Science.gov

Sample records for illustrated timeline wall

  1. The distribution of an illustrated timeline wall chart and teacher's guide of 20th century physics

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Brian

    2000-12-26

    The American Physical Society's part of its centennial celebration in March of 1999 decided to develop a timeline wall chart on the history of 20th century physics. This resulted in eleven consecutive posters, which when mounted side by side, create a 23-foot mural. The timeline exhibits and describes the millstones of physics in images and words. The timeline functions as a chronology, a work of art, a permanent open textbook, and a gigantic photo album covering a hundred years in the life of the community of physicists and the existence of the American Physical Society. Each of the eleven posters begins with a brief essay that places a major scientific achievement of the decade in its historical context. Large portraits of the essays' subjects include youthful photographs of Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman among others, to help put a face on science. Below the essays, a total of over 130 individual discoveries and inventions, explained in dated text boxes with accompanying images, form the backbone of the timeline. For ease of comprehension, this wealth of material is organized into five color-coded story lines the stretch horizontally across the hundred years of the 20th century. The five story lines are: Cosmic Scale, relate the story of astrophysics and cosmology; Human Scale, refers to the physics of the more familiar distances from the global to the microscopic; Atomic Scale, focuses on the submicroscopic world of atoms, nuclei and quarks; Living World, chronicles the interaction of physics with biology and medicine; Technology, traces the applications of physic to everyday living. Woven into the bottom border of the timeline are period images of significant works of art, architecture, and technological artifacts such as telephones, automobiles, aircraft, computers, and appliances. The last poster, covering the years since 1995, differs from the others. Its essay concerns the prospect for physics into the next century, and is illustrated

  2. PBF Cubicle 13. Shield wall details illustrate shielding technique of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cubicle 13. Shield wall details illustrate shielding technique of stepped penetrations and brick layout scheme for valve stem extension sleeve. Aerojet Nuclear Company. Date: May 1976. INEEL index no. 761-0620-00-400-195280 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Developing a Mental Timeline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Donna

    1998-01-01

    Argues that mental timelines for learning history are analogous to mental mapping for learning geography: both visually represent abstract concepts. Describes the construction of a classroom timeline and activities for fifth- and sixth-grade students that incorporate the use of timelines. Notes reasonable expectations for student progress at this…

  4. The IRIS Mission Timeline

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the timeline of activities for the IRIS mission. Following launch, during the initial orbits, the spacecraft “detumbles”, opens the solar arrays, acquires the sun and com...

  5. Research Timeline: Formulaic language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Creating a timeline for formulaic language is far from simple, because several partially independent lines of research have contributed to the emerging picture. Each exhibits cycles of innovation and consolidation over time: domains take a leading role in developing new knowledge and then fall back, while another area comes to the fore. Thus, some…

  6. AIHEC Timeline and Map.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribal College Journal, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Plots the history of American Indian Education on a timeline beginning with the Lakota and Cheyenne defeat of Custer at the Battle of Little Big Horn. Marks 1968 charter of Dine College (Arizona) and continues to the upcoming celebration of the 30th anniversary of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium in 2003. Contains map of United…

  7. Advanced timeline systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulfin, R. L.; Perdue, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Planning Division of the Mission Operations Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for scheduling experiment activities for space missions controlled at MSFC. In order to draw statistically relevant conclusions, all experiments must be scheduled at least once and may have repeated performances during the mission. An experiment consists of a series of steps which, when performed, provide results pertinent to the experiment's functional objective. Since these experiments require a set of resources such as crew and power, the task of creating a timeline of experiment activities for the mission is one of resource constrained scheduling. For each experiment, a computer model with detailed information of the steps involved in running the experiment, including crew requirements, processing times, and resource requirements is created. These models are then loaded into the Experiment Scheduling Program (ESP) which attempts to create a schedule which satisfies all resource constraints. ESP uses a depth-first search technique to place each experiment into a time interval, and a scoring function to evaluate the schedule. The mission planners generate several schedules and choose one with a high value of the scoring function to send through the approval process. The process of approving a mission timeline can take several months. Each timeline must meet the requirements of the scientists, the crew, and various engineering departments as well as enforce all resource restrictions. No single objective is considered in creating a timeline. The experiment scheduling problem is: given a set of experiments, place each experiment along the mission timeline so that all resource requirements and temporal constraints are met and the timeline is acceptable to all who must approve it. Much work has been done on multicriteria decision making (MCDM). When there are two criteria, schedules which perform well with respect to one criterion will often perform

  8. Timeline of Martian Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2011-05-01

    A recent study of Martian volcanism presents a timeline of the last major eruptions from 20 large volcanoes, based on the relative ages of caldera surfaces determined by crater counting. Stuart Robbins, Gaetano Di Achille, and Brian Hynek (University of Colorado) counted craters on high-resolution images from the the Context Camera (CTX) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to date individual calderas, or terraces within calderas, on the 20 major Martian volcanoes. Based on their timeline and mapping, rates and durations of eruptions and transitions from explosive to effusive activity varied from volcano to volcano. The work confirms previous findings by others that volcanism was continuous throughout Martian geologic history until about one to two hundred million years ago, the final volcanic events were not synchronous across the planet, and the latest large-scale caldera activity ended about 150 million years ago in the Tharsis province. This timing correlates well with the crystallization ages (~165-170 million years) determined for the youngest basaltic Martian meteorites.

  9. Timeline and the Timeline Exchange Infrastructure: a Framework for Exchanging Temporal Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Kenneth; Chung, Seung H,

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a timeline is used ubiquitously during space mission design and development to specify elements of flight and ground system designs. In this paper we introduce our Timeline Ontology. The Timeline Ontology is grounded in mathematical formalism, thus proving concrete semantics.

  10. A Teaching, Technology, and Faculty Development Timeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baepler, Paul

    2010-01-01

    A timeline is a flyover of history. It outlines shapes and helps define larger patterns. It is an efficient, if not comprehensive way to conceive of a long, complex span of time. This article presents a timeline of events, ideas, and technological innovation that provides a foundational historical record on the confluence of teaching and…

  11. Using Time-Lines in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Elizabeth; Counsell, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Bridging a twenty-year gap in their practice, Elizabeth Carr and Christine Counsell bring out the similarities in their use of timelines in their planning, teaching and assessment. What they also have in common is the fact that their experimentation with timelines as a way of strengthening cumulative knowledge emerged in remarkably similar policy…

  12. Chemistry Illustrated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acquistapace, Victoria Lazio

    1997-01-01

    Describes an approach that challenges students to construct illustrations of chemical reactions by using colorful Bingo card paint markers. Enables them to visually demonstrate their understanding of chemical notations and the law of conservation of mass. Also discusses teaching chemical formulas, a modeling lab, illustrating chemical reactions,…

  13. Neural mechanism to construct a future timeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Karthik

    2015-03-01

    Computing the set of possible future states is an important cognitive feature that aids in planning toward a goal. The brain must perform this computation swiftly, and more importantly without destroying the current state of memory. Here we propose a neural mechanism that periodically modifies the synaptic weights in a mathematically principled way to achieve the construction of the future timeline. Preliminary evidence of synaptic modifications in synchrony with the theta rhythm suggests that this mechanism could take place in the Hippocampus. The hypothesis also predicts that the time cells observed in the Hippocampus should exhibit phase precession with respect to the theta rhythm as the future timeline is cognitively constructed.

  14. TimeLine: visualizing integrated patient records.

    PubMed

    Bui, Alex A T; Aberle, Denise R; Kangarloo, Hooshang

    2007-07-01

    An increasing amount of data is now accrued in medical information systems; however, the organization of this data is still primarily driven by data source, and does not support the cognitive processes of physicians. As such, new methods to visualize patient medical records are becoming imperative in order to assist physicians with clinical tasks and medical decision-making. The TimeLine system is a problem-centric temporal visualization for medical data: information contained with medical records is reorganized around medical disease entities and conditions. Automatic construction of the TimeLine display from existing clinical repositories occurs in three steps: 1) data access, which uses an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) data representation to handle distributed, heterogeneous medical databases; 2) data mapping and reorganization, reformulating data into hierarchical, problemcentric views; and 3) data visualization, which renders the display to a target presentation platform. Leveraging past work, we describe the latter two components of the TimeLine system in this paper, and the issues surrounding the creation of medical problems lists and temporal visualization of medical data. A driving factor in the development of TimeLine was creating a foundation upon which new data types and the visualization metaphors could be readily incorporated.

  15. Timeline analysis program (TLA-1), appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K. H.

    1976-01-01

    Appendices for the Timeline Analysis Program (TLA-1) were given. The appendices contain the Atlanta terminal area scenarios, the task catalog and the control and display configurations for the forward and aft flight decks of the NASA 515 aircraft, and the event/procedure, phase, mission, and subsystem catalogs.

  16. 45 CFR 155.1045 - Accreditation timeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accreditation timeline. 155.1045 Section 155.1045 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT...

  17. Endemicity response timelines for Plasmodium falciparum elimination

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2009-01-01

    Background The scaling up of malaria control and renewed calls for malaria eradication have raised interest in defining timelines for changes in malaria endemicity. Methods The epidemiological theory for the decline in the Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR, the prevalence of infection) following intervention was critically reviewed and where necessary extended to consider superinfection, heterogeneous biting, and aging infections. Timelines for malaria control and elimination under different levels of intervention were then established using a wide range of candidate mathematical models. Analysis focused on the timelines from baseline to 1% and from 1% through the final stages of elimination. Results The Ross-Macdonald model, which ignores superinfection, was used for planning during the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP). In models that consider superinfection, PfPR takes two to three years longer to reach 1% starting from a hyperendemic baseline, consistent with one of the few large-scale malaria control trials conducted in an African population with hyperendemic malaria. The time to elimination depends fundamentally upon the extent to which malaria transmission is interrupted and the size of the human population modelled. When the PfPR drops below 1%, almost all models predict similar and proportional declines in PfPR in consecutive years from 1% through to elimination and that the waiting time to reduce PfPR from 10% to 1% and from 1% to 0.1% are approximately equal, but the decay rate can increase over time if infections senesce. Conclusion The theory described herein provides simple "rules of thumb" and likely time horizons for the impact of interventions for control and elimination. Starting from a hyperendemic baseline, the GMEP planning timelines, which were based on the Ross-Macdonald model with completely interrupted transmission, were inappropriate for setting endemicity timelines and they represent the most optimistic scenario for

  18. GPM Timeline Inhibits For IT Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dion, Shirley K.

    2014-01-01

    The Safety Inhibit Timeline Tool was created as one approach to capturing and understanding inhibits and controls from IT through launch. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, which launched from Japan in March 2014, was a joint mission under a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). GPM was one of the first NASA Goddard in-house programs that extensively used software controls. Using this tool during the GPM buildup allowed a thorough review of inhibit and safety critical software design for hazardous subsystems such as the high gain antenna boom, solar array, and instrument deployments, transmitter turn-on, propulsion system release, and instrument radar turn-on. The GPM safety team developed a methodology to document software safety as part of the standard hazard report. As a result of this process, a new tool safety inhibit timeline was created for management of inhibits and their controls during spacecraft buildup and testing during IT at GSFC and at the launch range in Japan. The Safety Inhibit Timeline Tool was a pathfinder approach for reviewing software that controls the electrical inhibits. The Safety Inhibit Timeline Tool strengthens the Safety Analysts understanding of the removal of inhibits during the IT process with safety critical software. With this tool, the Safety Analyst can confirm proper safe configuration of a spacecraft during each IT test, track inhibit and software configuration changes, and assess software criticality. In addition to understanding inhibits and controls during IT, the tool allows the Safety Analyst to better communicate to engineers and management the changes in inhibit states with each phase of hardware and software testing and the impact of safety risks. Lessons learned from participating in the GPM campaign at NASA and JAXA will be discussed during this session.

  19. Timeline analysis tools for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucks, John

    1997-02-01

    The timeline analysis system (TAS) was developed by Rome Laboratory to assist intelligence analysts with the comprehension of large amounts of information. Under the TAS program data visualization, manipulation and reasoning tools were developed in close coordination with end users. The initial TAS prototype was developed for foreign command and control analysts at Space Command in Colorado Springs and was fielded there in 1989. The TAS prototype replaced manual paper timeline maintenance and analysis techniques and has become an integral part of Space Command's information infrastructure. TAS was designed to be domain independent and has been tailored and proliferated to a number of other users. The TAS program continues to evolve because of strong user support. User funded enhancements and Rome Lab funded technology upgrades have significantly enhanced TAS over the years and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. TAS was recently provided to the New York State Police (NYSP) for evaluation using actual case data. Timeline analysis it turns out is a popular methodology used in law enforcement. The evaluation has led to a more comprehensive application and evaluation project sponsored by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). This paper describes the capabilities of TAS, results of the initial NYSP evaluation and the plan for a more comprehensive NYSP evaluation.

  20. Timeline: Targeted Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Teitzel, Gail

    2016-09-22

    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection can cause liver cirrhosis and cancer, and early treatment options were non-specific and could be toxic. Work aimed at elucidating the viral life cycle has led to better treatment options through the development of direct-acting antivirals, as exemplified by the work of Ralf Bartenschlager, Charles Rice, and Michael Sofia who have received the Lasker∼DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award for their work on this effort. Key events in understanding HCV replication and development of direct-acting antivirals are shown in this Timeline. PMID:27662096

  1. A timeline algorithm for astronomy missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. E.; Guffin, O. T.

    1975-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for generating viewing timelines for orbital astronomy missions of the pointing (nonsurvey/scan) type. The algorithm establishes a target sequence from a list of candidate targets in a way which maximizes total viewing time. Two special cases are treated. One concerns dim targets which, due to lighting constraints, are scheduled only during the antipolar portion of each orbit. They normally require long observation times extending over several revolutions. A minimum slew heuristic is employed to select the sequence of dim targets. The other case deals with bright, or short duration, targets, which have less restrictive lighting constraints and are scheduled during the portion of each orbit when dim targets cannot be viewed. Since this process moves much more rapidly than the dim path, an enumeration algorithm is used to select the sequence that maximizes total viewing time.

  2. Concerning immune synapses: a spatiotemporal timeline

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Carrion, Alvaro; Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The term “immune synapse” was originally coined to highlight the similarities between the synaptic contacts between neurons in the central nervous system and the cognate, antigen-dependent interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Here, instead of offering a comprehensive molecular catalogue of molecules involved in the establishment, stabilization, function, and resolution of the immune synapse, we follow a spatiotemporal timeline that begins at the initiation of exploratory contacts between the T cell and the antigen-presenting cell and ends with the termination of the contact. We focus on specific aspects that distinguish synapses established by cytotoxic and T helper cells as well as unresolved issues and controversies regarding the formation of this intercellular structure. PMID:27092248

  3. Human Timeline: A Spatial-Kinesthetic Exercise in Biblical History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    The Human Timeline invites students to physically re-create biblical history. Each student holds a card that denotes an event randomly selected from the biblical timeline. They then arrange themselves chronologically to learn the correct flow of biblical history. Because of the movement involved and the arbitrary layout of the cards among their…

  4. 47 CFR 10.11 - WEA implementation timeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false WEA implementation timeline. 10.11 Section 10.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS General Information § 10.11 WEA implementation timeline. Notwithstanding anything in this part to the contrary,...

  5. 47 CFR 10.11 - WEA implementation timeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false WEA implementation timeline. 10.11 Section 10.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS General Information § 10.11 WEA implementation timeline. Notwithstanding anything in this part to the contrary,...

  6. 19 CFR Annex Vii to Part 351 - Antidumping Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antidumping Investigations Timeline VII Annex VII to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VII Annex VII to Part 351—Antidumping Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.001...

  7. 19 CFR Annex Vi to Part 351 - Countervailing Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countervailing Investigations Timeline VI Annex VI to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VI Annex VI to Part 351—Countervailing Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.000...

  8. 19 CFR Annex Vii to Part 351 - Antidumping Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antidumping Investigations Timeline VII Annex VII to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VII Annex VII to Part 351—Antidumping Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.001...

  9. 19 CFR Annex Vi to Part 351 - Countervailing Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Countervailing Investigations Timeline VI Annex VI to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VI Annex VI to Part 351—Countervailing Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.000...

  10. Timelines: An Opportunity for Meeting Standards through Textbook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brugar, Kristy A.; Roberts, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    In this article we identify opportunities for students to use timelines and textbooks to meet standards. Through the use of timelines, textbooks, and selected activities, upper elementary and middle school students are able to (1) be engaged in content area reading and writings; (2) understand large themes in social studies including time,…

  11. 47 CFR 10.11 - CMAS implementation timeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CMAS implementation timeline. 10.11 Section 10... Information § 10.11 CMAS implementation timeline. Notwithstanding anything in this part to the contrary, a participating CMS provider shall begin an 18 month period of development, testing and deployment of the CMAS...

  12. 47 CFR 10.11 - CMAS implementation timeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMAS implementation timeline. 10.11 Section 10... Information § 10.11 CMAS implementation timeline. Notwithstanding anything in this part to the contrary, a participating CMS provider shall begin an 18 month period of development, testing and deployment of the CMAS...

  13. 47 CFR 10.11 - CMAS implementation timeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMAS implementation timeline. 10.11 Section 10... Information § 10.11 CMAS implementation timeline. Notwithstanding anything in this part to the contrary, a participating CMS provider shall begin an 18 month period of development, testing and deployment of the CMAS...

  14. Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data.

    PubMed

    Imawan, Ardi; Indikawati, Fitri Indra; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2016-08-23

    The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS) centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information) system-a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index) that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset.

  15. Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Imawan, Ardi; Indikawati, Fitri Indra; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS) centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information) system—a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index) that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset. PMID:27563900

  16. Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data.

    PubMed

    Imawan, Ardi; Indikawati, Fitri Indra; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS) centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information) system-a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index) that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset. PMID:27563900

  17. Timeline Resource Analysis Program (TRAP): User's manual and program document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sessler, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The Timeline Resource Analysis Program (TRAP), developed for scheduling and timelining problems, is described. Given an activity network, TRAP generates timeline plots, resource histograms, and tabular summaries of the network, schedules, and resource levels. It is written in ANSI FORTRAN for the Honeywell SIGMA 5 computer and operates in the interactive mode using the TEKTRONIX 4014-1 graphics terminal. The input network file may be a standard SIGMA 5 file or one generated using the Interactive Graphics Design System. The timeline plots can be displayed in two orderings: according to the sequence in which the tasks were read on input, and a waterfall sequence in which the tasks are ordered by start time. The input order is especially meaningful when the network consists of several interacting subnetworks. The waterfall sequence is helpful in assessing the project status at any point in time.

  18. Enhancing online timeline visualizations with events and images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Abhishek; Mulye, Aniket; Teoh, Soon Tee

    2011-01-01

    The use of timeline to visualize time-series data is one of the most intuitive and commonly used methods, and is used for widely-used applications such as stock market data visualization, and tracking of poll data of election candidates over time. While useful, these timeline visualizations are lacking in contextual information of events which are related or cause changes in the data. We have developed a system that enhances timeline visualization with display of relevant news events and their corresponding images, so that users can not only see the changes in the data, but also understand the reasons behind the changes. We have also conducted a user study to test the effectiveness of our ideas.

  19. Creating Photo Illustrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    Explains the uses of photo illustrations. Notes that the key to developing a successful photo illustration is collaborative planning. Outlines the following guidelines for photo illustrations: never set up a photograph to mimic reality; create only abstractions with photo illustrations; clearly label photo illustrations; and never play photo…

  20. Archaea--timeline of the third domain.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The Archaea evolved as one of the three primary lineages several billion years ago, but the first archaea to be discovered were described in the scientific literature about 130 years ago. Moreover, the Archaea were formally proposed as the third domain of life only 20 years ago. Over this very short period of investigative history, the scientific community has learned many remarkable things about the Archaea--their unique cellular components and pathways, their abundance and critical function in diverse natural environments, and their quintessential role in shaping the evolutionary path of life on Earth. This Review charts the 'archaea movement', from its genesis through to key findings that, when viewed together, illustrate just how strongly the field has built on new knowledge to advance our understanding not only of the Archaea, but of biology as a whole. PMID:21132019

  1. 34 CFR 303.423 - Convenience of proceedings; timelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR... Parents and Children § 303.423 Convenience of proceedings; timelines. (a) Any proceeding for implementing... the parties). (See 34 CFR 300.512.) Thus, if a State, in meeting the requirements of § 303.420,...

  2. Development of the Shuttle target measurement program /STMP/ timelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macurda, H. B.; McNeill, G. R.; Carpenter, R. H.; Vann, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper will define the criteria used to establish orbits and timelines for measurements of Shuttle-ejected targets. These criteria include Shuttle-induced contamination environments, orbital mechanics considerations, viewing geometry needs, and the methods used to overcome these limitations. The limitations on viewing objects of opportunity, such as satellites and missile test launches are also discussed.

  3. 34 CFR 200.5 - Timeline for assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timeline for assessments. 200.5 Section 200.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving...

  4. 34 CFR 200.5 - Timeline for assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timeline for assessments. 200.5 Section 200.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving...

  5. Research Timeline: Form-Focused Instruction and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timeline of research on form-focused instruction (FFI). Over the past 40 years, research on the role of instruction has undergone many changes. Much of the early research concentrated on determining whether formal instruction makes any difference in the development of learner language. This question was motivated in part by…

  6. Atoms, Honeycombs, and Fabric Scraps: Rethinking Timelines in the Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denial, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Timelines are a regular feature of almost all history education. Teachers and students create them on chalkboards, white boards, and an increasing number of web-based programs that allow multiple users to collaborate on a timeline's shape. Textbooks offer timelines to accompany the material they cover--chapter-by-chapter, students are told…

  7. Mapping Turnaround Times (TAT) to a Generic Timeline: A Systematic Review of TAT Definitions in Clinical Domains

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Assessing turnaround times can help to analyse workflows in hospital information systems. This paper presents a systematic review of literature concerning different turnaround time definitions. Our objectives were to collect relevant literature with respect to this kind of process times in hospitals and their respective domains. We then analysed the existing definitions and summarised them in an appropriate format. Methods Our search strategy was based on Pubmed queries and manual reviews of the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Studies were included if precise definitions of turnaround times were available. A generic timeline was designed through a consensus process to provide an overview of these definitions. Results More than 1000 articles were analysed and resulted in 122 papers. Of those, 162 turnaround time definitions in different clinical domains were identified. Starting and end points vary between these domains. To illustrate those turnaround time definitions, a generic timeline was constructed using preferred terms derived from the identified definitions. The consensus process resulted in the following 15 terms: admission, order, biopsy/examination, receipt of specimen in laboratory, procedure completion, interpretation, dictation, transcription, verification, report available, delivery, physician views report, treatment, discharge and discharge letter sent. Based on this analysis, several standard terms for turnaround time definitions are proposed. Conclusion Using turnaround times to benchmark clinical workflows is still difficult, because even within the same clinical domain many different definitions exist. Mapping of turnaround time definitions to a generic timeline is feasible. PMID:21609424

  8. Performance Report: A timeline for the synchrotron calibration of AXAF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H. D.; Graessle, D.

    1994-01-01

    Presented herein are the known elements of the timeline for synchrotron reflectance calibrations of HRMA witness samples (Section 2). In Section 3, lists of measurements to be done on each witness flat are developed. The elements are then arranged into timelines for the three beamlines we expect to employ in covering the full 50-12,000 eV energy range (Section 4). Although the required AXAF operational range is only 0.1-10 keV, we must calibrate the extent to which radiation just outside this band may contaminate our in-band response. In Section 5, we describe the working relationships which exist with each of the beamlines, and estimate the time available for AXAF measurements on each. From the timelines and the available time, we calculate the number of flats which could be measured in full detail over the duration of the program for each beamline. A suggestion is made regarding a minimum required baselines of witness flats from each element coating run or qualification run to be used in the calibration. We intend that this suggestion open discussion of the issue of witness flat deployment.

  9. TimeLineCurator: Interactive Authoring of Visual Timelines from Unstructured Text.

    PubMed

    Fulda, Johanna; Brehmel, Matthew; Munzner, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    We present TimeLineCurator, a browser-based authoring tool that automatically extracts event data from temporal references in unstructured text documents using natural language processing and encodes them along a visual timeline. Our goal is to facilitate the timeline creation process for journalists and others who tell temporal stories online. Current solutions involve manually extracting and formatting event data from source documents, a process that tends to be tedious and error prone. With TimeLineCurator, a prospective timeline author can quickly identify the extent of time encompassed by a document, as well as the distribution of events occurring along this timeline. Authors can speculatively browse possible documents to quickly determine whether they are appropriate sources of timeline material. TimeLineCurator provides controls for curating and editing events on a timeline, the ability to combine timelines from multiple source documents, and export curated timelines for online deployment. We evaluate TimeLineCurator through a benchmark comparison of entity extraction error against a manual timeline curation process, a preliminary evaluation of the user experience of timeline authoring, a brief qualitative analysis of its visual output, and a discussion of prospective use cases suggested by members of the target author communities following its deployment. PMID:26529709

  10. Motion Belts: Visualization of Human Motion Data on a Timeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Kaihara, Ryota; Saito, Suguru; Nakajima, Masayuki

    Because motion capture system enabled us to capture a number of human motions, the demand for a method to easily browse the captured motion database has been increasing. In this paper, we propose a method to generate simple visual outlines of motion clips, for the purpose of efficient motion data browsing. Our method unfolds a motion clip into a 2D stripe of keyframes along a timeline that is based on semantic keyframe extraction and the best view point selection for each keyframes. With our visualization, timing and order of actions in the motions are clearly visible and the contents of multiple motions are easily comparable. In addition, because our method is applicable for a wide variety of motions, it can generate outlines for a large amount of motions fully automatically.

  11. 25 CFR 293.11 - When will the 45-day timeline begin?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III TRIBAL STATE GAMING COMPACT PROCESS § 293.11 When will the 45-day timeline begin? The 45-day timeline will begin when a compact or amendment is received and date stamped in the Office of Indian Gaming at the...

  12. 25 CFR 293.11 - When will the 45-day timeline begin?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III TRIBAL STATE GAMING COMPACT PROCESS § 293.11 When will the 45-day timeline begin? The 45-day timeline will begin when a compact or amendment is received and date stamped in the Office of Indian Gaming at...

  13. 25 CFR 293.11 - When will the 45-day timeline begin?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III TRIBAL STATE GAMING COMPACT PROCESS § 293.11 When will the 45-day timeline begin? The 45-day timeline will begin when a compact or amendment is received and date stamped in the Office of Indian Gaming at...

  14. 25 CFR 293.11 - When will the 45-day timeline begin?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III TRIBAL STATE GAMING COMPACT PROCESS § 293.11 When will the 45-day timeline begin? The 45-day timeline will begin when a compact or amendment is received and date stamped in the Office of Indian Gaming at...

  15. 25 CFR 293.11 - When will the 45-day timeline begin?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III TRIBAL STATE GAMING COMPACT PROCESS § 293.11 When will the 45-day timeline begin? The 45-day timeline will begin when a compact or amendment is received and date stamped in the Office of Indian Gaming at...

  16. Can Multiple "Spatial" Virtual Timelines Convey the Relatedness of Chronological Knowledge across Parallel Domains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korallo, Liliya; Foreman, Nigel; Boyd-Davis, Stephen; Moar, Magnus; Coulson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Single linear virtual timelines have been used effectively with undergraduates and primary school children to convey the chronological ordering of historical items, improving on PowerPoint and paper/textual displays. In the present study, a virtual environment (VE) consisting of three parallel related timelines (world history and the histories of…

  17. Behavioral Assessment of Gambling: An Application of the Timeline Followback Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.

    2004-01-01

    The Gambling Timeline Followback (G-TLFB), a measure of gambling behavior that uses the timeline followback methodology, was psychometrically evaluated with samples of frequent-gambling young adults. Seven dimensions of gambling behavior were assessed: type, frequency, duration, intent, risk, win-loss, and consumption of alcohol while gambling.…

  18. A Generalized Timeline Representation, Services, and Interface for Automating Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Johnston, Mark; Frank, Jeremy; Giuliano, Mark; Kavelaars, Alicia; Lenzen, Christoph; Policella, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Most use a timeline based representation for operations modeling. Most model a core set of state, resource types. Most provide similar capabilities on this modeling to enable (semi) automated schedule generation. In this paper we explore the commonality of : representation and services for these timelines. These commonalities offer potential to be harmonized to enable interoperability, re-use.

  19. 34 CFR 303.310 - Post-referral timeline (45 days).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Post-referral timeline (45 days). 303.310 Section 303.310 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL... Post-Referral Procedures-Screenings, Evaluations, and Assessments § 303.310 Post-referral timeline...

  20. A Generalized Timeline Representation, Services, and Interface for Automating Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Johnston, Mark; Frank, Jeremy; Giuliano, Mark; Kavelaars, Alicia; Lenzen, Christoph; Policella, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Numerous automated and semi-automated planning & scheduling systems have been developed for space applications. Most of these systems are model-based in that they encode domain knowledge necessary to predict spacecraft state and resources based on initial conditions and a proposed activity plan. The spacecraft state and resources as often modeled as a series of timelines, with a timeline or set of timelines to represent a state or resource key in the operations of the spacecraft. In this paper, we first describe a basic timeline representation that can represent a set of state, resource, timing, and transition constraints. We describe a number of planning and scheduling systems designed for space applications (and in many cases deployed for use of ongoing missions) and describe how they do and do not map onto this timeline model.

  1. The Scientist as Illustrator.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Janet H

    2016-04-01

    Proficiency in art and illustration was once considered an essential skill for biologists, because text alone often could not suffice to describe observations of biological systems. With modern imaging technology, it is no longer necessary to illustrate what we can see by eye. However, in molecular and cellular biology, our understanding of biological processes is dependent on our ability to synthesize diverse data to generate a hypothesis. Creating visual models of these hypotheses is important for generating new ideas and for communicating to our peers and to the public. Here, I discuss the benefits of creating visual models in molecular and cellular biology and consider steps to enable researchers to become more effective visual communicators.

  2. 5. VIEW OF EXTERIOR FACINGS, SOUTH ELEVATION, ILLUSTRATING RANDOM COURSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF EXTERIOR FACINGS, SOUTH ELEVATION, ILLUSTRATING RANDOM COURSING THAT USES UNSQUARED, IRREGULAR BASALT STONE WITH SMALLER FRAGMENTS SNECKED INTO THE JOINTING, LOOKING NORTH - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  3. Substructure view illustrating the continuous concrete Tbeams, piers, sidewalk brackets ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Substructure view illustrating the continuous concrete T-beams, piers, sidewalk brackets and arched longitudinal beams - A Canal Bridge, Spanning the A Canal on Wall Street, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

  4. Exploring large scale time-series data using nested timelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zaixian; Ward, Matthew O.; Rundensteiner, Elke A.

    2013-01-01

    When data analysts study time-series data, an important task is to discover how data patterns change over time. If the dataset is very large, this task becomes challenging. Researchers have developed many visualization techniques to help address this problem. However, little work has been done regarding the changes of multivariate patterns, such as linear trends and clusters, on time-series data. In this paper, we describe a set of history views to fill this gap. This technique works under two modes: merge and non-merge. For the merge mode, merge algorithms were applied to selected time windows to generate a change-based hierarchy. Contiguous time windows having similar patterns are merged first. Users can choose different levels of merging with the tradeoff between more details in the data and less visual clutter in the visualizations. In the non-merge mode, the framework can use natural hierarchical time units or one defined by domain experts to represent timelines. This can help users navigate across long time periods. Gridbased views were designed to provide a compact overview for the history data. In addition, MDS pattern starfields and distance maps were developed to enable users to quickly investigate the degree of pattern similarity among different time periods. The usability evaluation demonstrated that most participants could understand the concepts of the history views correctly and finished assigned tasks with a high accuracy and relatively fast response time.

  5. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversarys task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  6. No metaphorical timeline in gesture and cognition among yucatec mayas.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, Olivier; Balam, Lorena Ildefonsa Pool

    2012-01-01

    In numerous languages, space provides a productive domain for the expression of time. This paper examines how time-to-space mapping is realized in Yucatec Maya. At the linguistic level, Yucatec Maya has numerous resources to express deictic time, whereas expression of sequential time is highly constrained. Specifically, in gesture, we do not find any metaphorical oriented timeline, but only an opposition between "current time" (mapped on the "here" space) and "remote time" (mapped on the "remote/distant space"). Additionally, past and future are not contrasted. Sequential or deictic time in language and gesture are not conceived as unfolding along a metaphorical oriented line (e.g., left-right or front-back) but as a succession of completed events not spatially organized. Interestingly, although Yucatec Maya speakers preferentially use a geocentric spatial frame of reference (FoR), especially visible in their use of gesture, time is not mapped onto a geocentric axis (e.g., east-west). We argue that, instead of providing a source for time mapping, the use of a spatial geocentric FoR in Yucatec Maya seems to inhibit it. The Yucatec Maya expression of time in language and gesture fits the more general cultural conception of time as cyclic. Experimental results confirmed, to some extent, this non-linear, non-directional conception of time in Yucatec Maya.

  7. No Metaphorical Timeline in Gesture and Cognition Among Yucatec Mayas

    PubMed Central

    Le Guen, Olivier; Balam, Lorena Ildefonsa Pool

    2012-01-01

    In numerous languages, space provides a productive domain for the expression of time. This paper examines how time-to-space mapping is realized in Yucatec Maya. At the linguistic level, Yucatec Maya has numerous resources to express deictic time, whereas expression of sequential time is highly constrained. Specifically, in gesture, we do not find any metaphorical oriented timeline, but only an opposition between “current time” (mapped on the “here” space) and “remote time” (mapped on the “remote/distant space”). Additionally, past and future are not contrasted. Sequential or deictic time in language and gesture are not conceived as unfolding along a metaphorical oriented line (e.g., left-right or front-back) but as a succession of completed events not spatially organized. Interestingly, although Yucatec Maya speakers preferentially use a geocentric spatial frame of reference (FoR), especially visible in their use of gesture, time is not mapped onto a geocentric axis (e.g., east-west). We argue that, instead of providing a source for time mapping, the use of a spatial geocentric FoR in Yucatec Maya seems to inhibit it. The Yucatec Maya expression of time in language and gesture fits the more general cultural conception of time as cyclic. Experimental results confirmed, to some extent, this non-linear, non-directional conception of time in Yucatec Maya. PMID:22908000

  8. POLYCOMP: Efficient and configurable compression of astronomical timelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasi, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the implementation of polycomp, a open-sourced, publicly available program for compressing one-dimensional data series in tabular format. The program is particularly suited for compressing smooth, noiseless streams of data like pointing information, as one of the algorithms it implements applies a combination of least squares polynomial fitting and discrete Chebyshev transforms that is able to achieve a compression ratio Cr up to ≈ 40 in the examples discussed in this work. This performance comes at the expense of a loss of information, whose upper bound is configured by the user. I show two areas in which the usage of polycomp is interesting. In the first example, I compress the ephemeris table of an astronomical object (Ganymede), obtaining Cr ≈ 20, with a compression error on the x , y , z coordinates smaller than 1 m. In the second example, I compress the publicly available timelines recorded by the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI), an array of microwave radiometers onboard the ESA Planck spacecraft. The compression reduces the needed storage from ∼ 6.5 TB to ≈ 0.75 TB (Cr ≈ 9), thus making them small enough to be kept in a portable hard drive.

