to report use of an illicit drug other than marijuana (35.5% vs. 15.6%, p < .0001). Attendees were more likely to report use of each of the 18 drugs assessed, and attendees were more likely to report more frequent use (≥6 times) of each drug (ps < .0001). Controlling for sociodemographic covariates, frequent attendance (monthly or more often) was associated with higher odds of use of each drug (ps < .0001). Frequent attendees were at highest risk for use of “club drugs.” Discussion Findings from this study can help inform prevention and harm reduction among rave attendees at greatest risk for drug use. PMID:26005041

  13. Illicit and pharmaceutical drug consumption estimated via wastewater analysis. Part A: chemical analysis and drug use estimates.

    PubMed

    Baker, David R; Barron, Leon; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2014-07-15

    This paper presents, for the first time, community-wide estimation of drug and pharmaceuticals consumption in England using wastewater analysis and a large number of compounds. Among groups of compounds studied were: stimulants, hallucinogens and their metabolites, opioids, morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants and others. Obtained results showed the usefulness of wastewater analysis in order to provide estimates of local community drug consumption. It is noticeable that where target compounds could be compared to NHS prescription statistics, good comparisons were apparent between the two sets of data. These compounds include oxycodone, dihydrocodeine, methadone, tramadol, temazepam and diazepam. Whereas, discrepancies were observed for propoxyphene, codeine, dosulepin and venlafaxine (over-estimations in each case except codeine). Potential reasons for discrepancies include: sales of drugs sold without prescription and not included within NHS data, abuse of a drug with the compound trafficked through illegal sources, different consumption patterns in different areas, direct disposal leading to over estimations when using parent compound as the drug target residue and excretion factors not being representative of the local community. It is noticeable that using a metabolite (and not a parent drug) as a biomarker leads to higher certainty of obtained estimates. With regard to illicit drugs, consistent and logical results were reported. Monitoring of these compounds over a one week period highlighted the expected recreational use of many of these drugs (e.g. cocaine and MDMA) and the more consistent use of others (e.g. methadone).

  14. The Effects of 16 Hour Long Marathon Groups on the Ways that Female Drug Users Perceive Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of three 16-hour-long unstructured marathon groups composed of female illicit drug users in a woman's prison (N=78), using evaluative adjective pairs of the semantic differential concept Women. Marathon groups rated women as more successful and more pleasurable than did controls. (JAC)

  15. Association between adolescent tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use and individual and environmental resilience protective factors

    PubMed Central

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that individual and environmental resilience protective factors may be associated with adolescent substance use; however, the associations between a broad range of such factors and use of various types of substances have not been examined. The study aimed to determine the association between a comprehensive range of adolescent individual and environmental resilience protective factors and measures of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 32 Australian secondary schools. Participants Grade 7–10 students (aged 11–17 years). Measures Data regarding 14 student individual and environmental resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drug use) were obtained via an online self-report survey. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the association between all student resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures. Results Inverse univariate associations were found for 94 of 98 relationships examined (n=10 092). Multivariate analyses found: consistent inverse associations between 2 of 14 protective factors and all substance use measures (‘goals and aspirations’, ‘prosocial peers’); inverse associations between 4 protective factors with multiple substance use measures (‘home support’ (5 of 7), ‘school support’ (3 of 7), ‘self-awareness’ (2 of 7), ‘community meaningful participation’ (2 of 7)); positive associations between 2 resilience protective factors with multiple measures of substance use (‘community support’ (3 of 7), ‘peer caring relationships’ (5 of 7)) and 6 protective factors not to be associated with any substance use measure. Conclusions Despite individual relationships between the majority of resilience protective factors and substance use types, the protective benefit of such factors for adolescent substance use was limited to only a small number of

  16. Buying drugs on a Darknet market: A better deal? Studying the online illicit drug market through the analysis of digital, physical and chemical data.

    PubMed

    Rhumorbarbe, Damien; Staehli, Ludovic; Broséus, Julian; Rossy, Quentin; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Darknet markets, also known as cryptomarkets, are websites located on the Darknet and designed to allow the trafficking of illicit products, mainly drugs. This study aims at presenting the added value of combining digital, chemical and physical information to reconstruct sellers' activities. In particular, this research focuses on Evolution, one of the most popular cryptomarkets active from January 2014 to March 2015. Evolution source code files were analysed using Python scripts based on regular expressions to extract information about listings (i.e., sales proposals) and sellers. The results revealed more than 48,000 listings and around 2700 vendors claiming to send illicit drug products from 70 countries. The most frequent categories of illicit drugs offered by vendors were cannabis-related products (around 25%) followed by ecstasy (MDA, MDMA) and stimulants (cocaine, speed). The cryptomarket was then especially studied from a Swiss point of view. Illicit drugs were purchased from three sellers located in Switzerland. The purchases were carried out to confront digital information (e.g., the type of drug, the purity, the shipping country and the concealment methods mentioned on listings) with the physical analysis of the shipment packaging and the chemical analysis of the received product (purity, cutting agents, chemical profile based on minor and major alkaloids, chemical class). The results show that digital information, such as concealment methods and shipping country, seems accurate. But the illicit drugs purity is found to be different from the information indicated on their respective listings. Moreover, chemical profiling highlighted links between cocaine sold online and specimens seized in Western Switzerland. This study highlights that (1) the forensic analysis of the received products allows the evaluation of the accuracy of digital data collected on the website, and (2) the information from digital and physical/chemical traces are complementary to

  17. Microbial and chemical analysis of illicit drugs samples confiscated from different areas of PakistanMicrobial and chemical analysis of illicit drugs samples confiscated from different areas of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahzad; Khattak, Zainab; Mahmood, Sidra; Malik, Farnaz; Riaz, Humayun; Raza, Syed Atif; Khan, Samiullah

    2016-09-01

    The microbial and chemical analysis of illicit drug samples from different areas of Pakistan i.e. Quetta, Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad was conducted in a cross-sectional study at National Institute of Health, Islamabad. The drug samples were confiscated by Anti Narcotics Force (ANF), Pakistan. Microbial analysis was done by estimating bioburden which revealed the presence of gram negative and positive bacteria's, fungus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus species. Trypton soya agar was used for total aerobic count, MacConkey agar for gram-negative bacteria, Sabouraud dextrose agar for fungus and Vogel-Johnson agar for Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species. Colour tests were applied to identify the drug samples. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of suspected samples of Heroin, morphine, cocaine and acetic anhydride was made by employing different chromatographic techniques i.e. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The samples were found to be adulterated with paracetamol, diazepam and Dextromethorphen. Acetic anhydride was adulterated with hydrochloric acid (HCl). There is lack of information providing structured advice on responses to the consequences of illicit drug adulteration. Robust and rehearsed interventions and communication strategies would provide a basis for response for a wide variety of organisations. Research into the usefulness of media warnings about adulteration of illicit drugs is required.

  18. [Alcohol and illicit drug use and its influence on the sexual behavior of teenagers from Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Neilane; Bastos, Francisco I; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Makuch, Maria Yolanda; Sousa, Maria Helena de; Osis, Maria José; Faúndes, Anibal

    2009-06-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a survey including 5,981 students from public schools in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The analysis assessed the influence of drug use on sexual practices. Among the boys engaged in relationships with casual partners who stated having used illicit drugs, 55.7% reported consistent condom use, as compared to 65.4% among those not reporting such habits. Among boys engaged in relationships with stable partners who reported illicit drug use, consistent condom use was reported by 42.7%, versus 64.1% among those not reporting such habits. In the subgroup of boys engaged in stable relationships who did not report illicit drug use, consistent condom use was less frequent among those that used alcohol/cigarettes, compared to those who did not drink or smoke (60.7% vs. 71.1%). Girls were less likely than boys to use condoms consistently, regardless of the nature of their relationships, without a noticeable influence of drug use. Policies to prevent drug abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, and unplanned pregnancy should be fully integrated.

  19. A qualitative view of drug use behaviors of Mexican male injection drug users deported from the United States.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Victoria D; Robertson, Angela M; Hiller, Sarah P; Lozada, Remedios; Cornelius, Wayne; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2011-02-01

    Deportees are a hidden yet highly vulnerable and numerous population. Significantly, little data exists about the substance use and deportation experiences of Mexicans deported from the United States. This pilot qualitative study describes illicit drug use behaviors among 24 Mexico-born male injection drug users (IDUs), ≥ 18 years old, residing in Tijuana, Mexico who self-identified as deportees from the United States. In-person interviews were conducted in Tijuana, Mexico in 2008. Content analysis of interview transcripts identified major themes in participants' experiences. Few participants had personal or family exposures to illicit drugs prior to their first U.S. migration. Participants reported numerous deportations. Social (i.e., friends/family, post-migration stressors) and environmental factors (e.g., drug availability) were perceived to contribute to substance use initiation in the U.S. Drugs consumed in the United States included marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and crack. More than half of men were IDUs prior to deportation. Addiction and justice system experiences reportedly contributed to deportation. After deportation, several men injected new drugs, primarily heroin or methamphetamine, or a combination of both drugs. Many men perceived an increase in their substance use after deportation and reported shame and loss of familial social and economic support. Early intervention is needed to stem illicit drug use in Mexican migrant youths. Binational cooperation around migrant health issues is warranted. Migrant-oriented programs may expand components that address mental health and drug use behaviors in an effort to reduce transmission of blood-borne infections. Special considerations are merited for substance users in correctional systems in the United States and Mexico, as well as substance users in United States immigration detention centers. The health status and health behaviors of deportees are likely to impact receiving Mexican

  20. Illicit and prescription drug problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada: the role of traditional culture in protection and resilience.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal

  1. Illicit Drug Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood among Child Welfare-Involved Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Stambaugh, Leyla; Urato, Matthew; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This study examined illicit substance use among 1,004 adolescents, ages 11-21, involved with the Child Welfare System (CWS) and followed from 1999 to 2007. By the time they reached transition age, more than 60% of the sample had used an illicit substance in their lifetime. Predictors of regular use during adolescence were having a prior CWS…

  2. The profits of organized crime: the illicit drug trade in Canada.

    PubMed

    Stamler, R T; Fahlman, R C

    1983-01-01

    Massive funds that are produced from street-level crime are laundered upwards into the criminal organizations for the benefit of their top-level members. The laundering systems used to distribute the proceeds of crime are designed to conceal the size of the organization as well as the identity of its members. Crime syndicates are attracted to criminal activity that produces the highest profits with the lowest risks. Although organized crime syndicates derive profits from a wide variety of criminal activity, their most sought after ventures principally involve the consensual type of crimes, such as drug trafficking, where no one individual can be readily identified as a legal victim for the purpose of recovering the proceeds of a criminal act. A recent survey indicated that illicit drug trafficking accounted for 87 per cent of the cash flow generated from organized crime. When the proceeds are disbursed, the criminals are free of the usual civil liability respecting the ownership of the proceeds. Canada currently has several laws which enhance the ability of law-enforcement authorities to trace the proceeds of crime and prosecute those who possess the assets. This legislation has some limitations with respect to seizure and forfeiture of certain types of proceeds. For example, forfeiture of the illegally acquired property is difficult when there is no original legal owner to initiate legal action, and even more difficult if the assets are located abroad.

  3. Crystallographic investigations of select cathinones: emerging illicit street drugs known as `bath salts'.

    PubMed

    Wood, Matthew R; Lalancette, Roger A; Bernal, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The name `bath salts', for an emerging class of synthetic cathinones, is derived from an attempt to evade prosecution and law enforcement. These are truly illicit drugs that have psychoactive CNS (central nervous system) stimulant effects and they have seen a rise in abuse as recreational drugs in the last few years since first having been seen in Japan in 2006. The ease of synthesis and modification of specific functional groups of the parent cathinone make these drugs particularly difficult to regulate. MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone) is commonly encountered as its hydrochloride salt (C16H21NO3·HCl), in either the hydrated or the anhydrous forms. This `bath salt' has various names in the US, e.g. `Super Coke', `Cloud Nine', and `Ivory Wave', to name just a few. We report here the structures of two forms of the HCl salt, one as a mixed bromide/chloride salt, C16H22NO3(+)·0.343Br(-)·0.657Cl(-) [systematic name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one bromide/chloride (0.343/0.657)], and the other with the H7O3(+) cation, as well as the HCl counter-ion [systematic name: hydroxonium 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one dichloride, H7O3(+)·C16H22NO3(+)·2Cl(-)]. This is one of a very few structures (11 to be exact) in which we have a new example of a precisely determined hydroxonium cation. During the course of researching the clandestine manufacture of MDPV, we were surprised by the fact that a common precursor of this illicit stimulant is known to be the fragrant species piperonal, which is present in the fragrances of orchids, most particularly in the case of the vanilla orchid. We found that MDPV can be made by a Grignard reaction of this heliotropin. This may also explain the unexpected appearance of the bromide counter-ion in some of the salts we encountered (C16H21NO3·HBr), one of which is presented here [systematic name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ium-1-yl)pentan-1-one

  4. Coping with Loneliness: Young Adult Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami; Orzeck, Tricia

    Since there appears to be a connection between substance use (and abuse) and loneliness it is of theoretical and clinical interest to explore the differences of coping with loneliness which drug users employ. The present study examined the manner in which MDMA (Ecstasy) users in comparison with non-MDMA (Non-Ecstasy) users and the general…

  5. The Relationship between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    This report provides information about drug testing by American secondary schools, based on results from national surveys. The purposes of this study are (1) to provide descriptive information on drug testing practices by schools from 1998 to 2001, and (2) to examine the association between drug testing by schools and reported drug use by…

  6. Coexisting social conditions and health problems among clients seeking treatment for illicit drug use in Finland: The HUUTI study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit drug use is an important public health problem. Identifying conditions that coexist with illicit drug use is necessary for planning health services. This study described the prevalence and factors associated with social and health problems among clients seeking treatment for illicit drug use. Methods We carried out cross-sectional analyses of baseline data of 2526 clients who sought treatment for illicit drug use at Helsinki Deaconess Institute between 2001 and 2008. At the clients’ first visit, trained clinicians conducted face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with social and health problems. Results The mean age of the clients was 25 years, 21% (n = 519) were homeless, 54% (n = 1363) were unemployed and 7% (n = 183) had experienced threats of violence. Half of the clients (50%, n = 1258) were self-referred and 31% (n = 788) used opiates as their primary drugs of abuse. Hepatitis C (25%, n = 630) was more prevalent than other infectious diseases and depressive symptoms (59%, n = 1490) were the most prevalent psychological problems. Clients who were self-referred to treatment were most likely than others to report social problems (AOR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.50–2.30) and psychological problems (AOR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.23–1.85). Using opiates as primary drugs of abuse was the strongest factor associated with infectious diseases (AOR = 3.89; 95% CI = 1.32–11.46) and for reporting a combination of social and health problems (AOR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.58–6.65). Conclusion The existence of illicit drug use with other social and health problems could lead to increased utilisation and cost of healthcare services. Coexisting social and health problems may interfere with clients’ treatment response. Our findings support the call for integration of

  7. Establishing a Link Between Prescription Drug Abuse and Illicit Online Pharmacies: Analysis of Twitter Data

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Background Youth and adolescent non-medical use of prescription medications (NUPM) has become a national epidemic. However, little is known about the association between promotion of NUPM behavior and access via the popular social media microblogging site, Twitter, which is currently used by a third of all teens. Objective In order to better assess NUPM behavior online, this study conducts surveillance and analysis of Twitter data to characterize the frequency of NUPM-related tweets and also identifies illegal access to drugs of abuse via online pharmacies. Methods Tweets were collected over a 2-week period from April 1-14, 2015, by applying NUPM keyword filters for both generic/chemical and street names associated with drugs of abuse using the Twitter public streaming application programming interface. Tweets were then analyzed for relevance to NUPM and whether they promoted illegal online access to prescription drugs using a protocol of content coding and supervised machine learning. Results A total of 2,417,662 tweets were collected and analyzed for this study. Tweets filtered for generic drugs names comprised 232,108 tweets, including 22,174 unique associated uniform resource locators (URLs), and 2,185,554 tweets (376,304 unique URLs) filtered for street names. Applying an iterative process of manual content coding and supervised machine learning, 81.72% of the generic and 12.28% of the street NUPM datasets were predicted as having content relevant to NUPM respectively. By examining hyperlinks associated with NUPM relevant content for the generic Twitter dataset, we discovered that 75.72% of the tweets with URLs included a hyperlink to an online marketing affiliate that directly linked to an illicit online pharmacy advertising the sale of Valium without a prescription. Conclusions This study examined the association between Twitter content, NUPM behavior promotion, and online access to drugs using a broad set of prescription drug keywords. Initial results are

  8. Addressing the clinical needs of problem drug user patients

    PubMed Central

    Krupski, Antoinette; West, Imara I.; Graves, Meredith C.; Atkins, David C.; Maynard, Charles; Bumgardner, Kristin; Donovan, Dennis; Ries, Richard; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Illicit drug use is a serious public health problem associated with significant co-occurring medical disorders, mental disorders, and social problems. Yet most individuals with drug use disorders have never been treated, though they often seek medical treatment in primary care. The purpose of the present study was to examine baseline characteristics of persons presenting in primary care across a range of problem drug use severity to identify their clinical needs. Methods We examined socio-demographic characteristics, medical and psychiatric comorbidities, drug use severity, social and legal problems, and service utilization for 868 patients with drug problems recruited from primary care clinics in a safety-net medical setting. Based on Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) results, individuals were categorized as having low, intermediate, or substantial/severe drug use severity. Results Patients with substantial/severe drug use severity had serious drug use (opiates, stimulants, sedatives, intravenous drug use), high levels of homelessness (50%), psychiatric comorbidity (69%), arrests for serious crimes (24%), and frequent use of expensive emergency department and inpatient hospitals. Patients with low drug use severity were primarily users of marijuana with little reported use of other drugs, less psychiatric co-morbidity, and more stable lifestyles. Patients with intermediate drug use severity fell in-between the substantial/severe and low drug use severity subgroups on most variables. Conclusions Patients with highest drug use severity are likely to require specialized psychiatric and substance abuse care in addition to ongoing medical care that is equipped to address the consequences of severe/substantial drug use including intravenous drug use. Because of their milder symptoms, patients with low drug use severity may benefit from a collaborative care model that integrates psychiatric and substance abuse care in the primary care setting. Patients

  9. Maternal prenatal cigarette, alcohol and illicit drug use and risk of infant leukaemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Slater, Megan E; Linabery, Amy M; Blair, Cindy K; Spector, Logan G; Heerema, Nyla A; Robison, Leslie L; Ross, Julie A

    2011-11-01

    Several case-control studies have evaluated associations between maternal smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use during pregnancy and risk of childhood leukaemia. Few studies have specifically focused on infants (<1 year) with leukaemia, a group that is biologically and clinically distinct from older children. We present data from a Children's Oncology Group case-control study of 443 infants diagnosed with acute leukaemia [including acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)] between 1996 and 2006 and 324 population controls. Mothers were queried about their cigarette, alcohol and illicit drug use 1 year before and throughout pregnancy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were calculated using adjusted unconditional logistic regression models. Maternal smoking (>1 cigarette/day) and illicit drug use (any amount) before and/or during pregnancy were not significantly associated with infant leukaemia. Alcohol use (>1 drink/week) during pregnancy was inversely associated with infant leukaemia overall [OR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.43, 0.94], AML [OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.28, 0.87], and leukaemia with mixed lineage leukaemia gene rearrangements ('MLL+') [OR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.36, 0.97]. While our results agree with the fairly consistent evidence that maternal cigarette smoking is not associated with childhood leukaemia, the data regarding alcohol and illicit drug use are not consistent with prior reports and are difficult to interpret. It is possible that unhealthy maternal behaviours during pregnancy, some of which carry potential legal consequences, may not be adequately measured using only self-report. Future case-control studies of childhood leukaemia that pursue these exposures may benefit from incorporation of validated instruments and/or biomarkers when feasible.

  10. Psychosocial interventions for pregnant women in outpatient illicit drug treatment programs compared to other interventions

    PubMed Central

    Terplan, Mishka; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Locke, Abigail; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Lui, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background Illicit drug use in pregnancy is a complex social and public health problem. The consequences of drug use in pregnancy are high for both the woman and her child. Therefore, it is important to develop and evaluate effective treatments. There is evidence for the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in drug treatment but it is unclear whether they are effective in pregnant women. This is an update of a Cochrane review originally published in 2007. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in pregnant women enrolled in illicit drug treatment programmes on birth and neonatal outcomes, on attendance and retention in treatment, as well as on maternal and neonatal drug abstinence. In short, do psychosocial interventions translate into less illicit drug use, greater abstinence, better birth outcomes, or greater clinic attendance? Search methods We conducted the original literature search in May 2006 and performed the search update up to January 2015. For both review stages (original and update), we searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trial's register (May 2006 and January 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 1); PubMed (1996 to January 2015); EMBASE (1996 to January 2015); and CINAHL (1982 to January 2015). Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials comparing any psychosocial intervention vs. a control intervention that could include pharmacological treatment, such as methadone maintenance, a different psychosocial intervention, counselling, prenatal care, STD counselling and testing, transportation, or childcare. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. We performed analyses based on three comparisons: any psychosocial intervention vs. control, contingency management (CM) interventions vs. control, and motivational interviewing based (MIB) interventions vs. control. Main results

  11. The Visibility of Illicit Drugs: Implications for Community-based Drug Control Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Leonard; Kadushin, Charles; Beveridge, Andrew; Livert, David; Tighe, Elizabeth; Rindskopf, David; Ford, Julie; Brodsky, Archie

    2001-01-01

    Examined differences between the visibility of drugs and drug use in over 2000 neighborhoods, surveying residents regarding drug- and alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes and comparing the responses of poor, urban, African Americans versus people from comparison neighborhoods. The most disadvantaged neighborhoods had the most visible drug…

  12. A qualitative exploration of prescription opioid injection among street-based drug users in Toronto: behaviours, preferences and drug availability

    PubMed Central

    Firestone, Michelle; Fischer, Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    Background There is evidence of a high prevalence of prescription opioid (PO) and crack use among street drug users in Toronto. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe drug use behaviours and preferences as well as the social and environmental context surrounding the use of these drugs among young and old street-based drug injection drug users (IDUs). Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 PO injectors. Topics covered included drug use history, types of drugs used, how drugs were purchased and transitions to PO use. Interviews were taped and transcribed. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes. Results Five prominent themes emerged from the interviews: 1) Combination of crack and prescription opioids, 2) First injection experience and transition to prescription opioids, 3) Drug preferences and availability, 4) Housing and income and 5) Obtaining drugs. There was consensus that OxyContin and crack were the most commonly available drugs on the streets of Toronto. Drug use preferences and behaviours were influenced by the availability of drugs, the desired effect, ease of administration and expectations around the purity of the drugs. Distinct experiences were observed among younger users as compared to older users. In particular, the initiation of injection drug use and experimentation with POs among younger users was influenced by their experiences on the street, their peers and general curiosity. Conclusion Given the current profile of street-based drug market in Toronto and the emergence of crack and POs as two predominant illicit drug groups, understanding drug use patterns and socio-economic factors among younger and older users in this population has important implications for preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:18928556

  13. Social adjustment of family members and significant others (FSOs) of drug users.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Clifton R; Kirby, Kimberly C; Firely, Monica L; Festinger, David S; Marlowe, Douglas B

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the social adjustment of female family members and significant others (FSOs) of illicit drug users in order to gain insight into the impact of drug use upon those close to the user. Using the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report (SAS-SR), we examined the social adjustment self-ratings (overall and in seven specific role areas) of 41 female partners and 24 mothers of drug users. We compared these ratings to the ratings they reported for their drug-using partners or children, to each other, and to self-ratings drawn from community comparison samples. As expected, results showed that the female FSOs reported significantly better social adjustment than the drug users in most role areas. However, their social adjustment was compromised relative to the community samples. Partners of drug users reported poorer adjustment than parents of drug users overall and in the specific areas of marital and economic functioning. Further inquiry is needed to improve our understanding of the impact of drug use on the users' family members.

  14. Temporal variability of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in wastewater and the effects of a major sporting event.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, Daniel; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Snyder, Shane A

    2011-11-01

    Diurnal variations in wastewater flows are common phenomena related to peak water use periods. However, few studies have examined high-resolution temporal variability in trace organic contaminant (TOrC) concentrations and loadings. Even fewer have assessed the impacts of a special event or holiday. This study characterizes the temporal variability associated with a major sporting event using flow data and corresponding mass loadings of a suite of prescription pharmaceuticals, potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and illicit drugs. Wastewater influent and finished effluent samples were collected during the National Football League's Super Bowl, which is a significant weekend for tourism in the study area. Data from a baseline weekend is also provided to illustrate flows and TOrC loadings during "normal" operational conditions. Some compounds exhibited interesting temporal variations (e.g., atenolol), and several compounds demonstrated different loading profiles during the Super Bowl and baseline weekends (e.g., the primary cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine). Interestingly, the influent mass loadings of prescription pharmaceuticals were generally similar in magnitude to those of the illicit drugs and their metabolites. However, conventional wastewater treatment was more effective in removing the illicit drugs and their metabolites. Total influent and effluent mass loadings are also provided to summarize treatment efficacy and environmental discharges.

  15. Long-Term Effects of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws on Marijuana and Other Illicit Drug Use in Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Melissa J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws (ability to purchase alcohol <21 years) during adolescence can have long-term effects, including heavy alcohol use or alcohol use disorders as adults. We examined whether exposure to permissive MLDA laws during adolescence has long-term effects on illicit drug use and disorders in adulthood. Methods Participants from the 2004-2012 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were linked with historical state MLDA laws. Participants born in 1949-1972 (age 31-63 years at observation, n=110,300) were analyzed because they came of legal age for alcohol purchase when changes occurred in state MLDA laws. Logistic regression was used to model drug use measures as a function of exposure to permissive MLDA during adolescence, adjusting for state and birth-year fixed effects, demographics, and salient state characteristics. Results Rates of past month use, past year use, and abuse/dependence of marijuana were 4.7%, 7.8%, and 1.2% respectively. Rates of past month use, past year use, and abuse/dependence of illicit drugs other than marijuana were 2.9%, 6.2%, and 0.7%, respectively. Among the full sample, exposure to permissive MLDA laws was not significantly associated with drug use or abuse/dependence in adulthood. Men exposed to permissive MLDA laws were at 20% increased odds of past year illicit drug use (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.09-1.32). Conclusions Restricting alcohol access during adolescence did not increase long-term drug use. Allowing the purchase of alcohol among those less than 21 years of age could increase the risk of drug use later in life. PMID:25707705

  16. First evaluation of illicit and licit drug consumption based on wastewater analysis in Fort de France urban area (Martinique, Caribbean), a transit area for drug smuggling.

    PubMed

    Damien, Devault A; Thomas, Néfau; Hélène, Pascaline; Sara, Karolak; Yves, Levi

    2014-08-15

    Drugs of abuse are increasingly consumed worldwide. Such consumption could be back-calculated based on wastewater content. The West Indies, with its coca production and its thriving illicit drug market, is both a hub of world cocaine trafficking and a place where its consumption is prevalent particularly in the form of crack. The present study will firstly investigate Caribbean consumption by a daily 5 to 7 day sampling campaign of composite wastewater samples from the four wastewater treatment plants of the Martinique capital, including working and non-working periods. The local consumption of cocaine is ten to thirty times higher than OECD standards because of the prevalence of crack. The excretion coefficient for crack consumption and the impact of temperature on drug stability need further investigation. However, the low diversity of illicit drugs consumed and the crack prevalence suggest practices driven by the transiting of drugs for international trafficking.

  17. Attitudes Toward Illegal Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaple, James

    As concern over illegal drugs and drug-related behavior is a relatively recent phenomenon, there are little data available on the correlates and/or determinants of drug-related attitude-behaviors. The research done generates confused and often conflicting results, largely due to failure to specify level of attitude-behavior measured. This project…

  18. Is peer injecting a form of intimate partner abuse? A qualitative study of the experiences of women drug users.

    PubMed

    Wright, Nat M J; Tompkins, Charlotte N E; Sheard, Laura

    2007-09-01

    Women are over-represented as the recipients of injections of illicit drugs and are often injected by their intimate partners. This study used qualitative research to explore women drug users' experiences of abuse from intimate partners when being injected with illicit drugs. In-depth interviews were conducted with 45 women drug users in the city of Leeds and the area of North Nottinghamshire, UK. The practice of peer injecting illicit drugs places women recipients at risk of physical, economic and emotional abuse from their male intimate partner injectors. However, this was not a universal feature. In trusting, supportive intimate partner relationships peer injecting took place through reciprocal arrangements. Moving away from peer injecting was technically and emotionally difficult for women and rarely straightforward. The implications of the work are discussed as clinicians and wider drug service staff should be aware of the possibility of abuse and enquire about peer injecting when consulting with women injecting drug users. However, clinicians should avoid working within a simplistic clinical framework that views all peer injecting as intrinsically abusive. More research is needed to provide evidence for best practice. Until then, generic principles of best practice management of intimate partner abuse could apply, including enhancing women's motivation to effect change in an abusive situation.

  19. An Exploratory Study Examining the Spatial Dynamics of Illicit Drug Availability and Rates of Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Johnson, Fred W.; Treno, Andrew J.; Lascala, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the spatial relationship between drug availability and rates of drug use in neighborhood areas. Responses from 16,083 individuals were analyzed at the zip code level (n = 158) and analyses were conducted separately for youth and adults using spatial regression techniques. The dependent variable is the percentage of respondents…

  20. Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  1. Use of MDA (the "love drug") and methamphetamine in Toronto by unsuspecting users of ecstasy (MDMA).

    PubMed

    Kalasinsky, Kathryn S; Hugel, John; Kish, Stephen J

    2004-09-01

    It has recently been reported that purity of illicit tablets of ecstasy (MDMA) is now high. Our objective was to confirm whether hair of drug users, who request only ecstasy from their supplier, contains MDMA in the absence of other drugs. GC-MS analysis of scalp hair segments disclosed the presence of MDMA in 19 of 21 subjects and amphetamine/methamphetamine in eight subjects. Surprisingly, seven subjects had hair levels of the MDMA metabolite, MDA, equal to or greater than those of MDMA, suggesting use of MDA in addition to that of MDMA. These amphetamine derivatives might be included by clandestine laboratories to enhance effects of the drug cocktail or because of a perception that MDA synthesis might be simpler than that of MDMA. Drug users and investigators examining possible brain neurotoxic effects of MDMA need to consider that "ecstasy" tablets can contain MDA and methamphetamine despite no demand for the drugs.

  2. Rapid screening and identification of illicit drugs by IR absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengali, Sandro; Liberatore, Nicola; Luciani, Domenico; Viola, Roberto; Cardinali, Gian Carlo; Elmi, Ivan; Poggi, Antonella; Zampolli, Stefano; Biavardi, Elisa; Dalcanale, Enrico; Bonadio, Federica; Delemont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre; Romolo, Francesco S.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical instruments based on InfraRed Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS) and Gas Chromatography (GC) are today available only as bench-top instrumentation for forensic labs and bulk analysis. Within the 'DIRAC' project funded by the European Commission, we are developing an advanced portable sensor, that combines miniaturized GC as its key chemical separation tool, and IRAS in a Hollow Fiber (HF) as its key analytical tool, to detect and recognize illicit drugs and key precursors, as bulk and as traces. The HF-IRAS module essentially consists of a broadly tunable External Cavity (EC) Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL), thermo-electrically cooled MCT detectors, and an infrared hollow fiber at controlled temperature. The hollow fiber works as a miniaturized gas cell, that can be connected to the output of the GC column with minimal dead volumes. Indeed, the module has been coupled to GC columns of different internal diameter and stationary phase, and with a Vapour Phase Pre-concentrator (VPC) that selectively traps target chemicals from the air. The presentation will report the results of tests made with amphetamines and precursors, as pure substances, mixtures, and solutions. It will show that the sensor is capable of analyzing all the chemicals of interest, with limits of detection ranging from a few nanograms to about 100-200 ng. Furthermore, it is suitable to deal with vapours directly trapped from the headspace of a vessel, and with salts treated in a basic solution. When coupled to FAST GC columns, the module can analyze multi-components mixes in less than 5 minutes.

  3. Estimation of illicit drug use in the main cities of Colombia by means of urban wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Botero-Coy, Ana M; Rincón, Rolando J; Peñuela, Gustavo A; Hernández, Félix

    2016-09-15

    Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) relies on the principle that traces of compounds, which a population is exposed to or consume, are excreted unchanged or as metabolites in urine and/or feces, and ultimately end up in the sewer network. Measuring target metabolic residues i.e. biomarkers in raw urban wastewater allows identifying the exposure or use of substances of interest in a community. Up to date, the most popular application of WBE is the estimation of illicit drug use and studies have been made mainly across Europe, which has allowed estimating and comparing drug use in many European cities. However, until now a comprehensive study applying WBE on the most frequently consumed illicit drugs has not been performed in South American countries. In this work, we applied this approach to samples from Colombia, selecting two of the most populated cities: Bogotá and Medellin. Several biomarkers were selected to estimate drug use of cocaine, cannabis, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy), heroin and ketamine. Composite samples (24-h) were collected at the corresponding municipal wastewater treatment plants. Sample treatment was performed at location by applying solid-phase extraction (SPE). Before SPE, the samples were spiked with appropriate isotope labeled internal standards. In parallel, samples (spiked with the analytes under study at two concentration levels) were also processed for quality control. Analysis of influent wastewater was made by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with triple quadrupole analyzer. Data shown in this paper reveal a high use of cocaine by the population of the selected Colombian cities, particularly from Medellin, while the use of other illicit drugs were low. The relevance of using quality control samples, particularly in collaborative studies, as those presented in this work, where research groups from different countries participate and where the samples had to be shipped overseas, is highlighted in this

  4. 78 FR 58855 - Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... to bring counternarcotics programs into the mainstream of social and economic development strategies... Extraordinary Summit of the Economic Community for West Africa highlighted the need for cooperation to counter... placed on the list is the combination of geographic, commercial, and economic factors that allow drugs...

