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Sample records for ilma kuulajata pole

  1. Magnet pole tips

    DOEpatents

    Thorn, Craig E.; Chasman, Chellis; Baltz, Anthony J.

    1984-04-24

    An improved magnet which more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  2. Magnet pole tips

    DOEpatents

    Thorn, C.E.; Chasman, C.; Baltz, A.J.

    1981-11-19

    An improved magnet more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  3. Lunar South Pole Illumination

    NASA Video Gallery

    Simulated illumination conditions over the lunar South Pole region, from ~80°S to the pole. The movie runs for 28 days, centered on the LCROSS impact date on October 9th, 2009. The illumination ca...

  4. Orbiter escape pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Winston D. (Inventor); Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor); Pelischek, Timothy E. (Inventor); Becker, Bruce H. (Inventor); Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor); Grimaldi, Margaret E. (Inventor); McManamen, John P. (Inventor); Castro, Edgar O. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A Shuttle type of aircraft (10) with an escape hatch (12) has an arcuately shaped pole housing (16) attachable to an interior wall and ceiling with its open end adjacent to the escape hatch. The pole housing 16 contains a telescopically arranged and arcuately shaped primary pole member (22) and extension pole member (23) which are guided by roller assemblies (30,35). The extension pole member (23) is slidable and extendable relative to the primary pole member (22). For actuation, a spring actuated system includes a spring (52) in the pole housing. A locking member (90) engages both pole members (22,23) through notch portions (85,86) in the pole members. The locking member selectively releases the extension pole member (23) and the primary pole member (22). An internal one-way clutch or anti-return mechanism prevents retraction of the extension pole member from an extended position. Shock absorbers (54)(150,152) are for absoring the energy of the springs. A manual backup deployment system is provided which includes a canted ring (104) biased by a spring member (108). A lever member (100) with a slot and pin connection (102) permits the mechanical manipulation of the canted ring to move the primary pole member. The ring (104) also prevents retraction of the main pole. The crew escape mechanism includes a magazine (60) and a number of lanyards (62), each lanyard being mounted by a roller loop (68) over the primary pole member (22). The strap on the roller loop has stitching for controlled release, a protection sheath (74) to prevent tangling and a hook member (69) for attachment to a crew harness.

  5. ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A Mass-Spectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottin, Hervé; Arezki, B.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Briois, C.; Carrasco, N.; Gilbert, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Hilchenbach, M.; Krüger, H.; Makarov, A.; Pennanech, C.; Puget, P.; Quirico, E.; Szopa, C.; Thirkell, L.; Zapf, P.; Thissen, R.

    Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimals accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some are known to be rich in carbon and volatile species (including water), which suggests that they never underwent major heating and differentiation events. Their organic content is also of prime interest because the chemical evolution leading to life on Earth may have been initiated by the delivery of extraterrestrial organic compounds into primitive oceans. For these reasons, several space missions are currently considered by ESA and JAXA for a sample return mission to a primitive carbonaceous Near-Earth Object (NEO): MARCO POLO, HAYABUZA 2, etc... Their goal is to characterize a NEO at multiple scales via in-situ measurements by a science payload onboard an orbiter and a lander, and to bring samples back to Earth. ILMA is a concept for a new generation high resolution mass spectrometer, proposed to be part of a lander payload for in situ science. This instrument will be a Fourier Transform ion trap mass spectrometer using Laser Desorption and Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDIMS) into a single platform. To this end, an Orbitrap mass analyser (developed by the Thermofisher Company) will be coupled to a laser source. The sample will be exposed to the laser beam producing desorbed ions which will be collected into the ion trap using the orbital trapping method. Ions will be stabilized in the trap by purely electrostatic quadro-logarithmic electrical fields and the detection undertaken by a non destructive measurement of the ion oscillation frequency inside the trap. Indeed, the trapped ions induce a periodic signal converted using Fourier Transform (FT) into an ultra-high mass resolution

  6. The Totem Pole Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Susan Breyer

    1991-01-01

    Presents an activity that integrates science, environmental education, art, and social studies. Students identify and research an endangered species and construct a totem pole depicting the species using a recyclable material. (MDH)

  7. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    We propose a new class of photonic devices based on periodic stress fields in silicon that enable second-order nonlinearity as well as quasi-phase matching. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on second-order nonlinear effects. As an example of the utility of the PePSi technology, we present simulations showing that midwave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  8. Orbitrap-based mass analyser for in-situ characterization of asteroids: ILMA, Ion Laser Mass Analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briois, C.; Cotti, H.; Thirkell, L.; Space Orbitrap Consortium[K. Aradj, French; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Carrasco, N.; Chalumeau, G.; Chapelon, O.; Colin, F.; Coll, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Kukui, A.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Pennanech, C.; Szopa, C.; Thissen, R.; Vuitton, V.; Zapf], P.; Makarov, A.

    2014-07-01

    Since about a decade the boundaries between comets and carbonaceous asteroids are fading [1,2]. No doubt that the Rosetta mission should bring a new wealth of data on the composition of comets. But as promising as it may look, the mass resolving power of the mass spectrometers onboard (so far the best on a space mission) will only be able to partially account for the diversity of chemical structures present. ILMA (Ion-Laser Mass Analyser) is a new generation high mass resolution LDI-MS (Laser Desorption-Ionization Mass Spectrometer) instrument concept using the Orbitrap technique, which has been developed in the frame of the two Marco Polo & Marco Polo-R proposals to the ESA Cosmic Vision program. Flagged by ESA as an instrument concept of interest for the mission in 2012, it has been under study for a few years in the frame of a Research and Technology (R&T) development programme between 5 French laboratories (LPC2E, IPAG, LATMOS, LISA, CSNSM) [3,4], partly funded by the French Space Agency (CNES). The work is undertaken in close collaboration with the Thermo Fisher Scientific Company, which commercialises Orbitrap-based laboratory instruments. The R&T activities are currently concentrating on the core elements of the Orbitrap analyser that are required to reach a sufficient maturity level for allowing design studies of future space instruments. A prototype is under development at LPC2E and a mass resolution (m/Δm FWHM) of 100,000 as been obtained at m/z = 150 for a background pressure of 10^{-8} mbar. ILMA would be a key instrument to measure the molecular, elemental and isotopic composition of objects such as carbonaceous asteroids, comets, or other bodies devoid of atmosphere such as the surface of an icy satellite, the Moon, or Mercury.

  9. Pole pulling apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    McIntire, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for removal of embedded utility-type poles which removes the poles quickly and efficiently from their embedded position without damage to the pole or surrounding structures. The apparatus includes at least 2 piston/cylinder members equally spaced about the pole, and a head member affixed to the top of each piston. Elongation of the piston induces rotation of the head into the pole to increase the gripping action and reduce slippage. Repeated actuation and retraction of the piston and head member will "jack" the pole from its embedded position.

  10. Neptune's 'Hot' South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    These thermal images show a 'hot' south pole on the planet Neptune. These warmer temperatures provide an avenue for methane to escape out of the deep atmosphere.

    The images were obtained with the Very Large Telescope in Chile, using an imager/spectrometer for mid-infrared wavelengths on Sept. 1 and 2, 2006. The telescope is operated by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (known as ESO).

    Scientists say Neptune's south pole is 'hotter' than anywhere else on the planet by about 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit). The average temperature on Neptune is about minus 200 degrees Celsius (minus 392 degrees Fahrenheit).

    The upper left image samples temperatures near the top of Neptune's troposphere (near 100 millibar pressure, which is one-tenth the Earth atmospheric pressure at sea level). The hottest temperatures are indicated at the lower part of the image, at Neptune's south pole (see the graphic at the upper right). The lower two images, taken 6.3 hours apart, sample temperatures at higher altitudes in Neptune's stratosphere. They do show generally warmer temperatures near, but not at, the south pole. They also show a distinct warm area which can be seen in the lower left image and rotated completely around the back of the planet and returned to the earth-facing hemisphere in the lower right image.

  11. A LINE POLE 20, STUBBED HISTORIC POLE WITH ORIGINAL GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A LINE POLE 20, STUBBED HISTORIC POLE WITH ORIGINAL GLASS PIN-TYPE INSULATORS AND INTACT COMMUNICATION LINE CROSS ARM. VIEW TO WEST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  12. Single phase two pole/six pole motor

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-09-25

    A single phase alternating current two pole/six pole motor is provided with a main stator winding having six coils disposed unequally around the periphery of the machine. These coils are divided into two groups. When these groups are connected such that their magnetomotive forces are additive, two pole motor operation results. When the polarity of one of the groups is then reversed, six pole motor operation results. An auxiliary stator winding which is similar to the main stator winding is displaced from the main stator winding by 90 electrical degrees on a two pole basis. 12 figs.

  13. Single phase two pole/six pole motor

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S.

    1984-01-01

    A single phase alternating current two pole/six pole motor is provided with a main stator winding having six coils disposed unequally around the periphery of the machine. These coils are divided into two groups. When these groups are connected such that their magnetomotive forces are additive, two pole motor operation results. When the polarity of one of the groups is then reversed, six pole motor operation results. An auxiliary stator winding which is similar to the main stator winding is displaced from the main stator winding by 90 electrical degrees on a two pole basis.

  14. Rad Pole Cam Development

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

    2005-10-05

    The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

  15. Moon - North Pole Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the Moon's north pole is a mosaic assembled from 18 images taken by Galileo's imaging system through a green filter as the spacecraft flew by on December 7, 1992. The left part of the Moon is visible from Earth; this region includes the dark, lava-filled Mare Imbrium (upper left); Mare Serenitatis (middle left); Mare Tranquillitatis (lower left), and Mare Crisium, the dark circular feature toward the bottom of the mosaic. Also visible in this view are the dark lava plains of the Marginis and Smythii Basins at the lower right. The Humboldtianum Basin, a 650-kilometer (400-mile) impact structure partly filled with dark volcanic deposits, is seen at the center of the image. The Moon's north pole is located just inside the shadow zone, about a third of the way from the top left of the illuminated region.

  16. Six pole/eight pole single-phase motor

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S.

    1984-01-01

    A single phase alternating current electric motor is provided with a main stator winding having two coil groups which are connected to form eight poles for eight-pole operation and to form six poles for six-pole operation. Each group contains four series connected coil elements with each element spanning approximately one-seventh of the periphery of the machine. The coil groups are spaced 180 mechanical degrees apart such that each end coil of one group overlaps one of the end coils of the other group. An auxiliary stator winding having two coil groups with the same relative angular displacement as the main stator winding coil groups is included.

  17. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  18. Moon - North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the north polar region of the Moon was obtained by Galileo's camera during the spacecraft's flyby of the Earth-Moon system on December 7 and 8, 1992. The north pole is to the lower right of the image. The view in the upper left is toward the horizon across the volcanic lava plains of Mare Imbrium. The prominent crater with the central peak is Pythagoras, an impact crater some 130 kilometers (80 miles) in diameter. The image was taken at a distance of 121,000 kilometers (75,000 miles) from the Moon through the violet filter of Galileo's imaging system. According to team scientists, the viewing geometry provided by the spacecraft's pass over the north pole and the low sun-angle illumination provide a unique opportunity to assess the geologic relationships among the smooth plains, cratered terrain and impact ejecta deposits in this region of the Moon. JPL manages the Galileo Project for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  19. MODIS Views North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image over the North Pole was acquired by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard the Terra spacecraft, on May 5, 2000. The scene was received and processed by Norway's MODIS Direct Broadcast data receiving station, located in Svalbard, within seconds of photons hitting the sensor's detectors. (Click for more details about MODIS Direct Broadcast data.) In this image, the sea ice appears white and areas of open water, or recently refrozen sea surface, appear black. The irregular whitish shapes toward the bottom of the image are clouds, which are often difficult to distinguish from the white Arctic surface. Notice the considerable number of cracks, or 'leads,' in the ice that appear as dark networks of lines. Throughout the region within the Arctic Circle leads are continually opening and closing due to the direction and intensity of shifting wind and ocean currents. Leads are particularly common during the summer, when temperatures are higher and the ice is thinner. In this image, each pixel is one square kilometer. Such true-color views of the North Pole are quite rare, as most of the time much of the region within the Arctic Circle is cloaked in clouds. Image by Allen Lunsford, NASA GSFC Direct Readout Laboratory; Data courtesy Tromso receiving station, Svalbard, Norway

  20. Posterior pole tumor update.

    PubMed

    Ou, Judy I; Wheeler, Sharon M; O'Brien, Joan M

    2002-12-01

    This chapter focuses on the diagnosis and management of choroidal melanoma in light of recent findings from the COMS. Retinoblastoma is emphasized to describe recent trends in primary treatment away from EBRT and toward chemoreduction with local therapy. In addition, vascular and glial tumors of the retina and tumors of the retinal pigment epithelium are described because of the association between these lesions and systemic disease. Recent advances in treatment and genetic testing for these diseases are discussed. Finally, ocular metastasis, intraocular lymphoid tumors, and intraocular leukemia are included because of their importance in determining systemic treatment and prognosis. The chapter gives an overview of important posterior pole tumors and highlights recent developments in the management of each intraocular disease process.

  1. Longer life for wood poles

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkinson, J.; Tackaberry, R.

    1982-11-01

    Investigates the use of liquid fumigants on in-service wooden utility poles in order to prevent decay. Reveals that although utility poles are pressure-treated with chemicals before they go into service as supports for transmission and distribution lines, they are frequently invaded by one or more of 225 species of fungus. Indicates that while the average service life of poles is 15-25 yrs, retreatment with fumigants may extend it to 35-40 yrs. Discusses trees and treatment, fungi, pole inspection, and fumigation. Points out that the Bonneville Power Administration estimates that it can save $2.2 million per year by retreating 15,000 poles instead of having to replace 1500 of them per year for 10 yrs. Reports that research results on decay and fumigation have helped more than 160 electric utilities who are using the fumigants. Concludes that although some decay-prone areas in poles, such as seasoning checks and woodpecker holes, will continue to invite the fungal menace, the increasing effort to inspect and fumigate poles on a large scale will ensure safer and more reliable power lines, while eliminating much of the conventional expenditure on replacing decayed poles.

  2. Orbitrap for ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A Mass-Spectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thissen, Roland; Thissen, R.; Arezki, B.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Briois, C.; Carrasco, N.; Gilbert, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Hilchenbach, M.; Krüger, H.; Makarov, A.; Pennanech, C.; Puget, P.; Quirico, E.; Szopa, C.; Thirkell, L.; Zapf, P.; Cottin, H.

    Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimal accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some are known to be rich in carbon and volatile species (including water), which suggests that they never underwent major heating and differentiation events. Their organic content is also of prime interest because the chemical evolution leading to life on Earth may have been initiated by the delivery of extraterrestrial organic compounds into primitive oceans. For these reasons, several space missions are currently considered by ESA and JAXA for a sample return mission to a primitive carbonaceous Near-Earth Object (NEO): MARCO POLO, HAYABUZA 2, etc... Their goal is to characterize a NEO at multiple scales via in-situ measurements by a science payload onboard an orbiter and a lander, and to bring samples back to Earth. ILMA is a concept for a new generation high resolution mass spectrometer, proposed to be part of a lander payload for in situ science. This instrument will be a Fourier Transform ion trap mass spectrometer using Laser Desorption and Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDIMS) into a single platform. To this end, an Orbitrap mass analyser (developed by the Thermofisher Company) will be coupled to a laser source. The sample will be exposed to the laser beam producing desorbed ions which will be collected into the ion trap using the orbital trapping method. Ions will be stabilized in the trap by purely electrostatic quadro-logarithmic electrical fields and the detection undertaken by a non destructive measurement of the ion oscillation frequency inside the trap. Indeed, the trapped ions induce a periodic signal converted using Fourier Transform (FT) into an ultra-high mass resolution spectrum

  3. The South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  4. Lightweight extendable and retractable pole

    DOEpatents

    Warren, J.L.; Brandt, J.E.

    1994-08-02

    A lightweight extendable and retractable telescopic pole is disclosed comprising a plurality of non-metallic telescoping cylinders with sliding and sealing surfaces between the cylinders, a first plug member on the upper end of the smallest cylinder, and a second plug member on the lower end of the largest cylinder, whereby fluid pressure admitted to the largest cylinder will cause the telescoping cylinders to slide relative to one another causing the pole to extend. An elastomeric member connects the first plug member with one of the intermediate cylinders to urge the cylinders back into a collapsed position when the fluid pressure in the cylinders is vented. Annular elastomer members are provided which seal one cylinder to another when the pole is fully extended and further serve to provide a cushion to prevent damage to the cylinders when the pole is urged back into its retractable position by the elastomeric members and the venting of the pressure. A value mechanism associated with the pole is provided to admit a fluid under pressure to the interior of the telescoping cylinders of the pole while pressurizing a pressure relief port having an opening larger than the inlet port in a closed position whereby removal of the pressure on the relief port will cause the relief port to open to quickly lower the pressure in the interior of the telescoping cylinders to thereby assist in the rapid retraction of the extended pole. 18 figs.