  9. Methane mitigation timelines to inform energy technology evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Mandira; Edwards, Morgan R.; Trancik, Jessika E.

    2015-11-01

    Energy technologies emitting differing proportions of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) vary significantly in their relative climate impacts over time, due to the distinct atmospheric lifetimes and radiative efficiencies of the two gases. Standard technology comparisons using the global warming potential (GWP) with a fixed time horizon do not account for the timing of emissions in relation to climate policy goals. Here we develop a portfolio optimization model that incorporates changes in technology impacts based on the temporal proximity of emissions to a radiative forcing (RF) stabilization target. An optimal portfolio, maximizing allowed energy consumption while meeting the RF target, is obtained by year-wise minimization of the marginal RF impact in an intended stabilization year. The optimal portfolio calls for using certain higher-CH4-emitting technologies prior to an optimal switching year, followed by CH4-light technologies as the stabilization year approaches. We apply the model to evaluate transportation technology pairs and find that accounting for dynamic emissions impacts, in place of using the static GWP, can result in CH4 mitigation timelines and technology transitions that allow for significantly greater energy consumption while meeting a climate policy target. The results can inform the forward-looking evaluation of energy technologies by engineers, private investors, and policy makers.

  10. Famous Illustrators of Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norby, Shirley; Ryan, Gregory

    This book provides biographical information about 19 stylistically different illustrators of children's picture books. The illustrators and illustrations selected for representation demonstrate the many changes and styles in book illustration that have occurred during the past 50 years. Focus is upon how and why these individuals became children's…

  11. Cost Consideration and a Possible Construction Timeline of the CEPC-SPPC

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Weiren

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses the cost consideration and a possible construction timeline of the CEPC-SPPC study based on a preliminary conceptual design that is being carried out at the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in China.

  12. 13. Photocopy of illustration in St. Louis Illustrated, 1876. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of illustration in St. Louis Illustrated, 1876. Original in library of Lehmann Building, Missouri Botanical Garden. 'SHAW'S GARDEN,' BIRD'S EYE VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  13. Human Factors Operability Timeline Analysis to Improve the Processing Flow of the Orion Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Schlierf, Roland; Miller, Darcy; Posada, Juan; Haddock, Mike; Haddad, Mike; Tran, Donald; Henderon, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Human factors and timeline analysis to have a more efficient and effective processing flow. The solution involved developing a written timeline of events that included each activity within each functional flow block. Each activity had computer animation videos and pictures of the people involved and the hardware. The Human Factors Engineering Analysis Tool (HFEAT) was improved by modifying it to include the timeline of events. The HFEAT was used to define the human factors requirements and design solutions were developed for these requirements. An example of a functional flow block diagram is shown, and a view from one of the animations (i.e., short stack pallet) is shown and explained.

  14. Paper Models Illustrating Virus Symmetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Instructions are given for constructing two models, one to illustrate the general principles of symmetry in T=1, T=3, and T=4 viruses, and the other to illustrate the disposition of protein subunits in the T=3 plant viruses and the picornaviruses. (Author/CW)

  15. Automated illustration of patients instructions.

    PubMed

    Bui, Duy; Nakamura, Carlos; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A picture can be a powerful communication tool. However, creating pictures to illustrate patient instructions can be a costly and time-consuming task. Building on our prior research in this area, we developed a computer application that automatically converts text to pictures using natural language processing and computer graphics techniques. After iterative testing, the automated illustration system was evaluated using 49 previously unseen cardiology discharge instructions. The completeness of the system-generated illustrations was assessed by three raters using a three-level scale. The average inter-rater agreement for text correctly represented in the pictograph was about 66 percent. Since illustration in this context is intended to enhance rather than replace text, these results support the feasibility of conducting automated illustration.

  16. From Early Intervention to Early Childhood Programs: Timeline for Early Successful Transitions (TEST)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandes, Joyce A.; Ormsbee, Christine K.; Haring, Kathryn A.

    2007-01-01

    More than one million transitions between early intervention services and early childhood programs are facilitated annually for youngsters with special needs. To be successful, these transitions require planning and ongoing communication between all parties. This article substantiates the need for a timeline/checklist and provides a model of…

  17. Measuring Homelessness and Residential Stability: The Residential Time-Line Follow-Back Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsemberis, Sam; McHugo, Gregory; Williams, Valerie; Hanrahan, Patricia; Stefancic, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Reliable and valid longitudinal residential histories are needed to assess interventions to reduce homelessness and increase community tenure. This study examined the test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change, and concurrent validity of the Residential Time-Line Follow-Back (TLFB) Inventory, a method used to record residential histories in…

  18. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 1215 - Typical User Activity Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Typical User Activity Timeline C Appendix C to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. C Appendix C to Part 1215—Typical User Activity...

  19. The Gradual Transformation of Historical Situations: Understanding "Change and Continuity" through Colours and Timelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Yosanne

    2011-01-01

    The small-scale research that Yosanne Vella reports in this article was driven by concern to help pupils develop "big picture" visions of the past and to engage effectively with the idea of change as a process rather than an event. The strategy that she adopts--asking groups of students to colour in a timeline recording their judgement in response…

  20. Medicare program; final waivers in connection with the shared savings program; continuation of effectiveness and extension of timeline for publication of final rule. Interim final rule; continuation of effectiveness and extension of timeline for publication of final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-10-17

    This document announces the continuation of effectiveness of an interim final rule and the extension of the timeline for publication of the final rule. This document is issued in accordance with section 1871(a)(3)(C) of the Social Security Act (the Act), which allows an interim final rule to remain in effect after the expiration of the timeline specified in section 1871(a)(3)(B) of the Act if the Secretary publishes a notice of continuation prior to the expiration of the timeline.

  1. To Illustrate a Mood, Creatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Muriel E.

    1969-01-01

    Individually and in small groups, superior senior high school students in Belmont, Massachusetts, produced multimedia projects illustrating themes or moods through the synchronization of poems, original scripts, drawings, photographs, slides, and music. Projects ranged from a personal photographic interpretation of Delany's poem, "Solace," to…

  2. Internationally coordinated glacier monitoring - a timeline since 1894

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, Samuel U.; Armstrong, Richard; Fetterer, Florence; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Hoelzle, Martin; Machguth, Horst; Mölg, Nico; Paul, Frank; Raup, Bruce H.; Zemp, Michael

    2016-04-01

    glacier retreat and mass loss is a global phenomenon. Glaciological and geodetic observations show that the rates of the 21st-century mass loss are unprecedented on a global scale, for the time period observed, and probably also for recorded history, as indicated in glacier reconstructions from written and illustrated documents. The databases are supplemented by specific index datasets (e.g., glacier thickness data) and a dataset containing information on special events including glacier surges, glacier lake outbursts, ice avalanches, eruptions of ice-clad volcanoes, etc. related to about 200 glaciers. A special database of glacier photographs (GPC - Glacier Photograph Collection) contains more than 15,000 pictures from around 500 glaciers, some of them dating back to the mid-19th century. Current efforts are to close remaining observational gaps regarding data both from in-situ measurements and remote sensing, to establish a well-distributed baseline for sound estimates of climate-related glacier changes and their impacts. Within the framework of dedicated capacity building and twinning activities, disrupted long-term mass balance programmes in Central Asia have recently been resumed, and the continuation of mass balance measurements in the Tropical Andes has been supported. New data also emerge from several research projects using NASA and ESA sensors and are actively integrated into the GTN-G databases. Key tasks for the future include the quantitative assessment of uncertainties of available measurements, and their representativeness for changes in the respective mountain ranges. For this, a well-considered integration of in-situ measurements, remotely sensed observations, and numerical modelling is required.

  3. A Timeline Concept for Presenting Search Results from Heterogeneous Remote Sensing Data Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiersperger, T.; Doescher, C. J.; Werpy, J.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding search results from large and heterogeneous collections of remote sensing data can be a significant challenge to end users. Remote sensing data collections vary greatly by product type in both time and space. Typically, searches across this continuum are presented as a list of available files by product and constrained to the area of interest and time period of interest set by the user. Often, the search results are quite large and difficult to interpret, especially in cases where the user targets multiple products with greatly varying spatial and temporal characteristics. We suggest presenting search results using a timeline rather than a list to make complex search results more understandable to the user. This paper describes recent activities by the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) to prototype a timeline concept for presenting search results from heterogeneous remote sensing data collections.

  4. Vortex core timelines and ribbon summarizations: flow summarization over time and simulation ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Alexis Y. L.; Lee, Joohwi; Taylor, Russell M.

    2013-01-01

    We present two new vortex-summarization techniques designed to portray vortex motion over an entire simulation and over an ensemble of simulations in a single image. Linear "vortex core timelines" with cone glyphs summarize flow over all time steps of a single simulation, with color varying to indicate time. Simplified "ribbon summarizations" with hue nominally encoding ensemble membership and saturation encoding time enable direct visual comparison of the distribution of vortices in time and space for a set of simulations.

  5. State-Level Comparison of Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic Interconnection in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ardani, K.; Davidson, C.; Margolis, R.; Nobler, E.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents results from an analysis of distributed photovoltaic (PV) interconnection and deployment processes in the United States. Using data from more than 30,000 residential (up to 10 kilowatts) and small commercial (10-50 kilowatts) PV systems, installed from 2012 to 2014, we assess the range in project completion timelines nationally (across 87 utilities in 16 states) and in five states with active solar markets (Arizona, California, New Jersey, New York, and Colorado).

  6. Older adults' beliefs about the timeline of type 2 diabetes and adherence to dietary regimens.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Rachel C; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Rook, Karen S; Franks, Melissa M; Salem, James K

    2013-01-01

    The common-sense model posits that behavioural coping with illness is shaped by a complex combination of individuals' abstract and concrete beliefs about their illness. We investigated this theoretical assumption in a study of 116 older adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who completed in-person interviews at baseline and six and 12 months later. Specifically, we examined (1) the interaction of patients' abstract and concrete beliefs about the timeline of their diabetes as a predictor of change in adherence to a healthy diet and (2) whether these interactive effects differ among male and female patients. Abstract timeline beliefs were conceptualised as those pertaining to disease duration; concrete timeline beliefs were conceptualised as those pertaining to variability of disease symptoms (i.e. symptoms are stable versus fluctuating). As predicted, duration beliefs were positively associated with improvement in adherence among patients who viewed disease symptoms as stable, but not among those who viewed symptoms as variable. When gender was considered, these interactive effects were observed among male (but not female) patients. Findings revealed that the behavioural effects of men's abstract knowledge about their diabetes were conditioned by their concrete representations of the disease, suggesting a bottom-up process of influence with implications for intervention.

  7. Using participant-empowered visual relationship timelines in a qualitative study of sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Tamar; Finneran, Catherine; Andes, Karen L; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how the use of participant-empowered visual relationship timelines adds to the quality of an ongoing qualitative data collection in a case study examining the influence of emotions on sexual risk-taking and perceptions of HIV risk among men who have sex with men. Gay and bisexual men (n = 25) participated in a 10-week, three-phase study. During a baseline in-depth interview, participants created a visual timeline using labelled stickers to retrospectively examine their dating/sexual histories. Participants then completed three web-based quantitative personal relationship diaries, tracking sexual experiences during follow-up. These data were extracted and discussed in a timeline-based debrief interview. The visual cues assisted with data collection by prompting discussion through the immediate identification of patterns, opportunities for self-reflection, and rapport-building. The use of flexible data collection tools also allowed for a participant-empowered approach in which the participant controlled the interview process. Through this process, we learned strategies for improving a participant-empowered approach to qualitative research, including: allowing visual activities to drive the interview, using flexible guidelines to prompt activities, and using discrete imagery to increase participant comfort. It is important that qualitative data collection utilise more participatory approaches for gains in data quality and participant comfort.

  8. Using participant-empowered visual relationship timelines in a qualitative study of sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Tamar; Finneran, Catherine; Andes, Karen L; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how the use of participant-empowered visual relationship timelines adds to the quality of an ongoing qualitative data collection in a case study examining the influence of emotions on sexual risk-taking and perceptions of HIV risk among men who have sex with men. Gay and bisexual men (n = 25) participated in a 10-week, three-phase study. During a baseline in-depth interview, participants created a visual timeline using labelled stickers to retrospectively examine their dating/sexual histories. Participants then completed three web-based quantitative personal relationship diaries, tracking sexual experiences during follow-up. These data were extracted and discussed in a timeline-based debrief interview. The visual cues assisted with data collection by prompting discussion through the immediate identification of patterns, opportunities for self-reflection, and rapport-building. The use of flexible data collection tools also allowed for a participant-empowered approach in which the participant controlled the interview process. Through this process, we learned strategies for improving a participant-empowered approach to qualitative research, including: allowing visual activities to drive the interview, using flexible guidelines to prompt activities, and using discrete imagery to increase participant comfort. It is important that qualitative data collection utilise more participatory approaches for gains in data quality and participant comfort. PMID:27092985

  9. Frontogenesis Illustrated by Scatterometer Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patoux, J.; Brown, R. A.

    2001-12-01

    The 25-km grid-spacing and the swath coverage of the SeaWinds-on-QuikSCAT scatterometer are ideal for the study of midlatitude cyclones and their associated fronts. Used in conjunction with a PBL model, they reveal the structure and evolution of cold fronts, as well as the role played by boundary layer processes, in particular surface vorticity, divergence and ageostrophic components. The Northern and Southern Pacific are compared. The dynamics of the Southern Ocean are illustrated, with an emphasis on the maintenance of cold fronts for two or three days after the decay of the mother-storm.

  10. Illustrated Dictionary of Practical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchin, Chris

    This could be the first dictionary of astronomy specifically written for practical amateur astronomers. In addition to definitions, it provides an invaluable reference source for terms, techniques, instruments, formulas and processes for practising observers, both amateur and professional. A special feature of this dictionary is extended definitions for many topics; they give sufficient information for many of the techniques and items of instrumentation to be used as well as understood. With over 200 illustrations and extensive appendices, this is an essential reference book for every astronomer.

  11. Great Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Steve; Moore, Tim

    1996-01-01

    Explains why installing a well-designed indoor climbing wall can draw new users to an athletic facility. Climbing-wall design elements and gear are discussed and a checklist for working with contractors is provided.(GR)

  12. Illustrating the practice of statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Christina A; Hamada, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    The practice of statistics involves analyzing data and planning data collection schemes to answer scientific questions. Issues often arise with the data that must be dealt with and can lead to new procedures. In analyzing data, these issues can sometimes be addressed through the statistical models that are developed. Simulation can also be helpful in evaluating a new procedure. Moreover, simulation coupled with optimization can be used to plan a data collection scheme. The practice of statistics as just described is much more than just using a statistical package. In analyzing the data, it involves understanding the scientific problem and incorporating the scientist's knowledge. In modeling the data, it involves understanding how the data were collected and accounting for limitations of the data where possible. Moreover, the modeling is likely to be iterative by considering a series of models and evaluating the fit of these models. Designing a data collection scheme involves understanding the scientist's goal and staying within hislher budget in terms of time and the available resources. Consequently, a practicing statistician is faced with such tasks and requires skills and tools to do them quickly. We have written this article for students to provide a glimpse of the practice of statistics. To illustrate the practice of statistics, we consider a problem motivated by some precipitation data that our relative, Masaru Hamada, collected some years ago. We describe his rain gauge observational study in Section 2. We describe modeling and an initial analysis of the precipitation data in Section 3. In Section 4, we consider alternative analyses that address potential issues with the precipitation data. In Section 5, we consider the impact of incorporating additional infonnation. We design a data collection scheme to illustrate the use of simulation and optimization in Section 6. We conclude this article in Section 7 with a discussion.

  13. Control, elimination, and eradication of river blindness: scenarios, timelines, and ivermectin treatment needs in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Eun; Remme, Jan H F; Steinmann, Peter; Stolk, Wilma A; Roungou, Jean-Baptiste; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    River blindness (onchocerciasis) causes severe itching, skin lesions, and vision impairment including blindness. More than 99% of all current cases are found in sub-Saharan Africa. Fortunately, vector control and community-directed treatment with ivermectin have significantly reduced morbidity. Studies in Mali and Senegal proved the feasibility of elimination with ivermectin administration. The treatment goal is shifting from control to elimination in endemic African regions. Given limited resources, national and global policymakers need a rigorous analysis comparing investment options. For this, we developed scenarios for alternative treatment goals and compared treatment timelines and drug needs between the scenarios. Control, elimination, and eradication scenarios were developed with reference to current standard practices, large-scale studies, and historical data. For each scenario, the timeline when treatment is expected to stop at country level was predicted using a dynamical transmission model, and ivermectin treatment needs were predicted based on population in endemic areas, treatment coverage data, and the frequency of community-directed treatment. The control scenario requires community-directed treatment with ivermectin beyond 2045 with around 2.63 billion treatments over 2013-2045; the elimination scenario, until 2028 in areas where feasible, but beyond 2045 in countries with operational challenges, around 1.48 [corrected] billion treatments; and the eradication scenario, lasting until 2040, around 1.30 billion treatments. The eradication scenario is the most favorable in terms of the timeline of the intervention phase and treatment needs. For its realization, strong health systems and political will are required to overcome epidemiological and political challenges.

  14. The Developmental Emergence of the Mental Time-Line: Spatial and Numerical Distortion of Time Judgement

    PubMed Central

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Coull, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The perception of time is susceptible to distortion by factors such as attention, emotion, or even the physical properties of the stimulus to be timed. In adults, there is now evidence for a left-right spatial representation of time or “mental time-line”, in which short durations map to the left side of space, whereas long durations map to the right. We investigated the developmental trajectory of the mental time-line, by examining how spatial and numerical stimulus properties affect temporal bisection judgements in 3 groups of children (5, 8 or 10 year olds), as well as in adults. In contrast to previous developmental studies of the spatial representation of time, we manipulated spatial position (left-right) rather than spatial magnitude (distance) so as to pinpoint the age at which the mental time-line begins to influence the judgement of time. In addition, we manipulated spatial position symbolically, either directly, using left- or right-pointing arrows, or indirectly, using low (1) or high (9) digits. In adults and older children (10 year olds), the rightward arrow and the higher digit were judged to last longer. However, time judgements were unaffected by arrow direction and digits in the younger children. Therefore, the temporal distortions induced by symbolic representations of space (arrows) or number (digits) emerged with development, suggesting that the mental time-line is not derived from a primitive spatial representation of time but, rather, is the fruit of learning and is acquired around the age of 8-10 years old. PMID:26135743

  15. Control, Elimination, and Eradication of River Blindness: Scenarios, Timelines, and Ivermectin Treatment Needs in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Eun; Remme, Jan H. F.; Steinmann, Peter; Stolk, Wilma A.; Roungou, Jean-Baptiste; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    River blindness (onchocerciasis) causes severe itching, skin lesions, and vision impairment including blindness. More than 99% of all current cases are found in sub-Saharan Africa. Fortunately, vector control and community-directed treatment with ivermectin have significantly reduced morbidity. Studies in Mali and Senegal proved the feasibility of elimination with ivermectin administration. The treatment goal is shifting from control to elimination in endemic African regions. Given limited resources, national and global policymakers need a rigorous analysis comparing investment options. For this, we developed scenarios for alternative treatment goals and compared treatment timelines and drug needs between the scenarios. Control, elimination, and eradication scenarios were developed with reference to current standard practices, large-scale studies, and historical data. For each scenario, the timeline when treatment is expected to stop at country level was predicted using a dynamical transmission model, and ivermectin treatment needs were predicted based on population in endemic areas, treatment coverage data, and the frequency of community-directed treatment. The control scenario requires community-directed treatment with ivermectin beyond 2045 with around 2.63 billion treatments over 2013–2045; the elimination scenario, until 2028 in areas where feasible, but beyond 2045 in countries with operational challenges, around 1.15 billion treatments; and the eradication scenario, lasting until 2040, around 1.30 billion treatments. The eradication scenario is the most favorable in terms of the timeline of the intervention phase and treatment needs. For its realization, strong health systems and political will are required to overcome epidemiological and political challenges. PMID:25860569

  16. A revised timeline for biological agents: revisiting the early years of the germ theory of disease.

    PubMed

    Rutecki, Gregory W

    2007-01-01

    An agreed upon timeline for the initial, scientifically-informed use of biological agents typically begins with the Japanese Army in Manchuria and China prior to the generalized outbreak of World War II (1932 until 1945). The process included human experimentation with multiple biological agents followed by their release in combat (e.g. the plague bacillus) targeting military personnel and civilians. Two postulates are used support these dates. First, allegations of earlier bacteriological weapon experimentation and/or use represented the accidental, small scale, and sporadic dispersion of infectious agents preceding the Germ Theory of Disease. Therefore, attempts prior to the Twentieth Century were uninformed scientifically and are not considered representative. Later, as the Germ Theory was maturing, the hypothetical timeline was derived, in part retrospectively, from reputable historical sources (the Trillat Report and The League of Nations) published immediately upon the conclusion of World War I. These documents explicitly testified to the total absence of bacteriological weapons in any form (experimentation or battlefield application) directed at human subjects-in stark contrast to the utilization of chemical agents-during the course of that war. Therefore the Japanese Army in Manchuria became time zero. Recently, evidence previously hidden from outside study has surfaced demonstrating that a small group of Turkish physicians injected typhus-contaminated serum into Armenian civilians during WWI. Although controversy persists regarding primary intent-immunization, experimentation on human subjects, or the introduction of a crude biological weapon-the discovery might suggest a revision to the accepted timeline. The primitive efforts with contaminated serum that occurred during the First World War may seem trivial, especially when compared to overall fatalities during that conflict, but they did include the informed and fatal application of microbial agents

  17. Hairy root biotechnology--indicative timeline to understand missing links and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Srivastava, Vikas; Ur Rahman, Laiq; Kukreja, A K

    2015-09-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy roots (HR) were developed in the laboratory to mimic the natural phenomenon of bacterial gene transfer and occurrence of disease syndrome. The timeline analysis revealed that during 90 s, the research expanded to the hairy root-based secondary metabolite production and different yield enhancement strategies like media optimization, up-scaling, metabolic engineering etc. An outlook indicates that much emphasis has been given to the strategies that are helpful in making this technology more practical in terms of high productivity at low cost. However, a sequential analysis of literature shows that this technique is upgraded to a biotechnology platform where different intra- and interdisciplinary work areas were established, progressed, and diverged to provide scientific benefits of various hairy root-based applications like phytoremediation, molecular farming, biotransformation, etc. In the present scenario, this biotechnology research platform includes (a) elemental research like hairy root-mediated secondary metabolite production coupled with productivity enhancement strategies and (b) HR-based functional research. The latter comprised of hairy root-based applied aspects such as generation of agro-economical traits in plants, production of high value as well as less hazardous molecules through biotransformation/farming and remediation, respectively. This review presents an indicative timeline portrayal of hairy root research reflected by a chronology of research outputs. The timeline also reveals a progressive trend in the state-of-art global advances in hairy root biotechnology. Furthermore, the review also discusses ideas to explore missing links and to deal with the challenges in future progression and prospects of research in all related fields of this important area of plant biotechnology.

  18. MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS VIA NETWORK ANALYSIS OF INSTAGRAM USER TIMELINES.

    PubMed

    Correia, Rion Brattig; Li, Lang; Rocha, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this "Bibliome", the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products-including cannabis-which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far. Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis. Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015.We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population. This demonstrates that Instagram

  19. MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS VIA NETWORK ANALYSIS OF INSTAGRAM USER TIMELINES.

    PubMed

    Correia, Rion Brattig; Li, Lang; Rocha, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this "Bibliome", the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products-including cannabis-which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far. Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis. Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015.We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population. This demonstrates that Instagram

  20. A unified timeline model and user interface for multimedia medical databases.

    PubMed

    Dionisio, J D; Cárdenas, A F; Taira, R K; Aberle, D R; Chu, W W; McNitt-Gray, M F; Goldin, J; Lufkin, R B

    1996-01-01

    A multimedia medical database model and prototype is described for supporting a timeline-based presentation of information. The database links image and text data in a way that permits users to look at medical information in a single unified view. Various visualization programs permit the user to view data in various ways, including full image views, graphs, and tables. Our technology is applied for proof-of-concept to two areas: thoracic oncology and thermal tumor ablation therapy of the brain. This effort is part of the multidisciplinary KMeD project in collaboration with medical research and clinical treatment projects at UCLA.

  1. Geothermal Project Database Supporting Barriers and Viability Analysis for Development by 2020 Timeline

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anna Wall

    2014-10-21

    This data provides the underlying project-level analysis and data sources complied in response to the DOE request to determine the amount of geothermal capacity that could be available to meet the President's request to double renewable energy capacity by 2020. The enclosed data contains compiled data on individual project names and locations (by geothermal area and region), ownership, estimated nameplate capacity, and project status, and also contains inferred data on the barriers and viability of the project to meet a 2020 development timeline. The analysis of this data is discussed in the attached NREL report.

  2. MONITORING POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTIONS AND REACTIONS VIA NETWORK ANALYSIS OF INSTAGRAM USER TIMELINES

    PubMed Central

    CORREIA, RION BRATTIG; LI, LANG; ROCHA, LUIS M.

    2015-01-01

    Much recent research aims to identify evidence for Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI) and Adverse Drug reactions (ADR) from the biomedical scientific literature. In addition to this “Bibliome”, the universe of social media provides a very promising source of large-scale data that can help identify DDI and ADR in ways that have not been hitherto possible. Given the large number of users, analysis of social media data may be useful to identify under-reported, population-level pathology associated with DDI, thus further contributing to improvements in population health. Moreover, tapping into this data allows us to infer drug interactions with natural products—including cannabis—which constitute an array of DDI very poorly explored by biomedical research thus far. Our goal is to determine the potential of Instagram for public health monitoring and surveillance for DDI, ADR, and behavioral pathology at large. Most social media analysis focuses on Twitter and Facebook, but Instagram is an increasingly important platform, especially among teens, with unrestricted access of public posts, high availability of posts with geolocation coordinates, and images to supplement textual analysis. Using drug, symptom, and natural product dictionaries for identification of the various types of DDI and ADR evidence, we have collected close to 7000 user timelines spanning from October 2010 to June 2015. We report on 1) the development of a monitoring tool to easily observe user-level timelines associated with drug and symptom terms of interest, and 2) population-level behavior via the analysis of co-occurrence networks computed from user timelines at three different scales: monthly, weekly, and daily occurrences. Analysis of these networks further reveals 3) drug and symptom direct and indirect associations with greater support in user timelines, as well as 4) clusters of symptoms and drugs revealed by the collective behavior of the observed population. This demonstrates that

  3. A Long, Long Time Ago: Student Perceptions of Geologic Time Using a 45.6-foot-long Timeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehman, J. R.; Johnson, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    In this study we investigated preconceptions of geologic time held by students in five large (50-115 students each) sections of introductory geology and Earth science courses. Students were randomly divided into groups of eleven individuals, and each group was assigned a separate timeline made from a roll of adding machine paper. Students were encouraged to work as a group to place the eleven geological or biological events where they thought they should belong on their timeline based only on their previous knowledge of geologic time. Geologic events included "Oldest Known Earth Rock" and "The Colorado River Begins to Form the Grand Canyon" while biological events included such milestones as "First Fish," "Dinosaurs go Extinct," and "First Modern Humans." Students were asked in an anonymous survey how they decided to place the events on the timeline in this initial exercise. After the eleven event cards were clipped to the timeline and marks were made to record the initial location of each event, students returned to the classroom and were provided with a scale and the correct dates for the events. Each paper timeline was 45.6 ft. long to represent the 4.56 billion years of Earth history (each one-foot-wide floor tile in the hallways outside the classroom equals 100 million years). Student then returned to their timelines and moved the event cards to the correct locations. At the end of the exercise, survey questions and the paper timelines with the markings of the original position of geologic events were collected and compiled. Analysis of the timeline data based on previous knowledge revealed that no group of students arranged all of the events in the proper sequence, although several groups misplaced only two events in relative order. Students consistently placed events further back in time than their correct locations based on absolute age dates. The survey revealed that several student groups used one "old" event such as the "First Dinosaurs Appear" or

  4. Solid Rocket Booster-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This illustration is a cutaway of the solid rocket booster (SRB) sections with callouts. The Shuttle's two SRB's are the largest solids ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the solid rocket motors (SRM's) were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. At burnout, the boosters separate from the external tank and drop by parachute to the ocean for recovery and subsequent refurbishment. The boosters are designed to survive water impact at almost 60 miles per hour, maintain flotation with minimal damage, and preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. Under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRB's are assembled and refurbished by the United Space Boosters. The SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is a cutaway illustration of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with callouts. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  7. Comparison between Timelines of Transcriptional Regulation in Mammals, Birds, and Teleost Fish Somitogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fongang, Bernard; Kudlicki, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Metameric segmentation of the vertebrate body is established during somitogenesis, when a cyclic spatial pattern of gene expression is created within the mesoderm of the developing embryo. The process involves transcriptional regulation of genes associated with the Wnt, Notch, and Fgf signaling pathways, each gene is expressed at a specific time during the somite cycle. Comparative genomics, including analysis of expression timelines may reveal the underlying regulatory modules and their causal relations, explaining the nature and origin of the segmentation mechanism. Using a deconvolution approach, we computationally reconstruct and compare the precise timelines of expression during somitogenesis in chicken and zebrafish. The result constitutes a resource that may be used for inferring possible causal relations between genes and subsequent pathways. While the sets of regulated genes and expression profiles vary between different species, notable similarities exist between the temporal organization of the pathways involved in the somite clock in chick and mouse, with certain aspects (as the phase of expression of Notch genes) conserved also in the zebrafish. The regulated genes have sequence motifs that are conserved in mouse and chicken but not zebrafish. Promoter sequence analysis suggests involvement of several transcription factors that may bind these regulatory elements, including E2F, EGR and PLAG, as well as a possible role of G-quadruplex DNA structure in regulation of the cyclic genes. Our research lays the groundwork for further studies that will probe the evolution of the regulatory mechanism of segmentation across all vertebrates. PMID:27192554

  8. Crucial role of detailed function, task, timeline, link and human vulnerability analyses in HRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.G.; Haney, L.N.; Ostrom, L.T.

    1992-10-01

    This paper addresses one major cause for large uncertainties in human reliability analysis (HRA) results, that is, an absence of detailed function, task, timeline, link and human vulnerability analyses. All too often this crucial step in the HRA process is done in a cursory fashion using word of mouth or written procedures which themselves may incompletely or inaccurately represent the human action sequences and human error vulnerabilities being analyzed. The paper examines the potential contributions these detailed analyses can make in achieving quantitative and qualitative HRA results which are: (1) creditable, that is, minimize uncertainty, (2) auditable, that is, systematically linking quantitative results and qualitative information from which the results are derived, (3) capable of supporting root cause analyses on human reliability factors determined to be major contributors to risk, and (4) capable of repeated measures and being combined with similar results from other analyses to examine HRA issues transcending individual systems and facilities. Based on experience analyzing test and commercial nuclear reactors, and medical applications of nuclear technology, an iterative process is suggested for doing detailed function, task, timeline, link and human vulnerability analyses using documentation reviews, open-ended and structured interviews, direct observations, and group techniques. Finally, the paper concludes that detailed analyses done in this manner by knowledgeable human factors practitioners, can contribute significantly to the credibility, auditability, causal factor analysis, and combining goals of the HRA.

  9. Comparison between Timelines of Transcriptional Regulation in Mammals, Birds, and Teleost Fish Somitogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fongang, Bernard; Kudlicki, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Metameric segmentation of the vertebrate body is established during somitogenesis, when a cyclic spatial pattern of gene expression is created within the mesoderm of the developing embryo. The process involves transcriptional regulation of genes associated with the Wnt, Notch, and Fgf signaling pathways, each gene is expressed at a specific time during the somite cycle. Comparative genomics, including analysis of expression timelines may reveal the underlying regulatory modules and their causal relations, explaining the nature and origin of the segmentation mechanism. Using a deconvolution approach, we computationally reconstruct and compare the precise timelines of expression during somitogenesis in chicken and zebrafish. The result constitutes a resource that may be used for inferring possible causal relations between genes and subsequent pathways. While the sets of regulated genes and expression profiles vary between different species, notable similarities exist between the temporal organization of the pathways involved in the somite clock in chick and mouse, with certain aspects (as the phase of expression of Notch genes) conserved also in the zebrafish. The regulated genes have sequence motifs that are conserved in mouse and chicken but not zebrafish. Promoter sequence analysis suggests involvement of several transcription factors that may bind these regulatory elements, including E2F, EGR and PLAG, as well as a possible role of G-quadruplex DNA structure in regulation of the cyclic genes. Our research lays the groundwork for further studies that will probe the evolution of the regulatory mechanism of segmentation across all vertebrates. PMID:27192554

  10. Comparing the surgical timelines of military and civilians traumatic lower limb amputations

    PubMed Central

    Staruch, R.M.T.; Jackson, P.C.; Hodson, J.; Yim, G.; Foster, M.A.; Cubison, T.; Jeffery, S.L.A.

    2016-01-01

    The care and challenges of injured service have been well documented in the literature from a variety of specialities. The aim of this study was to analyse the surgical timelines of military and civilian traumatic amputees and compare the surgical and resuscitative interventions. A retrospective review of patient notes was undertaken. Military patients were identified from the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) in 2009. Civilian patients were identified using the hospital informatics database. Patient demographics, treatment timelines as well as surgical and critical care interventions were reviewed. In total 71 military patients sustained traumatic amputations within this time period. This represented 11% of the total injury demographic in 2009. Excluding upper limb amputees 46 patients sustained lower extremity amputations. These were investigated further. In total 21 civilian patients were identified in a 7-year period. Analysis revealed there was a statistically significant difference between patient age, ITU length of stay, blood products used and number of surgical procedures between military and civilian traumatic amputees. This study identified that military patients were treated for longer in critical care and required more surgical interventions for their amputations. Despite this, their time to stump closure and length of stay were not statistically different compared to civilian patients. Such observations reflect the importance of an Orthoplastic approach, as well as daily surgical theatre co-ordination and weekly multi-disciplinary meetings in providing optimal care for these complex patients. This study reports the epidemiological observed differences between two lower limb trauma groups. PMID:26958343

  11. Wonderful Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  12. Scientific Illustration for the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainer, Ruth Straus; Child, Julia S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that scientific illustration helps students develop visual acuity and drawing proficiency. Demonstrates how intermediate-grade students can combine elements of science and art through various scientific illustration projects. (JDH)

  13. 31 CFR 405.1 - Illustrations authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustrations authorized. 405.1 Section 405.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ILLUSTRATION OF SAVINGS BONDS § 405.1 Illustrations authorized....