  5. Marathon Group Therapy with Former Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Mannion, John

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the effects of marathon group therapy on attitudes of former drug users in a residential drug treatment center. Experimental group members responded higher on the group counseling evaluative subscale and lower on the guilt evaluative subscale than control members. (Author)

  6. Resilient Children of Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Zybert, Patricia A.; Vlahov, David

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between resilience in children of injection drug users and children's coping strategies, parenting stress, and children's social support. Method: Injection drug-using parents (n = 91) and their children aged 6 to 11 (n = 117) were recruited in Baltimore (1997-1999). Resilience was defined as scoring in the lowest…

  7. Sorption of structurally different ionized pharmaceutical and illicit drugs to a mixed-mode coated microsampler.

    PubMed

    Peltenburg, Hester; Timmer, Niels; Bosman, Ingrid J; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J

    2016-05-20

    The mixed-mode (C18/strong cation exchange-SCX) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber has recently been shown to have increased sensitivity for ionic compounds compared to more conventional sampler coatings such as polyacrylate and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). However, data for structurally diverse compounds to this (prototype) sampler coating are too limited to define its structural limitations. We determined C18/SCX fiber partitioning coefficients of nineteen cationic structures without hydrogen bonding capacity besides the charged group, stretching over a wide hydrophobicity range (including amphetamine, amitriptyline, promazine, chlorpromazine, triflupromazine, difenzoquat), and eight basic pharmaceutical and illicit drugs (pKa>8.86) with additional hydrogen bonding moieties (MDMA, atenolol, alprenolol, metoprolol, morphine, nicotine, tramadol, verapamil). In addition, sorption data for three neutral benzodiazepines (diazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam) and the anionic NSAID diclofenac were collected to determine the efficiency to sample non-basic drugs. All tested compounds showed nonlinear isotherms above 1mmol/L coating, and linear isotherms below 1mmol/L. The affinity for C18/SCX-SPME for tested organic cations without Hbond capacities increased with longer alkyl chains, ranging from logarithmic fiber-water distribution coefficients (log Dfw) of 1.8 (benzylamine) to 5.8 (triflupromazine). Amines smaller than benzylamine may thus have limited detection levels, while cationic surfactants with alkyl chain lengths >12 carbon atoms may sorb too strong to the C18/SCX sampler which hampers calibration of the fiber-water relationship in the linear range. The log Dfw for these simple cation structures closely correlates with the octanol-water partition coefficient of the neutral form (Kow,N), and decreases with increased branching and presence of multiple aromatic rings. Oxygen moieties in organic cations decreased the affinity for C18/SCX-SPME. Log Dfw values of

  8. Abstinence-Contingent Reinforcement and Engagement in Non-drug Related Activities among Illicit Drug Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Randall E.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Silverman, Kenneth; Thomas, Colleen S.; Badger, Gary J.; Bigelow, George; Stitzer, Maxine

    2010-01-01

    Methadone-maintained cocaine abusers (n = 78) were randomly assigned to a 52-week intervention of either (1) usual care only (UC), (2) take-home methadone doses contingent on cocaine- and opiate-negative results (THM), or (3) take-home methadone doses for cocaine- and opiate-negative results and monetary-based vouchers contingent on cocaine-negative urinalysis results (THM+V). Cocaine use was assessed by urinalysis on a thrice-weekly schedule. Frequency and enjoyability of non-drug related activities were assessed with the Pleasant Events Schedule (PES) at baseline, mid-, and end-of-treatment. The THM+V condition achieved the greatest abstinence from cocaine and opiate use, followed by the THM and UC conditions. The THM+V condition had the highest PES Frequency ratings at mid- and end-of-treatment, followed by the THM and UC conditions. There were significant differences between the THM+V and UC conditions on 10 of 12 PES subscales. Analyses revealed that abstinence mediated the effects of treatment condition on frequency ratings. There were no significant differences in Enjoyability ratings. These results suggest that when contingency-management interventions increase abstinence from drug abuse they also increase engagement in non-drug related activities in naturalistic settings. PMID:19071979

  9. Abstinence-contingent reinforcement and engagement in non-drug-related activities among illicit drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Randall E; Higgins, Stephen T; Silverman, Kenneth; Thomas, Colleen S; Badger, Gary J; Bigelow, George; Stitzer, Maxine

    2008-12-01

    Methadone-maintained cocaine abusers (N = 78) were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 52-week interventions: (a) usual care only (UC), (b) take-home methadone doses contingent on cocaine- and opiate-negative results (THM), or (c) take-home methadone doses for cocaine- and opiate-negative results and monetary-based vouchers contingent on cocaine-negative urinalysis results (THM + V). Cocaine use was assessed by urinalysis on a thrice-weekly schedule. Frequency and enjoyability of non-drug-related activities were assessed with the Pleasant Events Schedule (PES) at baseline, midtreatment, and end of treatment. The THM + V condition achieved the greatest abstinence from cocaine and opiate use, followed by the THM and UC conditions. The THM + V condition had the highest PES frequency ratings at midtreatment and at the end of treatment, followed by the THM and UC conditions. There were significant differences between the THM + V and UC conditions on 10 of 12 PES-derived subscales. Analyses revealed that abstinence mediated the effects of treatment condition on frequency ratings. There were no significant differences in enjoyability ratings. These results suggest that when contingency-management interventions increase abstinence from drug abuse, they also increase engagement in non-drug-related activities in naturalistic settings.

  10. Underreporting of illicit drug use by patients at emergency departments as revealed by two-tiered urinalysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei J; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Shyu, Ren-Shi; Lin, Kuo-Chien

    2006-12-01

    This study investigates the validity of questionnaire-based self-reports of illicit drug use by comparing with a two-tiered urinalysis among patients at emergency departments. Questions on the use of alcohol and drugs were administered to patients recruited on a continual basis for 2weeks at the emergency department of two hospitals in northern Taiwan. Positive tests of initial urinalysis using fluorescence polarization immunoassay were further confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In a total of 1502 patients interviewed, 632 (42%) also provided a urine sample. Among those with urine samples, the positive rate of urinalysis was 1.4% for amphetamine-type drugs and 1.6% for opiates. Among those with positive urinalysis, a false-negative rate ranged from 66.6% for amphetamines to 70.0% for opiates. Meanwhile, all the self-reported current uses of either amphetamines or opiates were confirmed by urinalysis. The results indicate that the false-negative rates of questionnaire-based, self-reported current use of illicit drug are around two thirds and the false-positive rates are negligible, which might be useful for the calibration of estimates from epidemiological surveys.

  11. "Injection first": a unique group of injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morris, Meghan D; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Lozada, Remedios M; Gallardo, Manuel; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    Using baseline data from a study of injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico (N = 1,052), we identified social and behavioral factors associated with injecting at the same age or earlier than other administration routes of illicit drug use (eg, "injection first") and examined whether this IDU subgroup had riskier drug using and sexual behaviors than other IDUs. Twelve-percent "injected first." Characteristics independently associated with a higher odds of "injection first" included being younger at first injection, injecting heroin as their first drug, being alone at the first injection episode, and having a sexual debut at the same age or earlier as when they initiated drug use; family members' illicit drug use was associated with lower odds of injecting first. When adjusting for age at first injection and number of years injecting, "injection first" IDUs had lower odds of ever overdosing, and ever trading sex. On the other hand, they were less likely to have ever been enrolled in drug treatment, and more commonly obtained their syringes from potentially unsafe sources. In conclusion, a sizable proportion of IDUs in Tijuana injected as their first drug using experience, although evidence that this was a riskier subgroup of IDUs was inconclusive. 

  12. Profiles of club drug users in treatment.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Spence, Richard T

    2005-01-01

    There is little in the literature about treatment of persons with problems with "club" or "party" drugs. This paper looks at the characteristics of individuals admitted to treatment for primary, secondary, or tertiary problems with club drugs such as ecstasy, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), methamphetamine, and hallucinogens (e.g., LSD) in programs funded by the Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Some 38,350 unduplicated records from 1988 through 2003 of persons admitted with problems with club drugs were compared against users of alcohol or other drugs. Club drug users were more impaired on five of six Addiction Severity Index (ASI) indices at admission and they were more likely to use multiple substances more often. They were more likely than users of alcohol or other drugs to complete treatment, but this varied by drug. At follow-up 90 days after discharge, club drug users continued to report more ASI problems. Profiles of these clients show that ecstasy use has spread beyond the club culture, as indicated by the changes in client demographics over time. GHB clients presented a mixed picture of severe problems at admission and good response to treatment. Hallucinogen clients were young and less likely to complete treatment, while Rohypnol users were on the Texas-Mexico border. The methamphetamine epidemic has resulted in increased admissions, and the proportion of "Ice" smokers has increased. However, methamphetamine clients were less likely to complete treatment and their higher level of problems at admission and follow-up are of concern. Of special note are the indications of co-occurring problems and the need for both mental health and substance dependence treatment for some clients.

  13. Turtle Finding Fact Sheet: The Role of the Treatment Provider in Aboriginal Women's Healing from Illicit Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Dell, Colleen; Kilty, Jennifer; Fillmore, Cathy; Grantham, Sheila; Lyons, Tara; Clarke, Sharon; Hopkins, Carol

    2010-07-04

    Our research identifies key skills and traits for service providers working with Aboriginal women that assists them with re-claiming their cultural identity. The "Turtle Finding Fact Sheet: The Role of the Treatment Provider in Aboriginal Women's Healing from Illicit Drug Abuse" was created to disseminate and commence discussion on this initial finding from our community-based research project in Canada. The study overall focussed on the role of identity and stigma in the healing journeys of criminalized Aboriginal women from illicit drug abuse. Our team is committed to sharing its finding with the community from which the information was collected-workers in the National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program (NNADAP). The Fact Sheet is based on a sample of interviews with substance abuse treatment providers, and was verified with women in treatment and who have completed treatment. In recent years, the addictions literature has increased its attention toward the importance of the therapeutic alliance between treatment providers and clients(1), although understanding specific to Aboriginal women remains limited. Identity reclamation is central to women's healing journeys and treatment providers have an influential role. This finding is framed in the fact sheet within the cultural understanding of the Seven Teachings of the Grandfathers(2). The fact sheet (8.5x11) has been distributed to the over 700 NNADAP workers, and is also available at no cost in two poster size formats. It is appropriate for anyone providing services to Aboriginal women requiring addictions treatment.

  14. Medication assisted treatment in the treatment of drug abuse and dependence in HIV/AIDS infected drug users.

    PubMed

    Kresina, Thomas F; Bruce, R Douglas; McCance-Katz, Elinore F

    2009-07-01

    Drug use and HIV/AIDS are global public health issues. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that up to 30% of HIV infections are related to drug use and associated behaviors. The intersection, of the twin epidemics of HIV and drug/alcohol use, results in difficult medical management issues for the health care providers and researchers who work in the expanding global HIV prevention and treatment fields. Access to care and treatment, medication adherence to multiple therapeutic regimens, and concomitant drug -drug interactions of prescribed treatments are difficult barriers for drug users to overcome without directed interventions. Injection drug users are frequently disenfranchised from medical care and suffer sigma and discrimination creating additional barriers to care and treatment for their drug abuse and dependence as well as HIV infection. In an increasing number of studies, medication assisted treatment of drug abuse and dependence has been shown to be an important HIV prevention intervention. Controlling the global transmission of HIV will require further investment in evidence-based interventions and programs to enhance access to care and treatment of individuals who abuse illicit drugs and alcohol. In this review, we present the cumulative evidence of the importance of medication assisted treatment in the prevention, care, and treatment of HIV infected individuals who also abuse drugs and alcohol.

  15. Increased Prevalence of Controlled Viremia and Decreased Rates of HIV Drug Resistance Among HIV-Positive People Who Use Illicit Drugs During a Community-wide Treatment-as-Prevention Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Milloy, M.-J.; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Hogg, Bob; Guillemi, Silvia; Harrigan, P. Richard; Montaner, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although treatment-as prevention (TasP) is a new cornerstone of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–AIDS strategies, its effect among HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) has yet to be evaluated. We sought to describe longitudinal trends in exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART), plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) and HIV drug resistance during a community-wide TasP intervention. Methods. We used data from the AIDS Care Cohort to Evaluate Exposure to Survival Services study, a prospective cohort of HIV-positive PWUD linked to HIV clinical monitoring records. We estimated longitudinal changes in the proportion of individuals with VL <50 copies/mL and rates of HIV drug resistance using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and extended Cox models. Results. Between 1 January 2006 and 30 June 2014, 819 individuals were recruited and contributed 1 or more VL observation. During that time, the proportion of individuals with nondetectable VL increased from 28% to 63% (P < .001). In a multivariable GEE model, later year of observation was independently and positively associated with greater likelihood of nondetectable VL (adjusted odds ratio = 1.20 per year; P < .001). Although the proportion of individuals on ART increased, the incidence of HIV drug resistance declined (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.78 per year; P = .011). Conclusions. We observed significant improvements in several measures of exposure to ART and virologic status, including declines in HIV drug resistance, in this large long-running community-recruited cohort of HIV-seropositive illicit drug users during a community-wide ART expansion intervention. Our findings support continued efforts to scale up ART coverage among HIV-positive PWUD. PMID:26553011

  16. Dual-color bioluminescent bioreporter for forensic analysis: evidence of androgenic and anti-androgenic activity of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Cevenini, Luca; Michelini, Elisa; D'Elia, Marcello; Guardigli, Massimo; Roda, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Bioassays represent promising complementary techniques to conventional analytical approaches used in doping analysis to detect illicit drugs like anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). The fact that all AAS share a common mechanism of action via the human androgen receptor (hAR) enables the use of bioassays, relying on the activation of hAR as antidoping screening tools. Previously, we developed a dual-color bioreporter based on yeast cells engineered to express hAR and androgen response elements driving the expression of the bioluminescent (BL) reporter protein Photinus pyralis luciferase. A second reporter protein, the red-emitting luciferase PpyRE8, was introduced in the bioreporter as internal viability control. Here, we report the first forensic application of a straightforward, accurate, and cost-effective bioassay, relying on spectral resolution of the two BL signals, in 96-microwell format. The bioreporter responds to dihydrotestosterone as reference androgen in a concentration-dependent manner from 0.08 to 1,000 nM with intra- and inter-assay variation coefficients of 11.4 % and 13.1 %, respectively. We also demonstrated the suitability of this dual-color bioreporter to assess (anti)-androgenic activity of pure AAS, mixtures of AAS, and other illicit drugs provided by the Scientific Police. Significant anti-androgenic activity was observed in samples labeled as marijuana and hashish, containing Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol as major constituent.

  17. ‘Meeting People Where They’re At’: Experiences of Family Physicians Engaging Women Who Use Illicit Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Woolhouse, Susan; Brown, Judith Belle; Thind, Amardeep

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE There is little research exploring the experiences of family physicians caring for women who use illicit drugs. This study explores the experiences of these physicians in order to better understand the process of engaging these women in the patient-physician relationship. METHODS We conducted a phenomenologic, qualitative study using individual, in-depth interviews with 10 family physicians working in inner-city Toronto and Ottawa, Ontario. An iterative and interpretive analysis was used. RESULTS Three broad themes emerged from the analysis. The predominant theme was that of the patient-physician relationship, which consisted of 2 phases: the engagement phase and the maintenance phase. During the engagement phase, issues such as access and women’s experiences of trauma and violence were evident and impeded participants’ ability to engage with this population. As such, the patient-physician relationship during the engagement phase was tenuous. Trust and presence were paramount during this phase. Once a family physician engaged a woman, the transition to the maintenance phase was made. Within the maintenance phase, 2 subthemes were identified: continuity of care and “meeting people where they’re at” (finding common ground). CONCLUSIONS This study identified a 2-phase process of the patient-physician relationship from the perspective of family physicians caring for women using illicit drugs: the engagement and maintenance phases. Our findings identified strategies to support the patient-physician relationship during each of these phases that have implications for improving the health of these women. PMID:21555752

  18. Perceived Dangerousness of Recreational Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luce, Terrence S.; Merrel, Judy C.

    1995-01-01

    In this study both college students and degreed nurses were asked to estimate the abuse potential and lethality of recreational drugs, both licit and illicit. Findings indicate that the illicit drugs under consideration were perceived as presenting the greatest danger to the user. Dangers attributed to the use of licit recreational drugs were…

  19. Determination of medicinal and illicit drugs in post mortem dental hard tissues and comparison with analytical results for body fluids and hair samples.

    PubMed

    Klima, Miriam; Altenburger, Markus J; Kempf, Jürgen; Auwärter, Volker; Neukamm, Merja A

    2016-08-01

    In burnt or skeletonized bodies dental hard tissue sometimes is the only remaining specimen available. Therefore, it could be used as an alternative matrix in post mortem toxicology. Additionally, analysis of dental tissues could provide a unique retrospective window of detection. For forensic interpretation, routes and rates of incorporation of different drugs as well as physicochemical differences between tooth root, tooth crown and carious material have to be taken into account. In a pilot study, one post mortem tooth each from three drug users was analyzed for medicinal and illicit drugs. The pulp was removed in two cases; in one case the tooth was root canal treated. The teeth were separated into root, crown and carious material and drugs were extracted from the powdered material with methanol under ultrasonication. The extracts were screened for drugs by LC-MS(n) (ToxTyper™) and quantitatively analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS in MRM mode. The findings were compared to the analytical results for cardiac blood, femoral blood, urine, stomach content and hair. In dental hard tissues, 11 drugs (amphetamine, MDMA, morphine, codeine, norcodeine, methadone, EDDP, fentanyl, tramadol, diazepam, nordazepam, and promethazine) could be detected and concentrations ranged from approximately 0.13pg/mg to 2,400pg/mg. The concentrations declined in the following order: carious material>root>crown. Only the root canal treated tooth showed higher concentrations in the crown than in the root. In post mortem toxicology, dental hard tissue could be a useful alternative matrix facilitating a more differentiated consideration of drug consumption patterns, as the window of detection seems to overlap those for body fluids and hair.

  20. 75 FR 12555 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting on the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA). The... FDA to continue collecting user fees for the prescription drug program. The Federal Food, Drug,...

  1. Illicit and pharmaceutical drug consumption estimated via wastewater analysis. Part B: placing back-calculations in a formal statistical framework.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hayley E; Hickman, Matthew; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Welton, Nicky J; Baker, David R; Ades, A E

    2014-07-15

    Concentrations of metabolites of illicit drugs in sewage water can be measured with great accuracy and precision, thanks to the development of sensitive and robust analytical methods. Based on assumptions about factors including the excretion profile of the parent drug, routes of administration and the number of individuals using the wastewater system, the level of consumption of a drug can be estimated from such measured concentrations. When presenting results from these 'back-calculations', the multiple sources of uncertainty are often discussed, but are not usually explicitly taken into account in the estimation process. In this paper we demonstrate how these calculations can be placed in a more formal statistical framework by assuming a distribution for each parameter involved, based on a review of the evidence underpinning it. Using a Monte Carlo simulations approach, it is then straightforward to propagate uncertainty in each parameter through the back-calculations, producing a distribution for instead of a single estimate of daily or average consumption. This can be summarised for example by a median and credible interval. To demonstrate this approach, we estimate cocaine consumption in a large urban UK population, using measured concentrations of two of its metabolites, benzoylecgonine and norbenzoylecgonine. We also demonstrate a more sophisticated analysis, implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Our model allows the two metabolites to simultaneously inform estimates of daily cocaine consumption and explicitly allows for variability between days. After accounting for this variability, the resulting credible interval for average daily consumption is appropriately wider, representing additional uncertainty. We discuss possibilities for extensions to the model, and whether analysis of wastewater samples has potential to contribute to a prevalence model for illicit drug use.

  2. Illicit and pharmaceutical drug consumption estimated via wastewater analysis. Part B: Placing back-calculations in a formal statistical framework

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Hayley E.; Hickman, Matthew; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Welton, Nicky J.; Baker, David R.; Ades, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of metabolites of illicit drugs in sewage water can be measured with great accuracy and precision, thanks to the development of sensitive and robust analytical methods. Based on assumptions about factors including the excretion profile of the parent drug, routes of administration and the number of individuals using the wastewater system, the level of consumption of a drug can be estimated from such measured concentrations. When presenting results from these ‘back-calculations’, the multiple sources of uncertainty are often discussed, but are not usually explicitly taken into account in the estimation process. In this paper we demonstrate how these calculations can be placed in a more formal statistical framework by assuming a distribution for each parameter involved, based on a review of the evidence underpinning it. Using a Monte Carlo simulations approach, it is then straightforward to propagate uncertainty in each parameter through the back-calculations, producing a distribution for instead of a single estimate of daily or average consumption. This can be summarised for example by a median and credible interval. To demonstrate this approach, we estimate cocaine consumption in a large urban UK population, using measured concentrations of two of its metabolites, benzoylecgonine and norbenzoylecgonine. We also demonstrate a more sophisticated analysis, implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Our model allows the two metabolites to simultaneously inform estimates of daily cocaine consumption and explicitly allows for variability between days. After accounting for this variability, the resulting credible interval for average daily consumption is appropriately wider, representing additional uncertainty. We discuss possibilities for extensions to the model, and whether analysis of wastewater samples has potential to contribute to a prevalence model for illicit drug use. PMID:24636801

  3. Reducing risk for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    PubMed

    Heck, Nicholas C; Livingston, Nicholas A; Flentje, Annesa; Oost, Kathryn; Stewart, Brandon T; Cochran, Bryan N

    2014-04-01

    Previous research suggests that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at elevated risk for using illicit drugs and misusing prescription drugs relative to heterosexual youth. Previous research also indicates that LGBT youth who attend high schools with a gay-straight alliance (GSA) report having fewer alcohol problems and lower levels of cigarette smoking. The present study investigates whether the absence of a GSA is associated with risk for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse in a sample of 475 LGBT high school students (M age=16.79) who completed an online survey. After controlling for demographic variables and risk factors associated with illicit drug use, the results of 12 logistic regression analyses revealed that LGBT youth attending a high school without a GSA evidenced increased risk for using cocaine (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR]=3.11; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.23-7.86), hallucinogens (adjOR=2.59; 95% CI=1.18-5.70), and marijuana (adjOR=2.22; 95% CI=1.37-3.59) relative to peers attending a high school with a GSA. Youth without a GSA also evidenced increased risk for the misuse of ADHD medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.02-3.92) and prescription pain medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.10-3.65). These findings extend the research base related to GSAs and further demonstrate the importance of providing LGBT youth with opportunities for socialization and support within the school setting. Important limitations of the present study are reviewed.

  4. Social capital in relation to alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social capital has lately received much attention in public health research. However, few studies have examined the influence of social capital on alcohol consumption, smoking and drug use which have strong influence on public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated whether two measures of social capital were related to substance use in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13–18 year old students (participation rate: 78.2%) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Results Individuals within the group with low neighbourhood social capital had an approximately 60% increased odds of high alcohol consumption, more than three times increased odds of smoking and more than double the odds of having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high neighbourhood social capital. Individuals within the group with low general social trust had approximately 50% increased odds of high alcohol consumption and double the odds of smoking and having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high general social trust. However, social capital at the contextual level showed very weak effects on alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions Social capital may be an important factor in the future development of prevention programs concerning adolescent substance use. However, further replications of the results as well as identifications of direction of causality are needed. PMID:23688242

  5. Field-amplified sample stacking capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence applied to the determination of illicit drugs on banknotes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanhong; Gao, Ying; Wei, Hui; Du, Yan; Wang, Erkang

    2006-05-19

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with Ru(bpy)3(2+) electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection system was established to the determination of contamination of banknotes with controlled drugs and a high efficiency on-column field-amplified sample stacking (FASS) technique was also optimized to increase the ECL intensity. The method was illustrated using heroin and cocaine, which are two typical and popular illicit drugs. Highest sample stacking was obtained when 0.01 mM acetic acid was chosen for sample dissolution with electrokinetical injection for 6 s at 17 kV. Under the optimized conditions: ECL detection at 1.2 V, separation voltage 10.0 kV, 20 mM phosphate-acetate (pH 7.2) as running buffer, 5 mM Ru(bpy)3(2+) with 50 mM phosphate-acetate (pH 7.2) in the detection cell, the standard curves were linear in the range of 7.50x10(-8) to 1.00x10(-5) M for heroin and 2.50x10(-7) to 1.00x10(-4) M for cocaine and detection limits of 50 nM for heroin and 60 nM for cocaine were achieved (S/N = 3), respectively. Relative standard derivations of the ECL intensity and the migration time were 3.50 and 0.51% for heroin and 4.44 and 0.12% for cocaine, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of heroin and cocaine on illicit drug contaminated banknotes without any damage of the paper currency. A baseline resolution for heroin and cocaine was achieved within 6 min.

  6. Patterns of prescription drug misuse among young injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Lankenau, Stephen E; Teti, Michelle; Silva, Karol; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Harocopos, Alex; Treese, Meghan

    2012-12-01

    Misuse of prescription drugs and injection drug use has increased among young adults in the USA. Despite these upward trends, few studies have examined prescription drug misuse among young injection drug users (IDUs). A qualitative study was undertaken to describe current patterns of prescription drug misuse among young IDUs. Young IDUs aged 16-25 years who had misused a prescription drug, e.g., opioids, tranquilizers, or stimulants, at least three times in the past 3 months were recruited in 2008 and 2009 in Los Angeles (n = 25) and New York (n = 25). Informed by an ethno-epidemiological approach, descriptive data from a semi-structured interview guide were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Most IDUs sampled were both homeless and transient. Heroin, prescription opioids, and prescription tranquilizers were frequently misused in the past 30 days. Qualitative results indicated that young IDUs used prescription opioids and tranquilizers: as substitutes for heroin when it was unavailable; to boost a heroin high; to self-medicate for health conditions, including untreated pain and heroin withdrawal; to curb heroin use; and to reduce risks associated with injecting heroin. Polydrug use involving heroin and prescription drugs resulted in an overdose in multiple cases. Findings point to contrasting availability of heroin in North American cities while indicating broad availability of prescription opioids among street-based drug users. The results highlight a variety of unmet service needs among this sample of young IDUs, such as overdose prevention, drug treatment programs, primary care clinics, and mental health services.

  7. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission among drug users in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proper knowledge of HIV transmission is not enough for people to adopt protective behaviors, but deficits in this information may increase HIV/AIDS vulnerability. Objective To assess drug users' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the possible association between knowledge and HIV testing. Methods A Cross-sectional study conducted in 2006/7 with a convenience sample of 295 illicit drug users in Rio de Janeiro, assessing knowledge on AIDS/HIV transmission and its relationship with HIV testing. Information from 108 randomly selected drug users who received an educational intervention using cards illustrating situations potentially associated with HIV transmission were assessed using Multidimensional Scaling (MDS). Results Almost 40% of drug users reported having never used condoms and more than 60% reported not using condoms under the influence of substances. Most drug users (80.6%) correctly answered that condoms make sex safer, but incorrect beliefs are still common (e.g. nearly 44% believed HIV can be transmitted through saliva and 55% reported that HIV infection can be transmitted by sharing toothbrushes), with significant differences between drug users who had and who had not been tested for HIV. MDS showed queries on vaginal/anal sex and sharing syringes/needles were classified in the same set as effective modes of HIV transmission. The event that was further away from this core of properly perceived risks referred to blood donation, perceived as risky. Other items were found to be dispersed, suggesting inchoate beliefs on transmission modes. Conclusions Drug users have an increased HIV infection vulnerability compared to the general population, this specific population expressed relevant doubts about HIV transmission, as well as high levels of risky behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that possessing inaccurate HIV/AIDS knowledge may be a barrier to timely HIV testing. Interventions should be tailored to such specific characteristics. PMID:21324119

  8. Innocent parties or devious drug users: the views of primary healthcare practitioners with respect to those who misuse prescription drugs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many health professionals engage in providing health services for drug users; however, there is evidence of stigmatisation by some health professionals. Prescription drug misusers as a specific group, may also be subject to such judgment. This study aimed to understand issues for primary care health practitioners in relation to prescription drug misuse (PDM), by exploring the attitudes and experiences of healthcare professionals with respect to PDM. Methods Tape-recorded interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of general practitioners (17), community pharmacists (16) and 'key experts' (18) in New Zealand. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis undertaken. Participants were offered vouchers to the value of NZ$30 for their participation. Results A major theme that was identified was that of two different types of patients involved in PDM, as described by participants - the 'abuser' and the 'overuser'. The 'abuser' was believed to acquire prescription medicines through deception for their own use or for selling on to the illicit market, to use the drugs recreationally, for a 'high' or to stave off withdrawal from illicit drugs. 'Overusers' were characterised as having become 'addicted' through inadvertent overuse and over prescribing, and were generally viewed more sympathetically by practitioners. It also emerged that practitioners' attitudes may have impacted on whether any harm reduction interventions might be offered. Furthermore, whilst practitioners might be more willing to offer help to the 'over-user', it seemed that there is a lack of appropriate services for this group, who may also lack a peer support network. Conclusions A binary view of PDM may not be helpful in understanding the issues surrounding PDM, nor in providing appropriate interventions. There is a need for further exploration of 'over users’ whose needs may not be being met by mainstream drug services, and issues of stigma in relation to

  9. Poor Response Inhibition as a Predictor of Problem Drinking and Illicit Drug Use in Adolescents at Risk for Alcoholism and Other Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Wong, Maria M.; Martel, Michelle M.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the predictive power of executive functions, in particular, response inhibition, in relation to alcohol-related problems and illicit drug use in adolescence. Method: A total of 498 children from 275 families from a longitudinal high-risk study completed executive function measures in early and late adolescence and lifetime…

  10. Policies and Practices Regarding Alcohol and Illicit Drugs among American Secondary Schools and Their Association with Student Alcohol and Marijuana Use. YES Occasional Papers. Paper 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines school policies relating to alcohol and illicit drug use, and their associations with the prevalence of alcohol and marijuana use among students. Both "punitive" and "supportive" policies are examined. Other studies examining punitive disciplinary measures--such as close monitoring of student behavior, having various security…

  11. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  12. A Prospective Examination of the Path from Child Abuse and Neglect to Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood: The Potential Mediating Role of Four Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-01-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with…

  13. Systematic review of universal school-based resilience interventions targeting adolescent tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug use: review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Wolfenden, Luke; Bowman, Jenny; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use contribute significantly to global rates of morbidity and mortality. Despite evidence suggesting interventions designed to increase adolescent resilience may represent a means of reducing adolescent substance use, and schools providing a key opportunity to implement such interventions, existing systematic reviews assessing the effectiveness of school-based interventions targeting adolescent substance use have not examined this potential. Methods and analysis The aim of the systematic review is to determine whether universal interventions focused on enhancing the resilience of adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent substance use. Eligible studies will: include participants 5–18 years of age; report tobacco use, alcohol consumption or illicit drug use as outcomes; and implement a school-based intervention designed to promote internal (eg, self-esteem) and external (eg, school connectedness) resilience factors. Eligible study designs include randomised controlled trials, cluster randomised controlled trials, staggered enrolment trials, stepped wedged trials, quasi-randomised trials, quasi-experimental trials, time series/interrupted time-series trials, preference trials, regression discontinuity trials and natural experiment studies with a parallel control group. A search strategy including criteria for participants, study design, outcome, setting and intervention will be implemented in various electronic databases and information sources. Two reviewers will independently screen studies to assess eligibility, as well as extract data from, and assess risk of bias of included studies. A third reviewer will resolve any discrepancies. Attempts will be made to quantify trial effects by meta-analysis. Binary outcomes will be pooled and effect size reported using ORs. For continuous data, effect size of trials will be reported using a mean difference where trial outcomes report the same outcome using a

  14. 76 FR 79198 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... (76 FR 76738). The document announced a public meeting entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee.''...

  15. Hair Drug Testing Results and Self-reported Drug Use among Primary Care Patients with Moderate-risk Illicit Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Gryczynski, Jan; Schwartz, Robert P.; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study sought to examine the utility of hair testing as a research measure of drug use among individuals with moderate-risk drug use based on the internationally-validated Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Methods This study is a secondary analysis using baseline data from a randomized trial of brief intervention for drug misuse, in which 360 adults with moderate-risk drug use were recruited from two community clinics in New Mexico, USA. The current study compared self-reported drug use on the ASSIST with laboratory analysis of hair samples using a standard commercially-available 5-panel test with assay screening and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) confirmation. Both self-report and hair testing covered a 3 month period. Results Overall concordance between hair testing and self-report was 57.5% (marijuana), 86.5% (cocaine), 85.8% (amphetamines), and 74.3% (opioids). Specificity of hair testing at standard laboratory cut-offs exceeded 90% for all drugs, but sensitivity of hair testing relative to self-report was low, identifying only 52.3% (127/243) of self-disclosed marijuana users, 65.2% (30/46) of cocaine users, 24.2% (8/33) of amphetamine users, and 2.9% (2/68) of opioid users. Among participants who disclosed using marijuana or cocaine in the past 3 months, participants with a negative hair test tended to report lower-frequency use of those drugs (p< .001 for marijuana and cocaine). Conclusions Hair testing can be useful in studies with moderate-risk drug users, but the potential for under-identification of low-frequency use suggests that researchers should consider employing low detection cut-offs and using hair testing in conjunction with self-report. PMID:24932945

  16. Detection and mapping of illicit drugs and their metabolites in fingermarks by MALDI MS and compatibility with forensic techniques

    PubMed Central

    Groeneveld, G.; de Puit, M.; Bleay, S.; Bradshaw, R.; Francese, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the proven capabilities of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS) in laboratory settings, research is still needed to integrate this technique into current forensic fingerprinting practice. Optimised protocols enabling the compatible application of MALDI to developed fingermarks will allow additional intelligence to be gathered around a suspect’s lifestyle and activities prior to the deposition of their fingermarks while committing a crime. The detection and mapping of illicit drugs and metabolites in latent fingermarks would provide intelligence that is beneficial for both police investigations and court cases. This study investigated MALDI MS detection and mapping capabilities for a large range of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in fingermarks; the detection and mapping of a mixture of these drugs in marks, with and without prior development with cyanoacrylate fuming or Vacuum Metal Deposition, was also examined. Our findings indicate the versatility of MALDI technology and its ability to retrieve chemical intelligence either by detecting the compounds investigated or by using their ion signals to reconstruct 2D maps of fingermark ridge details. PMID:26118853

  17. Detection and mapping of illicit drugs and their metabolites in fingermarks by MALDI MS and compatibility with forensic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneveld, G.; de Puit, M.; Bleay, S.; Bradshaw, R.; Francese, S.

    2015-06-01

    Despite the proven capabilities of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS) in laboratory settings, research is still needed to integrate this technique into current forensic fingerprinting practice. Optimised protocols enabling the compatible application of MALDI to developed fingermarks will allow additional intelligence to be gathered around a suspect’s lifestyle and activities prior to the deposition of their fingermarks while committing a crime. The detection and mapping of illicit drugs and metabolites in latent fingermarks would provide intelligence that is beneficial for both police investigations and court cases. This study investigated MALDI MS detection and mapping capabilities for a large range of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in fingermarks; the detection and mapping of a mixture of these drugs in marks, with and without prior development with cyanoacrylate fuming or Vacuum Metal Deposition, was also examined. Our findings indicate the versatility of MALDI technology and its ability to retrieve chemical intelligence either by detecting the compounds investigated or by using their ion signals to reconstruct 2D maps of fingermark ridge details.

  18. Water quality in coastal wetlands: illicit drugs in surface waters of L'Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez-Roig, P.; Blasco, C.; Andreu, V.; Pascual, J. A.; Rubio, J. L.; Picó, Y.

    2010-05-01

    A wide range of emerging pollutants have been identified in environment: antibiotics, hormones, personal care products, etc. But quite recently a new class of ecological threat has been reported: the presence in waters of abuse drugs coming from human consumption [1,2]. Treatment of wastewaters may remove a portion of these compounds, but sometimes, these treatments are insufficient or nonexistent, residues can reach into the aquatic environment. ĹAlbufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) is a marsh area of a great interest because it is the habitat of a large quantity of unique species of flora and fauna, and a zone of refuge, feeding and breeding for a large number of migratory birds. However, this area is threatened by urban, industrial and agricultural pressures. The aim of this work has been to develop a fast and sensitive multi-residue analytical method for to establish the occurrence and distribution of commonly consumed illicit drugs in surface waters of ĹAlbufera lake. A representative set of abuse drugs with different mode of action was chosen for this purpose, including: amphetaminics, opiates, cocainics and cannabinoids (THC and nor-9-carboxy-THC). In April 2008 and October 2008 a total of 16 samples of water were collected, corresponding to different sampling points previously designed, and covering the most important channels that flow in to the lake. Samples of 250 mL of water were concentrated by Solid Phase Extraction through an Oasis HLB cartridge and extracted subsequently with methanol as solvent. Quantification was carried out by LC-MS/MS with an ESI interface. Performance characteristics of the PLE-SPE followed by LC-MS/MS were established by validation procedure. Selectivity, linearity, precision, recoveries and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were studied. Our search shows that current sewage treatment systems do not completely remove illicit drug residues from urban wastewater. Benzoylecgonine, the main metabolite from

  19. Drug users' sexual relationships and the social organisation of risk: the sexual relationship as a site of risk management.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, T; Quirk, A

    1998-01-01

    Research on "risk behaviour" in the time of AIDS has emphasised how social relationships influence individuals' responses to risk. Yet the social relationship remains an under-utilised unit of analysis in risk behaviour research. Drawing on qualitative research with illicit drug users in London, this paper illustrates how drug users' sexual relationships act as key sites of risk management in individuals' drug use and everyday lifestyles. First, while recent research has almost exclusively focused on the dangers of disease transmission, our findings show that drug users perceived their sexual relationships as influencing a variety of risks associated with heroin and other opioid drugs. Here, two types of relationships--"gear" and "straight" relationships--were perceived to be particularly important. Second, while research has tended to focus on drug and health risks as an outcome of relationships, drug users' accounts emphasise that managing risks to their relationships is an important facet of everyday risk management made complicated by drug use. It is argued that risk is a product of social interactions, and that the sexual relationship is an important site of risk management in this process. Future interventions should target drug users' sexual relationships as agents of risk management and behaviour change.