  5. Lightweight extendable and retractable pole

    DOEpatents

    Warren, John L.; Brandt, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A lightweight extendable and retractable telescopic pole is disclosed comprising a plurality of non-metallic telescoping cylinders with sliding and sealing surfaces between the cylinders, a first plug member on the upper end of the smallest cylinder, and a second plug member on the lower end of the largest cylinder, whereby fluid pressure admitted to the largest cylinder will cause the telescoping cylinders to slide relative to one another causing the pole to extend. An elastomeric member connects the first plug member with one of the intermediate cylinders to urge the cylinders back into a collapsed position when the fluid pressure in the cylinders is vented. Annular elastomer members are provided which seal one cylinder to another when the pole is fully extended and further serve to provide a cushion to prevent damage to the cylinders when the pole is urged back into its retractable position by the elastomeric members and the venting of the pressure. A value mechanism associated with the pole is provided to admit a fluid under pressure to the interior of the telescoping cylinders of the pole while pressurizing a pressure relief port having an opening larger than the inlet port in a closed position whereby removal of the pressure on the relief port will cause the relief port to open to quickly lower the pressure in the interior of the telescoping cylinders to thereby assist in the rapid retraction of the extended pole.

  6. Recycling of treated wood poles

    SciTech Connect

    Fansham, P.

    1995-11-01

    There are approximately 150 million utilities poles in service in North America. Of the 3 million poles removed from service each year, many poles still contain a sound and structurally intact core and only the outer layer has deteriorated. Since most of the old poles are treated with either pentachlorophenol or creosote there are limited disposal options available to pole users. The practice of giving old poles away to farmers or other interested parties in falling into disfavour since this practice does not absolve the utility of the environmental liability associated with the treated wood. TWT has commercialised a thermolysis (Pyrolysis) based process capable of removing oil based preservatives from treated wood. The patented process involves: the shaving of the weathered pole exterior; the rapid distillation of oil based preservatives in an oxygen depleted environment; condensation of the vapours; and separation of liquids. TWT has constructed a 30,000 pole per year facility east of Calgary and has provided recycled poles for the construction of two power lines now in use by TransAlta Utilities Corporation, Canada`s largest investor owned electric utility. TWT has tested two thermolysis (Pyrolysis) technologies and has determined that contact thermolysis using a heated auger design performed better and with less plugging than a fast fluid bed reactor. The fluid bed reactor is prone to coke formation and contamination of the oil by fine char particles. Residual PCP concentration in the shavings was reduced from 9500 ppm to 10 ppm. Leachate testing on the char yielded a PCP concentration of 1.43 ppm in the Leachate, well below the EPA standard maximum of 100 ppm.

  7. Six pole/eight pole single-phase motor

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-07-31

    A single phase alternating current electric motor is provided with a main stator winding having two coil groups which are connected to form eight poles for eight-pole operation and to form six poles for six-pole operation. Each group contains four series connected coil elements with each element spanning approximately one-seventh of the periphery of the machine. The coil groups are spaced 180 mechanical degrees apart such that each end coil of one group overlaps one of the end coils of the other group. An auxiliary stator winding having two coil groups with the same relative angular displacement as the main stator winding coil groups is included. 10 figs.

  8. Single phase four pole/six pole motor

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S.

    1984-01-01

    A single phase alternating current electric motor is provided with a main stator winding having two coil groups each including the series connection of three coils. These coil groups can be connected in series for six pole operation and in parallel for four pole operation. The coils are approximately equally spaced around the periphery of the machine but are not of equal numbers of turns. The two coil groups are identically wound and spaced 180 mechanical degrees apart. One coil of each group has more turns and a greater span than the other two coils.

  9. Single phase four pole/six pole motor

    DOEpatents

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-10-09

    A single phase alternating current electric motor is provided with a main stator winding having two coil groups each including the series connection of three coils. These coil groups can be connected in series for six pole operation and in parallel for four pole operation. The coils are approximately equally spaced around the periphery of the machine but are not of equal numbers of turns. The two coil groups are identically wound and spaced 180 mechanical degrees apart. One coil of each group has more turns and a greater span than the other two coils. 10 figs.

  10. Low loss pole configuration for multi-pole homopolar magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakun, Claef F. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A new pole configuration for multi-pole homopolar bearings proposed in this invention reduces rotational losses caused by eddy-currents generated when non-uniform flux distributions exist along the rotor surfaces. The new homopolar magnetic bearing includes a stator with reduced pole-to-pole and exhibits a much more uniform rotor flux than with large pole-to-pole gaps. A pole feature called a pole-link is incorporated into the low-loss poles to provide a uniform pole-to-pole gap and a controlled path for pole-to-pole flux. In order to implement the low-loss pole configuration of magnetic bearings with small pole-to-pole gaps, a new stator configuration was developed to facilitate installation of coil windings. The stator was divided into sector shaped pieces, as many pieces as there are poles. Each sector-shaped pole-piece can be wound on a standard coil winding machine, and it is practical to wind precision layer wound coils. To achieve maximum actuation efficiency, it is desirable to use all the available space for the coil formed by the natural geometric configuration. Then, the coils can be wound in a tapered shape. After winding, the sectored-pole-pieces are installed into and fastened by bonding or other means, to a ring of material which encloses the sectored-pole-pieces, forming a complete stator.

  11. Calligraphic Poling of Ferroelectric Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohageg, Makan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Adrey; Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Calligraphic poling is a technique for generating an arbitrary, possibly complex pattern of localized reversal in the direction of permanent polarization in a wafer of LiNbO3 or other ferroelectric material. The technique is so named because it involves a writing process in which a sharp electrode tip is moved across a surface of the wafer to expose the wafer to a polarizing electric field in the desired pattern. The technique is implemented by use of an apparatus, denoted a calligraphic poling machine (CPM), that includes the electrode and other components as described in more detail below.

  12. South Pole Lorentz Invariance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, Morgan; Smiciklas, Marc; Romalis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Atomic spin co-magnetometers are among the most sensitive instruments to test for violations of CPT and Lorentz symmetry. Our rotating co-magnetometer has, in recent years, set the most stringent limits for such violations in fermions with measurements conducted in Princeton. In order to eliminate the gyroscopic pickup of Earth's rotation as a major limiting background, we now operate a Rb-21Ne co-magnetometer at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. We discuss the current status of our ongoing South Pole experiment along with the latest results. This research is funded by NSF grant #PLR-1142032.

  13. 78 FR 52868 - Pole Attachment Complaint Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Pole Attachment Complaint Procedures AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... regulations concerning pole attachments outlined in the DATES section. DATES: Effective August 27, 2013,...

  14. South Pole Lorentz Invariance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, Morgan; Smiciklas, Marc; Romalis, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Searches for Lorentz and CPT violation play an important role in testing current theories of space-time. To test one of the consequences of local Lorentz invariance we have performed a precision test of spatial isotropy at the Amundsen-Scott station near the geographic South Pole. This location provides the most isotropic environment available on Earth. The experiment is a rotating atomic-spin co-magnetometer which compares energy levels of 21Ne and Rubidium atoms as a function of direction. The experimental sensitivity obtained is more than an order of magnitude better than in previous such measurements, known as Hughes-Drever experiments. By operating the experiment at the Pole we are able to eliminate background signals due to the gyroscopic interactions of spins with Earth's rotation as well as diurnal environmental effects. Here we will present final results from the experiment's 2-year data collection period. This is the first precision atomic physics experiment performed at the Pole, and we will discuss the potential for future such measurements.

  15. South Pole Lorentz Invariance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, Morgan; Smiciklas, Marc; Romalis, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Tests of Lorentz and CPT symmetries are important because they form a cornerstone of quantum field theory and general relativity. To test one of the consequences of local Lorentz invariance we have performed a precision test of spatial isotropy at the Amundsen-Scott station near the geographic South Pole. This location provides the most isotropic environment available on Earth. We use an atomic spin co-magnetometer to compare energy levels in 21 Ne and Rubidium atoms as the apparatus rotates with respect to the cosmos. Our experimental sensitivity is more than an order of magnitude greater than in previous such measurements, known as Hughes-Drever experiments. By operating at the South Pole we eliminate background signals due to the gyroscopic interactions of spins with Earth's rotation as well as diurnal environmental effects. The experiment has finished a 2-year data collection period and we expect to present the final results at the meeting. This is the first precision atomic physics experiment performed at the Pole and we will discuss the potential for future such measurements.

  16. Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly

    DOEpatents

    Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Dawson, Richard Nils; Qu, Ronghai; Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich

    2009-08-11

    A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

  17. A LINE POLE 77A, HISTORIC POLE WITH HISTORIC REPLACEMENT PINTYPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A LINE POLE 77A, HISTORIC POLE WITH HISTORIC REPLACEMENT PIN-TYPE INSULATORS MADE OF BROWN PORCELAIN. VIEW TO WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  18. Tectonic Maps of the Poles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These tectonic relief maps of the north (left, view large [540k]) and south (right, view large [411k]) poles are the result of new satellite-based technologies which are being used to analyze tectonic activity in the Earth's crust. These maps, known as Digital Tectonic Activity Maps (DTAMs), synoptically depict the architecture of the Earth's crust including current and past tectonic activity. This is significant because it permits researchers to view broad zones of activity over the entire surface of the Earth, rather than focusing on single boundary features. By looking at these 'big pictures,' scientists can possibly identify regions of activity which were not previously recognized or mapped using traditional methods. For more information, see: DTAM web site Putting Earthquakes in Their Place Images courtesy Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC; data by Paul Lowman and Jacob Yates, NASA GSFC

  19. 47 CFR 32.2411 - Poles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Poles. 32.2411 Section 32.2411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2411 Poles. This...

  20. Vibration Monitoring of Power Distribution Poles

    SciTech Connect

    Clark Scott; Gail Heath; John Svoboda

    2006-04-01

    Some of the most visible and least monitored elements of our national security infrastructure are the poles and towers used for the distribution of our nation’s electrical power. Issues surrounding these elements within the United States include safety such as unauthorized climbing and access, vandalism such as nut/bolt removal or destructive small arms fire, and major vandalism such as the downing of power poles and towers by the cutting of the poles with a chainsaw or torches. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has an ongoing research program working to develop inexpensive and sensitive sensor platforms for the monitoring and characterization of damage to the power distribution infrastructure. This presentation covers the results from the instrumentation of a variety of power poles and wires with geophone assemblies and the recording of vibration data when power poles were subjected to a variety of stimuli. Initial results indicate that, for the majority of attacks against power poles, the resulting signal can be seen not only on the targeted pole but on sensors several poles away in the distribution network and a distributed sensor system can be used to monitor remote and critical structures.

  1. New pole placement algorithm - Polynomial matrix approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafai, B.; Keel, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    A simple and direct pole-placement algorithm is introduced for dynamical systems having a block companion matrix A. The algorithm utilizes well-established properties of matrix polynomials. Pole placement is achieved by appropriately assigning coefficient matrices of the corresponding matrix polynomial. This involves only matrix additions and multiplications without requiring matrix inversion. A numerical example is given for the purpose of illustration.

  2. Macro Fiber Piezocomposite Actuator Poling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werlink, Rudy J.; Bryant, Robert G.; Manos, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    The performance and advantages of Piezocomposite Actuators are to provide a low cost, in-situ actuator/sensor that is flexible, low profile and high strain per volt performance in the same plane of poled voltage. This paper extends reported data for the performance of these Macrofiber Composite (MFC) Actuators to include 4 progressively narrower Intedigitized electrode configurations with several line widths and spacing ratios. Data is reported for max free strain, average strain per applied volt, poling (alignment of the electric dipoles of the PZT ceramic) voltage vs. strain and capacitance, time to poling voltage 95% saturation. The output strain per volt progressively increases as electrode spacing decreases, with saturation occurring at lower poling voltages. The narrowest spacing ratio becomes prone to voltage breakdown or short circuits limiting the spacing width with current fabrication methods. The capacitance generally increases with increasing poling voltage level but has high sensitivity to factors such as temperature, moisture and time from poling which limit its usefulness as a simple indicator. The total time of applied poling voltage to saturate or fully line up the dipoles in the piezoceramic was generally on the order of 5-20 seconds. Less sensitivity to poling due to the applied rate of voltage increase over a 25 to 500 volt/second rate range was observed.

  3. Baryon transition form factors at the pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiator, L.; Döring, M.; Workman, R. L.; Hadžimehmedović, M.; Osmanović, H.; Omerović, R.; Stahov, J.; Švarc, A.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic resonance properties are uniquely defined at the pole and do not depend on the separation of the resonance from background or the decay channel. Photon-nucleon branching ratios are nowadays often quoted at the pole, and we generalize the considerations to the case of virtual photons. We derive and compare relations for nucleon to baryon transition form factors both for the Breit-Wigner and the pole positions. Using the MAID2007 and SAID SM08 partial wave analyses of pion electroproduction data, we compare the GM, GE, and GC form factors for the Δ (1232 ) resonance excitation at the Breit-Wigner resonance and pole positions up to Q2=5 GeV2 . We also explore the E /M and S /M ratios as functions of Q2. For pole and residue extraction, we apply the Laurent + Pietarinen method.

  4. Baryon transition form factors at the pole

    SciTech Connect

    Tiator, L.; Döring, M.; Workman, R. L.; Hadžimehmedović, M.; Osmanović, H.; Omerović, R.; Stahov, J.; Švarc, A.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic resonance properties are uniquely defined at the pole and do not depend on the separation of the resonance from background or the decay channel. Photon-nucleon branching ratios are nowadays often quoted at the pole, and we generalize the considerations to the case of virtual photons. We derive and compare relations for nucleon to baryon transition form factors both for the Breit-Wigner and the pole positions. Using the MAID2007 and SAID SM08 partial wave analyses of pion electroproduction data, we compare the $G_M$, $G_E$, and $G_C$ form factors for the $\\Delta(1232)$ resonance excitation at the Breit-Wigner resonance and pole positions up to $Q^2=5$ GeV$^2$. We also explore the $E/M$ and $S/M$ ratios as functions of $Q^2$. For pole and residue extraction, we apply the Laurent + Pietarinen method.

  5. Characterization of thermally poled germanosilicate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcan, A.; Digonnet, M. J. F.; Kino, G. S.; Ay, F.; Aydinli, A.

    2004-10-01

    We report measurements of the nonlinearity profile of thermally poled low-loss germanosilicate films deposited on fused-silica substrates by PECVD, of interest as potential electro-optic devices. The profiles of films grown and poled under various conditions all exhibit a sharp peak ~0.5 μm beneath the anode surface, followed by a weaker pedestal of approximately constant amplitude down to a depth of 13-16 μm, without the sign reversal typical of poled undoped fused silica. These features suggest that during poling, the films significantly slow down the injection of positive ions into the structure. After local optimization, we demonstrate a record peak nonlinear coefficient of ~1.6 pm/V, approximately twice as strong as the highest reliable value reported in thermally poled fused silica glass, a significant improvement that was qualitatively expected from the presence of Ge.

  6. Holography with a Landau pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2017-02-01

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is d = 4, N=4 super Yang-Mills coupled to N f quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale ΛLP. The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies E ≪ ΛLP no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales E ≲ ΛLP the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures T ≲ ΛLP the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on N=4 super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singularity is a hyper-scaling violating metric with exponent θ > d - 1.

  7. Geometric Modelling of Octagonal Lamp Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. O.; Lichti, D. D.

    2014-06-01

    Lamp poles are one of the most abundant highway and community components in modern cities. Their supporting parts are primarily tapered octagonal cones specifically designed for wind resistance. The geometry and the positions of the lamp poles are important information for various applications. For example, they are important to monitoring deformation of aged lamp poles, maintaining an efficient highway GIS system, and also facilitating possible feature-based calibration of mobile LiDAR systems. In this paper, we present a novel geometric model for octagonal lamp poles. The model consists of seven parameters in which a rotation about the z-axis is included, and points are constrained by the trigonometric property of 2D octagons after applying the rotations. For the geometric fitting of the lamp pole point cloud captured by a terrestrial LiDAR, accurate initial parameter values are essential. They can be estimated by first fitting the points to a circular cone model and this is followed by some basic point cloud processing techniques. The model was verified by fitting both simulated and real data. The real data includes several lamp pole point clouds captured by: (1) Faro Focus 3D and (2) Velodyne HDL-32E. The fitting results using the proposed model are promising, and up to 2.9 mm improvement in fitting accuracy was realized for the real lamp pole point clouds compared to using the conventional circular cone model. The overall result suggests that the proposed model is appropriate and rigorous.

  8. Development of Mini-pole Superconducting Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Jan, J. C.; Hwang, C. S.; Lin, P. H.; Chang, C. H.; Lin, F. Y.

    2007-01-19

    A mini-pole superconducting undulator with a 15mm period length (SU15) was developed at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC). The coil was wound by a superconducting (SC) NbTi wire with small dimensions and low Cu/SC ratio. The design field strength of SU15 with 158turns/pole was 1.4T at 215A, and the magnet gap was 5.6 mm. Extra trim coils and poles are mounted on the main iron pole. The trim coils directly compensate for the strength error of the peak field. The prototype racetrack iron pole was fabricated via electric discharge machining to produce a complete set of 40-poles. The coil was impregnated by epoxy and wrapped in Kapton to maintain insulation between coil and iron pole. A substitution beam duct was built and assembled with the magnet array and tested in the test Dewar. The conceptual design of bath liquid helium (LHe) cryostat has to tolerate more image current and radiation heating on the beam duct.