  14. 31 CFR 405.1 - Illustrations authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illustrations authorized. 405.1 Section 405.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ILLUSTRATION OF SAVINGS BONDS § 405.1 Illustrations authorized....

  15. 31 CFR 405.1 - Illustrations authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illustrations authorized. 405.1 Section 405.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ILLUSTRATION OF SAVINGS BONDS § 405.1 Illustrations authorized....

  16. Integrated multimedia timeline of medical images and data for thoracic oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Aberle, D R; Dionisio, J D; McNitt-Gray, M F; Taira, R K; Cárdenas, A F; Goldin, J G; Brown, K; Figlin, R A; Chu, W W

    1996-05-01

    A prototype multimedia medical database has been developed to provide image and textual data for thoracic oncology patients undergoing treatment of advanced malignancies. The database integrates image data from the hospital picture archiving and communication system with textual reports from the radiology information system, alphanumeric data contained in the hospital information system, and other electronic medical data. The database presents information in a timeline format and also contains visualization programs that permit the user to view and annotate radiographic measurements in tabular or graphic form. The database provides an efficient and intuitive display of the changing status of oncology patients. The ability to integrate, manage, and access relevant multimedia information may substantially enhance communication among distributed multidisciplinary health care providers and may ensure greater consistency and completeness of patient-related data.

  17. High-resolution temporal analysis reveals a functional timeline for the molecular regulation of cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Tim; Jordan, Shawn N; Chand, Vandana; Sees, Jennifer A; Laband, Kimberley; Carvalho, Ana X; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi; Kovar, David R; Dumont, Julien; Canman, Julie C

    2014-07-28

    To take full advantage of fast-acting temperature-sensitive mutations, thermal control must be extremely rapid. We developed the Therminator, a device capable of shifting sample temperature in ~17 s while simultaneously imaging cell division in vivo. Applying this technology to six key regulators of cytokinesis, we found that each has a distinct temporal requirement in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote. Specifically, myosin-II is required throughout cytokinesis until contractile ring closure. In contrast, formin-mediated actin nucleation is only required during assembly and early contractile ring constriction. Centralspindlin is required to maintain division after ring closure, although its GAP activity is only required until just prior to closure. Finally, the chromosomal passenger complex is required for cytokinesis only early in mitosis, but not during metaphase or cytokinesis. Together, our results provide a precise functional timeline for molecular regulators of cytokinesis using the Therminator, a powerful tool for ultra-rapid protein inactivation.

  18. High-resolution temporal analysis reveals a functional timeline for the molecular regulation of cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Tim; Jordan, Shawn N.; Chand, Vandana; Sees, Jennifer A.; Laband, Kimberley; Carvalho, Ana; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi; Kovar, David R.; Dumont, Julien; Canman, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary To take full advantage of fast-acting temperature-sensitive mutations, thermal control must be extremely rapid. We developed the Therminator, a device capable of shifting sample temperature in ~17s while simultaneously imaging cell division in vivo. Applying this technology to six key regulators of cytokinesis, we found that each has a distinct temporal requirement in the C. elegans zygote. Specifically, myosin-II is required throughout cytokinesis until contractile ring closure. In contrast, formin-mediated actin nucleation is only required during assembly and early contractile ring constriction. Centralspindlin is required to maintain division after ring closure, though its GAP activity is only required until just prior to closure. Finally, the Chromosomal Passenger Complex is required for cytokinesis only early in mitosis, but not during metaphase or cytokinesis. Together, our results provide a precise functional timeline for molecular regulators of cytokinesis using the Therminator, a powerful tool for ultra-rapid protein inactivation. PMID:25073157

  19. History of the Earth and Life on Earth Timeline Student Project in Second Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Adrienne J.; Impey, C.

    2008-05-01

    University of Arizona undergraduate students in a non-science major introductory astrobiology course have been collaborating in the 3-dimensional multi-user virtual world called Second Life. Semester end "Creative Projects” involve designing and building small exhibits that fit into our "History of the Earth and Life on Earth Timeline” that sits on LivingintheUniverse Island. The large timeline is spiral shaped in navigation and covers 4.6 billion years ago to the present. Animated models, informational Notecards, and immersive experience boxes help to amaze and educate SL residents about their home planet and the specialness of life on Earth. Successes and lessons learned over the past 2 semesters will be outlined and a 'quick start guide' to getting involved in SL will be available as a handout.

  20. A sawtooth-like timeline for the first billion years of lunar bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, A.; Marchi, S.; Bottke, W. F.; Kring, D. A.

    2012-11-01

    We revisit the early evolution of the Moon's bombardment. Our work combines modeling (based on plausible projectile sources and their dynamical decay rates) with constraints from the lunar crater record, radiometric ages of the youngest lunar basins, and the abundance of highly siderophile elements in the lunar crust and mantle. We deduce that the evolution of the impact flux did not decline exponentially over the first billion years of lunar history, but also there was no prominent and narrow impact spike ˜3.9Gy ago, unlike that typically envisioned in the lunar cataclysm scenario. Instead, we show the timeline of the lunar bombardment has a sawtooth-like profile, with an uptick in the impact flux near ˜4.1Gy ago. The impact flux at the beginning of this weaker cataclysm was 5-10 times higher than the immediately preceding period. The Nectaris basin should have been one of the first basins formed at the sawtooth. We predict the bombardment rate since ˜4.1Gy ago declined slowly and adhered relatively close to classic crater chronology models (Neukum and Ivanov, 1994). Overall we expect that the sawtooth event accounted for about one-fourth of the total bombardment suffered by the Moon since its formation. Consequently, considering that ˜12-14 basins formed during the sawtooth event, we expect that the net number of basins formed on the Moon was ˜45-50. From our expected bombardment timeline, we derived a new and improved lunar chronology suitable for use on pre-Nectarian surface units. According to this chronology, a significant portion of the oldest lunar cratered terrains has an age of 4.38-4.42 Gyr. Moreover, the largest lunar basin, South Pole Aitken, is older than 4.3 Gy, and therefore was not produced during the lunar cataclysm.

  1. Implementation of Timeline Reforms Speeds Initiation of National Cancer Institute–Sponsored Trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The National Cancer Institute (NCI) organized the Operational Efficiency Working Group in 2008 to develop recommendations for improving the speed with which NCI-sponsored clinical trials move from the idea stage to a protocol open to patient enrollment. Methods Given the many stakeholders involved, the Operational Efficiency Working Group advised a multifaceted approach to mobilize the entire research community to improve their business processes. New staff positions to monitor progress, protocol-tracking Web sites, and strategically planned conference calls were implemented. NCI staff and clinical teams at Cooperative Groups and Cancer Centers strived to achieve new target timelines but, most important, agreed to abide by absolute deadlines. For phase I–II studies and phase III studies, the target timelines are 7 months and 10 months, whereas the absolute deadlines were set at 18 and 24 months, respectively. Trials not activated by the absolute deadline are automatically disapproved. Results The initial experience is encouraging and indicates a reduction in development times for phase I–II studies from the historical median of 541 days to a median of 442 days, an 18.3% decrease. The experience with phase III studies to date, although more limited (n = 25), demonstrates a 45.7% decrease in median days. Conclusions Based upon this progress, the NCI and the investigator community have agreed to reduce the absolute deadlines to 15 and 18 months for phase I–II and III trials, respectively. Emphasis on initiating trials rapidly is likely to help reduce the time it takes for clinical trial results to reach patients in need of new treatments. PMID:23776198

  2. Emerging Professionals Committee: A Commitment to the Future--The Development of the NSPI/ISPI Historical Timeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paino, Marci; Briskin, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    How will the International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) survive and thrive in the future? One way is by recruiting, engaging, and retaining professionals new to the field. In 2009, the Emerging Professionals Committee (EPC) was established. Its first initiative was the NSPI/ISPI Interactive Timeline, because findings from a…

  3. Wall Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  4. 'Stucco' Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

  5. 48 CFR 9905.502-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.502-60 Illustrations. (a) Illustrations of costs which are incurred for the same purpose: (1) An educational institution normally.... For purposes of a new proposal, the educational institution intends to allocate the travel costs...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.402-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 9904.402-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-60 Illustrations. (a) Illustrations of costs which are...

  7. 48 CFR 9904.402-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 9904.402-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-60 Illustrations. (a) Illustrations of costs which are...

  8. 48 CFR 9904.402-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 9904.402-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-60 Illustrations. (a) Illustrations of costs which are...

  9. 48 CFR 9904.404-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 9904.404-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-60 Illustrations. (a) Illustrations of costs which must...

  10. ILLUSTRATIONS OF RADIOISOTOPES--DEFINITIONS AND APPLICATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    THIS PUBLICATION IS COMPOSED OF OVER 150 PAGES OF BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS DEALING WITH RADIOISOTOPES AND THEIR USES. THESE ILLUSTRATIONS CONSIST OF CHARTS, GRAPHS, AND PICTORIAL REPRESENTATIONS WHICH COULD BE PREPARED AS HANDOUTS, TRANSPARENCIES FOR OVERHEAD PROJECTION, OR WHICH COULD BE USED IN A NUMBER OF OTHER WAYS FOR PRESENTING SUCH…

  11. 13 CFR 117.5 - Illustrative applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative applications. 117.5 Section 117.5 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975, AS AMENDED § 117.5 Illustrative applications....

  12. 16 CFR 23.2 - Misleading illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Misleading illustrations. 23.2 Section 23.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.2 Misleading illustrations. It is unfair or deceptive to...

  13. 16 CFR 23.2 - Misleading illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misleading illustrations. 23.2 Section 23.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.2 Misleading illustrations. It is unfair or deceptive to...

  14. 16 CFR 23.2 - Misleading illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Misleading illustrations. 23.2 Section 23.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.2 Misleading illustrations. It is unfair or deceptive to...

  15. 16 CFR 23.2 - Misleading illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Misleading illustrations. 23.2 Section 23.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.2 Misleading illustrations. It is unfair or deceptive to...

  16. 16 CFR 23.2 - Misleading illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misleading illustrations. 23.2 Section 23.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.2 Misleading illustrations. It is unfair or deceptive to...

  17. 48 CFR 9904.404-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.404-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-60 Illustrations. (a) Illustrations of costs which must...

  18. 48 CFR 9904.402-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.402-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-60 Illustrations. (a) Illustrations of costs which are...

  19. "Illustrating the Machinery of Life": Viruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Data from electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, and biophysical analysis are used to create illustrations of viruses in their cellular context. This report describes the scientific data and artistic methods used to create three illustrations: a depiction of the poliovirus lifecycle, budding of influenza virus from a cell surface, and a…

  20. A Simple Illustration of Hemihedral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Addison

    2004-01-01

    A simple way to represent hemihedral faces and to illustrate the relationship between the resulting left-handed and right-handed hemihedra is presented. The illustrations highlight that the chirality corresponds to the absence of reflective symmetry but not necessarily to the absence of a C2 axis of symmetry.

  1. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  2. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  3. Timeline historical review of income and financial transactions: a reliable assessment of personal finances.

    PubMed

    Black, Anne C; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen M; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-01-01

    The need for accurate and reliable information about income and resources available to individuals with psychiatric disabilities is critical for the assessment of need and evaluation of programs designed to alleviate financial hardship or affect finance allocation. Measurement of finances is ubiquitous in studies of economics, poverty, and social services. However, evidence has demonstrated that these measures often contain error. We compare the 1-week test-retest reliability of income and finance data from 24 adult psychiatric outpatients using assessment-as-usual (AAU) and a new instrument, the Timeline Historical Review of Income and Financial Transactions (THRIFT). Reliability estimates obtained with the THRIFT for Income (0.77), Expenses (0.91), and Debt (0.99) domains were significantly better than those obtained with AAU. Reliability estimates for Balance did not differ. THRIFT reduced measurement error and provided more reliable information than AAU for assessment of personal finances in psychiatric patients receiving Social Security benefits. The instrument also may be useful with other low-income groups.

  4. Military service absences and family members' mental health: A timeline followback assessment.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Aubrey J; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-08-01

    Although military service, and particularly absence due to deployment, has been linked to risk for depression and anxiety among some spouses and children of active duty service members, there is limited research to explain the heterogeneity in family members' reactions to military service stressors. The current investigation introduces the Timeline Followback Military Family Interview (TFMFI) as a clinically useful strategy to collect detailed time-linked information about the service member's absences. Two dimensions of parent absence--the extent to which absences coincide with important family events and cumulative time absent--were tested as potential risks to family members' mental health. Data from 70 mother-adolescent pairs revealed that the number of important family events missed by the service member was linked to elevated youth symptoms of depression, even when accounting for the number of deployments and cumulative duration of the service member's absence. However, youth who reported more frequent contact with the service member during absences were buffered from the effects of extensive absence. Mothers' symptoms were associated with the cumulative duration of the service members' time away, but not with family events missed by the service member. These results identify circumstances that increase the risk for mental health symptoms associated with military family life. The TFMFI provides an interview-based strategy for clinicians wishing to understand military family members' lived experience during periods of service-member absence. PMID:26075736

  5. Towards generating a patient's timeline: extracting temporal relationships from clinical notes.

    PubMed

    Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Emadzadeh, Ehsan; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2013-12-01

    Clinical records include both coded and free-text fields that interact to reflect complicated patient stories. The information often covers not only the present medical condition and events experienced by the patient, but also refers to relevant events in the past (such as signs, symptoms, tests or treatments). In order to automatically construct a timeline of these events, we first need to extract the temporal relations between pairs of events or time expressions presented in the clinical notes. We designed separate extraction components for different types of temporal relations, utilizing a novel hybrid system that combines machine learning with a graph-based inference mechanism to extract the temporal links. The temporal graph is a directed graph based on parse tree dependencies of the simplified sentences and frequent pattern clues. We generalized the sentences in order to discover patterns that, given the complexities of natural language, might not be directly discoverable in the original sentences. The proposed hybrid system performance reached an F-measure of 0.63, with precision at 0.76 and recall at 0.54 on the 2012 i2b2 Natural Language Processing corpus for the temporal relation (TLink) extraction task, achieving the highest precision and third highest f-measure among participating teams in the TLink track. PMID:24212118

  6. How individual traces and interactive timelines could support outage execution - Toward an outage historian concept

    SciTech Connect

    Parfouru, S.; De-Beler, N.

    2012-07-01

    In the context of a project that is designing innovative ICT-based solutions for the organizational concept of outage management, we focus on the informational process of the OCR (Outage Control Room) underlying the execution of the outages. Informational process are based on structured and unstructured documents that have a key role in the collaborative processes and management of the outage. We especially track the structured and unstructured documents, electronically or not, from creation to sharing. Our analysis allows us to consider that the individual traces produced by an individual participant with a specific role could be multi-purpose and support sharing between participants without creating duplication of work. The ultimate goal is to be able to generate an outage historian, that is not just focused on highly structured information, which could be useful to improve the continuity of information between participants. We study the implementation of this approach through web technologies and social media tools to address this issue. We also investigate the issue of data access through interactive visualization timelines coupled with other modality's to assist users in the navigation and exploration of the proposed historian. (authors)

  7. Military service absences and family members' mental health: A timeline followback assessment.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Aubrey J; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-08-01

    Although military service, and particularly absence due to deployment, has been linked to risk for depression and anxiety among some spouses and children of active duty service members, there is limited research to explain the heterogeneity in family members' reactions to military service stressors. The current investigation introduces the Timeline Followback Military Family Interview (TFMFI) as a clinically useful strategy to collect detailed time-linked information about the service member's absences. Two dimensions of parent absence--the extent to which absences coincide with important family events and cumulative time absent--were tested as potential risks to family members' mental health. Data from 70 mother-adolescent pairs revealed that the number of important family events missed by the service member was linked to elevated youth symptoms of depression, even when accounting for the number of deployments and cumulative duration of the service member's absence. However, youth who reported more frequent contact with the service member during absences were buffered from the effects of extensive absence. Mothers' symptoms were associated with the cumulative duration of the service members' time away, but not with family events missed by the service member. These results identify circumstances that increase the risk for mental health symptoms associated with military family life. The TFMFI provides an interview-based strategy for clinicians wishing to understand military family members' lived experience during periods of service-member absence.

  8. Rationale, Timeline, Study Design, and Protocol Overview of the Therapeutic Hypothermia After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Trials

    PubMed Central

    Moler, Frank W.; Silverstein, Faye S.; Meert, Kathleen L.; Clark, Amy E.; Holubkov, Richard; Browning, Brittan; Slomine, Beth S.; Christensen, James R.; Dean, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the rationale, timeline, study design, and protocol overview of the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Design Multicenter randomized controlled trials. Setting Pediatric intensive care and cardiac ICUs in the United States and Canada. Patients Children from 48 hours to 18 years old, who have return of circulation after cardiac arrest, who meet trial eligibility criteria, and whose guardians provide written consent. Interventions Therapeutic hypothermia or therapeutic normothermia. Measurements and Main Results From concept inception in 2002 until trial initiation in 2009, 7 years were required to plan and operationalize the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Two National Institute of Child Health and Human Development clinical trial planning grants (R21 and R34) supported feasibility assessment and protocol development. Two clinical research networks, Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network and Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network, provided infrastructure resources. Two National Heart Lung Blood Institute U01 awards provided funding to conduct separate trials of in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A pilot vanguard phase that included half the clinical sites began on March 9, 2009, and this was followed by full trial funding through 2015. Conclusions Over a decade will have been required to plan, design, operationalize, and conduct the Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Cardiac Arrest trials. Details described in this report, such as participation of clinical research networks and clinical trial planning grants utilization, may be of utility for individuals who are planning investigator-initiated, federally supported clinical trials. PMID:23842585

  9. Load-Following Power Timeline Analyses for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James; Delleur, Ann; Green, Robert; Hojnicki, Jeffrey

    1996-01-01

    Spacecraft are typically complex assemblies of interconnected systems and components that have highly time-varying thermal communications, and power requirements. It is essential that systems designers be able to assess the capability of the spacecraft to meet these requirements which should represent a realistic projection of demand for these resources once the vehicle is on-orbit. To accomplish the assessment from the power standpoint, a computer code called ECAPS has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center that performs a load-driven analysis of a spacecraft power system given time-varying distributed loading and other mission data. This program is uniquely capable of synthesizing all of the changing spacecraft conditions into a single, seamless analysis for a complete mission. This paper presents example power load timelines with which numerous data are integrated to provide a realistic assessment of the load-following capabilities of the power system. Results of analyses show how well the power system can meet the time-varying power resource demand.

  10. Medical illustration: from caves to cyberspace.

    PubMed

    Tsafrir, J; Ohry, A

    2001-06-01

    The human body has been depicted in ancient cave-paintings, in primitively sculpted figures, and through all the ages in various forms of artistic expression. The earliest medical texts were descriptive but not illustrated. Later, as it became clear that knowledge of the human body and all its systems was essential to the practice of healing, texts were accompanied by illustrations which became an integral part of the teaching process. The illustrators included artists, whose interest was primarily artistic, but who were sometimes employed by surgeons or physicians to illustrate their texts. Occasionally, the physicians or scientists accompanied their texts with their own illustrations, and in the last century, medical illustration, in its infinite variety of techniques, has been developed as a profession in its own right. As knowledge was extended, permitted by social and cultural change, as well as by technological advances, the types of illustrations have ranged from gross anatomy through dissections showing the various organ systems, histological preparations, and radiological images, right up to the computerized digital imagery that is available today, which allows both static and dynamic two- and three-dimensional representations to be transmitted electronically across the world in a matter of seconds. The techniques used to represent medical knowledge pictorially have been as varied as the illustrators themselves, involving drawing, engraving, printing, photography, cinematography and digital processing. Each new technique has built on previous experience to broaden medical knowledge and make it accessible to an ever-widening audience. This vast accumulation of pictorial material has posed considerable problems of storage, cataloguing, retrieval, display and dissemination of the information, as well as questions of ethics, validity, manipulation and reliability. This paper traces these developments, illustrating them with representative examples drawn from

  11. Artist at Work: Illustrating the Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Barry

    1987-01-01

    An illustrator who specializes in children's classics, such as "Alice in Wonderland" and the "Wonderful Wizard of Oz" describes his work process, reveals his ideas about art, and considers some of the projects he has worked on. (NKA)

  12. Illustrated glossary of textile terms for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastore, Christopher M.

    1993-01-01

    A glossary was developed to define textile terminology applicable to the manufacture of composites. Terms describing fabric structure were illustrated for clarity. Descriptive terms for defects from both textile and composites industry were included.

  13. 45 CFR 1110.5 - Illustrative applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... students in any aspect of the educational process, is prohibited. In this and the following illustration..., dormitory, eating, recreational, or other facilities of the grantee or other recipient. (c) In a...

  14. 34 CFR 100.5 - Illustrative application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aspect of the educational process, is prohibited. In this and the following illustrations the prohibition... discrimination among the students or trainees in the availability or use of any academic, dormitory,...

  15. 45 CFR 1110.5 - Illustrative applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... students in any aspect of the educational process, is prohibited. In this and the following illustration..., dormitory, eating, recreational, or other facilities of the grantee or other recipient. (c) In a...

  16. 45 CFR 611.5 - Illustrative applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... educational process, is prohibited. In this and the following illustration the prohibition of discrimination... students or trainees in the availability or use of any academic, dormitory, eating, recreational, or...

  17. 45 CFR 611.5 - Illustrative applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... educational process, is prohibited. In this and the following illustration the prohibition of discrimination... students or trainees in the availability or use of any academic, dormitory, eating, recreational, or...

  18. Molecular illustration in black and white.

    PubMed

    Goodsell, D S; Olson, A J

    1992-12-01

    Two-dimensional image processing techniques are used to create black and white illustrations from conventional z-buffer images. The illustrations appear to be composed of lines--outlines, contour lines, and hatched shading--but are calculated as grey-scale raster images. They have the advantage of faithful reproduction in publication and ease of display on workstations and laser printers. A FORTRAN source code is provided. PMID:1476997

  19. Information Graphics - A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    This beautifully illustrated book is the first complete handbook to visual information. Well written, easy to use, and carefully indexed, it describes the full range of charts, graphs, maps, diagrams, and tables used daily to manage, analyze, and communicate information. It features over 3,000 illustrations, making it an ideal source for ideas on how to present information. It is an invaluable tool for anyone who writes or designs reports, whether for scientific journals, annual reports, or magazines and newspapers.

  20. Japanese Comic Illustrations and Children's Picture/Illustrated Books of East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Laina

    This paper examines the influence of Japanese comic illustrations on children's books in countries in East Asia. It has become increasingly obvious that recent children's books in countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, as well as China and Malaysia/Indonesia contain illustrations with some features of the Japanese comic illustrations. This…

  1. Andreas Vesalius and Thomas Willis: their anatomic brain illustrations and illustrators.

    PubMed

    Scatliff, J H; Johnston, S

    2014-01-01

    The brain illustrations of Vesalius and Willis were the first in anatomic history with pictorial accuracy. Their illustrations, illustrators, and methods are discussed. Woodcut blocks were used for the prints of figures in the Vesalian anatomy. Figures of the brain appear to be done after external fixation in the work of Willis. PMID:24287089

  2. Andreas Vesalius and Thomas Willis: their anatomic brain illustrations and illustrators.

    PubMed

    Scatliff, J H; Johnston, S

    2014-01-01

    The brain illustrations of Vesalius and Willis were the first in anatomic history with pictorial accuracy. Their illustrations, illustrators, and methods are discussed. Woodcut blocks were used for the prints of figures in the Vesalian anatomy. Figures of the brain appear to be done after external fixation in the work of Willis.

  3. Reconstructing merger timelines using star cluster age distributions: the case of MCG+08-11-002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Rebecca L.; Medling, Anne M.; U, Vivian; Max, Claire E.; Sanders, David; Kewley, Lisa J.

    2016-05-01

    We present near-infrared imaging and integral field spectroscopy of the centre of the dusty luminous infrared galaxy merger MCG+08-11-002, taken using the Near InfraRed Camera 2 (NIRC2) and the OH-Suppressing InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (OSIRIS) on Keck II. We achieve a spatial resolution of ˜25 pc in the K band, allowing us to resolve 41 star clusters in the NIRC2 images. We calculate the ages of 22/25 star clusters within the OSIRIS field using the equivalent widths of the CO 2.3 μm absorption feature and the Br γ nebular emission line. The star cluster age distribution has a clear peak at ages ≲ 20 Myr, indicative of current starburst activity associated with the final coalescence of the progenitor galaxies. There is a possible second peak at ˜65 Myr which may be a product of the previous close passage of the galaxy nuclei. We fit single and double starburst models to the star cluster age distribution and use Monte Carlo sampling combined with two-sided Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to calculate the probability that the observed data are drawn from each of the best-fitting distributions. There is a >90 per cent chance that the data are drawn from either a single or double starburst star formation history, but stochastic sampling prevents us from distinguishing between the two scenarios. Our analysis of MCG+08-11-002 indicates that star cluster age distributions provide valuable insights into the timelines of galaxy interactions and may therefore play an important role in the future development of precise merger stage classification systems.

  4. Predicting the Timeline to the Final Menstrual Period: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Shinya; Huang, Mei-Hua; Karlamangla, Arun S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Predicting the final menstrual period (FMP) would help women know when their menopause transition will be completed. Additionally, biological changes, such as accelerated bone loss, precede the FMP by at least 1 year. Objective: Our objective was to assess whether FSH, estradiol, or urinary N-telopeptide predict where an individual is on her timeline to FMP. Methods: The sample was 554 women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. We modeled the probability of having crossed specified landmarks: 2 years before, 1 year before, and the FMP. We also modeled the probability of being in narrower intervals: 2 to1 year before FMP, 2 years before FMP and FMP, or 1 year before FMP and FMP. We determined the candidate markers that best predicted having crossed each landmark, with the optimum defined as the greatest area under the receiver-operator curve; created formulas for the probability of having crossed each landmark; and calculated sensitivity and specificity. Results: Final models included current estradiol and FSH (each as a fraction of 1 previous reference measure), age, menopause transition stage, race/ethnicity, and whether serum was collected during the early follicular phase. Areas under the receiver-operator curves of final models that predicted the probability of a woman having crossed 2 years before, 1 year before, and the FMP itself were 0.902, 0.926, and 0.945, respectively. If we classified women as having crossed the 2 years before the FMP landmark when predicted probability exceeded 0.3, sensitivity was 85% and specificity 77%. Conclusion: This model could help patients and researchers estimate the time to FMP. PMID:23533245

  5. Targets and timelines for reducing salt in processed food in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm; Legowski, Barbara; Legetic, Branka; Ferrante, Daniel; Nilson, Eduardo; Campbell, Christine; L'Abbé, Mary

    2014-09-01

    Reducing dietary salt is one of the most effective interventions to lessen the burden of premature death and disability. In high-income countries and those in nutrition transition, processed foods are a significant if not the main source of dietary salt. Reformulating these products to reduce their salt content is recommended as a best buy to prevent chronic diseases across populations. In the Americas, there are targets and timelines for reduced salt content of processed foods in 8 countries--Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and the National Salt Reduction Initiative in the United States and Paraguay. While there are common elements across the countries, there are notable differences in their approaches: 4 countries have exclusively voluntary targets, 2 countries have combined voluntary and regulated components, and 1 country has only regulations. The countries have set different types of targets and in some cases combined them: averages, sales-weighted averages, upper limits, and percentage reductions. The foods to which the targets apply vary from single categories to comprehensive categories accounting for all processed products. The most accessible and transparent targets are upper limits per food category. Most likely to have a substantive and sustained impact on salt intake across whole populations is the combination of sales-weighted averages and upper limits. To assist all countries with policies to improve the overall nutritional value of processed foods, the authors call for food companies to supply food composition data and product sales volume data to transparent and open-access platforms and for global companies to supply the products that meet the strictest targets to all markets. Countries participating in common markets at the subregional level can consider harmonizing targets, nutrition labels, and warning labels.

  6. Inference of the Activity Timeline of Cattle Foraging on a Mediterranean Woodland Using GPS and Pedometry

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Eugene D.; Schoenbaum, Iris; Henkin, Zalmen; Dolev, Amit; Yehuda, Yehuda; Brosh, Arieh

    2011-01-01

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) has transformed our ability to track livestock on rangelands. However, GPS data use would be greatly enhanced if we could also infer the activity timeline of an animal. We tested how well animal activity could be inferred from data provided by Lotek GPS collars, alone or in conjunction with IceRobotics IceTag pedometers. The collars provide motion and head position data, as well as location. The pedometers count steps, measure activity levels, and differentiate between standing and lying positions. We gathered synchronized data at 5-min resolution, from GPS collars, pedometers, and human observers, for free-grazing cattle (n = 9) at the Hatal Research Station in northern Israel. Equations for inferring activity during 5-min intervals (n = 1,475), classified as Graze, Rest (or Lie and Stand separately), and Travel were derived by discriminant and partition (classification tree) analysis of data from each device separately and from both together. When activity was classified as Graze, Rest and Travel, the lowest overall misclassification rate (10%) was obtained when data from both devices together were subjected to partition analysis; separate misclassification rates were 8, 12, and 3% for Graze, Rest and Travel, respectively. When Rest was subdivided into Lie and Stand, the lowest overall misclassification rate (10%) was again obtained when data from both devices together were subjected to partition analysis; misclassification rates were 6, 1, 26, and 17% for Graze, Lie, Stand, and Travel, respectively. The primary problem was confusion between Rest (or Stand) and Graze. Overall, the combination of Lotek GPS collars with IceRobotics IceTag pedometers was found superior to either device alone in inferring animal activity. PMID:22346582

  7. Reliability of the Timeline Followback for cocaine, cannabis, and cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sean M; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B; Leo, Gloria I

    2014-03-01

    The Timeline Followback (TLFB), a retrospective calendar-based measure of daily substance use, was initially developed to obtain self-reports of alcohol use. Since its inception it has undergone extensive evaluation across diverse populations and is considered the most psychometrically sound self-report measure of drinking. Although the TLFB has been extended to other behaviors, its psychometric evaluation with other addictive behaviors has not been as extensive as for alcohol use. The present study evaluated the test-retest reliability of the TLFB for cocaine, cannabis, and cigarette use for participants recruited from outpatient alcohol and drug treatment programs and the general community across intervals ranging from 30 to 360 days prior to the interview. The dependent measure for cigarette smokers and cannabis users was daily use of cigarettes and joints, respectively, and for cocaine users it was a "Yes" or "No" regarding cocaine use for each day. The TLFB was administered in different formats for different drug types. Different interviewers conducted the two interviews. The TLFB collected highly reliable information about participants' daily use of cocaine, cannabis, and cigarettes from 30, 90, to 360 days prior to the interview. Findings from this study not only suggest that shorter time intervals (e.g., 90 days) can be used with little loss of accuracy, but also add to the growing literature that the TLFB can be used with confidence to collect psychometrically sound information about substance use (i.e., cocaine, cannabis, cigarettes) other than alcohol in treatment- and nontreatment-seeking populations for intervals from ranging up to 12 months prior to the interview.

  8. A counterfort versus a cantilever retaining wall - a seismic equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugh, Ashok K.

    2005-08-01

    A procedure is presented to develop geometric dimensions and material property values for a model cantilever wall from those of a prototype counterfort wall such that the model wall will simulate the response of the prototype wall for seismic loads. The equivalency criteria are given. A sample problem is included to illustrate the use of the proposed procedure. Accuracy of results is discussed. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Preparing Colorful Astronomical Images and Illustrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levay, Z. G.; Frattare, L. M.

    2001-12-01

    We present techniques for using mainstream graphics software, specifically Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator, for producing composite color images and illustrations from astronomical data. These techniques have been used with numerous images from the Hubble Space Telescope to produce printed and web-based news, education and public presentation products as well as illustrations for technical publication. While Photoshop is not intended for quantitative analysis of full dynamic range data (as are IRAF or IDL, for example), we have had much success applying Photoshop's numerous, versatile tools to work with scaled images, masks, text and graphics in multiple semi-transparent layers and channels. These features, along with its user-oriented, visual interface, provide convenient tools to produce high-quality, full-color images and graphics for printed and on-line publication and presentation.

  10. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  11. National Occupational Standards for medical illustrators.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Jane

    2003-03-01

    We live in a changing and complex world, which is about to become even more so as we become more standards-focused and driven by attaining documented quality levels throughout our working lives. Many of the different initiatives affecting our profession at the moment are standards-orientated. Some are being led by the Institute of Medical Illustrators, while others have a wider, national focus and are linked with the Government's Making the Change proposals. This paper attempts to clarify a rather confusing situation and demonstrate how the various initiatives will eventually link together to underpin the structure of medical illustration and healthcare science in the future.

  12. Spiritual care illustrated: creating a shared language.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuizen, Louis

    2007-01-01

    In an attempt to schematically illustrate the pastoral care intervention to scientifically minded professionals and colleagues the author developed a model that can be used as an interdisciplinary teaching tool. Within the setting of hospital ministry, the tool also provides insights into the stages of "crisis experience" and illustrates the transformational process involved in The Healing Journey. These change-processes are explained against the background of a multi-level anthropology. This approach births a Healing Journey diagram, a spiritual pain assessment tool, and a seven-phase intervention model that may be helpful in Clinical Pastoral Education.

  13. Illustrative EDOF topics in Fourier optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Nicholas; Chen, Xi; Chi, Wanli

    2011-10-01

    In this talk we present a series of illustrative topics in Fourier Optics that are proving valuable in the design of EDOF camera systems. They are at the level of final examination problems that have been made solvable by a student or professoi having studied from one of Joseph W. Goodman's books---our tribute for his 75fr year. As time permits, four illustrative topics are l) Electromagnetic waves and Fourier optics;2) The perfect lens; 3) Connection between phase delay and radially varying focal length in an asphere and 4) tailored EDOF designs.

  14. The dynamical evolution of molecular clouds near the Galactic Centre - I. Orbital structure and evolutionary timeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Dale, James E.; Longmore, Steven N.