  20. Use of Licit and Illicit Drugs by America's High School Students, 1975-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; And Others

    Two of the major topics treated in this report are the current prevalence of drug use among American high school seniors, and trends in use since 1975. Also reported are data on school grade of first use, trends in use at earlier grade levels, intensity of drug use, attitudes and beliefs among seniors concerning various types of drug use, and…

  1. The Real Long War: The Illicit Drug Trade and the Role of the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    physiological impact of these is generally considered much more serious than that of heroin, cocaine, or cannabis .5 More generally, there are two...another 19 million users of cocaine; 52 million consumers of ATS; and between 128 and 190 million cannabis users.36 However, many of the trends are...Narcotics Bureau had to report that increases in the seizure of heroin, cannabis , methamphetamines, and nimetazepam ranged from 3 percent to a

  2. Socioeconomic status and social support following illicit drug use: causal pathways or common liability?

    PubMed

    Bergen, Sarah E; Gardner, Charles O; Aggen, Steven H; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2008-06-01

    The negative social attributes associated with drug use and abuse/dependence may arise as a result of shared genetic or environmental factors rather than through causal pathways. To evaluate this possibility, structured interviews were conducted for 3969 male and female twins from the Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry and evaluations of their socioeconomic status (SES), social interactions, and use of drugs were obtained. Drug involvement was categorized as never used, tried, or met criteria for abuse or dependence. A co-twin control design was implemented using hierarchical linear modeling to assess whether twins who used drugs experienced lower SES and social support than non-using co-twins. Poorer social functioning in the drug-exposed twin is consistent with a causal relationship, while similar functioning in the drug exposed versus naive twins imply shared genetic or common environmental factors. Use of drugs was not significantly related to any SES measures. However, education and job status appear to share genetic influences with drug abuse/dependence. Lower income was not related to abuse/dependence of drugs. Negative interactions with friends and relatives share genetic factors with use of drugs, but the escalation from trying drugs to abusing them appears to generate discord between the abuser and friends and relatives in a causal fashion. These results indicate that presumptive causal influences of drug abuse/dependence on low SES may actually be mediated by shared genes. Drug use and social discord also appear to have shared genetic factors, but increased levels of drug involvement seem to causally influence social interactions.

  3. Risks of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders among Thais with alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use: findings from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey.

    PubMed

    Suttajit, Sirijit; Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the risks of mood and anxiety disorders among Asians with alcohol use disorders and the effect of illicit drug use in this population. All participants from the 2008 Thai National Mental Health survey (N=17,140) were assessed for current major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and were interviewed for illicit drug use within one year prior to their assessment. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine (a) whether alcohol use disorders were associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and (b) whether the use of illicit drugs increased these associations. Sex, age, marital status, region, and educational level were found to be significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders and were taken into account in the regression analysis. Compared with the general population, individuals with alcohol use disorders alone had significantly increased risks of major depressive disorder (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.76-3.53 in men and OR 4.09, 95%CI 2.31-7.26 in women) and anxiety disorders (OR 2.21, 95%CI 1.46-3.36 in men and OR 4.34, 95%CI 2.35-8.03 in women). The risks became higher among individuals with both alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.64-8.01 in men and OR 11.53, 95%CI 1.32-100.65 in women for major depressive disorder, and OR 3.20, 95%CI 1.36-7.51 in men and OR 13.10, 95%CI 1.48-115.60 in women for anxiety disorders). In conclusion, alcohol use disorders were significantly associated with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Illicit drug use was an important factor in increasing these associations, especially in women. Screening for depression, anxiety, and illicit drug use should be done in individuals with alcohol use disorders.

  4. Reasons for illicit drug use in people with schizophrenia: Qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Drug misuse is an important clinical problem associated with a poorer outcome in patients who have a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Qualitative studies have rarely been used to elicit reasons for drug use in psychosis, but not in schizophrenia. Methods Seventeen people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and who had used street drugs were interviewed and asked to describe, in narrative form, their street drug use from their early experiences to the present day. Grounded theory was used to analyse the transcripts. Results We identified five reasons for continuing street drug use. The reasons were: as an 'identity defining vocation', 'to belong to a peer group', due to 'hopelessness', because of 'beliefs about symptoms and how street drugs influence them' and viewing drugs as 'equivalent to taking psychotropic medication'. Street drugs were often used to reduce anxiety aroused by voice hearing. Some participants reported street drugs to focus their attention more on persecutory voices in the hope of outwitting their perceived persecutors. Conclusions It would be clinically useful to examine for the presence of the five factors in patients who have a diagnosis of schizophrenia and use street drugs, as this is likely to help the clinician to tailor management of substance misuse to the individual patient's beliefs. PMID:21092168

  5. Altered subjective reward valuation among drug-deprived heavy marijuana users: Aversion to uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Hefner, Kathryn R.; Starr, Mark. J.; Curtin, John. J.

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States and its use is rising. Nonetheless, scientific efforts to clarify the risk for addiction and other harm associated with marijuana use have been lacking. Maladaptive decision-making is a cardinal feature of addiction that is likely to emerge in heavy users. In particular, distorted subjective reward valuation related to homeostatic or allostatic processes has been implicated for many drugs of abuse. Selective changes in responses to uncertainty have been observed in response to intoxication and deprivation from various drugs of abuse. To assess for these potential neuroadaptive changes in reward valuation associated with marijuana deprivation, we examined the subjective value of uncertain and certain rewards among deprived and non-deprived heavy marijuana users in a behavioral economics decision-making task. Deprived users displayed reduced valuation of uncertain rewards, particularly when these rewards were more objectively valuable. This uncertainty aversion increased with increasing quantity of marijuana use. These results suggest comparable decision-making vulnerability from marijuana use as other drugs of abuse, and highlights targets for intervention. PMID:26595464

  6. Smoking Slows Recovery from Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... illicit drug users also smoke cigarettes, but many substance abuse programs do not include treatment for nicotine dependence, ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Drug Abuse Smoking Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  7. Illicit Drug Use in a Community-Based Sample of Heterosexually Identified Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halkitis, Perry N.; Manasse, Ashley N.; McCready, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we assess lifetime and recent drug use patterns among 261 heterosexually identified 18- to 25-year-olds through brief street intercept surveys conducted in New York City. Marijuana, hallucinogens, powder cocaine, and ecstasy were the most frequently reported drugs for both lifetime and recent use. Findings further suggest significant…

  8. Associations between University Students' Reported Reasons for Abstinence from Illicit Substances and Type of Drug

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harold; Bonar, Erin E.; Pavlick, Michelle; Jones, Lance D.; Hoffmann, Erica; Murray, Shanna; Faigin, Carol Ann; Cabral, Kyle; Baylen, Chelsea

    2012-01-01

    We recruited 211 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 34 listed reasons for not taking drugs had influenced their abstinence from MDMA/ecstasy, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens. Participants rated reasons such as personal and family medical histories, religion, and physiological consequences of drug use as having little or no…

  9. Prenatal cocaine exposure, illicit-substance use and stress and craving processes during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Sarah W.; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with increased rates of illicit-substance use during adolescence. In addition, both PCE and illicit-substance use are associated with alterations in cortico-striato-limbic neurocircuitry, development of which is ongoing throughout adolescence. However, the relationship between illicit-substance use, PCE and functional neural responses has not previously been assessed concurrently. Methods Sixty-eight adolescents were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study of childhood and adolescent development. All participants had been followed since birth. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired during presentation of personalized stressful, favorite-food and neutral/relaxing imagery scripts and compared between 46 PCE and 22 non-prenatally-drug-exposed (NDE) adolescents with and without lifetime illicit-substance use initiation. Data were analyzed using multi-level ANOVAs (pFWE<.05). Results There was a significant three-way interaction between illicit-substance use, PCE status and cue condition on neural responses within primarily cortical brain regions, including regions of the left and right insula. Among PCE versus NDE adolescents, illicit-substance use was associated with decreased subcortical and increased cortical activity during the favorite-food condition, whereas the opposite pattern of activation was observed during the neutral/relaxing condition. Among PCE versus NDE adolescents, illicit-substance use during stress processing was associated with decreased activity in cortical and subcortical regions including amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Neural activity within cortico-striato-limbic regions was significantly negatively associated with subjective ratings of anxiety and craving among illicit-substance users, but not among non-users. Conclusions These findings suggest different neural substrates of experimentation with illicit drugs between adolescents with and

  10. Proteus endocarditis in an intravenous drug user.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rohan; Sekar, Baskar; Payne, Mark N

    2015-11-26

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening condition with adverse consequences and increased mortality, despite improvements in treatment options. Diagnosed patients usually require a prolonged course of antibiotics, with up to 40-50% requiring surgery during initial hospital admission. We report a case of a 42-year-old intravenous drug user who presented feeling generally unwell, with lethargy, rigours, confusion and a painful swollen right leg. He was subsequently diagnosed with Proteus mirabilis endocarditis (fulfilling modified Duke criteria for possible IE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). He was successfully treated with single antibiotic therapy without needing surgical intervention or requiring anticoagulation for his DVT. Proteus endocarditis is extremely uncommon, with a limited number of case reports available in the literature. This case illustrates how blood cultures are invaluable in the diagnosis of IE, especially that due to unusual microorganisms. Our case also highlights how single antibiotic therapy can be effective in treating Proteus endocarditis.

  11. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...

  12. Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence and pre-column derivatization for the analysis of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Rong; Yu, Yunqiu; Zhang, Yurong

    2007-09-15

    In the current paper, we report the development of a new capillary electrophoresis method using pre-column derivatization and laser-induced fluorescence detection for the determination of ephedrine and amphetamine drugs. Our new method allows for the identification and quantification of six commonly used illicit drugs namely pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, respectively, as well as propafenone (internal standard). Following derivatization with fluorescein isothiocyanate, a total of six amphetamine drugs and the internal standard could readily be separated using a fused-silica 75 micromID x 60 cm length (effective length: 50.2 cm) capillary column. The mobile phase consisted of buffer containing 20mM borate (pH 12, adjusted with sodium hydroxide). Samples were injected in pressure mode with the capillary being operated at 25kV/25 degrees C, and the detection of the derivatized compounds was sought using a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detector (lambda(ex)=488 nm and lambda(em)=520 nm), with a run-time of 20 min. The current method was validated with regard to precision (relative standard deviation, RSD), accuracy, sensitivity, linear range, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). In human blood and urine samples, detection limits were 0.2 ngmL(-1), and the linear range of the calibration curves was 0.5-100 ngmL(-1). The intra-day and inter-day precisions were both less than 13.22%.

  13. Socio-economic marginalization in the structural production of vulnerability to violence among people who use illicit drugs

    PubMed Central

    RICHARDSON, Lindsey A.; LONG, Cathy; DeBECK, Kora; NGUYEN, Paul; MILLOY, M-J S.; WOOD, Evan; KERR, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Many people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) face challenges to their financial stability. Resulting activities that PWUD undertake to generate income may increase their vulnerability to violence. We therefore examined the relationship between income generation and exposure to violence across a wide range of income generating activities among HIV-positive and HIV-negative PWUD living in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Data were derived from cohorts of HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative PWUD (n=1876) between December 2005 and November 2012. We estimated the relationship between different types of income generation and suffering any kind of violence using bivariate and multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEE), as well as the characteristics of violent interactions. Results Exposure to violence was reported among 977 (52%) study participants over the study period. In multivariate models controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, mental health status, and drug use patterns, violence was independently and positively associated with participation in street-based income generation activities (i.e., recycling, squeegeeing, and panhandling; adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23–1.57), sex work (AOR=1.23, 95%CI=1.00–1.50), drug dealing (AOR=1.63, 95%CI=1.44–1.84), and theft and other acquisitive criminal activity (AOR=1.51, 95%CI=1.27–1.80). Engagement in regular, self or temporary employment was not associated with being exposed to violence. Strangers were the most common perpetrators of violence (46.7%) and beatings the most common type of exposure (70.8%). Conclusions These results suggest that economic activities expose individuals to contexts associated with social and structural vulnerability to violence. The creation of safe economic opportunities that minimize vulnerability to violence among PWUD is therefore urgently required. PMID:25691275

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in illicit-drug solutions used intravenously retains infectivity.

    PubMed

    Bobkov, Aleksei F; Selimova, Ludmila M; Khanina, Tatyana A; Zverev, Sergey Y; Pokrovsky, Vadim V; Weber, Jonathan N; Bobkov, Eugene N; Rylkov, Andrey V

    2005-04-01

    The stability of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain IIIB in drug solutions was studied. The data demonstrate that HIV-1 infectivity can be retained in drug solutions (e.g. , heroin, "Khanka," and "Vint") for long periods of time. This fact must be taken into account when designing health education programs for the prevention of HIV and AIDS in Eastern Europe.

  15. Girls and Drugs. A New Analysis: Recent Trends, Risk Factors and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an analysis of recent findings on drug and alcohol use trends among girls. Data indicate that girls have caught up with boys in illicit drug and alcohol use and have actually surpassed boys in cigarette and prescription drug use. Also, more girls than boys are new users of substances. Marijuana is the illicit drug most widely…

  16. Assessing measurement error in surveys using latent class analysis: application to self-reported illicit drug use in data from the Iranian Mental Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Khalagi, Kazem; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Hajebi, Ahmad; Sharif, Vandad; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Hefazi, Mitra; Motevalian, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a method of assessing and correcting measurement error in surveys. The local independence assumption in LCA assumes that indicators are independent from each other condition on the latent variable. Violation of this assumption leads to unreliable results. We explored this issue by using LCA to estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use in the Iranian Mental Health Survey. The following three indicators were included in the LCA models: five or more instances of using any illicit drug in the past 12 months (indicator A), any use of any illicit drug in the past 12 months (indicator B), and the self-perceived need of treatment services or having received treatment for a substance use disorder in the past 12 months (indicator C). Gender was also used in all LCA models as a grouping variable. One LCA model using indicators A and B, as well as 10 different LCA models using indicators A, B, and C, were fitted to the data. The three models that had the best fit to the data included the following correlations between indicators: (AC and AB), (AC), and (AC, BC, and AB). The estimated prevalence of illicit drug use based on these three models was 28.9%, 6.2% and 42.2%, respectively. None of these models completely controlled for violation of the local independence assumption. In order to perform unbiased estimations using the LCA approach, the factors violating the local independence assumption (behaviorally correlated error, bivocality, and latent heterogeneity) should be completely taken into account in all models using well-known methods.

  17. A pilot study of the accuracy of onsite immunoassay urinalysis of illicit drug use in seriously mentally ill outpatients

    PubMed Central

    McDonell, Michael G.; Angelo, Frank; Sugar, Andrea; Rainey, Christina; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John; Short, Robert; Ries, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This pilot study investigated the accuracy of onsite immunoassay urinalysis of illicit drug use in 42 outpatients with co-occurring substance use disorders and serious mental illness. Methods Up to 40 urine samples were submitted by each participant as part of a larger study investigating the efficacy of contingency management in persons with co-occurring disorders. Each sample was analyzed for the presence of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, and opiates or their metabolites using onsite qualitative immunoassays. One onsite urinalysis was randomly selected from each participant for confirmatory gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses. Results Agreement between immunoassay and GC–MS was calculated. Agreement was high, with 98% agreement for amphetamine, methamphetamine, opiate, and marijuana. Agreement for cocaine was 93%. Conclusions Results of this pilot study support the use of onsite immunoassay screening cups as an assessment and outcome measure in adults with serious mental illness. Scientific Significance Data suggest that onsite urinalysis screenings may be a helpful assessment tool for measuring clinical and research outcomes. PMID:21219262

  18. An unusual infection in an injecting drug user.

    PubMed

    Gillis, K; Seenan, J P; Cahill, A; Tyers, A; Khanna, N; Edwards, G F S; Diggle, M A

    2011-02-01

    Injecting drug users are prone to atypical infections. We present a case of septic thrombophlebitis secondary to Fusobacterium gonidiaformans infection in a heroin user, which demonstrates the frequently unusual nature of pathogens and presentations in this group of patients.

  19. Prescription Opioid Use, Misuse, and Diversion among Street Drug Users in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Rees Davis, W.; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The use of heroin, cocaine, and other drugs is well researched in New York City, but prescription opioids (POs) have been overlooked. This study documents patterns of PO use, misuse, and diversion among street drug users, and begins to indicate how drug culture practices interact with the legitimate therapeutic goals of PO prescriptions (e.g. pain management). Methods Staff completed interviews inquiring about the reasons for use of POs and illicit drugs with 586 street drug users. Ethnographers wrote extensive field notes about subjects’ complex patterns of PO use. Results Methadone was used (71.9%) and sold (64.7%) at a higher level than OxyContin, Vicodin, and Percocet, used by between 34% and 38% of the users and sold by between 28% and 41% of the sellers. Recent PO use is associated with the recency of using heroin and cocaine (p<.001). Half of the heroin/cocaine sellers sold POs, and one quarter of the PO sellers only sold POs. Subjects were classified into four groups by whether they diverted POs or used POs to relieve pain or withdrawal rather than for euphoria. This classification was associated with frequency of PO use, whether POs were obtained from doctors/pharmacies or from drug dealers and family members, and those mostly likely to use POs for pain and withdrawal. Conclusions POs are an important component of street drug users’ drug-taking regimes, especially those who are Physically III Chemical Abusers (PICA). Future research is needed to model PO use, misuse, and diversion among this population. PMID:17913395

  20. Illicit drug policy in Spain: the opinion of health and legal professionals.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Paola; Blay, Ester; Costela, Víctor; Torrens, Marta

    2017-01-12

    The high frequency of criminal behaviour and related legal problems associated with substance addiction generates a field of interaction between legal and healthcare systems. This study was developed as a multicentre project to investigate the opinions of professionals from legal and healthcare systems about policies on illegal drugs and their implementation in practice. A multiple choice questionnaire designed ad hoc was administered to a sample of 230 professionals from legal and healthcare fields working in the cities of Barcelona, Granada and Bilbao. The questionnaire included sociodemographic and work-related data, and assessed interviewees' information about the response to drug-related crime and opinion on drug policy issues. This article presents the results from Spain. The main results showed that both groups of professionals value alternative measures to imprisonment (AMI) as useful tools to prevent offenses related to drug use and claim a broader application of AMI. They also evaluated positively the regulations on cannabis use in effect. Though the attitude of healthcare professionals towards the application of AMI is more permissive, both groups favour restricting these sanctions in cases of recidivism. Both groups show mild satisfaction with the current addiction healthcare system and express dissatisfaction with actual drug policies in Spain.

  1. Rural drug users: factors associated with substance abuse treatment utilization.

    PubMed

    Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Tindall, Michele Staton; Garrity, Thomas F; Carlson, Robert G; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a modified version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to identify the correlates of the number of substance abuse treatment episodes received by rural drug users. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with 711 drug users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Descriptive analyses examine rural drug users' substance use histories and retrospective substance abuse treatment service utilization patterns. A negative binomial regression model indicated that selected predisposing, historical health, and enabling factors were significantly associated with the utilization of substance abuse treatment among rural drug users. Despite high levels of recent and lifetime self-reported substance use among these rural drug users, treatment services were underutilized. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of the health care system and characteristics of the external environment associated with rural substance abuse treatment in order to increase utilization among drug users.

  2. A prospective examination of the path from child abuse and neglect to illicit drug use in middle adulthood: the potential mediating role of four risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-03-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed into middle adulthood (approximate age 39). Mediators were assessed in young adulthood (approximate age 29) through in-person interviews between 1989 and 1995 and official arrest records through 1994 (N = 1,196). Drug use was assessed via self-reports of past year use of marijuana, psychedelics, cocaine, and/or heroin during 2000-2002 (N = 896). Latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test: (1) a four-factor model with separate pathways from CAN to illicit drug use through each of the mediating risk factors and (2) a second-order model with a single mediating risk factor comprised of prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and poor school performance. Analyses were performed separately for women and men, controlling for race/ethnicity and early drug use. In the four-factor model for both men and women, CAN was significantly related to each of the mediators, but no paths from the mediators to drug use were significant. For women, the second-order risk factor mediated the relationship between CAN and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. For men, neither child abuse and neglect nor the second-order risk factor predicted drug use in middle adulthood. These results suggest that for women, the path from CAN to middle adulthood drug use is part of a general "problem behavior syndrome" evident earlier in life.

  3. Characterizing the intersection of Co-occurring risk factors for illicit drug abuse and dependence in a U.S. nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Kurti, Allison N; Keith, Diana R; Noble, Alyssa; Priest, Jeff S; Sprague, Brian; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have attempted to characterize how co-occurring risk factors for substance use disorders intersect. A recent study examined this question regarding cigarette smoking and demonstrated that co-occurring risk factors generally act independently. The present study examines whether that same pattern of independent intersection of risk factors extends to illicit drug abuse/dependence using a U.S. nationally representative sample (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2011-2013). Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) modeling were used to examine risk of past-year drug abuse/dependence associated with a well-established set of risk factors for substance use (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, poverty, smoking status, alcohol abuse/dependence, mental illness). Each of these risk factors was associated with significant increases in the odds of drug abuse/dependence in univariate logistic regressions. Each remained significant in a multivariate model examining all eight risk factors simultaneously. CART modeling of these 8 risk factors identified subpopulation risk profiles wherein drug abuse/dependence prevalence varied from <1% to >80% corresponding to differing combinations of risk factors present. Alcohol abuse/dependence and cigarette smoking had the strongest associations with drug abuse/dependence risk. These results demonstrate that co-occurring risk factors for illicit drug/abuse dependence generally intersect in the same independent manner as risk factors for cigarette smoking, underscoring further fundamental commonalities across these different types of substance use disorders. These results also underscore the fundamental importance of differences in the presence of co-occurring risk factors when considering the often strikingly different prevalence rates of illicit drug abuse/dependence in U.S. population subgroups.

  4. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced state-of-the-art technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs [azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, m...

  5. Psychological Factors and Adolescent Illicit Drug Use: Ethnicity and Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Stephanie M.; Kandel, Denise B.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the relationship between four psychological factors (depressive mood, normlessness, sense of isolation from the world, and self esteem) and drug use in a random sample of New York State public high school students. Focuses on relationships of subgroups of adolescents varying as to their socio-demographic characteristics (i.e.,…

  6. Youth Violence, Guns, and Illicit Drug Markets. National Institute of Justice Research Preview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumstein, Alfred

    The perception that violence is on the rise is supported by data showing a sharp increase in violent crime among juveniles since the mid-1980s. Although the overall national homicide rate has not increased, homicides by youth under the age of 24 have grown significantly in recent years. The rate of arrest of nonwhite juveniles for drug offenses…

  7. A General Causal Model to Guide Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Prevention: Assessing the Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna D.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Friend, Karen B.

    2004-01-01

    The problems associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) extract a significant health, social, and economic toll on American society. While the field of substance abuse prevention has made great strides during the past decade, two major challenges remain. First, the field has been disorganized and fragmented with respect to…

  8. Frequency and structure of stimulant designer drug consumption among suspected drug users in Budapest and South-East Hungary in 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Institóris, László; Árok, Zsófia; Seprenyi, Katalin; Varga, Tibor; Sára-Klausz, Gabriella; Keller, Éva; Tóth, Réka A; Sala, Leonardo; Kereszty, Éva; Róna, Kálmán

    2015-03-01

    Identification of abuse and frequency patterns of stimulant designer drugs (SDDs) provides important information for their risk assessment and legislative control. In the present study urine and/or blood samples of suspected drug users in criminal cases were analysed by GC-MS for 38 SDDs, and for the most frequent illicit and psychoactive licit drugs in Hungary. Between July 2012 and June 2013, 2744 suspected drug users were sampled in Budapest and during 2012 and 2013, 774 persons were sampled in South-East Hungary (Csongrád County - neighbour the Romanian and Serbian borders). In Budapest 71.4% of cases, and in South-East Hungary 61% of cases were positive for at least one substance. Pentedrone was the most frequent SDD in both regions; however, the frequency distribution of the remaining drugs was highly diverse. SDDs were frequently present in combination with other drugs - generally with amphetamine or other stimulants, cannabis and/or benzodiazepines. The quarterly distribution of positive samples indicated remarkable seasonal changes in the frequency and pattern of consumption. Substances placed on the list of illicit drugs (mephedrone, 4-fluoro-amphetamine, MDPV, methylone, 4-MEC) showed a subsequent drop in frequency and were replaced by other SDDs (pentedrone, 3-MMC, methiopropamine, etc.). Newly identified compounds from seized materials were added to the list of new psychoactive substances ("Schedule C"). While the risk assessment of substances listed in Schedule C has to be performed within 2 years after scheduling, continuous monitoring of their presence and frequency among drug users is essential. In summary, our results suggest which substances should be dropped from the list of SDDs measured in biological samples; while the appearance of new substances from seized materials indicate the need for developing adequate standard analytical methods.

  9. Detection of illicit drugs with the technique of spectral fluorescence signatures (SFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poryvkina, Larisa; Babichenko, Sergey

    2010-10-01

    The SFS technology has already proved its analytical capabilities in a variety of industrial and environmental tasks. Recently it has been introduced for forensic applications. The key features of the SFS method - measuring a 3-dimensional spectrum of fluorescence of the sample (intensity versus excitation and emission wavelengths) with following recognition of specific spectral patterns of SFS responsible for individual drugs - provide an effective tool for the analysis of untreated seized samples, without any separation of the substance of interest from its mixture with accompanying cutting agents and diluents as a preparatory step. In such approach the chemical analysis of the sample is substituted by the analysis of SFS matrix visualized as an optical image. The SFS technology of drug detection is realized by NarTest® NTX2000 analyzer, compact device intended to measure suspicious samples in liquid, solid and powder forms. It simplifies the detection process due to fully automated procedures of SFS measuring and integrated expert system for recognition of spectral patterns. Presently the expert system of NTX2000 is able to detect marijuana, cocaine, heroin, MDMA, amphetamine and methamphetamine with the detection limit down to 5% of the drug concentration in various mixtures. The numerous tests with street samples confirmed that the use of SFS method provides reliable results with high sensitivity and selectivity for identification of drugs of abuse. More than 3000 street samples of the aforesaid drugs were analyzed with NTX2000 during validation process, and the correspondence of SFS results and conclusions of standard forensic analyses with GC/MS techniques was in 99.4% cases.

  10. The use of ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of illicit drugs on clandestine records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Brian; Jourdan, Thomas; Fetterolf, Dean D.; Beasley, James O., II

    1995-01-01

    Illicit drug distribution has over the past decade grown tremendously from simple 'drug pushing' where drugs were distributed from poorly organized individuals to today's well organized and well financed drug cartels. This change to a more 'corporate-like' atmosphere has resulted in a greater use of record keeping to monitor the profits generated. The use of record keeping by drug distributors is not restricted to high level drug smugglers but is used at all levels within the distribution network. Dealers at all levels including street dealers are generally 'fronted', given on consignment quantities of drugs that they in turn sell to customers, thereby requiring the need for records to keep track of drug sales versus liabilities. These records because of their illicit nature are often encrypted to hide the fact that they are indeed records of drug transactions. The creation of a handwritten notation concerning a drug transaction is normally brought on because of a purchase or sale. In a sale, this is commonly accomplished through a consignment, or the designation of a quantity to a customer to whom that amount has been 'fronted'. Because this activity generates a debt, it follows that an accounting for payments made, as well as new transactions completed, is only logical. One of the most common means of representing these is through an 'accounting flow', in which payments are subtracted from a running balance while new sales are added to it. The examination of illicit drug records has been the key to the prosecution of numerous federal, state, and local drug cases for a number of years. The Document Section of the FBI Laboratory, through its Racketeering Records Analysis Unit (RRAU), has been involved in such analytical efforts since 1983. Detailed analytical research brought about an evolution in the systematic approach utilized in the RRAU since that time. The close proximity of the drugs to the records often results in trace drug evidence being transferred to

  11. Simultaneous determination of traditional and emerging illicit drugs in sediments, sludges and particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ruiz, Rodrigo; Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2015-07-31

    An analytical method for determining traditional and emerging drugs of abuse in particulate matter, sewage sludge and sediment has been developed and validated. A total of 41 drugs of abuse and metabolites including cocainics, tryptamines, amphetamines, arylcyclohexylamines, cathinones, morphine derivatives, pyrrolidifenones derivatives, entactogens, piperazines and other psychostimulants were selected. Samples were ultrasound extracted with McIlvaine buffer and methanol, and the extracts were cleaned up by solid phase extraction (SPE) using Strata-X cartridges. Drugs were eluted using methanol and methanol-dichloromethane and determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The optimum solid-liquid extraction (SLE) conditions were: weight 1g of sample and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) with 10mL of methanol-McIlvain buffer (1:1, v/v, pH 4.5) for 10min. Recoveries for all compounds were ≥50% in the three matrices with the exception of ephedrine (EPHE), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), ecgonine methyester (ECME), heroin (HER), 3,4-methylendioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 4-acetoxy N,N'-dimethyltryptamine (4-AcO-DIPT) and methadone (MET). Data acquisition was done by selective reaction monitoring (SRM), and the two most abundant product ions were used for confirmation. Limits of detection were lower than 1.32ngg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) and limits of quantification were between 0.12 and 3.96ngg(-1) (d.w.). The method was applied to the analysis of particulate matter, where cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BECG), ecgoninemethylester (ECME), cocaethylene (COCET), methadone (MET) and codeine (COD) were mostly detected. In the case of dehydrated sludge, opioids are at higher concentration than cocainics and some emerging drugs such as 4-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), ketamine (KET) and bufotenine (BUF) were detected. In sediment COC, 4-methoxyphencyclidine (4-MeO-PCP), MET and BECG were most relevant compounds.

  12. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography applied to illicit drug analysis.

    PubMed

    Mitrevski, Blagoj; Wynne, Paul; Marriott, Philip J

    2011-11-01

    Multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC), and especially its latest incarnation--comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC)--have proved advantageous over and above classic one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) in many areas of analysis by offering improved peak capacity, often enhanced sensitivity and, especially in the case of GC × GC, the unique feature of 'structured' chromatograms. This article reviews recent advances in MDGC and GC × GC in drug analysis with special focus on ecstasy, heroin and cocaine profiling. Although 1D GC is still the method of choice for drug profiling in most laboratories because of its simplicity and instrument availability, GC × GC is a tempting proposition for this purpose because of its ability to generate a higher net information content. Effluent refocusing due to the modulation (compression) process, combined with the separation on two 'orthogonal' columns, results in more components being well resolved and therefore being analytically and statistically useful to the profile. The spread of the components in the two-dimensional plots is strongly dependent on the extent of retention 'orthogonality' (i.e. the extent to which the two phases possess different or independent retention mechanisms towards sample constituents) between the two columns. The benefits of 'information-driven' drug profiling, where more points of reference are usually required for sample differentiation, are discussed. In addition, several limitations in application of MDGC in drug profiling, including data acquisition rate, column temperature limit, column phase orthogonality and chiral separation, are considered and discussed. Although the review focuses on the articles published in the last decade, a brief chronological preview of the profiling methods used throughout the last three decades is given.

  13. The Role Culture Plays in China’s Illicit Drug/Chemical Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-20

    trafficking of these chemicals that include acetic anhydride, ephedrine /pseudoephedrine, and steroids. To better understand China’s lack of cooperation...ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v INTRODUCTION 1 CHlNA AND THE INTERNATIONAL DRUG TRADE 2 ACETIC ANHYDRIDE PRODUCTION 3 CHlNESE EPHEDRINE AND PSEUDOEPHEDRINE EXPORTS...essential to the production of a controlled substance and for which no substitution can be made. China is a major producer of licit ephedrine and

  14. Biotic and abiotic degradation of illicit drugs, their precursor, and by-products in soil.

    PubMed

    Pal, Raktim; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Kirkbride, K Paul; Heinrich, Tunde; Naidu, Ravi

    2011-10-01

    This study presents the first systematic information on the degradation patterns of clandestine drug laboratory chemicals in soil. The persistence of five compounds - parent drugs (methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)), precursor (pseudoephedrine), and synthetic by-products N-formylmethylamphetamine and 1-benzyl-3-methylnaphthalene) - were investigated in laboratory scale for 1 year in three different South Australian soils both under non-sterile and sterile conditions. The results of the degradation study indicated that 1-benzyl-3-methylnaphthalene and methamphetamine persist for a long time in soil compared to MDMA and pseudoephedrine; N-formylmethylamphetamine exhibits intermediate persistence. The role of biotic versus abiotic soil processes on the degradation of target compounds was also varied significantly for different soils as well as with the progress in incubation period. The degradation of methamphetamine and 1-benzyl-3-methylnaphthalene can be considered as predominantly biotic as no measureable changes in concentrations were recorded in the sterile soils within a 1 year period. The results of the present work will help forensic and environmental scientists to precisely determine the environmental impact of chemicals associated with clandestine drug manufacturing laboratories.

  15. Epidemiology of illicit and abused drugs in the general population, emergency department drug-related episodes, and arrestees.

    PubMed

    Rouse, B A

    1996-08-01

    National trends in substance abuse are presented: the civilian noninstitutionalized general population; drug-related emergency department episodes; and booked arrestees. Major metropolitan differences are also noted. This study was based on the primary national data systems for these groups: The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, SAMHSA's Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), and the National Institute of Justice Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) system. While the most prevalent drug differed in the three data sources, all three showed recent increases in marijuana. Despite the general decline in drug use seen in the general population, both the number of drug-related cases in the DAWN system and the drug use detected in the DUF arrestees showed recent increases.

  16. Disruptive Potential of the Internet to Transform Illicit Drug Markets and Impact on Future Patterns of Drug Consumption.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, P; Mounteney, J

    2017-02-01

    The internet facilitates rapid and covert communication, knowledge transfer, and has the potential to disrupt and transform drug market models and associated consumption patterns. Innovation and new trends diffuse rapidly through this medium and new operational models are emerging. Although the online drug markets currently only account for a small share of all drug transactions, the potential of the surface and deep web to provide a new platform for drug sale and exchanges is considerable.

  17. LLICIT DRUGS IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE - PROPOSED NEW NON-INTRUSIVE TOOL TO HEIGHTEN PUBLIC AWARENESS OF SOCIETAL USE OF ILLICIT/ABUSED DRUGS AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Even though a body of data on the environmental occurrence of medicinal, government-approved ("ethical") pharmaceuticals has been growing over the last two decades (the subject of this book), nearly nothing is known about the disposition of illicit (illegal) drugs in the environm...

  18. Health and Public Policy to Facilitate Effective Prevention and Treatment of Substance Use Disorders Involving Illicit and Prescription Drugs: An American College of Physicians Position Paper.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Ryan; Kirschner, Neil; Dunn, Andrew S; Bornstein, Sue S

    2017-03-28

    Substance use disorders involving illicit and prescription drugs are a serious public health issue. In the United States, millions of individuals need treatment for substance use disorders but few receive it. The rising number of drug overdose deaths and the changing legal status of marijuana pose new challenges. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians maintains that substance use disorder is a treatable chronic medical condition and offers recommendations on expanding treatment options, the legal status of marijuana, addressing the opioid epidemic, insurance coverage of substance use disorders treatment, education and workforce, and public health interventions.

  19. Comparison of urine results concerning co-consumption of illicit heroin and other drugs in heroin and methadone maintenance programs.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Trafkowski, Jens; Lichtermann, Dirk; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-09-01

    Urine samples of patients from a heroin maintenance program (HMP) and a methadone maintenance program (MMP) were chromatographically analyzed 1 month before and 6 and 12 months into treatment for the presence of classical markers of heroin use as well as for the presence of markers for illicit heroin abuse. Furthermore, the samples were immunochemically tested for cannabinoids, cocaine metabolites, amphetamine, methylendioxyamphetamines and benzodiazepines. A co-consumption of illicit heroin (HER) in the HMP was determined to be 50% but was significantly lower compared to the MMP with a co-use of 71%. The incidence was high because not only acetylcodeine (AC) as a very specific marker was considered but also other marker substances for illicit HER use. Amphetamines played only a minor part in both collectives, and the proportion of HER and methadone patients using cocaine was similar and decreased during treatment. Also, the benzodiazepine use decreased, and cannabis use was high in both collectives during treatment. Considering only the AC in the present study, a co-use of illicit HER in the HMP was similar to previous reports concerning HER-assisted treatment programs. If additional marker substances were examined, the suspicion of a co-use of illicit HER is markedly enhanced.

  20. Evaluating a policing strategy intended to disrupt an illicit street-level drug market.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Nicholas; Brunson, Rod K; McGarrell, Edmund F

    2010-12-01

    The authors examined a strategic policing initiative that was implemented in a high crime Nashville, Tennessee neighborhood by utilizing a mixed-methodological evaluation approach in order to provide (a) a descriptive process assessment of program fidelity; (b) an interrupted time-series analysis relying upon generalized linear models; (c) in-depth resident interviews. Results revealed that the initiative corresponded with a statistically significant reduction in drug and narcotics incidents as well as perceived changes in neighborhood disorder within the target community. There was less-clear evidence, however, of a significant impact on other outcomes examined. The implications that an intensive crime prevention strategy corresponded with a reduction in specific forms of neighborhood crime illustrates the complex considerations that law enforcement officials face when deciding to implement this type of crime prevention initiative.