  9. What does the "mean pole" mean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. C.; Petit, G.; Luzum, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Rotational deformation (also called the pole tide) is the response of the solid earth and ocean to the Earth's wobble, which includes gravitational and surface displacement components. An important part of the model is the Conventional Mean Pole, which is required to remove the slow variation in the polar motion. This ensures that the rotational deformation model removes only the principal periodic motions (annual, Chandler and any other high frequency variations). Previously, no dependable mean pole product had been available. Consequently, for the 2010 Conventions, a cubic was fit to a filtered time series of polar motion and this model was adopted, along with a simple linear extrapolation into the future that was expected to be adequate until the next Conventions update. In light of the large changes in the mean pole due to recent ice mass losses, such extrapolations may not be reliable. To avoid this, the next Conventions update will include the use of a regularly updated mean pole table. Some subtleties in that choice will be noted. However, the original pole tide model was conceived when the mean pole was moving (more or less) linearly, largely in response to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). With the recent ice mass losses, particularly in Greenland, this motion is decidedly non-linear, and it is unclear whether the pole tide model correctly reflects this new reality. There are questions as to whether the mean pole should be the slow variation as conceived currently or should it reflect only the long-term linear motion (either based on a GIA model or a linear fit over an appropriate time span).

  10. Cold Hole Over Jupiter's Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Observations with two NASA telescopes show that Jupiter has an arctic polar vortex similar to a vortex over Earth's Antarctica that enables depletion of Earth's stratospheric ozone.

    These composite images of Jupiter's north polar region from the Hubble Space Telescope (right) and the Infrared Telescope Facility (left) show a quasi-hexagonal shape that extends vertically from the stratosphere down into the top of the troposphere. A sharp temperature drop, compared to surrounding air masses, creates an eastward wind that tends to keep the polar atmosphere, including the stratospheric haze, isolated from the rest of the atmosphere.

    The linear striations in the composite projections are artifacts of the image processing. The area closest to the pole has been omitted because it was too close to the edge of the planet in the original images to represent the planet reliably.

    The composite on the right combines images from the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope taken at a wavelength of 890 nanometers, which shows stratospheric haze particles.

    The sharp boundary and wave-like structure of the haze layer suggest a polar vortex and a similarity to Earth's stratospheric polar clouds. Images of Jupiter's thermal radiation clinch that identification. The composite on the left, for example, is made from images taken with Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mid-Infrared Large-Well Imager at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility at a wavelength of 17 microns. It shows polar air mass that is 5 to 6 degrees Celsius (9 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit) colder than its surroundings, with the same border as the stratospheric haze. Similar observations at other infrared wavelengths show the cold air mass extends at least as high as the middle stratosphere down to the top of the troposphere.

    These images were taken Aug. 11 through Aug. 13, 1999, near a time when Jupiter's north pole was most visible from Earth. Other Infrared Telescope Facility images at

  11. Polarimetric submillimeter observations from the South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Giles; Platt, Stephen R.; Dragovan, Mark

    1995-01-01

    We discuss proposed observations of the polarization of submillimeter continuum emission from the extended Galactic Center region. The observations will be made from the South Pole, using the VIPER 2-meter telescope.

  12. The pole tide in deep oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    The fluid-dynamical theory of the pole tide is examined by describing the oceanic response to the Chandler wobble and assessing its implications for mantle anelasticity and low-frequency ocean dynamics. The Laplace tide equations accounting for bottom friction are given, and a spherical harmonic approach is delineated in which the time-independent portion of the tide height is expanded. Pole-tide height and related inertia products are linearly proportional to wobble amplitude, and the final equations are modified to account for mantle elasticity and oceanic loading. Results for pole tide effects are given for various earth models with attention to the role of boundary constraints. A dynamic effect is identified which lengthens the Chandler period by about 1 day more than static lengthening, a contribution that suggests a vigorous low-frequency response. The values derived are shown to agree with previous models that do not incorporate the effects of the pole tide.

  13. Multiplicative-cascade dynamics in pole balancing.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Henry S; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G; Vaz, Daniela V; Michaels, Claire F

    2014-06-01

    Pole balancing is a key task for probing the prospective control that organisms must engage in for purposeful action. The temporal structure of pole-balancing behaviors will reflect the on-line operation of control mechanisms needed to maintain an upright posture. In this study, signatures of multifractality are sought and found in time series of the vertical angle of a pole balanced on the fingertip. Comparisons to surrogate time series reveal multiplicative-cascade dynamics and interactivity across scales. In addition, simulations of a pole-balancing model generating on-off intermittency [J. L. Cabrera and J. G. Milton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 158702 (2002)] were analyzed. Evidence of multifractality is also evident in simulations, though comparing simulated and participant series reveals a significantly greater contribution of cross-scale interactivity for the latter. These findings suggest that multiplicative-cascade dynamics are an extension of on-off intermittency and play a role in prospective coordination.

  14. A Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator with Permanent Magnets between the Field Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Hayamizu, Takahito; Shima, Kazuo; Fukami, Tadashi; Hanaoka, Ryoichi; Takata, Shinzo

    In this paper, a new salient-pole synchronous generator (SG) termed the PMa-SG is presented. In the PMa-SG, permanent magnets (PMs) are placed between the pole shoes to reduce the magnetic saturation in the field poles. By using finite element analysis (FEA), the internal magnetic fields and basic characteristics of a 2.8-MVA PMa-SG were compared with those of a conventional SG of the same size, and the reduction effect of the magnetic saturation of the PMs was examined. The FEA simulations were also validated by experiments on a 2.0-kVA prototype machine. The PMs placed between the pole shoes reduce the magnetic saturation in the pole bodies and pole tips and effectively increase the terminal voltage and output power.

  15. A moving-barber-pole illusion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Chubb, Charles; Sperling, George

    2014-05-01

    In the barber-pole illusion (BPI), a diagonally moving grating is perceived as moving vertically because of the shape of the vertically oriented window through which it is viewed-a strong shape-motion interaction. We introduce a novel stimulus-the moving barber pole-in which a diagonal, drifting sinusoidal carrier is windowed by a raised, vertical, drifting sinusoidal modulator that moves independently of the carrier. In foveal vision, the moving-barber-pole stimulus can be perceived as several active barber poles drifting horizontally but also as other complex dynamic patterns. In peripheral vision, pure vertical motion (the moving-barber-pole illusion [MBPI]) is perceived for a wide range of conditions. In foveal vision, the MBPI is observed, but only when the higher-order modulator motion is masked. Theories to explain the BPI make indiscriminable predictions in a standard barber-pole display. But, in moving-barber-pole stimuli, the motion directions of features (e.g., end stops) of the first-order carrier and of the higher-order modulator are all different from the MBPI. High temporal frequency stimuli viewed peripherally greatly reduce the effectiveness of higher-order motion mechanisms and, ideally, isolate a single mechanism responsible for the MBPI. A three-stage motion-path integration mechanism that (a) computes local motion energies, (b) integrates them for a limited time period along various spatial paths, and (c) selects the path with the greatest motion energy, quantitatively accounts for these high-frequency data. The MBPI model also accounts for the perceived motion-direction in peripherally viewed moving-barber-pole stimuli that do and do not exhibit the MBPI over the entire range of modulator (0-10 Hz) and carrier (2.5-10 Hz) temporal frequencies tested.

  16. Poles apart: Scott, Amundsen and science.

    PubMed

    Larson, Edward J

    2011-12-01

    One hundred years ago, teams led by Roald Amundsen and Robert Scott may have been heading in the same direction but they were poles apart in the way they sought their goals. Amundsen led a five-person team of expert Nordic skiers and dog-sledders with a single goal: getting to the South Pole first. He planned and executed the effort brilliantly. Scott, in contrast, led a complex and multi-faceted Antarctic expedition with 33 explorers and scientists, many of whom were focused on ambitious and often taxing scientific research projects that had nothing whatsoever to do with reaching the Pole. Although Scott failed to reach the South Pole first and died with four men on the return trip, his expedition made significant contributions to Antarctic science. Indeed, at least some of Scott's failure to reach the Pole first and the subsequent death of his polar party on the return trip can be attributed to burden of trying to do too much and not focusing on reaching the pole.

  17. Assessment of structural integrity of wooden poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craighead, Ian A.; Thackery, Steve; Redstall, Martin; Thomas, Matthew R.

    2000-05-01

    Despite recent advances in the development of new materials, wood continues to be used globally for the support of overhead cable networks used by telecommunications and electrical utility companies. As a natural material, wood is subject to decay and will eventually fail, causing disruption to services and danger to public and company personnel. Internal decay, due to basidomycetes fungi or attack by termites, can progress rapidly and is often difficult to detect by casual inspection. The traditional method of testing poles for decay involves hitting them with a hammer and listening to the sound that results. However, evidence suggests that a large number of poles are replaced unnecessarily and a significant number of poles continue to fail unexpectedly in service. Therefore, a more accurate method of assessing the structural integrity of wooden poles is required. Over the last 25 years there have been a number of attempts at improving decay detection. Techniques such as ultrasound, drilling X rays etc. have been developed but have generally failed to improve upon the practicality and accuracy of the traditional testing method. The paper describes the use of signal processing techniques to analyze the acoustic response of the pole and thereby determine the presence of decay. Development of a prototype meter is described and the results of initial tests on several hundred poles are presented.

  18. HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) Data from CDIAC's HIPPO Data Archive

    DOE Data Explorer

    The HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) study of the carbon cycle and greenhouse gases measured meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol constituents along transects from approximately pole-to-pole over the Pacific Ocean. HIPPO flew hundreds of vertical profiles from the ocean/ice surface to as high as the tropopause, at five times during different seasons over a three year period from 2009-2011. HIPPO provides the first high-resolution vertically-resolved global survey of a comprehensive suite of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols pertinent to understanding the carbon cycle and challenging global climate models.

  19. Clouds Over the North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 29 June 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    Like yesterday's image, the linear 'ripples' are water-ice clouds. As spring is deepening at the North Pole these clouds are becoming more prevalent.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.9, Longitude 135.5 East (224.5 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter

  20. Cover pole design for easy transport, assembly and field use.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover poles, also called Robel poles, are used to measure a variety of structural vegetation attributes commonly used in wildlife and livestock management. Although cover pole dimensions, measurement criteria, and interpretation of cover pole data vary depending on measurement objectives, the techni...

  1. Pole tide in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, I. P.; Rabinovich, A. B.; Kulikov, E. A.

    2014-03-01

    The pole tide, which is driven by the Chandler Wobble, has a period of about 14 months and typical amplitudes in the World Ocean of ˜0.5 cm. However, in the Baltic Sea the pole tide is anomalously high. To examine this effect we used long-term hourly sea level records from 23 tide gauges and monthly records from 64 stations. The lengths of the series were up to 123 years for hourly records and 211 years for monthly records. High-resolution spectra revealed a cluster of neighboring peaks with periods from 410 to 440 days. The results of spectral analysis were applied to estimate the integral amplitudes of pole tides from all available tide gauges along the coast of the Baltic Sea. The height of the pole tide was found to gradually increase from the entrance (Danish Straits, 1.5-2 cm) to the northeast end of the sea. The largest amplitudes—up to 4.5-7 cm—were observed in the heads of the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia. Significant temporal fluctuations in amplitudes and periods of the pole tide were observed during the 19th and 20th centuries.

  2. Pion scattering poles and chiral symmetry restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Fraile, D.; Nicola, A. Gomez; Herruzo, E. T.

    2007-10-15

    Using unitarized chiral perturbation theory methods, we perform a detailed analysis of the {pi}{pi} scattering poles f{sub 0}(600) and {rho}(770) behavior when medium effects such as temperature or density drive the system towards chiral symmetry restoration. In the analysis of real poles below threshold, we show that it is crucial to extend properly the unitarized amplitudes so that they match the perturbative Adler zeros. Our results do not show threshold enhancement effects at finite temperature in the f{sub 0}(600) channel, which remains as a pole of broad nature. We also implement T=0 finite-density effects related to chiral symmetry restoration, by varying the pole position with the pion decay constant. Although this approach takes into account only a limited class of contributions, we reproduce the expected finite-density restoration behavior, which drives the poles towards the real axis, producing threshold enhancement and {pi}{pi} bound states. We compare our results with several model approaches and discuss the experimental consequences, both in relativistic heavy ion collisions and in {pi}{yields}{pi}{pi} and {gamma}{yields}{pi}{pi} reactions in nuclei.

  3. Reorientation of the early lunar pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Futoshi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Masaki

    2014-06-01

    Palaeomagnetic measurements suggest that an active core dynamo operated on the Moon from 4.2 to 3.56 billion years ago. Since the Apollo era, many magnetic anomalies have been observed on the Moon. The magnetization of the lunar crust in some of these regions could preserve the signature of an early dipolar magnetic field generated by a core dynamo. Thus, the magnetic anomalies may yield information about the position of the palaeomagnetic pole during the time that the dynamo operated. Here we present a comprehensive survey of magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface using magnetometer data obtained by the Lunar Prospector and Kaguya lunar orbiters. We extract magnetization vectors from 24 magnetic anomalies using an iterative inversion method and derive the palaeomagnetic poles. We find that the north poles, as well as the antipodal south poles, cluster in two distinct locations: one near the present rotation axis and the other at mid-latitude. The clustering is consistent with a dipole-dominated magnetic field generated in the lunar core by a dynamo that was reversing, much like that of Earth. Furthermore, the two pole clusters imply that the Moon experienced a polar wander event during its ancient history due to the reorientation of the Moon with respect to its spin axis by 45°-60°.

  4. Effect of the pole--human body interaction on pole vaulting performance.

    PubMed

    Arampatzis, Adamantios; Schade, Falk; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2004-09-01

    The purposes of this study were: (a) to examine the interactions between the athlete and the pole and the possibility for the athlete to take advantage of the pole's elasticity by means of muscular work and (b) to develop performance criteria during the interaction between the athlete and the pole in pole vaulting. Six athletes performed 4-11 trials each, at 90% of their respective personal best performance. All trials were recorded using four synchronized, genlocked video cameras operating at 50 Hz. The ground reaction forces exerted on the bottom of the pole were measured using a planting box fixed on a force plate (1000 Hz). The interaction between athlete and pole may be split into two parts. During the first part, energy is transferred into the pole and the total energy of the athlete decreases. The difference between the energy decrease of the athlete and the pole energy is an indicator of the energy produced by the athletes by means of muscular work (criterion 1). During the second part of the interaction, energy is transferred back to the athlete and the total energy of the athlete increases. The difference between the returned pole energy and the amount of energy increase of the athlete defines criterion 2. In general, the function of the pole during the interaction is: (a) store part of the kinetic energy that the athlete achieved during the run up as strain energy and convert this strain energy into potential energy of the athlete, (b) allow the active system (athlete) to produce muscular work to increase the total energy potential.

  5. New magnet pole shape for isochronous cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, C.E.; Chasman, C.; Baltz, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new design has been developed for shaping pole tips to produce the radially increasing fields required for isochronous cyclotrons. The conventional solid hill poles are replaced by poles mounted over a small secondary gap which tapers radially from maximum at the magnet edge to zero near the center. Field measurements with a model magnet and calculations with the code TRIM show an increase in field at the edge of the magnet without the usual corresponding large increase in fringing, and a radial field shape more nearly field independent than for conventional hills. The flying hills have several advantages for variable energy multiparticle cyclotrons: (1) a large reduction in the power dissipated by isochronizing trim coils; (2) a more constant shape and magnitude flutter factor, eliminating flutter coils and increasing the operating range; and (3) a sharper fall-off of the fringe field, simplifying beam extraction.

  6. A method to determine asteroid poles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deangelis, G.

    1993-01-01

    The determination of spin axis and shape is well known to be of fundamental importance for studies about the rotational and physical properties of asteroids. In particular, knowledge that the pole coordinate distribution is random or not could indicate the probable non-Maxwellian distribution of asteroid spin axes, while the distribution in terms of size and shape could place important constraints on the theories about the collisional history of some individual asteroids, of asteroid families, and of the asteroid population as a whole. Many kinds of methods have been developed to determine pole coordinates. An EA method is presented, from which it is possible to obtain the solution with no trial poles, but with a simultaneous least square fit on both the E and A part. Results for rotational and shape parameters were obtained for 18 asteroids: the values of the obtained parameters are generally in close agreement with those of others.

  7. Gravity increase at the south pole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.

    1967-01-01

    Abstract. Measurements made between December 1957 and January 1966 of the gravity difference between the McMurdo Sound pendulum station, which is on bedrock, and the South Pole station, which is on the Antarctic ice sheet, show a gravity increase at the South Pole of 0.11 milligals per year. The most likely hypothesis for the increase is that it was caused by ice flowing downslope across a gravity gradient and by the sinking of the South Pole station as a result of accumulation of ice. An alternate hypothesis that the gravity increase was caused by a decrease in ice thickness, of about 40 centimeters per year, is theoretically possible but is not supported by direct evidence.

  8. Detectors for the South Pole Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. L.; Ade, P.; Aird, K.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J.; Becker, D.; Benson, B.; Bleem, L.; Britton, J.; Carlstrom, J.; Cho, H.; de Haan, T.; Crawford, T.; Crites, A.; Datesman, A.; Dobbs, M.; Everett, W.; Ewall-Wice, A.; George, E.; Halverson, N.; Harrington, N.; Henning, J.; Hilton, G.; Holzapfel, W.; Hoover, S.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Keisler, R.; Kennedy, J.; Lee, A.; Leitch, E.; Li, D.; Lueker, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Mcmahon, J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.; Montgomery, J.; Montroy, T.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J.; Niemack, M.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C.; Ruhl, J.; Saliwanchik, B.; Sayre, J.; Schafer, K.; Shirokoff, E.; Story, K.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J.; Wang, G.; Williamson, R.; Yefremenko, V.; Yoon, K. W.; Young, E.