    2015-02-01

    We recently proposed that the star-forming potential of dense molecular clouds in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ, i.e. the central few 100 pc) of the Milky Way is intimately linked to their orbital dynamics, potentially giving rise to an absolute-time sequence of star-forming clouds. In this paper, we present an orbital model for the gas stream(s) observed in the CMZ. The model is obtained by integrating orbits in the empirically constrained gravitational potential and represents a good fit (χ _red^2=2.0) to the observed position-velocity distribution of dense (n > several 103 cm-3) gas, reproducing all of its key properties. The orbit is also consistent with observational constraints not included in the fitting process, such as the 3D space velocities of Sgr B2 and the Arches and Quintuplet clusters. It differs from previous, parametric models in several respects: (1) the orbit is open rather than closed due to the extended mass distribution in the CMZ, (2) its orbital velocity (100-200 km s-1) is twice as high as in previous models, and (3) Sgr A* coincides with the focus of the (eccentric) orbit rather than being offset. Our orbital solution supports the recently proposed scenario in which the dust ridge between G0.253+0.016 (`the Brick') and Sgr B2 represents an absolute-time sequence of star-forming clouds, of which the condensation was triggered by the tidal compression during their most recent pericentre passage. We position the clouds on a common timeline and find that their pericentre passages occurred 0.30-0.74 Myr ago. Given their short free-fall times (tff ˜ 0.34 Myr), the quiescent cloud G0.253+0.016 and the vigorously star-forming complex Sgr B2 are separated by a single free-fall time of evolution, implying that star formation proceeds rapidly once collapse has been initiated. We provide the complete orbital solution, as well as several quantitative predictions of our model (e.g. proper motions and the positions of star formation `hotspots'). The

  15. ProteinShader: illustrative rendering of macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Joseph R

    2009-01-01

    Background Cartoon-style illustrative renderings of proteins can help clarify structural features that are obscured by space filling or balls and sticks style models, and recent advances in programmable graphics cards offer many new opportunities for improving illustrative renderings. Results The ProteinShader program, a new tool for macromolecular visualization, uses information from Protein Data Bank files to produce illustrative renderings of proteins that approximate what an artist might create by hand using pen and ink. A combination of Hermite and spherical linear interpolation is used to draw smooth, gradually rotating three-dimensional tubes and ribbons with a repeating pattern of texture coordinates, which allows the application of texture mapping, real-time halftoning, and smooth edge lines. This free platform-independent open-source program is written primarily in Java, but also makes extensive use of the OpenGL Shading Language to modify the graphics pipeline. Conclusion By programming to the graphics processor unit, ProteinShader is able to produce high quality images and illustrative rendering effects in real-time. The main feature that distinguishes ProteinShader from other free molecular visualization tools is its use of texture mapping techniques that allow two-dimensional images to be mapped onto the curved three-dimensional surfaces of ribbons and tubes with minimum distortion of the images. PMID:19331660

  16. 34 CFR 100.5 - Illustrative application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 100.5 Illustrative application. The following examples will... provide that group with more adequate service. (Authority: Sec. 601, 602, Civil Rights Act of 1964; 78... Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL......

  17. 48 CFR 9904.405-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 9904.405-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-60 Illustrations. (a) An auditor recommends disallowance...

  18. 48 CFR 9904.407-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 9904.407-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-60 Illustrations. (a) Contractor A's written practice is to...

  19. 48 CFR 9904.401-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 9904.401-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-60 Illustrations. (a) The following examples are...

  20. 48 CFR 9904.401-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 9904.401-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-60 Illustrations. (a) The following examples are...

  1. 48 CFR 9904.405-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 9904.405-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-60 Illustrations. (a) An auditor recommends disallowance...

  2. 48 CFR 9904.407-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 9904.407-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-60 Illustrations. (a) Contractor A's written practice is to...

  3. 48 CFR 9904.406-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 9904.406-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-60 Illustrations. (a) A contractor allocates general...

  4. 48 CFR 9904.406-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 9904.406-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-60 Illustrations. (a) A contractor allocates general...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.407-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 9904.407-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-60 Illustrations. (a) Contractor A's written practice is to...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.405-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 9904.405-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-60 Illustrations. (a) An auditor recommends disallowance...

  7. 48 CFR 9904.406-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 9904.406-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-60 Illustrations. (a) A contractor allocates general...

  8. 48 CFR 9904.401-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 9904.401-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-60 Illustrations. (a) The following examples are...

  9. 48 CFR 9905.505-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9905.505-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.505-60 Illustrations. (a) An...

  10. Jarzynski's Equality Illustrated by Simple Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hijar, Humberto; Ortiz de Zarate, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    The Jarzynski theorem is perhaps the most recently discovered simple general formula in elementary statistical physics. In this paper, written with a pedagogical aim, we illustrate the physical concepts under the Jarzynski and related results by a detailed calculation with a representative example. The physics of the model is sufficiently…

  11. 48 CFR 9904.405-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illustrations. 9904.405-60 Section 9904.405-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF... claims that the total of these activity costs are allowable under the Federal Acquisition Regulation...

  12. Illustrating Language through Computer Generated Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withrow, Margaret

    1979-01-01

    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper discusses the use of animated sequences which illustrate linguistic principles. The work of the Computer Graphics Research Group at Ohio State University is highlighted. It has been discovered that computer-assisted instructional systems enhance learning through greater…

  13. Using Cichlids for Illustrating Mendel's Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gennaro, Eugene D.; Winters, Charlotte M.

    1978-01-01

    A classroom experiment is proposed in which students can mate a banded or spotted convict cichlid with a pink convict cichlid and observe the markings of their "children" and "grandchildren" as a way of illustrating Mendel's Laws of Dominance and Segregation. (MN)

  14. 48 CFR 9904.408-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.408-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.408-60 Illustrations. (a) Company A's vacation plan provides...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.415-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.415-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.415-60 Illustrations. (a) Contractor A has a deferred...

  16. Chapter 19: visual images and neurological illustration.

    PubMed

    Ione, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This chapter examines the importance of visual materials for studying the brain in health and in disease. Surveying historical representations, this research confirms that images of the brain's form and function have long served as teaching tools and as historical reference points for neurological events. The research is divided into five sections: the first section, Early History to Printing Technology considers prehistoric and ancient imagery, pre-Renaissance thinking about the brain, and the impact of printing and printmaking on neurological research. The second section, Renaissance Illustration, focuses on Leonardo da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, and other contributors who produced images of the brain as dissection restrictions eased. The third section, which turns to Early Modern and Modern Illustration, highlights the work of Thomas Willis, Charles Bell, and other scientists (throughout the 19th century) who demonstrated the value of a visual component within brain studies. The fourth section presents examples of Neurologically-Descriptive Illustrations, with the final section considering Historical Illustration and Contemporary Research. PMID:19892122

  17. Illustrating Basic Probability Calculations Using "Craps"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2006-01-01

    Instructors may use the gambling game of craps to illustrate the use of a number of fundamental probability identities. For the "pass-line" bet we focus on the chance of winning and the expected game length. To compute these, probabilities of unions of disjoint events, probabilities of intersections of independent events, conditional probabilities…

  18. Illustration. Module 3. Commercial Art. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benke, Tom; And Others

    This module is the third of five in the Commercial Art series. The curriculum guide is designed for competency-based teaching and testing. Within this module on illustration are four instructional units. A cross-reference table reveals how the instructional components of the module relate to Missouri competencies. Each unit includes some or all of…

  19. A Mechanical Device for Illustrating Airplane Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H

    1921-01-01

    An instrument is described which will illustrate completely in a qualitative sense the longitudinal stability characteristics of an airplane. The instrument is primarily of use for the lecture room, but it is hoped that ultimately it will be possible to obtain quantitative results from it.

  20. 48 CFR 9904.420-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.420-60 Illustrations. (a) Business Unit A's engineering department...(e)(2), and 9904.420-50(f)(1). (c) Business Unit C normally accounts for its B&P effort by...

  1. 48 CFR 9904.410-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... predominantly for research and development, rather than for the management and administration of the business... FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.410-60 Illustrations. (a) Business Unit A has been including...

  2. Illustration of genetic syndromes in the nursery.

    PubMed

    Macnab, A J; Langlois, S

    2006-01-15

    Reading to children and storytelling has documented developmental benefits. Traditional Nursery Rhymes (Mother Goose tales in North America) encapsulate 'snapshots' of the people described and chronicle their customs, superstitions, and amusements. Art has long been employed to document the impact of human imperfections and diseases. We investigated whether illustrations accompanying nursery rhymes, suggest that any characters illustrated may have had or been based on recognized morphological abnormalities, and if this literature documents a role for grandmothers as storytellers. Archival materials were reviewed at the Victoria and Albert museum and Mary Evans picture library, and via the web. As early as 1695, Perrault included a frontispiece of a mature woman as storyteller in his book of fairytales. Similar scenes by various artists (Boilly, Cruikshank, Guy, Highmore, Maclise, Richter, and Smith) are found consistently from 1744 to 1908. Many illustrators (Aldin, Caldecott, Cruikshank, Doré, Dulac, Gale, Greenaway, Rackham, Tarrant, and Wood) portray infants, children, and adults who are dwarfed, giant, or whimsically grotesque. Many images certainly suggest genetic syndromes, and in some characters consistency of specific features is evident between artists. Our research confirms the wealth of children's nursery rhyme illustrations suggesting pathology; that an authoritative compilation of the morphologies depicted is lacking; and that historically, grandmothers have a central role as storytellers. PMID:16353252

  3. The Role of Illustrations during Children's Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feathers, Karen M.; Arya, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    Young children notice and make use of illustrations in picture books as they read independently as evidenced by statements such as this one from Sarah's retelling of "The Wolf's Chicken Stew": "He couldn't catch him; so he did like this (child folds arms across chest) against the tree". Scholars in the field of children's literature have long…

  4. 48 CFR 9904.401-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.401-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-60 Illustrations. (a) The following examples are...

  5. Simple Laboratory Experiment for Illustrating Soil Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattey, J. A.; Johnson, G. V.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to illustrate the effect of food source and added nutrients (N) on microbial activity in the soil. Supplies include air-dried soil, dried plant material, sources of carbon and nitrogen, a trap such as KOH, colored water, and a 500-mL Erlenmeyer flask. Includes a diagram of an incubation chamber to demonstrate microbial…

  6. Electric Circuit Theory--Computer Illustrated Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riches, Brian

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the use of a computer-illustrated text (CIT) with integrated software to teach electric circuit theory to college students. Examples of software use are given, including simple animation, graphical displays, and problem-solving programs. Issues affecting electric circuit theory instruction are also addressed, including mathematical…

  7. 48 CFR 9904.417-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illustrations. 9904.417-60 Section 9904.417-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF...)(iii), use the same acquisition cost for contract costing purposes....

  8. The "Illustrated" Souls of Black Folk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Bois, W. E. B.

    2004-01-01

    Richly illustrated, this special edition of Du Bois's seminal work includes historical woodcuts and engravings, photos and documents. Most of the photos, engravings, and documents are from the 19th and early 20th century and depict American slavery and its legacy, African-American life, and the prominent figures and events associated with the…

  9. 48 CFR 9904.404-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Illustrations. 9904.404-60 Section 9904.404-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST...

  10. 48 CFR 9904.404-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Illustrations. 9904.404-60 Section 9904.404-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST...

  11. The Communicative Power of Advertising Illustrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Thomas A.; Long, Eugene, Jr.

    This experimental and exploratory study sought to measure the effectiveness of illustrations in selected magazine advertisements. Twenty ads from general interest consumer magazines were systematically selected and photographed on 35mm slides. The subjects for the study were juniors and seniors in journalism and psychology classes at the…

  12. 45 CFR 1170.13 - Illustrative examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the same aid, benefit, or service is also offered to the public at large in an accessible space. (4) A... construct, expand, alter, lease or rent a facility, the benefits of the program or activity provided in or... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 1170.13 Illustrative examples. (a)...

  13. 45 CFR 1170.13 - Illustrative examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the same aid, benefit, or service is also offered to the public at large in an accessible space. (4) A... construct, expand, alter, lease or rent a facility, the benefits of the program or activity provided in or... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 1170.13 Illustrative examples. (a)...

  14. Straussian Grounded-Theory Method: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thai, Mai Thi Thanh; Chong, Li Choy; Agrawal, Narendra M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the benefits and application of Straussian Grounded Theory method in conducting research in complex settings where parameters are poorly defined. It provides a detailed illustration on how this method can be used to build an internationalization theory. To be specific, this paper exposes readers to the behind-the-scene work…

  15. 48 CFR 9904.415-60 - Illustrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Illustrations. 9904.415-60 Section 9904.415-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF... compensation plan requiring 2 years of additional service before the awards can be exercised. The facts...

  16. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, Michael

    Expertly written and lavishly illustrated, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy offers a unique account of astronomical theory and practice from antiquity to the present day. How did Moslems of the Middle Ages use astronomy to calculate the direction of Mecca from far-flung corners of the Islamic world? Who was the only ancient Greek to suspect that the earth might revolve around the sun? How did Christopher Columbus abuse his knowledge of a lunar eclipse predicted by an astronomical almanac? Packed with anecdotes and intriguing detail, this book describes how we observed the sky and interpreted what we saw at different periods of history; how this influenced our beliefs and mythology; and how great astronomers contributed to what we now know. The result is a lively and highly visual history of astronomy - a compelling read for specialists and non-specialists alike.

  17. Illustrations of Unexpected Infant Sleep Deaths.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Deborah; Oberle, Morgan; Elomba, Charles D; Stiffler, Deborah; Luna, Gaye

    2016-01-01

    Case illustrations from central Indiana provide the narrative for infant suffocations because of unsafe sleep environments. Accidental strangulation or suffocation in bed is caused by co-bedding, blankets and pillows in cribs, or wedging and entrapment. Knowledge of the evidence-based risks associated with case data may assist further in the prevention of unexpected infant sleep deaths and may better inform best practice for death scene investigation including forensic nurses. PMID:27496648

  18. Illustration of Ares I During Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The NASA developed Ares rockets, named for the Greek god associated with Mars, will return humans to the moon and later take them to Mars and other destinations. In this early illustration, the Ares I is illustrated during lift off. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. With a primary mission of carrying four to six member crews to Earth orbit, Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station (ISS), or to 'park' payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. Ares I uses a single five-segment solid rocket booster, a derivative of the space shuttle solid rocket booster, for the first stage. A liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen J-2X engine, derived from the J-2 engine used on the second stage of the Apollo vehicle, will power the Ares I second stage. Ares I can lift more than 55,000 pounds to low Earth orbit. The Ares I is subject to configuration changes before it is actually launched. This illustration reflects the latest configuration as of September 2006.

  19. The persistent cosmic web and its filamentary structure - II. Illustrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousbie, T.; Pichon, C.; Kawahara, H.

    2011-06-01

    The recently introduced discrete persistent structure extractor (DisPerSE, Sousbie, Paper I) is implemented on realistic 3D cosmological simulations and observed redshift catalogues; it is found that DisPerSE traces very well the observed filaments, walls and voids seen both in simulations and in observations. In either setting, filaments are shown to connect on to haloes, outskirt walls, which circumvent voids, as is topologically required by the Morse theory. Indeed this algorithm returns the optimal critical set while operating directly on the particles. DisPerSE, as illustrated here, assumes nothing about the geometry of the survey or its homogeneity, and yields a natural (topologically motivated) self-consistent criterion for selecting the significance level of the identified structures. It is shown that this extraction is possible even for very sparsely sampled point processes, as a function of the persistence ratio (a measure of the significance of topological connections between critical points). Hence, astrophysicists should be in a position to trace precisely the locus of filaments, walls and voids from such samples and assess the confidence of the post-processed sets as a function of this threshold, which can be expressed relative to the expected amplitude of shot noise. In a cosmic framework, this criterion is shown to level with the friends-of-friends structure finder for the identification of peaks, while it also identifies the connected filaments and walls, and quantitatively recovers the full set of topological invariants (number of holes, etc.) directly from the particles, and at no extra cost as a function of the persistence threshold. This criterion is found to be sufficient even if one particle out of two is noise, when the persistence ratio is set to 3σ or more. The algorithm is also implemented on the SDSS catalogue and used to locate interesting configurations of the filamentary structure. In this context, we carried the identification of an

  20. Crucial role of detailed function, task, timeline, link and human vulnerability analyses in HRA. [Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.G.; Haney, L.N.; Ostrom, L.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses one major cause for large uncertainties in human reliability analysis (HRA) results, that is, an absence of detailed function, task, timeline, link and human vulnerability analyses. All too often this crucial step in the HRA process is done in a cursory fashion using word of mouth or written procedures which themselves may incompletely or inaccurately represent the human action sequences and human error vulnerabilities being analyzed. The paper examines the potential contributions these detailed analyses can make in achieving quantitative and qualitative HRA results which are: (1) creditable, that is, minimize uncertainty, (2) auditable, that is, systematically linking quantitative results and qualitative information from which the results are derived, (3) capable of supporting root cause analyses on human reliability factors determined to be major contributors to risk, and (4) capable of repeated measures and being combined with similar results from other analyses to examine HRA issues transcending individual systems and facilities. Based on experience analyzing test and commercial nuclear reactors, and medical applications of nuclear technology, an iterative process is suggested for doing detailed function, task, timeline, link and human vulnerability analyses using documentation reviews, open-ended and structured interviews, direct observations, and group techniques. Finally, the paper concludes that detailed analyses done in this manner by knowledgeable human factors practitioners, can contribute significantly to the credibility, auditability, causal factor analysis, and combining goals of the HRA.

  1. Illustrating cerebral function: the iconography of arrows.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D

    2000-01-01

    For over a century the arrow has appeared in illustrations of cerebral function, yet the implications of using such symbols have not been previously considered. This review seeks to outline the nature, evolution, applications and limitations of this deceptively simple graphic device when it is used to picture functions of the brain. The arrow is found to have been used in several different ways: as a means of endowing anatomical structures with functional properties; as a method of displaying neural function either in free-standing form or in a structural or spatial framework; as a device for correlating functional data with underlying brain topography; and as a technique for linking functions of the brain with the world outside and with various philosophical concepts. For many of these uses the essential feature of the arrow is its directional characteristic. In contrast to the line, it is direction that enables the arrow to display information about time, which in turn can be exploited to depict functional rather than structural data. However, the use of the arrow is fraught with difficulties. It is often unclear whether an arrow has been used to illustrate fact, hypothesis, impression or possibility, or merely to provide a decorative flourish. Furthermore, the powerful symbolic nature of the arrow can so easily confer a spurious validity on the conjectural. Increasingly now there are insuperable difficulties when attempting to illustrate complex mechanisms of brain function. In the iconography of cerebral function, therefore, arrows with all their ambiguities may in certain circumstances become superseded by more non-representational symbols such as the abstract devices of the computational neuroscientist. PMID:11205341

  2. Autoimmune pancreatitis: an illustrated guide to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Proctor, R D; Rofe, C J; Bryant, T J C; Hacking, C N; Stedman, B

    2013-04-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) remains one of the rarer forms of pancreatitis but has become increasingly well recognized and widely diagnosed as it is an important differential, particularly due to the dramatic response to appropriate therapy. It is now best considered as part of a multisystem disease and the notion of "IgG4-related systemic sclerosing disease" has become widely recognized as the number of extra-pancreatic associations of AIP grows. More recently AIP has been classified into two subtypes: lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP) and idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis (IDCP) with distinct geographical, age and sex distributions for the two subtypes, in addition to different pathological characteristics. The role of imaging is crucial in AIP and should be considered in conjunction with clinical, serological, and histopathological findings to make the diagnosis. Radiologists are uniquely placed to raise the possibility of AIP and aid the exclusion of significant differentials to allow the initiation of appropriate management and avoidance of unnecessary intervention. Radiological investigation may reveal a number of characteristic imaging findings in AIP but appearances can vary considerably and the focal form of AIP may appear as a pancreatic mass, imitating pancreatic carcinoma. This review will illustrate typical and atypical appearances of AIP on all imaging modes. Emphasis will be placed on the imaging features that are likely to prove useful in discriminating AIP from other causes prior to histopathological confirmation. In addition, examples of relevant differential diagnoses are discussed and illustrated. PMID:23177083

  3. The fullness of empathy: reflections and illustrations.

    PubMed

    Peloquin, S M

    1995-01-01

    Seven core values are said to undergird the profession of occupational therapy, with empathy serving as a hallmark of one of those values-personal dignity. This inquiry explores the meaning of empathy within a practice that holds occupation at its center. The literature on empathy in both philosophy and the behavioral sciences yields cogent thoughts about the fullness of empathy and its characteristics actions. The Healing Heart, the biography of a pioneer therapist, Ora Ruggles, shows the manner in which occupational therapists can be empathic in their practice. These reflections and illustrations serve to sharpen the vision of occupational therapists as persons who reach for both the hands and the hearts of others.

  4. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  5. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of the timeline of chronic exposure of Barrow's goldeneyes to residual Exxon Valdez oil.

    PubMed

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, Brenda E; Trust, Kimberly A; Iverson, Samuel A; Reed, John A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Woodin, Bruce R; Stegeman, John J; McAdie, Malcolm; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Wilson, Barry W

    2011-03-01

    We examined hepatic EROD activity, as an indicator of CYP1A induction, in Barrow's goldeneyes captured in areas oiled during the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. We found that average EROD activity differed between areas during 2005, although the magnitude of the difference was reduced relative to a previous study from 1996/1997, and we found that areas did not differ by 2009. Similarly, we found that the proportion of individuals captured from oiled areas with elevated EROD activity (≥ 2 times unoiled average) declined from 41% in winter 1996/1997 to 10% in 2005 and 15% in 2009. This work adds to a body of literature describing the timelines over which vertebrates were exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil and indicates that, for Barrow's goldeneyes in Prince William Sound, exposure persisted for many years with evidence of substantially reduced exposure by 2 decades after the spill.

  6. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of the timeline of chronic exposure of Barrow's goldeneyes to residual Exxon Valdez oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, B.E.; Trust, K.A.; Iverson, S.A.; Reed, J.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.; McAdie, M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Wilson, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined hepatic EROD activity, as an indicator of CYP1A induction, in Barrow's goldeneyes captured in areas oiled during the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. We found that average EROD activity differed between areas during 2005, although the magnitude of the difference was reduced relative to a previous study from 1996/1997, and we found that areas did not differ by 2009. Similarly, we found that the proportion of individuals captured from oiled areas with elevated EROD activity (-2 times unoiled average) declined from 41% in winter 1996/1997 to 10% in 2005 and 15% in 2009. This work adds to a body of literature describing the timelines over which vertebrates were exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil and indicates that, for Barrow's goldeneyes in Prince William Sound, exposure persisted for many years with evidence of substantially reduced exposure by 2 decades after the spill. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The Caries Phenomenon: A Timeline from Witchcraft and Superstition to Opinions of the 1500s to Today's Science.

    PubMed

    Ruby, John D; Cox, Charles F; Akimoto, Naotake; Meada, Nobuko; Momoi, Yasuko

    2010-01-01

    This historical treatise follows the documented timeline of tooth decay into today's understanding, treatment, and teaching of caries biology. Caries has been attributed to many different causes for several millennia, however, only since the late 1900s has research revealed its complex multifactorial nature. European writers of the 1600s to 1700s held views that general health, mechanical injuries, trauma, and sudden temperature changes all caused caries-holding a common belief that decay was due to chemical agents, faulty saliva, and food particles. Until the early 1800s most writers believed that caries was due to inflammation from surrounding diseased alveolar bone. Today's science has demonstrated that caries is caused by indigenous oral microorganisms becoming a dynamic biofilm, that in the presence of fermentable sugars produce organic acids capable of dissolving inorganic enamel and dentin followed by the proteolytic destruction of collagen leaving soft infected dentin. As bacteria enter the pulp, infection follows.

  8. Functional maturation of hPSC-derived forebrain interneurons requires an extended timeline and mimics human neural development

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Cory R.; Chen, Jiadong; Tang, Yunshuo; Southwell, Derek G.; Chalmers, Nadine; Vogt, Daniel; Arnold, Christine M.; Chen, Ying-Jiun J.; Stanley, Edouard G.; Elefanty, Andrew G.; Sasai, Yoshiki; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Rubenstein, John L.R.; Kriegstein, Arnold R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Directed differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has seen significant progress in recent years. Most differentiated populations, however, exhibit immature properties of an early embryonic stage, raising concerns about their ability to model and treat disease. Here, we report the directed differentiation of hPSCs into medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-like progenitors and their maturation into forebrain type interneurons. We find that early stage progenitors progress via a radial glial-like stem cell enriched in the human fetal brain. Both in vitro and post-transplantation into the rodent cortex, the MGE-like cells develop into GABAergic interneuron subtypes with mature physiological properties along a prolonged intrinsic timeline of up to seven months, mimicking endogenous human neural development. MGE-derived cortical interneuron deficiencies are implicated in a broad range of neurodevelopmental and degenerative disorders, highlighting the importance of these results for modeling human neural development and disease. PMID:23642366

  9. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of the timeline of chronic exposure of Barrow's goldeneyes to residual Exxon Valdez oil.

    PubMed

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, Brenda E; Trust, Kimberly A; Iverson, Samuel A; Reed, John A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Woodin, Bruce R; Stegeman, John J; McAdie, Malcolm; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Wilson, Barry W

    2011-03-01

    We examined hepatic EROD activity, as an indicator of CYP1A induction, in Barrow's goldeneyes captured in areas oiled during the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. We found that average EROD activity differed between areas during 2005, although the magnitude of the difference was reduced relative to a previous study from 1996/1997, and we found that areas did not differ by 2009. Similarly, we found that the proportion of individuals captured from oiled areas with elevated EROD activity (≥ 2 times unoiled average) declined from 41% in winter 1996/1997 to 10% in 2005 and 15% in 2009. This work adds to a body of literature describing the timelines over which vertebrates were exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil and indicates that, for Barrow's goldeneyes in Prince William Sound, exposure persisted for many years with evidence of substantially reduced exposure by 2 decades after the spill. PMID:21131011

  10. A timeline of pharyngeal endoskeletal condensation and differentiation in the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula, and the paddlefish, Polyodon spathula

    PubMed Central

    Baker, C. V. H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The lesser-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) and the North American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) are two emerging model systems for the study of vertebrate craniofacial development. Notably, both of these taxa have retained plesiomorphic aspects of pharyngeal endoskeletal organization, relative to more commonly used models of vertebrate craniofacial development (e.g. zebrafish, chick and mouse), and are therefore well suited to inform the pharyngeal endoskeletal patterning mechanisms that functioned in the last common ancestor of jawed vertebrates. Here, we present a histological overview of the condensation and chondrogenesis of the most prominent endoskeletal elements of the jaw, hyoid and gill arches – the palatoquadrate/Meckel’s cartilage, the hyomandibula/ceratohyal, and the epi-/ceratobranchial cartilages, respectively – in embryonic series of S. canicula and P. spathula. Our observations provide a provisional timeline and anatomical framework for further molecular developmental and functional investigations of pharyngeal endoskeletal differentiation and patterning in these phylogenetically informative taxa. PMID:26566297

  11. Validation of Community Models: Identifying Events in Space Weather Model Timelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeice, Peter

    2009-01-01

    I develop and document a set of procedures which test the quality of predictions of solar wind speed and polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) made by coupled models of the ambient solar corona and heliosphere. The Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model is used to illustrate the application of these validation procedures. I present an algorithm which detects transitions of the solar wind from slow to high speed. I also present an algorithm which processes the measured polarity of the outward directed component of the IMF. This removes high-frequency variations to expose the longer-scale changes that reflect IMF sector changes. I apply these algorithms to WSA model predictions made using a small set of photospheric synoptic magnetograms obtained by the Global Oscillation Network Group as input to the model. The results of this preliminary validation of the WSA model (version 1.6) are summarized.

  12. Wall surveyor project report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-02-22

    A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

  13. Facial Attractiveness Assessment using Illustrated Questionnairers

    PubMed Central

    MESAROS, ANCA; CORNEA, DANIELA; CIOARA, LIVIU; DUDEA, DIANA; MESAROS, MICHAELA; BADEA, MINDRA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. An attractive facial appearance is considered nowadays to be a decisive factor in establishing successful interactions between humans. In relation to this topic, scientific literature states that some of the facial features have more impact then others, and important authors revealed that certain proportions between different anthropometrical landmarks are mandatory for an attractive facial appearance. Aim. Our study aims to assess if certain facial features count differently in people’s opinion while assessing facial attractiveness in correlation with factors such as age, gender, specific training and culture. Material and methods. A 5-item multiple choice illustrated questionnaire was presented to 236 dental students. The Photoshop CS3 software was used in order to obtain the sets of images for the illustrated questions. The original image was handpicked from the internet by a panel of young dentists from a series of 15 pictures of people considered to have attractive faces. For each of the questions, the images presented were simulating deviations from the ideally symmetric and proportionate face. The sets of images consisted in multiple variations of deviations mixed with the original photo. Junior and sophomore year students from our dental medical school, having different nationalities were required to participate in our questionnaire. Simple descriptive statistics were used to interpret the data. Results. Assessing the results obtained from the questionnaire it was observed that a majority of students considered as unattractive the overdevelopment of the lower third, while the initial image with perfect symmetry and proportion was considered as the most attractive by only 38.9% of the subjects. Likewise, regarding the symmetry 36.86% considered unattractive the canting of the inter-commissural line. The interviewed subjects considered that for a face to be attractive it needs to have harmonious proportions between the different facial

  14. If walls could talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The plant cell wall is very complex, both in structure and function. The wall components and the mechanical properties of the wall have been implicated in conveying information that is important for morphogenesis. Proteoglycans, fragments of polysaccharides and the structural integrity of the wall may relay signals that influence cellular differentiation and growth control. Furthering our knowledge of cell wall structure and function is likely to have a profound impact on our understanding of how plant cells communicate with the extracellular environment.

  15. Beyond the college walls.

    PubMed

    Healy, B P

    1992-03-01

    The author outlines historical and current reasons that the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and academic medicine are inherently political and are now facing expanding political exposure. She emphasizes especially the power of modern discoveries in biology; this power stems from the many practical benefits that these discoveries can bring and their economic implications, and the growing public awareness of these benefits and implications. She then discusses the political realities of the biomedical enterprise, illustrating them by describing the nature of issues surrounding (1) the NIH budget and (2) technology transfer. Discussion of the latter topic includes a detailed description of controversies about patents (which revolve around the issue of who owns and controls the distribution and use of scientific information) and several important policy issues that are raised by these controversies (e.g., should there be uniform international policies regarding intellectual property rights associated with discoveries of novel biologically expressed genes of uncertain in-vivo function, and if so, how is that achieved?). The author concludes by stating that these examples of the politics of knowledge and of the NIH are among many vital biomedical issues of American life (which she lists) that require the academic medicine community to look beyond its own walls and participate in the complex world of politics and public policy.

  16. Solid Rocket Motor/Booster-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This image illustrates the solid rocket motor (SRM)/solid rocket booster (SRB) configuration. The Shuttle's two SRB's are the largest solids ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the SRM's were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. At burnout, the boosters separate from the external tank and drop by parachute to the ocean for recovery and subsequent refurbishment. The boosters are designed to survive water impact at almost 60 miles per hour, maintain flotation with minimal damage, and preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. Under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the SRB's are assembled and refurbished by the United Space Boosters. The SRM's are provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  17. When Is an Illustration Worth Ten Thousand Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Gallini, Joan K.

    1990-01-01

    Conditions necessary for effective illustrations in scientific texts were studied with 300 college students in 3 experiments involving illustrations of mechanical devices. Cognitive conditions for effective illustrations include (1) appropriate text; (2) appropriate testing; (3) explanatory illustrations; and (4) learners with relatively low…

  18. American Illustration, 1890-1925: Romance, Adventure, & Suspense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Judy L.

    This book explores the popularity of American illustration from the late 1800s through the 1920s. Illustrated books, periodicals, the public consumption of illustrations, and various themes of illustration are discussed. Themes include: (1) "The Smart Set"; (2) "The Masses"; (3) "The Domestic Scene"; (4) "Town and Country"; (5) "Let Me Call You…

  19. Human anatomical science and illustration: the origin of two inseparable disciplines.

    PubMed

    Calkins, C M; Franciosi, J P; Kolesari, G L

    1999-01-01

    From the early wall paintings of ancient Egyptians to the recent advent of computer graphics, medical illustrators have employed a variety of techniques and materials to enrich the art of medicine. Over the centuries, medical illustrators have captured the variety of physical findings observed in the clinical, surgical, or postmortem settings and transferred them to a permanent medium. Specifically, the study of human anatomy has enjoyed a historically popular courtship with medical artistry since 1543, when Andreas Vesalius published his now legendary work entitled De Humani Corporis Fabrica. However, the development and subsequent advancement of human anatomical illustration are indebted to individuals whose lifetimes span several centuries prior to Vesalius. The scientific achievements in anatomy manifest not only an advancement of knowledge, but also are a reflection of cultural, political, and religious beliefs. With respect to the development of human anatomic illustration, three elements were essential: the recognition of anatomy as a distinct branch of medical science, the acceptance of human dissection as a scientific method to advance understanding of anatomical structure, and the advancement in printing such that illustrations could be included alongside descriptive text. This brief study will examine these milestones while highlighting the origin of anatomical illustration in its historical context and its relationship to the development of human anatomy as a recognized medical science.

  20. Human anatomical science and illustration: the origin of two inseparable disciplines.

    PubMed

    Calkins, C M; Franciosi, J P; Kolesari, G L

    1999-01-01

    From the early wall paintings of ancient Egyptians to the recent advent of computer graphics, medical illustrators have employed a variety of techniques and materials to enrich the art of medicine. Over the centuries, medical illustrators have captured the variety of physical findings observed in the clinical, surgical, or postmortem settings and transferred them to a permanent medium. Specifically, the study of human anatomy has enjoyed a historically popular courtship with medical artistry since 1543, when Andreas Vesalius published his now legendary work entitled De Humani Corporis Fabrica. However, the development and subsequent advancement of human anatomical illustration are indebted to individuals whose lifetimes span several centuries prior to Vesalius. The scientific achievements in anatomy manifest not only an advancement of knowledge, but also are a reflection of cultural, political, and religious beliefs. With respect to the development of human anatomic illustration, three elements were essential: the recognition of anatomy as a distinct branch of medical science, the acceptance of human dissection as a scientific method to advance understanding of anatomical structure, and the advancement in printing such that illustrations could be included alongside descriptive text. This brief study will examine these milestones while highlighting the origin of anatomical illustration in its historical context and its relationship to the development of human anatomy as a recognized medical science. PMID:10089038

  1. Adaptive wall technology for minimization of wall interferences in transonic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.