  1. 76 FR 76738 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-31630] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0381] Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public meeting; request for comments. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  2. 76 FR 56201 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public meeting; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting to discuss proposed...

  3. Family Factors in the Lives of Drug Users and Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurich, Anthony; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reviewed literature which suggested nine family factors that influence children's drug use. Conducted one-on-one interviews with 48 students to compare family factors of drug users with those of drug abusers. Results showed drug abusers were from families that had a communication gap and either laissez faire or authoritarian discipline. (BH)

  4. Forensic intelligence framework--Part I: Induction of a transversal model by comparing illicit drugs and false identity documents monitoring.

    PubMed

    Morelato, Marie; Baechler, Simon; Ribaux, Olivier; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Kirkbride, Paul; Roux, Claude; Margot, Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Forensic intelligence is a distinct dimension of forensic science. Forensic intelligence processes have mostly been developed to address either a specific type of trace or a specific problem. Even though these empirical developments have led to successes, they are trace-specific in nature and contribute to the generation of silos which hamper the establishment of a more general and transversal model. Forensic intelligence has shown some important perspectives but more general developments are required to address persistent challenges. This will ensure the progress of the discipline as well as its widespread implementation in the future. This paper demonstrates that the description of forensic intelligence processes, their architectures, and the methods for building them can, at a certain level, be abstracted from the type of traces considered. A comparative analysis is made between two forensic intelligence approaches developed independently in Australia and in Europe regarding the monitoring of apparently very different kind of problems: illicit drugs and false identity documents. An inductive effort is pursued to identify similarities and to outline a general model. Besides breaking barriers between apparently separate fields of study in forensic science and intelligence, this transversal model would assist in defining forensic intelligence, its role and place in policing, and in identifying its contributions and limitations. The model will facilitate the paradigm shift from the current case-by-case reactive attitude towards a proactive approach by serving as a guideline for the use of forensic case data in an intelligence-led perspective. A follow-up article will specifically address issues related to comparison processes, decision points and organisational issues regarding forensic intelligence (part II).

  5. Tobacco Smoking and Its Association with Illicit Drug Use among Young Men Aged 15-24 Years Living in Urban Slums of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. PMID:23935885

  6. Prevalence of skin problems and leg ulceration in a sample of young injecting drug users

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    condition that is costly to treat and has long-term implications for drug users and services caring for current or former injectors long after illicit drug use has ceased. PMID:25119472

  7. An Approach for Casual Drug Users. Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Erwin S., Ed.

    This publication was written to respond to the fact that many drug treatment centers receive inappropriate referrals of casual or recreational marihuana users from the courts for "treatment" as an alternative to jail. A drug abuse task force recommended that agencies give priority to abusers of the high-risk categories and to compulsive users of…

  8. Conducting Rapid Street Assessment of Drug Users in New York City Using Oral Fluid and Brief Interviews: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Aikins, Ross; Hoefinger, Heidi; Guarino, Honoria; Rosenblum, Andrew; Magura, Stephen; Joseph, Herman

    2016-01-01

    This study piloted the feasibility of rapidly collecting both self-reports of drug use and saliva specimens for drug toxicology in field settings. The use of oral fluid collection devices to supplement self-reports is unproven in street settings and may pose challenges for field research. Sixty adults who identified as recent illicit drug users were recruited in public settings in New York City and were asked to complete a brief drug screening inventory and provided saliva specimens. Descriptive findings are detailed along with critical best research practices and limitations that provide important directions for researchers looking to employ both toxicology and self-report in rapid field recruitment designs. PMID:26098766

  9. Sexual identity and drug use harm among high-risk, active substance users.

    PubMed

    Chow, Clifton; Vallance, Kate; Stockwell, Tim; Macdonald, Scott; Martin, Gina; Ivsins, Andrew; Marsh, David C; Michelow, Warren; Roth, Eric; Duff, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that sexual minorities are at greater risk for illicit substance use and related harm than their heterosexual counterparts. This study examines a group of active drug users to assess whether sexual identity predicts increased risk of substance use and harm from ecstasy, ketamine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and crack. Structured interviews were conducted with participants aged 15 years and older in Vancouver and Victoria, BC, Canada, during 2008-2012. Harm was measured with the World Health Organization's AUDIT and ASSIST tools. Regression analysis controlling for age, gender, education, housing and employment revealed lesbian, gay or bisexual individuals were significantly more likely to have used ecstasy, ketamine and alcohol in the past 30 days compared to heterosexual participants. Inadequate housing increased the likelihood of crack use among both lesbian, gay and bisexuals and heterosexuals, but with considerably higher odds for the lesbian, gay and bisexual group. Lesbian, gay and bisexual participants reported less alcohol harm but greater ecstasy and ketamine harm, the latter two categorised by the ASSIST as amphetamine and hallucinogen harms. Results suggest encouraging harm reduction among sexual minority, high-risk drug users, emphasising ecstasy and ketamine. The impact of stable housing on drug use should also be considered.

  10. Exploring the Attractiveness of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) among Experienced Drug Users.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, Jan G C; Nabben, Ton; Keiman, Daan; Haanschoten, Gijs; Korf, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) appear yearly on the European market (81 for the first time in 2013, adding to a total of over 350 NPS). Using semi-structured interviews with 25 Dutch experienced recreational drug users, the role of the Internet and friends in gathering and exchanging information about NPS was elaborated. Furthermore, we investigated how NPS were acquired and which aspects make NPS more or less attractive, including their legal status. It appeared that the Internet was an important source of information about NPS in general. Personal experiences with NPS were preferably shared face-to-face with friends, as for privacy reasons users were cautious to post their experiences on web sites and forums. NPS were usually obtained or bought from friends or-to a lesser extent-purchased via the Internet. The preference for a specific NPS depended on the desired effects (mostly stimulant or psychedelic), price (similar to MDMA or amphetamine), duration of effect (preferably around four hours), and setting (at home, at festivals, or in nightlife). Legal status was not relevant for the decision to use NPS. Most NPS are not superior to the already marketed drugs, and do not displace conventional illicit drugs.

  11. Screening, brief interventions, referral to treatment (SBIRT) for illicit drug and alcohol use at multiple healthcare sites: Comparison at intake and six months

    PubMed Central

    Madras, Bertha K.; Compton, Wilson M.; Avula, Deepa; Stegbauer, Tom; Stein, Jack B.; Clark, H. Westley

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol screening and brief interventions in medical settings can significantly reduce alcohol use. Corresponding data for illicit drug use is sparse. A Federally funded Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) service program, the largest of its kind to date, was initiated by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in a wide variety of medical settings. We compared illicit drug use at intake and six months after drug screening and interventions were administered. Design SBIRT services were implemented in a range of medical settings across six states. A diverse patient population (Alaska Natives, American Indians, African-Americans, Caucasians, Hispanics), was screened and offered score-based progressive levels of intervention (brief intervention, brief treatment, referral to specialty treatment). In this secondary analysis of the SBIRT service program, drug use data was compared at intake and at a six month follow-up, in a sample of a randomly selected population (10%) that screened positive at baseline. Results Of 459,599 patients screened, 22.7% screened positive for a spectrum of use (risky/problematic, abuse/addiction). The majority were recommended for a brief intervention (15.9%), with a smaller percentage recommended for brief treatment (3.2%) or referral to specialty treatment (3.7%). Among those reporting baseline illicit drug use, rates of drug use at 6 month follow-up (4 of 6 sites), were 67.7% lower (p < 0.001) and heavy alcohol use was 38.6% lower (p < 0.001), with comparable findings across sites, gender, race/ethnic, age subgroups. Among persons recommended for brief treatment or referral to specialty treatment, self-reported improvements in general health (p < 0.001), mental health (p < 0.001), employment (p < 0.001), housing status (p < 0.001), and criminal behavior (p < 0.001) were found. Conclusions SBIRT was feasible to implement and the self-reported patient status at six months

  12. Improvements in analytical methodology for the determination of frequently consumed illicit drugs in urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Beltrán, Eduardo; Boix, Clara; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Félix

    2014-07-01

    Rapid and sensitive analytical methodology based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of widely consumed drugs of abuse (amphetamines, MDMA, cocaine, opioids, cannabis and ketamine) and their major metabolites in urban wastewaters. Sample clean-up and pre-concentration was performed by a generic off-line SPE procedure using Oasis HLB. Special effort was made to incorporate amphetamine, which was found highly problematic in the wastewater samples tested, including an additional clean-up with Oasis MCX SPE and dispersive primary secondary amine. Correction for possible SPE losses or degradation during storage was made by the use of isotope-labelled internal standards (ILIS), available for all compounds, which were added to the samples as surrogates. Although ILIS were also efficient for matrix effects correction, the strong ionization suppression observed was not eliminated; therefore, a four-fold dilution prior to SPE was applied to influent wastewaters and a low injection volume was selected (3 μL), in order to reach a compromise between matrix effects, chromatographic performance and sensitivity. The method was validated at 25 and 200 ng L(-1) (effluent), and 100 and 800 ng L(-1) (influent), obtaining limits of quantification (i.e. the lowest level that the compound can be quantified and also confirmed with at least two MS/MS transitions) between 0.4-25 ng L(-1) (effluent) and 2-100 ng L(-1) (influent). The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analysis of 14 influent and 14 effluent wastewater samples collected over 2 weeks in Castellón (Spain) within a European collaborative study.

  13. Evaluation of a low-threshold/high-tolerance methadone maintenance treatment clinic in saint john, new brunswick, Canada: one year retention rate and illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Christie, Timothy K S; Murugesan, Alli; Manzer, Dana; O'Shaughnessey, Michael V; Webster, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To report the one-year retention rate and the prevalence of illicit opioid use and cocaine use in the Low-Threshold/High-Tolerance (LTHT) methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinic located in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Methods. A description of the LTHT MMT clinic is provided. The one-year retention rate was determined by collecting data on patients who enrolled in the LTHT MMT clinic between August 04, 2009 and August 04, 2010. The prevalence of illicit drug use was determined using a randomly selected retrospective cohort of 84 participants. For each participant the results of six consecutive urine tests for the most recent three months were compared to the results of the first six consecutive urine tests after program entry. Results. The one-year retention rate was 95%, 67% of the cohort achieved abstinence from illicit opioids and an additional 13% abstained from cocaine use. Conclusion. The novel feature of the LTHT MMT clinic is that patients are not denied methadone because of lack of ancillary services. Traditional comprehensive MMT programs invest the majority of financial resources in ancillary services that support the biopsychosocial model, whereas the LTHT approach utilizes a medical model and directs resources at medical management.

  14. Descending polyneuropathy in an intravenous drug user.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Jean M; McMahon, Geraldine

    2005-10-01

    A 27-year-old male intravenous drug user presented to the Emergency Department of St James's Hospital with a 1-week history of progressive dysphasia, dysphagia and difficulty 'holding his head up' and 'keeping his eyes open'. He also complained of increasing weakness in his upper limbs, as a result of which he kept dropping things. He was on a methadone program but was using both intravenous heroin and cocaine at the time of presentation. Examination of his motor function revealed generalized hypotonia, hyporeflexia and reduced power in both upper limbs. No sensory loss was observed. Co-ordination was intact. The clinical picture of a proximal symmetrical descending weakness and an absence of sensory loss was suggestive of botulism. Clostridium botulinum is a spore-forming, obligate anaerobe. The three forms of human botulism are food-borne, wound and intestinal. A fourth man-made form is produced from aerosolized botulinum toxin and results in inhalational botulism. A little as 1 g of aerosolized botulinum toxin has the potential to kill 1.5 million people. Toxin is detected in serum or stool specimens in only approximately 46% of clinically diagnosed cases. Treatment involves supportive care and early passive immunization with equine antitoxin. Patients should be regularly assessed for loss of gag and cough reflex, control of oropharyngeal secretions, oxygen saturation, vital capacity and inspiratory force. When respiratory function begins to deteriorate, anticipatory intubation is indicated. Early symptom recognition and early treatment with antitoxin are essential in order to prevent mortality, and to prevent additional cases, it is important to ascertain the presence of similar symptoms in contacts of the patient and local public health officials must be notified as one case may herald an outbreak. Given the continued threat of bioterrorism, the Centre for Disease Control Surveillance System in the United States must also be notified of any cases of botulism.

  15. Drug users in Hanoi, Vietnam: factors associated with membership in community-based drug user groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A syndemic conjoins injection drug use, incarceration, and HIV in Vietnam, where there is a need for programs that empower people who use drugs to minimize the harms thereby produced. Here we present a post-hoc evaluation of the organizing efforts of the Centre for Supporting Community Development Initiatives (SCDI) with two community-based drug user groups (CBGs) in Hanoi. Methods Members (n = 188) of the CBGs were compared to non-member peers (n = 184) on demographic, psychosocial, behavioral and knowledge variables using a face-to-face structured interview that focused on issues of quality of life and harm reduction. Bivariate analyses were conducted, and variables significantly associated with membership at p < 0.10 were included in a multivariate model. Results Variables associated with membership in the CBGs in the multivariate model included increased self-efficacy to get drug-related health care (OR 1.59, 1.24-2.04), increased quality of life in the psychological (OR 2.04, 1.07-3.93) and environmental (OR 2.54, 1.31-4.93) domains, and greater history of interactions with police about drugs (OR 3.15, 1.79-5.52). There was little difference between members and non-members on injection-related harms except in the domain of knowledge about opioid overdose. Among the 114 current injectors (30.6% of the sample), low rates of unsafe injection practices were reported, and low statistical power limited the ability to conclusively assess association with membership. Conclusions Although the CBG members displayed higher levels of well-being and access to healthcare than non-members, further longitudinal study is required to determine if these are a result of membership. The CBGs should pay more attention towards meeting challenges in responding to specific health issues of those who continue to use drugs including HIV, hepatitis, and drug overdose. PMID:24268108

  16. Prevention and treatment of hepatitis C in injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Edlin, Brian R

    2002-11-01

    Injection drug users constitute the largest group of persons infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the United States, and most new infections occur in drug users. Controlling hepatitis C in the U.S. population, therefore, will require developing, testing, and implementing effective prevention and treatment strategies for persons who inject drugs. Fortunately, a substantial body of research and clinical experience exists on the prevention and management of chronic viral diseases among injection drug users. The need to implement interventions to stop the spread of HCV among drug users is critical. The capacity of substance-use treatment programs need to be expanded to accommodate all who want and need treatment. Physicians and pharmacists should be educated in how to provide access to sterile syringes and to teach safe injection techniques, both of which are lifesaving interventions. The treatment of hepatitis C in drug users requires an interdisciplinary approach that brings together expertise in treating hepatitis and caring for drug users. Treatment decisions should be made individually by patients with their physicians, based on a balanced assessment of risks and benefits and the patient's personal values. Physicians should carefully assess, monitor, and support adherence and mental health in all patients, regardless of whether drug use is known or suspected. Research is needed to better understand how best to prevent and treat hepatitis C in substance users. In the meantime, substantial progress can be made if existing knowledge and resources are brought to bear.

  17. Prevention and Treatment of Hepatitis C in Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Edlin, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    Injection drug users constitute the largest group of persons infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the United States, and most new infections occur in drug users. Controlling hepatitis C in the U.S. population, therefore, will require developing, testing, and implementing effective prevention and treatment strategies for persons who inject drugs. Fortunately, a substantial body of research and clinical experience exists on the prevention and management of chronic viral diseases among injection drug users. The need to implement interventions to stop the spread of HCV among drug users is critical. The capacity of substance-use treatment programs need to be expanded to accommodate all who want and need treatment. Physicians and pharmacists should be educated in how to provide access to sterile syringes and to teach safe injection techniques, both of which are lifesaving interventions. The treatment of hepatitis C in drug users requires an interdisciplinary approach that brings together expertise in treating hepatitis and caring for drug users. Treatment decisions should be made individually by patients with their physicians, based on a balanced assessment of risks and benefits and the patient's personal values. Physicians should carefully assess, monitor, and support adherence and mental health in all patients, regardless of whether drug use is known or suspected. Research is needed to better understand how best to prevent and treat hepatitis C in substance users. In the meantime, substantial progress can be made if existing knowledge and resources are brought to bear. PMID:12407596

  18. Drug-Related HIV Risk Behaviors and Cocaine Preference among Injection Drug Users in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longshore, Douglas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared drug-related risk behavior of drug users whose preferred injection drug was cocaine and users with preference for heroin or no preference between the two drugs (total n=422). Found cocaine preference unrelated to likelihood of needle sharing overall, needle sharing with strangers, needle sharing at shooting galleries, and failure to use…

  19. Historical trends in the production and consumption of illicit drugs in Mexico: Implications for the prevention of blood borne infections

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Jesus; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Ramos, Rebeca; Fraga, Miguel; Perez, Saida G.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2007-01-01

    Mexico has cultivated opium poppy since before the 1900’s and has been an important transit route for South American cocaine for decades. However, only recently has drug use, particularly injection drug use, been documented as an important problem. Heroin is the most common drug used by Mexican injection drug users (IDUs). Increased cultivation of opium poppy in some Mexican states, lower prices for black tar heroin and increased security at U.S.-Mexican border crossings may be contributing factors to heroin use, especially in border cities. Risky practices among IDUs, including needle sharing and shooting gallery attendance are common, whereas perceived risk for acquiring blood borne infections is low. Although reported AIDS cases attributed to IDU in Mexico have been low, data from sentinel populations, such as pregnant women in the Mexican-U.S. border city of Tijuana, suggest an increase in HIV prevalence associated with drug use. Given widespread risk behaviors and rising numbers of blood borne infections among IDUs in Mexican-U.S. border cities, there is an urgent need for increased disease surveillance and culturally appropriate interventions to prevent potential epidemics of blood borne infections. We review available literature on the history of opium production in Mexico, recent trends in drug use and its implications, and the Mexican response, with special emphasis on the border cities of Ciudad Juarez and Tijuana. PMID:16102372

  20. Problem drug users known to Bristol general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Julie; Gay, Martyn

    1987-01-01

    A 12-month prospective survey was undertaken of all 239 problem drug users known to general practitioners in Bristol and the doctors' attitudes towards them. The drug users were predominantly young, aged 15-35 years, and males outnumbered females by approximately two to one. Seventy-eight per cent had problems associated with opiates, almost invariably heroin, 10% had problems with stimulants (mainly amphetamine powder), and others had problems with hallucinogens, cannabis, barbiturates and solvents. Opiate dependence was the commonest single problem but ill health, hepatitis, psychiatric illnesses, relationship problems, work and financial difficulties were also frequently mentioned. There was a wide variation in the numbers of problem drug users seen by individual practices, which related both to the situation of the practice and the widely varying attitudes of the partners towards drug users and drug problems. General practitioners were aware of the grapevine that transmits news of their treatment to other users, and individual practices had typically evolved a general strategy for all drug users, to minimize arguments. General practitioners were asked their views about specialist services: they thought that services in the area for drug users were inadequate to help them and their patients in 58% of cases. Several suggestions were made for additional services which were needed. PMID:3448214

  1. The role of harm reduction in controlling HIV among injecting drug users

    PubMed Central

    Wodak, Alex; McLeod, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Injecting drug users (IDU) now account for one in 10 new HIV infections world wide. Yet it has been known since the early 1990s that HIV among IDU can be effectively, safely and cost-effectively controlled by the early and vigorous implementation of a comprehensive package of strategies known as ’harm reduction’. This concept means that decreasing drug-related harms is accorded an even higher priority than reduction of drug consumption. Strategies required involve: explicit and peer-based education about the risk of HIV from sharing injecting equipment; needle syringe programmes; drug treatment (including especially opiate substitution treatment) and community development. Many countries experiencing or threatened by an HIV epidemic among IDU have now adopted harm reduction but often implementation has been too little and too late. Although coverage is slowly improving in many countries, HIV is still spreading faster among IDU than harm reduction programmes while coverage in correctional centres lags far behind community settings. The scientific debate about harm reduction is now over. National and international support for harm reduction is growing while almost all the major UN organizations responsible for drug policy now support harm reduction. Only a small number of countries, led by the USA, are still vehemently opposed to harm reduction. Excessive reliance on drug law enforcement remains the major barrier to increased adoption of harm reduction. Sometimes zealous drug law enforcement undermines harm reduction. A more balanced approach to drug law enforcement is required with illicit drug use recognized primarily as a health and social problem. PMID:18641473

  2. The Impact of Trauma on Drug Users' Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etherington, Kim

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses drug users' identity construction, and invites counsellors, psychotherapists, researchers and others who work with drug misusers to notice how cultural and societal discourses can shape drug misusers' stories, and the positions from which helpers listen and respond to them. By representing and analysing parts of two life…

  3. Comparison between self-report and hair analysis of illicit drug use in a community sample of middle-age men

    PubMed Central

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Risk, Nathan K.; Lewis, Collins E.; Price, Rumi Kato

    2008-01-01

    Discrepancies between biological assays and self-report of illicit drug use could undermine epidemiological research findings. Two objectives of the present study are to examine the degree of agreement between self-reported illicit drug use and hair analysis in a community sample of middle-aged men, and to identify factors that may predict discrepancies between self-report and hair testing. Male participants followed since 1972 were interviewed about substance use, and hair samples were analyzed for marijuana, cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP) and methamphetamine using radioimmunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Self-report and hair testing generally met good, but not excellent, agreement. Apparent underreporting of recent cocaine use was associated with inpatient hospitalization for the participant's most recent quit attempt, younger age, identifying as African American or other, and not having a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. The overestimate of marijuana use relative to hair test was associated with frequent use since 1972 and providing an inadequate hair sample. Additional research is needed to identify factors that differentially affect the validity of both hair drug testing and self-report. PMID:18547737

  4. Comparison between self-report and hair analysis of illicit drug use in a community sample of middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Ledgerwood, David M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Risk, Nathan K; Lewis, Collins E; Price, Rumi Kato

    2008-09-01

    Discrepancies between biological assays and self-report of illicit drug use could undermine epidemiological research findings. Two objectives of the present study are to examine the degree of agreement between self-reported illicit drug use and hair analysis in a community sample of middle-aged men, and to identify factors that may predict discrepancies between self-report and hair testing. Male participants followed since 1972 were interviewed about substance use, and hair samples were analyzed for marijuana, cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP) and methamphetamine using radioimmunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Self-report and hair testing generally met good, but not excellent, agreement. Apparent underreporting of recent cocaine use was associated with inpatient hospitalization for the participant's most recent quit attempt, younger age, identifying as African American or other, and not having a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. The overestimate of marijuana use relative to hair test was associated with frequent use since 1972 and providing an inadequate hair sample. Additional research is needed to identify factors that differentially affect the validity of both hair drug testing and self-report.

  5. Sewer epidemiology mass balances for assessing the illicit use of methamphetamine, amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Nicell, Jim A

    2012-04-01

    In sewer epidemiology, mass balances are used to back-extrapolate measurements of wastewater influent concentrations of appropriate drug residues to assess the parent illicit drug's level of use in upstream populations. This study focussed on developing and refining mass balances for the use of illicit methamphetamine, amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol. As a first step, a multi-criteria evaluation was used to select unchanged methamphetamine, unchanged amphetamine and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol as the most appropriate drug residues to track a selected population's use of illicit methamphetamine, amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol, respectively. For each of these selected drug residues, mass balances were developed by utilizing all disposition data available for their release from all their respective sources, incorporating route-of-administration considerations where relevant, and accounting for variations in the metabolic capacity of users of the various relevant licit and illicit sources. Further, since the selected drug residues for the use of methamphetamine and amphetamine cannot only result from their use but numerous other licit and illicit sources, comprehensive general source models were developed for their enantiomeric-specific release to sewers. The relative importance of the sources identified in the general source model was evaluated by performing national substance flow analyses for a number of countries. Results suggested that licit sources of methamphetamine are expected to be only of significance in populations where its illicit use is minor. Similarly, in populations where the use of illicitly produced amphetamine is currently of relevance, licit contributions to the sewer loads of amphetamine are likely to be of negligible importance. Lastly, the study of tetrahydrocannabinol back-extrapolation mass balances suggested that further research is required to assess the importance of fecal elimination of 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol.

  6. How Strong Is the Evidence that Illicit Drug Use by Young People Is an Important Cause of Psychological or Social Harm? Methodological and Policy Implications of a Systematic Review of Longitudinal, General Population Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod, John; Oakes, Rachel; Oppenkowski, Thomas; Stokes-Lampard, Helen; Copello, Alex; Crome, Ilana; Davey Smith, George; Egger, Matthias; Hickman, Mathew; Judd, Ali

    2004-01-01

    Recreational use of illicit drugs (i.e. use not associated with a diagnosed drug problem) may cause psychological and social harm. A recent systematic review found that evidence for this was equivocal. Extensive evidence was only available in relation to cannabis use. This was relatively consistently associated with lower educational attainment…

  7. Universal method to determine acidic licit and illicit drugs and personal care products in water by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Carmona, Eric; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and personal care products are emerging contaminants widely distributed in water. Currently, a number of solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedures followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) have been reported. However, target analysis of selected compounds is commonly used whereas other related contaminants present in the sample remain invisible. Carmona et al. [1] described a method for determining 21 emerging contaminants by LC-MS/MS with improved mobile phases. We tested this protocol in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) instrument to get a wide non-target screening approach in order to have a broader scope and more practical method for detecting licit and illicit drugs and personal care products than traditional target methods. The essential points in the method are: •The screening capabilities of QqTOF (ABSciex Triple TOF™) are used for detecting and identifying non-target pharmaceuticals and a large number of other emerging contaminants in water.•The quantitative features of the instrument, the Achilles heel of the QqTOF mass spectrometers, are established for few selected compounds.•The method may be applied to identify a large number of emerging contaminants in water. However, pre-validation will be needed to quantify them.

  8. Utilizing Social Action Theory as a framework to determine correlates of illicit drug use among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Traube, Dorian E; Holloway, Ian W; Schrager, Sheree M; Kipke, Michele D

    2012-03-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to be at elevated risk for substance use; however, models explaining this phenomenon have often focused on a limited array of explanatory constructs. This study utilizes Social Action Theory (SAT) as a framework to address gaps in research by documenting the social, behavioral, and demographic risk factors associated with illicit drug use among YMSM. Structural equation modeling was used to apply SAT to a cross-sectional sample of 526 men from the Healthy Young Men Study, a longitudinal study of substance use and sexual risk behavior among YMSM in Los Angeles. The final model possessed very good fit statistics (Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.936, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = 0.925, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.040) indicating that SAT is appropriate for use with YMSM. Substance use interventions for YMSM could be enhanced by employing SAT as conceptualized in this study and using a multitargeted strategy for impacting illicit drug use.

  9. Utilizing Social Action Theory as a Framework to Determine Correlates of Illicit Drug Use Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Traube, Dorian E.; Holloway, Ian W.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to be at elevated risk for substance use; however, models explaining this phenomenon have often focused on a limited array of explanatory constructs. Purpose This study utilizes Social Action Theory (SAT) as a framework to address gaps in research by documenting the social, behavioral, and demographic risk factors associated with illicit drug use among YMSM. Methods Structural equation modeling was used to apply SAT to a cross-sectional sample of 526 men from the Healthy Young Men Study, a longitudinal study of substance use and sexual risk behavior among YMSM in Los Angeles. Results The final model possessed very good fit statistics (CFI = 0.936, TLI = 0.925, RMSEA = 0.040) indicating that SAT is appropriate for use with YMSM. Conclusions Substance use interventions for YMSM could be enhanced by employing SAT as conceptualized in this study and using a multi-targeted strategy for impacting illicit drug use. PMID:21644802

  10. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress.

  11. Drug user settings: a crack house typology.

    PubMed

    Geter, R S

    1994-06-01

    Both lay persons and members of the scientific community have come to view the inner-city crack house as a facility where drug dealers and crack addicts sell, buy, and use crack cocaine. It is suggested in this article that the term "crack house" be unbundled into four more meaningful terms based on the physical conditions of the house, its functionality, and the social relationships that it supports. Two typologies are proposed. The first separates drug houses into four general categories: (1) Crack House, (2) Cop House, (3) Drug House III, and (4) Drug House IV. The second typology categorizes the Crack House into four types: (A) the Party House, (B) the Hit House, (C) the Smoke House, and (D) the Bandominium. Each of these types is explored in detail.

  12. Prenatal drug exposure to illicit drugs alters working memory-related brain activity and underlying network properties in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Julie B; Riggins, Tracy; Liang, Xia; Gallen, Courtney; Kurup, Pradeep K; Ross, Thomas J; Black, Maureen M; Nair, Prasanna; Salmeron, Betty Jo

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of effects of prenatal drug exposure (PDE) on brain functioning during adolescence is poorly understood. We explored neural activation to a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) versus a control task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in adolescents with PDE and a community comparison group (CC) of non-exposed adolescents. We applied graph theory metrics to resting state data using a network of nodes derived from the VSWM task activation map to further explore connectivity underlying WM functioning. Participants (ages 12-15 years) included 47 adolescents (27 PDE and 20 CC). All analyses controlled for potentially confounding differences in birth characteristics and postnatal environment. Significant group by task differences in brain activation emerged in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA 6) with the CC group, but not the PDE group, activating this region during VSWM. The PDE group deactivated the culmen, whereas the CC group activated it during the VSWM task. The CC group demonstrated a significant relation between reaction time and culmen activation, not present in the PDE group. The network analysis underlying VSWM performance showed that PDE group had lower global efficiency than the CC group and a trend level reduction in local efficiency. The network node corresponding to the BA 6 group by task interaction showed reduced nodal efficiency and fewer direct connections to other nodes in the network. These results suggest that adolescence reveals altered neural functioning related to response planning that may reflect less efficient network functioning in youth with PDE.

  13. Current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianhua; Li, Xinyue

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention for drug users in China and provide scientific evidence for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in drug users. Literature and articles related to drug abuse in China, as well as the results of prevention efforts and successful cases regarding HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users, are reviewed. Lessons learned are drawn out for the future improvement of work and the sustainable development of treatment programs. The number of drug users in China is increasing. Even though the number of opioid-type drug users is growing more slowly than in the past, the number of amphetamine-type stimulant users has increased sharply. It has been proven that methadone maintenance treatment and syringe exchange programs gradually and successfully control HIV/AIDS transmission in drug users. However, it is necessary to enhance these prevention methods and expand their coverage. In addition, the strengthening of antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment for HIV-infected drug users is crucial for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The rapidly growing number of amphetamine-type stimulant users, along with their high-risk behavior, poses a hidden danger of greater HIV/AIDS transmission through sexual intercourse in the near future. PMID:25284965

  14. Reconceptualizing Early and Late Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers' knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from…

  15. Needle and Syringe Cleaning Practices among Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Harbke, Colin R.; Canty, John R.; Reynolds, Grace L.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the effect of needle exchange on the bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) practices of 176 needle and syringe sharing injection drug users (IDUs). Results reveal that IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. (Contains 36…

  16. A qualitative exploration of travel-related risk behaviours of injection drug users from two Slovene regions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study of travel-related risk behaviours of Slovene injection drug users was based on interviews with individuals enrolled in drug addiction treatment programmes run by three regional centres for prevention and treatment of drug addiction. The primary objective of the study was to analyse behaviour patterns and practices of injection drug users during travel. Methods Travel-related problems of Slovene injection drug users were identified on the basis of data obtained by 25 in-depth interviews. A semi-structured questionnaire with 13 open-ended questions was developed after a preliminary study and review of the literature, and on the basis of experience with the treatment of drug addiction in Slovenia. Results The sample comprised 25 individuals, 18 men and seven women, aged 25 to 53 years. The interviews were 10 to 30 minutes long. The results obtained were presented as identified risk behaviours. Five categories were generated, providing information on the following topics: procurement of illicit drugs, criminal acts/environment, HIV and hepatitis B and C infections, storage and transport of substitution medication and pre-travel health protection. The first three categories comprise the injection drug users' risk behaviours that are most frequently explored in the literature. The other two categories - storage and transport of medication across the border and pre-travel health protection - reflect national specificities and the effectiveness of substitution treatment programmes. The majority of participants denied having shared needles and other injecting equipment when travelling. Participants who had no doctor's certificate had recourse to various forms of risk behaviour, finding a number of ways to hide the medication at the border. Conclusion This qualitative study provides insight into potential travel-related risk behaviour of injection drug users from two Slovene regions - central and coastal. The potential value of this qualitative study

  17. 76 FR 45814 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures... generic new animal drug user fees. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act of 2008 (AGDUFA), authorizes FDA to collect user fees for...

  18. Socio-economic marginalization and plasma HIV-1 RNA non-detectability among individuals who use illicit drugs in a Canadian setting

    PubMed Central

    RICHARDSON, Lindsey A.; KERR, Thomas H.; DOBRER, Sabina; PUSKAS, Cathy M.; GUILLEMI, Silvia A.; MONTANER, Julio S. G.; WOOD, Evan; MILLOY, M-J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Given that people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) often engage in prohibited income generation to support their basic needs, we sought to examine the role of these activities in shaping antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and plasma HIV RNA-1 viral load suppression among HIV-infected PWUD. Design Longitudinal analyses among HIV-positive, ART exposed PWUD in the AIDS Care Cohort to evaluate Exposure to Survival Services prospective cohort study (2005–2013). Methods Generalized linear mixed effects and mediation analyses examined the relationship between prohibited income generation (e.g. sex work, drug dealing, theft, street-based income) and virologic suppression (plasma viral load ≤ 50 copies/mL plasma) adjusting for adherence and potential confounders. Results Among 687 HIV-infected PWUD, 391 (56.9%) individuals reported prohibited income generation activity during the study period. In multivariate analyses, prohibited income generation remained independently and negatively associated with virologic suppression (adjusted odds ratio: 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.52–0.88) following adjustment for hypothesized confounders, including high-intensity drug use, ART adherence and homelessness. While partially mediated by ART adherence, the relationship between prohibited income generation and virologic suppression was maintained in mediation analyses (Sobel statistic = −1.95, p=0.05). Conclusions Involvement in prohibited income generation decreases the likelihood of virologic suppression directly and indirectly through its negative association with ART adherence. These findings suggest that linkages between socio-economic marginalization, the criminalization of illicit drug use and insufficient employment opportunities may produce barriers to access and retention in care. Programmatic and policy interventions that decrease socio-economic vulnerability may therefore reduce HIV-related morbidity, mortality and onward transmission. PMID:26558546

  19. Hand Function is Altered in Individuals with a History of Illicit Stimulant Use

    PubMed Central

    Pearson-Dennett, Verity; Flavel, Stanley C.; Wilcox, Robert A.; Thewlis, Dominic; Vogel, Adam P.; White, Jason M.; Todd, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Use of illicit stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy are a significant worldwide problem. However, little is known about the effect of these drugs on movement. The aim of the current study was to investigate hand function in adults with a history of illicit stimulant use. We hypothesized that prior use of illicit stimulant drugs is associated with abnormal manipulation of objects. The study involved 22 subjects with a history of illicit stimulant use (aged 29±8 yrs; time since last use: 1.8±4.0 yrs) and two control groups comprising 27 non-drug users (aged 25±8 yrs) and 17 cannabis users with no history of stimulant use (aged 22±5 yrs). Each subject completed screening tests (neuropsychological assessment, medical history questionnaire, lifetime drug history questionnaire, and urine drug screen) prior to gripping and lifting a light-weight object with the dominant right hand. Horizontal grip force, vertical lift force, acceleration, and first dorsal interosseus electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded during three trials. In trial one, peak grip force was significantly greater in the stimulant group (12.8±3.9 N) than in the control groups (non-drug: 10.3±4.6 N; cannabis: 9.4±2.9 N, P<0.022). However, peak grip force did not differ between groups in trials two and three. The results suggest that individuals with a history of stimulant use overestimate the grip force required to manipulate a novel object but, are able to adapt grip force in subsequent lifts. The results suggest that movement dysfunction may be an unrecognized consequence of illicit stimulant use. PMID:25545892

  20. Patterns of Drug Use in a Sample of 200 Young Drug Users in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected during a secondary prevention intervention study was conducted to describe patterns of drug use in a non-treatment sample of young drug users recruited in ten further-education colleges across inner London. Participants were 200 young people who were either weekly cannabis users and/or who had…

  1. Illicit organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Doping and manipulation are undesirable companions of professional and amateur sport. Numerous adverse analytical findings as well as confessions of athletes have demonstrated the variety of doping agents and methods as well as the inventiveness of cheating sportsmen. Besides ‘conventional’ misuse of drugs such as erythropoietin and insulins, experts fear that therapeutics that are currently undergoing clinical trials might be part of current or future doping regimens, which aim for an increased functionality and performance or organs and tissues. Emerging drugs such as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) complex stabilizers or modulators of muscle fiber calcium channels are considered relevant for current and future doping controls due to their high potential for misuse in sports. PMID:19337407

  2. 78 FR 46955 - Animal Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... at http://www.fda.gov/ForIndustry/UserFees/AnimalDrugUserFeeActADUFA/default.htm and, under Tools and... Drug User Cover Sheet, transmit it to FDA, and print a copy. After logging into your account with...