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10-m mm/sub-mm telescope at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. It's primary science goals consist of a galaxy cluster survey for understanding Dark Energy and probing the physics of Inflation through the CMB polarization. Both science goals require exceptional sensitivity necessitating focal planes with many optical elements. The focal planes of the SPT utilize Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers to build arrays of nearly 1000 detectors. In this talk, I will present the TES bolometer technology for both the first SPT focal plane and its upcoming upgrade to a polarization sensitive array.

  9. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  10. Determination of pole sensitivities by Danilevskii's method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nail, J. B.; Mitchell, J. R.; Mcdaniel, W. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    In control theory, a synonymous term for pole sensitivity is eigenvalue sensitivity. Existing methods of calculating eigenvalues are cumbersome, and cannot be trusted for systems roughly greater than tenth order. The method proposed in the present paper is applicable to high-order system. (It has been routinely used to generate eigenvalue sensitivities for systems up to 26th order, using a UNIVAC 1106.) Danilevskii's method is shown to be suitable for performing the necessary evaluations. The result is a rational function that can be used to evaluate the sensitivities for all distinct poles.

  11. On the design of pole modules for inverse systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyman, B. F.; Sain, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    When a linear dynamical system admits more than one inverse, it is known that the pole module of any inverse must contain, either as a submodule or as a factor module, a module of fixed poles isomorphic to the zero module of the original system. Design of the pole module for such an inverse system is resolved by introducing a variable pole module for the inverse, by determining necessary and sufficient conditions for a desired module to be a variable pole module, and by studying the manner in which the fixed and variable modules assemble into the pole module of the inverse. If the fixed and variable pole spectra are disjoint, the pole module of the inverse system is a direct sum of the fixed- and variable-pole modules; if not, procedures for addressing the Jordan structure are presented.

  12. Why is g Larger at the Poles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1978-01-01

    Explains that the larger value of g at the poles is not due only to differences in the radii of the earth, but that other factors are also responsible such as the rotation of the earth and the increase in the earth's density toward its center. (GA)

  13. Poling of Microwave Electro-Optic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Kenneth D.

    1997-01-01

    The desire to transmit high frequency, microwave RF signals over fiber optic cables has necessitated the need for electro-optic modulation devices. However, in order to reap these potential benefits, it is necessary to develop the devices and their associated fabrication processes, particularly those processes associated with the poling of the devices. To this end, we entered into a cooperative research agreement with Richard Kunath of NASA LeRC. A graduate student in my group, Tony Kowalczyk, worked closely with the group at NASA to develop processes for construction of a microwave frequency electro-optic modulator. Materials were commercially obtained from Amoco Chemical and in collaboration with Lockheed-Martin. The photolithography processes were developed at NASA LeRC and the electric-field poling process was carried out in our laboratory at CWRU. During the grant period, the poling process conditions were investigated for these multilayer devices. Samples were poled and the resulting nonlinear optical properties were evaluated in our laboratory. Following the grant period, Kowalczyk went to NASA under a NRC fellowship, and I continued to collaborate as a consultant. Publications listed at the end of this report came out of this work. Another manuscript is in preparation and will be submitted shortly.

  14. New aspects of the equilibrium pole tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, S. R.; Steinberg, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A new spherical harmonic algorithm is developed for the calculation of the loading and self-gravitating equilibrium pole tide. Based on a suggestion of Dahlen (1976), this approach minimizes the distortions in tide height caused by an incomplete representation of the ocean function. With slight modification this approach easily could be used to compute self-gravitating and loading lunisolar tides as well. Using the algorithm, the static pole tide is compared with tide observations at a variety of locations around the world, and statistically significant evidence for pole tide enhancements is found in midocean as well as the shallow seas. Also included is a reinvestigation of the effect of the static tide on the Chandler-wobble period. The difference between the wobble period of an oceanless elastic earth with a fluid core (Smith and Dahlen, 1981) and the period of an earth minus static oceans yields a 7.4-day discrepancy. It is concluded from tide observations that much of the discrepancy can probably be accounted for by nonequilibrium pole-tide behavior in the deep oceans.

  15. Numerical pole assignment by eigenvalue Jacobian inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevaston, George E.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical procedure for solving the linear pole placement problem is developed which operates by the inversion of an analytically determined eigenvalue Jacobian matrix. Attention is given to convergence characteristics and pathological situations. It is not concluded that the algorithm developed is suitable for computer-aided control system design with particular reference to the scan platform pointing control system for the Galileo spacecraft.

  16. Third Pole Environment (TPE) -Latest Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Yao, T.; Zhang, F.; Yang, X.; Wang, W.; Ping, F.

    2014-12-01

    Centered on the Tibetan Plateau, the Third Pole region is a unique geographical unit, which represents one of the largest ice masses on the Earth. The region has great impacts on environmental changes in China, the Northern Hemisphere and the globe.It also demonstrates sensitive feedbacks to global changes and the impacts of anthropogenic activities in surrounding regions. Like the Arctic and Antarctica, the Third Pole region is an especially sensitive area that draws great attention from the scientific community. In 2009, with support from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and international organizations, the Third Pole Environment (TPE) program, led by Chinese scientists, was officially launched. The program focuses on the theme of "water-ice-air-ecosystem-human" interactions, with the aim to address the following scientific questions, such as the spatial and temporal characteristics of past environmental changes in the Third pole, the interactions between hydrosphere and cryosphere and hazard processes, the ecological systems' impacts on and response to environmental changes, and the impacts of anthropogenic activities on environmental changes in the region and adaptation strategies. The goal of the program is to reveal environmental change processes and mechanisms on the Third Pole and their influences on and responses to global changes, and thus to serve for enhancement of human adaptation to the changing environment and realization of human-nature harmony. Under the leadership of the co-chairs, and relying on Scientific Committee and the TPE office, the program has accomplished a number of scientific tasks since its inauguration. TPE has made tremendous progress in the research of glacier changes, interactions between the westerlies and monsoon, establishment of field stations, data sharing and education.

  17. Pole orientation, sidereal period, and sense of rotation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. C.; Gehrels, T.

    1986-01-01

    Pole orientations of asteroids were determined. The method, called photometric astrometry, takes precise epochs of lightcurves into account. Pole determination research on asteroids 532 Herculina, 45 Eugenia, and 3 Juno continues. Discrepancies between various pole determination techniques presently being used are analyzed. The study of asteroid shapes and creating a generalized master pole determination technique also continues which will incorporate the best features of several current methods.

  18. 30 CFR 57.6701 - Tamping and loading pole requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tamping and loading pole requirements. 57.6701 Section 57.6701 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... poles shall be of wood or other nonconductive, nonsparking material. Couplings for poles shall...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6701 - Tamping and loading pole requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tamping and loading pole requirements. 56.6701 Section 56.6701 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Equipment/tools § 56.6701 Tamping and loading pole requirements. Tamping and loading poles shall be of...

  20. Determination of pole orientations and shapes of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnusson, Per; Barucci, M. Antonietta; Drummond, Jack D.; Lumme, Kari; Ostro, Steven J.

    1989-01-01

    The principles of asteroid light-curve inversion are discussed together with basic principles involved in approaches for deriving asteroid pole and shape parameters from photometry data. The merits of various pole determination techniques are described and compared. Results obtained so far on the pole orientations and shapes of asteroids are presented.

  1. North Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the north polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic centered on the north pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The north pole of the moon is absent of the very rugged terrain seen at the south pole.

  2. Permanent magnet machine and method with reluctance poles and non-identical PM poles for high density operation

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2010-05-18

    A method and apparatus in which a stator (11) and a rotor (12) define a primary air gap (20) for receiving AC flux and at least one source (23, 40), and preferably two sources (23, 24, 40) of DC excitation are positioned for inducing DC flux at opposite ends of the rotor (12). Portions of PM material (17, 17a) are provided as boundaries separating PM rotor pole portions from each other and from reluctance poles. The PM poles (18) and the reluctance poles (19) can be formed with poles of one polarity having enlarged flux paths in relation to flux paths for pole portions of an opposite polarity, the enlarged flux paths communicating with a core of the rotor (12) so as to increase reluctance torque produced by the electric machine. Reluctance torque is increased by providing asymmetrical pole faces. The DC excitation can also use asymmetric poles and asymmetric excitation sources. Several embodiments are disclosed with additional variations.

  3. The 10 Meter South Pole Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlstrom, J. E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aird, K. A.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Busetti, S.; Chang, C. L.; Chauvin, E.; Cho, H.-M.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Halverson, N. W.; Heimsath, S.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Joy, M.; Keisler, R.; Lanting, T. M.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mohr, J. J.; Montroy, T. E.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schwan, D.; Shirokoff, E.; Spieler, H. G.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Williamson, R.

    2011-05-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966 pixel, multicolor, millimeter-wave, bolometer camera. It is located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in Antarctica. The design of the SPT emphasizes careful control of spillover and scattering, to minimize noise and false signals due to ground pickup. The key initial project is a large-area survey at wavelengths of 3, 2, and 1.3 mm, to detect clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect and to measure the small-scale angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The data will be used to characterize the primordial matter power spectrum and to place constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. A second-generation camera will measure the polarization of the CMB, potentially leading to constraints on the neutrino mass and the energy scale of inflation.

  4. Poled polymer films for nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, K.D.; Kuzyk, M.G.; Holland, W.R.; Cahill, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Second harmonic generation was measured for a thin corona-poled film of a dicyanovinyl azo dye incorporated in the side-chain methacrylate polymer. Measurements were performed at a wavelength of 1.58 ..mu..m as a function of incident angle for both p- and s-polarized incident light. From these measurements the form and magnitude of the second harmonic coefficient tensor were determined. The molecular distribution implied by the data is consistent with a thermodynamic potential containing only the dipolar orienting energy acting during poling. We have also demonstrated anomalous-dispersion phase-matched second harmonic generation for the first time using electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) in a liquid solution of Foron Brilliant Blue S-R (FBB). Results are described. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Photocouplings at the pole from pion photoproduction

    DOE PAGES

    Ronchen, D.; Doring, M.; Huang, F.; ...

    2014-06-24

    The reactions γp → π0p and γp → π+n are analyzed in a semi-phenomenological approach up to E ~ 2.3 GeV. Fits to differential cross section and single and double polarization observables are performed. A good overall reproduction of the available photoproduction data is achieved. The Julich2012 dynamical coupled-channel model -which describes elastic πN scattering and the world data base of the reactions πN → ηN, KΛ, and KΣ at the same time– is employed as the hadronic interaction in the final state. Furthermore, the framework guarantees analyticity and, thus, allows for a reliable extraction of resonance parameters in termsmore » of poles and residues. In particular, the photocouplings at the pole can be extracted and are presented.« less

  6. Photocouplings at the pole from pion photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ronchen, D.; Doring, M.; Huang, F.; Haberzettl, H.; Haidenbauer, J.; Hanhart, C.; Krewald, S.; MeiBner, U. -G.; Nakayama, K.

    2014-06-24

    The reactions γp → π0p and γp → π+n are analyzed in a semi-phenomenological approach up to E ~ 2.3 GeV. Fits to differential cross section and single and double polarization observables are performed. A good overall reproduction of the available photoproduction data is achieved. The Julich2012 dynamical coupled-channel model -which describes elastic πN scattering and the world data base of the reactions πN → ηN, KΛ, and KΣ at the same time– is employed as the hadronic interaction in the final state. Furthermore, the framework guarantees analyticity and, thus, allows for a reliable extraction of resonance parameters in terms of poles and residues. In particular, the photocouplings at the pole can be extracted and are presented.

  7. NASA satellite to track North Pole expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The proposed expedition of a lone explorer and the use of Nimbus 6 (NASA meteorological research satellite) to track his journey is reported. The journey is scheduled to start March 4, 1978, and will cover a distance of 6.000 Km (3,728 miles) from northern Canada to the North Pole and return, traveling the length of Greenland's isolated interior. The mode of transportation for the explorer will be by dog sled. Instrumentation and tracking techniques are discussed.

  8. Pole Assignment for Second-Order Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHU, E. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contains some results for pole assignment problems for the second-order system M ẍ(t)+D ẋ(t)+K x (t)=B u (t) . Specifically, Algorithm 0 constructs feedback matrices F1 and F2 such that the closed-loop quadratic pencil Pc( λ)= λ2M+ λ ( D+ BF2)+( K+ BF1) has a desired set of eigenvalues and the associated eigenvectors are well-conditioned. The method is a modification of the SVD-based method proposed by Juang and Maghami [1, 2] which is a second-order adaptation of the well-known robust eigenvalue assignment method by Kautsky et al. [3] for first-order systems. Robustness is achieved by minimising some not-so-well-known condition numbers of the eigenvalues of the closed-loop second-order pencil. We next consider the partial pole assignment problem. In 1997, Datta, Elhay and Ram proposed three biorthogonality relations for eigenvectors of symmetric definite quadratic pencils [4]. One of these relations was used to derive an explicit solution to the partial pole assignment problem by state feedback for the related single-input symmetric definite second-order control system. The solution shed new light on the stabilisation and control of large flexible space structures, for which only one small subset of the spectrum needs to be reassigned while retaining the complementary part of the spectrum. In this paper, the method has been generalised for multi-input and non-symmetric quadratic pencils. Finally, we discuss briefly the output feedback pole assignment problem.

  9. Laser range pole field evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A field evaluation was made of the laser pole equipment. The basic plan for the evaluation was to expose the equipment to the actual people and environment for which it was intended and determine, through the use of the equipment, its resultant effectivity in terms of improved performance. Results show the equipment performed better than expected in the high elevation clean air of Colorado, and did as well in Tennessee.

  10. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. The Gattini South Pole UV experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Anna M.; Ahmed, Sara; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Croner, Ernest; Delacroix, Alex; Ebihara, Yusuke; Fucik, Jason; Martin, D. Christopher; Velur, Viswa; Weatherwax, Allan

    2012-09-01

    The Gattini South Pole UV experiment (Gattini SPUV) was deployed to the South Pole dark sector in February 2010 and has recently completed a highly successful first season of winter time observations. The experiment has, for the first time ever, measured and categorized the optical night sky brightness at the very blue wavelengths. The experiment consists of a remotely operated 6” aperture custom designed telescope. The telescope feeds a blue sensitive imager with 4 degree field of view that contains a bank of 3 filters: SDSS g’, Bessel U and a custom “super U” filter specifically designed to probe the sky emission at wavelengths approaching the atmospheric cut-off. The filters are continually cycled with exposure times ranging from 30 to 300 seconds throughout the winter period. The telescope, in addition, feeds a 2 degree long slit VPH grating spectrograph with R~1000. The bandwidth is 350-450nm. The spectra are recorded simultaneously with the imager exposures. The experiment is designed for low temperature Antarctic operation and resides on the roof of the MAPO building in the South Pole Antarctic sector. The primary science goals are to categorize the Antarctic winter-time sky background at the very bluest of wavelengths as a pathfinder for the Antarctic Cosmic Web Imager. We present a technical overview of the experiment and results from the first winter season.

  12. The science of the lunar poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    It was the great geochemist Harold Urey who first called attention to peculiar conditions at the poles of the Moon where the very small inclination of the lunar spin axis with respect to the sun causes craters and other depressions to be permanently shaded from sunlight allowing very low temperatures. Urey suggested that the expected low temperature surfaces could cold trap and collect any vapors that might transiently pass through the lunar environment. Urey's notion has led to studies of the poles as a new research area in lunar science. The conditions and science of the poles are utterly unlike those of the familiar Moon of Neil Armstrong, and the study of the poles is similar to our understanding of the Moon itself at the dawn of the space age, with possibilities outweighing current understanding. Broadly, we can treat the poles as a dynamic system of input, transport, trapping, and loss. Volatile sources range from continuous, including solar wind, the Earth's polar fountain and micrometeorites, to episodic, including comets and wet asteroids, to nearly unique events including late lunar outgassing and passage through giant molecular clouds. The lunar exosphere transports volatiles to the poles, complicated by major perturbances to the atmosphere by volatile-rich sources. Trapping includes cold trapping, but also in situ creation of more refractory species such as organics, clathrates and water-bearing minerals, as well as sequester by regolith overturn or burial by larger impacts. Finally, volatiles are lost to space by ionization and sweeping. Spacecraft results have greatly added to the understanding of the polar system. Temperatures have been precisely measured by LRO, and thermal models now allow determination of temperature over the long evolution of the lunar orbit, and show very significant changes in temperature and temperature distribution with time and depth. Polar topography is revealed in detail by Selene and LRO laser altimeters while direct

  13. Modified π π amplitude with σ pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bydžovský, P.; Kamiński, R.; Nazari, V.

    2014-12-01

    A set of well-known once subtracted dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition is used to modify unitary multichannel S (π π , K K ¯, and η η ) and P (π π , ρ 2 π , and ρ σ ) wave amplitudes mostly below 1 GeV. Before the modifications, these amplitudes significantly did not satisfy the crossing symmetry condition and did not describe the π π threshold region. Moreover, the pole of the S wave amplitude related with the f0(500 ) meson (former f0(600 ) or σ ) had much smaller imaginary part and bigger real one in comparison with those in the newest Particle Data Group Tables. Here, these amplitudes are supplemented by near threshold expansion polynomials and refitted to the experimental data in the effective two pion mass from the threshold to 1.8 GeV and to the dispersion relations up to 1.1 GeV. In result the self consistent, i.e., unitary and fulfilling the crossing symmetry condition, S and P wave amplitudes are formed and the σ pole becomes much narrower and lighter. To eliminate doubts about the uniqueness of the so obtained sigma pole position short and purely mathematical proof of the uniqueness of the results is also presented. This analysis is addressed to a wide group of physicists and aims at providing a very effective and easy method of modification of, many presently used, π π amplitudes with a heavy and broad σ meson without changing of their original mathematical structure.