    1988-01-01

    Modern experimental techniques to improve free air simulations in transonic wind tunnels by use of adaptive wall technology are reviewed. Considered are the significant advantages of adaptive wall testing techniques with respect to wall interferences, Reynolds number, tunnel drive power, and flow quality. The application of these testing techniques relies on making the test section boundaries adjustable and using a rapid wall adjustment procedure. A historical overview shows how the disjointed development of these testing techniques, since 1938, is closely linked to available computer support. An overview of Adaptive Wall Test Section (AWTS) designs shows a preference for use of relatively simple designs with solid adaptive walls in 2- and 3-D testing. Operational aspects of AWTS's are discussed with regard to production type operation where adaptive wall adjustments need to be quick. Both 2- and 3-D data are presented to illustrate the quality of AWTS data over the transonic speed range. Adaptive wall technology is available for general use in 2-D testing, even in cryogenic wind tunnels. In 3-D testing, more refinement of the adaptive wall testing techniques is required before more widespread use can be planned.

  2. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    SciTech Connect

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Meier, W.R.

    1982-08-17

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. Produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithiumceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  3. An illustrated landslide handbook for developing nations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn M.; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2008-01-01

    As landslides continue to be a hazard that account for large numbers of human and animal casualties, property loss, and infrastructure damage, as well as impacts on the natural environment, it is incumbent on developed nations that resources be allocated to educate affected populations in less developed nations, and provide them with tools to effectively manage this hazard. Given that the engineering, planning and zoning, and mitigation techniques for landslide hazard reduction are more accessible to developed nations, it is crucial that such landslide hazard management tools be communicated to less developed nations in a language that is not overly technical, and provides information on basic scientific explanations on where, why and how landslides occur. The experiences of the United States, Canada, and many other nations demonstrate that, landslide science education, and techniques for reducing damaging landslide impacts may be presented in a manner that can be understood by the layperson. There are various methods through which this may be accomplished–community-level education, technology transfer, and active one-on-one outreach to national and local governments, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who disseminate information throughout the general population. The population at large can also benefit from the dissemination of landslide information directly to individual community members. The United States Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada have just published and will distribute a universal landslide handbook that can be easily made available to emergency managers, local governments, and individuals. The handbook, “The Landslide Handbook: A Guide to Understanding Landslides” is initially published as U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1325, in English, available in print, and accessible on the internet. It is liberally illustrated with schematics and photographs, and provides the means for a basic understanding of landslides, with

  4. The Lamportian cell wall

    SciTech Connect

    Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. )

    1991-05-01

    The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

  5. Halogenation of microcapsule walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

  6. 26 CFR 1.941-3 - Illustration of principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES China Trade Act Corporations § 1.941-3 Illustration of principles. The application of section 941 may be illustrated by the following example: Example. (1) The A Company, a China...

  7. 26 CFR 1.941-3 - Illustration of principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) China Trade Act Corporations § 1.941-3 Illustration of principles. The application of section 941 may be illustrated by the following example: Example. (1) The A Company, a...

  8. 26 CFR 1.941-3 - Illustration of principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) China Trade Act Corporations § 1.941-3 Illustration of principles. The application of section 941 may be illustrated by the following example: Example. (1) The A Company, a...

  9. 26 CFR 1.941-3 - Illustration of principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) China Trade Act Corporations § 1.941-3 Illustration of principles. The application of section 941 may be illustrated by the following example: Example. (1) The A Company, a...

  10. 26 CFR 1.941-3 - Illustration of principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) China Trade Act Corporations § 1.941-3 Illustration of principles. The application of section 941 may be illustrated by the following example: Example. (1) The A Company, a...

  11. Genome-Wide Phylogenetic Comparative Analysis of Plant Transcriptional Regulation: A Timeline of Loss, Gain, Expansion, and Correlation with Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Daniel; Weiche, Benjamin; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Richardt, Sandra; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M.; Corrêa, Luiz G. G.; Reski, Ralf; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Rensing, Stefan A.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary retention of duplicated genes encoding transcription-associated proteins (TAPs, comprising transcription factors and other transcriptional regulators) has been hypothesized to be positively correlated with increasing morphological complexity and paleopolyploidizations, especially within the plant kingdom. Here, we present the most comprehensive set of classification rules for TAPs and its application for genome-wide analyses of plants and algae. Using a dated species tree and phylogenetic comparative (PC) analyses, we define the timeline of TAP loss, gain, and expansion among Viridiplantae and find that two major bursts of gain/expansion occurred, coinciding with the water-to-land transition and the radiation of flowering plants. For the first time, we provide PC proof for the long-standing hypothesis that TAPs are major driving forces behind the evolution of morphological complexity, the latter in Plantae being shaped significantly by polyploidization and subsequent biased paleolog retention. Principal component analysis incorporating the number of TAPs per genome provides an alternate and significant proxy for complexity, ideally suited for PC genomics. Our work lays the ground for further interrogation of the shaping of gene regulatory networks underlying the evolution of organism complexity. PMID:20644220

  12. Genome-wide phylogenetic comparative analysis of plant transcriptional regulation: a timeline of loss, gain, expansion, and correlation with complexity.

    PubMed

    Lang, Daniel; Weiche, Benjamin; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Richardt, Sandra; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M; Corrêa, Luiz G G; Reski, Ralf; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Rensing, Stefan A

    2010-07-19

    Evolutionary retention of duplicated genes encoding transcription-associated proteins (TAPs, comprising transcription factors and other transcriptional regulators) has been hypothesized to be positively correlated with increasing morphological complexity and paleopolyploidizations, especially within the plant kingdom. Here, we present the most comprehensive set of classification rules for TAPs and its application for genome-wide analyses of plants and algae. Using a dated species tree and phylogenetic comparative (PC) analyses, we define the timeline of TAP loss, gain, and expansion among Viridiplantae and find that two major bursts of gain/expansion occurred, coinciding with the water-to-land transition and the radiation of flowering plants. For the first time, we provide PC proof for the long-standing hypothesis that TAPs are major driving forces behind the evolution of morphological complexity, the latter in Plantae being shaped significantly by polyploidization and subsequent biased paleolog retention. Principal component analysis incorporating the number of TAPs per genome provides an alternate and significant proxy for complexity, ideally suited for PC genomics. Our work lays the ground for further interrogation of the shaping of gene regulatory networks underlying the evolution of organism complexity.

  13. A self-administered Timeline Followback to measure variations in underage drinkers' alcohol intake and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Kashdan, Todd B; Koutsky, James R; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T; Vetter, Charlene J

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinkers typically have not developed regular patterns of drinking and so are likely to exhibit situational variation in alcohol intake, including binge drinking. Information about such variation is not well captured by quantity/frequency (QF) measures, which require that drinkers blend information over time to derive a representative estimate of "typical" drinking. The Timeline Followback (TLFB) method is designed to retrospectively capture situational variations in drinking during a specific period of time. We compared our newly-developed Self-administered TLFB (STLFB) measure to a QF measure for reporting alcohol intake. Our sample of 429 (men=204; women=225) underage (i.e., age 18-20 years) drinkers completed the two drinking measures and reported on alcohol problems. The STLFB and QF measures converged in assessing typical daily intake, but the STLFB provided more information about situational variations in alcohol use and better identification of regular versus intermittent binge drinkers. Regular binge drinkers reported more alcohol problems. The STLFB is an easy-to-administer measure of variations in alcohol intake, which can be useful for understanding drinking behavior.

  14. Which Features Make Illustrations in Multimedia Learning Interesting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magner, Ulrike Irmgard Elisabeth; Glogger, Inga; Renkl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    How can illustrations motivate learners in multimedia learning? Which features make illustrations interesting? Beside the theoretical relevance of addressing these questions, these issues are practically relevant when instructional designers are to decide which features of illustrations can trigger situational interest irrespective of individual…

  15. Winslow Homer the Illustrator: His Wood Engravings, 1857-1888.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the life and work of the artist, Winslow Homer, a 19th century painter and illustrator. Focuses on the exhibition, "Winslow Homer the Illustrator: His Wood Engravings, 1857-1888." Includes the itinerary for the exhibition and examples of his illustrations. (CMK)

  16. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 363 - Illustrative Management Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illustrative Management Reports B Appendix B to...—Illustrative Management Reports Table of Contents 1. General 2. Reporting Scenarios for Institutions that are Holding Company Subsidiaries 3. Illustrative Statements of Management's Responsibilities 4....

  17. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 363 - Illustrative Management Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative Management Reports B Appendix B to... report (FR Y-9C report) to the Federal Reserve Board. 3. Illustrative Statements of Management's...—Illustrative Management Reports Table of Contents 1. General 2. Reporting Scenarios for Institutions that...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 363 - Illustrative Management Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illustrative Management Reports B Appendix B to... report (FR Y-9C report) to the Federal Reserve Board. 3. Illustrative Statements of Management's...—Illustrative Management Reports Table of Contents 1. General 2. Reporting Scenarios for Institutions that...

  19. 31 CFR 411.1 - Color illustrations authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Color illustrations authorized. 411.1... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COLOR ILLUSTRATIONS OF UNITED STATES CURRENCY § 411.1 Color... necessary plates or items for such printing or publishing, of color illustrations of U.S. currency...

  20. 31 CFR 411.1 - Color illustrations authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Color illustrations authorized. 411.1... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COLOR ILLUSTRATIONS OF UNITED STATES CURRENCY § 411.1 Color... necessary plates or items for such printing or publishing, of color illustrations of U.S. currency...

  1. 31 CFR 411.1 - Color illustrations authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Color illustrations authorized. 411.1... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COLOR ILLUSTRATIONS OF UNITED STATES CURRENCY § 411.1 Color... necessary plates or items for such printing or publishing, of color illustrations of U.S. currency...

  2. 31 CFR 411.1 - Color illustrations authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Color illustrations authorized. 411.1... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COLOR ILLUSTRATIONS OF UNITED STATES CURRENCY § 411.1 Color... necessary plates or items for such printing or publishing, of color illustrations of U.S. currency...

  3. 31 CFR 411.1 - Color illustrations authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Color illustrations authorized. 411.1... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COLOR ILLUSTRATIONS OF UNITED STATES CURRENCY § 411.1 Color... necessary plates or items for such printing or publishing, of color illustrations of U.S. currency...

  4. The Effect of Illustrations on Children's Nonverbal Responses to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlan, Dan

    A sample of 118 children in kindergarten through grade three participated in this study of the effects of illustrations on pupils' nonverbal responses to the story "The Giving Tree." Children in the experimental group were shown none of the illustrations in the book; the control group were shown all of the original illustrations. After hearing the…

  5. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James A.; Meier, Wayne R.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  6. Wall of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-02-15

    We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

  7. [Illustrations of visceral referred pain. "Head-less" Head's zones].

    PubMed

    Henke, C; Beissner, F

    2011-04-01

    Reviewing anatomical, physiological and neurological standard literature for illustrations of referred visceral pain only one type of illustration can frequently be found, which is referred to as Treves and Keith. In fact, the original illustration as a model for most current pictures stems from the German edition of Sir Frederick Treves' famous book "Surgical Applied Anatomy" from 1914, which was reillustrated for didactical reasons for the German readership. While neither Treves and Keith nor the German illustrator Otto Kleinschmidt ever published any work on referred pain this illustration must have been adapted or copied from older sources by the illustrator. Therefore the comprehensive systematic original works before 1914 were reviewed, namely those of Sir Henry Head and Sir James Mackenzie. Due to the name of the phenomenon in the German literature of Head's zones, the illustrations were expected to be based mainly on Head's work. However, a comparison of all available illustrations led to the conclusion that Kleinschmidt chiefly used information from Mackenzie as a model for his illustration. Due to the inexact reproduction of Mackenzie's work by the illustrator some important features were lost that had been reported by the original authors. These include the phenomenon of Head's maximum points, which nowadays has fallen into oblivion.Therefore current charts, based on the illustration by Kleinschmidt from 1914, lack experimental evidence and appear to be a simplification of the observational results of both Head's and Mackenzie's original systematic works.

  8. A Generalized Wall Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Liu, Nan-Suey; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lumley, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    The asymptotic solutions, described by Tennekes and Lumley (1972), for surface flows in a channel, pipe or boundary layer at large Reynolds numbers are revisited. These solutions can be extended to more complex flows such as the flows with various pressure gradients, zero wall stress and rough surfaces, etc. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD), these solutions can be used as the boundary conditions to bridge the near-wall region of turbulent flows so that there is no need to have the fine grids near the wall unless the near-wall flow structures are required to resolve. These solutions are referred to as the wall functions. Furthermore, a generalized and unified law of the wall which is valid for whole surface layer (including viscous sublayer, buffer layer and inertial sublayer) is analytically constructed. The generalized law of the wall shows that the effect of both adverse and favorable pressure gradients on the surface flow is very significant. Such as unified wall function will be useful not only in deriving analytic expressions for surface flow properties but also bringing a great convenience for CFD methods to place accurate boundary conditions at any location away from the wall. The extended wall functions introduced in this paper can be used for complex flows with acceleration, deceleration, separation, recirculation and rough surfaces.

  9. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  10. Cell wall integrity

    PubMed Central

    Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The plant cell wall, a dynamic network of polysaccharides and glycoproteins of significant compositional and structural complexity, functions in plant growth, development and stress responses. In recent years, the existence of plant cell wall integrity (CWI) maintenance mechanisms has been demonstrated, but little is known about the signaling pathways involved, or their components. Examination of key mutants has shed light on the relationships between cell wall remodeling and plant cell responses, indicating a central role for the regulatory network that monitors and controls cell wall performance and integrity. In this review, we present a short overview of cell wall composition and discuss post-synthetic cell wall modification as a valuable approach for studying CWI perception and signaling pathways. PMID:23857352

  11. What Are You Looking At? Moving toward an Attentional Timeline in Insomnia: A Novel Semantic Eye Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Heather Cleland; Scheepers, Christoph; Ross, K. A.; Espie, Colin A.; Biello, Stephany M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To date, cognitive probe paradigms have been used in different guises to obtain reaction time measurements suggestive of an attention bias towards sleep in insomnia. This study adopts a methodology which is novel to sleep research to obtain a continual record of where the eyes—and therefore attention—are being allocated with regard to sleep and neutral stimuli. Design: A head mounted eye tracker (Eyelink II,SR Research, Ontario, Canada) was used to monitor eye movements in respect to two words presented on a computer screen, with one word being a sleep positive, sleep negative, or neutral word above or below a second distracter pseudoword. Probability and reaction times were the outcome measures. Participants: Sleep group classification was determined by screening interview and PSQI (> 8 = insomnia, < 3 = good sleeper) score. Measurements and Results: Those individuals with insomnia took longer to fixate on the target word and remained fixated for less time than the good sleep controls. Word saliency had an effect with longer first fixations on positive and negative sleep words in both sleep groups, with largest effect sizes seen with the insomnia group. Conclusions: This overall delay in those with insomnia with regard to vigilance and maintaining attention on the target words moves away from previous attention bias work showing a bias towards sleep, particularly negative, stimuli but is suggestive of a neurocognitive deficit in line with recent research. Citation: Woods; HC; Scheepers C; Ross KA; Espie CA; Biello SM. What are you looking at? Moving toward an attentional timeline in insomnia: a novel semantic eye tracking study. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1491-1499. PMID:24082308

  12. Metallic Wall Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan Michael (Inventor); Hofer, Richard Robert (Inventor); Mikellides, Ioannis G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A Hall thruster apparatus having walls constructed from a conductive material, such as graphite, and having magnetic shielding of the walls from the ionized plasma has been demonstrated to operate with nearly the same efficiency as a conventional non-magnetically shielded design using insulators as wall components. The new design is believed to provide the potential of higher power and uniform operation over the operating life of a thruster device.

  13. Illustrated print materials for health and family planning education.

    PubMed

    Moore, M B; Sørensen, M; Adebajo, C F

    1990-01-01

    Printed materials meant to convey health messages are apt to make a more striking and lasting impression on their audience if they are well illustrated. But coming up with good illustrations takes time, effort and care. The Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) has found that the best way of ensuring that illustrations will be understood and accepted is to develop them with the help of representatives of the target audience. PMID:2291791

  14. Plant and algal cell walls: diversity and functionality

    PubMed Central

    Popper, Zoë A.; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Domozych, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although plants and many algae (e.g. the Phaeophyceae, brown, and Rhodophyceae, red) are only very distantly related they are united in their possession of carbohydrate-rich cell walls, which are of integral importance being involved in many physiological processes. Furthermore, wall components have applications within food, fuel, pharmaceuticals, fibres (e.g. for textiles and paper) and building materials and have long been an active topic of research. As shown in the 27 papers in this Special Issue, as the major deposit of photosynthetically fixed carbon, and therefore energy investment, cell walls are of undisputed importance to the organisms that possess them, the photosynthetic eukaryotes (plants and algae). The complexities of cell wall components along with their interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are becoming increasingly revealed. Scope The importance of plant and algal cell walls and their individual components to the function and survival of the organism, and for a number of industrial applications, are illustrated by the breadth of topics covered in this issue, which includes papers concentrating on various plants and algae, developmental stages, organs, cell wall components, and techniques. Although we acknowledge that there are many alternative ways in which the papers could be categorized (and many would fit within several topics), we have organized them as follows: (1) cell wall biosynthesis and remodelling, (2) cell wall diversity, and (3) application of new technologies to cell walls. Finally, we will consider future directions within plant cell wall research. Expansion of the industrial uses of cell walls and potentially novel uses of cell wall components are both avenues likely to direct future research activities. Fundamentally, it is the continued progression from characterization (structure, metabolism, properties and localization) of individual cell wall components through to defining their roles in almost every

  15. 'Stucco' Walls-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial 'clodding' or cementation of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and makes up half of the projected 'Stucco Walls' image.

  16. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  17. Domain wall filters

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver

    2007-03-15

    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  18. Interactive Word Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

    2013-01-01

    It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…

  19. Modes of deformation of walled cells.

    PubMed

    Dumais, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    The bewildering morphological diversity found in cells is one of the starkest illustrations of life's ability to self-organize. Yet the morphogenetic mechanisms that produce the multifarious shapes of cells are still poorly understood. The shared similarities between the walled cells of prokaryotes, many protists, fungi, and plants make these groups particularly appealing to begin investigating how morphological diversity is generated at the cell level. In this review, I attempt a first classification of the different modes of surface deformation used by walled cells. Five modes of deformation were identified: inextensional bending, equi-area shear, elastic stretching, processive intussusception, and chemorheological growth. The two most restrictive modes-inextensional and equi-area deformations-are embodied in the exine of pollen grains and the wall-like pellicle of euglenoids, respectively. For these modes, it is possible to express the deformed geometry of the cell explicitly in terms of the undeformed geometry and other easily observable geometrical parameters. The greatest morphogenetic power is reached with the processive intussusception and chemorheological growth mechanisms that underlie the expansive growth of walled cells. A comparison of these two growth mechanisms suggests a possible way to tackle the complexity behind wall growth.

  20. Timeline: Cellular Oxygen Sensing.

    PubMed

    Szewczak, Lara

    2016-09-22

    Since the 1950s, researchers have recognized that red blood cell numbers expand or contract as needed, according to the amount of available oxygen. The later discoveries that erythropoietin and VEGF levels adapt to oxygen levels launched a new field aimed at understanding how cells sense and respond to normal- and low-oxygen environments. The 2016 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award recognizes key discoveries about this global oxygen sensing pathway and its impacts on pathogenesis, including cancer and inflammation. PMID:27662095

  1. A Timeline Tunnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Renata Otsuka

    2007-01-01

    Art history is fascinating because it reflects many different concepts at once--including historical periods, techniques, discoveries, and visual communication. Moreover, it provides teachers with rich themes to work with to develop students' critical thinking and creative potential. Another advantage is the varied assessment tools that can be…

  2. Dismantling a Community Timeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingerson, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The New Orleans Public Schools is a struggling district of 63,000 students. The district's student population has been decreasing over the past decade. Most of the city's white families have retreated to neighboring parishes or put their children in private schools. Middle-class and professional African-American families rely heavily on the city's…

  3. Timeline of Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picchetti, Patricia M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes fetal development patterns within the framework of concurrent separateness from and oneness with the mother. Touches on the infant developmental stages along the way to becoming a wholly separate being. (HTH)

  4. Ethiopian New Public Universities: Achievements, Challenges and Illustrative Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deuren, Rita; Kahsu, Tsegazeab; Mohammed, Seid; Woldie, Wondimu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze and illustrate achievements and challenges of Ethiopian higher education, both at the system level and at the level of new public universities. Design/methodology/approach: Achievements and challenges at the system level are based on literature review and secondary data. Illustrative case studies are based on…

  5. Becoming a Voice: A Conversation with George Littlechild, Illustrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with George Littlechild, a Canadian Plains Cree artist, writer and illustrator who has created nearly 500 paintings that have been exhibited on several continents. Discusses his autobiographical "This Land is My Land" which is illustrated with his paintings and which won the Jane Addams Picture Book Award. (SG)

  6. Using a Simple Contest to Illustrate Mechanism Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Calvin

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a simple classroom activity that illustrates how economic theory can be used for mechanism design. The rules for a set of contests are presented; the results typically obtained from these contests illustrate how the prize structure can be manipulated in order to produce a particular outcome. Specifically, this activity is…

  7. Teaching Methods for the Development of Creativity in Medical Illustration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Phyllis Joan Antrim

    Through identifying sources and interpreting findings from the fields of medical illustration, psychology, and education, the research described provides the teacher of medical illustration with a framework for promoting in students an active sense of their creative abilities. The need for the study, background information, limitations, and…

  8. Using Kites to Illustrate Some Features of Boundary Layer Winds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuller, Stanton E.

    1983-01-01

    Kites allow teachers to illustrate wind patterns by calling on past experience and by present demonstration. Features of the wind illustrated by kites--the effect of surface friction on wind speed, change of wind direction with elevation, gust and lull sequence, and atmospheric stability and turbulence type--are discussed. (SR)

  9. An Image of Possibility: Illustrating a Pedagogic Encounter with Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Maureen K.

    2011-01-01

    An Image of Possibility is an interplay between image-making and interpretation. It explores author-created illustration as an art-based tool for educational inquiry and is designed further to inform the creative research practice of the author. The illustration "Meeting People" is created by the author to render an event of learning and culture…

  10. Relations between structural and dynamic thermal characteristics of building walls

    SciTech Connect

    Kossecka, E.; Kosny, J.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of internal thermal structure on dynamic characteristics of walls is analyzed. The concept of structure factors is introduced and the conditions they impose on response factors are given. Simple examples of multilayer walls, representing different types of thermal resistance and capacity distribution, are analyzed to illustrate general relations between structure factors and response factors. The idea of the ``thermally equivalent wall``, a plane multilayer structure, with dynamic characteristics similar to those of a complex structure, in which three-dimensional heat flow occurs, is presented.

  11. 5. Detail of bin wall, showing the thinner exterior wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Detail of bin wall, showing the thinner exterior wall next to the inner wall with its alternating courses of channel tile and hollow tile. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  12. 22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM THE SAME POINT AS VIEW NO. 21. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. Near-wall damping in model predictions of separated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skote, Martin; Wallin, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Different near-wall scalings are reviewed by the use of data from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of attached and separated adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers. The turbulent boundary layer equation is analysed in order to extend the validity of existing wall damping functions to turbulent boundary layers under severe adverse pressure gradients. A proposed near-wall scaling is based on local quantities and the wall distance, which makes it applicable for general computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. It was found to have a similar behaviour as the pressure-gradient corrected analytical y* scaling and avoids the inconsistencies present in the y+ scaling. The performance of the model is illustrated by model computations using explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models with near-wall damping based on different scalings.

  14. Swimming Near the Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Daniel; Moored, Keith; Dewey, Peter; Lauder, George; Smits, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    The aerodynamic loads on rectangular panels undergoing heave and pitch oscillations near a solid wall were measured using a 6-axis ATI sensor. Over a range of Strouhal numbers, reduced frequencies and flexibilities, swimming near the wall was found to increase thrust and therefore the self-propelled swimming speed. Experimental particle image velocimetry revealed an asymmetric wake structure with a momentum jet angled away from the wall. Both the thrust amplification and the asymmetric wake structure were verified and investigated further using an in-house inviscid panel method code. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N00014-08-1-0642.

  15. Changes in substance use-related health risk behaviors on the timeline follow-back interview as a function of length of recall period.

    PubMed

    Buu, Anne; Li, Runze; Walton, Maureen A; Yang, Hanyu; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2014-08-01

    The timeline follow-back (TLFB) interview was adopted to collect retrospective data on daily substance use and violence from 598 youth seeking care in an urban Emergency Department in Flint, Michigan during 2009-2011. Generalized linear mixed models with flexible smooth functions of time were employed to characterize the change in risk behaviors as a function of the length of recall period. Our results suggest that the 1-week recall period may be more effective for capturing atypical or variable patterns of risk behaviors, whereas a recall period longer than 2 weeks may result in a more stable estimation of a typical pattern.

  16. Changes in Substance Use-Related Health Risk Behaviors on the Timeline Follow-Back Interview as a Function of Length of Recall Period

    PubMed Central

    Buu, Anne; Li, Runze; Walton, Maureen A.; Yang, Hanyu; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    The timeline follow-back (TLFB) interview was adopted to collect retrospective data on daily substance use and violence from 598 youth seeking care in an urban Emergency Department in Flint, Michigan during 2009–2011. Generalized linear mixed models with flexible smooth functions of time were employed to characterize the change in risk behaviors as a function of the length of recall period. Our results suggest that the 1-week recall period may be more effective for capturing atypical or variable patterns of risk behaviors, whereas a recall period longer than 2 weeks may result in a more stable estimation of a typical pattern. PMID:24601785

  17. Plant cell wall extensibility: connecting plant cell growth with cell wall structure, mechanics, and the action of wall-modifying enzymes.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The advent of user-friendly instruments for measuring force/deflection curves of plant surfaces at high spatial resolution has resulted in a recent outpouring of reports of the 'Young's modulus' of plant cell walls. The stimulus for these mechanical measurements comes from biomechanical models of morphogenesis of meristems and other tissues, as well as single cells, in which cell wall stress feeds back to regulate microtubule organization, auxin transport, cellulose deposition, and future growth directionality. In this article I review the differences between elastic modulus and wall extensibility in the context of cell growth. Some of the inherent complexities, assumptions, and potential pitfalls in the interpretation of indentation force/deflection curves are discussed. Reported values of elastic moduli from surface indentation measurements appear to be 10- to >1000-fold smaller than realistic tensile elastic moduli in the plane of plant cell walls. Potential reasons for this disparity are discussed, but further work is needed to make sense of the huge range in reported values. The significance of wall stress relaxation for growth is reviewed and connected to recent advances and remaining enigmas in our concepts of how cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins are assembled to make an extensible cell wall. A comparison of the loosening action of α-expansin and Cel12A endoglucanase is used to illustrate two different ways in which cell walls may be made more extensible and the divergent effects on wall mechanics.

  18. Flagellar propulsion near walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Confinement and wall effects are known to affect the kinematics and propulsive characteristics of swimming microorganisms. When a solid body is dragged through a viscous fluid at constant velocity, the presence of a wall increases fluid drag, and thus the net force required to maintain speed has to increase. In contrast, recent optical trapping experiments have revealed that the propulsive force generated by human spermatozoa is decreased by the presence of boundaries. Here we use simple models to analytically elucidate the propulsive effects of a solid boundary on passively actuated filaments and model eukaryotic flagella. We show that in some cases, the increase in fluid friction induced by the wall can lead to a change in the waveform expressed by the flagella which results in a decrease of their propulsive force near a no-slip wall.

  19. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health care provider may have you learn pelvic floor muscle exercises ( Kegel exercises ), use estrogen cream in ... GM. Anatomic defects of the abdominal wall and pelvic floor: abdominal and inguinal hernias, cystocele, urethrocele, enterocele, rectocele, ...

  20. 15. HISTORIC VIEW FROM NORTH OF PRISON WALL AND FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. HISTORIC VIEW FROM NORTH OF PRISON WALL AND FRONT HOUSE From Trenton Illustrated, 1891, published by H.R. Page and Company. By courtesy of the Free Public Library of Trenton, New Jersey. - New Jersey State Prison, Second & Federal Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  1. 90. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF THE INDIAN HOUSE. THE RELIEF BROCADE TILES ILLUSTRATE SCENES OF NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, AND THE EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-21. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  2. 21. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF THE INDIAN HOUSE. THE RELIEF BROCADE TILES ILLUSTRATE SCENES OF NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, AND THE EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  3. A Simple Experiment Illustrating the Structure of Association Colloids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friberg, Stig. E.; Bendiksen, Beverly

    1979-01-01

    The experiment described is intended to illustrate the intermolecular phenomena involved in association colloids. These are normal and inverse micelles and lyotropic liquid crystals. Solubilization, microemulsion and emulsion are discussed. (Author/SA)

  4. 34. Photocopy of illustration from 'Grist Windmills at East Hampton,' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photocopy of illustration from 'Grist Wind-mills at East Hampton,' Picturesque America, New York, 1872. HOOK WINDMILL IN FOREGROUND, PANTIGO WINDMILL IN BACKGROUND - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  5. From Ars to Scientia: the revolution of anatomic illustration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sean B

    2006-05-01

    Art and anatomy have been closely related since the Renaissance, when artists studied the human body to gain more perfect perspectives, and anatomists began illustrating their texts. As the two fields became increasingly intertwined, the distinctions between artistic drawings and scientific illustrations of the human body's form and function became increasingly blurred. Early Renaissance anatomists were more artistic than scientific with their images, but Hieronymus Fabricius ab Acquapendente (1533-1619) provided a crucial turning point in the evolution of anatomic illustration. His new and strict focus upon scientific illustration developed in the context of previous anatomists' work and theories, but his is a critical and previously untold story in the history of medicine.

  6. 6. Photocopy of 1895 photograph. From illustration in Missouri Botanical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of 1895 photograph. From illustration in Missouri Botanical Garden, Seventh Annual Report, 1896, p. 17. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST THROUGH MUSEUM GATE - Missouri Botanical Garden, Cleveland Avenue Gatehouse, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  7. 11. Photocopy of illustration from Halsey, William D., Sketches From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of illustration from Halsey, William D., Sketches From Local History, Bridgehampton, New York, 1935 ATLANTIC FLOUR MILLS AND THE BEEBE WINDMILL - Beebe Windmill, Hildreath Lane & Ocean Avenue (moved several times), Bridgehampton, Suffolk County, NY

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Thompson & West Illustrator in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Thompson & West Illustrator in History of Sacramento County Photo Copy 1960 NORTH ELEVATION (1880) - Albert Gallatin House, 1527 H Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of illustration in Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of illustration in Pacific Coast Architect, V. 33, No. 4 (April 1928) MEZZANINE FOYER, FROM SMOKING ROOM. - Oriental Theatre, 828 Southeast Grand Avenue, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 28. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of illustration in Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of illustration in Pacific Coast Architect, V. 33, No. 4 (April 1928) SMOKING ROOM, MEZZANINE. - Oriental Theatre, 828 Southeast Grand Avenue, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 1. Historic American Building Survey Thompson & West Illustrated History ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Building Survey Thompson & West Illustrated History of Sacramento Co. Drawing of 1880 Plan & Rephoto 1960 NORTHEAST CORNER AND GENERAL PLAN - Crocker Art Gallery, 216 O Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 14. Photocopy of Illustration from Buffet, Edward P., 'Some Long ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of Illustration from Buffet, Edward P., 'Some Long Island Windmills,' American Machinist, 17 October 1918, p. 728 STONE CRANE AT THE SHELTER ISLAND WINDMILL - Shelter Island Windmill, Manwaring Road, Shelter Island, Suffolk County, NY

  13. A Simple Illustration for the Need of Multiple Comparison Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rickey E.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical adjustments to accommodate multiple comparisons are routinely covered in introductory statistical courses. The fundamental rationale for such adjustments, however, may not be readily understood. This article presents a simple illustration to help remedy this.

  14. Use of Pom Pons to Illustrate Cubic Crystal Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Susan G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a method that uses olefin pom pons to illustrate cubic crystal structure. Facilitates hands-on examination of different packing arrangements such as hexagonal close-packed and cubic close-packed structures. (JRH)

  15. The role of illustrations in children's inferential comprehension.

    PubMed

    Pike, Meredith M; Barnes, Marcia A; Barron, Roderick W

    2010-03-01

    Illustrations are a salient source of information in children's books, yet their effect on children's reading comprehension has been studied only through literal factual recall. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of illustrations on bridging inferences, an important aspect of meaning making in comprehension models. Identical short stories were presented under different illustration conditions with pictures that represented different parts of the story. Participants were 73 7- to 11-year-olds. Illustrations both facilitated and interfered with inferencing depending on the type of information depicted; however, this effect was reduced as grade increased. Additional findings were that the overall ability to make inferences increased with age and working memory was a significant predictor of this skill. Results are discussed in relation to cognitive and developmental models of comprehension.

  16. Internal pedestrian circulation and common open space, also illustrating mature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Internal pedestrian circulation and common open space, also illustrating mature landscape features. Building 35 at left foreground. Facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown illustrator, 1898 DRAWING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown illustrator, 1898 DRAWING OF PLYMOUTH PLACE, 1898 From the Collection of the Regional Transportation District - Plymouth Place, 1560-1572 Broadway, Denver, Denver County, CO

  18. Illustration of Some Consequences of the Indistinguishability of Electrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John W.; Davies, William G.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses how color-coded overhead transparencies of computer-generated dot-density diagrams can be used to illustrate hybrid orbitals and the principle of the indistinguishability of electrons. (MLH)

  19. The seismic analyzer: interpreting and illustrating 2D seismic data.

    PubMed

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, M Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seismic data, such as deformed texturing and line and texture transfer functions. The illustrative rendering results in multi-attribute and scale invariant visualizations where features are represented clearly in both highly zoomed in and zoomed out views. Thumbnail views in combination with interactive appearance control allows for a quick overview of the data before detailed interpretation takes place. These techniques help reduce the work of seismic illustrators and interpreters.

  20. 180 degree view of Building 20, illustrating rear elevation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 20, illustrating rear elevation of two story walk-up flat type unit. View facing northwest - Harbor Hills Housing Project, Two Story Walk-Up Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 180 degree view of Building 20, illustrating front elevation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 20, illustrating front elevation of two story walk-up flat type unit. View facing north - Harbor Hills Housing Project, Two Story Walk-Up Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Illustrating Chemical Concepts through Food Systems: Introductory Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, E., IV; Setser, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Demonstrations involving foods that illustrate chemical concepts are described, including vaporization of liquids and Graham's law of diffusion, chemical reaction rates, adsorption, properties of solutions, colloidal dispersions, suspensions, and hydrogen ion concentration. (CS)

  3. From Boltzmann equations to steady wall velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Konstandin, Thomas; Nardini, Germano; Rues, Ingo E-mail: germano.nardini@desy.de

    2014-09-01

    By means of a relativistic microscopic approach we calculate the expansion velocity of bubbles generated during a first-order electroweak phase transition. In particular, we use the gradient expansion of the Kadanoff-Baym equations to set up the fluid system. This turns out to be equivalent to the one found in the semi-classical approach in the non-relativistic limit. Finally, by including hydrodynamic deflagration effects and solving the Higgs equations of motion in the fluid, we determine velocity and thickness of the bubble walls. Our findings are compared with phenomenological models of wall velocities. As illustrative examples, we apply these results to three theories providing first-order phase transitions with a particle content in the thermal plasma that resembles the Standard Model.