  3. Cohesive subgroups and drug user networks in Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gayen, Tarun Kanti; Gayen, Kaberi; Raeside, Robert; Elliott, Lawrie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore group drug taking behaviour in a slum area of Dhaka, Bangladesh. We set out to examine the relationships between those who met, at least weekly, to take illegal drugs together, and how these relationships might shape their drug behaviour. Sociometric and behavioural data were collected using questionnaires via semi-structured interviews. We found that the likelihood of injecting drugs and sharing needles increased with age, duration of group membership and length of drug use. Drug users were classified into two clusters: one was more cohesive and comprised longer-term users, who were more likely to inject drugs and had poorer physical and mental health. The other cluster comprised younger, better educated members who were more transient, less cohesive, less likely to inject drugs and had better health. Qualitative data suggested that members of the first cluster were less accepting of outsiders and confirmed more to group norms. We conclude that emotionally bonded cohesive subgroups acquire norms, which reinforce problematic drug-using behaviour. Thus, health initiatives need to consider group relationships and norms and those initiatives which work with networks may be more effective and more appropriate for low-income countries.

  4. Assessing the HIV-1 Epidemic in Brazilian Drug Users: A Molecular Epidemiology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Monick Lindenmeyer; Marques, Bianca Cristina Leires; Bertoni, Neilane; Teixeira, Sylvia Lopes Maia; Morgado, Mariza Gonçalves; Bastos, Francisco Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Person who inject illicit substances have an important role in HIV-1 blood and sexual transmission and together with person who uses heavy non-injecting drugs may have less than optimal adherence to anti-retroviral treatment and eventually could transmit resistant HIV variants. Unfortunately, molecular biology data on such key population remain fragmentary in most low and middle-income countries. The aim of the present study was to assess HIV infection rates, evaluate HIV-1 genetic diversity, drug resistance, and to identify HIV transmission clusters in heavy drug users (DUs). For this purpose, DUs were recruited in the context of a Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) study in different Brazilian cities during 2009. Overall, 2,812 individuals were tested for HIV, and 168 (6%) of them were positive, of which 19 (11.3%) were classified as recent seroconverters, corresponding to an estimated incidence rate of 1.58%/year (95% CI 0.92–2.43%). Neighbor joining phylogenetic trees from env and pol regions and bootscan analyses were employed to subtype the virus from132 HIV-1-infected individuals. HIV-1 subtype B was prevalent in most of the cities under analysis, followed by BF recombinants (9%-35%). HIV-1 subtype C was the most prevalent in Curitiba (46%) and Itajaí (86%) and was also detected in Brasília (9%) and Campo Grande (20%). Pure HIV-1F infections were detected in Rio de Janeiro (9%), Recife (6%), Salvador (6%) and Brasília (9%). Clusters of HIV transmission were assessed by Maximum likelihood analyses and were cross-compared with the RDS network structure. Drug resistance mutations were verified in 12.2% of DUs. Our findings reinforce the importance of the permanent HIV-1 surveillance in distinct Brazilian cities due to viral resistance and increasing subtype heterogeneity all over Brazil, with relevant implications in terms of treatment monitoring, prophylaxis and vaccine development. PMID:26536040

  5. Influence of religiosity on HIV risk behaviors in active injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, M; Sinacore, J M; Mensah, E K; Levy, J A

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies have shown a positive relationship between religiosity and the practice or adoption of protective health behaviors, including reduction of illicit drug use among hard-core injecting drug users (IDUs). The purpose of this study was to examine the role of religiosity in predicting HIV high-risk drug and sexual practices among a sample of IDUs in Chicago, USA. We hypothesized that high religiosity would be associated with a lower likelihood of IDUs engaging in risky behaviors for HIV transmission. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 1,095 active IDUs for HIV testing, counseling and partner notification. Data were analyzed from 880 subjects who self-identified with one of three religions, Christianity, Islam or Judaism. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between religiosity (based on self-reports of personal strength of religious belief: very strong; somewhat strong; not at all), independent of specific religion, and HIV risk behaviors (defined as 12 unsafe sex- and drug-related practices) as well as HIV serostatus. Contrary to our hypothesis, subjects with stronger religiosity were more likely to engage in four risk behaviors related to sharing injection paraphernalia. Compared to those who self-reported having no religiosity, subjects who stated that their lives were strongly influenced by religious beliefs were significantly more likely to share injection outfits, cookers, cotton and water. The association of certain HIV risk behaviors with higher religiosity has implications for HIV prevention and warrants further research to explore IDUs' interpretation of religious teachings and the role of religious education in HIV prevention programs.

  6. Flashblood: Blood sharing among female injecting drug users in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.; Kilonzo, G.P.; Leshabari, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Aims This study examined the association between the blood-sharing practice “flashblood” and demographic factors, HIV status, and variables associated with risky sex and drug behaviors among female injecting drug users. Flashblood is a syringe full of blood passed from someone who has just injected heroin to someone else who injects it in lieu of heroin. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Participants One hundred and sixty-nine female injecting drug users (IDUs) were recruited using purposive sampling for hard-to-reach populations. Measurements The association between flashblood use, demographic and personal characteristics and risky sex and drug use variables was analyzed by t-test and χ2 test. The association between flashblood use and residential neighborhood was mapped. Findings Flashblood users were more likely to: be married (p=.05), have lived in the current housing situation for a shorter time (p<.000), have been forced as a child to have sex by a family member(p=.007), inject heroin more in the last 30 days (p=.005), smoke marijuana at an earlier age (p=.04), use contaminated rinse-water (p<.03), pool money for drugs (p<.03), and share drugs (p=.00). Non-flashblood users were more likely to live with their parents (p=.003). Neighborhood flashblood use was highest near downtown and in the two next adjoining suburbs and lowest in the most distant suburbs. Conclusions These data indicate that more vulnerable women who are heavy users and living in shorter term housing are injecting flashblood. The practice of flashblood appears to be spreading from the inner city to the suburbs. PMID:20331567

  7. Pregnancy and Sexual Health among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…

  8. Recognizing the adolescent drug abuser.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, R G; Jacobs, E A

    1987-03-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for using and abusing illicit drugs. Guidelines for recognizing drug abusers are presented as well as a staging process for progression of drug use. The family physician is in an ideal position to identify young users/abusers and to assist them and their families in obtaining much needed assistance.

  9. Effectiveness of HIV prevention social marketing with injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Gibson, David R; Zhang, Guili; Cassady, Diana; Pappas, Les; Mitchell, Joyce; Kegeles, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    Social marketing involves applying marketing principles to promote social goods. In the context of health behavior, it has been used successfully to reduce alcohol-related car crashes, smoking among youths, and malaria transmission, among other goals. Features of social marketing, such as audience segmentation and repeated exposure to prevention messages, distinguish it from traditional health promotion programs. A recent review found 8 of 10 rigorously evaluated social marketing interventions responsible for changes in HIV-related behavior or behavioral intentions. We studied 479 injection drug users to evaluate a community-based social marketing campaign to reduce injection risk behavior among drug users in Sacramento, California. Injecting drugs is associated with HIV infection in more than 130 countries worldwide.

  10. HIV post-exposure therapy for drug users in treatment.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, P G

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of drug treatment program providers concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) post-exposure therapy (PET) for drug users enrolled in drug treatment. This was a cross-sectional evaluation of drug treatment program providers in four methadone maintenance programs (MMPs) in New Haven, Connecticut. Thirty-five MMP providers including: 29 MMP treatment staff (physicians, nurses, counselors) and 6 primary care provider staff (physicians, nurse practitioners, and nurses) participated in the study. The providers were presented with four case vignettes of individuals exposed to HIV through a needle stick ("stick"): a phlebotomist with occupational exposure (Case A) and three drug users with nonoccupational exposure to HIV (Cases B, C, and D). Case B had the same estimated future risk as Case A (three sticks/4 years) and the other cases had increased risk: Case C (four to six sticks/year) and Case D (monthly "sticks"). For each vignette, providers were asked whether they would offer HIV PET ("yes" or "no"). In addition, focus groups were held within each group of providers who were asked: "What role should drug treatment programs play in the implementation of PET?" All MMP staff (29/29) and primary care providers (6/6) felt that the phlebotomist with occupational exposure should be offered PET. The percent of MMP and Primary care provider staff recommending PET for the other cases were: Case B (MMP staff: 86% [25/29], PCPs: 100% [6/6]), Case C (MMP staff: 69% [20/29], PCPs: 33% [2/6]), and Case D (MMP staff: 59% [17/29], PCPs: 17% [1/6]). The "common themes" that were identified in the focus groups included: concern that MMPs lack resources to provide PET, the ethics of withholding PET, the "limit" on the number of times PET should be offered, and the role of PET in the overall HIV prevention message. Both MMP staff and PCPs felt that MMPs should have an "indirect" role in providing HIV PET by providing education

  11. Everyday drug diversions: A qualitative study of the illicit exchange and non-medical use of prescription stimulants on a university campus

    PubMed Central

    Vrecko, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates everyday experiences and practises that are associated with processes of pharmaceuticalization and with practices of ‘drug diversion’—that is, the illicit exchange and non-medical use of prescription drugs. It reports results from a qualitative study that was designed to examine the everyday dimensions of non-medical prescription stimulant use among students on an American university campus, which involved 38 semi-structured interviews with individuals who used prescription stimulants as a means of improving academic performance. While discussions of drug diversion are often framed in terms of broad, population-level patterns and demographic trends, the present analysis provides a complementary sociocultural perspective that is attuned to the local and everyday phenomena. Results are reported in relation to the acquisition of supplies of medications intended for nonmedical use. An analysis is provided which identifies four different sources of diverted medications (friends; family members; black-market vendors; deceived clinicians), and describes particular sets of understandings, practices and experiences that arise in relation to each different source. Findings suggest that at the level of everyday experience and practice, the phenomenon of prescription stimulant diversion is characterised by a significant degree of complexity and heterogeneity. PMID:25455480

  12. Everyday drug diversions: a qualitative study of the illicit exchange and non-medical use of prescription stimulants on a university campus.

    PubMed

    Vrecko, Scott

    2015-04-01

    This article investigates everyday experiences and practises that are associated with processes of pharmaceuticalization and with practices of 'drug diversion'--that is, the illicit exchange and non-medical use of prescription drugs. It reports results from a qualitative study that was designed to examine the everyday dimensions of non-medical prescription stimulant use among students on an American university campus, which involved 38 semi-structured interviews with individuals who used prescription stimulants as a means of improving academic performance. While discussions of drug diversion are often framed in terms of broad, population-level patterns and demographic trends, the present analysis provides a complementary sociocultural perspective that is attuned to the local and everyday phenomena. Results are reported in relation to the acquisition of supplies of medications intended for nonmedical use. An analysis is provided which identifies four different sources of diverted medications (friends; family members; black-market vendors; deceived clinicians), and describes particular sets of understandings, practices and experiences that arise in relation to each different source. Findings suggest that at the level of everyday experience and practice, the phenomenon of prescription stimulant diversion is characterised by a significant degree of complexity and heterogeneity.

  13. Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography- electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper was twofold: (1) to demonstrate the coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and microliquid chromatography-electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry and (2) to assess the ability of these methodologies to detect six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in a real-world environment, e.g., waste water effluent. In the effluent from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), azithromycin was detected at concentrations ranging from 15 to 66 ng/L, which is equivalent to a total annual release of 1 to 4 kg into receiving waters. Detected and confirmed in the effluent from two WWTPs were two illicit drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA, at 2 and 0.5 ng/L, respectively. Although the ecotoxicologic significance of drugs in environmental matrices, particularly water, has not been closely examined, it can only be surmised that these substances have the potential to adversely affect biota that are continuously exposed to them even at very low levels. The potential for chronic effects on human health is also unknown but of increasing concern because of the multi-use character of water, particularly in densely populated, arid areas.

  14. Respondent-driven sampling in a study of drug users in New York City: notes from the field.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Courtney; Des Jarlais, Don; Bramson, Heidi; Tower, Lisa; Abdul-Quader, Abu S; Nemeth, Chris; Heckathorn, Douglas

    2006-11-01

    Beth Israel Medical Center (BIMC), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in a study of HIV seroprevalence among drug users in New York City in 2004. We report here on operational issues with RDS including recruitment, coupon distribution, storefront operations, police and community relations, and the overall lessons we learned. Project staff recruited eight seeds from a syringe exchange in Lower Manhattan to serve as the initial study participants. Upon completion of the interview that lasted approximately 1 h and a blood draw, each seed was given three coupons to recruit three drug users into the study. Each of the subsequent eligible participants was also given three coupons to recruit three of their drug-using acquaintances. Eligible participants had to have: injected, smoked or snorted an illicit drug in the last 6 months (other than marijuana), aged 18 or older, adequate English language knowledge to permit informed consent and complete questionnaire. From April to July 2004, 618 drug users were interviewed, including 263 (43%) current injectors, 119 (19%) former injectors, and 236 (38%) never injectors. Four hundred sixty nine (76%) participants were men, 147 (24%) were women, and two (<1%) were transgender. By race/ethnicity, 285 (46%) were black, 218 (35%) Hispanic, 88 (14%) white, 23 (4%) mixed/not specified, and four (<1%) native American. Interviews were initially done on a drop-in basis but this system changed to appointments 1 month into the study due to the large volume of subjects coming in for interviews. Data collection was originally proposed to last for 1 year with a target recruitment of 500 drug users. Utilizing RDS, we were able to recruit and interview 118 more drug users than originally proposed in one quarter of the time. RDS was efficient with respect to time and economics (we did not have to hire an outreach worker) and

  15. Let It “B”? The Role of Hepatitis B Universal Vaccination among Italian Problematic Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Lugoboni, Fabio; Pavarin, Raimondo Maria; Resentera, Chiara; Gambini, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) hepatitis is extremely common among problematic drug users (DUs). As of 2012, 47 of the 53 European countries had implemented a universal hepatitis B vaccination programme, a scenario that could radically change its spread. Even so, drug users are still one of the main groups at risk of being infected by HBV, exposing the fact that universal vaccination still has not managed to reach an optimal level of contagion protection. In order to evaluate the role of universal HBV vaccination in protecting against risk behaviour related to the use of illicit drugs, a group of 748 DUs, 511 male and 237 female, was tested for HBV markers, at their first access to public addiction clinics in the metropolitan area of Bologna, Italy. 487 were born after 1981, so they were eligible to have received HBV vaccination in adolescence or at birth; in these subjects antibodies against HBV core antigen had the significant prevalence of 6.2%. Universal HBV vaccination has shown evidence of protecting against infection in the general population. These results, amongst the first to evaluate actual protection in DUs vaccinated at birth or during adolescence, show that compulsory universal vaccination does not solve the problem of HBV transmission in the most at risk groups and that additional strategies must be studied and implemented to address this issue. PMID:25872013

  16. Hardcore drug users claim to be occasional users: drug use frequency underreporting.

    PubMed

    Morral, A R; McCaffrey, D; Iguchi, M Y

    2000-01-01

    Self-reports of drug use frequency are central to treatment outcome evaluations, estimates of the prevalence of heavy use, estimates of treatment need, and other questions with direct relevance to drug policies. Nevertheless, surprisingly little is known about the validity of these self-reports. This study examines the accuracy of 701 frequency self-reports made by a sample of methadone maintenance clients. Self-report accuracy is evaluated by comparing rates of positive urinalyses found for each case with rates that would be expected had drug use occurred only as often as reported. Expected rates of positive urinalyses are derived from conservative Monte Carlo models of drug use for each case. This procedure reveals extensive heroin and cocaine use frequency underreporting. After adjusting for frequency underreporting, 51% of 279 cases reporting only occasional heroin use (1-10 days in the past 30), and 22% of the 157 cases reporting occasional cocaine use, are found to be using these drugs with frequencies corresponding to what the Office of National Drug Control Policy defines as 'hardcore use' (more than 10 days in the past 30). Drug use frequency underreporting appears substantial, and might constitute an important threat to the validity of some treatment outcome evaluations, needs assessments and other analyses that rely on drug use frequency self-reports.

  17. 76 FR 45831 - Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the rates for prescription drug user fees for fiscal year (FY) 2012. The Federal Food, Drug,...

  18. Does Computer Survey Technology Improve Reports on Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use in the General Population? A Comparison Between Two Surveys with Different Data Collection Modes In France

    PubMed Central

    Beck, François; Guignard, Romain; Legleye, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that survey methodology can greatly influence prevalence estimates for alcohol and illicit drug use. The aim of this article is to assess the effect of data collection modes on alcohol misuse and drug use reports by comparing national estimates from computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) and audio-computer-assisted self interviews (A-CASI). Methods Design: Two national representative surveys conducted in 2005 in France by CATI (n = 24,674) and A-CASI (n = 8,111). Participants: French-speaking individuals aged [18]–[64] years old. Measurements: Alcohol misuse according to the CAGE test, cannabis use (lifetime, last year, 10+ in last month) and experimentation with cocaine, LSD, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, were measured with the same questions and wordings in the two surveys. Multivariate logistic regressions controlling for sociodemographic characteristics (age, educational level, marital status and professional status) were performed. Analyses were conducted on the whole sample and stratified by age (18–29 and 30–44 years old) and gender. 45–64 years old data were not analysed due to limited numbers. Results Overall national estimates were similar for 9 out of the 10 examined measures. However, after adjustment, A-CASI provided higher use for most types of illicit drugs among the youngest men (adjusted odds ratio, or OR, of 1.64 [1.08–2.49] for cocaine, 1.62 [1.10–2.38] for ecstasy, 1.99 [1.17–3.37] for LSD, 2.17 [1.07–4.43] for heroin, and 2.48 [1.41–4.35] for amphetamines), whereas use amongst women was similar in CATI and A-CASI, except for LSD in the 30–44 age group (OR = 3.60 [1.64–7.89]). Reported alcohol misuse was higher with A-CASI, for all ages and genders. Conclusions Although differences in the results over the whole population were relatively small between the surveys, the effect of data collection mode seemed to vary according to age and gender. PMID:24465720

  19. Effect of a Primary Care based Brief Intervention Trial among Risky Drug Users on Health-related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Gelberg, Lillian; Leake, Barbara D.; Yacenda-Murphy, Julia; Vahidi, Mani; Andersen, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Improvement in quality of life (QOL) is a long term goal of drug treatment. Although some brief interventions have been found to reduce illicit drug use, no trial among adult risky (moderate non-dependent) drug users has tested effects on health-related quality of life. Methods A single-blind randomized controlled trial of patients enrolled from February 2011 to November 2012 was conducted in waiting rooms of five federally qualified health centers. 413 adult primary care patients were identified as risky drug users using the WHO-ASSIST and 334 (81% response; 171 intervention, 163 control) consented to participate in the trial. Three-month follow-ups were completed by 261 patients (78%). Intervention patients received the QUIT intervention of brief clinician advice and up to two drug-use health telephone sessions. The control group received usual care and information on cancer screening. Outcomes were three-month changes in the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental health component summary score (MCS) and physical health component summary score (PCS). Results The average treatment effect (ATE) was non-significant for MCS (0.2 points, p-value=0.87) and marginally significant for PCS (1.7 points, p-value=0.08). The average treatment effect on the treated (ATT) was 0.1 (p-value=0.93) for MCS and 1.9 (p-value=0.056) for PCS. The effect on PCS was stronger at higher (above median) baseline number of drug use days: ATE=2.7, p-value=0.04; ATT=3.21, p-value=0.02. Conclusions The trial found a marginally significant effect on improvement in PCS, and significant and stronger effect on the SF-12 physical component among patients with greater frequency of initial drug use. PMID:25042213

  20. Illicit methamphetamine: analysis, synthesis, and availability.

    PubMed

    Puder, K S; Kagan, D V; Morgan, J P

    1988-01-01

    Methamphetamine has been marketed illicitly since the 1960s. Much of the street material was illicitly synthesized. Although methamphetamine quality was variable in the past decade, it has emerged since 1978 as the only street stimulant which is likely to contain what it purports to contain. Although there is a small volume of legitimate methamphetamine still made by the pharmaceutical industry, most material analyzed by street-drug laboratories appears to have been illegitimately synthesized and not diverted. For a decade, relatively little methamphetamine was submitted to street-drug analytical labs. In recent years, although the absolute volume of methamphetamine submissions changed little, this drug made up the bulk of alleged stimulant samples submitted to such facilities because of the paucity of amphetamine submissions. Methamphetamine synthesis and use appears to constitute a small but continuing portion of the illicit drug market.

  1. Enhancing HIV Vaccine Trial Consent Preparedness Among Street Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Celia B.

    2011-01-01

    This research used open-ended and true-false questions to assess the preparedness of 96 ethnically diverse, economically and socially marginalized adult street drug users to consent to participate in HIV vaccine trials (HVT). Specific areas of consent vulnerability included misconceptions about: (1) the recuperative value and risk of vaccines in general; (2) the presence of the HIV virus within the vaccine and the possibility of contracting or transmitting HIV as a consequence of participation; (3) inclusion criteria and experimental blinds; and (4) distrust in the medical and research establishments. A brief HVT lesson administered to 30 participants was effective in correcting specific HVT knowledge misperceptions and increasing certain, but not all areas of HVT trust. Assessment of post-lesson responses to ethics-relevant questions provides information on respondents' attitudes toward AIDS safe behavior, research risks and benefits, monetary compensation, and willingness to participate. Implications for enhancing informed consent for HVT involving active drug users are discussed. PMID:20569151

  2. Survey of abuses against injecting drug users in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sara LM; Triwahyuono, Agus; Alexander, Risa

    2009-01-01

    In Indonesia, an ongoing government "war on drugs" has resulted in numerous arrests and anecdotal reports of abuse in detention, but to date there has been little documentation or analysis of this issue. JANGKAR (also known in English as the Indonesian Harm Reduction Network), a nongovernmental organization (NGO) based in Jakarta, surveyed 1106 injecting drug users in 13 cities about their experiences of police abuse. Of those interviewed, 667 or 60% reported physical abuse by police. These findings indicate the importance of continuing efforts to promote police reform and harm reduction in Indonesia. PMID:19852845

  3. Mental Health Status, Drug Treatment Use, and Needle Sharing among Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Lena M.; Amodeo, Maryann; Chassler, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among mental health symptoms, drug treatment use, and needle sharing in a sample of 507 injection drug users (IDUs). Mental health symptoms were measured through the ASI psychiatric scale. A logistic regression model identified that some of the ASI items were associated with needle sharing in an opposing…

  4. Concentrations of alprazolam in blood from impaired drivers and forensic autopsies were not much different but showed a high prevalence of co-ingested illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan Wayne; Holmgren, Anita

    2013-03-01

    Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine anxiolytic widely prescribed for treatment of panic-disorder and social phobias, although this medication is also subject to abuse. In this paper, the concentrations of alprazolam in venous blood samples from impaired drivers were compared with femoral blood samples from forensic autopsies classified as intoxication or other causes of death (e.g. natural, trauma). After liquid-liquid extraction (n-butyl acetate) alprazolam was determined in blood by capillary gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorous detector. The mean (median) and range of alprazolam concentrations in blood from impaired drivers (n = 773) were 0.08 mg/L (0.05 mg/L) and 0.02-3.9 mg/L, respectively. Many traffic offenders had co-ingested ethanol (13%), amphetamine (46%), cannabis (32%), or heroin (14%), as well as other drugs. In deaths attributed to drug intoxication, the mean (median) and range of alprazolam concentrations in blood (n = 438) were 0.10 mg/L (0.06 mg/L) and 0.02-1.6 mg/L, respectively, which were not much different from other causes of death (n = 278); 0.08 mg/L (0.05 mg/L) and 0.02-0.9 mg/L. Median concentrations of alprazolam in blood from living and deceased persons did not seem to depend on the number of co-ingested substances. The result of this pharmacoepidemiological study suggests that alprazolam is a fairly innocent drug when used as monotherapy, but toxicity problems arise when co-ingested with illicit drugs and/or psychoactive medication.

  5. Buprenorphine substitution treatment in France: drug users' views of the doctor-user relationship

    PubMed Central

    Guichard, Anne; Lert, France; Brodeur, Jean-Marc; Richard, Lucie

    2007-01-01

    The French system for drug substitution, or maintenance treatment, established in 1996, differs from the often strict conditions attached to methadone clinics in other countries. Because of the predominant role of general practitioners and the flexible prescription rules for Subutex® in France, the relationship between the physician and the drug user becomes a central element in the treatment. This article deals with the expectations that these users have of the physician, and their perception of his or her attitude towards them. In order to identify possible reasons for the absence of treatment compliance and of Subutex® misuse, it focuses on the users’ assessment of the physician’s response to the problems they report. This study, based on a diversified sample of 28 persons in treatment, showed 4 patterns of relationships between physicians and users, which differed in their focus: a) dosage, b) compliance, c) the person and d) obtaining a prescription. In all four case types, users had difficulty reporting other drug use or intravenous Subutex® injection within this relationship in which the stigma attached to drug dependence seems to reappear. Moreover, the lack of clarity about the treatment objectives and time frame limits the users’ ability to integrate the treatment into their lives and to commit themselves to it. The heterogeneity and fragility of the users’ situations are elements related to dependence that, during contact with the physician, require regular assessment of the individual’s situation and of the treatment objectives. This constant reappraisal of the situation with the physician should help to optimize the treatment and avoid the hiatus that can generate or continue “misuse.” PMID:17442473

  6. HIV epidemic among drug users in China: 1995 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Guo, Wei; Li, Dongmin; Ding, Zhengwei; McGoogan, Jennifer M.; Wang, Ning; Wu, Zunyou; Wang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Aim To describe trends in the HIV epidemic among drug users (DUs) in China from 1995 to 2011. Design, setting and participants Datasets from China's national HIV/AIDS case reporting and sentinel surveillance systems as of December 2011 were used separately for descriptive analysis. Measures Changes in the geographic distribution of the number of HIV cases and HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs were examined. We also analyzed changes in HIV prevalence among the broader DU population, and drug use-related behaviors including types of drugs used, recent injecting, and recent needle sharing in the context of the rapid scale-up of DU sentinel sites and national harm reduction programs. Findings The HIV epidemic among China's DUs is still highly concentrated in five provinces. Here, HIV prevalence peaked at 30.3% (95% CI [28.6, 32.1]) among IDUs in 1999, and then gradually decreased to 10.9% (95% CI [10.6, 11.2]) by 2011. We observed a rapid increase in the use of “nightclub drugs” among DUs from 1.3% in 2004 to 24.4% in 2011. A decline in recent needle sharing among current IDU from 19.5% (95% CI [19.4, 19.6]) in 2006 to 11.3% (95% CI [11.2, 11.4]) in 2011 was found to be correlated with the rapid scale-up of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT; r(4) = - .94, p = 0.003) harm reduction efforts. Conclusions While needle sharing among current injecting drug users in China has declined dramatically and is correlated with the scale-up of national harm reduction efforts, the recent, rapid increased use of “nightclub drugs” presents a new challenge. PMID:25533861

  7. Border crossing to inject drugs in Mexico among injection drug users in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Tyson; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Garfein, Richard S; Patterson, Thomas L; Pollini, Robin A; Wagner, Karla D; Artamanova, Irina; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-04-01

    We examined correlates of ever injecting drugs in Mexico among residents of San Diego, California. From 2007 to 2010, injecting drug users (IDUs) in San Diego underwent an interviewer-administered survey. Logistic regression identified correlates of injection drug use in Mexico. Of 302 IDUs, 38% were Hispanic, 72% male and median age was 37; 27% ever injected in Mexico; 43% reported distributive syringe sharing there. Factors independently associated with ever injecting drugs in Mexico included being younger at first injection, injecting heroin, distributive syringe sharing at least half of the time, and transporting drugs over the last 6 months. One-quarter of IDUs reported ever injecting drugs in Mexico, among whom syringe sharing was common, suggesting possible mixing between IDUs in the Mexico-US border region. Prospective studies should monitor trends in cross-border drug use in light of recent Mexican drug policy reforms partially decriminalizing drug possession.

  8. Risk behaviours for HIV infection among injecting drug users attending a drug dependency clinic.

    PubMed

    Hart, G J; Sonnex, C; Petherick, A; Johnson, A M; Feinmann, C; Adler, M W

    1989-04-22

    To study a range of possible risk factors for HIV among injecting drug user patients attending a clinic in London were interviewed from November 1986 to November 1987. Serum samples were tested for viral markers. Of 116 patients, 101 had shared injecting equipment, 75 on the first occasion of injecting and 76 during the past year. Seventy said that sharing was because equipment was not available. In the past year 102 had been sexually active, a third having two to 20 partners; a quarter of the women had exchanged sexual intercourse for money. The four patients who were positive for antibody to HIV antigen had shared equipment or had intercourse with drug users from areas with a high prevalence of HIV. Eleven patients had injected drugs while in prison. Despite a low prevalence of HIV infection this infection remains a threat to drug users in London; strenuous efforts are still needed to prevent its further transmission.

  9. Abuse of Dextromethorphan-Based Cough Syrup as a Substitute for Licit and Illicit Drugs: A Theoretical Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darboe, Momodou N.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of new types of abused drugs in the United States. Notes that young persons often search for substitutes for better-known substances. It is unclear, however, what factors determine the choice of drug or substance for experimentation, considering the wide range of choices. This paper attempts to delineate the factors that…

  10. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2006. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This occasional paper is intended to serve as a supplement to the larger annual volume, "Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2006: Volume I: Secondary School Students." This supplement contains the graphic presentation of the trends in drug use for various demographic subgroups, namely those defined by gender, college…

  11. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Licit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2009. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Series. Paper 73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This occasional paper serves as a supplement to one of four annual monographs from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study, written by the study's investigators and published by the study's sponsor, the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The full 2009 survey results are reported in "Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use,…

  12. Social structural factors that shape assisted injecting practices among injection drug users in Vancouver, Canada: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Injection drug users (IDU) commonly seek manual assistance with illicit drug injections, a practice known to be associated with various health-related harms. We investigated the social structural factors that shape risks related to assisted injection and the harms that may result. Methods Twenty semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with IDU enrolled in the ACCESS or Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS) who reported requiring assistance injecting in the past six months. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results Barriers to self-injecting included a lack of knowledge of proper injecting technique, a loss of accessible veins, and drug withdrawal. The exchange of money or drugs for assistance with injecting was common. Harms experienced by IDU requiring assistance injecting included theft of the drug, missed injections, overdose, and risk of blood-borne disease transmission. Increased vulnerability to HIV/HCV infection within the context of intimate relationships was represented in participant narratives. IDU identified a lack of services available for those who require assistance injecting, with notable mention of restricted use of Vancouver's supervised injection facility. Conclusions This study documents numerous severe harms that arise from assisted injecting. Social structural factors that shape the risks related to assisted injection in the Vancouver context included intimate partner relations and social conventions requiring an exchange of goods for provision of injecting assistance. Health services for IDU who need help injecting should include targeted interventions, and supervised injection facilities should attempt to accommodate individuals who require assistance with injecting. PMID:20807442

  13. 76 FR 58277 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting; Request... comments. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting on the Animal Generic Drug... on the Internet at...

  14. Illicit Use of Androgens and Other Hormones: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Gen; Pope, Harrison G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize recent advances in studies of illicit use of androgens and other hormones. Recent findings Androgens and other appearance- and performance-enhancing substances are widely abused worldwide. Three notable clusters of findings have emerged in this field in recent years. First, studies almost unanimously find that androgen users engage in polypharmacy, often ingesting other hormones (e.g., human growth hormone, thyroid hormones, and insulin), ergo/thermogenic drugs (e.g., caffeine, ephedrine, clenbuterol), and classical drugs of abuse (e.g., cannabis, opiates, and cocaine). Second, reports of long-term psychiatric and medical adverse effects of androgens continue to accumulate. In cardiovascular research particularly, controlled studies have begun to supersede anecdotal evidence, strengthening the case that androgens (possibly acting synergistically with other abused drugs) may cause significant morbidity and even mortality. Third, it is increasingly recognized that androgen use may lead to a dependence syndrome with both psychological and physiological origins. Androgen dependence likely affects some millions of individuals worldwide, and arguably represents the least studied major class of illicit drug dependence. Summary Given mounting evidence of the adverse effects of androgens and associated polypharmacy, this topic will likely represent an expanding area of research and an issue of growing public-health concern. PMID:22450858

  15. 75 FR 45632 - Animal Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...Industry/UserFees/AnimalDrugUserFeeActADUFA/default.htm and, under Tools and Resources click ``The Animal..., transmit it to FDA, and print a copy. After logging into your account with your user name and...

  16. Perceptions of Genetic Testing and Genomic Medicine among Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, David C.; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Friedman, Samuel R.; Jordan, Ashly E.; Hagan, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic testing will soon enter care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), and for addiction. There is a paucity of data on how to disseminate genetic testing into healthcare for marginalized populations. We explored drug users’ perceptions of genetic testing. Methods Six focus groups were conducted with 34 drug users recruited from syringe exchange programs and an HIV clinic between May and June 2012. Individual interviews were conducted with participants reporting previous genetic testing. Results All participants expressed acceptance of genetic testing to improve care, but most had concerns regarding confidentiality and implications for law enforcement. Most expressed more comfort with genetic testing based on individual considerations rather than testing based on race/ethnicity. Participants expressed comfort with genetic testing in medical care rather than drug treatment settings and when specifically asked permission, with peer support, and given a clear rationale. Conclusions Although participants understood the potential value of genetic testing, concerns regarding breaches in confidentiality and discrimination may reduce testing willingness. Safeguards against these risks, peer support, and testing in medical settings based on individual factors and with clear rationales provided may be critical in efforts to promote acceptance of genetic testing among drug users. PMID:25037119

  17. An outbreak of hepatitis A amongst injecting drug users.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donovan, D.; Cooke, R. P.; Joce, R.; Eastbury, A.; Waite, J.; Stene-Johansen, K.