  14. Proportional wire calorimeter for magnet pole tips

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, D; Ludlam, T; Renardy, J; Willis, W; Zurfluh, E

    1980-01-01

    A total absorption calorimeter is designed to have magnetic properties comparable to those of ordinary steel, and thus can be incorporated into the poles of a spectrometer magnet without compromising the field quality. A test device has been built which consists of an iron structure penetrated by a finegrain pattern of holes, each acting as a proportional tube such that 90% of the volume is occupied by iron. Measurements of the energy and space resolution of this device in a high energy beam will be presented.

  15. Bacterial Activity in South Pole Snow

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Edward J.; Lin, Senjie; Capone, Douglas G.

    2000-01-01

    Large populations (200 to 5,000 cells ml−1 in snowmelt) of bacteria were present in surface snow and firn from the south pole sampled in January 1999 and 2000. DNA isolated from this snow yielded ribosomal DNA sequences similar to those of several psychrophilic bacteria and a bacterium which aligns closely with members of the genus Deinococcus, an ionizing-radiation- and desiccation-resistant genus. We also obtained evidence of low rates of bacterial DNA and protein synthesis which indicates that the organisms were metabolizing at ambient subzero temperatures (−12 to −17°C). PMID:11010907

  16. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, W.

    1985-02-08

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifer circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedstock loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  17. Helioseismology from the South Pole: 1987 campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferies, S.; Pomerantz, M.A. ); Duvall, T.L. Jr. ); Harvey, J.W.; Jaksha, D. )

    1988-01-01

    Helioseismology is the study of the Sun's interior by means of observations of its global oscillations. The Sun constantly oscillates, at periods of about 5 minutes, in millions of different modes which probe different depth and latitude ranges. Helioseismological observations have been made from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station nearly every year since 1980. This site offers the unique advantage of uninterrupted sunlight during the austral summer (except for clouds, of course) and otherwise generally good atmospheric conditions for astronomical observations. Thus, it is possible to measure oscillations without long nighttime gaps which confuse measurements made at low-latitude observatories. Measurements from the South Pole and elsewhere have shown that the solar interior is roughly similar to the predictions of the theory of stellar structure and evolution. This theory is one of the key foundations of our present picture of the universe. It is, therefore, disturbing that there are small, but highly significant, discrepancies between theory and observations and that these discrepancies have not been resolved by reasonable adjustments of theoretical parameters and physics. Currently, the source of these discrepancies is not at all clear. Helioseismology, however, not only revealed the problem but offers excellent prospects for solving it.

  18. a New Ediacaran Pole from Easternmost Baltica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meert, J. G.; Levashova, N. M.; Kuznetsov, N. B.; Sergeeva, N. D.; Golovanova, I. V.; Danukalov, K. N.; Bazhenov, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Ediacaran paleogeography is notoriously messy due to equally confusing paleomagnetic data from both Laurentia and Baltica. Ediacaran (~Vendian) rocks have been studied from several localities from Baltica, but the so far published poles can be used to place the Baltic craton at nearly any latitude and orientation [Meert et al., 2007]. At the same time, it is challenging to understand the paleogeography of the Ediacaran world given all the biologic, climatic and tectonic changes during the time interval from 635-542 Ma. We present preliminary paleomagnetic and geochronological data from (late?) Ediacaran sediments from the deformed (low metamorphic grade) peri-Uralian margin of Baltica. We successfully isolated a dual-polarity high-temperature component from eleven sites; the primary origin of this remanence is strongly supported by a positive reversal test (class B). The corresponding paleomagnetic pole is in close agreement with the coeval results from the Winter Coast of northern Baltica [Popov et al., 2002; 2005; Iglesia Llanos et al., 2005], despite a ~1600 km separation between two study areas. These data jointly indicate a very low (<10 degrees N or S) paleolatitude for eastern Baltica in Ediacaran time. Paleogeographic implications of these new data will be discussed in the context of Ediacaran-Cambrian tectonic models. This study is supported by RFBR grant 11-05-00037 and NSF grant EAR11-19038.

  19. South Pole-Aitken Basin Mission (SPAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Minitti, M.; Head, J. W., III; Prockter, L.; Dahl, J. M.; Cooper, C. D.; Crumpler, L.; Gershman, R.; Welch, R.; Jet Propulsion LABORATORY Team

    1997-03-01

    Recent Clementine data of the farside of the moon has shown high resolution details of the South Pole-Aitken basin. The basin is over 2500 km in diameter, making it the largest impact basin thus far identified in our solar system. Estimates for the excavation depth from the basin suggest that the lower crust/upper mantle may have been reached. Clementine UVVIS data show noritic compositions and high FeO wt pct compositions, supporting that at least the lower crust may have been excavated. Because the geology of the area offers a unique opportunity to study the stratigraphy of the lunar crust at depth as well as the composition of rocks from the lunar farside, we have selected a site in the South Pole-Aitken basin for a sample return mission. Although the mission described below is currently unsuitable as a Discovery class mission, other scenarios are still possible that will reduce the mass and make the mission more feasible.

  20. Dynamics of Enceladus South Pole Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makuch, Martin; Schmidt, J.; Spahn, F.

    2007-10-01

    The Saturnian moon Enceladus was recently found to be a potent source of gas and dust particles. There was an active region observed on the south pole of Enceladus with jets spraying material in the space. The ejected dust particles are considered to be the main source of the faint E ring. In our work we investigate the long-term dynamics of icy particles ejected from the south pole of Enceladus. The motion of the ejected grains, being subject to many perturbation forces, strongly depends on particle properties (e.g. size, charge etc.). We study the resulting spatial distribution of particles in the E ring. Primarily we focus on the structure of the ring in the vicinity of Enceladus. In our study we also concentrated on processes limiting particle lifetime. These are mainly collisions with Enceladus and other Saturnian satellites or main ring, as well as the sputtering of particles by plasma ions bombardment. Modeling the equilibrium between particle sources and sinks we found the size distribution which is expected to be observed in the E ring.

  1. Dynamics of Enceladus south pole ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makuch, M.; Schmidt, J.; Spahn, F.

    2007-08-01

    The Saturnian moon Enceladus was recently found to be a potent source of gas and dust particles. There was an active region observed on the south pole of Enceladus with jets spraying material in the space. The ejected dust particles are considered to be the main source of the faint E ring. In our work we investigate the long-term dynamics of icy particles ejected from the south pole of Enceladus. The motion of the ejected grains, being subject to many perturbation forces, strongly depends on particle properties (e.g. size, charge etc.).We study the resulting spatial distribution of particles in the E ring. Primarily we focus on the structure of the ring in the vicinity of Enceladus. In our study we also concentrated on processes limiting particle lifetime. These are mainly collisions with Enceladus and other Saturnian satellites or main ring, as well as the sputtering of particles by plasma ions bombardment. Modeling the equilibrium between particle sources and sinks we found the size distribution which is expected to be observed in the E ring.

  2. Collecting Micrometeorites from the South Pole Water Well

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    Amundsen – Scott South Pole Station . Because of the large volume of ice melted, the well is the larg- est source of micrometeorites yet discovered. The...Susan Taylor, James H. Lever, Ralph P. Harvey, and May 1997 John Govoni C R R EL R EP O R T 9 7 -1 Collecting Micrometeorites from the South Pole ...Water Well Abstract: A collector was designed and built to retrieve micrometeorites from the floor of the South Pole Water Well. The large volume of

  3. BLDG 101, OVERVIEW WITH LIGHTNING POLES Naval Magazine Lualualei, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 101, OVERVIEW WITH LIGHTNING POLES - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Operational Storage Building, Fifteenth Street near Kolekole Road intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. South Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the south polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic, centered on the south pole. The Schrodinger Basin (320 km in diameter) is located in the lower right of the mosaic. Amundsen-Ganswindt is the more subdued circular basin between Schrodinger and the pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.

  5. 30 CFR 56.12048 - Communication conductors on power poles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.12048 Communication conductors on power poles. Telegraph, telephone, or signal wires shall... powerlines, they shall be installed as specified by the National Electrical Code....

  6. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  7. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHEAST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE, FACING SOUTHEAST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  8. Bridging the Poles: Education Linked with Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S.; Bell, R. E.; Turrin, M.; Maru, P.

    2004-12-01

    An international group of 65 scientists, educators and media specialists gathered at the "Bridging the Poles" workshop in Washington, DC on June 23-25, to define strategies that will inspire the general public and engage the next generation of polar scientists, engineers and leaders. This NSF-sponsored workshop was the first effort to develop an integrated education and outreach program for the International Polar Year of 2007-2009. Through a series of plenary talks and roundtable discussions, workshop participants focused on: engaging diverse communities, opportunities and needs for different levels, possibilities for thematic areas, and programs to feature nationally and internationally over the next 5 years. To maximize the potential of the International Polar Year, we need to coordinate research, education and outreach efforts, at the international as well as national level, with the goal of building an integrated and exciting public presence during 2007-2009. Successful education and outreach programming requires leveraging existing resources, creating new programs, connecting communities, and developing partnerships between agencies, scientists, educators, and the public. We need to consider the rich heritage of indigenous Arctic peoples, build capacity within communities through targeted efforts, and focus on making the poles relevant to diverse communities by using interdisciplinary approaches, e.g. cultural as well as scientific. A series of education and outreach packages for large-scale science endeavors should be rolled out to the public as major media events. The media -- television, radio and print -- as well as educators, zoos and museums are eager to use timely, accessible, and meaningful content. An Interagency Working Group on IPY Education and Outreach, with a staff and a central office, must be created to coordinate and leverage programs. A sophisticated web portal should be developed to serve content and contacts for researchers, educators, the

  9. Single-pole ladder at quarter filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristov, D. N.; Kiselev, M. N.; Kikoin, K.

    2007-06-01

    We study the ground state and excitation spectrum of a quasi-one-dimensional system consisting of a pole and rungs oriented in opposite directions (“centipede ladder,” CL) at quarter filling. The spin and charge excitation spectra are found in the limits of small and large longitudinal hoppings t‖ compared to the on-rung hopping rate t⊥ and exchange coupling I⊥ . At small t‖ , the system with ferromagnetic on-rung exchange demonstrates instability against dimerization. Coherent propagation of charge-transfer excitons is possible in this limit. At large t‖ , CL behaves like two-orbital Hubbard chain, but the gap opens in the charge excitation spectrum, thus reducing the symmetry from SU(4) to SU(2). The spin excitations are always gapless and their dispersion changes from quadratic magnonlike for ferromagnetic on-rung exchange to linear spinonlike for antiferromagnetic on-rung exchange in weak longitudinal hopping limit.

  10. Performance of new generation pole light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foo, K. C.; Karunanithi, S.; Thio, G.

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a standalone photovoltaic power supply which caters for garden lighting scheme. New Generation Pole Light (NGPL) consists of three parts which are light dependent resistor (LDR) and pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors, microcontroller and light emitting diode (LED) and finally, solar charging system. During the night, LED is switched on with two operating modes which are ultra-bright lighting for a predetermine period (when human presence is detected) and dim lighting. Meanwhile, LED is switched off at day time and solar charging system will recover the capacity of discharged battery. NGPL provides portable, sustainable, environmental friendly and requires minimal maintenance for outdoor lighting scheme for both urban and rural areas.

  11. Automatic pole-zero/zero-pole digital compensator for high-resolution spectroscopy: Design and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, A.; Pullia, A.; Ripamonti, G.

    1999-08-01

    In a high-resolution spectroscopy system the relatively long exponential decay due to the charge preamplifier is customarily canceled in an analogue fashion by means of a PZ (Pole-Zero) stage. The accurateness of such a compensation has a big impact on the energy resolution because it strongly affects the baseline-stability problems. The authors have automatically and on-line performed such a compensation in a digital way, while maintaining a spectroscopy performance and keeping at minimum both the ADC sampling frequency (thus power consumption) and its resolution (thus cost). This is done through an IIR filter, implemented within a FPGA by a DSP. The so-compensated waveform has, in excellent approximation, an all-pole shape. Starting from such a signal, the minimum-noise filters for energy and/or time measurements are then promptly synthesized and implemented for real time operation through the same DSP.

  12. Identity Pole: Confronting Issues of Personal and Cultural Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciminero, Sandra Elser

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the "Identity Pole" was to explore the big idea of identity. Students would confront issues of personal and cultural meaning, and draw upon interdisciplinary connections for inspiration. The author chose to present totem poles of the Northwest Coast Native Americans/First Nations of Canada, as well as school, state and national…

  13. Detail of 25' highband reflector screen poles with monopole antenna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of 25' high-band reflector screen poles with monopole antenna elements behind, note the metal sleeve bases of the reflector screen poles and the guy wire anchors from the dipole antenna elements (left foreground), view facing north northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Radio Station, AF/FRD-10 Circularly Disposed Antenna Array, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Detail of 25' highband reflector screen pole showing the horizontal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of 25' high-band reflector screen pole showing the horizontal wood beams and vertical wires hung from ceramic insulators, note the dipole antenna element and 94' low-band reflector screen poles in background, view facing north - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Radio Station, AF/FRD-10 Circularly Disposed Antenna Array, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Mechanical properties of spindle poles are symmetrically balanced

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kazuya; Itabashi, Takeshi; Ishiwata, Shin’ichi

    2017-01-01

    The metaphase spindle is organized for accurate chromosome segregation. One of the fundamental features of the spindle across the species is its symmetrical shape; the spindle consists of two polar arrays of microtubules at both ends. Although it has been suggested that the formation of the bipolar shape requires force balance coordination by molecular motors, i.e., kinesins and dyneins, quantitative analysis for the pole mechanics has not been conducted. Here, we demonstrate that it is not only the shape but also the stiffness and microtubule density of the pairs of pole regions are symmetrically balanced in single spindles self-assembled in Xenopus egg extracts. We found that the inhibition of dynein functions dramatically reduced the stiffness and microtubule density in the pole region. By contrast, the inhibition of one of the kinesins, Eg5, which is the antagonistic motor protein of dynein, increased the value of these parameters. Moreover, the inhibition of both dynein and Eg5 recovered these parameter values to those of non-treated spindle poles. We also found that, when one pole structure was held widened with the use of two glass microneedles, the opposite pole structure spontaneously widened, resulting in the formation of the barrel-like shaped spindle. The values of stiffness and microtubule density in the manipulated pole region decreased, following the spontaneous decrement of those in the paired unmanipulated pole region. These results suggest that the spindle possesses a mechanism to dynamically maintain its symmetry in mechanical properties.

  16. Control of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting power poles.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Martin A; Westlake, Terry; Kathuria, Amrit

    2010-12-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of termiticidal dusts (arsenic trioxide, triflumuron, and Metarhizium anisopliae), a timber fumigant (dazomet) and liquid termiticides (bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and imidacloprid) for controlling subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting in-service power poles in New South Wales, Australia. Dusts were applied to parts of the pole where termites were present. Fumigant was inserted into holes drilled into the base of the pole. Liquid termiticides were mixed with soil around the base of the pole and injected into internal voids if present. Poles were inspected for up to 5 yr, and the time taken for reinfestation to occur was recorded. Before the start of the trial, the major Australian pole owners were surveyed to obtain an estimate of the annual national cost of termite infestation to the power supply industry. The annual costs of termite treatment and replacing damaged poles were estimated at AU$2 million and AU$13 million, respectively. Infestation rates were lower for all treatments compared with controls within the first 12 mo of the study. Dazomet, arsenic trioxide, fipronil, and chlorpyrifos were the most efficacious treatments. Efficacy was positively related to the amount of termiticide applied and negatively related to the infestation severity but was unaffected by geographical location. Survival curves were calculated of the time elapsed before the recurrence of termite infestations (survival absence of reinfestation). Survival was highest for poles treated with liquid termiticides.

  17. 1. Launch facility, delta 6, approach road and gate, pole ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Launch facility, delta 6, approach road and gate, pole marking the hardened intersite cable system in right center, commercial power pole outside fence in left center, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  18. pbx is required for pole and eye regeneration in planarians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chieh G; Wang, Irving E; Reddien, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Planarian regeneration involves regionalized gene expression that specifies the body plan. After amputation, planarians are capable of regenerating new anterior and posterior poles, as well as tissues polarized along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes. Wnt and several Hox genes are expressed at the posterior pole, whereas Wnt inhibitory genes, Fgf inhibitory genes, and prep, which encodes a TALE-family homeodomain protein, are expressed at the anterior pole. We found that Smed-pbx (pbx for short), which encodes a second planarian TALE-family homeodomain transcription factor, is required for restored expression of these genes at anterior and posterior poles during regeneration. Moreover, pbx(RNAi) animals gradually lose pole gene expression during homeostasis. By contrast, pbx was not required for initial anterior-posterior polarized responses to wounds, indicating that pbx is required after wound responses for development and maintenance of poles during regeneration and homeostatic tissue turnover. Independently of the requirement for pbx in pole regeneration, pbx is required for eye precursor formation and, consequently, eye regeneration and eye replacement in homeostasis. Together, these data indicate that pbx promotes pole formation of body axes and formation of regenerative progenitors for eyes.