  4. Ultimate Cost of Building Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Clayford T.; Gross, James G.

    The need for economic analysis of building walls is discussed, and the factors influencing the ultimate cost of exterior walls are studied. The present worth method is used to analyze three types of exterior non-loadbearing panel or curtain walls. Anticipated costs are expressed in terms of their present value per square foot of wall area. The…

  5. Do we map remembrances to the left/back and expectations to the right/front of a mental timeline? Space-time congruency effects with retrospective and prospective verbs.

    PubMed

    Maienborn, Claudia; Alex-Ruf, Simone; Eikmeier, Verena; Ulrich, Rolf

    2015-03-01

    Recent experimental studies have shown that people code time in terms of a mental timeline which typically runs from left to right or from back to front. Determining the cognitive function of this mental timeline for language processing, however, is still an unsettled issue. Whereas the studies of Ulrich and Maienborn (2010) and Ulrich et al. (2012) argue against an automatic activation of the mental timeline for the interpretation of tense and temporal adverbials at sentence level, Sell and Kaschak (2011) observe an automatic activation for the processing of past- and future-related sentences in small stories. The present paper reports the results of three experiments which examine the processing of sentences with retrospective and prospective verbs (e.g., to remember, to regret vs. to expect, to announce) in present tense, which locate a second, embedded event in the past or the future. When temporal information was task-relevant, a space-time congruency effect emerged (Experiment 1). This suggests that the mental timeline is not only linked to overtly deictic linguistic material but may also be construed in a more intricate way through the compositional construction of sentence meaning. The congruency effect disappeared, however, when temporal information was task-irrelevant (Experiments 2 and 3), suggesting that the mental timeline is not functionally involved in the cognitive processing of these especially demanding two-event sentences. The results of the present study support the conclusion that the relevant factor driving an automatic activation of the mental timeline is not the number of linguistically expressed events, but might rather be the number of sentential units.

  6. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages.

  7. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages. PMID:24585828

  8. Musculoskeletal chest wall pain

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Adel G.; Smythe, Hugh A.

    1985-01-01

    The musculoskeletal structures of the thoracic wall and the neck are a relatively common source of chest pain. Pain arising from these structures is often mistaken for angina pectoris, pleurisy or other serious disorders. In this article the clinical features, pathogenesis and management of the various musculoskeletal chest wall disorders are discussed. The more common causes are costochondritis, traumatic muscle pain, trauma to the chest wall, “fibrositis” syndrome, referred pain, psychogenic regional pain syndrome, and arthritis involving articulations of the sternum, ribs and thoracic spine. Careful analysis of the history, physical findings and results of investigation is essential for precise diagnosis and effective treatment. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4027804

  9. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  10. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  11. Thermal treatment wall

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  12. [Study on two manuscripts with colored illustrations collected in France].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ping; Cao, Hui

    2013-09-01

    Two manuscripts with colored illustrations in French libraries were investigated. The research showed that: the first manuscript with colored pictures include 2 volumes, titled Animaux et Plantes de Chine collected in Library of Museum National d'Historie Naturelle (MNHN);the other manuscript with colored pictures has only 1 volume, titled Botanique Chinoise collected in Library of Societe Asiatique, College de France, which were identified as illustrations of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica) (1640 edition) by Li Shi-zhen. These pictures were copied by P. d'Incarville, and are similar to Plantes fleurs et arbres de Chine in Bibliotheque de l'Institut de Franceand, Collection de Plantes Veneneuses de la Chine Gravees et Imprimees en Couleurs par les Missionnaries Jesuites in Bibliotheque Nationale de France, respectively. The latter two manuscripts were identified as illustrations of Ben cao pin hui jing yao (Essential Collections of Materia Medica) (1700 edition).

  13. Floating Data and the Problem with Illustrating Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachau, Daniel A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to introduce basic concepts of multiple regression by creating a large-scale, three-dimensional regression model using the classroom walls and floor. Addresses teaching points that should be covered and reveals student reaction to the model. Finds that the greatest benefit of the model is the low fear, walk-through, nonmathematical…

  14. A School without Walls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, Len Tai

    1994-01-01

    During the summer, selected students of Hawaiian ancestry who have completed seventh or eighth grade participate in a boarding program with outdoor activities such as pulling taro, star gazing, and camping. The activities eliminate walls of doubt and fear and nurture self-confidence, creativity, personal growth, leadership, and cultural awareness.…

  15. Wall turbulence control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Lindemann, A. Margrethe; Beeler, George B.; Mcginley, Catherine B.; Goodman, Wesley L.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of wall turbulence control devices which were experimentally investigated are discussed; these include devices for burst control, alteration of outer flow structures, large eddy substitution, increased heat transfer efficiency, and reduction of wall pressure fluctuations. Control of pre-burst flow was demonstrated with a single, traveling surface depression which is phase-locked to elements of the burst production process. Another approach to wall turbulence control is to interfere with the outer layer coherent structures. A device in the outer part of a boundary layer was shown to suppress turbulence and reduce drag by opposing both the mean and unsteady vorticity in the boundary layer. Large eddy substitution is a method in which streamline curvature is introduced into the boundary layer in the form of streamwise vortices. Riblets, which were already shown to reduce turbulent drag, were also shown to exhibit superior heat transfer characteristics. Heat transfer efficiency as measured by the Reynolds Analogy Factor was shown to be as much as 36 percent greater than a smooth flat plate in a turbulent boundary layer. Large Eddy Break-Up (LEBU) which are also known to reduce turbulent drag were shown to reduce turbulent wall pressure fluctuation.

  16. The Wall Coverings Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Students love nothing better than personalizing their space--desk, bedroom, or even their cars. This article describes a classroom challenge that gives students a chance to let their spirits soar with the invention of a new form of wall treatment. A trip to a big box store might prove to be most helpful for students to visualize their new product…

  17. Fly on the Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dave; Korpan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a peer observation program at the University of Victoria called the Lecture Club. The observers are not interactive during the class--they are the proverbial flies on the wall. The paper identifies the program as self-developmental, discussing the attributes of this learning-to-teach and peer-sharing…

  18. A Wall of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Visitors to the campus of Orland High School (OHS) will never question that they have stepped into a world of the masses: kids, activity, personalities, busyness, and playfulness--a veritable cloud of mild bedlam. The wall of ceramic faces that greets a visitor in the school office is another reminder of the organized chaos that the teachers…

  19. Contemporary Psychoanalytic Perspectives on Eating Disorders: A Case Illustration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Howard D.

    This paper examines recent formulations derived from different lines of conceptual development within psychoanalytic theory in relation to the anorexic and bulimic syndromes. The case history, clinical picture, and course of treatment of a bulimic adolescent girl are reviewed. This discussion illustrates the profound consequences upon cognition of…

  20. Illustrated Plant Identification Keys: An Interactive Tool to Learn Botany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Helena; Pinho, Rosa; Lopes, Lisia; Nogueira, Antonio J. A.; Silveira, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    An Interactive Dichotomous Key (IDK) for 390 "taxa" of vascular plants from the Ria de Aveiro, available on a website, was developed to help teach botany to school and universitary students. This multimedia tool includes several links to Descriptive and Illustrated Glossaries. Questionnaires answered by high-school and undergraduate students about…

  1. A CASE STUDY ILLUSTRATING THE IMPORTANCE OF ACCURATE SITE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Too frequently, researchers rely on incomplete site characterization data to determine the placement of the sampling wells. They forget that it is these sampling wells that will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of their research efforts. This case study illustrates the eff...

  2. 180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing west - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Promoting Self-Questioning through Picture Book Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohfink, Gayla

    2013-01-01

    This teaching tip manuscript demonstrates how picture book illustrations can be used as an inquiry tool that facilitates one's connecting of visual investigations in a picture to the process of generating self-questions. Techniques suggested to promote self-questioning are (1) introducing young readers to an interactive picture book read aloud…

  5. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 363 - Illustrative Management Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative Management Reports B Appendix B to Part 363 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... total assets of $1 billion or more as of the beginning of its fiscal year, the assessment by...

  6. Diversity of Authors & Illustrators in First Grade Core Reading Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buescher, Eileen M.; Lightner, Sarah C.; Kelly, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the diversity of the authors and illustrators in core reading series and to evaluate the opportunities and limitations of these texts in relation to the goals of multicultural education. The authors began their research concerned about whose stories are told in core reading series, and who gets to tell…

  7. A Laboratory Demonstration Illustrating Bioseparations Using Colorful Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Theodore M.; Rohs, Amanda E.; Lefebvre, Brian G.

    2008-01-01

    A simple in class laboratory illustrating the principles of ion exchange chromatography as a bioseparation technique is described. A protein's isoelectric point as a driving force for ion exchange chromatography is easily demonstrated by using combinations of proteins with natural color or fluorescence, such as DsRed2, enhanced green fluorescent…

  8. Dancing Crystals: A Dramatic Illustration of Intermolecular Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundell, Donald W.

    2007-01-01

    Crystals of naphthalene form on the surface of an acetone solution and dance about in an animated fashion illustrating surface tension, crystallization, and intermolecular forces. Additional experiments reveal the properties of the solution. Flows within the solutions can be visualized by various means. Previous demonstrations of surface motion…

  9. 60. Photocopy of illustration. SKETCH OF LOCATION AND APPEARANCE, SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Photocopy of illustration. SKETCH OF LOCATION AND APPEARANCE, SECOND FLOOR PLAN OF HEADHOUSE. (From Engineering News,' The New Fireproof Piers of the North German Lloyd Steamship Company, at Hoboken, New Jersey,' January 3, 1901, pp. 13-14. Artist unknown) - Hoboken Piers Headhouse, River Street at Hudson River, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  10. Preservation Needs of Oversized Illustrations in Geology Master's Theses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sally J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study conducted at the University of California, Los Angeles, to evaluate the need for preservation of oversized pocket illustrations in geology master's theses. Factors contributing to deterioration are described, including mechanical and chemical factors; criteria for defining conditions are listed; and suggestions for preventing…

  11. Epidemic hysteria in Malaysian schools: an illustrative episode.

    PubMed

    Teoh, J I; Soewondo, S; Sidharta, M

    1975-08-01

    This paper discusses the prevalence and characteristics of epidemic hysteria among predominantly rural Malay schools in Malaysia. An illustrative episode in a Malay residential girls' school is described, and contributory factors to this outbreak are elaborated. An attempt is made to analyze the complex interweaving of psychological, religious, cultural, and sociological factors in the precipitation of the outbreak. PMID:1197502

  12. Promoting Positive Emotion in Multimedia Learning Using Visual Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sanghoon; Lim, Jung

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explore the concept of interest, one of the critical positive emotions in learning contexts and to investigate the effects of different types of visual illustrations on learning interest, achievement, and motivation in multimedia learning. The concept of interest was explored in light of positive emotion; an…

  13. Introductory Level Problems Illustrating Concepts in Pharmaceutical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIver, Keith; Whitaker, Kathryn; De Delva, Vladimir; Farrell, Stephanie; Savelski, Mariano J.; Slater, C. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Textbook style problems including detailed solutions introducing pharmaceutical topics at the level of an introductory chemical engineering course have been created. The problems illustrate and teach subjects which students would learn if they were to pursue a career in pharmaceutical engineering, including the unique terminology of the field,…

  14. Bias in Occupational Outlook Handbook Illustrations: A New Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Paul R.; Seniecle, Jean C.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the presence of bias in the 1982-1983 edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook. Results indicated that the book's illustrations do not reflect accurately the American work force regarding worker sex, age group, ethnicity, and presence of visible disability. (Author/BL)

  15. Young Second Language Learners' Visual Attention to Illustrations in Storybooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhallen, Marian J. A. J.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2011-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to test how preliterate learners use illustrations in storybooks to understand a story. Subjects were 23 five-year-old low-SES children, learning Dutch as a second language. Each child was exposed four times to a digital picture storybook. Five books were used and counterbalanced over children and repetitions.…

  16. Using the Screened Coulomb Potential to Illustrate the Variational Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuniga, Jose; Bastida, Adolfo; Requena, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The screened Coulomb potential, or Yukawa potential, is used to illustrate the application of the single and linear variational methods. The trial variational functions are expressed in terms of Slater-type functions, for which the integrals needed to carry out the variational calculations are easily evaluated in closed form. The variational…

  17. Case study on visualizing hurricanes using illustration-inspired techniques.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Alark; Caban, Jesus; Rheingans, Penny; Sparling, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The devastating power of hurricanes was evident during the 2005 hurricane season, the most active season on record. This has prompted increased efforts by researchers to understand the physical processes that underlie the genesis, intensification, and tracks of hurricanes. This research aims at facilitating an improved understanding into the structure of hurricanes with the aid of visualization techniques. Our approach was developed by a mixed team of visualization and domain experts. To better understand these systems, and to explore their representation in NWP models, we use a variety of illustration-inspired techniques to visualize their structure and time evolution. Illustration-inspired techniques aid in the identification of the amount of vertical wind shear in a hurricane, which can help meteorologists predict dissipation. Illustration-style visualization, in combination with standard visualization techniques, helped explore the vortex rollup phenomena and the mesovortices contained within. We evaluated the effectiveness of our visualization with the help of six hurricane experts. The expert evaluation showed that the illustration-inspired techniques were preferred over existing tools. Visualization of the evolution of structural features is a prelude to a deeper visual analysis of the underlying dynamics.

  18. 41 CFR 101-6.206 - Illustrative applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... segregation or any other discriminatory practices. (b) In the program involving the loan of machine tools to... admission of students or trainees or in the treatment of its students or trainees in any aspect of the.... In this and other illustrations the prohibition of discrimination in the treatment of students...

  19. 41 CFR 101-6.206 - Illustrative applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... segregation or any other discriminatory practices. (b) In the program involving the loan of machine tools to... admission of students or trainees or in the treatment of its students or trainees in any aspect of the.... In this and other illustrations the prohibition of discrimination in the treatment of students...

  20. 41 CFR 101-6.206 - Illustrative applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... segregation or any other discriminatory practices. (b) In the program involving the loan of machine tools to... admission of students or trainees or in the treatment of its students or trainees in any aspect of the.... In this and other illustrations the prohibition of discrimination in the treatment of students...

  1. 41 CFR 101-6.206 - Illustrative applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... segregation or any other discriminatory practices. (b) In the program involving the loan of machine tools to... admission of students or trainees or in the treatment of its students or trainees in any aspect of the.... In this and other illustrations the prohibition of discrimination in the treatment of students...

  2. 41 CFR 101-6.206 - Illustrative applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... segregation or any other discriminatory practices. (b) In the program involving the loan of machine tools to... admission of students or trainees or in the treatment of its students or trainees in any aspect of the.... In this and other illustrations the prohibition of discrimination in the treatment of students...

  3. Bi-Relational Design: A Brief Introduction and Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Raoul

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces and illustrates Bi-relational Design (BD) as a general approach to (re)solving wicked problems. BD theorises oppositional, equipositional and para-positional approaches to problem-specific dyads (e.g., subjective/objective) based on a general consensus of research on epistemological development. These epistemic positions are…

  4. A Simple Inexpensive Procedure for Illustrating Some Principles of Tomography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darvey, Ivan G.

    2013-01-01

    The experiment proposed here illustrates some concepts of tomography via a qualitative determination of the relative concentration of various dilutions of food dye without "a priori" knowledge of the concentration of each dye mixture. This is performed in a manner analogous to computed tomography (CT) scans. In order to determine the…

  5. A Simple Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Active Transport in Yeast Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambuk, Boris U.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory activity illustrating the chemiosmotic principles of active transport in yeast cells. Demonstrates the energy coupling mechanism of active a-glucoside uptake by Saccaromyces cerevisiae cells with a colorimetric transport assay using very simple equipment. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  6. 56. Photocopy of newspaper illustration. MAIN VIEW: EAST, INSET VIEW: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photocopy of newspaper illustration. MAIN VIEW: EAST, INSET VIEW: NORTHWEST. (From Illustrirte Zeitung, 'Die Neuen Docks der 'Hamburg-Amerikanischen Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft' in Hoboken, New Jersey,' June 9, 1883, p. 495. Artist unknown) - Hoboken Piers Headhouse, River Street at Hudson River, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  7. Children's Authors and Illustrators: An Index to Bibliographical Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Beau, Dennis, Ed.

    Designed to fill a gap in reference collections, this work indexes a total of 17,686 biographical sketches of 10,000 different children's authors and illustrators appearing in 26 biographical dictionaries and other reference sources. Each entry indicates the author's name and dates of birth and death (as listed in the publications indexed) plus a…

  8. An Engaging Illustration of the Physical Differences among Menthol Stereoisomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Edward M.; Black, T. Howard

    2005-01-01

    An experiment illustrating stereochemical principles, like different physical properties in achiral environments, assignment of absolute stereochemistry, and the stereoisomeric relationships to differences in absolute stereochemistry is devised. A demonstration of how enantiomers have the same physical properties until placed in chiral…

  9. CUTS FOR MTR EXCAVATION ILLUSTRATE SEDIMENTARY MANTLE OF SOIL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CUTS FOR MTR EXCAVATION ILLUSTRATE SEDIMENTARY MANTLE OF SOIL AND GRAVEL OVERLAYING LAVA ROCK FIFTY FEET BELOW. SAGEBRUSH HAS BEEN SCOURED FROM REST OF SITE. CAMERA PROBABLY FACES SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 67. Unknown Photographer, 6/4/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Preschoolers' Ideas of What Makes a Picture Book Illustration Beautiful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Carolyn A.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' reasons for ranking the beauty of 30 children's book illustrations were investigated through individual interviews. Most frequent response criteria for beauty were associated with familiar objects or surroundings, action, color, clothing or accessories, water or ice, body features, and babies or small things. Children's book…

  11. Using Telestrations™ to Illustrate Small Group Communication Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedesco, Heather Noel

    2014-01-01

    This single class activity described here: (1) illustrates the importance of interdependence in groups; (2) can be used to measure group productivity and performance; (3) can encourage groups to engage in group learning; and (4) can facilitate group cohesion for newly formed groups. Students will be working in groups for the majority of their…

  12. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 363 - Illustrative Management Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Reports on Management's Assessment of Compliance with Designated Laws and Regulations 5. Illustrative... Compliance With Designated Laws and Regulations, and Report on Management's Assessment of Internal Control... noncompliance with designated laws and regulations. Terms that are not explained in Appendix B have the...

  13. 39. PORTAL ELEVATION. Photocopy of engraving from illustrated pamphlet titled ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. PORTAL ELEVATION. Photocopy of engraving from illustrated pamphlet titled 'Wrought Iron Bridges Built by Wrought Iron Bridge Company,' Wrought Iron Bridge Company, Canton, Ohio, 1885 (artist unknown). - Emlenton Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River, Travel Route 38 (Legislative Route 75), Emlenton, Venango County, PA

  14. 14 CFR 1250.103-4 - Illustrative applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Illustrative applications. 1250.103-4 Section 1250.103-4 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION... give special consideration to race, color, or national origin to make the benefits of its program...

  15. 14 CFR 1250.103-4 - Illustrative applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative applications. 1250.103-4 Section 1250.103-4 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION... give special consideration to race, color, or national origin to make the benefits of its program...

  16. En otras palabras: Illustrated Grammatical Concepts and Communicative Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carfora, Juanita; Carfora, Lolita

    This manual, designed for teachers of Spanish as a second language, contains visual aids to illustrate certain grammatical concepts and related vocabulary. The manual consists of 30 tear-out blackline masters, each containing one to six separate cartoon pictures, to be used for classroom or homework activities in any sequence. Accompanying each…

  17. Using Illustrations from American Novels to Teach about Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachris, Michelle Albert; Bohanon, Cecil E.

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates how literature can bring models to life in undergraduate courses on labor market economics. The authors argue that economics instructors and students can benefit from even small doses of literature. The authors examine excerpts from five American novels: "Sister Carrie" by Theodore Drieser (1900/2005); "The Grapes of…

  18. Robert W. Weir of West Point: Illustrator, Teacher and Poet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Michael E., Ed.

    Two concurrent exhibits at the U.S. Military Academy from October 1976 to January 1977 were devoted to the paintings and book illustrations of Professor Robert W. Weir, head of the Department of Drawing at the Academy from 1834 to 1876, and to drawings done by cadets under his instruction. In addition to a catalog of the works on display, this…

  19. Illustration of a Multilevel Model for Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Camilli, Gregory; Vargas, Sadako; Vernon, R. Fox

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a multilevel (or hierarchical linear) model that illustrates issues in the application of the model to data from meta-analytic studies. In doing so, several issues are discussed that typically arise in the course of a meta-analysis. These include the presence of non-zero between-study variability, how multiple…

  20. Culture or Disability? Examining Deaf Characters in Children's Book Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive those from backgrounds and cultures different from their own. Studies have been conducted examining how the text of children's literature portrays multicultural characters or characters with disabilities. However, few have looked specifically at the portrayal of characters through illustrations,…

  1. Analysis of Theoretical Metaphors with Illustrations from Family Systems Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    Metaphoric analysis of family systems theory illustrates how metaphors and alternatives to those metaphors identify what a psychological theory has highlighted and obscured about the phenomena at its focus and how it has structured that phenomena. The most commonly used metaphors in family systems theory are the metaphors of system (system…

  2. On the Measurement of Achievement Goals: Critique, Illustration, and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou

    2008-01-01

    The authors identified several specific problems with the measurement of achievement goals in the current literature and illustrated these problems, focusing primarily on A. J. Elliot and H. A. McGregor's (2001) Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ). They attended to these problems by creating the AGQ-Revised and conducting a study that examined…

  3. Illustrations in Social Studies Textbooks, Grades One through Three

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrum, Ellen Olin

    2010-01-01

    This content analysis examined illustrations (n =3,357) in the core lessons of four top-selling publishers' social studies textbooks, grades one through three. The graphical (n =556) and pictorial (n =2801) displays were coded for typology, explanation (labels or captions), referential text connection, location of referential connection, function…

  4. Pictures & Words Together: Children Illustrating and Writing Their Own Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paul

    Based on the premise that teachers everywhere have found that bookmaking has the power to motivate even the most reluctant writers, this book suggests that by combining illustrations and texts, children engage in a kind of communication that transcends the sum of its parts--their pictures and words interact to convey a new level of meaning. The…

  5. Transparency-Illustration-Notebook (TIN) Method for Teaching Cardiovascular Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRoth, L.

    1978-01-01

    A method for teaching cardiovascular physiology to veterinary students in an integrated systems program is described. The method consists of lectures that discuss illustrations projected overhead. An example of one of the teaching modules and a list of the benefits of this method are included. (JMD)

  6. Using a Card Trick to Illustrate Fixed Points and Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champanerkar, Jyoti; Jani, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical ideas from number theory, group theory, dynamical systems, and computer science have often been used to explain card tricks. Conversely, playing cards have been often used to illustrate the mathematical concepts of probability distributions and group theory. In this paper, we describe how the 21-card trick may be used to illustrate…

  7. 14 CFR 1250.103-4 - Illustrative applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... policies, the services and benefits of the program or activity it administers may not in fact be equally... give special consideration to race, color, or national origin to make the benefits of its program more... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illustrative applications....

  8. 14 CFR § 1250.103-4 - Illustrative applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... policies, the services and benefits of the program or activity it administers may not in fact be equally... give special consideration to race, color, or national origin to make the benefits of its program more... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illustrative applications. §...

  9. 15. Photocopy of Illustration (original in Scientific American, 9 August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of Illustration (original in Scientific American, 9 August 1890), photographer unknown. DRAWING SHOWING THE TUNNELING SHIELD AT WORK, WITH SEGMENT HOIST AND WORKMEN, 1890. - St. Clair Tunnel, Under St. Clair River between Port Huron, MI, & Sarnia, ON, Canada, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  10. A Java Applet for Illustrating Internet Error Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the author's experiences developing a Java applet that illustrates how error control is implemented in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). One section discusses the concepts which the TCP error control Java applet is intended to convey, while the nature of the Java applet is covered in another section. The author…

  11. Commentary on "Education, Employment and Human Development: Illustrations from Mexico"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strathdee, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Flores-Crespo has written a timely paper, "Education, employment and human development: illustrations from Mexico". Flores-Crespo uses Amartya Sen's ideas to bring a fresh perspective to bear on the relationship between higher education and human development. Although there is growing interest in applying Sen's ideas in a range of disciplines, to…

  12. Emma: Art Therapy Illustrating Personal and Universal Images of Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mango, Christina

    1992-01-01

    Art work produced by geriatric patient on psychiatric ward illustrated metaphors of loss. After three months, patient was diagnosed with liver cancer; she died three weeks later. All work was produced before cancer diagnosis, yet it showed similarities to work by cancer patients, suggesting that client unconsciously knew she was dying and worked…

  13. Overview of two story walkup flat type unit illustrating projecting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of two story walk-up flat type unit illustrating projecting balconies and concrete stairways. Original pipe railings replaced by square tube railing. Building 26, view facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, Two Story Walk-Up Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 28. Photocopy of Crown Roller Mill illustration; originally published in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopy of Crown Roller Mill illustration; originally published in The Crown Roller Mill, Northwestern Miller 9 (May 21, 1880): 321; SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING EAST - Crown Roller Mill, 105 Fifth Avenue, South, West Side Milling District, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  15. Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage. PMID:23372458

  16. Using interactive voice response technology and timeline follow-back methodology in studying binge eating and drinking behavior: different answers to different forms of the same question?

    PubMed

    Bardone, A M; Krahn, D D; Goodman, B M; Searles, J S

    2000-01-01

    As part of a study of the relationship of binge eating, alcohol use, mood, and stressors, we compared the results of two forms of reporting on binge eating and drinking behavior. Forty-three first-year college women participated in an interactive voice response (IVR) study for 12 weeks. Participants answered computer-administered questions daily via IVR technology on number of eating binges and number of alcoholic drinks consumed. After 12 weeks, participants completed a Timeline Follow-back (TLFB) interview retrospectively for number of binges and drinks in the past 12 weeks. Results of this distally retrospective methodology (commonly used in drinking research and applied here also to binge eating) were compared to the results of daily IVR reporting. There was convergence across measures for drinking behavior, but divergence between IVR and TLFB for binge eating reports. TLFB reports underrepresented actual binge eating frequency, which calls into question the validity of applying this methodology to the assessment of binge eating.

  17. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  18. EAST WALL OF CRYSTALLIZER WING TO THE LEFT, END WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST WALL OF CRYSTALLIZER WING TO THE LEFT, END WALL OF CRUSHING MILL IN CENTER. GABLE END OF BOILING HOUSE IN LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  19. 4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SW CORNER, SHOWING RETAINING WALL, BRIDGE WALL AND EROSION ON ROAD SURFACE. - Bridalveil Fall Bridge No. 3, Spanning Bridalveil Creek on carriage road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  20. DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall construction of the Crockett barn includes a layer of diagonal sheathing that is exposed on the interior. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  1. Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation Sections - Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp NP-5-C, Barracks No. 5, CCC Camp Historic District at Chapin Mesa, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  2. 1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHEAST REAR WALL AND NORTHEAST SIDE WALL OF CABINS FORGEMAN'S HOUSE NO. 1 AT RIGHT - Mount Etna Iron Works, Forgeman's House No. 1, Legislative Route 07020 between junctions of T.R. 461 & 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  3. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  4. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  5. 38. NORTHEAST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH WALL. ROOM COMPLETELY WALLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. NORTHEAST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH WALL. ROOM COMPLETELY WALLED WITH RANDOM WIDTH BOARDS WHICH WERE PAPERED OR PLASTERED OVER. THIS WAS TYPICAL THROUGHOUT HOUSE EXCEPT FOR WOOD PANELED WALLS - John Mark Verdier House, 801 Bay & Scott Streets, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  6. 25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST FROM A POINT ABOUT 500 FEET FROM THE MIDDLE HARBOR PARK FISHING PIER. (Panoramic view 1 of 2). - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. The Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Sampayan, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

  8. Use of Pom Pons To Illustrate Cubic Crystal Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, Susan G.

    1997-07-01

    In general chemistry classes, students are introduced to the ways in which atoms are arranged in cubic crystal structures. Transposing the textbook illustrations into three dimensional structures is difficult for some students. This transitions is easier if a three dimensional model is available for examination. Several 3D models are cited. A quick to assemble, inexpensive, colorful, and durable alternative to these models and styrofoam balls is the use of olefin pom pons. Different sized pom pons can be used to demonstrate how the atomic radius will vary when comparing the different types of cubic crystal unit cells. Being made of a coarse material, pom pons can be stacked to illustrate different packing arrangements such as hexagonal close-packed and cubic close-packed structures. Pom pons make great atoms.

  9. Illustration of the heart and blood vessels in medieval times.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Majid; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Alakbarli, Farid; Newman, Andrew J

    2010-08-01

    Throughout history, illustrations had played a key role in the promotion and evolution of medicine by providing a medium for transmission of scientific observations. Due to religious prohibitions, color drawings of the human body did not appear in medieval Persia and during the Islamic Golden Age. This tradition, however, has been overlooked with the publication of the first color atlas and text of human anatomy, Tashrihi Mansuri (Mansur's Anatomy), by Mansur ibn Ilyas in the fourteenth century AD. Written in Persian and containing several vivid illustrations of the human body, this book gained widespread attention by both scholars and lay persons. In this article, a brief history of Mansur's Anatomy and an English translation of selected sections from this book regarding the heart and blood vessels are presented.

  10. [Scientific illustration in the Middle Ages: topics and functions].

    PubMed

    Orofino, Giulia

    2002-01-01

    Medical and scientific Middle Age manuscripts are often richly illustrated, even when texts, written in the early and the late Antiquity, were not supposed to be accompanied by pictures or diagrams. Technical or practical treatises - especially herbals - were thus transformed in volumes meant for entertainment, which exploited the myths and the possibility of fabulous digressions implied in scientific information. This is particularly true of manuscripts from Southern Italy, and from the milieu of the Frederick II's court, produced for a non-professional public. Miniatures and illustrations from the Swabian age mark a difference with the preceding epoch, exhibiting the results of close empirical observation and the restoration of classically styles images. medical books in particular bear a novelty: scenes of therapeutic and surgical interventions, full of realistic details.

  11. Hybrid visibility compositing and masking for illustrative rendering☆

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Stefan; Rautek, Peter; Viola, Ivan; Roberts, Mike; Sousa, Mario Costa; Gröller, M. Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel framework for the compositing of interactively rendered 3D layers tailored to the needs of scientific illustration. Currently, traditional scientific illustrations are produced in a series of composition stages, combining different pictorial elements using 2D digital layering. Our approach extends the layer metaphor into 3D without giving up the advantages of 2D methods. The new compositing approach allows for effects such as selective transparency, occlusion overrides, and soft depth buffering. Furthermore, we show how common manipulation techniques such as masking can be integrated into this concept. These tools behave just like in 2D, but their influence extends beyond a single viewpoint. Since the presented approach makes no assumptions about the underlying rendering algorithms, layers can be generated based on polygonal geometry, volumetric data, point-based representations, or others. Our implementation exploits current graphics hardware and permits real-time interaction and rendering. PMID:20862189

  12. Java-based Interactive Illustrations for Studio Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malak, Michael; Wilson, Jack

    1997-04-01

    We have written a series of interactive demonstrations and simulations for introductory Electricity and Magnetism. These programs are written in the Java (TM) language and are delivered via the World-Wide Web to students either in the classroom or at home. The combination of such interactive illustrations with the Web's hypermedia capability is of significant value in the creation of network-distributable useful courseware. We are using these applets at Rensselaer and are evaluating their effectiveness as components of the instruction of Studio Physics II (Introduction to Electricity and Magnetism). Two of the applets allow the student to explore two-dimensional electric and magnetic fields by drawing field lines and equipotentials, evaluating divergence and curl, and calculating loop and surface integrals for Maxwell's laws. Another applet illustrates Snell's law of refraction, and another is an optical bench with movable lenses and a movable object.

  13. Model wall and recovery temperature effects on experimental heat transfer data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throckmorton, D. A.; Stone, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    Basic analytical procedures are used to illustrate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the relative impact upon heat transfer data analysis of certain factors which may affect the accuracy of experimental heat transfer data. Inaccurate knowledge of adiabatic wall conditions results in a corresponding inaccuracy in the measured heat transfer coefficient. The magnitude of the resulting error is extreme for data obtained at wall temperatures approaching the adiabatic condition. High model wall temperatures and wall temperature gradients affect the level and distribution of heat transfer to an experimental model. The significance of each of these factors is examined and its impact upon heat transfer data analysis is assessed.

  14. Early Illustrations of Geste Antagoniste in Cervical and Generalized Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Broussolle, Emmanuel; Laurencin, Chloé; Bernard, Emilien; Thobois, Stéphane; Danaila, Teodor; Krack, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Geste antagoniste, or sensory trick, is a voluntary maneuver that temporarily reduces the severity of dystonic postures or movements. We present a historical review of early reports and illustrations of geste antagoniste. Results In 1894, Brissaud described this phenomenon in Paris in patients with torticollis. He noted that a violent muscular contraction could be reversed by a minor voluntary action. He considered the improvement obtained by what he called “simple mannerisms, childish behaviour or fake pathological movements” was proof of the psychogenic origin of what he named mental torticollis. This concept was supported by photographical illustrations of the patients. The term geste antagoniste was used by Brissaud’s pupils, Meige and Feindel, in their 1902 monograph on movement disorders. Other reports and illustrations of this sign were published in Europe between 1894 and 1906. Although not mentioned explicitly, geste antagoniste was also illustrated in a case report of generalized dystonia in Oppenheim’s 1911 seminal description of dystonia musculorum deformans in Berlin. Discussion Brissaud-Meige’s misinterpretation of the geste antagoniste unfortunately anchored the psychogenic origin of dystonia for decades. In New York, Herz brought dystonia back into the realm of organic neurology in 1944. Thereafter, it was given prominence by other authors, notably Fahn and Marsden in the 1970–1980s. Nowadays, neurologists routinely investigate for geste antagoniste when a dystonic syndrome is suspected, because it provides a further argument in favor of dystonia. The term alleviating maneuver was proposed in 2014 to replace sensory trick or geste antagoniste. This major sign is now part of the motor phenomenology of the 2013 Movement Disorder Society’s classification of dystonia. PMID:26417535

  15. Commercial Credit Value Evaluation and Illustration Analysis on Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yun; Gong, Huaping

    Taobao website online transaction evaluation has been well accepted, but its value has not been measured. This paper quantifies the value of commercial credit of salers in bringing sale purchase on Taobao website through three aspects of data as credit score buyer to saler, number of comments and rate of bad comments. The illustration results on Taobao online transaction credit evaluation show that number of comments, credit score and rate of bad comments have significant impact on sale revenue.