    2001-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated an outbreak of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection among injecting drug users (IDUs) and their contacts. Twenty-seven cases of acute HAV infection were identified in a 5-month period. Connections with the local injecting drug using (IDU) population were established for 25 of the cases of whom 14 admitted to injecting drug use. HAV RNA genotyping revealed two HAV variants, closely related to variants found in Scandinavian IDUs and in South East Asia. The study demonstrates that once HAV enters the IDU population extensive outbreaks are possible. We recommend that all IDUs should be tested for HAV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and offered combined hepatitis A and B vaccines if non-immune. PMID:11811880

  18. The relationship between chemical concentration and odor activity value explains the inconsistency in making a comprehensive surrogate scent training tool representative of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Rice, Somchai; Koziel, Jacek A

    2015-12-01

    This report highlights the importance of an individual chemical's odor impact in the olfactory identification of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. There are small amounts of highly odorous compounds present in headspace of these drugs, with very low odor detection thresholds, that are more likely responsible for contributing to the overall odor of these drugs. Previous reports of the most abundant compounds in headspace can mislead researchers when dealing with whole odor of these drugs. Surrogate scent formulations, therefore, must match the odor impact of key compounds and not just the chemical abundance of compounds. The objective of this study was to compare odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from illicit drug samples of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin to surrogate smell formulations using simultaneous sensory (via human olfaction) and chemical analyses. Use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) allowed VOCs in drug headspace to be extracted and pre-concentrated on site, and analyzed by multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (MDGC-MS-O). Use of MDGC-MS-O allowed for further separation of odorous compounds and simultaneous detection by the human nose of the separate odor parts that make up the total aroma of these drugs. The compounds most abundant in headspace were not the most odor impactful when ranked by odor activity values (OAVs) (defined as ratio of concentration to odor detection threshold, ODT). There were no apparent correlations between concentrations and OAVs. A 1g marijuana surrogate lacked in odor active acids, aldehydes, ethers, hydrocarbons, N-containing, and S-containing VOCs and was overabundant in odor active alcohols and aromatics compared with real marijuana. A 1g cocaine surrogate was overabundant in odor active alcohols, aldehydes, aromatics, esters, ethers, halogenates, hydrocarbons, ketones and N-containing compounds compared with real. A 1g heroin surrogate should contain less odor active acids

  19. Randomized clinical trial of the effects of screening and brief intervention for illicit drug use: the life shift/shift gears study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) has shown promise for alcohol use, relatively little is known about its effectiveness for adult illicit drug use. This randomized controlled trial assessed the effectiveness of the SBIRT approach for outcomes related to drug use among patients visiting trauma and emergency departments (EDs) at two large, urban hospitals. Methods A total of 700 ED patients who admitted using illegal drugs in the past 30 days were recruited, consented, provided baseline measures of substance use and related problems measured with the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite), and then randomized to the Life Shift SBIRT intervention or to an attention-placebo control group focusing on driving and traffic safety (Shift Gears). Both groups received a level of motivational intervention matched to their condition and risk level by trained paraprofessional health educators. Separate measurement technicians conducted face-to-face follow-ups at 6 months post-intervention and collected hair samples to confirm reports of abstinence from drug use. The primary outcome measure of the study was past 30-day drug abstinence at 6 months post-intervention, as self-reported on the ASI-Lite. Results Of 700 participants, 292 (42%) completed follow-up. There were no significant differences in self-reported abstinence (12.5% vs. 12.0% , p = 0.88) for Life Shift and Shift Gears groups, respectively. When results of hair analyses were applied, the abstinence rate was 7 percent for Life Shift and 2 percent for Shift Gears (p = .074). In an analysis in which results were imputed (n = 694), there was no significant difference in the ASI-Lite drug use composite scores (Life Shift +0.005 vs. Shift Gears +0.017, p = 0.12). Conclusions In this randomized controlled trial, there was no evidence of effectiveness of SBIRT on the primary drug use outcome. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683227. PMID

  20. Relationship of high school and college sports participation with alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use: a review.

    PubMed

    Lisha, Nadra E; Sussman, Steve

    2010-05-01

    This study provides an exhaustive review of 34 peer-reviewed quantitative data-based studies completed on high school and college sports involvement and drug use. The studies reviewed suggest that participation in sport is related to higher levels of alcohol consumption, but lower levels of both cigarette smoking and illegal drug use. Additional research is needed in this domain to further elucidate the relationship between these variables.

  1. "Why Has It Only become an Issue Now?": Young Drug Users' Perceptions of Drug Driving in Melbourne, Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Laura Ann; Wilson, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary research into drug-user perceptions of drug driving was undertaken with a sample group of drug users aged 18 to 24 from Melbourne, Victoria. Eleven males and nine females participated in semi-structured interviews and completed self-report surveys. Participants discussed their drug driving and their perceptions of the likelihood of…

  2. Are "Legal Highs" users satisfied? Evidence from online customer comments.

    PubMed

    Bruneel, Christophe-Alain; Lakhdar, Christian Ben; Vaillant, Nicolas G

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the results of a clustering analysis of more than 2,100 comments posted by online purchasers of "Legal Highs" on five websites in 2012. The aim is to investigate the reasons for satisfaction/dissatisfaction on the part of legal highs users. Our results show that the reasons for satisfaction depend on the price/quality ratio and the real effects of the product (compared to illicit drugs). Dissatisfaction seems to stem from the disparity between the advertising of the product and its real quality. We conclude that online purchasers are certainly illicit drug users who consider legal highs as substitution products.

  3. Determination of illicit drugs in aqueous environmental samples by online solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Lian, Lushi; Pang, Weihai; Yin, Daqiang; Chan, Shen-An; Song, Weihua

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a fully automated analytical method, based on online solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE-LC-MS/MS), has been developed and optimized for the quantification of 10 illicit drugs and metabolites in environmentally aqueous samples collected from China. The particular attention was devoted to minimize the matrix effects through a washing step, which washed out the interferences effectively and helped to reduce the matrix effect significantly. The key advantages of the method are high sensitivity, selectivity and reliability of results, smaller sample manipulation, full automation, and fairly high throughput. The whole procedure was then successfully applied in the analysis of various surface water and wastewater effluents samples. Pseudoephedrine have been detected at trace levels (several tens ng L(-1) or less), while MDA, MDMA, benzoylecgonine and methadone were below the LOQ in all samples. Caffeine, cotinine and paraxanthine, which may be derived from medicines and foods, were detected with the highest frequencies and concentrations.

  4. An application of the Complier Average Causal Effect analysis to examine the effects of a family intervention in reducing illicit drug use among high-risk Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Estrada, Yannine; Brincks, Ahnalee M; Asfour, Lila S; Prado, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    The Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) method has been increasingly used in prevention research to provide more accurate causal intervention effect estimates in the presence of noncompliance. The purpose of this study was to provide an applied demonstration of the CACE analytic approach to evaluate the relative effects of a family-based prevention intervention, Familias Unidas, in preventing/reducing illicit drug use for those participants who received the intended dosage. This study is a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the relative efficacy of Familias Unidas with high-risk Hispanic youth. A total of 242 high-risk Hispanic youth aged 12-17 years and their primary caregivers were randomized to either Familias Unidas or Community Practice and assessed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months postbaseline. CACE models were estimated with a finite growth mixture model. Predictors of engagement were included in the CACE model. Findings indicate that, relative to the intent-to-treat (ITT) analytic approach, the CACE analytic approach yielded stronger intervention effects among both initially engaged and overall engaged participants. The CACE analytic approach may be particularly helpful for studies involving parent/family-centered interventions given that participants may not receive the intended dosage. Future studies should consider implementing the CACE analysis in addition to ITT analysis when examining the effects of family-based prevention programs to determine whether, and the extent to which, the CACE analysis has more power to uncover intervention effects.

  5. Detection of illicit drugs on surfaces using direct analysis in real time (DART) time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grange, Andrew H; Sovocool, G Wayne

    2011-05-15

    Methamphetamine (meth) from meth syntheses or habitual meth smoking deposited on household surfaces poses human health hazards. The U.S. State Departments of Health require decontamination of sites where meth was synthesized (meth labs) before they are sold. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) methods for meth analysis require wipe sampling, extraction, clean-up, solvent exchange, derivatization, and/or mass spectral analysis using selected ion monitoring. Rapid and inexpensive analyses could screen for drug-contamination within structures with greater spatial resolution, provide real-time analyses during decontamination, and provide thorough documentation of successful clean ups. Herein an autosampler/open-air ion source time-of-flight mass spectrometric technique is described that required only direct sampling using cotton-swab wipes. Each wipe sample collection required 2 min and data acquisition required only 13 s per sample. Optimum collision-induced dissociation voltages, desorption gas temperatures, and wipe sample solvents were determined for 11 drugs. Peaks were observed in analyte-ion traces for 0.025 µg/100 cm(2) of meth and seven other drugs. This level is half the detection limit of NIOSH methods and one-fourth of the lowest U.S. state decontamination limit for meth. Dynamic ranges of 100 in concentration were demonstrated for eight drugs, which is sufficient for a screening technique. The volatilities of 11 drugs deposited on glass were determined. The pick up of the drugs by solvent-soaked cotton-swab wipes from glass relative to acrylic latex paint was also compared.

  6. Health and Oral Health Care Needs and Health Care-Seeking Behavior Among Homeless Injection Drug Users in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Lynn; Lorvick, Jennifer; Shiboski, Caroline; Kral, Alex H.

    2010-01-01

    Few existing studies have examined health and oral health needs and treatment-seeking behavior among the homeless and injection drug users (IDUs). This paper describes the prevalence and correlates of health and oral health care needs and treatment-seeking behaviors in homeless IDUs recruited in San Francisco, California, from 2003 to 2005 (N = 340). We examined sociodemographic characteristics, drug use patterns, HIV status via oral fluid testing, physical health using the Short Form 12 Physical Component Score, self-reported needs for physical and oral health care, and the self-reported frequency of seeking medical and oral health care. The sample had a lower health status as compared to the general population and reported a frequent need for physical and oral health care. In bivariate analysis, being in methadone treatment was associated with care-seeking behavior. In addition, being enrolled in Medi-Cal, California’s state Medicaid program, was associated with greater odds of seeking physical and oral health care. Methamphetamine use was not associated with higher odds of needing oral health care as compared to people who reported using other illicit drugs. Homeless IDUs in San Francisco have a large burden of unmet health and oral health needs. Recent cuts in Medi-Cal’s adult dental coverage may result in a greater burden of oral health care which will need to be provided by emergency departments and neighborhood dental clinics. PMID:20945108

  7. The Effects of Childhood Exposure to Drug Users and Religion on Drug Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Sung Joon; Johnson, Byron R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research finds drug-using peers and religiosity to be key predictors of drug use among youth, but the effects of childhood exposure to drug users and religion on later drug use have been understudied. The authors hypothesize a child's exposure to parental drug use and religious upbringing have a causal influence on drug use in youth…

  8. On the Frontier: Analytical Chemistry and the Occurrence of Illicit Drugs in Surface Waters in the USA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    While environmental scientists focused on industrial and agricultural pollutants (e.g. PCBs, volatile organics, dioxins, benzene, DDT) in the 1970’s and 1980’s, overlooked was the subtle connection between personal human activities, such as drug consumption, and the subsequent re...

  9. Role of the Leader in Therapy Groups Conducted with Illicit Drug Abusers: How Directive Does the Leader Have to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Conducted 17-hour marathon group in residential treatment center for 12 incarcerated drug abusers. Used Hill Interaction Matrix to measure types of leader activity and types of member activity during portions of each hour of group activity. Found that, when group was most therapeutic, there was relationship between therapists' actions and…

  10. How do researchers categorize drugs, and how do drug users categorize them?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers drug classifications and terms widely used in US survey research, and compares these to classifications and terms used by drug users. We begin with a critical review of drug classification systems, including those oriented to public policy and health services as well as survey research. We then consider the results of a pile sort exercise we conducted with 76 respondents within a mixed method study of Southeast Asian American adolescent and young adult drug users in urban Northern California, USA. We included the pile sort to clarify how respondents handled specific terms which we understood to be related to Ecstasy and methamphetamines. Results of the pile sort were analyzed using graphic layout algorithms as well as content analysis of pile labels. Similar to the national surveys, our respondents consistently differentiated Ecstasy terms from methamphetamine terms. We found high agreement between some specific local terms (thizz, crystal) and popular drug terms, while other terms thought to be mainstream (crank, speed) were reported as unknown by many respondents. In labeling piles, respondents created taxonomies based on consumption method (in particular, pill) as well as the social contexts of use. We conclude by proposing that divergences between drug terms utilized in survey research and those used by drug users may reflect two opposing tendencies: the tendency of survey researchers to utilize standardized language that constructs persons and experiences as relatively homogeneous, varying only within measurable degrees, and the tendency of drug users to utilize specialized language (argot) that reflects their understandings of their experiences as hybrid and diverse. The findings problematize the validity of drug terms and categories used in survey research. PMID:24431475

  11. Applying sewage epidemiology approach to estimate illicit drug consumption in a tropical context: Bias related to sewage temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Devault, Damien A; Lévi, Yves; Karolak, Sara

    2017-04-15

    Illicit drug consumption can be estimated from drug target residue (DTR) in wastewater, with the reliability of results being partly linked to DTR stability in the sewage network. However, wastewater temperature and pH drive the stability of molecules and, in this context, tropical conditions must be studied to specify the impact of residence time in the sewage network on DTR degradation. Warmth enhances biotic and abiotic processes such as degradation, leading to a decrease in oxygen content, and consequently, early diagenesis conditions in wastewater. In this study, we conduct laboratory studies under acidic pH and high temperature (30°C) conditions to determine the degradation half-lives of cocaine (COC), tetrahydrocannabinol, and heroine targets, allowing COC/benzoylecgonine (BZE) ratio variations to be predicted in sewage networks. A rapid COC degradation is observed, as already reported in the literature but without a short-term significant difference between 20°C and 30°C. Acidic pH seems to prevent degradation. Thus, theoretically, the use of COC as DTR is only reliable in acidic conditions, with the decrease in COC concentration being 6% at 8h, but over 40% in other conditions. By contrast, the use of BZE as DTR to estimate COC consumption, which is performed in practice, can be undertaken with the same back-calculation equation as used in temperate countries. However, 11-nor-delta-9-carboxytetrahydrocannabinol stability is more influenced by high temperature: concentration levels after 24h are 20% lower at 30°C than at 20°C, corresponding to a 20% and 40% decrease, respectively. Based on a mean residence time of 8h, underestimated cannabis consumption is close to 15% in tropical contexts, which is double that of temperate areas.

  12. Markers of anthropogenic contamination: A validated method for quantification of pharmaceuticals, illicit drug metabolites, perfluorinated compounds, and plasticisers in sewage treatment effluent and rain runoff.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, John L; Swinden, Julian; Hooda, Peter S; Barker, James; Barton, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    An effective, specific and accurate method is presented for the quantification of 13 markers of anthropogenic contaminants in water using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Validation was conducted according to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. Method recoveries ranged from 77 to 114% and limits of quantification between 0.75 and 4.91 ng/L. A study was undertaken to quantify the concentrations and loadings of the selected contaminants in 6 sewage treatment works (STW) effluent discharges as well as concentrations in 5 rain-driven street runoffs and field drainages. Detection frequencies in STW effluent ranged from 25% (ethinylestradiol) to 100% (benzoylecgonine, bisphenol-A (BPA), bisphenol-S (BPS) and diclofenac). Average concentrations of detected compounds in STW effluents ranged from 3.62 ng/L (ethinylestradiol) to 210 ng/L (BPA). Levels of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) as well as the plasticiser BPA were found in street runoff at maximum levels of 1160 ng/L, 647 ng/L and 2405 ng/L respectively (8.52, 3.09 and 2.7 times more concentrated than maximum levels in STW effluents respectively). Rain-driven street runoff may have an effect on levels of PFCs and plasticisers in receiving rivers and should be further investigated. Together, this method with the 13 selected contaminants enables the quantification of various markers of anthropogenic pollutants: inter alia pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and their metabolites from humans and improper disposal of drugs, while the plasticisers and perfluorinated compounds may also indicate contamination from industrial and transport activity (street runoff).

  13. Candida lusitaniae arthritis in an intravenous drug user.

    PubMed

    Jeragh, A; Ahmad, S; Naseem, J; Khan, Z U

    2007-09-01

    A case of arthritis of the right knee caused by Candida lusitaniae in a 29-year-old intravenous drug abuser is described. The diagnosis was based on the isolation of C. lusitaniae from synovial fluid and was supported by the presence of C. lusitaniae-specific DNA and high levels of (1-3)-beta-d-glucan (122 pg ml-1) in the same specimen. While the isolate was susceptible to amphotericin B and fluconazole in vitro, treatment with amphotericin B was not very effective. The patient achieved complete cure with fluconazole therapy only after undergoing synovectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of arthritis caused by C. lusitaniae in an intravenous drug user.

  14. 76 FR 45811 - Animal Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... the letters AD, from the upper right-hand corner of your completed Animal Drug User Fee Cover Sheet... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal... Administration (FDA) is announcing the rates and payment procedures for fiscal year (FY) 2012 animal drug...

  15. [Harm reduction interventions in drug users: current situation and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Brugal, María Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Harm reduction encompasses interventions, programmes and policies that seek to reduce the negative consequences of the consumption of both legal and illegal drugs on the individual and public health. Harm reduction looks to mitigate the harm suffered by drug users through drug use monitoring and prevention, and promotes initiatives that respect and protect the human rights of this population. The harm reduction policies that have proven effective and efficient are: opioid substitution maintenance therapy (methadone); needle and syringe exchange programmes; supervised drug consumption rooms; and overdose prevention through peer-based naloxone distribution. In order to be effective, these policies must have comprehensive coverage and be implemented in areas where the target population is prevalent. Resident-based opposition to the implementation of these policies is known as the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) phenomenon, which is characterised by being against the implementation of new measures in a particular place, but does not question their usefulness. Given that any NIMBY phenomenon is a complex social, cultural and political phenomenon, it is important to conduct a thorough analysis of the situation prior to implementing any of these measures. Harm reduction policies must be extended to other substances such as alcohol and tobacco, as well as to other conditions beyond infectious/contagious diseases and overdose.

  16. SEX DIFFERENCES IN DRUG USE AMONG POLYSUBSTANCE USERS

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ben; Hoffman, Lauren A.; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background Available evidence indicates women with substance use disorders may experience more rapid progression through usage milestones (telescoping). The few investigations of sex differences in treatment-seeking populations often focus on single substances and typically do not account for significant polysubstance abuse. The current study examined sex differences in a heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking polysubstance users. We examined patterns of drug use, age at drug use milestones (e.g., initial use, regular use), and progression rates between milestones. Nicotine and alcohol use were also evaluated. Methods Participants (N=543; 288 women) completed personal histories of substance use, including chronicity, frequency, and regularity, as well as inventories assessing affect, and intellectual ability. Results Rates of drug use and milestone ages varied by sex and specific drug. Analyses suggested pronounced telescoping effects for pain medication and marijuana, with women progressing more rapidly through usage milestones. Conclusions Our data were generally supportive of telescoping effects, although considerable variance in progression measures was noted. The contrast between the marked telescoping observed in pain medication use and the absence of telescoping in other opioids was of particular interest. The discrepancy in telescoping effects, despite shared pharmacologies, suggests the need for further work examining underlying psychosocial factors. These results highlight that the specific sample population, substance, and outcome measure should be carefully considered when interpreting sex differences in substance use. PMID:25454410

  17. Therapy or threat? Inadvertent exposure to alcohol and illicit drug cues in the neighbourhoods of sober living homes.

    PubMed

    Heslin, Kevin C; Singzon, Trudy K; Farmer, Melissa; Dobalian, Aram; Tsao, Jennie; Hamilton, Alison B

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol retail outlets and other environmental cues can contribute to relapse among individuals recovering from substance abuse. Sober living homes are residences designed to strengthen abstinence from substances, in part by helping residents develop skills for coping with cues and other stressors. Between January 2009 and March 2010, we conducted 10 focus groups with 68 adults aged 18 and over who lived in or operated any of 35 sober living homes in Los Angeles County, California. A stratified purposive sampling strategy was used to recruit sober living home residents and operators. The study aim was to assess how residents responded to the neighbourhood alcohol and drug cues they encountered in their daily lives. The focus group transcripts were analysed using the constructs of 'approach coping' and 'avoidance coping'. Findings suggest that the sober living homes helped residents cope with cue exposure through social rules and processes such as chaperones and evening curfews, as well as the presence of peer support for managing the conflictive thoughts and emotions that result from cue exposure. The examples of 'avoidance coping' and 'approach coping' identified in the transcripts were more often behavioural than cognitive. For example, residents described efforts they made to increase their physical distance from (i.e. avoid) neighbours who used substances. Whereas some participants believed that living in areas with high levels of drug use and trafficking was 'a time bomb' for relapse, others suggested that cue exposure could actually strengthen their ability to remain abstinent ('approach coping'). The approach/avoidance coping construct did not account for the experiences of all residents. Several participants expressed indifference towards cues while performing daily routines and pursuing important recovery goals. The threat of alcohol and drug cues may be mitigated by recovery-oriented homes that support coping on an individualised, as-needed basis.

  18. Factors related to Psychosocial Barriers to Drug Treatment among Chinese Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C; Liu, Tieqiao; Zhang, Guanbai; Hao, Wei; Wang, Jichuan

    2014-01-01

    Although substance abuse treatment has been considerably scaled up in China, impediments to accessing these services remain among drug users. The authors examine the primary psychosocial barriers to drug treatment in this population and evaluate factors associated with these barriers. Barriers to accessing drug treatment were measured using the Barriers to Treatment Inventory (BTI). A Structural Equation Model was used to examine whether the internal barriers were associated with treatment history and frequent methamphetamine use as well as how demographic characteristics influence such barriers. We found four primary factors of internal barriers to drug treatment – absence of problem, negative social support, fear of treatment, and privacy concerns – to fit well. Demographic factors, notably age and employment status, indirectly influence barriers to treatment via other factors. Frequency of methamphetamine use and drug treatment history are directly associated with the absence of problem and negative social support dimensions of the BTI, and it is through these pathways that demographic factors such as age and employment status shape barriers to treatment. The findings indicate that perceived absence of a problem and negative social support are the barriers most influenced by the personal domains of Chinese drug users’ lives. Efforts to engage drug users in China about drug treatment options may consider how these barriers are differentially perceived in order to effectively reach this population. PMID:24813554

  19. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I; Severe, William R; Wallace, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    . In most cases, sellers do not find legitimate buyers; however, there have been specific cases where sellers did find actual terrorist group representatives. There appears to be a connection between terrorist groups engaged in trafficking conventional arms and explosives components that are also looking for both nuclear materials and radioisotopes. Sale opportunities may create additional demand for such materials. As we can observe from Figure 1, many cases in the mid-90s involved kilogram quantities of material. There were smaller amounts of material moved in 2001, 2003 and 2006. While we have seen less trafficking cases involving PujHEU in recent years, the fact that it continues at all is troubling. The trafficking cases can be presented through their life cycle: Diversion of materials leads to Trafficker and then to Terrorist/Proliferator. Most of the information we have in trafficking cases is on the Trafficker. In 16 cases reported by the IAEA, there are 10 prosecutions of the involved trafficker. However, there are no confirmed diversions of material recorded in any of the 18 seizures. Most seizures were sting operations performed by law enforcement or security agents with no actual illicit end-user involved.

  20. Evaluation of the IDS One-Step ELISA kits for the detection of illicit drugs in hair.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Marie-Laure; Cirimele, Vincent; Tritsch, Pierre Julien; Villain, Marion; Kintz, Pascal

    2007-08-06

    This work presents the validation of a new immunological assay, the One-Step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests from International Diagnostic Systems Corp. for the screening of drugs of abuse (cannabis, amphetamines, opiates, and cocaine) in human hair, with subsequent GC-MS confirmation. After decontamination and segmentation into small pieces, 50 mg of hair sample were incubated in 1 ml of methanol during 16 h at 40 degrees C. A 100 microL aliquot was collected and evaporated to dryness in presence of 100 microL of methanol/hydrochloric acid (99:1, v/v) to avoid amphetamines loss. The dried extract was dissolved in 100 microL of the "sample and standard diluent" solution included in the kit. This solution was submitted to analysis according to the recommended instructions of the manufacturer. During the validation phase, GC-MS confirmations were conducted according to our fully validated and published methods for opiates, cocaine, cannabis, and amphetamines determinations in hair. In a last development step, these procedures were slightly modified to directly confirm ELISA results by GC-MS using the methanolic extract. Ninety-three specimens were simultaneously screened by the ELISA tests (103 for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) and confirmed by GC-MS. Twenty were found positive for cannabis (THC: 0.10-6.50 ng/mg), 21 for cocaine (0.50-55.20 ng/mg), 24 for opiates (6-acetylmorphine (6-AM): 0.20-11.60 ng/mg, MOR: 0.20-8.90 ng/mg, codeine (COD): 0.20-5.90 ng/mg), and 13 for amphetamines (AP: 0.20 and 0.27 ng/mg, methamphetamine (MAP): 0.30 and 1.10 ng/mg, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): 0.22-17.80 ng/mg). No false negative results were observed according to the Society of Hair Testing's (SoHT) cutoffs (0.5 ng/mg for cocaine, 0.2 ng/mg for opiates and amphetamines, and 0.1 ng/mg for THC). The One-Step ELISA kits appear suitable due to their sensitivity and specificity for drug of abuse screening in hair. This technology should find interest in

  1. Behavioral Control and Resiliency in the Onset of Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use: A Prospective Study from Preschool to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Maria M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Zucker, Robert A.; Puttler, Leon I.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    We examined the developmental trajectories of behavioral control and resiliency from early childhood to adolescence and their effects on early onset of substance use. Behavioral control is the tendency to express or contain one’s impulses and behaviors. Resiliency is the ability to adapt flexibly one’s characteristic level of control in response to the environment. Study participants were 514 children of alcoholics and matched controls from a longitudinal community sample (Time 1 age in years: M=4.32, SD=0.89). Children with slower rates of increase in behavioral control were more likely to use alcohol and other drugs in adolescence. Children with higher initial levels of resiliency were less likely to begin using alcohol. PMID:16942503

  2. The fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs), metabolites and illicit drugs in a WWTW and environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Archer, Edward; Petrie, Bruce; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Wolfaardt, Gideon M

    2017-05-01

    A large number of emerging contaminants (ECs) are known to persist in surface waters, and create pressure on wastewater treatment works (WWTW) for their effective removal. Although a large database for the levels of these pollutants in water systems exist globally, there is still a lack in the correlation of the levels of these pollutants with possible long-term adverse health effects in wildlife and humans, such as endocrine disruption. The current study detected a total of 55 ECs in WWTW influent surface water, 41 ECs in effluent, and 40 ECs in environmental waters located upstream and downstream of the plant. A list of ECs persisted through the WWTW process, with 28% of all detected ECs removed by less than 50%, and 18% of all ECs were removed by less than 25%. Negative mass balances of some pharmaceuticals and metabolites were observed within the WWTW, suggesting possible back-transformation of ECs during wastewater treatment. Three parental illicit drug compounds were detected within the influent of the WWTW, with concentrations ranging between 27.6 and 147.0 ng L(-1) for cocaine, 35.6-120.6 ng L(-1) for mephedrone, and 270.9-450.2 ng L(-1) for methamphetamine. The related environmental risks are also discussed for some ECs, with particular reference to their ability to disrupt endocrine systems. The current study propose the potential of the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen to be regarded as priority ECs for environmental monitoring due to their regular detection and persistence in environmental waters and their possible contribution towards adverse health effects in humans and wildlife.

  3. 78 FR 15019 - Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Benefit-Risk Plan; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice, request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing...

  4. Policing Drug Users in Russia: Risk, Fear, and Structural Violence

    PubMed Central

    Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Sheon, Nicolas; Page, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    We undertook qualitative interviews with 209 injecting drug users (primarily heroin) in three Russian cities: Moscow, Barnaul, and Volgograd. We explored drug injectors’ accounts of HIV and health risk. Policing practices and how these violate health and self emerged as a primary theme. Findings show that policing practices violate health and rights directly, but also indirectly, through the reproduction of social suffering. Extrajudicial policing practices produce fear and terror in the day-to-day lives of drug injectors, and ranged from the mundane (arrest without legal justification; the planting of evidence to expedite arrest or detainment; the extortion of money or drugs for police gain) to the extreme (physical violence as a means of facilitating ‘confession’ and as an act of ‘moral’ punishment without legal cause or rationale; the use of methods of ‘torture’; and rape). We identify the concept of police bespredel – living with the sense that there are ‘no limits’ to police power – as key to perpetuating fear and terror, internalized stigma, and a sense of fatalist risk acceptance. ‘Police besprediel’ is analyzed as a form of structural violence, contributing to ‘oppression illness’. Yet we also identify cases of resistance to such oppression, characterised by strategies to preserve dignity and hope. We identify hope for change as a resource of risk reduction as well as escape, if only temporarily, from the pervasiveness of social suffering. Future drug policies, and the state responses they sponsor, should set out to promote public health while protecting human rights, hope and human dignity. PMID:20397872

  5. Highly sensitive determination of 68 psychoactive pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, and related human metabolites in wastewater by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Borova, Viola L; Maragou, Niki C; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Pistos, Constantinos; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2014-07-01

    The present work describes the development and validation of a highly sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 68 compounds, including illicit drugs (opiates, opioids, cocaine compounds, amphetamines, and hallucinogens), psychiatric drugs (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, anesthetics, antiepileptics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and sympathomimetics), and selected human metabolites in influent and effluent wastewater (IWW and EWW) by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method involves a pre-concentration and cleanup step, carried out by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using the adsorbent Strata-XC, followed by the instrumental analysis performed by LC-MS/MS, using a Kinetex pentafluorophenyl (PFP) reversed-phase fused-core column and electrospray ionization (ESI) in both positive and negative modes. A systematic optimization of mobile phases was performed to cope with the wide range of physicochemical properties of the analytes. The PFP column was also compared with two reversed-phase columns: fused-core C18 and XB-C18 (with a cross-butyl C18 ligand). SPE optimization and critical aspects associated with the trace level determination of the target compounds (e.g., matrix effects) have been also considered and discussed. Fragmentation patterns for all the classes were proposed. The validated method provides absolute recoveries between 75 and 120% for most compounds in IWW and EWW. Low method limits of detection were achieved (between 0.04 and 10.0 ng/L for 87% of the compounds), allowing a reliable and accurate quantification of the analytes at trace level. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of these compounds in five wastewater treatment plants in Santorini, a touristic island of the Aegean Sea, Greece. Thirty-two out of 68 compounds were detected in all IWW samples in the range between 0.6 ng/L (for nordiazepam) and 6,822 ng/L (for carbamazepine) and 22 out of 68 in all EWW samples

  6. Barriers to condom use and needle cleaning among impoverished minority female injection drug users and partners of injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, A M; Lewis, C; Leake, B; Flaskerud, J; Bennett, C

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to describe sexual behaviors and drug use and other factors that inhibit condom use and needle cleaning among impoverished women who are injection drug users (IDUs) or sexual partners of IDUs. This study also investigated whether risky sexual behavior or barriers to risk reduction differ with ethnicity and level of acculturation. Survey instruments to assess drug and sexual activity were administered to 378 African American and Latina women recruited primarily from homeless shelters and drug recovery programs. The most commonly cited barriers to condom use were belief that partners did not have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), lack of knowledge about where to get and how to use condoms, and discomfort discussing condom use with partners. African American women were more likely to report having multiple partners and unprotected sex, and more likely to report barriers in using, discussing, and obtaining condoms. Latina women were more likely to report partners' dislike of condoms. African American and highly acculturated Latina women were more likely to be IDUs than less acculturated Latina women. The most pervasive barriers for needle cleaning were not having personal needles, being high and not interested in needle cleaning, and not having disinfectant available. In a multiple logistic regression analysis for engaging in unprotected sex and cleaning needles, not ethnic or acculturation differences were found after controlling for selected demographic characteristics and risk factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7630993

  7. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: a cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Aliza P; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-04-01

    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (β = -0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (β = -0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences.

  8. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: A cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women

    PubMed Central

    Wingo, Aliza P.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-01-01

    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (β = −0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = −0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (β = −0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = −0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences. PMID:24485848

  9. Characteristics of Cannabis-Only and Other Drug Users Who Visit the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Susan I.; McCabe, Cameron T.; Hohman, Melinda; Clapp, John D.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Eisenberg, Kimberly; Sise, C. Beth; Castillo, Edward M.; Chan, Theodore C.; Sise, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Emergency department (ED) settings have gained interest as venues for illegal drug misuse prevention and intervention, with researchers and practitioners attempting to capitalize on the intersection of need and opportunity within these settings. This study of 686 adult patients visiting two EDs for various reasons who admitted drug use compared daily cannabis-only users, nondaily cannabis-only users, and other drug users on sociodemographic and drug-related severity outcomes. The three drug use groups did not differ on most sociodemographic factors or medical problem severity scores. Forty-five percent of the sample was identified as having a drug use problem. ED patients who used drugs other than cannabis were at particular risk for high drug use severity indicators and concomitant problems such as psychiatric problems and alcohol use severity. However, 19–29% of cannabis-only users were identified as having problematic drug use. Furthermore, daily cannabis-only users fared less well than nondaily cannabis users with regard to drug use severity indicators and self-efficacy for avoiding drug use. Results may assist emergency medicine providers and medical social workers in matching patients to appropriate intervention. For example, users of drugs other than cannabis (and perhaps heavy, daily cannabis-only users) may need referral to specialty services for further assessment. Enhancement of motivation and self-efficacy beliefs could be an important target of prevention and treatment for cannabis-only users screened in the ED. PMID:27689138

  10. Mortality of intravenous drug users in Rome: a cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Perucci, C A; Davoli, M; Rapiti, E; Abeni, D D; Forastiere, F

    1991-01-01

    A historical cohort study was carried out in Rome to examine overall and cause-specific mortality among intravenous drug users (IVDUs). A total of 4200 IVDUs (3411 men and 789 women) enrolled in methadone treatment centers between 1980 and 1988 were studied. There were 239 deaths during the follow-up period. The overall SMR was 10.10 in the entire cohort (95% confidence interval, 8.86-11.47), 9.30 in males and 18.07 in females. A large excess of mortality in both sexes was found for infectious, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive diseases as well as for violence, overdose, AIDS, and unknown or ill-defined causes. Tumors and suicide were excessive only in males. Deaths due to drug overdose, violence or trauma, and cirrhosis accounted for 63.6%, AIDS for 7.1%, endocarditis and other bacterial infections for 7.1%, and neoplasms for 3.8% of total mortality. These findings document serious health consequences of drug abuse in Italy. PMID:1656799

  11. Cross-border drug injection relationships among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Pollini, Robin A.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Vera, Alicia; Volkmann, Tyson A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background International borders are unique social and environmental contexts characterized by high levels of mobility. Among drug users, mobility increases risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in part through its effects on the social environment. However, the social dynamics of drug users living in border regions are understudied. Methods 1056 injection drug users (IDUs) residing in Tijuana, Mexico were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) from 2006 to 2007, and underwent surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, and tuberculosis (TB). Using logistic regression on baseline data, we identified correlates of having ever injected drugs with someone from the US. Results Almost half (48%) reported ever injecting drugs with someone from the US. In RDS-adjusted logistic regression, factors independently associated with having ever injected with someone from the US included: having greater than middle school education (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.91; 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.52, 5.91), speaking English (AOR 3.24, 95% C.I. 1.96, 5.36), age (AOR 1.10 per year; 95% C.I. 1.07, 1.14), age at initiation of injection drug use (AOR 0.90 per year; 95% C.I. 0.86, 0.94), homelessness (AOR 2.61; 95% C.I. 1.27, 5.39), and having ever been incarcerated (AOR 11.82; 95% C.I., 5.22, 26.77). No associations with HIV, syphilis, TB, drug use, or injection risk behavior were detected. Conclusion Findings suggest that IDU networks in Mexico and the US may transcend international borders, with implications for cross-border transmission of infectious disease. Binational programs and policies need to consider the structure and geographic distribution of drug using networks. PMID:20889270

  12. Zerovalent iron and iron(VI): Effective means for the removal of psychoactive pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs from wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Birošová, Lucia; Bodík, Igor; Grabic, Roman; Takáčová, Alžbeta; Smolinská, Miroslava; Hanusová, Anna; Híveš, Ján; Gál, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Herein we report the analysis of 27 selected psychoactive compounds found in the wastewater of the largest suburb in the eastern part of Central Europe Bratislava—Petržalka, Slovakia. Thirteen of them (MDMA, methamphetamine, amphetamine, THC-COOH, benzoylecgonine, codeine, tramadol, venlafaxine, oxazepam, citalopram, methadone, EDDP, cocaine) were found in concentrations above 30 ng/L. These compoundswere selected for further monitoring. The possibility of complete degradation of these 13 substances by zerovalent iron and iron(VI) was studied in thewastewater from the Petržalka treatment plant. During the week the concentration of themajority of the studied compounds inwastewaterwas stable. Concentrations of MDMA, cocaine, tramadol, and oxazepam reached significantly higher levels during the weekend.Only about 10% removal efficiency for tramadol, venlafaxine, oxazepam, MDMA, citalopram, methadone, and EDDP was observed at the treatment plant. In contrast, methamphetamine, amphetamine, and codeine were removed with 68%, 83%, and 53% efficiency, respectively. The degradation of synthetic drugs (methamphetamine, cocaine, MDMA) in wastewater is limited, while cannabis (of natural biological origin) is degradedwith efficiency greater than 90%. After utilization of the Fenton reaction, its modification, and use of ferrate(VI), a high efficiency of eliminating all of these substances to values below the limit of detection was achieved.