  19. Optimization of a hollow cylindrical prestressed concrete utility pole

    SciTech Connect

    Tavatli, D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the major concerns in the design of circular prestressed concrete utility poles (hollow or solid) is economy. Several designs can be used in a particular design situation, but the most inexpensive design is of primary interest. Cost optimization of hollow prestressed concrete utility poles was carried out in this study based on design variables, including the inside and outside diameter and the area of prestressing strands at the pole tip. Optimization of poles was also carried out when prestressing is not constant throughout the pole and varies at different sections. The interior penalty function method is primarily used in the cost-optimization process. An optimization program was developed to optimize a given objective function along with its constraints. An initial design package was written to obtain an initial design point in the feasible region of design. A second program known as the flexible tolerance method is also used to optimize the utility poles. Cost optimization of the pole when prestressing is constant or when it varies along the pole is quite possible and can be studied for different design variables. Results of optimization with constant prestress force for two and three design variables provide nearly the same kind of results.

  20. Trekking poles: Can you save your knees and the environment?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Martinez, T.A.; Proudman, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    The increasing use of trekking poles has stimulated a growing awareness of some environmental and social impacts associated with their use. These impacts have not been documented in the scientific literature. This article reviews the impacts of trekking pole use to provide a basis for further dialogue, and suggests how they may be altered or used in ways that will minimize impact.

  1. A LINE POLE 1 IN FOREGROUND AND MYSTIC LAKE POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A LINE POLE 1 IN FOREGROUND AND MYSTIC LAKE POWERHOUSE IN BACKGROUND. A LINE POLE 1 IS A MODERN REPLACEMENT STRUCTURE WITH BROWN PORCELAIN SUSPENSION-TYPE INSULATORS. VIEW TO EAST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  2. 46 CFR 111.79-3 - Grounding pole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grounding pole. 111.79-3 Section 111.79-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-3 Grounding pole. Each receptacle outlet that operates at 100 volts or...

  3. 46 CFR 111.79-3 - Grounding pole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding pole. 111.79-3 Section 111.79-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-3 Grounding pole. Each receptacle outlet that operates at 100 volts or...

  4. 46 CFR 111.79-3 - Grounding pole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grounding pole. 111.79-3 Section 111.79-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-3 Grounding pole. Each receptacle outlet that operates at 100 volts or...

  5. 46 CFR 111.79-3 - Grounding pole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grounding pole. 111.79-3 Section 111.79-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-3 Grounding pole. Each receptacle outlet that operates at 100 volts or...

  6. 46 CFR 111.79-3 - Grounding pole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grounding pole. 111.79-3 Section 111.79-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-3 Grounding pole. Each receptacle outlet that operates at 100 volts or...

  7. Charge dynamics and distributions in thermally poled silica fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Danny W.; Xu, Wei; Fleming, Simon C.

    1999-11-01

    Silica glass plays a key role in photonic systems because of its excellent optical properties, such as low loss, low fabrication cost and high photo-refractive damage threshold. Unfortunately, silica, being centrosymmetric, has no intrinsic linear electro-optic (LEO) coefficient or second-order nonlinearity (SON). However, thermal poling has been demonstrated to produce a LEO coefficient and SON of approximately 1 pm/V in silica glass and fiber. It is necessary to understand the mechanism of thermal poling in order to achieve a larger, stable and reliable LEO effect. A series of thermal poling experiments on silicate fiber was carried out. The in situ measurements of the total LEO coefficients (the sum of the poling field induced LEO coefficient and the thermal poling induced residual LEO coefficient) suggest movement of charges. Thermal poling induced residual LEO coefficients are measured in situ during prolonged negative thermal poling. Both the shielding field and the ionization field are frozen-in at room temperature and lead to LEO effect. The time evolution of the residual LEO coefficients shows that the competition between the shielding and ionization fields is a linear process. Using this new understanding, a specialty optical fiber was developed for the production of thermally poled optical fiber devices.

  8. A Graphics System for Pole-Zero Map Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, William Fred, III

    Computer scientists have developed an interactive, graphical display system for pole-zero map analysis. They designed it for use as an educational tool in teaching introductory courses in automatic control systems. The facilities allow the user to specify a control system and an input function in the form of a pole-zero map and then examine the…

  9. 49 CFR 229.81 - Emergency pole; shoe insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency pole; shoe insulation. 229.81 Section... System § 229.81 Emergency pole; shoe insulation. (a) Each locomotive equipped with a pantograph operating... equipped with third-rail shoes shall have a device for insulating the current collecting apparatus from...

  10. 49 CFR 229.81 - Emergency pole; shoe insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency pole; shoe insulation. 229.81 Section... System § 229.81 Emergency pole; shoe insulation. (a) Each locomotive equipped with a pantograph operating... equipped with third-rail shoes shall have a device for insulating the current collecting apparatus from...

  11. 49 CFR 229.81 - Emergency pole; shoe insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency pole; shoe insulation. 229.81 Section... System § 229.81 Emergency pole; shoe insulation. (a) Each locomotive equipped with a pantograph operating... equipped with third-rail shoes shall have a device for insulating the current collecting apparatus from...

  12. 49 CFR 229.81 - Emergency pole; shoe insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency pole; shoe insulation. 229.81 Section... System § 229.81 Emergency pole; shoe insulation. (a) Each locomotive equipped with a pantograph operating... equipped with third-rail shoes shall have a device for insulating the current collecting apparatus from...

  13. 49 CFR 229.81 - Emergency pole; shoe insulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency pole; shoe insulation. 229.81 Section... System § 229.81 Emergency pole; shoe insulation. (a) Each locomotive equipped with a pantograph operating... equipped with third-rail shoes shall have a device for insulating the current collecting apparatus from...

  14. Pole distribution of PVI transcendents close to a critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, Davide

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of the poles of Painlevé VI transcendents associated to semi-simple Frobenius manifolds is determined close to a critical point. It is shown that the poles accumulate at the critical point, asymptotically along two rays. As an example, the Frobenius manifold given by the quantum cohomology of CP2 is considered. The general PVI is also considered.

  15. Glacier melt on the Third Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, T.

    2015-12-01

    With an average elevation above 4,000 metres, the Third Pole (TP) is a unique region with many high mountains centered on the Tibetan Plateau stretching over 5 million square kilometers. Major environmental changes are taking place on the TP characterized by complex interactions of atmospheric, cryospheric, hydrological, geological and environmental processes. These processes are critical for the well-being of the three billion people inhabiting the plateau and the surrounding regions. Glacier melt is one of the most significant environmental changes observed on the TP. Over the past decade, most of the glaciers on the TP have undergone considerable melt. The Third Pole Environment (TPE) has focused on the causes of the glacier melt by conducting large-scale ground in-situ observation and monitoring, analyzing satellite images and remote sensing data, and applying numerical modeling to environmental research on the TP. The studies of long-term record of water stable isotopes in precipitation and ice core throughout the TP have revealed different features with regions, thus proposing significant influence of atmospheric circulations on spatial precipitation pattern over the TP. Validation of the result by isotope-equipped general circulation models confirms the spatial distribution of different atmospheric circulation dominances on the TP, with northern part dominated by the westerlies, southern part by the summer monsoon, and central part featuring the influences of both circulation systems. Such unique circulation patterns also bear directly on the status of glaciers and lakes over the TP and its surroundings. The studies therefore found the largest glacier melt in the monsoon-dominated southern part, moderate melt in the central part of transition, and the least melt, or even slight advance in the westerlies-dominated northern TP. It is clear that some mountains on the TP are undergoing rapid melt and the consequence of without ice and snow will be very soon. The

  16. Uranus, towards the planet's pole of rotation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    These two pictures of Uranus were compiled from images recorded by Voyager 2 on Jan. 1O, 1986, when the NASA spacecraft was 18 million kilometers (11 million miles) from the planet. The images were obtained by Voyager's narrow-angle camera; the view is toward the planet's pole of rotation, which lies just left of center. The picture on the left has been processed to show Uranus as human eyes would see it from the vantage point of the spacecraft. The second picture is an exaggerated false-color view that reveals details not visible in the true-color view -- including indications of what could be a polar haze of smog-like particles. The true-color picture was made by combining pictures taken through blue, green and orange filters. The dark shading of the upper right edge of the disk is the terminator, or day-night boundary. The blue-green appearance of Uranus results from methane in the atmosphere; this gas absorbs red wavelengths from the incoming sunlight, leaving the predominant bluish color seen here. The picture on the right uses false color and contrast enhancement to bring out subtle details in the polar region of the atmosphere. Images shuttered through different color filters were added and manipulated by computer, greatly enhancing the low-contrast details in the original images. Ultraviolet, violet- and orange-filtered images were displayed, respectively, as blue, green and red to produce this false-color picture. The planet reveals a dark polar hood surrounded by a series of progressively lighter convective bands. The banded structure is real, though exaggerated here. The brownish color near the center of the planet could be explained as being caused by a thin haze concentrated over the pole -- perhaps the product of chemical reactions powered by ultraviolet light from the Sun. One such reaction produces acetylene from methane -- acetylene has been detected on Uranus by an Earth-orbiting spacecraft -- and further reactions involving acetylene are known to

  17. Heavy Cratering near Callisto's South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft provide new insights into this region near Callisto's south pole. This two frame mosaic shows a heavily cratered surface with smooth plains in the areas between craters. North is to the top of the image. The smoothness of the plains appears to increase toward the south pole, approximately 480 kilometers (293 miles) south of the bottom of the image. This smoothness of Callisto's surface was not evident in images taken during the 1979 flyby of NASA's Voyager spacecraft because the resolution was insufficient to show the effect. This smooth surface, and the process(es) that cause it, are among the most intriguing aspects of Callisto. Although not fully understood, the process(es) responsible for this smoothing could include erosion by tiny meteorites and energetic ions. Some craters, such as Keelut, the 47 kilometer (29 mile) crater in the lower right corner, have sharp, well defined rims. Keelut contains an inner ring surrounding a central depression about 17 kilometers (11 miles) in diameter. Keelut, and the more irregularly shaped, degraded Reginleif, the 32 kilometer (19.5 mile) crater in the top center of the image, are very shallow and have flat floors. Crater forms can be seen down to less than 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) in diameter in the image. Each picture element (pixel) in this image is approximately 0.68 kilometers (0.41 miles) across.

    This image which was taken by the Galileo spacecraft's solid state imaging (CCD) system during its eighth orbit around Jupiter, on May 6th, 1997. The center of the image is located at 71.3 degrees south latitude, 97.6 degrees west longitude, and was taken when the spacecraft was approximately 35,470 kilometers (21,637 miles) from Callisto.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at

  18. Pole preservatives in soils adjacent to in-service utility poles in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, B.B.; Ripp, J.A.; Sims, R.; Ladwig, K.

    1997-12-01

    As a result of increasing concerns regarding the environmental fate of wood preservatives, EPRI carried out a study of soils in the vicinity of in-service wood pole sites. More than 8,000 soil samples adjacent to 180 PCP-treated and 22 creosote-treated wood poles were collected and analyzed for chemicals of interest. The results showed that concentrations of wood preservative chemicals tended to be highest in soils located in very close proximity to the poles with rapid decreases in concentrations observed with distance from the poles. Soil partitioning, biodegradation, and modeling studies on PCP were also completed to augment the soil data and to provide additional information on the release, migration, and fate of wood preservatives at in-service pole sites.

  19. Spindle position control by embedded electromagnetic poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, N.-C.; Lee, R.-M.

    2010-10-01

    A novel embedded cylindrical-array magnetic actuator (ECAMA) is proposed and verified by experiments to provide sufficient magnetic force for spindle deviation regulation of high-speed milling process. Four I-shape silicon steel columns enclosing the spindle constitute the backbone of the ECAMA. The shape of modified concave-type yokes is designed to reduce the average air gap between magnetic poles and the spindle. In contrast to the conventional AMB (active magnetic bearing) design for which coils are usually wound on the yokes, the copper wire is wound on the I-shape silicon steel columns. As a result, the overall wound coil turns can be much increased. In other words, stronger magnetic force can be induced by ECAMA. On the other hand, to reduce the cost of ECAMA, two pairs of self-sensing modules are employed to replace the gap sensors for measurement of spindle position deviation. In order to verify the efficacy of the proposed ECAMA and the self-sensing module, high-speed milling tests are undertaken. By inspection on the precision and quality of the finish surface of workpiece, the superiority of ECAMA and the self-sensing module are assured.

  20. Pole-factorization theorem in quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    In quantum electrodynamics a classical part of the S-matrix is normally factored out in order to obtain a quantum remainder that can be treated perturbatively without the occurrence of infrared divergences. However, this separation, as usually performed, introduces spurious large-distance effects that produce an apparent breakdown of the important correspondence between stable particles and poles of the S-matrix, and, consequently, lead to apparent violations of the correspondence principle and to incorrect results for computations in the mesoscopic domain lying between the atomic and classical regimes. An improved computational technique is described that allows valid results to be obtained in this domain, and that leads, for the quantum remainder, in the cases studied, to a physical-region singularity structure that, as regards the most singular parts, is the same as the normal physical-region analytic structure in theories in which all particles have non-zero mass. The key innovations here are to define the classical part in coordinate space, rather than in momentum space, and to define there a separation of the photon-electron coupling into its classical and quantum parts that has the following properties: (1) The contributions from the terms containing only classical couplings can be summed to all orders to give a unitary operator that generates the coherent state that corresponds to the appropriate classical process, and (2) The quantum remainder can be rigorously shown to exhibit, as regards its most singular parts, the normal analytic structure. 22 refs.

  1. In Situ Poling and Imidization of Amorphous Piezoelectric Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Wise, Kristopher E.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An amorphous piezoelectric polyimide containing polar functional groups has been developed using a combination of experimental and molecular modeling for potential use in high temperature applications. This amorphous polyimide, (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, has exhibited good thermal stability and piezoelectric response at temperatures up to 150C. Density functional calculations predicted that a partially cured amic acid (open imide ring) possesses a dipole moment four times larger than the fully imidized closed ring. In situ poling and imidization of the partially cured (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, was studied in an attempt to maximize the degree of dipolar orientation and the resultant piezoelectric response. A positive corona poling was used to minimize localized arcing during poling and to allow use of higher poling fields without dielectric breakdown. The dielectric relaxation strength, remanent polarization, and piezoelectric response were evaluated as a function of the poling profile. The partially cured, corona poled polymers exhibited higher dielectric relaxation strength (delta varepsilon), remanent polarization (Pr) and piezoelectric strain coefficient (d33) than the fully cured, conventionally poled ones.

  2. Electrohydrodynamic printing under applied pole-type nozzle configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Sun, Daoheng

    2013-01-01

    A pole-type nozzle has an inserted pole that jams a contraction flow into capillary in electrohydrodynamic deposition. The jammed solution improves Taylor cone formation by shortening the hysteresis time so that pole-type nozzle is suitable for high-resolution electrohydrodynamic printing. Experimental results demonstrate a governed frequency-dividing relationship with an integral ratio of applied voltage frequency to droplet deposition frequency. It is observed that low integral frequency ratio is in favor of low voltage amplitude and duty cycle, and high voltage frequency, since polymer solution jets in a small fluidic volume per droplet under low electric force and short pulse duration.

  3. Dynamic analysis of the earth pole oscillation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippova, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    In the framework of classical mechanics, we perform an amplitude-frequency analysis of a small-parameter model of the Earth pole diurnal oscillations under the action of luni-solar gravitational-tidal torques. The Euler-Liouville dynamic equations with irregular perturbations taken into account are used to obtain the structural properties of diurnal oscillations of the Earth pole coordinates. The results of the Earth pole motion simulation are compared with the high-precision data of VLBI observations on a short time interval.

  4. The self-consistent dynamic pole tide in global oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic pole tide is characterized in a self-consistent manner by means of introducing a single nondifferential matrix equation compatible with the Liouville equation, modelling the ocean as global and of uniform depth. The deviations of the theory from the realistic ocean, associated with the nonglobality of the latter, are also given consideration, with an inference that in realistic oceans long-period modes of resonances would be increasingly likely to exist. The analysis of the nature of the pole tide and its effects on the Chandler wobble indicate that departures of the pole tide from the equilibrium may indeed be minimal.

  5. Improvements in two-dimensional magnet pole design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, Z.; Traveria, M.; Campmany, J.

    2004-11-01

    We present here an improved methodology to design magnet poles in two dimensions using two models for the pole profile. To this end, we have developed a group of codes that run on MS-DOS and UNIX and use both POISSON and OPERA-2D codes. This procedure includes the evaluation of the sensitivity of the final pole profile to geometrical and current intensity errors in order to estimate mechanical and operational tolerances. In order to test the feasibility of this method, we have applied it to the case of the 1.2 T combined magnet of the new synchrotron to be built nearby Barcelona.

  6. Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchmanj, David L; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L; Murray, Alison E

    2012-10-23

    The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation.