  16. A Simple Inexpensive Procedure for Illustrating Some Principles of Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvey, Ivan G.

    2013-05-01

    The experiment proposed here illustrates some concepts of tomography via a qualitative determination of the relative concentration of various dilutions of food dye without a priori knowledge of the concentration of each dye mixture. This is performed in a manner analogous to computed tomography (CT) scans. In order to determine the relative concentrations of dye in containers, observations are made of the transmitted light through various combinations of the containers.

  17. Bumper wall for plasma device

    DOEpatents

    Coultas, Thomas A.

    1977-01-01

    Operation of a plasma device such as a reactor for controlled thermonuclear fusion is facilitated by an improved bumper wall enclosing the plasma to smooth the flow of energy from the plasma as the energy impinges upon the bumper wall. The bumper wall is flexible to withstand unequal and severe thermal shocks and it is readily replaced at less expense than the cost of replacing structural material in the first wall and blanket that surround it.

  18. Explanatory and illustrative visualization of special and general relativity.

    PubMed

    Weiskopf, Daniel; Borchers, Marc; Ertl, Thomas; Falk, Martin; Fechtig, Oliver; Frank, Regine; Grave, Frank; King, Andreas; Kraus, Ute; Müller, Thomas; Nollert, Hans-Peter; Rica Mendez, Isabel; Ruder, Hanns; Schafhitzel, Tobias; Schär, Sonja; Zahn, Corvin; Zatloukal, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes methods for explanatory and illustrative visualizations used to communicate aspects of Einstein's theories of special and general relativity, their geometric structure, and of the related fields of cosmology and astrophysics. Our illustrations target a general audience of laypersons interested in relativity. We discuss visualization strategies, motivated by physics education and the didactics of mathematics, and describe what kind of visualization methods have proven to be useful for different types of media, such as still images in popular science magazines, film contributions to TV shows, oral presentations, or interactive museum installations. Our primary approach is to adopt an egocentric point of view: The recipients of a visualization participate in a visually enriched thought experiment that allows them to experience or explore a relativistic scenario. In addition, we often combine egocentric visualizations with more abstract illustrations based on an outside view in order to provide several presentations of the same phenomenon. Although our visualization tools often build upon existing methods and implementations, the underlying techniques have been improved by several novel technical contributions like image-based special relativistic rendering on GPUs, special relativistic 4D ray tracing for accelerating scene objects, an extension of general relativistic ray tracing to manifolds described by multiple charts, GPU-based interactive visualization of gravitational light deflection, as well as planetary terrain rendering. The usefulness and effectiveness of our visualizations are demonstrated by reporting on experiences with, and feedback from, recipients of visualizations and collaborators. PMID:16805261

  19. Explanatory and illustrative visualization of special and general relativity.

    PubMed

    Weiskopf, Daniel; Borchers, Marc; Ertl, Thomas; Falk, Martin; Fechtig, Oliver; Frank, Regine; Grave, Frank; King, Andreas; Kraus, Ute; Müller, Thomas; Nollert, Hans-Peter; Rica Mendez, Isabel; Ruder, Hanns; Schafhitzel, Tobias; Schär, Sonja; Zahn, Corvin; Zatloukal, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes methods for explanatory and illustrative visualizations used to communicate aspects of Einstein's theories of special and general relativity, their geometric structure, and of the related fields of cosmology and astrophysics. Our illustrations target a general audience of laypersons interested in relativity. We discuss visualization strategies, motivated by physics education and the didactics of mathematics, and describe what kind of visualization methods have proven to be useful for different types of media, such as still images in popular science magazines, film contributions to TV shows, oral presentations, or interactive museum installations. Our primary approach is to adopt an egocentric point of view: The recipients of a visualization participate in a visually enriched thought experiment that allows them to experience or explore a relativistic scenario. In addition, we often combine egocentric visualizations with more abstract illustrations based on an outside view in order to provide several presentations of the same phenomenon. Although our visualization tools often build upon existing methods and implementations, the underlying techniques have been improved by several novel technical contributions like image-based special relativistic rendering on GPUs, special relativistic 4D ray tracing for accelerating scene objects, an extension of general relativistic ray tracing to manifolds described by multiple charts, GPU-based interactive visualization of gravitational light deflection, as well as planetary terrain rendering. The usefulness and effectiveness of our visualizations are demonstrated by reporting on experiences with, and feedback from, recipients of visualizations and collaborators.

  20. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  1. Geometric optics radome analysis wall incorporating effects of wall curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozakoff, Dennis J.

    1993-07-01

    In this research, a principal unmodeled error contributor in radome analysis is identified as the local plane approximation at the ray intercept point. An improved approach to modeling and computing the effects of the radome wall was developed which improves the radome wall transmission wall analysis in three respects: use of surface integration, utilization of a divergence factor (DF) to account for wall curvature, and incorporation of the effects of multiple refraction (MR). Modeling an incident plane wave on an external reference plane as an ensemble of Huygen's sources, geometric optics is used to trace the fields from the reference plane through the radome wall to a receiving monopulse antenna, where the wall transmissions on each ray are collected. The fact that the integration of a bundle of rays through the radome wall, as opposed to a single ray, more densely samples the curvature variation results in a more robust model. A DF derived from Snell's law for spherical shells accounts for the local wall curvature at the ray intercept point. To validate the approach, a microwave measurement setup was assembled around a network analyzer. Swept frequency data were obtained for similar monolithic wall dielectric panels but with different wall curvatures. Comparisons were then with measured data and the predictions of the model herein.

  2. Illustration of Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Named for the Greek god associated with Mars, the NASA developed Ares launch vehicles will return humans to the moon and later take them to Mars and other destinations. In this early illustration, the vehicle depicted on the left is the Ares I. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. In addition to its primary mission of carrying four to six member crews to Earth orbit, Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station (ISS), or to 'park' payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. The Ares I employs a single five-segment solid rocket booster, a derivative of the space shuttle solid rocket booster, for the first stage. A liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen J-2X engine derived from the J-2 engine used on the second stage of the Apollo vehicle will power the Ares V second stage. The Ares I can lift more than 55,000 pounds to low Earth orbit. The vehicle illustrated on the right is the Ares V, a heavy lift launch vehicle that will use five RS-68 liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen engines mounted below a larger version of the space shuttle external tank, and two five-segment solid propellant rocket boosters for the first stage. The upper stage will use the same J-2X engine as the Ares I. The Ares V can lift more than 286,000 pounds to low Earth orbit and stands approximately 360 feet tall. This versatile system will be used to carry cargo and the components into orbit needed to go to the moon and later to Mars. Both vehicles are subject to configuration changes before they are actually launched. This illustration reflects the latest configuration as of September 2006.

  3. Geoillustrator - fast sketching of geological illustrations and animations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Daniel; Langeland, Tor; Solteszova, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    We present our research results in the Geoillustrator project. The project has been going for four years and is ending in March. It was aimed at developing a rapid sketching tool for generating geological illustrations and animations for understanding the processes that have led to a current subsurface configuration. The sketching tool facilitates effective dissemination of ideas, e.g. through generation of interactive geo-scientific illustrations for interdisciplinary communication and communication to decision makers, media and lay persons. This can improve work processes in early phases of oil and gas exploration where critical decisions have to be taken based on limited information. It is a challenge for involved specialists in early exploration phases to externalize their ideas, and effectively achieve consensus in multidisciplinary working groups. In these work processes, a tool for rapid sketching of geology would be very useful for expressing geological hypotheses and creating and comparing different evolution scenarios. Often, decisions are influenced by factors that are not relevant, e.g. the geologists who produce the most polished illustrations of their hypothesis have a higher probability for getting their theories through to decision makers as it is more clearly communicated. This results in a competitive advantage for geologists who are skilled in creating illustrations. Having a tool that would lift the ability of all geologists to express their ideas to an equal level would result in more alternatives and better foundation for decision making. Digital sketching will also allow capturing otherwise lost material which can constitute a large amount of mental work and ideas. The results of sketching are currently scrapped as paper or erased from the blackboard or exist only as rough personal sketches. By using a digital sketching tool, the sketches can be exported to a form usable in modelling tools used in later phases of exploration. Currently, no

  4. Artist's concept illustrating cutaway view of Skylab Rescue Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An artist's concept illustrating a cutaway view of the general arrangement of the Skylab Rescue Command Module (CM). The standard Skylab CM accommodates a crew of three with storage lockers on the aft bulkhead for resupply of experiment film and other equipment as well as the return of exposed film, data tapes and experiment samples. To convert the standard CM to a rescue vehicle, the storage lockers are removed and replaced with two crew couches in order to seat five crewmen. The rescue CM would then be launched with a crew of two.

  5. 31. Photocopy of line illustration; originally published in William N. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photocopy of line illustration; originally published in William N. Carey, 'St. Paul Builds an Airport One Mile From Post Office,' Engineering News-Record, (August 21, 1930), figure 6, page 294; SHOWS CANTILEVERED ROOF-TRUSS SYSTEM OF MUNICIPAL HANGAR COMPLETED AT ST. PAUL MUNICIPAL AIRPORT IN 1930; THE STRUCTURAL DESIGN WAS BASED ON THAT OF THE NORTHWEST AIRWAYS HANGAR, EXCEPT FOR THE SUBSTITUTION OF BOWSTRING TRUSSES FOR TRAPEZOIDAL TRUSSES - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  6. End effector monitoring system: An illustrated case of operational prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Land, Sherry A.; Thronesbery, Carroll

    1994-01-01

    Operational prototyping is introduced to help developers apply software innovations to real-world problems, to help users articulate requirements, and to help develop more usable software. Operational prototyping has been applied to an expert system development project. The expert system supports fault detection and management during grappling operations of the Space Shuttle payload bay arm. The dynamic exchanges among operational prototyping team members are illustrated in a specific prototyping session. We discuss the requirements for operational prototyping technology, types of projects for which operational prototyping is best suited and when it should be applied to those projects.

  7. Ultrasound artifacts: classification, applied physics with illustrations, and imaging appearances.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Somnath J; Kanal, Kalpana; Bhargava, Puneet; Vaidya, Sandeep; Dighe, Manjiri K

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound has become a widely used diagnostic imaging modality in medicine because of its safety and portability. Because of rapid advances in technology, in recent years, sonographic imaging quality has significantly increased. Despite these advances, the potential to encounter artifacts while imaging remains.This article classifies both common and uncommon gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound artifacts into those resulting from physiology and those caused by hardware. A brief applied-physics explanation for each artifact is listed along with an illustrated diagram. The imaging appearance of artifacts is presented in case examples, along with strategies to minimize the artifacts in real time or use them for clinical advantage where applicable.

  8. Axions from wall decay

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S; Hagmann, C; Sikivie, P

    2001-01-08

    The authors discuss the decay of axion walls bounded by strings and present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is {approx_equal} 7m{sub a} for v{sub a}/m{sub a} {approx_equal} 500. is found to increase approximately linearly with ln(v{sub a}/m{sub a}). Extrapolation of this behavior yields {approx_equal} 60 m{sub a} in axion models of interest.

  9. Eye-wall resection.

    PubMed Central

    Char, D H; Miller, T; Crawford, J B

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the ocular retention rates, visual results, and metastases in uveal tumors managed with eye-wall resection techniques. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of uveal tumors selected for eye-wall resection with the surgical procedures performed by a single surgeon. All enucleation specimens were reviewed by one author. Both parametric and non-parametric analysis of data was performed. RESULTS: A total of 132 eyes were scheduled for eye-wall resection surgery. Mean patient age was 52 years (range, 11 to 86 years). Tumors involved the iris alone in 17 cases, the iris-ciliary body in 53, the ciliary body alone in 16, and the choroid (ciliochoroidal, iris-ciliary body-choroid, or choroid) in 46 cases. A total of 114 eyes harbored melanomas; tumors located more posteriorly were more likely to have epithelioid cells (P < .05). Mean follow-up was 6 years. Mean number of clock hours in iris and iris-ciliary body tumors was 3.5. In tumors that involved the choroid, the mean largest diameter was 12.6 mm and the mean thickness was 8.2 mm. Ninety-three (70%) of 132 eyes were retained. Histologic assessment of surgical margins did not correlate with either evidence of tumor in enucleated eyes or metastatic disease. Surgical margins of tumors located more anteriorly were more likely to be clear on histologic evaluation (P < .05). Approximately 56% of retained eyes had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better; visual results were significantly better in tumors located more anteriorly (P < .05). All retained eyes with iris tumors had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. In tumors that involved the choroid, 8 of 25 retained eyes kept visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Metastases developed in 8 patients; all metastatic events developed in patients with tumors that involved the choroid, and 7 of 8 were mixed cell melanomas. CONCLUSIONS: Seventy percent of eyes were retained, and 56% of these had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Only 7% of patients

  10. Gullies in Crater Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    6 April 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies in the wall of a large impact crater in Newton Basin near 41.9oS, 158.1oW. Such gullies may have formed by downslope movement of wet debris--i.e., water. Unfortunately, because the responsible fluid (if there was one) is no longer present today, only the geomorphology of the channels and debris aprons can be used to deduce that water might have been involved. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  11. Imaging Brunelleschi's cupola wall using muon scattering radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Guardincerri, Elena

    2015-09-16

    This PowerPoint presentation describes the cupola's structure and current reinforcements, reasoning behind why muon radiography would be helpful. A demonstration project is described where a similar wall was constructed to illustrate the potential benefits to Italian authorities; Requirements and a potential plan were created and collaboration to make it happen was deemed to be possible among LANL, Toshiba, the Parma and Florence Universities and the Opera del Duomo,

  12. Double-walled carbon nanotubes: Challenges and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, C; Brozena, Alexandra H.; Wang, YuHuang

    2011-01-01

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes are coaxial nanostructures composed of exactly two single-walled carbon nanotubes, one nested in another. This unique structure offers advantages and opportunities for extending our knowledge and application of the carbon nanomaterials family. This review seeks to comprehensively discuss the synthesis, purification and characterization methods of this novel class of carbon nanomaterials. An emphasis is placed on the double wall physics that contributes to these structures’ complex inter-wall coupling of electronic and optical properties. The debate over the inner-tube photoluminescence provides an interesting illustration of the rich photophysics and challenges associated with the myriad combinations of the inner and outerwall chiralities. Outerwall selective covalent chemistry will be discussed as a potential solution to the unattractive tradeoff between solubility and functionality that has limited some applications of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Finally, we will review the many different uses of double-walled carbon nanotubes and provide an overview of several promising research directions in this new and emerging field.

  13. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound.

    PubMed

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the "Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae" and the "Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances." These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice.

  14. Charles Darwin and Evolution: Illustrating Human Aspects of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampourakis, Kostas; McComas, William F.

    2010-06-01

    Recently, the nature of science (NOS) has become recognized as an important element within the K-12 science curriculum. Despite differences in the ultimate lists of recommended aspects, a consensus is emerging on what specific NOS elements should be the focus of science instruction and inform textbook writers and curriculum developers. In this article, we suggest a contextualized, explicit approach addressing one core NOS aspect: the human aspects of science that include the domains of creativity, social influences and subjectivity. To illustrate these ideas, we have focused on Charles Darwin, a scientist whose life, work and thought processes were particularly well recorded at the time and analyzed by scholars in the succeeding years. Historical facts are discussed and linked to core NOS ideas. Creativity is illustrated through the analogies between the struggle for existence in human societies and in nature, between artificial and natural selection, and between the division of labor in human societies and in nature. Social influences are represented by Darwin’s aversion of criticism of various kinds and by his response to the methodological requirements of the science of that time. Finally, subjectivity is discussed through Darwin’s development of a unique but incorrect source for the origin of variations within species.

  15. Illustration of Ares I Launch Vehicle With Call Outs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Named for the Greek god associated with Mars, the NASA developed Ares launch vehicles will return humans to the moon and later take them to Mars and other destinations. This is an illustration of the Ares I with call outs. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. In addition to the primary mission of carrying crews of four to six astronauts to Earth orbit, Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station, or to 'park' payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. Ares I employs a single five-segment solid rocket booster, a derivative of the space shuttle solid rocket booster, for the first stage. A liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen J-2X engine derived from the J-2 engine used on the Apollo second stage will power the Ares I second stage. The Ares I can lift more than 55,000 pounds to low Earth orbit. Ares I is subject to configuration changes before it is actually launched. This illustration reflects the latest configuration as of January 2007.

  16. Illustration of Ares V Launch Vehicle With Call Outs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The NASA developed Ares rockets, named for the Greek god associated with Mars, will return humans to the moon and later take them to Mars and other destinations. This is an illustration of the Ares V with call outs. The Ares V is a heavy lift launch vehicle that will use five RS-68 liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen engines mounted below a larger version of the space shuttle external tank, and two five-segment solid propellant rocket boosters for the first stage. The upper stage will use the same J-2X engine as the Ares I and past Apollo vehicles. The Ares V can lift more than 286,000 pounds to low Earth orbit and stands approximately 360 feet tall. This versatile system will be used to carry cargo and the components into orbit needed to go to the moon and later to Mars. Ares V is subject to configuration changes before it is actually launched. This illustration reflects the latest configuration as of January 2007.

  17. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the “Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae” and the “Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances.” These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice. PMID:27190537

  18. Foucault pendulum ``wall clock''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, H. Richard

    1995-01-01

    Details are given for the construction of a 70-cm-long Foucault pendulum to be mounted on the wall, and for a simple modification that will make it display local clock time. The possibility of having a Foucault pendulum of such short length is the result of finding new or improved ways of reducing four perturbing effects that become more severe as the length is decreased. They relate to: precession due to ellipticity in the motion, the drive system for maintaining the amplitude, the means of limiting the growth of ellipticity, and the method of gripping the suspending wire at the top. With those improvements, successful Foucault operation was attained in pendulums as short as 15 cm, support to center of bob. Following that severe test, the length for the ``wall clock'' was set at a conservative 70 cm. At that length it is highly reliable, and accurate to within 2% when timed for the full revolution. Uniformity in rate when comparing different intervals of azimuth is of course less. A simple method of making the pendulum read local time is described. Two clocks, one in the author's office and one at home, have been in continuous operation for more than ten years.

  19. Lateral sellar angiolipoma: a tumor illustrative of the extradural compartment of the neural axis.

    PubMed

    François, Patrick; Zemmoura, Ilyess; Fouquet, Anne Marie Bergemer; Jan, Michel; Velut, Stéphane

    2010-11-01

    Angiolipomas are rare tumors of the CNS that most frequently develop in the orbit, the cavernous space, and the epidural space of the spine. The authors report the case of a patient who presented with an angiolipoma of the cavernous space. Using data from the published literature and an experimental anatomical approach, they demonstrate that the cavernous space contains adipose tissue. Consequently, they suggest that angiolipomas constitute a characteristic tumor illustrating the interperiosteo-dural concept. The authors report the clinical, radiological, and histological data of a patient who presented with a tumor of the cavernous space. In addition, they prepared 2 encephalic extremities (4 cavernous spaces) using a special anatomical preparation consisting of an injection of colored neoprene latex followed by a 6-month immersion in a formaldehyde solution enriched with hydrogen peroxide to soften the bone structures (coronal sections) while leaving the fat in the cavernous space intact. This case report corroborates previously published clinical data and shows that the tumor was a hamartoma comprising mature fat cells associated with vascular proliferation. The tumor developed in the cavernous space, which is an interperiosteo-dural space extending from the sphenoid periosteum (osteoperiosteal layer) to the superior and lateral walls of the cavernous space (encephalic layer). This space represents an anatomical continuum extending from the coccyx to the orbit: the interperiosteo-dural concept. It contains fat tissue that is abundant at the level of the orbit and the epidural spinal space and sparser at the level of the cavernous spaces, as was shown in our anatomical study. The authors suggest that angiolipomas represent a characteristic tumor that illustrates the interperiosteo-dural concept because they essentially develop in the fat tissue contained in these spaces.

  20. [Mircocarriers' motion in rotating wall vessels].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao; Yang, Chun; Zhuang, Fengyuan

    2010-12-01

    Rotating wall vessels (RWVS), an ingenious apparatus for three-dimensional suspension culture, is widely used to build a simulated microgravity-effect on cell. Independent researchers have proposed hypotheses to illustrate why RWVS can simulate certain aspects of microgravity. Many of the hypotheses stated that the culture condition in RWVS is determined by the cellular mechanical environment which is a result of low fluid shear and microcarrier's motion. The microcarrier's motions consist of primary and secondary motions. In the light of the analysis of forces loaded by the microcarriers, some conclusions are drawn from the data on microcarriers' primary and secondary motions about which many simulations and observations have already been conducted. PMID:21375011

  1. Congenital lateral abdominal wall hernia.

    PubMed

    Montes-Tapia, Fernando; Cura-Esquivel, Idalia; Gutiérrez, Susana; Rodríguez-Balderrama, Isaías; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Congenital abdominal wall defects that are located outside of the anterior wall are extremely rare and difficult to classify because there are no well accepted guidelines. There are two regions outside of the anterior wall: the flank or lateral wall; and the lumbar region. We report the case of a patient with an oval 3 cm-diameter hernia defect located above the anterior axillary line, which affects all layers of the muscular wall. An anorectal malformation consisting of a recto-vestibular fistula was also identified, and chest X-ray showed dextrocardia. The suggested treatment is repair of the defect before 1 year of age. Given that the anomalies described may accompany lateral abdominal wall hernia, it is important to diagnose and treat the associated defects.

  2. Teaching Introductory Mineralogy With the GeoWall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C. D.; Haymon, R. M.

    2003-12-01

    Mineralogy, like many topics in Earth Sciences, contains inherently three-dimensional topics that are difficult to teach. Concepts such as crystal symmetry and forms, Miller indices, the polymerization of silica tetrahedra and resulting structures of silicate mineral groups, and the interaction of light and minerals are particularly difficult. Two-dimensional diagrams are limited in their effectiveness, and physical models, while effective, are expensive and do not work as well in large class settings. The GeoWall system brings the effectiveness of physical models to the large classroom. In Fall 2003, we will integrate the GeoWall into our introductory mineralogy classes at UCSB using a combination of commercial software, atomic structure models available on the web, and custom content created in-house. The commercial software SHAPE (www.shapesoftware.com) allows users to build and display crystal shapes and their symmetry. Though not designed for the GeoWall, the software's stereopair display mode works perfectly on the system. Using the Chime web browser plug-in (www.mdl.com), computer models of silicate minerals available from the Virtual Museum of Minerals and Molecules (www.soils.umn.eduvirtual_museum) provide an interactive display of silicate mineral structure that illustrates the tetrahedral framework. Again, while not developed for the GeoWall, the Chime plug-in works seamlessly with the GeoWall hardware. 3-D GeoWall images that display light paths through minerals, and reveal relationships between crystal symmetry and optical indicatrix properties, have been developed in-house using a combination of SHAPE and 3D modeling software. The 3-D GeoWall images should convey in an instant these difficult concepts that students historically have struggled to visualize. Initial assessment of the GeoWall's effectiveness as a mineralogy teaching aid at UCSB in Fall 2003 will come from the instructor's impressions and by comparing test scores with classes from

  3. Illustrating anticipatory life cycle assessment for emerging photovoltaic technologies.

    PubMed

    Wender, Ben A; Foley, Rider W; Prado-Lopez, Valentina; Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Eisenberg, Daniel A; Hottle, Troy A; Sadowski, Jathan; Flanagan, William P; Fisher, Angela; Laurin, Lise; Bates, Matthew E; Linkov, Igor; Seager, Thomas P; Fraser, Matthew P; Guston, David H

    2014-09-16

    Current research policy and strategy documents recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in research and development (R&D) to guide emerging technologies toward decreased environmental burden. However, existing LCA practices are ill-suited to support these recommendations. Barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. Overcoming these challenges requires methodological advances that help identify environmental opportunities prior to large R&D investments. Such an anticipatory approach to LCA requires synthesis of social, environmental, and technical knowledge beyond the capabilities of current practices. This paper introduces a novel framework for anticipatory LCA that incorporates technology forecasting, risk research, social engagement, and comparative impact assessment, then applies this framework to photovoltaic (PV) technologies. These examples illustrate the potential for anticipatory LCA to prioritize research questions and help guide environmentally responsible innovation of emerging technologies.

  4. "To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.

    PubMed

    Schilt, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics. PMID:27071300

  5. Medical and Scientific Illustration in the United States (US).

    PubMed

    Peres, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The field of Medical and Scientific Illustration in the United States is large and constantly changing. In 1974, when the author began his studies, everything about the field was different. At the time, a student in the U.S. could go to a number of Universities (4 year) or Colleges (2 year) to study this subject. More than forty years later, only a few programs still offer similar programs of study. The Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), where the author is a professor and Randolph Community College in North Carolina are all that remain from the more than ten that had operated. These two programs are very different from one another and there is not adequate space in this article to expand on these differences. Program details can be found online at: http://cias.rit.edu/schools/photographic-arts-sciences/undergraduate-biomedical-photographic-communications.

  6. Illustrating anticipatory life cycle assessment for emerging photovoltaic technologies.

    PubMed

    Wender, Ben A; Foley, Rider W; Prado-Lopez, Valentina; Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Eisenberg, Daniel A; Hottle, Troy A; Sadowski, Jathan; Flanagan, William P; Fisher, Angela; Laurin, Lise; Bates, Matthew E; Linkov, Igor; Seager, Thomas P; Fraser, Matthew P; Guston, David H

    2014-09-16

    Current research policy and strategy documents recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in research and development (R&D) to guide emerging technologies toward decreased environmental burden. However, existing LCA practices are ill-suited to support these recommendations. Barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. Overcoming these challenges requires methodological advances that help identify environmental opportunities prior to large R&D investments. Such an anticipatory approach to LCA requires synthesis of social, environmental, and technical knowledge beyond the capabilities of current practices. This paper introduces a novel framework for anticipatory LCA that incorporates technology forecasting, risk research, social engagement, and comparative impact assessment, then applies this framework to photovoltaic (PV) technologies. These examples illustrate the potential for anticipatory LCA to prioritize research questions and help guide environmentally responsible innovation of emerging technologies. PMID:25121583

  7. HemI: a toolkit for illustrating heatmaps.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wankun; Wang, Yongbo; Liu, Zexian; Cheng, Han; Xue, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Recent high-throughput techniques have generated a flood of biological data in all aspects. The transformation and visualization of multi-dimensional and numerical gene or protein expression data in a single heatmap can provide a concise but comprehensive presentation of molecular dynamics under different conditions. In this work, we developed an easy-to-use tool named HemI (Heat map Illustrator), which can visualize either gene or protein expression data in heatmaps. Additionally, the heatmaps can be recolored, rescaled or rotated in a customized manner. In addition, HemI provides multiple clustering strategies for analyzing the data. Publication-quality figures can be exported directly. We propose that HemI can be a useful toolkit for conveniently visualizing and manipulating heatmaps. The stand-alone packages of HemI were implemented in Java and can be accessed at http://hemi.biocuckoo.org/down.php.

  8. Illustrated structural application of universal first-order reliability method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1994-01-01

    The general application of the proposed first-order reliability method was achieved through the universal normalization of engineering probability distribution data. The method superimposes prevailing deterministic techniques and practices on the first-order reliability method to surmount deficiencies of the deterministic method and provide benefits of reliability techniques and predictions. A reliability design factor is derived from the reliability criterion to satisfy a specified reliability and is analogous to the deterministic safety factor. Its application is numerically illustrated on several practical structural design and verification cases with interesting results and insights. Two concepts of reliability selection criteria are suggested. Though the method was developed to support affordable structures for access to space, the method should also be applicable for most high-performance air and surface transportation systems.

  9. Mathematical Sketching: An Approach to Making Dynamic Illustrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laviola, Joseph J.

    Mathematical sketching is a pen-based, gestural interaction paradigm for mathematics problem solving. It derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing supporting diagrams to facilitate the formulation of mathematical expressions; however, with mathematical sketching, users can also leverage their physical intuition by watching their hand-drawn diagrams animate in response to continuous or discrete parameter changes in their written formulas. Diagram animation is driven by implicit associations that are inferred, either automatically or with gestural guidance, from mathematical expressions, diagram labels, and drawing elements. In this chapter, we discuss the important issues related to the mathematical sketching paradigm such as the development of a fluid gestural user interface, recognition of mathematical expressions, and the preparation and translation of mathematical sketches into animated illustrations.

  10. "To Improve upon Hints of Things": Illustrating Isaac Newton.

    PubMed

    Schilt, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    When Isaac Newton died in 1727 he left a rich legacy in terms of draft manuscripts, encompassing a variety of topics: natural philosophy, mathematics, alchemy, theology, and chronology, as well as papers relating to his career at the Mint. One thing that immediately strikes us is the textuality of Newton's legacy: images are sparse. Regarding his scholarly endeavours we witness the same practice. Newton's extensive drafts on theology and chronology do not contain a single illustration or map. Today we have all of Newton's draft manuscripts as witnesses of his working methods, as well as access to a significant number of books from his own library. Drawing parallels between Newton's reading practices and his natural philosophical and scholarly work, this paper seeks to understand Newton's recondite writing and publishing politics.

  11. Hydrocephalus and Neurocysticercosis: Cases Illustrative of Three Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Faillot, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Background Cysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic infection of the nervous system. Most lesions are intracranial, and spinal involvement is rare. We describe here in two cases of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in the brain and one in the spinal cord that illustrate three distinct mechanisms leading to symptomatic acute hydrocephalus. Case Report Hydrocephalus was related to intracranial NCC in two of them. In the first case the hydrocephalus was due to an extensive arachnoiditis to the craniocervical junction, while in the second it was caused by obstruction of Magendie's foramen in the fourth ventricle by the scolex of Taenia solium. For the third patient, hydrocephalus revealed cysticercosis of the cauda equina due to the scolex. Conclusions NCC should be considered as a possible diagnosis for patients suffering from hydrocephalus when they originate from or have traveled in endemic areas, MRI of the spine is mandatory to search for intraspinal lesions. PMID:25324888

  12. Medical and Scientific Illustration in the United States (US).

    PubMed

    Peres, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The field of Medical and Scientific Illustration in the United States is large and constantly changing. In 1974, when the author began his studies, everything about the field was different. At the time, a student in the U.S. could go to a number of Universities (4 year) or Colleges (2 year) to study this subject. More than forty years later, only a few programs still offer similar programs of study. The Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), where the author is a professor and Randolph Community College in North Carolina are all that remain from the more than ten that had operated. These two programs are very different from one another and there is not adequate space in this article to expand on these differences. Program details can be found online at: http://cias.rit.edu/schools/photographic-arts-sciences/undergraduate-biomedical-photographic-communications. PMID:26203944

  13. Pilot in Command: An Illustration of Autonomous Flight Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Ponthieux, Joseph G.

    2004-01-01

    Several years of NASA research have produced the concept for air traffic management called "Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management," a major operational advancement that should significantly increase the capacity of the National Airspace System. A key component, "Autonomous Flight Management," introduces a new class of aircraft operations in which pilots are authorized to freely maneuver and execute optimal trajectories independent from air traffic controllers. These aircraft operators would benefit from significant increases in flexibility to optimize all flight operations and from avoiding most of the delays associated with ground-controlled operations. Responsibilities for aircraft separation and arrival flow conformance are transferred to the flight deck, and the pilots use computerized decision-support tools to accomplish these tasks. A research prototype of these tools called the "Autonomous Operations Planner" is being developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. This 14-minute video illustrates Autonomous Flight Management from the airline pilot's perspective.

  14. Dynamical domain wall and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyozato, Yuta; Higuchi, Masafumi; Nojiri, Shin'ichi

    2016-03-01

    Based on the previous works (Toyozato et al., 2013 [24]; Higuchi and Nojiri, 2014 [25]), we investigate the localization of the fields on the dynamical domain wall, where the four-dimensional FRW universe is realized on the domain wall in the five-dimensional space-time. Especially we show that the chiral spinor can localize on the domain wall, which has not been succeeded in the past works as the seminal work in George et al. (2009) [23].

  15. Asymptotic dynamics of monopole walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, R.

    2015-08-01

    We determine the asymptotic dynamics of the U(N) doubly periodic BPS monopole in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, called a monopole wall, by exploring its Higgs curve using the Newton polytope and amoeba. In particular, we show that the monopole wall splits into subwalls when any of its moduli become large. The long-distance gauge and Higgs field interactions of these subwalls are Abelian, allowing us to derive an asymptotic metric for the monopole wall moduli space.

  16. From data point timelines to a well curated data set, data mining of experimental data and chemical structure data from scientific articles, problems and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Ruusmann, Villu; Maran, Uko

    2013-07-01

    The scientific literature is important source of experimental and chemical structure data. Very often this data has been harvested into smaller or bigger data collections leaving the data quality and curation issues on shoulders of users. The current research presents a systematic and reproducible workflow for collecting series of data points from scientific literature and assembling a database that is suitable for the purposes of high quality modelling and decision support. The quality assurance aspect of the workflow is concerned with the curation of both chemical structures and associated toxicity values at (1) single data point level and (2) collection of data points level. The assembly of a database employs a novel "timeline" approach. The workflow is implemented as a software solution and its applicability is demonstrated on the example of the Tetrahymena pyriformis acute aquatic toxicity endpoint. A literature collection of 86 primary publications for T. pyriformis was found to contain 2,072 chemical compounds and 2,498 unique toxicity values, which divide into 2,440 numerical and 58 textual values. Every chemical compound was assigned to a preferred toxicity value. Examples for most common chemical and toxicological data curation scenarios are discussed.

  17. The role of massive stars in the turbulent infancy of Galactic globular clusters: feedback on the intracluster medium, and detailed timeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnel, C.; Krause, M.; Decressin, T.; Prantzos, N.; Meynet, G.