  13. How do drug users define their progress in harm reduction programs? Qualitative research to develop user-generated outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ruefli, Terry; Rogers, Susan J

    2004-01-01

    Background Harm reduction is a relatively new and controversial model for treating drug users, with little formal research on its operation and effectiveness. In order to advance the study of harm reduction programs and our understanding of how drug users define their progress, qualitative research was conducted to develop outcomes of harm reduction programming that are culturally relevant, incremental, (i.e., capable of measuring change), and hierarchical (i.e., capable of showing how clients improve over time). Methods The study used nominal group technique (NGT) to develop the outcomes (phase 1) and focus group interviews to help validate the findings (phase 2). Study participants were recruited from a large harm-reduction program in New York City and involved approximately 120 clients in 10 groups in phase 1 and 120 clients in 10 focus groups in phase 2. Results Outcomes of 10 life areas important to drug users were developed that included between 10 to 15 incremental measures per outcome. The outcomes included ways of 1) making money; 2) getting something good to eat; 3) being housed/homeless; 4) relating to families; 5) getting needed programs/benefits/services; 6) handling health problems; 7) handling negative emotions; 8) handling legal problems; 9) improving oneself; and 10) handling drug-use problems. Findings also provided insights into drug users' lives and values, as well as a window into understanding how this population envisions a better quality of life. Results challenged traditional ways of measuring drug users based solely on quantity used and frequency of use. They suggest that more appropriate measures are based on the extent to which drug users organize their lives around drug use and how much drug use is integrated into their lives and negatively impacts other aspects of their lives. Conclusions Harm reduction and other programs serving active drug users and other marginalized people should not rely on institutionalized, provider

  14. A brief screening tool to assess the risk of contracting HIV infection among active injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dawn K.; Pan, Yi; Rose, Charles E.; Pals, Sherri L.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To incorporate preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and other biomedical or intensive behavioral interventions into the care of injection drug users, healthcare providers need validated, rapid, risk screening tools for identifying persons at highest risk of incident HIV infection. Methods To develop and validate a brief screening tool for assessing the risk of contracting HIV (ARCH), we included behavioral and HIV test data from 1904 initially HIV-uninfected men and women enrolled and followed in the ALIVE prospective cohort study between 1988 and 2008. Using logistic regression analyses with generalized estimating equations (GEE), we identified significant predictors of incident HIV infection, then rescaled and summed their regression coefficients to create a risk score. Results The final logistic regression model included age, engagement in a methadone maintenance program, and a composite injection risk score obtained by counting the number of the following five behaviors reported during the past six months: injection of heroin, injection of cocaine, sharing a cooker, sharing needles, or visiting a shooting gallery. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.720, possible scores on index ranged from 0 to 100 and a score ≥46 had a sensitivity of 86.2% and a specificity of 42.5%, appropriate for a screening tool. Discussion We developed an easy to administer 7-question screening tool with a cutoff that is predictive of incident HIV infection in a large prospective cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore. The ARCH-IDU screening tool can be used to prioritize persons who are injecting illicit drugs for consideration of PrEP and other intensive HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25961495

  15. Target screening and confirmation of 35 licit and illicit drugs and metabolites in hair by LC-MSMS.

    PubMed

    Lendoiro, Elena; Quintela, Oscar; de Castro, Ana; Cruz, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Concheiro, Marta

    2012-04-10

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS) target screening in 50mg hair was developed and fully validated for 35 analytes (Δ9-tetrahidrocannabinol (THC), morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, codeine, methadone, fentanyl, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, ketamine, scopolamine, alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, tetrazepam, triazolam, zolpidem, zopiclone, amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, fluoxetine, paroxetine and venlafaxine). Hair decontamination was performed with dichloromethane, and incubation in 2 mL of acetonitrile at 50°C overnight. Extraction procedure was performed in 2 steps, first liquid-liquid extraction, hexane:ethyl acetate (55:45, v:v) at pH 9, followed by solid-phase extraction (Strata-X cartridges). Chromatographic separation was performed in AtlantisT3 (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 3 μm) column, acetonitrile and ammonium formate pH 3 as mobile phase, and 32 min total run time. One transition per analyte was monitored in MRM mode. To confirm a positive result, a second injection monitoring 2 transitions was performed. The method was specific (no endogenous interferences, n=9); LOD was 0.2-50 pg/mg and LOQ 0.5-100 pg/mg; linearity ranged from 0.5-100 to 2000-20,000 pg/mg; imprecision <15%; analytical recovery 85-115%; extraction efficiency 4.1-85.6%; and process efficiency 2.5-207.7%; 27 analytes showed ion suppression (up to -86.2%), 4 ion enhancement (up to 647.1%), and 4 no matrix effect; compounds showed good stability 24-48 h in autosampler. The method was applied to 17 forensic cases. In conclusion, a sensitive and specific target screening of 35 analytes in 50mg hair, including drugs of abuse (THC, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines) and medicines (benzodiazepines, antidepressants) was developed and validated, achieving lower cut

  16. Tuberculosis knowledge among New York City injection drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, H; Marmor, M; Maslansky, R; Nichols, S; Simberkoff, M; Des Jarlais, D; Moss, A

    1995-01-01

    Structured interviews measuring tuberculosis knowledge were administered to 494 New York City injection drug users, 31% of whom reported a history of having a reactive tuberculin skin test. Medical records review of a subsample confirmed the validity of self-reported data. Most respondents understood the mechanisms of tuberculosis transmission. Three fourths of the subjects did not fully understand the distinction between a reactive skin test and active tuberculosis, but those who reported a history of skin test reactivity were twice as likely to understand this distinction. Forty percent of subjects did not understand the importance of medication adherence. Misunderstandings, based on a recent lack of tuberculosis education, may contribute to the fear and confusion that interfere with efforts to control tuberculosis. PMID:7604926

  17. Pregnancy and Sexual Health Among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of prenatal care, and histories of sexual victimization are described. A total of 81 lifetime pregnancies and 26 children were reported. Infrequent and ineffective use of contraception was common. While pregnancy motivated some homeless youth to establish housing, miscarriages and terminations were more frequent among youth who reported being housed. Widespread access to prenatal and medical services was reported during pregnancy, but utilization varied. Many women continued to use substances throughout pregnancy. Several youth reported childhood sexual abuse and sexual victimization while homeless. Pregnancy presents a unique opportunity to encourage positive health behaviors in a high-risk population seldom seen in a clinical setting. PMID:18692891

  18. Policing drug users in Russia: risk, fear, and structural violence.

    PubMed

    Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Sheon, Nicolas; Page, Kimberly

    2010-05-01

    We undertook qualitative interviews with 209 injecting drug users (IDUs) (primarily heroin) in three Russian cities: Moscow, Barnaul, and Volgograd. We explored IDU's accounts of HIV and health risk. Policing practices and how these violate health and self, emerged as a primary theme. Findings show that policing practices violate health and rights directly, but also indirectly, through the reproduction of social suffering. Extrajudicial policing practices produce fear and terror in the day-to-day lives of drug injectors, and ranged from the mundane (arrest without legal justification; the planting of evidence to expedite arrest or detainment; and the extortion of money or drugs for police gain) to the extreme (physical violence as a means of facilitating "confession" and as an act of "moral" punishment without legal cause or rationale; the use of methods of "torture"; and rape). We identify the concept of police bespredel-living with the sense that there are "no limits" to police power-as a key to perpetuating fear and terror, internalized stigma, and a sense of fatalist risk acceptance. Police besprediel is analyzed as a form of structural violence, contributing to "oppression illness." Yet, we also identify cases of resistance to such oppression, characterized by strategies to preserve dignity and hope. We identify hope for change as a resource of risk reduction as well as escape, if only temporarily, from the pervasiveness of social suffering. Future drug use(r)-related policies, and the state responses they sponsor, should set out to promote public health while protecting human rights, hope, and dignity.

  19. Methamphetamine Users in a Community-Based Drug Court: Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Jennifer L.; Listwan, Shelley Johnson; Shaffer, Deborah Koetzle

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines men and women methamphetamine (meth) users who participated in a community-based drug court. The treatment of female drug users is a particularly salient issue because of the concerns with relapse and recidivism. For the current study, we studied the impact of the drug court by gender on a group of high-risk/high-need meth…

  20. 76 FR 79195 - Animal Drug User Fee Act; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Drug User Fee Act; Reopening of the Comment Period... September 20, 2011 (76 FR 58279). In that notice, FDA requested comments on the Animal Drug User Fee...

  1. 78 FR 53152 - Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014... Administration is correcting a notice entitled ``Prescription Drug User Fee Rates for Fiscal Year 2014'' that appeared in the Federal Register of August 2, 2013 (78 FR 46980). The document announced the Fiscal...

  2. Integrated prevention services for HIV infection, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis for persons who use drugs illicitly: summary guidance from CDC and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    PubMed

    2012-11-09

    This report summarizes current (as of 2011) guidelines or recommendations published by multiple agencies of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) for prevention and control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB) for persons who use drugs illicitly. It also summarizes existing evidence of effectiveness for practices to support delivery of integrated prevention services. Implementing integrated services for prevention of HIV infection, viral hepatitis, STDs, and TB is intended to provide persons who use drugs illicitly with increased access to services, to improve timeliness of service delivery, and to increase effectiveness of efforts to prevent infectious diseases that share common risk factors, behaviors, and social determinants. This guidance is intended for use by decision makers (e.g., local and federal agencies and leaders and managers of prevention and treatment services), health-care providers, social service providers, and prevention and treatment support groups. Consolidated guidance can strengthen efforts of health-care providers and public health providers to prevent and treat infectious diseases and substance use and mental disorders, use resources efficiently, and improve health-care services and outcomes in persons who use drugs illicitly. An integrated approach to service delivery for persons who use drugs incorporates recommended science-based public health strategies, including 1) prevention and treatment of substance use and mental disorders; 2) outreach programs; 3) risk assessment for illicit use of drugs; 4) risk assessment for infectious diseases; 5) screening, diagnosis, and counseling for infectious diseases; 6) vaccination; 7) prevention of mother-to-child transmission of infectious diseases; 8) interventions for reduction of risk behaviors; 9) partner services and contact follow-up; 10) referrals and linkage to care; 11) medical

  3. Infective endocarditis in an HIV-infected intravenous drug user.

    PubMed

    Mėlinytė, Karolina; Savickaitė, Jurgita; Rekienė, Daiva Emilija; Naudžiūnas, Albinas; Burkauskienė, Aušra; Jankauskienė, Laima

    2015-10-01

    Infective endocarditis is a common complication among injecting drug users. Disease risk among these patients is increased by the spread of HIV infection. In the following article, we discuss the exceptional clinical presentation of a 28-year-old patient who used intravenous drugs (heroin) for 10 years, had been infected with HIV for seven years and as a complication had developed Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis. The patient came to the hospital in serious condition, complaining of bodily pain, swelling of the legs and general weakness. During hospitalization, besides infective endocarditis, she was also diagnosed with anemia, toxic hepatitis, renal failure, ascites, sepsis, and pneumonia. A completely disrupted tricuspid valve, damaged aortic valve, and fibrosis of the mitral valve were detected. Echocardiographic and radiologic data showed that the patient's condition continued to deteriorate day by day, with significant progression of heart failure, ejection fraction decreasing from 45% to 10%, and development of myocarditis, hydrothorax and pericarditis. However, this progressive worsening of the patient's condition ceased when vancomycin was administered. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first such case described in the literature in which significant improvement was observed despite the patient's complex condition with associated complications.

  4. Sex and drugs: the correlations of injecting drug users' risk perception and behavioral patterns.

    PubMed

    Márványkövi, Ferenc; Melles, Katalin; Rácz, József

    2009-01-01

    A low-level blood-borne virus infection exists among Hungary's injecting drug users (IDUs). Assessing the relationship between risk perception and risk behaviors is necessary in order to predict future drug-injecting trends. During 1999 -and 2000, 197 IDUs were interviewed in Budapest using the Risk Assessment Questionnaire developed by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Certain IDUs perceived high risks but did not act accordingly. High-risk perception of sexual behavior correlates with high-risk perception of drug use, which should be taken into consideration when planning intervention strategies targeting IDUs. Additional research with a larger sample is needed to explain our results in more detail. The study's limitations have been noted.

  5. 78 FR 46977 - Generic Drug User Fee-Abbreviated New Drug Application, Prior Approval Supplement, Drug Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ..., Prior Approval Supplement, Drug Master File, Final Dosage Form Facility, and Active Pharmaceutical... active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and finished dosage form (FDF) facilities user fees related to... pharmaceutical ingredient DMFs to be made available for reference. GDUFA directs FDA to establish each year...

  6. Detecting Illicit Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Joseph C.; Coursey, Bert; Carter, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Specialized instruments have been developed to detect the presence of illicit radioactive sources that may be used by terrorists in radiation dispersal devices, so-called ''dirty bombs'' or improvised nuclear devices. This article discusses developments in devices to detect and measure radiation.

  7. Cocaine analytes in human hair: evaluation of concentration ratios in different cocaine sources, drug-user populations and surface-contaminated specimens.

    PubMed

    Ropero-Miller, Jeri D; Huestis, Marilyn A; Stout, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Hair specimens were analyzed for cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), cocaethylene (CE) and norcocaine (NCOC) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Drug-free hair was contaminated in vitro with COC from different sources with varied COC analyte concentrations. Results were compared to COC analyte concentrations in drug users' hair following self-reported COC use (Street) and in hair from participants in controlled COC administration studies (Clinical) on a closed clinical research unit. Mean ± standard error analyte concentrations in Street drug users' hair were COC 27,889 ± 7,846 (n = 38); BE 8,132 ± 2,523 (n = 38); CE 901 ± 320 (n = 20); NCOC 345 ± 72 pg/mg (n = 32). Mean percentages to COC concentration were BE 29%, CE 3% and NCOC 1%. Concentrations in hair were lower for Clinical participants. COC contamination with higher CE, BE or NCOC content produced significantly higher concentrations (P = 0.0001) of all analytes. CE/COC and NCOC/COC ratios did not improve differentiation of COC use from COC contamination. COC concentrations in illicit and pharmaceutical COC affect concentrations in contaminated hair. Criteria for distinguishing COC use from contamination under realistic concentrations were not significantly improved by adding CE and NCOC criteria to COC cutoff concentration and BE/COC ratio criteria. Current criteria for COC hair testing in many forensic drug-testing laboratories may not effectively discriminate between COC use and environmental COC exposure.

  8. Microbial degradation of illicit drugs, their precursors, and manufacturing by-products: implications for clandestine drug laboratory investigation and environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Janusz, A; Kirkbride, K P; Scott, T L; Naidu, R; Perkins, M V; Megharaj, M

    2003-06-24

    Chemicals associated with clandestine drug laboratories are often disposed of covertly into soil, sewerage systems, or public waste management facilities. There are two significant issues relating to such dumps of materials; they might contain valuable evidence as to drug manufacture, and they might be a source of pollution. This study presents initial findings in relation to the impact microorganisms from environmental sources have upon drugs, their precursors, and manufacturing by-products. The aim of this study was to identify which chemicals associated with clandestine drug laboratories persist in the environment in order to allow forensic drug chemists to link discarded residues with the method of manufacture, and to allow the environmental impact of clandestine drug laboratories to be assessed accurately. When exposed to soil microorganisms, phenyl-2-propanone (P2P) was rapidly metabolized into mixtures of 1-phenyl-2-propanol, 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione, 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone, 2-hydroxy-1-phenyl-1-propanone, and the two diastereoisomers of 1-phenyl-1,2-propanediol. On the other hand, when exposed under the same conditions, methylamphetamine sulphate (MAS) remained virtually unchanged. Implications relating to evidence gathering for forensic purposes and to environmental assessment of clandestine drug laboratories are discussed.

  9. Illicit Drugs and the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning in the 1970s, the range of chemicals recognized as contributing to widespread contamination of the environment began to be extended to pharmaceuticals, with the topic beginning to attract broader scientific attention around the mid-1990s (Daughton 2009a). Occurring gen...

  10. Male injection drug users try new drugs following U.S. deportation to Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Angela M.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Among male injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico, U.S. deportation is associated with HIV transmission. Changing drug use behaviors following deportation, including the use of new drugs, may increase HIV risk but are understudied. We identify correlates of trying new drugs following male IDUs’ most recent U.S. deportation to Mexico. Methods In 2010, we recruited 328 deported male IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico. Questionnaires collected retrospective data on drug use and other HIV risk behaviors throughout migratory events. Logistic regression identified correlates of trying new drugs/combinations following their most recent deportations. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Results Nearly one in six men (n=52, 16%) tried new drugs following their most recent deportation, including heroin (n=31), methamphetamine (n=5), and heroin/methamphetamine combined (n=17). Trying new drugs following deportation was independently associated with U.S. incarceration (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 3.96; 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 1.78, 8.84), increasing numbers of U.S. deportations (AOR=1.11 per deportation; C.I. 1.03, 1.20), feeling sad following deportation (AOR 2.69; C.I. 1.41, 5.14), and perceiving that one’s current lifestyle increases HIV/AIDS risk (AOR 3.91; C.I. 2.05, 7.44). Conclusions Trying new drugs following U.S. deportation may be related to the unique contexts and stressors experienced by drug-abusing migrants as they attempt to reestablish their lives in Mexico. Findings imply an unmet need for health and social programs to alleviate pre-and post-deportation stressors faced by undocumented and return migrants in the U.S.-Mexico context. PMID:21835559

  11. The Effects of American Sign Language on General Self-Efficacy and Anxiety among Mothers in a Residential Rehabilitation Facility for Drug Addiction and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissel, Bonnie J.

    2010-01-01

    Globally, approximately 208 million people aged 15 and older used illicit drugs at least once in the last 12 months; 2 billion consumed alcohol and tobacco consumption affected 25% (World Drug Report, 2008). In the United States, 20.1 million (8.0%) people aged 12 and older were illicit drug users, 129 million (51.6%) abused alcohol and 70.9…

  12. Frequent food insecurity among injection drug users: correlates and concerns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Food insecurity and nutrition are two topics that are under-researched among injection drug users (IDUs). Our study examined the extent and correlates of food insecurity among a sample of IDUs and explored whether there is an association between food insecurity and injection-related HIV risk. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Data were collected at a needle exchange program in London, Ontario, Canada between September 2006 and January 2007. Participants included 144 English-speaking IDUs who had injected drugs in the past 30 days. Participants were asked about their socio-demographic characteristics, HIV risk behaviours, food insecurity, and health/social service use. Results In the past 6 months, 54.5% of participants reported that on a daily/weekly basis they did not have enough to eat because of a lack of money, while 22.1% reported this type of food insecurity on a monthly basis. Moreover, 60.4% and 24.3% reported that they did not eat the quality or quantity of food they wanted on a daily/weekly or a monthly basis, respectively. Participants reported re-using someone else’s injection equipment: 21% re-used a needle, 19% re-used water, and 37.3% re-used a cooker. The odds of sharing injection equipment were increased for food insecure individuals. Conclusions Findings show that IDUs have frequent and variable experiences of food insecurity and these experiences are strongly correlated with sharing of injection-related equipment. Such behaviours may increase the likelihood of HIV and HCV transmission in this population. Addressing food-related needs among IDUs is urgently needed. PMID:23216869

  13. Multiple routes of drug administration and HIV risk among injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Vorobjov, Sigrid; Uusküla, Anneli; Des Jarlais, Don C; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Talu, Ave; Rüütel, Kristi

    2012-06-01

    This study assesses relationships between drug administration routes and HIV serostatus, drug use, and sexual behaviors among current injecting drug users (IDUs) in Tallinn, Estonia. We recruited 350 IDUs for a cross-sectional risk behavior survey. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated to explore injection risk behavior, sexual behavior, and HIV serostatus associated with multiple route use. Focus groups explored reasons why injectors might use non-injecting routes of administration. Those reporting multiple drug administration routes were less likely to be HIV seropositive (AOR = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.25-0.97) and had almost twice the odds of having more than one sexual partner (AOR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.01-3.60) and of reporting having sexually transmitted diseases (AOR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.02-5.59). IDUs who engage in noninjecting drug use may be reducing their risk of acquiring HIV though sharing injection equipment, but if infected may be a critical group for sexual transmission of HIV to people who do not inject drugs.

  14. Seeing is believing, looks are deceiving: what does one see in images of drugs and drug use(rs)?

    PubMed

    Montagne, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Images of drugs and drug use(rs) convey meaning, feelings, and beliefs, and what is being seen is often believed. Images can also deceive in content, meaning, and belief. Drug use(r) researchers, who use images as data, must be cautious in interpreting what is being conveyed and why. As technological advances continue to shape the creation, modification, storage, and analysis of images, researchers must be ever more vigilant about what they are seeing and believing.

  15. Drug-Drug Interactions and Diagnostics for Drug Users With HIV and HIV/HCV Coinfections: Introduction.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Jag H; Talal, Andrew H; Morse, Gene

    2017-03-01

    Substance use and pharmacologic treatment of co-occurring infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are associated with many adverse consequences including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The National Institute on Drug Abuse sponsored a 2-day conference on DDIs at which clinicians/scientists from government, academia, and the pharmaceutical industry presented the most current research findings to formulate a comprehensive overview of DDIs. Specific topics discussed included drug metabolism; drug interactions between medications used in the treatment of HIV, HCV, and substance use disorders; intrahepatic concentrations and methods of assessment of drugs in liver disease of varying etiologies and degrees of impairment; and minimally invasive sampling techniques for the assessment of intrahepatic drug concentrations, viral replication, and changes in gene expression in response to treatment. Finally, the speakers identified research targets and priorities on DDIs. Areas of emphasis included development of diagnostic assays for drug concentration assessment in different organs, an enhanced understanding of factors responsible for alterations in drug metabolism and excretion, and establishment of clinical trials and work groups to study DDIs. Our long-term objective is to broaden investigation in the field of DDIs in substance users.

  16. Incarceration or mandatory treatment: Drug use and the law in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Al-Shazly, Fattouh; Tinasti, Khalid

    2016-05-01

    In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), drug policies are embedded in the prohibition paradigm. Laws and legislation criminalize all types of activities related to illicit drugs. This article gives a detailed assessment of the provisions of Arab national laws to control the use of illicit drugs across the areas of punishment of drug users, penalties for drug dependence, legislation on use and dependence treatment, and the right of the convicted people who use drugs to confidentiality. It reviews the national legislations on drug control of 16 Arab countries as amended in January 2011.

  17. Drug and sexual HIV risk behaviours related to knowledge of HIV serostatus among injection drug users in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Noor, Syed W B; Ross, Michael W; Lai, Dejian; Risser, Jan M

    2014-02-01

    This study examines the association between drug and sexual HIV risk behaviours and knowledge of HIV serostatus among a sample of injection drug users, recruited into the 2009 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance project. We calculated prevalence ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals of reporting a given risk behaviour comparing injection drug users unaware of their serostatus and HIV-negative to HIV-positive injection drug users. Of 523 participants, 21% were unaware of their HIV serostatus. The three groups were not different from each other in terms of drug-use behaviours; however, injection drug users unaware of their HIV serostatus were 33% more likely to report having more than three sexual partners in the past 12 months and 45% more likely to report having unprotected sex compared to HIV-positive injection drug users. We observed markedly higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviours among injection drug users unaware of their serostatus, but drug-use risk behaviours were similar across the groups.

  18. 76 FR 58020 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act IV Information Technology Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Prescription Drug User Fee Act IV Information Technology Plan AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of an updated information technology (IT) plan...

  19. 75 FR 47820 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 51, rm. 6178, Silver..., adequacy, and predictability in the funding of FDA's review of generic drug applications. Although the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for...

  20. 78 FR 78367 - Draft Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Information Technology Plan; Availability for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Prescription Drug User Fee Act V Information Technology Plan; Availability for Comment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability for public comment of the...

  1. 78 FR 78366 - Draft Generic Drug User Fee Act Information Technology Plan; Availability for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Generic Drug User Fee Act Information Technology Plan; Availability for Comment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... for enhancing business processes, data quality and consistency, supporting technologies, and...

  2. Could Education Contribute to Reduce Prevalence of HIV among Injecting Drug Users? A Case Study of IDUs from the Rehabilitation Center for Drugs Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2008-01-01

    This study primarily focuses on Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) from the Narconon Nepal for drugs rehabilitation and prevention center. The study attempt to explore the changing behavior of IDUs from the education received from the rehabilitation center which contributes to reduce the prevalence of HIV among IDUs. The data were collected through semi…

  3. U.S. Drug Use and Migration experiences of Mexican Female Sex Workers who are injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Victoria D.; Burgos, José Luis; Rangel, María Gudelia; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe U.S.-based drug/sex behaviors and correlates of lifetime U.S. drug use by Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs). Methods Between 2008–2010, 315 migrant FSW-IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico responded to questionnaires. Results Twenty-seven percent (n=85) of FSW-IDUs were U.S. migrants; of these, 46% (n=39) were deportees. One-half of U.S.-migrant FSW-IDUs consumed illicit drugs in the U.S., and two-thirds of these injected drugs in the U.S. Among U.S. injectors, over 75% ever received or shared used injection equipment. The majority (92%) of U.S.-migrant FSW-IDUs never obtained U.S. drug treatment services. HIV prevalence was 4% among U.S.-migrant and 5% among non-U.S. migrant FSW-IDUs; 100% of U.S.-migrant and 75% of non-U.S. migrant FSW-IDUs were unaware of their HIV status. Conclusions Binational coordination to improve access to substance use treatment and HIV testing services in Mexico and the U.S. among marginalized binational migrants may be critical to containing HIV transmission. PMID:23698687

  4. Reliability of Drug Users' Self-Reported HIV Risk Behaviors and Validity of Self-Reported Recent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Guyer, Seana; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reliability and validity of the Risk Behavior Assessment, a questionnaire evaluating drug use and sexual human immunovirus risk behavior through self-reports, were studied with 218 drug users who also provided urine samples. Overall, self-reports of drug use and sexual behavior were reliable. (SLD)

  5. A plan for estimating the number of "hardcore" drug users in the United States.

    PubMed

    Simeone, R S; Rhodes, W M; Hunt, D E

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a program of research that would allow the size, characteristics, and geographic distribution of the "hardcore" population of drug users in the United States to be monitored over time. The program is conceived as a complement to and extension of existing federal data collection initiatives. It involves the development of mathematical models of drug use careers, and the use of these models to estimate the size of the "hardcore" population of drug users within selected geographic areas. These local area estimates are then used in conjunction with more readily available information to estimate the size of the "hardcore" population of drug users in the country as a whole.

  6. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user. Based on anecdotal evidence, most people “party” during extended time away from the work environment. Therefore, the following scenarios were envisioned: (1) a person uses an illicit drug at a party on Saturday night (infrequent user); (2) a person uses a drug one time on Friday night and once again on Saturday night (infrequent user); and (3) a person uses a drug on Friday night, uses a drug twice on Saturday night, and once again on Sunday (frequent user).

  7. Brief Opioid Overdose Knowledge (BOOK): A Questionnaire to Assess Overdose Knowledge in Individuals Who Use Illicit or Prescribed Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kelly E.; Barrett, Frederick S.; Yepez-Laubach, Claudia; Meyer, Andrew C.; Hruska, Bryce J.; Sigmon, Stacey C.; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Opioid overdose is a public health crisis. This study describes efforts to develop and validate the Brief Opioid Overdose Knowledge (BOOK) questionnaire to assess patient knowledge gaps related to opioid overdose risks. Methods: Two samples of illicit opioid users and a third sample of patients receiving an opioid for the treatment of chronic pain (total N = 848) completed self-report items pertaining to opioid overdose risks. Results: A 3-factor scale was established, representing Opioid Knowledge (4 items), Opioid Overdose Knowledge (4 items), and Opioid Overdose Response Knowledge (4 items). The scale had strong internal and face validity. Patients with chronic pain performed worse than illicit drug users in almost all items assessed, highlighting the need to increase knowledge of opioid overdose risk to this population. Conclusions: This study sought to develop a brief, internally valid method for quickly assessing deficits in opioid overdose risk areas within users of illicit and prescribed opioids, to provide an efficient metric for assessing and comparing educational interventions, facilitate conversations between physicians and patients about overdose risks, and help formally identify knowledge deficits in other patient populations. PMID:27504923

  8. Quantitative Authorship Attribution of Users of Mexican Drug Dealing Related Online Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rico Sulayes, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    As the violence in the Mexican drug war escalates, a proliferation of social media sites about drug trafficking in Mexico was followed by the murder of some of their users, and the eventual disappearance of many of those sites. Despite these events, there still exist a number of drug-dealing related social media outlets in this country with a…

  9. USER S GUIDE FOR THE RANDOM DRUG SCREENING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    McNeany, Karen I

    2013-12-01

    The Random Drug Screening System (RDSS) is a desktop computing application designed to assign nongameable drug testing dates to each member in a population of employees, within a specific time line. The program includes reporting capabilities, test form generation, unique test ID number assignment, and the ability to flag high-risk employees for a higher frequency of drug testing than the general population.

  10. Progressive decrease of hepatitis B in a cohort of drug users followed over a period of 15 years: the impact of anti-HBV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Lugoboni, Fabio; Migliozzi, Sabrina; Mezzelani, Paolo; Pajusco, Benedetta; Ceravolo, Raffaele; Quaglio, Gianluca

    2004-01-01

    In the Western world, the population at the highest risk of HBV infection is probably that of illicit drug users (DUs). Since 1985, 1 Public Health Centre for Drug Users (PHCDU), in north-eastern Italy, has been asking all heroin DUs, whether in treatment or not, to undergo screening for HIV, HBV and, since 1989, for HCV infection. Since 1988 the Centre has proposed HBV vaccination to all patients who were negative for all HBV markers. From 1985 to 2001 895 heroin DUs were screened, 726 males and 169 females. 442 (49.4%) were negative to HBV markers at the first control and 72.4% received at least 1 dose of the vaccine. 320 DUs were vaccinated and a total of 995 doses of recombinant vaccine were administered. The anti-HBc antibody appeared in 2 vaccinated patients out of 258 DUs undergoing controls, while 13 seroconversions for anti-HBc occurred in 45 DUs who had refused to be vaccinated. On the basis of these results, HBV vaccination of DUs can be strongly recommended. Vaccination showed a good adherence in a population difficult to treat and can have a leading role in reducing HBV infection in DUs and their contacts.

  11. Prescription Opioid Use and Non-fatal Overdose in a Cohort of Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Stephanie; Wood, Evan; Buxton, Jane; Dong, Huiru; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background There is growing concern regarding rising rates of prescription drug-related deaths among the general North American population as well as increasing availability of illicitly obtained prescription opioids. Concurrently among people who inject drugs (IDU), illicit prescription opioid use has increased while non-fatal overdose remains a major source of morbidity. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate whether the use of POs was associated with non-fatal overdose among IDU in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Data was obtained from two open prospective cohorts of IDU between December 2005 and May 2013. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression to evaluate the association between prescription opioid use and non-fatal overdose, adjusting for various social, demographic, and behavioral factors. Results There were 1,614 IDU, including 541 (33.5%) women, who were recruited and included in this analysis. At baseline, 526 (32.6%) reported using POs and 118 (7.3%) reported experiencing an overdose in the previous six months. In a multivariable analysis, prescription opioid use remained independently associated with non-fatal overdose (adjusted odds ratio: 1.61, 95% confidence interval: 1.32–1.95), after adjusting for confounders. Conclusion We observed relatively high rates of prescription opioid use among IDU in this setting, and found an independent association between prescription opioid use and non-fatal overdose. Our data is likely representative of riskier substance use associated with those who use prescription opioids within our sample. Interventions to prevent and respond to overdoses should consider the higher risk profiles of IDU who use prescription opioids. PMID:25699628

  12. An outbreak of infection with Bacillus anthracis in injecting drug users in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, C N; Stirling, A; Smith, J; Hawkins, G; Brooks, T; Hood, J; Penrice, G; Browning, L M; Ahmed, S

    2010-01-14

    An investigation is currently underway to explore and control an outbreak of Bacillus anthracis among drug users (mainly injecting) in Scotland. Contaminated heroin or a contaminated cutting agent mixed with the heroin is considered to be the most likely source and vehicle of infection. Heroin users have been advised of the risk. The risk to the general public is regarded as very low.

  13. Illicit traffic and abuse of cannabis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Stamler, R T; Fahlman, R C; Vigeant, H

    1985-01-01

    In 1984 cannabis derivatives, in particular marijuana, hashish and liquid hashish, continued to be the most readily available drugs of abuse in Canada. Marijuana originating in Colombia decreased on the illicit marijuana market in Canada from an estimated 45 per cent in 1983 to 30 per cent in 1984, but it remained the largest source of marijuana supply. Marijuana originating in Thailand remained at approximately the same level (20 per cent) in 1984 as in 1983, while marijuana of Jamaican origin increased its share in the illicit market from 10 per cent in 1983 to 20 per cent in 1984. Approximately 10 per cent of marijuana on the illicit market originated in Canada, 10 per cent in Mexico, and 10 per cent in the United States of America. In 1984 an estimated 85 per cent of hashish on the illicit market in Canada originated in Lebanon (55 per cent in 1983), 10 per cent in India or Pakistan (31 per cent in 1983) and 5 per cent in Jamaica (2 per cent in 1983). Illicit shipments in tonnes of hashish originating in Lebanon made this the dominant source of supply of the drug. Liquid hashish originating in Jamaica shared 88 per cent of the illicit market of this drug in Canada during 1984, while 10 per cent of the drug originated in Lebanon and 2 per cent in Canada. In 1984 an estimated 40 per cent of smuggled marijuana entered the illicit market in Canada by air and approximately the same amount by sea, while 20 per cent was smuggled over land. During the same year, hashish was smuggled into Canada primarily by sea, while air accounted for 5 per cent and land for 1 per cent only. Liquid hashish, in contrast, entered Canada primarily by air, and only 9 per cent by land and 1 per cent by sea.

  14. From Abstinence to Relapse: A Preliminary Qualitative Study of Drug Users in a Compulsory Drug Rehabilitation Center in Changsha, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei; Mamy, Jules; Gao, Pengcheng; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Relapse among abstinent drug users is normal. Several factors are related to relapse, but it remains unclear what individuals’ actual life circumstances are during periods of abstinence, and how these circumstances facilitate or prevent relapse. Objective To illuminate drug users’ experiences during abstinence periods and explore the real-life catalysts and inhibitors contributing to drug use relapse. Method Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 drug users recruited from a compulsory isolated drug rehabilitation center in Changsha. The interviews were guided by open-ended questions on individuals’ experiences in drug use initiation, getting addicted, treatment history, social environment, abstinence, and relapse. Participants were also encouraged to share their own stories. Interviews were digitally recorded and fully transcribed. The data of 18 participants who reported abstinence experiences before admission were included in the analyses. The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis with inductive hand coding to derive themes. Results Most drug users were able to successfully abstain from drugs. During abstinence, their lives were congested with challenges, such as adverse socioeconomic conditions, poor family/social support, interpersonal conflicts, and stigma and discrimination, all of which kept them excluded from mainstream society. Furthermore, the police’s system of ID card registration, which identifies individuals as drug users, worsened already grave situations. Relapse triggers reported by the participants focused mainly on negative feelings, interpersonal conflicts, and stressful events. Craving was experienced but not perceived as a relapse trigger by most participants. Conclusions This study of in-depth interview with drug users found evidence of situations and environments they live during abstinence appear rather disadvantaged, making it extremely difficult for them to remain abstinent. Comprehensive programs

  15. Medical and Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Participants: Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. Methods: A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response…

  16. Foreign body aspiration pneumonia in an intravenous drug user

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Balu; Andelkovic, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Heroin use is associated with several well described respiratory complications, including noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, aspiration pneumonitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome,pneumonia, lung abscess, septic pulmonary emboli, and atelectasis. We describe an interesting case of a young female patient, an intravenous heroin user who presented with progressive dyspnea, hypoxia, and left lung consolidation. PMID:22412782

  17. Systematic review of HIV and HCV infection among drug users in China.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y-P; Liu, Z-M

    2009-06-01

    To determine the HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) geographical distribution among drug users in China, a systematic literature review of 40 peer-reviewed publications (comprising 15,565 drug users) was conducted. Of the total drug users, 10,724 were found to be injection drug users (IDUs) and 4841 were non-injection drug users (non-IDUs). Various studies identified that among IDUs and non-IDUs, the overall HIV prevalence rates were 12.55% and 1.05%, and the HCV prevalence rates were 66.97% and 18.30%, respectively. The HIV prevalence rate ranged from 0% (Anhui and Inner Mongolia) to 52.51% (Yunnan) among IDUs, and from 0% to 19.80% among non-IDUs correspondingly. The HCV prevalence rate ranged from 11.43% (Shannxi) to 90.77% (Hubei) among IDUs, and from 0% (Anhui) to 40.00% (Fujian) among non-IDUs. Based on the high prevalence of HIV and HCV among drug users, scaling-up harm reduction was required from 'heroin trafficking areas' to other areas in China.