  7. 9. VIEW SHOWING TRUSSES FROM DECK WITH 4' RANGE POLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING TRUSSES FROM DECK WITH 4' RANGE POLE AT SECOND VERTICAL POST ON SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING WEST - White River Bridge, Spanning White River at U.S. Highway 70, De Valls Bluff, Prairie County, AR

  8. TOWER 450 WITH POLE. Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER 450 WITH POLE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Near A Avenue between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Ninth Street & D Avenue intersection, & F Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. TOWER S389, WITH POLE. MAGAZINES IN BACKGROUND. Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER S389, WITH POLE. MAGAZINES IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Near A Avenue between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Ninth Street & D Avenue intersection, & F Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Pole placement by static and dynamic output feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, C. I.; Stevens, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper gives new results concerning pole-assignability by static and dynamic output feedback, based on the interpretation of transfer functions, feedback laws, poles and zeroes in terms of the incidence geometry of m-planes and p-planes in (m+p)-space. As an illustration of the most basic ideas, a short proof of the Brasch-Pearson theorem is given. A more careful analysis of this proof yields a significant extension of this theorem, which is considerably sharpened in the case of pole-assignment by constant gain output feedback. As a final application, a root-locus design technique for non-square systems is introduced: zero placement by pre- or post-compensation. This zero placement problem is then analyzed by methods similar to those developed for pole placement by output feedback.

  11. Detail of northeast corner showing metal plates and poles of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of northeast corner showing metal plates and poles of unknown purpose. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Nurses' Quarters, Southwest Corner of West Harlow Avenue, & South Eighth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. Detail of base of monopole antenna element with graduated pole, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of base of monopole antenna element with graduated pole, view facing north - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Radio Station, AF/FRD-10 Circularly Disposed Antenna Array, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. BLDG 2, FRONT ELEVATION (PIER SIDE) WITH POLE. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 2, FRONT ELEVATION (PIER SIDE) WITH POLE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Explosive & Small Train Depot, Main wharf area between wharves W2 & W3, north of First Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Cassini Observes the Active South Pole of Enceladus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porco, C. C.; Helfenstein P.; Thomas, P. C.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Wisdom, J.; West, R.; Neukum, G.; Denk, T.; Wagner, R.; Roatsch, T.; Kieffer, S.; Turtle, E.; McEwen, A.; Johnson, T. V.; Rathbun, J.; Veverka, J.; Wilson, D.; Perry, J.; Spitale, J.; Brahic, A.; Burns, J. A.; DelGenio, A. D.; Dones, L.; Murray, C. D.; Squyres, S.

    2007-01-01

    Cassini has identified a geologically active province a the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The shape of Enceladus suggests a possible intense heating epoch in the past by capture into a 1:4 secondary spin/orbit resonance.

  15. 7. LOOKING SOUTHWEST, VIEW FROM ROADBED WITH 4' RANGE POLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING SOUTHWEST, VIEW FROM ROADBED WITH 4' RANGE POLE AT NORTHWEST SIDE OF BRIDGE RAILING - Illinois River Bridge, Spanning Illinois River at Benton County Road 3, Siloam Springs, Benton County, AR

  16. 3. FENCE AND POLE WITH BUILDINGS 600608 IN THE BACKGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FENCE AND POLE WITH BUILDINGS 600-608 IN THE BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Military Family Housing, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  17. 5. This Aframe was used to handle poles while being ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. This A-frame was used to handle poles while being trimmed to correct length after the peeling process. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Log Peeling Operation, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. A LINE POLE 2, DETAIL OF MODERN BROWN PORCELAIN SUSPENSIONTYPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A LINE POLE 2, DETAIL OF MODERN BROWN PORCELAIN SUSPENSION-TYPE INSULATORS. VIEW TO WEST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  19. NORTH ELEVATION WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. ABOVEGROUND PORTION IS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. ABOVE-GROUND PORTION IS ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. EAST ELEVATION WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. VIEW FACING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 4. Interior view to northwest, showing tiers of poles for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Interior view to northwest, showing tiers of poles for hanging tobacco to cure. - Edgewood Farm, Tobacco Barn, West side of State Route 600, .8 mile north of State Route 778, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  2. 30 CFR 57.12048 - Communication conductors on power poles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., telephone, or signal wires shall not be installed on the same crossarm with power conductors. When carried on poles supporting powerlines, they shall be installed as specified by the National Electrical Code....

  3. A Totem Pole Represents Native Culture at Seattle Pacific University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Kenneth

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a totem pole carved by a Tlingit artist using traditional symbols to illustrate the history and mission of Seattle Pacific University. The article also reports the 1979 dedication ceremony. (SB)

  4. LODGEPOLE BRIDGE DETAIL, FACING SOUTHEAST Generals Highway, Lodge Pole ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LODGEPOLE BRIDGE DETAIL, FACING SOUTHEAST - Generals Highway, Lodge Pole Bridge, Spanning Marble Fork of Kaweah River, approximately 21 miles northwest of Ash Mountain Entrance, Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA

  5. 31. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. WELL WITH POLE DERRICK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. WELL WITH POLE DERRICK AND COMPLETE SET OF WHEELS, ROADWAY ACCESS. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  6. Safe-Egress Pole For Vehicle In Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Winston D.; Wesselski, Clarence J.; Pelischek, Timothy E.; Becker, Bruce H.; Kahn, Jon; Grimaldi, Margaret E.; Mcmanamen, John; Castro, Edgar O.

    1990-01-01

    Telescoping pole helps people leave moving vehicle in emergency. Extends from vehicle far enough to guide people away from structural features that could strike and injure them. Also used to deliver cargo from aircraft without damage to or by wings or to eject supplies from moving trucks so they land off roadway. Concept developed to help crewmembers escape from Space Shuttle under certain flight conditions. Pole compact and lightweight.

  7. Higher Pole Linear Traps for Atomic Clock Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute

    2000-01-01

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically higher pole linear ion traps for frequency standard use. We have built a 12-pole trap and have successfully loaded ions into it from a linear quadrupole trap. By solving the Boltzmann equation describing large ion clouds where space charge interactions are important, we show that clock frequency changes due to ion number fluctuations are much smaller in ion clocks based multipole traps than comparable clocks based on quadrupole linear traps.

  8. Pentachlorophenol contamination of private drinking water from treated utility poles.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Lee; Cragin, Lori; Center, Gail; Giguere, Cary; Comstock, Jeff; Boccuzzo, Linda; Sumner, Austin

    2013-02-01

    In 2009, after resident calls regarding an odor, the Vermont Department of Health and state partners responded to 2 scenarios of private drinking water contamination from utility poles treated with pentachlorophenol (PCP), an organochlorine wood preservative used in the United States. Public health professionals should consider PCP contamination of private water if they receive calls about a chemical or gasoline-like odor with concurrent history of nearby utility pole replacement.

  9. Effective diffraction gratings via acidic etching of thermally poled glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenskii, A. N.; Reduto, I. V.; Petrikov, V. D.; Lipovskii, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Relief diffraction gratings are formed via acidic chemical etching of a periodically poled soda-lime glass. The thermal poling under 1000 V DC is performed at 325 °C using a thermally stable glassy-carbon anodic electrode with periodic grooves, the depth of the grooves being of ∼650 nm. Poling-induced modification of the glass results in deepening the glass anodic surface in the regions under the ribs of the anodic electrode due to volume relaxation and in increasing chemical durability of these regions in acidic media comparatively to the virgin glass. Chemical etching of the poled glass in NH4F:8H2O solution allows additional to the thermal poling shaping of the glass surface via faster dissolution of unpoled/less poled glass regions. The morphology of the glass surface before and after the etching is characterized with atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. About 30 min etching provides the formation of ∼0.9 μm in height relief diffraction gratings with the diffraction efficiency close to the theoretically achievable ∼30% for multi-order diffraction. In vivo measuring of the diffraction efficiency in the course of the etching allows precise fabrication of the gratings.

  10. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter; Gartside, Michael; Wadt, Karin; Pritchard, Antonia L; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Tomlinson, Ian; Kearsey, Stephen; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-12-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family. Functional assays in S. pombe showed that this mutation led to an increased DNA mutation rate comparable to that seen with a Pol ε mutant with no exonuclease activity. We then performed targeted sequencing of POLE in 1243 cutaneous melanoma cases and found that a further ten probands had novel or rare variants in the exonuclease domain of POLE. Although this frequency is not significantly higher than that in unselected Caucasian controls, we observed multiple cancer types in the melanoma families, suggesting that some germline POLE mutations may predispose to a broad spectrum of cancers, including melanoma. In addition, we found the first mutation outside the exonuclease domain, p.(Gln520Arg), in a family with an extensive history of colorectal cancer.

  11. Gamma Oscillations in the Temporal Pole in Response to Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Uono, Shota; Matsuda, Kazumi; Usui, Keiko; Usui, Naotaka; Inoue, Yushi; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    The eyes of an individual act as an indispensable communication medium during human social interactions. Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that several brain regions are activated in response to eyes and eye gaze direction changes. However, it remains unclear whether the temporal pole is one of these regions. Furthermore, if the temporal pole is activated by these stimuli, the timing and manner in which it is activated also remain unclear. To investigate these issues, we analyzed intracranial electroencephalographic data from the temporal pole that were obtained during the presentation of eyes and mosaics in averted or straight directions and their directional changes. Time–frequency statistical parametric mapping analyses revealed that the bilateral temporal poles exhibited greater gamma-band activation beginning at 215 ms in response to eyes compared with mosaics, irrespective of the direction. Additionally, the right temporal pole showed greater gamma-band activation beginning at 197 ms in response to directional changes of the eyes compared with mosaics. These results suggest that gamma-band oscillations in the temporal pole were involved in the processing of the presence of eyes and changes in eye gaze direction at a relatively late temporal stage compared with the posterior cortices. PMID:27571204

  12. Knee joint forces during downhill walking with hiking poles.

    PubMed

    Schwameder, H; Roithner, R; Müller, E; Niessen, W; Raschner, C

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine external and internal loads on the knee joint during downhill walking with and without hiking poles. Kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic data were collected from eight males during downhill walking on a ramp declined at 25 degrees. Planar knee joint moments and forces were calculated using a quasi-static knee model. The results were analysed for an entire pole-cycle as well as differentiated between single and double support phases and between each step of a pole-cycle. Significant differences between downhill walking with and without hiking poles were observed for peak and average magnitudes of ground reaction force, knee joint moment, and tibiofemoral compressive and shear forces (12-25%). Similar reductions were found in patellofemoral compressive force, the quadriceps tendon force and the activity of the vastus lateralis; however, because of a high variability, these differences were not significant. The reductions seen during downhill walking with hiking poles compared with unsupported downhill walking were caused primarily by the forces applied to the hiking poles and by a change in posture to a more forward leaning position of the upper body, with the effect of reducing the knee moment arm.

  13. International Youth Conference on the Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, A. K.; Kuhn, T. S.; Baeseman, J.; Garmulewicz, A.; Raymond, M.; Salmon, R.

    2006-12-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) is an international effort, involving more than 50 countries, to focus research in both the sciences and social sciences on the world's Polar Regions. In order to secure youth involvement in the IPY, the Youth Steering Committee (YSC) has been formed, aiming specifically to network young polar researchers from all backgrounds enabling collaboration and to involve this group in outreach focused towards other young people. A conference targeted directly at an audience of early career researchers and international youth will be central to fulfilling these aims. The YSC has therefore developed the concept of the International Youth Conference on the Poles (IYCP). Proposed for 2008, this conference will bring together youth from a diverse set of backgrounds and nationalities to discuss the issues affecting the Polar Regions, their effects on a global scale and ways of addressing these issues. The conference will also serve to highlight ongoing IPY research, especially research being undertaken by young researchers, and provide a perennial framework for youth involvement in polar research and policies. The IYCP will run for three days in May 2008, attracting an international youth audience, as well as representatives from polar organizations, teachers, politicians, policy makers, the general public and media. The IYCP will be divided into three sections. Youth Roundtable Discussions will bring youth together to discuss issues affecting the Polar Regions and potential solutions to these. A Young Researchers Conference will provide the opportunity for young researchers working in the Polar Regions to present their work to an interdisciplinary audience. The Polar Fair will provide an interactive environment for youth to learn about the Polar Regions. The IYCP will be of great importance to the IPY because it will serve as the principle venue during the Polar Year where youth from many different disciplines, backgrounds and countries will

  14. Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E.; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchman, David L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L.; Murray, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation. PMID:23045668

  15. 49 CFR 234.243 - Wire on pole line and aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wire on pole line and aerial cable. 234.243....243 Wire on pole line and aerial cable. Wire on a pole line shall be securely attached to an insulator that is properly fastened to a cross arm or bracket supported by a pole or other support. Wire...

  16. 49 CFR 234.243 - Wire on pole line and aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wire on pole line and aerial cable. 234.243....243 Wire on pole line and aerial cable. Wire on a pole line shall be securely attached to an insulator that is properly fastened to a cross arm or bracket supported by a pole or other support. Wire...

  17. 49 CFR 234.243 - Wire on pole line and aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wire on pole line and aerial cable. 234.243....243 Wire on pole line and aerial cable. Wire on a pole line shall be securely attached to an insulator that is properly fastened to a cross arm or bracket supported by a pole or other support. Wire...

  18. Efficacy of the lithotripsy in treating lower pole renal stones.

    PubMed

    Cui, Helen; Thomee, Eeke; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2013-06-01

    Use of extracorporeal lithotripsy is declining in North America and many European countries despite international guidelines advocating it as a first-line therapy. Traditionally, lithotripsy is thought to have poor efficacy at treating lower pole renal stones. We evaluated the success rates of lithotripsy for lower pole renal stones in our unit. 50 patients with lower pole kidney stones ≤15 mm treated between 3/5/11 and 19/4/12 were included in the study. Patients received lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter according to a standard protocol. Clinical success was defined as stone-free status or asymptomatic clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs) ≤3 mm at radiological follow-up. The mean stone size was 7.8 mm. The majority of stones (66 %) were between 5 and 10 mm. 28 % of stones were between 10 and 15 mm. For solitary lower pole stones complete stone clearance was achieved in 63 %. Total stone clearance including those with CIRFs was achieved in 81 % of patients. As expected, for those with multiple lower pole stones the success rates were lower: complete clearance was observed in 39 % and combined clearance including those with CIRFs was 56 %. Overall, complete stone clearance was observed in 54 % of patients and clearance with CIRFs was achieved in 72 % of patients. Success rate could not be attributed to age, stone size or gender. Our outcome data for the treatment of lower pole renal stones (≤15 mm) compare favourably with the literature. With this level of stone clearance, a non-invasive, outpatient-based treatment like lithotripsy should remain the first-line treatment option for lower pole stones. Ureteroscopy must prove that it is significantly better either in terms of clinical outcome or patient satisfaction to justify replacing lithotripsy.

  19. A nondestructive characterization system of periodically poled crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaixi; Zhou, Huang; Chen, Liyuan; Zou, Xiaolin; Miao, Long; Feng, Xinkai; Li, Guangwei; Liang, Wanguo

    2015-08-01

    Periodically poled crystals are widely used as SHG, DFG, SFG, OPO and THz generation, and there is a broad application prospect in some areas such as the laser display, optical fiber communication, atmospheric exploration and military confrontation. At present, to get the parameters of periodically poled crystals, like duty ratio, the main method is chemical etching of the samples. In this paper, we present a nondestructive characterization system of periodically poled crystals. When we apply a proper high voltage on both sides of the periodically poled crystal, the refractive index difference of positive and negative domain will be increased and we can observe a clear domain pattern by the a microscope so as to obtain general information. Then a single frequency laser is prepared to radiate on +z surface of the periodically poled crystal, we can get some orders of diffraction according to diffraction optics principle. Finally, we can measure the parameters such as period, duty ratio by use of numerical analysis. The testing sample size of this system can be up to 60mm, The accuracy of the testing period can be 0.1μm, and the measurement range of duty ratio is 20%-50%.

  20. Development of a multi-pole magnetorheological brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiao, Yaojung; Nguyen, Quang-Anh

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach in the design and optimization of a novel multi-pole magnetorheological (MR) brake that employs magnetic flux more effectively on the surface of the rotor. MR brakes with conventional single ring-type electromagnetic poles have reached the limits of torque enhancement. One major reason is the limitation of the magnetic field strength within the active area of the MR fluid due to the geometric constraints of the coil. The multi-pole MR brake design features multiple electromagnetic poles surrounded by several coils. As a result, the active chaining areas for the MR fluid are greatly increased, and significant brake torque improvement is achieved. The coil structure, as a part of the stator, becomes flexible and customizable in terms of space usage for the winding and bobbin design. In addition, this brake offers extra options in its dimensions for torque enhancement because either the radial or the axial dimensions of the rotor can be increased. Magnetic circuit analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of the design parameters on the field torque. After that, simulations were done to find the optimal design under all major geometric constraints with a given power supply. The results show that the multi-pole MR brake provides a considerable braking torque increase while maintaining a compact and solid design. This is confirmation of its feasibility in actual braking applications.

  1. Anaphase A: Disassembling Microtubules Move Chromosomes toward Spindle Poles

    PubMed Central

    Asbury, Charles L.