    A major paradigm shift has recently revolutionized our picture of globular clusters (GC) that were long thought to be simple systems of coeval stars born out of homogeneous material. Indeed, detailed abundance studies of GC long-lived low-mass stars performed with 8-10m class telescopes, together with high-precision photometry of Galactic GCs obtained with HST, have brought compelling clues on the presence of multiple stellar populations in individual GCs. These stellar subgroups can be recognized thanks to their different chemical properties (more precisely by abundance differences in light elements from carbon to aluminium; see Bragaglia, this volume) and by the appearance of multimodal sequences in the colour-magnitude diagrams (see Piotto, this volume). This has a severe impact on our understanding of the early evolution of GCs, and in particular of the possible role that massive stars played in shaping the intra-cluster medium (ICM) and in inducing secondary star formation. Here we summarize the detailed timeline we have recently proposed for the first 40 Myrs in the lifetime of a typical GC following the general ideas of our so-called "Fast Rotating Massive stars scenario" (FRMS, Decressin et al. 2007b) and taking into account the dynamics of interstellar bubbles produced by stellar winds and supernovae. More details can be found in Krause et al. (2012, 2013).

  18. Timeline trend profile and seasonal variations in nicotine present in ambient PM10 samples: A four year investigation from Delhi region, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Shweta; Tandon, Ankit; Attri, Arun K.

    2014-12-01

    The detection of nicotine, an organic tracer for Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS), in the collected PM10 samples from Delhi region's ambient environment, in a appropriately designed investigation was initiated over four years (2006-2009) to: (1) Comprehend seasonal and inter-annual variations in the nicotine present in PM10; (2) Extract regression based linear trend profile manifested by nicotine in PM10; (3) Determine the non-linear trend timeline from the nicotine data, and compare it with the obtained linear trend; (4) Suggest the possible use of the designed experiment and analysis to have a qualitative appraisal of Tobacco Smoking activity in the sampling region. The PM10 samples were collected in a monthly time-series sequence at a known receptor site. Quantitative estimates of nicotine (ng m-3) were made by using a Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). The annual average concentrations of nicotine (ng m-3) were 516 ± 302 (2008) > 494 ± 301 (2009) > 438 ± 250 (2007) > 325 ± 149 (2006). The estimated linear trend of 5.4 ng m-3 month-1 corresponded to 16.3% per annum increase in the PM10 associated nicotine. The industrial production of India's tobacco index normalized to Delhi region's consumption, pegged an increase at 10.5% per annum over this period.

  19. Illustrating and homology modeling the proteins of the Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Ekins, Sean; Liebler, John; Neves, Bruno J.; Lewis, Warren G.; Coffee, Megan; Bienstock, Rachelle; Southan, Christopher; Andrade, Carolina H.

    2016-01-01

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which is similar to dengue virus, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Recent outbreaks in South America, Latin America, the Caribbean and in particular Brazil have led to concern for the spread of the disease and potential to cause Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Although ZIKV has been known of for over 60 years there is very little in the way of knowledge of the virus with few publications and no crystal structures. No antivirals have been tested against it either in vitro or in vivo. ZIKV therefore epitomizes a neglected disease. Several suggested steps have been proposed which could be taken to initiate ZIKV antiviral drug discovery using both high throughput screens as well as structure-based design based on homology models for the key proteins. We now describe preliminary homology models created for NS5, FtsJ, NS4B, NS4A, HELICc, DEXDc, peptidase S7, NS2B, NS2A, NS1, E stem, glycoprotein M, propeptide, capsid and glycoprotein E using SWISS-MODEL. Eleven out of 15 models pass our model quality criteria for their further use. While a ZIKV glycoprotein E homology model was initially described in the immature conformation as a trimer, we now describe the mature dimer conformer which allowed the construction of an illustration of the complete virion. By comparing illustrations of ZIKV based on this new homology model and the dengue virus crystal structure we propose potential differences that could be exploited for antiviral and vaccine design. The prediction of sites for glycosylation on this protein may also be useful in this regard. While we await a cryo-EM structure of ZIKV and eventual crystal structures of the individual proteins, these homology models provide the community with a starting point for structure-based design of drugs and vaccines as well as a for computational virtual screening. PMID:27746901

  20. Bacterial Cell Wall Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

    Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

  1. Oven wall panel construction

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  2. 7. INTERIOR, MAIN GARAGE, SOUTHERN WALL, FROM CLOSE TO WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, MAIN GARAGE, SOUTHERN WALL, FROM CLOSE TO WALL, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM TAPE CONTROL SYSTEM (TECHNOLOGY CIRCA 1910) AT CENTER, AND ENTRY TO OFFICE AT FAR RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. This area is labeled “Pioneering Research” on drawing copy NV-35-B-5 (submitted with HABS No. NV-35-B) (series 2 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  4. 13. LONG WEST WALL (LEFT) AND SHORT SOUTH WALL (RIGHT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. LONG WEST WALL (LEFT) AND SHORT SOUTH WALL (RIGHT) OF AR-9, ALSO SHOWING MORE RECENT CONTROL ROOM BUILDING AT RIGHT. VIEW IS TO THE NORTHEAST. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. 10. VIEW OF LAMINARFLOW FILTER WALL NEAR SOUTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF LAMINAR-FLOW FILTER WALL NEAR SOUTH WALL OF CLEAN ROOM (102). NOTE GROUNDING CABLES NEAR BASEBOARD IN LOWER RIGHT BACKGROUND. WHITE SQUARE IN FOREGROUND IS A FLOOR DRAIN COVERED WITH TAPE. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Polar domain walls trigger magnetoelectric coupling

    PubMed Central

    Fontcuberta, Josep; Skumryev, Vassil; Laukhin, Vladimir; Granados, Xavier; Salje, Ekhard K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Interface physics in oxides heterostructures is pivotal in material’s science. Domain walls (DWs) in ferroic systems are examples of naturally occurring interfaces, where order parameter of neighboring domains is modified and emerging properties may develop. Here we show that electric tuning of ferroelastic domain walls in SrTiO3 leads to dramatic changes of the magnetic domain structure of a neighboring magnetic layer (La1/2Sr1/2MnO3) epitaxially clamped on a SrTiO3 substrate. We show that the properties of the magnetic layer are intimately connected to the existence of polar regions at twin boundaries of SrTiO3, developing at , that can be electrically modulated. These findings illustrate that by exploiting the responsiveness of DWs nanoregions to external stimuli, even in absence of any domain contribution, prominent and adjustable macroscopic reactions of neighboring layers can be obtained. We conclude that polar DWs, known to exist in other materials, can be used to trigger tunable responses and may lead to new ways for the manipulation of interfacial emerging properties. PMID:26387597

  7. Domain-wall supergravities from sphere reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič , M.; Liu, James T.; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.

    1999-10-01

    Kaluza-Klein sphere reductions of supergravities that admit Ads × Sphere vacuum solutions are believed to be consistent. The examples include the S4 and S7 reductions of eleven-dimensional supergravity, and the S5 reduction of ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity . In this paper we provide evidence that sphere reductions of supergravities that admit instead Domain-wallxSphere vacuum solutions are also consistent, where the background can be viewed as the near-horizon structure of a dilatonic p-brane of the theory. The resulting lower-dimensional theory is a gauged supergravity that admits a domain wall, rather than AdS, as a vacuum solution. We illustrate this consistency by taking the singular limits of certain modulus parameters, for which the original Sn compactifying spheres ( n = 4, 5 or 7) becomes Sp × Rq, with p = n - q < n. The consistency of the S4, S7 reductions then implies the consistency of the S p reductions of the lower-dimensional supergravities. In particular, we obtain explicit non-linear ansätze for the S3 reduction of type IIA and heterotic supergravities, restricting to the U(1) 2 subgroup of the SO(4) gauge group of S3. We also study the black-hole solutions in the lower-dimensional gauged supergravities with domain-wall backgrounds. We find new domain-wall black holes which are not the singular-modulus limits of the AdS black holes of the original theories, and we obtain their Killing spinors.

  8. Direct numerical simulation of non-premixed flame-wall interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Trouvé, A.

    2005-01-01

    The overall objective of this paper is to illustrate how detailed numerical modelling may be used to bring basic information on fundamental problems in combustion science. We consider in the following the interaction of non-premixed flames with cold solid wall surfaces. Flame-wall interactions are an important feature in many combustion systems, that result in significant changes in the flame and wall dynamics: the flame strength is reduced near cold wall surfaces, leading possibly to (partial or total) quenching, while the gassolid heat flux takes peak values at flame contact. The questions of turbulent fuel-air-temperature mixing, flame extinction and wall surface heat transfer are here studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The DNS configuration corresponds to an ethylene-air diffusion flame stabilized in the near-wall region of a chemically-inert solid surface. Simulations are performed with adiabatic or isothermal wall boundary conditions, and with different turbulence intensities. The simulations feature flame extinction events resulting from excessive wall cooling, and convective heat transfer up to 90 kW/m2. The structure of the simulated wall flames is studied in terms of a classical mass mixing variable, i.e. the fuel-airbased mixture fraction, and a less familiar heat loss variable, i.e. the excess enthalpy variable, introduced to provide a measure of non-adiabatic behavior due to wall cooling.

  9. Great Wall of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.

    This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and

  10. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  11. Occlusion-free Blood Flow Animation with Wall Thickness Visualization.

    PubMed

    Lawonn, Kai; Glaßer, Sylvia; Vilanova, Anna; Preim, Bernhard; Isenberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We present the first visualization tool that combines pathlines from blood flow and wall thickness information. Our method uses illustrative techniques to provide occlusion-free visualization of the flow. We thus offer medical researchers an effective visual analysis tool for aneurysm treatment risk assessment. Such aneurysms bear a high risk of rupture and significant treatment-related risks. Therefore, to get a fully informed decision it is essential to both investigate the vessel morphology and the hemodynamic data. Ongoing research emphasizes the importance of analyzing the wall thickness in risk assessment. Our combination of blood flow visualization and wall thickness representation is a significant improvement for the exploration and analysis of aneurysms. As all presented information is spatially intertwined, occlusion problems occur. We solve these occlusion problems by dynamic cutaway surfaces. We combine this approach with a glyph-based blood flow representation and a visual mapping of wall thickness onto the vessel surface. We developed a GPU-based implementation of our visualizations which facilitates wall thickness analysis through real-time rendering and flexible interactive data exploration mechanisms. We designed our techniques in collaboration with domain experts, and we provide details about the evaluation of the technique and tool.

  12. Calculations and Publication-Quality Illustrations for Analytical Ultracentrifugation Data.

    PubMed

    Brautigam, Chad A

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) data has been greatly facilitated by the advances accumulated in recent years. These improvements include refinements in AUC-based binding isotherms, advances in the fitting of both sedimentation velocity (SV) and sedimentation equilibrium (SE) data, and innovations in calculations related to posttranslationally modified proteins and to proteins with a large amount of associated cosolute, e.g., detergents. To capitalize on these advances, the experimenter often must prepare and collate multiple data sets and parameters for subsequent analyses; these tasks can be cumbersome and unclear, especially for new users. Examples are the sorting of concentration-profile scans for SE data, the integration of sedimentation velocity distributions (c(s)) to arrive at weighted-average binding isotherms, and the calculations to determine the oligomeric state of glycoproteins and membrane proteins. The significant organizational and logistical hurdles presented by these approaches are streamlined by the software described herein, called GUSSI. GUSSI also creates publication-quality graphics for documenting and illustrating AUC and other biophysical experiments with minimal effort on the user's part. The program contains three main modules, allowing for plotting and calculations on c(s) distributions, SV signal versus radius data, and general data/fit/residual plots. PMID:26412649

  13. [Mixed methods research in public health: issues and illustration].

    PubMed

    Guével, Marie-Renée; Pommier, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    For many years, researchers in a range of fields have combined quantitative and qualitative methods. However, the combined use of quantitative and qualitative methods has only recently been conceptualized and defined as mixed methods research. Some authors have described the emerging field as a third methodological tradition (in addition to the qualitative and quantitative traditions). Mixed methods research combines different perspectives and facilitates the study of complex interventions or programs, particularly in public health, an area where interdisciplinarity is critical. However, the existing literature is primarily in English. By contrast, the literature in French remains limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the emergence of mixed methods research for francophone public health specialists. A literature review was conducted to identify the main characteristics of mixed methods research. The results provide an overall picture of the mixed methods approach through its history, definitions, and applications, and highlight the tools developed to clarify the approach (typologies) and to implement it (integration of results and quality standards). The tools highlighted in the literature review are illustrated by a study conducted in France. Mixed methods research opens new possibilities for examining complex research questions and provides relevant and promising opportunities for addressing current public health issues in France.

  14. Historical Landsat data comparisons: illustrations of the Earth's changing surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC) has managed the Landsat data archive for more than two decades. This archive provides a rich collection of information about the Earth's land surface. Major changes to the surface of the planet can be detected, measured, and analyzed using Landsat data. The effects of desertification, deforestation, pollution, cataclysmic volcanic activity, and other natural and anthropogenic events can be examined using data acquired from the Landsat series of Earth-observing satellites. The information obtainable from the historical and current Landsat data play a key role in studying surface changes through time. This document provides an overview of the Landsat program and illustrates the application of the data to monitor changes occurring on the surface of the Earth. To reveal changes that have taken place within the past 20 years, pairs and triplicates of images were constructed from the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) sensors. Landsat MSS data provide a historical record of the Earth's land surface from the early 1970's to the early 1990's. Landsat TM data provide land surface information from the early 1980's to the present.

  15. Defending Sleepwalkers with Science and an Illustrative Case

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Rosalind D.; Guilleminault, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test whether laboratory-based research differentiating sleepwalkers (SW) from controls (C) can be applied in an uncontrolled forensic case as evidence the alleged crime was committed during an arousal from sleep in which the mind is not fully conscious due to a SW disorder. Methods: A PSG study recorded 8 months after the defendant was charged was analyzed independently by spectral analysis. Slow wave activity (SWA) and cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) rates were computed. Clinical interviews and police records were reviewed for data re: the defendant's sleep prior to the event and use of drugs, alcohol, and stimulants. Results: The SWA distribution was abnormally low and flat, significantly lower than published controls; in the first NREM cycle, CAP rate 55 was above normal. Two weeks of prior sleep deprivation was confirmed from interviews and defendant's observed daytime sleepiness. Caffeine intake the day before the event was calculated at 826 mg over 14 hours. Snoring and a mild breathing disorder were present in the PSG. Conclusion: Testimony based on spectral analysis of PSG recorded following an alleged criminal event supported a SW explanation for the non-rational behaviors charged. The defendant was acquitted of all charges and has been successfully treated. Citation: Cartwright RD; Guilleminault C. Defending sleepwalkers with science and an illustrative case. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(7):721-726. PMID:23853569

  16. Chapter 20: neurological illustration from photography to cinematography.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores iconography in neurology from the birth of photography up to the early medical applications of cinematography before 1914. The important visual part of neurological diagnosis explains why these techniques were adopted very early by neurologists. Duchenne published the first medical book illustrated with photographs of patients. The first and most famous photographic laboratory was created in Charcot's department, at the Salpêtrière in Paris, under the direction of Albert Londe. Londe published the first book dedicated to medical photography. The physiologist Marey and the photographer Muybridge, in association with neurologists, played key roles in the development of chronophotography and cinematography. Germany was the first country to welcome cinematography in a neurology department. Independently, neurologists began to film patients in other countries in Europe and in America. In 1905, Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), Belgian anatomist and neurologist, began systematically to film neurologic patients, with the intention of building up a complete neurological iconographic collection. This collection has survived and has been restored in the laboratory of the Royal Belgian Film Archive where the films are now safely stored in their vaults.

  17. 3. This series of photographs (3 through 9) illustrates the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. This series of photographs (3 through 9) illustrates the operation of the swing bridge. In #3 the bridge is in its closed position. #3 4,5,&6 the boat whistles and requests passage. the bridge is closed to traffice. The bridge operator, stationed in the center of the tenders house at the center of the truss releases the pneumatic jack. The rollers beneath the deck. swing upward and the electric-powered turntable swings the bobtail drawn in the direction of the oncoming vessel. In #7 a tugboat enters the channel. In #8 a much-lightened ore carrier which has delivered its cargo to the steel mills upriver(note the high water mark), makes its way down-river towards Lake Erie. Such boats are too large to turn around on the narrow Cuyahoga, so they go out backwards, pulled by a tug. in #9 the the ore-carrier clears the channel. In #10 As soon as the boat clears the bridge, the bridge tender begins to close it. The bridge is opened in the direction of an oncoming vessel so that it can be closed even as the boat is leaving the channel; thus surface traffic on Center Street suffers the least possible interruption. - Center Street Swing Bridge, Southwest of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. Single Gene and Syndromic Causes of Obesity: Illustrative Examples.

    PubMed

    Butler, Merlin G

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant health problem in westernized societies, particularly in the United States where it has reached epidemic proportions in both adults and children. The prevalence of childhood obesity has doubled in the past 30 years. The causation is complex with multiple sources, including an obesity promoting environment with plentiful highly dense food sources and overall decreased physical activity noted for much of the general population, but genetic factors clearly play a role. Advances in genetic technology using candidate gene approaches, genome-wide association studies, structural and expression microarrays, and next generation sequencing have led to the discovery of hundreds of genes recognized as contributing to obesity. Polygenic and monogenic causes of obesity are now recognized including dozens of examples of syndromic obesity with Prader-Willi syndrome, as a classical example and recognized as the most common known cause of life-threatening obesity. Genetic factors playing a role in the causation of obesity will be discussed along with the growing evidence of single genes and the continuum between monogenic and polygenic obesity. The clinical and genetic aspects of four classical but rare obesity-related syndromes (ie, Prader-Willi, Alström, fragile X, and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy) will be described and illustrated in this review of single gene and syndromic causes of obesity. PMID:27288824

  19. A simple device to illustrate the Einthoven triangle

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Benjamin E.; Wulff, Heike; Widdicombe, Jonathan H.; Zheng, Jie; Bers, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    The Einthoven triangle is central to the field of electrocardiography, but the concept of cardiac vectors is often a difficult notion for students to grasp. To illustrate this principle, we constructed a device that recreates the conditions of an ECG reading using a battery to simulate the electrical vector of the heart and three voltmeters for the main electrocardiographic leads. Requiring minimal construction with low cost, this device provides hands-on practice that enables students to rediscover the principles of the Einthoven triangle, namely, that the direction of the cardiac dipole can be predicted from the deflections in any two leads and that lead I + lead III = lead II independent of the position of heart's electrical vector. We built a total of 6 devices for classes of 30 students and tested them in the first-year Human Physiology course at the University of California-Davis School of Medicine. Combined with traditional demonstrations with ECG machines, this equipment demonstrated its ability to help medical students obtain a solid foundation of the basic principles of electrocardiography. PMID:23209014

  20. Chapter 20: neurological illustration from photography to cinematography.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores iconography in neurology from the birth of photography up to the early medical applications of cinematography before 1914. The important visual part of neurological diagnosis explains why these techniques were adopted very early by neurologists. Duchenne published the first medical book illustrated with photographs of patients. The first and most famous photographic laboratory was created in Charcot's department, at the Salpêtrière in Paris, under the direction of Albert Londe. Londe published the first book dedicated to medical photography. The physiologist Marey and the photographer Muybridge, in association with neurologists, played key roles in the development of chronophotography and cinematography. Germany was the first country to welcome cinematography in a neurology department. Independently, neurologists began to film patients in other countries in Europe and in America. In 1905, Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914), Belgian anatomist and neurologist, began systematically to film neurologic patients, with the intention of building up a complete neurological iconographic collection. This collection has survived and has been restored in the laboratory of the Royal Belgian Film Archive where the films are now safely stored in their vaults. PMID:19892123

  1. Channel Wall Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Mechanical instabilities of bubble clusters between parallel walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, M. A.; Rosa, M. E.; Vaz, M. F.; Teixeira, P. I. C.

    2004-12-01

    We have carried out a systematic study of buckling-like mechanical instabilities in simple two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) symmetric foam clusters sandwiched between parallel planar walls. These instabilities occur when the wall separation w is reduced below a critical value, w*, for which the foam surface energy E reaches its minimum, E*. The clusters under investigation consist of either a single bubble, or of “twin bubbles” of fixed equal sizes (areas A in 2D or volumes V in 3D), which are either free to slide or pinned at the confining walls. We have numerically obtained w* for both free and pinned 2D and 3D clusters. Furthermore, we have calculated the buckled configurations of 2D twin bubbles, either free or pinned, and of 3D free twin bubbles, whose energy is independent of w and equal to the minimum energy E* of the unbuckled state. Finally, we have also predicted the critical wt* at which the terminal configurations under extension of 2D and 3D single and twin bubbles are realised. Experimental illustrations of these transitions under compression and extension are presented. Our results, together with others from the literature, suggest that a bubble cluster bounded by two parallel walls is stable only if the normal force it exerts on the walls is attractive, i.e., if dE/dw > 0; clusters that cause repulsion between the walls are unstable. We correlate this with the distribution of film orientations: films in a stable cluster cannot be “too parallel” to the confining walls; rather, their average tilt must be larger than for a random distribution of film orientations.

  3. Patient-Oriented and Performance-Based Outcomes After Knee Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation: A Timeline for the First Year of Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Jennifer S.; Mattacola, Carl G.; Mullineaux, David R.; English, Robert A.; Lattermann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Context It is well established that autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) can require extended recovery postoperatively; however, little information exists to provide clinicians and patients with a timeline for anticipated function during the first year after ACI. Objective To document the recovery of functional performance of activities of daily living after ACI. Patients ACI patients (n = 48, 29 male; 35.1 ± 8.0 y). Intervention All patients completed functional tests (weight-bearing squat, walk-across, sit-to-stand, step-up/over, and forward lunge) using the NeuroCom long force plate (Clackamas, OR) and completed patient-reported outcome measures (International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, Lysholm, Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC], and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey) preoperatively and 3, 6, and 12 mo postoperatively. Main Outcome Measures A covariance pattern model was used to compare performance and self-reported outcome across time and provide a timeline for functional recovery after ACI. Results Participants demonstrated significant improvement in walk-across stride length from baseline (42.0% ± 8.9% height) at 6 (46.8% ± 8.1%) and 12 mo (46.6% ± 7.6%). Weight bearing on the involved limb during squatting at 30°, 60°, and 90° was significantly less at 3 mo than presurgery. Step-up/over time was significantly slower at 3 mo (1.67 ± 0.69 s) than at baseline (1.49 ± 0.33 s), 6 mo (1.51 ± 0.36 s), and 12 mo (1.40 ± 0.26 s). Step-up/over lift-up index was increased from baseline (41.0% ± 11.3% body weight [BW]) at 3 (45.0% ± 11.7% BW), 6 (47.0% ± 11.3% BW), and 12 mo (47.3% ± 11.6% BW). Forward-lunge time was decreased at 3 mo (1.51 ± 0.44 s) compared with baseline (1.39 ± 0.43 s), 6 mo (1.32 ± 0.05 s), and 12 mo (1.27 ± 0.06). Similarly, forward-lunge impact force was decreased at 3 mo (22.2% ± 1.4% BW) compared with baseline (25.4% ± 1.5% BW). The WOMAC demonstrated significant

  4. First wall and blanket module safety enhancement by material selection and design decision

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A thermal/mechanical study has been performed which illustrates the behavior of a fusion reactor first wall and blanket module during a loss of coolant flow event. The relative safety advantages of various material and design options were determined. A generalized first wall-blanket concept was developed to provide the flexibility to vary the structural material (stainless steel vs titanium), coolant (helium vs water), and breeder material (liquid lithium vs solid lithium aluminate). In addition, independent vs common first wall-blanket cooling and coupled adjacent module cooling design options were included in the study. The comparative analyses were performed using a modified thermal analysis code to handle phase change problems.

  5. Reduction of wind tunnel wall interference by controlled wall flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, S. (Editor); Joppa, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    An alternate method of testing was developed in which flow through the porous walls of the tunnel was actively controlled so as to approximate free air conditions in the neighborhood of the model during the test. The amount and distribution of the controlled flow through the walls is computed using a potential flow representation of the model based on the measured lift. Theoretical analysis is presented to prove the convergence of the method to free air conditions and to substantiate the general three-dimensional theory of operation when the normal flow distribution is continuous. A two-dimensional tunnel was constructed to evaluate the concept. Results show that substantial reduction of wall interference may be achieved with relatively low values of porosity of actively controlled walls.

  6. 27. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; SIDEWALL, NORTH WALL AND SOUTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; SIDEWALL, NORTH WALL AND SOUTH WALL FRAMING ELEVATIONS." Specifications No. ENG-04353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 27 of 148; file no. 1320/78. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, Rev. B; date: 15 April 1957. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. 3D quantitative visualization of altered LV wall thickening dynamics caused by coronary microembolization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eusemann, Christian D.; Mohlenkamp, Stefan; Ritman, Erik L.; Robb, Richard A.

    2001-05-01

    Regional heart wall dynamics has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of LV wall ischemia. Rates of local LV wall thickening during a cardiac cycle can be measured and illustrated using functional parametric mappings. This display conveys the spatial distribution of dynamic strain in the myocardium and thereby provides a rapid qualitative appreciation of the severity and extent of the ischemic region. 3D reconstructions were obtained in an anesthetized pig from 8 adjacent, shortaxis, slices of the left ventricle imaged with an Electron Beam Computer Tomograph at 11 time points through one complete cardiac cycle. The 3D reconstructions were obtained before and after injection of 100 micrometer microspheres into the Left Anterior Descending (LAD) coronary artery. This injection causes microembolization of LAD artery branches within the heart wall. The image processing involved radially dividing the tomographic images of the myocardium into small subdivisions with color encoding of the local magnitude of regional thickness or regional velocities of LV wall thickening throughout the cardiac cycle. We compared the effectiveness of animation of wall thickness encoded in color versus a static image of computed rate of wall thickness change in color. The location, extent and severity of regional wall akinesis or dyskinesis, as determined from these displays, can then be compared to the region of embolization as indicated by the distribution of altered LV wall perfusion.

  8. Wall Insulation; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Properly sealed, moisture-protected, and insulated walls help increase comfort, reduce noise, and save on energy costs. This fact sheet addresses these topics plus advanced framing techniques, insulation types, wall sheathings, and steps for effective wall construction and insulation.

  9. Fly on the Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The email was addressed not only to me, but also to all the Project Knowledge Sharing Community at Ames Research Center. We were invited to sit in on a major project review as a new experiment in knowledge sharing. This first-of-its-kind opportunity had been conceived by Claire Smith, who leads the knowledge sharing program, as well as heading up the Center's Project Leadership Development Program and serving as coordinator of the APPL-West program at Ames. The objective was to offer Ames project practitioners the opportunity to observe project-review processes as they happen. Not that I haven't participated in my share of project reviews, but this seemed like a great way for me to get up-to-date about a new project, the Kepler mission, and to experience a review from a new perspective. Typically, when you're being reviewed, it's difficult to see what's happening objectively-the same way it is on a project. Presenters are always thinking, 'Okay, what's on my slides? How much time do I have left? What are they going to ask me?' So when Claire's email pinged on my computer, I quickly responded by asking her to save a place for me. It was to be an informational review about progress on the project: what the team had done, where they were going, and what they needed to do to get there. There were people on the project team from all over the United States, and it was the first time for them to get together from all aspects of the project. For our part, as observers, we were asked to abide by a couple of rules: Don't ask any questions. and don't talk about the specifics of what we saw or heard. The idea was that we weren't supposed to be noticed. We weren't to buzz around and bother people. Hence the name for this experinient: Fly on the Wall.

  10. My Big Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    It was June and I was in Yosemite National Park in California, 2,000-feet off the ground. I was climbing El Capitan, a majestic 3,000-foot high, mile-wide granite monolith--one of the most sought after and spectacular rock climbs in the world. After three days of climbing on its sheer face, and having completed the most difficult part of the route, my partner and I were heading down. A thunderstorm lasting all night and into the morning had soaked our tiny perch and all our worldly possessions. We began rappelling down the vertical wall by sliding to the ends of two 50meter ropes tied together and looped through a set of fixed rings bolted into the rock. At the end of the ropes was another rappel station consisting of a set of rings, placed by previous climbers for retreating parties, which we used to anchor ourselves to the rock face. We then pulled the ropes down from the rings above, threaded the ones in front of our noses and started down another rope length. Everything we brought up for our five-day climb to the summit we had to bring back down with us: ropes, climbing gear of every sort, sleeping bags, extra clothes, food, water, and other essentials. All this we either stuffed into a haul bag (an oversized reinforced duffel bag) or slung over our shoulders. The retreat was slow and methodical, akin to a train backing down a mountain, giving me ample time to think. My situation made me think about my work, mostly, about all the projects I have managed, or been involved in managing. As a NASA project manager, I have worked on a number of successful projects. I have also been involved in a number of projects I never saw the end of. I thought about all the projects I transferred off of for other opportunities, projects that were in full stride and ran out of funding, and ones put on the shelf because they would not meet a flight date. Oh yes, I have had many success, to be sure, or I would have burned out years ago. Lessons from both the successful and not

  11. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  12. Wall effects in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevallier, J. P.; Vaucheret, X.

    1986-01-01

    A synthesis of current trends in the reduction and computation of wall effects is presented. Some of the points discussed include: (1) for the two-dimensional, transonic tests, various control techniques of boundary conditions are used with adaptive walls offering high precision in determining reference conditions and residual corrections. A reduction in the boundary layer effects of the lateral walls is obtained at T2; (2) for the three-dimensional tests, the methods for the reduction of wall effects are still seldom applied due to a lesser need and to their complexity; (3) the supports holding the model of the probes have to be taken into account in the estimation of perturbatory effects.

  13. Adaptive wall testing sections (AWTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The lecture starts with conventional techniques of minimizing wall interference and explains the principle of wall streamlining. The history of AWTS development is highlighted, along with the benefits of wall streamlining, including minimized boundary interference, increased model size, reduced tunnel drive power, noise, and volume, as well as multiple flow field simulations to be performed using one test section. AWTS-associated problems coming from the need to adjust the test-section boundaries for each test condition are assessed, along with the requirements of a boundary-adjustment strategy. Examples of two- and three-dimensional test sections are presented, and attention is focused on residual interference and the effects of compressibility and model lift on flexible-wall contours.

  14. PKU Self-Management Timeline

    MedlinePlus

    ... language skills and becomes more interested in his environment, it will be time for him to have a role in his own PKU management. Thankfully, this process can be quite natural. One of the parents in our clinic has ...

  15. Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)

    MedlinePlus

    ... establish solid intellectual property protection for the new biotechnology industry. 1981 The Whitehead Institute is established at ... relationship between academic researchers and the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. 1995 The NIH and NSF revise their ...

  16. Effects Of Three-Dimensional Conducting Structures On Resistive Wall Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Villone, Fabio

    2008-11-01

    This paper illustrates the effect of three-dimensional conducting structures on the evolution of Resistive Wall Modes (RWM) occurring in toroidal fusion devices. The CarMa code is used to derive the model, which then is used to design a feedback controller of RWMs. Some examples of application to the ITER geometry are reported.

  17. Innovative Composite Wall System for Sheathing Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Robert L.; Cavallo, James

    1997-09-25

    Existing Housing - Much of the older multifamily housing stock in the United States includes units in structures with uninsulated masonry walls. Included in this stock are two- and three-story walk-up apartments, larger apartment complexes, and public housing (both high- rise and townhouse). This older multifamily housing has seen years of heavy use that may have left the plaster wall marred or damaged. Long- term building settlement or movement may have cracked the plaster, sometimes severely. Moisture from invented kitchens and baths may have caused condensation on uninsulated exterior walls. At best this condensation has left stains on the paint or wallpaper. At worst it has supported mold and mildew growth, fouling the air and creating unhealthy living conditions. Deteriorating plaster and flaking paint also result from wet walls. The presence of flaking, lead-based paint in older (pre-1978) housing is a major public health concern. Children can suffer permanent mental handicaps and psychological disorders if they are subjected to elevated levels of lead, while adults can suffer hypertension and other maladies. Studies have found that, in some urban communities with older housing stocks, over 35% of children tested have elevated blood lead levels (Hastings, et al.: 1997). Nationally, nearly 22% of black, non-hispanic children living in pre-1946 housing were found to have elevated levels of lead in their blood (MWWR Article: February 21,1997). The deterioration of many of these walls is to the point that lead can freely enter the living space.

  18. General synthesis of inorganic single-walled nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Bing; Liu, Huiling; Wang, Peng-peng; He, Jie; Wang, Xun

    2015-01-01

    The single-walled nanotube (SWNT) is an interesting nanostructure for fundamental research and potential applications. However, very few inorganic SWNTs are available to date due to the lack of efficient fabrication methods. Here we synthesize four types of SWNT: sulfide; hydroxide; phosphate; and polyoxometalate. Each type of SWNT possesses essentially uniform diameters. Detailed studies illustrate that the formation of SWNTs is initiated by the self-coiling of the corresponding ultrathin nanostructure embryo/building blocks on the base of weak interactions between them, which is not limited to specific compounds or crystal structures. The interactions between building blocks can be modulated by varying the solvents used, thus multi-walled tubes can also be obtained. Our results reveal that the generalized synthesis of inorganic SWNTs can be achieved by the self-coiling of ultrathin building blocks under the proper weak interactions. PMID:26510862

  19. Wall thickness effect on the resistive wall mode stability in toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.-J.; Kotschenreuther, M.T.

    2005-07-15

    The effect of finite wall thickness on the stability of n=1 resistive wall modes in toroidal plasmas is investigated. A fusion reactor-relevant configuration is examined. The investigation employs a novel ideal-magnetohydrodynamics adaptive shooting code for axisymmetric plasmas, extended to take into account the wall thickness. Although finite wall thickness generally reduces the growth rate of the resistive wall modes, no contribution to stabilization is found to be made by the portion of the wall that is located beyond the critical position for perfectly conducting wall stabilization. Thus, when the inner side of the wall lies near the critical wall position, the scaling of the growth rate versus wall thickness in the realistic thick-wall calculation is significantly different from that of the usual thin-wall theory. The thin-wall estimate is relevant only when the wall is brought very close to the plasma and is not too thick.

  20. Effects of the flexibility of the arterial wall on the wall shear stresses and wall tension in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Fernandez, Miguel; Chomaz, Jean-Marc

    2005-11-01

    As an abdominal aortic aneurysm develops, large changes occur in the composition and structure of the arterial wall, which result in its stiffening. So far, most studies, whether experimental or numerical, have been conducted assuming the walls to be rigid. A numerical simulation of the fluid structure interactions is performed in different models of aneurysms in order to analyze the effects that the wall compliance might have on the flow topology. Both symmetric and non-symmetric models of aneurysms are considered, all idealistic in shape. The wall mechanical properties are varied in order to simulate the progressive stiffening of the walls. The spatial and temporal distributions of wall tension are calculated for the different values of the wall elasticity and compared to the results for the rigid walls. In the case of rigid walls, the calculation of the wall shear stresses and pressure compare very well with experimental results.