  18. High HCV seroprevalence and HIV drug use risk behaviors among injection drug users in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Irene; ul-Hasan, Salman; Galai, Noya; Thomas, David L; Zafar, Tariq; Ahmed, Mohammad A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2006-01-01

    Introduction HIV and HCV risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) in two urban areas in Pakistan were identified. Methods From May to June 2003, 351 IDUs recruited in harm-reduction drop-in centers operated by a national non-governmental organization in Lahore (Punjab province) and Quetta (Balochistan province) completed an interviewer-administered survey and were tested for HIV and HCV. Multivariable logistic regression identified correlates of seropositivity, stratifying by site. All study participants provided written, informed consent. Results All but two were male; median age was 35 and <50% had any formal education. None were HIV-positive; HCV seroprevalence was 88%. HIV awareness was relatively high, but HCV awareness was low (19%). Injection behaviors and percutaneous exposures such as drawing blood into a syringe while injecting ('jerking'), longer duration of injection, and receiving a street barber shave were significantly associated with HCV seropositivity. Discussion Despite no HIV cases, overall HCV prevalence was very high, signaling the potential for a future HIV epidemic among IDUs across Pakistan. Programs to increase needle exchange, drug treatment and HIV and HCV awareness should be implemented immediately. PMID:16914042

  19. Psychoeducational Tutoring of Young Drug Users in a Therapeutic Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patalano, Frank

    1978-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of establishing a warm student/teacher relationship when tutoring drug abusers. Describes a tutoring process teachers can use to gear remedial work toward the interest patterns of the students. (RL)

  20. 77 FR 51814 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... effective generic drugs to the public and reduce costs to industry. GDUFA enables FDA to assess user fees to... safe and effective generic drugs to the public and reduce costs to industry. GDUFA enables FDA to... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User...

  1. Reconceptualizing Early- and Late-Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite their increasing numbers. In this paper we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods Qualitative data were collected from 29 older heroin users. Life course analysis focused on the users’ experiences across the life span. Results The findings suggest that those aging-into heroin use (late-onset) are disadvantaged compared to those who are maturing-in (early-onset) except in areas of health. Implications We propose that conceptualizing the use of heroin and other illicit drugs among older adults based on their life course trajectory will provide insights for social and health services, including drug treatment. PMID:18981280

  2. 77 FR 43844 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Drug User...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ...) and final dosage form (FDF) facilities; fees for new ANDAs and prior approval supplements (PASs); and... Collection; Comment Request; Generic Drug User Fee Cover Sheet; Form FDA 3794 AGENCY: Food and Drug... response to the notice. This notice solicits comments concerning collection of information using Form...

  3. Risk Behaviors and Perceptions of AIDS among Street Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Fen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Conducted 325 survey interviews and 22 guided in-depth interviews with injection drug users to document drug usage and injection patterns, sexual practices, perceived risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, sources of health information, and knowledge and attitudes about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. (Author/ABL)

  4. Social psychological determinants of the use of performance-enhancing drugs by gym users.

    PubMed

    Wiefferink, C H; Detmar, S B; Coumans, B; Vogels, T; Paulussen, T G W

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the social psychological determinants of the use of performance-enhancing drugs by gym users who practice bodybuilding, fitness, powerlifting or combat sports. In this questionnaire-based study, 144 respondents answered questions on their actual use and intention to use such drugs and also on their background characteristics and beliefs, such as their attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy. While all social psychological determinants correlated with intention to use these drugs, the most important predictors were personal norms, beliefs about performance outcomes and the perceived behavior of others. Non-users held more restrictive norms about using performance-enhancing drugs, were less optimistic about the performance-enhancing outcomes and believed that fewer significant others used performance-enhancing drugs than users and ex-users. The results of this study indicate that users attribute advantages to performance-enhancing drugs and are inclined to overlook the risks of using them. Preventive interventions should focus on influencing personal norms and social processes.

  5. Cotton Fever: A Condition Self-Diagnosed by IV Drug Users.

    PubMed

    Zerr, Ashley Michelle; Ku, Kimberly; Kara, Areeba

    2016-01-01

    The presentation of fever in an intravenous drug user prompts diagnostic testing targeted at identifying infectious etiologies. However, an alternate diagnosis exists in "cotton fever." While few reports describe this phenomenon in the peer-reviewed literature, the diagnosis is well recognized among the intravenous drug user community. Although its etiology is not well understood, cotton fever seems to be a self-limited, febrile response to the intravenous administration of a drug filtered through cotton. Educating clinicians regarding cotton fever may limit unnecessary hospital admissions and improve our ability to care for this population.

  6. Treatment motivation in drug users: a theory-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Longshore, Douglas; Teruya, Cheryl

    2006-02-01

    Motivation for drug use treatment is widely regarded as crucial to a client's engagement in treatment and success in quitting drug use. Motivation is typically measured with items reflecting high treatment readiness (e.g., perceived need for treatment and commitment to participate) and low treatment resistance (e.g., skepticism regarding benefits of treatment). Building upon reactance theory and the psychotherapeutic construct of resistance, we conceptualized these two aspects of treatment motivation - readiness and resistance - as distinct constructs and examined their predictive power in a sample of 1295 drug-using offenders referred to treatment while on probation. The sample was 60.7% African Americans, 33.5% non-Hispanic Whites, and 21.2% women; their ages ranged from 16 to 63 years old. Interviews occurred at treatment entry and 6 months later. Readiness (but not resistance) predicted treatment retention during the 6-month period. Resistance (but not readiness) predicted drug use, especially among offenders for whom the treatment referral was coercive. These findings suggest that readiness and resistance should both be assessed among clients entering treatment, especially when the referral is coercive. Intake and counseling protocols should address readiness and resistance separately.

  7. Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sports: How Chemists Catch Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, T. C.; Hatton, Caroline K.

    2011-01-01

    The "cat-and-mouse game" between those who enable athletes to use performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) and those who try to detect such use provides a wealth of interesting examples for the undergraduate chemistry and biochemistry classroom. In this article, we focus on several commonly used PEDs, including amphetamine, anabolic steroids,…

  8. Partner notification with HIV-infected drug users: results of formative research.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S J; Tross, S; Doino-Ingersol, J; Weisfuse, I

    1998-08-01

    The authors conducted formative research on the use of partner notification with HIV-infected drug users (i.e. those who use/abuse injectable drugs, crack or cocaine) in order to guide the development of an effective intervention for this population in New York City. Structured focus group and personal interviews were conducted with 25 in- and out-of-treatment drug users, 23 counsellors from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic and a methadone maintenance treatment programme (MMTP), and nine experts in the field of HIV partner notification and/or substance abuse prevention and treatment. Results revealed factors associated with HIV-positive disclosure, the strengths and barriers of existing partner notification programmes and issues that should be considered in designing an effective intervention with HIV-infected drug users. Further research and planning activities are recommended before piloting and evaluating such a programme.

  9. Why Do Adolescents Use Drugs? A Common Sense Explanatory Model from the Social Actor's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuno-Gutierrez, Bertha Lidia; Rodriguez-Cerda, Oscar; Alvarez-Nemegyei, Jose

    2006-01-01

    Analysis was made of the common sense explanations of 60 Mexican teenage illicit drug users in rehabilitation to determine their drug use debut. The explanatory model was separated into three blocks, two of which contained common sense aspects: interaction between subject's plane and the collectivity; and relationship between subject's interior…

  10. Results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a first look at results from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an annual survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 years old or older. The report presents national estimates of rates of use, numbers of users, and other measures related to illicit drugs, alcohol,…

  11. 77 FR 20825 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; User Fees for 513(g) Requests for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ...; User Fees for 513(g) Requests for Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; User Fees for 513(g) Requests for Information.'' This guidance document describes the user fees associated with 513(g)...

  12. [Drug information for patients (Package Leaflets), and user testing in EU].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Michiko; Doi, Hirohisa; Furukawa, Aya

    2015-01-01

    Patients and consumers have desired high quality drug information in their pharmacotherapy, and are entitled to receive it. It is desirable that the information should be aimed at shared decision-making between patients and healthcare professionals about medications. The quality of drug information available to patients should also be assured. With an aim to improve the quality of "Drug Guide for Patients", we investigated Patient Information Leaflets (PILs) which are approved by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) in the United Kingdom (UK) with regard to the criteria of development and user testing for assuring the quality of the PILs. In the European Union (EU), these are called Package Leaflets (PLs). PILs have been a legal requirement in the UK since 1999 for all medications. The user testing of PILs has been implemented as evidence since 2005 so that people can rely on the information provided in the leaflet. Execution of PILs which follow the guidance of the user testing, according to the guidance of this user testing, would reflect the views of patients. Here, we introduce the development process and implementation of user testing of PILs. In terms of readability, accessibility and understandability of drug information for patients, we need to discuss involving the public in decisions on how its quality should be assured and how it can be made easily be comprehensible for patients, in order to make effective use of "Drug Guide for Patients" in the future in Japan.

  13. Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among injection drug users in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Rusen, I D; Yuan, L; Millson, M E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injection drug users are at increased risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and active tuberculosis (TB). The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection among injection drug users in Toronto, as indicated by a positive tuberculin skin test result. An additional objective was to identify predictors of a positive skin test result in this population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving self-selected injection drug users in the city of Toronto. A total of 171 participants were recruited through a downtown Toronto needle-exchange program from June 1 to Oct. 31, 1996. RESULTS: Of 167 subjects tested, 155 (92.8%) returned for interpretation of their skin test result within the designated timeframe (48 to 72 hours). Using a 5-mm cut-off, the prevalence rate of positive tuberculin skin test results was 31.0% (95% confidence interval 23.8% to 38.9%). Birth outside of Canada and increasing age were both predictive of a positive result. INTERPRETATION: There is a high burden of M. tuberculosis infection in this population of injection drug users. The compliance observed with returning for interpretation of skin test results indicates that successful TB screening is possible among injection drug users. PMID:10189423

  14. Voice of the psychonauts: coping, life purpose, and spirituality in psychedelic drug users.

    PubMed

    Móró, Levente; Simon, Katalin; Bárd, Imre; Rácz, József

    2011-01-01

    Psychoactive drug use shows great diversity, but due to a disproportionate focus on problematic drug use, predominant nonproblematic drug use remains an understudied phenomenon. Historic and anecdotal evidence shows that natural sources of "psychedelic" drugs (e.g., mescaline and psilocybin) have been used in religious and spiritual settings for centuries, as well as for psychological self-enhancement purposes. Our study assessed a total of 667 psychedelic drug users, other drug users, and drug nonusers by online questionnaires. Coping, life purpose, and spirituality were measured with the Psychological Immune Competence Inventory, the Purpose in Life test, and the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, respectively. Results indicate that the use of psychedelic drugs with a purpose to enhance self-knowledge is less associated with problems, and correlates positively with coping and spirituality. Albeit the meaning of "spirituality" may be ambiguous, it seems that a spiritually-inclined attitude in drug use may act as a protective factor against drug-related problems. The autognostic use of psychedelic drugs may be thus hypothesized as a "training situation" that promotes self-enhancement by rehearsing personal coping strategies and by gaining self-knowledge. However, to assess the actual efficiency and the speculated long-term benefits of these deliberately provoked exceptional experiences, further qualitative investigations are needed.

  15. How Will We Crack the Ice and Smack the Chronic, Sugar and Coke? The Control of Illicit Drugs in Canada. The Front Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, David

    1997-01-01

    Maintains that Canada's expansive geography, endless, uninhabited coastlines, and long border make it vulnerable as an entry point for illegal drugs. Briefly reviews recent revelations regarding increased drug use and money laundering. Recommends stiffening current drug laws and increasing spending for education and rehabilitation. (MJP)

  16. Cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine) in hair and urine of drug users.

    PubMed

    Martinez, F; Poet, T S; Pillai, R; Erickson, J; Estrada, A L; Watson, R R

    1993-01-01

    Two methods of drug detection, urinalysis and hair analysis, were compared with respect to the efficiency of identification of drug use in a population of men living on the Arizona-Mexico border. The standard curve of cannabinoids in urine was linear to 20 ng/mL. The GC/MS levels for all cannabinoids combined in urine were very similar to that obtained by radioimmunoassay (RIA), 91% concordance. Similar results were obtained from samples analyzed dually for the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) after spiking. As determined by RIA of urine, 74% of the subjects were positive for cannabinoids. The majority were in the range of 100-1000 ng/mg creatinine. The pattern of excretion of THC metabolites with respect to the verbally reported time of first use was fairly normal, with the peak rate of elimination 13-24 hours following the last reported use. Washed hair samples were extracted by overnight acid hydrolysis. Urine samples and neutralized hair extracts were analyzed for cocaine and BE by RIA. Of the hair samples, 55% contained cocaine/BE, as compared with only 4.3% of the urine samples. Most hair samples contained cocaine/BE in the range of 25-100 ng/sample (100 mg hair). All hair samples testing negative for cocaine/BE by RIA also tested negative by GC/MS, and four samples containing the highest amounts of cocaine and BE by RIA were similarly found to contain the highest amounts by GC/MS. Hair analysis, therefore, gives a wider window of detection of drug use than does urinalysis and shows merit in the confirmation of cocaine use in small clinical research studies.

  17. The Relationship between Housing Status and HIV Risk among Active Drug Users: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Hilario, Helena; Convey, Mark; Corbett, A. Michelle; Weeks, Margaret; Martinez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between housing status and HIV risk using longitudinal, qualitative data collected in 2004-2005, from a purposeful sample of 65 active drug users in a variety of housed and homeless situations in Hartford, Connecticut. These data were supplemented with observations and in-depth interviews regarding drug use behavior collected in 2001-2005 to evaluate a peer-led HIV prevention intervention. Data reveal differences in social context within and among different housing statuses that affect HIV risky or protective behaviors including the ability to carry drug paraphernalia and HIV prevention materials, the amount of drugs in the immediate environment, access to subsidized and supportive housing, and relationships with others with whom drug users live. Policy implications of the findings, limitations to the data and future research are discussed. PMID:19142817

  18. Wound botulism in drug users: a still underestimated diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rodolico, C; Barca, E; Fenicia, L; Anniballi, F; Sinardi, A U; Girlanda, P

    2010-12-01

    Wound botulism is a rare infectious disease that is becoming a frequent complication of parental drug use. Diagnosis is often difficult and based on clinical suspicion. We report the first Italian case of wound botulism due to intramuscular heroin injection in a 48-year-old man with an acute onset of slurred speech and dysphagia. The most considerable finding of electrophysiological study was the reduction in amplitude of compound muscle action potential which should be considered a useful initial electrodiagnostic sign in the clinical context of botulism. Alerting clinicians to botulism is crucial for a rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment and thus decreasing mortality and complications.

  19. Illicit opioid intoxication: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Fareed, A; Stout, S; Casarella, J; Vayalapalli, S; Cox, J; Drexler, K

    2011-01-01

    Opioid intoxications and overdose are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Opioid overdose may occur in the setting of intravenous or intranasal heroin use, illicit use of diverted opioid medications, intentional or accidental misuse of prescription pain medications, or iatrogenic overdose. In this review, we focused on the epidemiology of illict opioid use in the United States and on the mechanism of action of opioid drugs. We also described the signs and symptoms, and diagnoses of intoxication and overdose. Lastly, we updated the reader about the most recent recommendations for treatment and prevention of opioid intoxications and overdose.

  20. Network structure and the risk for HIV transmission among rural drug users.

    PubMed

    Young, A M; Jonas, A B; Mullins, U L; Halgin, D S; Havens, J R

    2013-09-01

    Research suggests that structural properties of drug users' social networks can have substantial effects on HIV risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the structural properties of Appalachian drug users' risk networks could lend insight into the potential for HIV transmission in this population. Data from 503 drug users recruited through respondent-driven sampling were used to construct a sociometric risk network. Network ties represented relationships in which partners had engaged in unprotected sex and/or shared injection equipment. Compared to 1,000 randomly generated networks, the observed network was found to have a larger main component and exhibit more cohesiveness and centralization than would be expected at random. Thus, the risk network structure in this sample has many structural characteristics shown to be facilitative of HIV transmission. This underscores the importance of primary prevention in this population and prompts further investigation into the epidemiology of HIV in the region.

  1. Analysis of extensively washed hair from cocaine users and drug chemists to establish new reporting criteria.

    PubMed

    Morris-Kukoski, Cynthia L; Montgomery, Madeline A; Hammer, Rena L

    2014-01-01

    Samples from a self-proclaimed cocaine (COC) user, from 19 drug users (postmortem) and from 27 drug chemists were extensively washed and analyzed for COC, benzoylecgonine, norcocaine (NC), cocaethylene (CE) and aryl hydroxycocaines by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Published wash criteria and cutoffs were applied to the results. Additionally, the data were used to formulate new reporting criteria and interpretation guidelines for forensic casework. Applying the wash and reporting criteria, hair that was externally contaminated with COC was distinguished from hair collected from individuals known to have consumed COC. In addition, CE, NC and hydroxycocaine metabolites were only present in COC users' hair and not in drug chemists' hair. When properly applied, the use of an extended wash, along with the reporting criteria defined here, will exclude false-positive results from environmental contact with COC.

  2. 78 FR 26374 - An Evaluation of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act Workload Adjuster; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration An Evaluation of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act Workload... on an assessment of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) Workload Adjuster conducted by an... identified with the docket number found in brackets in the heading of this document. FOR FURTHER...

  3. Behavioral Risk Reduction in a Declining HIV Epidemic: Injection Drug Users in New York City, 1990-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; Perlis, Theresa; Friedman, Samuel R.; Chapman, Timothy; Kwok, John; Rockwell, Russell; Paone, Denise; Milliken, Judith; Monterroso, Edgar

    2000-01-01

    Assessed trends in HIV risk behaviors among New York City injection drug users from 1990-97. Interviews at a drug detoxification program and a research storefront in a high drug-use area showed continuing risk reduction among users that indicated a declining phase in the large HIV epidemic in New York City. HIV prevention programs appeared to be…

  4. 78 FR 3900 - Generic Drug User Fee-Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient and Finished Dosage Form Facility Fee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee--Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient and... drug active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and finished dosage form (FDF) facilities user fees for... applications in the backlog as of October 1, 2012, on finished dosage form (FDF) and active...

  5. Estimating numbers of injecting drug users in metropolitan areas for structural analyses of community vulnerability and for assessing relative degrees of service provision for injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel R; Tempalski, Barbara; Cooper, Hannah; Perlis, Theresa; Keem, Marie; Friedman, Risa; Flom, Peter L

    2004-09-01

    This article estimates the population prevalence of current injection drug users (IDUs) in 96 large US metropolitan areas to facilitate structural analyses of its predictors and sequelae and assesses the extent to which drug abuse treatment and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling and testing are made available to drug injectors in each metropolitan area. We estimated the total number of current IDUs in the United States and then allocated the large metropolitan area total among large metropolitan areas using four different multiplier methods. Mean values were used as best estimates, and their validity and limitations were assessed. Prevalence of drug injectors per 10,000 population varied from 19 to 173 (median 60; interquartile range 42-87). Proportions of drug injectors in treatment varied from 1.0% to 39.3% (median 8.6%); and the ratio of HIV counseling and testing events to the estimated number of IDUs varied from 0.013 to 0.285 (median 0.082). Despite limitations in the accuracy of these estimates, they can be used for structural analyses of the correlates and predictors of the population density of drug injectors in metropolitan areas and for assessing the extent of service delivery to drug injectors. Although service provision levels varied considerably, few if any metropolitan areas seemed to be providing adequate levels of services.

  6. Characterizing Drug Non-Users as Distinctive in Prevention Messages: Implications of Optimal Distinctiveness Theory

    PubMed Central

    Comello, Maria Leonora G.

    2011-01-01

    Optimal Distinctiveness Theory posits that highly valued groups are those that can simultaneously satisfy needs to belong and to be different. The success of drug-prevention messages with a social-identity theme should therefore depend on the extent to which the group is portrayed as capable of meeting these needs. Specifically, messages that portray non-users as a large and undifferentiated majority may not be as successful as messages that emphasize uniqueness of non-users. This prediction was examined using marijuana prevention messages that depicted non-users as a distinctive or a majority group. Distinctiveness characterization lowered behavioral willingness to use marijuana among non-users (Experiment 1) and served as a source of identity threat (contingent on gender) among users (Experiment 2). PMID:21409672

  7. ILLICIT CIGARETTE TRADE IN THAILAND

    PubMed Central

    Pavananunt, Pirudee

    2012-01-01

    The sale and consumption of illicit tobacco increases consumption, impacts public health, reduces tax revenue and provides an argument against tax increases. Thailand has some of the best tobacco control policies in Southeast Asia with one of the highest tobacco tax rates, but illicit trade has the potential to undermine these policies and needs investigating. Two approaches were used to assess illicit trade between 1991 and 2006: method 1, comparison of tobacco used based on tobacco taxes paid and survey data, and method 2, discrepancies between export data from countries exporting tobacco to Thailand and Thai official data regarding imports. A three year average was used to smooth differences due to lags between exports and imports. For 1991–2006, the estimated manufactured cigarette consumption from survey data was considerably lower than sales tax paid, so method 1 did not provide evidence of cigarette tax avoidance. Using method 2 the trade difference between reported imports and exports, indicates 10% of cigarettes consumed in Thailand (242 million packs per year) between 2004 and 2006 were illicit. The loss of revenue amounted to 4,508 million Baht (2002 prices) in the same year, that was 14% of the total cigarette tax revenue. Cigarette excise tax rates had a negative relationship with consumption trends but no relation with the level of illicit trade. There is a need for improved policies against smuggling to combat the rise in illicit tobacco consumption. Regional coordination and implementation of protocols on illicit trade would help reduce incentives for illegal tax avoidance. PMID:22299425

  8. Recruiting and retaining mobile young injection drug users in a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lankenau, Stephen E; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2010-04-01

    Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings.

  9. Factors affecting cognitive functioning in a sample of human immunodeficiency virus-positive injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Arthur; Avants, S Kelly; Warburton, Lara A; Hawkins, Keith A

    2002-06-01

    Injection drug users represent a major vector of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the nation's inner cities, and are an important population for harm reduction treatment interventions to target. However, there has been relatively little research examining the specific contribution of the multiple factors contributing to cognitive functioning among injection drug users that may affect engagement in, and response to, addiction and HIV-related interventions. The current study examined the independent contributions to neuropsychological (NP) test performance of premorbid educational attainment, medical and psychiatric history, long- and short-term drug use, assessed by laboratory, observation, and self-report measures, and HIV disease, assessed by plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load and CD4+ count, in a sample of 90 HIV-positive injection drug users dually addicted to heroin and cocaine. Fully 88% of the sample showed evidence of impairment (>1 standard deviation below the population mean) on an NP test battery selected to assess processes associated with successful engagement in the treatment of substance abuse and HIV, such as learning and memory of verbal information, capacity to solve new problems and deal with more than one stimulus at a time, visual-motor coordination, and visual tracking and cognitive flexibility. In addition to drug use, independent predictors of NP test performance were HIV viral load, educational attainment, and premorbid medical and psychiatric problems. Findings underscore the multiplicity of factors that contribute to cognitive impairment in HIV-positive drug-abusing individuals in addition to drug use. Clinical implications are discussed.

  10. The relationship between social network characteristics and exchanging sex for drugs or money among drug users in Baltimore, MD, USA.

    PubMed

    Latkin, C A; Hua, W; Forman, V L

    2003-11-01

    The current study examined social network and drug use factors associated with buying and selling sex among a sample of opiate and cocaine users in Baltimore, Maryland. A sample of 702 drug users who were sexually active were administered a social network and risk behaviour inventory. Compared to 25% of men, only 1.7% of women reported a history of giving money or drugs to get sex during the past 90 days. Conversely, more women (21.2%) than men (4.7%) sold sex for money or drugs. Those who sold sex were more likely to be low frequency crack smokers, were more likely to drink alcohol at least once a day, had a higher average number of crack-only smokers in their network, and had a smaller number of kin in their network. Men who exchanged money or drugs for sex tended to be low frequency crack smokers and reported having more crack-only smokers and injectors and fewer kin in their networks. The results suggest that network composition may be a risk factor for exchanging sex, particularly with respect to crack users, while kin may be a protective factor. These associations may be either a cause or consequence of exchanging sex.

  11. Making Connections: New Orleans Evacuees’ Experiences in Obtaining Drugs1

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D.; Kotarba, Joseph; Fackler, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Between August 29 and September 7, 2005, almost all New Orleans residents were evacuated from the area in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. News reports indicate that almost 130,000 New Orleans Evacuees (NOEs) were evacuated to Houston, Texas, the largest recipient of the civilian population from New Orleans. Many of these NOEs were active participants in the illicit drug market in New Orleans prior to the hurricane. Their displacement to Houston and other locations provided a unique opportunity to study what occurs when illicit drug markets are disrupted. The period between the flooding and nearly complete evacuation of New Orleans provided a unique opportunity to systematically learn about the disruption of illicit drug markets since populations of illicit drug users and purchasers could no longer routinely obtain their drugs in predictable ways. Utilizing qualitative data from in-depth interviews and focus groups, this article describes the ways NOEs (1) managed their drug acquisition and use following evacuation; (2) located new sources of drugs in Houston and elsewhere by tapping into shared drug culture; and (3) gained access to and learned the argot for drugs in the local drug market in new settings. This report contributes to the nascent literature on disrupted drug markets. PMID:19999675

  12. User-centered design improves the usability of drug-drug interaction alerts: Experimental comparison of interfaces.

    PubMed

    Luna, Daniel R; Rizzato Lede, Daniel A; Otero, Carlos M; Risk, Marcelo R; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán

    2017-02-01

    Clinical Decision Support Systems can alert health professionals about drug interactions when they prescribe medications. The Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires in Argentina developed an electronic health record with drug-drug interaction alerts, using traditional software engineering techniques and requirements. Despite enhancing the drug-drug interaction knowledge database, the alert override rate of this system was very high. We redesigned the alert system using user-centered design (UCD) and participatory design techniques to enhance the drug-drug interaction alert interface. This paper describes the methodology of our UCD. We used crossover method with realistic, clinical vignettes to compare usability of the standard and new software versions in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, and user satisfaction. Our study showed that, compared to the traditional alert system, the UCD alert system was more efficient (alerts faster resolution), more effective (tasks completed with fewer errors), and more satisfying. These results indicate that UCD techniques that follow ISO 9241-210 can generate more usable alerts than traditional design.

  13. Cutaneous myiasis due to Cochliomyia hominivorax in a drug user.

    PubMed

    Trombetta, Luis; Oliva, Adriana; Galache, Viviana; Bava, Javier; Troncoso, Alcides

    2009-12-14

    Myiasis is the condition resulting from the invasion of tissues or organs of man or animals by dipterous larvae. The blowflies (Calliphoridae) of Argentina comprise several species that may cause myiasis by colonizing wounds or infected body orifices, and one specific parasite: Cochliomyia hominivorax. This species often causes traumatic myiasis in cattle, dogs and cats, and it is not rare in humans. The larvae consume living tissues, so they are dangerous unless speedily removed. Immediate operative exploration along with the removal of larvae and primary defect closure is recommended in every case. Here we report a case of myiasis in a scalp wound caused by blunt force trauma to the area, in a male patient with a case history of alcohol and drug abuse. Seventy-one living larvae were extracted from the wound and determined as C. hominivorax in the Forensic Entomology Laboratory. Given the aggressiveness of these larvae, specific and quick diagnosis as well as the application of appropriate treatment is crucial.

  14. Differences in illegal drug consumption between native and immigrants in a large sample of injected drug users in Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Saigí, Núria; Espelt, Albert; Folch, Cinta; Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Castellano, Yolanda; Majó, Xavier; Meroño, Mercè; Brugal, M Teresa; Casabona, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe illegal drug abuse patterns in relation to the migration process and use of drug treatment centers among immigrant injected drug users (IDUs) involved in harm reduction programs, and to compare the characteristics of immigrant and native IDUs. Cross-sectional study of 748 IDUs aged ≥18 years attending harm reduction centers between 2008 and 2009. We explored differences in socio-economic status, illegal drug consumption, health status and use of treatment centers in native versus immigrant IDUs. We also described whether immigrant IDUs started using injected drugs before or after entering the host country. Immigrant IDUs tend to live alone more frequently, start injection at later ages, use heroin and inject it more frequently and use drug treatment centers less frequently than native IDUs. Seventy-six percent of immigrants began using illegal drugs before arriving at the host country. Those who started in other countries were residing in the host country for 5 years or less (63.9%). Overall, immigrant IDUs attended drug treatment centers (36.9%) less frequently than native IDUs (71.8%). In conclusion, migration could be a risk factor for illegal drug abuse initiation or increase in consumption, often with the adoption of local consumption patterns and aggravated due to a lower access to drug treatment centers.

  15. Assessment of addiction severity among ritual users of ayahuasca.

    PubMed

    Fábregas, Josep Maria; González, Débora; Fondevila, Sabela; Cutchet, Marta; Fernández, Xavier; Barbosa, Paulo César Ribeiro; Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Ángel; Barbanoj, Manel J; Riba, Jordi; Bouso, José Carlos

    2010-10-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage used for magico-religious purposes in the Amazon. Recently, Brazilian syncretic churches have helped spread the ritual use of ayahuasca abroad. This trend has raised concerns that regular use of this N,N-dimethyltryptamine-containing tea may lead to the medical and psychosocial problems typically associated with drugs of abuse. Here we assess potential drug abuse-related problems in regular ayahuasca users. Addiction severity was assessed using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), and history of alcohol and illicit drug use was recorded. In Study 1, jungle-based ayahuasca users (n=56) were compared vs. rural controls (n=56). In Study 2, urban-based ayahuasca users (n=71) were compared vs. urban controls (n=59). Follow-up studies were conducted 1 year later. In both studies, ayahuasca users showed significantly lower scores than controls on the ASI Alcohol Use, and Psychiatric Status subscales. The jungle-based ayahuasca users showed a significantly higher frequency of previous illicit drug use but this had ceased at the time of examination, except for cannabis. At follow-up, abstinence from illicit drug use was maintained in both groups except for cannabis in Study 1. However, differences on ASI scores were still significant in the jungle-based group but not in the urban group. Despite continuing ayahuasca use, a time-dependent worsening was only observed in one subscale (Family/Social relationships) in Study 2. Overall, the ritual use of ayahuasca, as assessed with the ASI in currently active users, does not appear to be associated with the deleterious psychosocial effects typically caused by other drugs of abuse.

  16. The Effect of Negative Emotion on Licit and Illicit Drug Use among High School Dropouts: An Empirical Test of General Strain Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapela, Laurie A.

    2006-01-01

    General Strain Theory (GST) argues that drug use is one way adolescents mitigate negative emotions brought on by aversive environmental stimuli. To date, many of the empirical tests of the strain-drug use relationship have neglected to include measures of negative emotion, despite its prominence in GST's etiology of deviant behavior. The following…

  17. Risk of congenital anomalies in pregnant users of statin drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, Benjamin; Rey, Evelyne; Bérard, Anick

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Cholesterol is known to be essential for fetal development. Statins, which inhibit cholesterol production, have therefore been considered as potential teratogens and are contraindicated in pregnancy. Data available thus far on the risks of congenital anomalies associated with statin therapy have come from non-analytic postmarketing surveillance studies. Given the increasing use of statins in women of childbearing age, there is a need for a population-based study on the risks of congenital anomalies associated with gestational statin use. What this study adds In this pharmacoepidemiological study, we determined the risk of congenital anomalies in women who filled prescriptions for statins during the first trimester of pregnancy, compared with women who had stopped statins before pregnancy or those who used fibrates during pregnancy. We found no evidence of an increased risk of fetal anomalies among first-trimester statin users, or any discernable pattern of congenital anomalies among live births. However, in the absence of outcome data on nonlive births, conclusions remain uncertain. Aims Evidence from animal studies suggests that statin medications should not be taken during pregnancy. Our aim was to examine the association between the use of statins in early pregnancy and the incidence of congenital anomalies. Methods A population-based pregnancy registry was built. Three study groups were assembled: women prescribed statins in the first trimester (group A), fibrate/nicotinic acid in the first trimester (group B) and statins between 1 year and 1 month before conception, but not during pregnancy (group C). Among live-born infants, we selected as cases infants with any congenital anomaly diagnosed in the first year of life. Controls were defined as infants with no congenital anomalies. The rate of congenital anomalies in the respective groups was calculated. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were

  18. Comparing injection and non-injection routes of administration for heroin, methamphetamine, and cocaine users in the United States.

    PubMed

    Novak, Scott P; Kral, Alex H

    2011-01-01

    Research examining the demographic and substance use characteristics of illicit drug use in the United States has typically failed to consider differences in routes of administration or has exclusively focused on a single route of administration?injection drug use. Data from National Survey on Drug Use and Health were used to compare past-year injection drug users and non-injection drug users' routes of administration of those who use the three drugs most commonly injected in the United States: heroin, methamphetamine, and cocaine. Injection drug users were more likely than those using drugs via other routes to be older (aged 35 and older), unemployed, possess less than a high school education, and reside in rural areas. IDUs also exhibited higher rates of abuse/dependence, perceived need for substance abuse treatment, and co-occurring physical and psychological problems. Fewer differences between IDUs and non-IDUs were observed for heroin users compared with methamphetamine or cocaine users.

  19. How well do international drug conventions protect public health?

    PubMed

    Room, Robin; Reuter, Peter

    2012-01-07

    The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in 1961 aimed to eliminate the illicit production and non-medical use of cannabis, cocaine, and opioids, an aim later extended to many pharmaceutical drugs. Over the past 50 years international drug treaties have neither prevented the globalisation of the illicit production and non-medical use of these drugs, nor, outside of developed countries, made these drugs adequately available for medical use. The system has also arguably worsened the human health and wellbeing of drug users by increasing the number of drug users imprisoned, discouraging effective countermeasures to the spread of HIV by injecting drug users, and creating an environment conducive to the violation of drug users' human rights. The international system has belatedly accepted measures to reduce the harm from injecting drug use, but national attempts to reduce penalties for drug use while complying with the treaties have often increased the number of drug users involved with the criminal justice system. The international treaties have also constrained national policy experimentation because they require nation states to criminalise drug use. The adoption of national policies that are more aligned with the risks of different drugs and the effectiveness of controls will require the amendment of existing treaties, the formulation of new treaties, or withdrawal of states from existing treaties and re-accession with reservations.

  20. Increased ventral striatal BOLD activity during non-drug reward anticipation in cannabis users

    PubMed Central

    Nestor, Liam; Hester, Robert; Garavan, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Despite an increased understanding of the pharmacology and long-term cognitive effects of cannabis in humans, there has been no research to date examining its chronic effects upon reward processing in the brain. Motivational theories regarding long-term drug use posit contrasting predictions with respect to how drug users are likely to process non-drug incentives. The reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) of addiction posits that there are deficits in dopamine (DA) motivational circuitry for non-drug rewards, such that only drugs of abuse are capable of normalizing DA in the ventral striatum (VS). Alternatively, the opponent process theory (OPT) holds that in individuals prone to drug use, there exists some form of mesolimbic hyperactivity, in which there is a bias towards reward-centred behaviour concomitant with impulsivity. The current study examined BOLD responses during reward and loss anticipation and their outcome deliveries in 14 chronic cannabis users and 14 drug-naïve controls during a monetary incentive delay (MID) task. Despite no significant behavioural differences between the two groups, cannabis users had significantly more right VS BOLD activity during reward anticipation. Correlation analyses demonstrated that this right VS BOLD response was significantly correlated with life-time use and reported life-time cannabis joints consumed. No correlations between cannabis abstinence and BOLD responses were observed. We also observed a number of group differences following outcome deliveries, most notably hypoactivity in the left insula cortex in response to loss and loss avoidance outcome notifications in the cannabis group. These results may suggest hypersensitivity during instrumental response anticipation for non-drug rewards and a hyposensitivity to loss outcomes in chronic cannabis users; the implications of which are discussed with respect to the potentially sensitizing effects of cannabis for other rewards. PMID:19631753