    2017-01-01

    The separation of sister chromatids during anaphase is the culmination of mitosis and one of the most strikingly beautiful examples of cellular movement. It consists of two distinct processes: Anaphase A, the movement of chromosomes toward spindle poles via shortening of the connecting fibers, and anaphase B, separation of the two poles from one another via spindle elongation. I focus here on anaphase A chromosome-to-pole movement. The chapter begins by summarizing classical observations of chromosome movements, which support the current understanding of anaphase mechanisms. Live cell fluorescence microscopy studies showed that poleward chromosome movement is associated with disassembly of the kinetochore-attached microtubule fibers that link chromosomes to poles. Microtubule-marking techniques established that kinetochore-fiber disassembly often occurs through loss of tubulin subunits from the kinetochore-attached plus ends. In addition, kinetochore-fiber disassembly in many cells occurs partly through ‘flux’, where the microtubules flow continuously toward the poles and tubulin subunits are lost from minus ends. Molecular mechanistic models for how load-bearing attachments are maintained to disassembling microtubule ends, and how the forces are generated to drive these disassembly-coupled movements, are discussed. PMID:28218660

  2. Assessment of Pole Erosion in a Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Ortega, Alejandro L.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster called H6 have been performed to quantify the erosion rate at the inner pole. The assessments have been made in two versions of the thruster, namely the unshielded (H6US) and magnetically shielded (H6MS) configurations. The simulations have been performed with the 2-D axisymmetric code Hall2De which employs a new multi-fluid ion algorithm to capture the presence of low-energy ions in the vicinity of the poles. It is found that the maximum computed erosion rate at the inner pole of the H6MS exceeds the measured rate of back-sputtered deposits by 4.5 times. This explains only part of the surface roughening that was observed after a 150-h wear test, which covered most of the pole area exposed to the plasma. For the majority of the pole surface the computed erosion rates are found to be below the back-sputter rate and comparable to those in the H6US which exhibited little to no sputtering in previous tests. Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed.

  3. Revisiting the pole tide for and from satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Shailen; Wahr, John; Beckley, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Satellite altimeter sea surface height observations include the geocentric displacements caused by the pole tide, namely the response of the solid Earth and oceans to polar motion. Most users of these data remove these effects using a model that was developed more than 20 years ago. We describe two improvements to the pole tide model for satellite altimeter measurements. Firstly, we recommend an approach that improves the model for the response of the oceans by including the effects of self-gravitation, loading, and mass conservation. Our recommended approach also specifically includes the previously ignored displacement of the solid Earth due to the load of the ocean response, and includes the effects of geocenter motion. Altogether, this improvement amplifies the modeled geocentric pole tide by 15 %, or up to 2 mm of sea surface height displacement. We validate this improvement using two decades of satellite altimeter measurements. Secondly, we recommend that the altimetry pole tide model exclude geocentric sea surface displacements resulting from the long-term drift in polar motion. The response to this particular component of polar motion requires a more rigorous approach than is used by conventional models. We show that erroneously including the response to this component of polar motion in the pole tide model impacts interpretation of regional sea level rise by ± 0.25 mm/year.

  4. Two-pole structure of the D0* (2400)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albaladejo, Miguel; Fernandez-Soler, Pedro; Guo, Feng-Kun; Nieves, Juan

    2017-04-01

    The so far only known charmed non-strange scalar meson is dubbed as D0* (2400) in the Review of Particle Physics. We show, within the framework of unitarized chiral perturbation theory, that there are in fact two (I = 1 / 2 ,JP =0+) poles in the region of the D0* (2400) in the coupled-channel Dπ, Dη and Ds K bar scattering amplitudes. With all the parameters previously fixed, we predict the energy levels for the coupled-channel system in a finite volume, and find that they agree remarkably well with recent lattice QCD calculations. This successful description of the lattice data is regarded as a strong evidence for the two-pole structure of the D0* (2400). With the physical quark masses, the poles are located at (2105-8+6 - i102-12+10) MeV and (2451-26+36 - i134-8+7) MeV, with the largest couplings to the Dπ and Ds K bar channels, respectively. Since the higher pole is close to the Ds K bar threshold, we expect it to show up as a threshold enhancement in the Ds K bar invariant mass distribution. This could be checked by high-statistic data in future experiments. We also show that the lower pole belongs to the same SU(3) multiplet as the Ds0 * (2317) state. Predictions for partners in the bottom sector are also given.

  5. Avoidance of a Landau pole by flat contributions in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Klaczynski, Lutz; Kreimer, Dirk

    2014-05-15

    We consider massless Quantum Electrodynamics in the momentum scheme and carry forward an approach based on Dyson–Schwinger equations to approximate both the β-function and the renormalized photon self-energy (Yeats, 2011). Starting from the Callan–Symanzik equation, we derive a renormalization group (RG) recursion identity which implies a non-linear ODE for the anomalous dimension and extract a sufficient but not necessary criterion for the existence of a Landau pole. This criterion implies a necessary condition for QED to have no such pole. Solving the differential equation exactly for a toy model case, we integrate the corresponding RG equation for the running coupling and find that even though the β-function entails a Landau pole it exhibits a flat contribution capable of decreasing its growth, in other cases possibly to the extent that such a pole is avoided altogether. Finally, by applying the recursion identity, we compute the photon propagator and investigate the effect of flat contributions on both spacelike and timelike photons. -- Highlights: •We present an approach to approximate both the β-function and the photon self-energy. •We find a sufficient criterion for the self-energy to entail the existence of a Landau pole. •We study non-perturbative ‘flat’ contributions that emerge within the context of our approach. •We discuss a toy model and how it is affected by flat contributions.

  6. Plasmon-pole models affect band gaps in GW calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Paul; Wu, Zhigang

    2013-03-01

    Density functional theory calculations have long been known to underestimate the band gaps in semiconductors. Significant improvements have been made by using GW calculations that uses the self energy, defined as the product of the Green function (G) and screened Coulomb exchange (W). However, many approximations are made in the GW method, specifically the plasmon-pole approximation. This approximation replaces the integration necessary to produce W with a simple approximation to the inverse dielectric function. Four different plasmon-pole approximations have been tested using the tight-binding program ABINIT: Godby-Needs, Hybertsen-Louie, von der Linden-Horsch, and Engel-Farid. For many materials, the differences in the GW band gaps for the different plasmon-pole models are negligible, but for systems with localized electrons, the difference can be larger than 1 eV. The plasmon-pole approximation is generally chosen to best agree with experimental data, but this is misleading in that this ignores all of the other approximations used in the GW method. Improvements in plasmon-pole models in GW can only come about by trying to reproduce the results of the numerical integration rather than trying to reproduce experimental results.

  7. Global plate tectonics and the secular motion of the pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soler, T.

    1977-01-01

    Astronomical data compiled during the last 70 years by the international organizations providing the coordinates of the instantaneous pole clearly shows a persistent drift of the mean pole. The differential contributions to the earth's second-order tensor of inertia were obtained and applied, resulting in no significant displacement of the earth's principal axis. In view of the above, the effect that theoretical geophysical models for absolute plate velocities may have on an apparent displacement of the mean pole as a consequence of station drifting was analyzed. The investigation also reports new values for the crustal tensor of inertia (assuming an ellipsoidal earth) and the orientation of its axis of figure, reopening the old speculation of a possible sliding of the whole crustover the upper mantle, including the supporting geophysical and astronomic evidence.

  8. Images and topographic relief at the north pole of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leberl, Franz W.; Maurice, Kelly E.; Thomas, John K.; Leff, Craig E.; Wall, Stephen D.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of unique coverage of the north pole of Venus using a subset of 13 images from a total of about 775 synthetic aperture radar orbits during cycle 1 of the Magellan mission is reported. Images at 13 distinctly different azimuths are reported that range over 360 deg in longitude and that show the topographic relief at vastly different imaging geometries at intervals of about 20 deg. A pair of intersecting or crossing orbits is used to assess the topographic relief with stereo radargrammetric techniques, and to refine this assessment using a multiimage clinometric approach. It is shown that the pole is located in accentuated topography with elevation differences in the range of no more than 1 km. It is concluded that pinpointing the location of the pole from the overlapping images and standard mission data is accurate to within about 100 pixels or 8 km (RMS).

  9. Electromagnetic Radial Forces in a Hybrid Eight-Stator-Pole, Six-Rotor-Pole Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Siebert, Mark W.; Ho, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis and experimental measurement of the electromagnet force loads on the hybrid rotor in a novel bearingless switched-reluctance motor (BSRM) have been performed. A BSRM has the combined characteristics of a switched-reluctance motor and a magnetic bearing. The BSRM has an eight-pole stator and a six-pole hybrid rotor, which is composed of circular and scalloped lamination segments. The hybrid rotor is levitated using only one set of stator poles. A second set of stator poles imparts torque to the scalloped portion of the rotor, which is driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by a processor. Analysis was done for nonrotating rotor poles that were oriented to achieve maximum and minimum radial force loads on the rotor. The objective is to assess whether simple one-dimensional magnetic circuit analysis is sufficient for preliminary evaluation of this machine, which may exhibit strong three-dimensional electromagnetic field behavior. Two magnetic circuit geometries, approximating the complex topology of the magnetic fields in and around the hybrid rotor, were employed in formulating the electromagnetic radial force equations. Reasonable agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions was obtained with typical magnetic bearing derating factors applied to the predictions.

  10. Third Pole Environment (TPE): a new frontier for interdisciplinary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Yao, T.; Thompson, L. G.; Mosbrugger, V.; Zhang, F.; Ma, Y.; Yang, X.; Wang, W.; Joswiak, D.; Liu, X.; Devkota, L. P.; Tayal, S.; Luo, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain ranges, referred to by scientists as the Third Pole (TP), represent one of the largest ice masses of the Earth. The region is one of the most sensitive areas responding to global climate change due to its high altitude and the presence of permafrost and glaciers. The near 100,000 km2 of glaciers ensure the permanent flow of major rivers in this region and provide water to 1.4 billion people in Asia. Thus, environmental changes taking place on the TP significantly influences social and economic development of countries in this region such as China, India, Nepal, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bhutan. With an average elevation higher than 4,000 metres above sea level, the Third Pole is characterized by complex interactions of atmospheric, cryospheric, hydrological, geological and environmental processes that bear special significance for the Earth's biodiversity, climate and water cycles. For a comprehensive understanding of the environment of the TP and its implications on the development of the region, we need to integrate different disciplines under a them of 'water-ice-air-ecosystem -human' interactions and reveal environmental change processes and mechanisms on the TP and their influences on and regional responses to global changes, and thus to serve for enhancement of human adaptation to the changing environment. Like Antarctica and the Arctic, the Third Pole region is drawing increased attention of the international academic community. A series of observations and monitoring programs in the Third Pole region has been widely implemented. However, data necessary to precisely assess the environmental, societal and economic changes caused by alterations in the Third Pole dynamics are either lacking or insufficient. The Third Pole Environment (TPE) program is thus established as a comprehensive and coordinated international research, monitoring and capacity building initiative, with goals to address the influence

  11. The solar photon thruster as a terrestrial pole sitter.

    PubMed

    Matloff, Gregory L

    2004-05-01

    Geosynchronous satellites are invisible at high latitudes. A pole-sitting spacecraft would have communication, climate-studies, and near-polar Earth observation applications. We present a pole-sitter based on the solar photon thruster (SPT), a two-sail variant of the solar sail using a large curved collector sail (always normal to the Sun) to direct sunlight against a much smaller thruster. Thrust decreases slower for an SPT than for a conventional sail arrangement as the angle between sunlight and the collector normal increases. An SPT pole-sitter is offset from the terrestrial pole so that a component of Earth gravity balances the solar radiation-pressure component pushing the SPT off station. The component of gravitational attraction of the Earth pulling the spacecraft towards Earth is also balanced by a solar radiation-pressure component. Results are presented for 80-100% collector/thruster reflectivities. For a spacecraft areal mass thickness of 0.002 kg/m(2), collector and thruster reflectivities of 0.9, the SPT can be situated above latitude 45 degrees at a distance of approximately 60 Earth radii. An SPT pole sitter would be affected by lunar perturbation, which can be compensated for by an on-board rocket thruster producing 2 x 10(-6) g acceleration, a second SPT thruster sail thrusting against the influence of the Moon, or by directing a microwave beam against the spacecraft. Since an SPT pole sitter is in a position rather than an orbit, the effect of terrestrial gravitation limits the size and design of the payload package, which limits terrestrial target resolution.

  12. Synchronized Lunar Pole Impact Plume Sample Return Trajectory Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Foster, Cyrus; Colaprete, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The presented trajectory design enables two maneuverable spacecraft launched onto the same trans-lunar injection trajectory to coordinate a steep impact of a lunar pole and subsequent sample return of the ejecta plume to Earth. To demonstrate this concept, the impactor is assumed to use the LCROSS missions trajectory and spacecraft architecture, thus the permanently-shadowed Cabeus crater on the lunar south pole is assumed as the impact site. The sample-return spacecraft is assumed to be a CubeSat that requires a complimentary trajectory design that avoids lunar impact after passing through the ejecta plume to enable sample-return to Earth via atmospheric entry.

  13. Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the distal pole of the scaphoid

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Bhavuk; Gupta, Himanshu; Kotwal, Prakash P

    2011-01-01

    Post traumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of scaphoid is very rare. We present a case of 34 years old male, drill operator by occupation with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of the scaphoid. The patient was managed conservatively and was kept under regular follow-up every three months. The patient was also asked to change his profession. Two years later, the patient had no pain and had mild restriction of wrist movements (less than 15 degrees in either direction). The radiographs revealed normal density of the scaphoid suggesting revascularization. PMID:21430877

  14. Pole and prime meridian expressions for Phobos and Deimos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, T. C.; Callahan, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Simple trigonometric expressions are derived for the right ascensions and declinations of the spin axes of Phobos and Deimos as well as for their prime meridians. Simple expressions are possible since both satellites are in synchronous rotation about Mars and since the orbits of both satellites are accurately modeled as precessing ellipses. Spin axis expressions reflect the offset and precession of the orbit pole about the Laplacian pole. Prime meridian expressions include orbital mean motion, long-period solar perturbations, secular acceleration, and short-period, tidally induced forced libration. These simple expressions agree with rigorous expressions to + or - 0.2 deg.

  15. Traumatic amputation of the left lower renal pole in children

    SciTech Connect

    Waxman, J.; Belman, A.B.; Kass, E.J.

    1985-07-01

    Four children between 5 and 10 years old suffered traumatic amputation of the left lower renal pole following flank trauma. All patients were evaluated with excretory urography and isotope renography. The renal scan clearly demonstrated failure of perfusion of the lower renal pole and urinary extravasation, and was believed to be more valuable than the standard excretory urogram as a diagnostic tool. All children were managed similarly: delayed (72 to 96 hours) exploration, simple removal of the amputated segment and insertion of a Penrose drain. They all have done well. The patients were normotensive at followup and had excellent function of the remaining portion of the kidney.

  16. Neuropathological Correlates of Temporal Pole White Matter Hyperintensities in CADASIL

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yumi; Ihara, Masafumi; Tham, Carina; Low, Roger WC; Slade, Janet Y; Moss, Tim; Oakley, Arthur E; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Kalaria, Raj N

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose White matter (WM) hyperintensities upon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or leukoaraiosis is characteristic of stroke syndromes. Increased MRI signals in the anterior temporal pole are suggested to be diagnostic for cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), with 90% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The structural correlates of these specific WM hyperintensities seen on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences in the temporal pole of CADASIL are unclear. We assessed pathological changes in post-mortem tissue from the temporal pole to reveal the cause of CADASIL specific WM hyperintensities. Materials & Methods A combination of tinctorial and immunostaining approaches and in vitro imaging methods were used to quantify the extent of perivascular space (PVS), arteriosclerosis determined as the sclerotic index (SI), WM myelination as the myelin index (MI) and damage within the WM as accumulated degraded myelin basic protein (dMBP) in samples of the anterior temporal pole from 9 CADASIL and 8 sporadic subcortical ischaemic vascular dementia (SIVD) cases, and 5 similar age (young) and 5 older controls. Luxol fast blue (LFB) stained serial sections from a CADASIL case were also used to reconstruct the temporal pole, which was then compared to the MR images. Results LFB sections used to reconstruct the temporal pole revealed an abundance of enlarged PVS in the WM that topographically appeared as indistinct opaque regions. The mean and total areas of the PVS per WM area (%PVS) were significantly greater in CADASIL compared to the controls. The MI was severely reduced in CADASIL in relation to the SIVD and control sample that was consistent with increased immunoreactivity of dMBP, indicating myelin degeneration. Cerebral microvessels associated with the PVS exhibited a 4.5 fold greater number of basophilic (hyalinised) vessels and a 57% increase in the SI values in CADASIL subjects compared to young

  17. Paleo-Pole Positions from Martian Magnetic Anomaly Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.; Frawley, James J.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic component anomaly maps were made from five mapping cycles of the Mars Global Surveyor s magnetometer data. Our goal was to find and isolate positive and negative anomaly pairs which would indicate magnetization of a single source body. From these anomalies we could compute the direction of the magnetizing vector and subsequently the location of the magnetic pole existing at the time of magnetization. We found nine suitable anomaly pairs and from these we computed four North and 3 South poles with two at approximately 60 degrees north latitude. These results suggest that during the existence of the Martian main magnetic field it experienced several reversals.

  18. Express method of construction of accurate inverse pole figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovich, Yu; Isaenkova, M.; Fesenko, V.

    2016-04-01

    With regard to metallic materials with the FCC and BCC crystal lattice a new method for constructing the X-ray texture inverse pole figures (IPF) by using tilt curves of spinning sample, characterized by high accuracy and rapidity (express), was proposed. In contrast to the currently widespread method to construct IPF using orientation distribution function (ODF), synthesized in several partial direct pole figures, the proposed method is based on a simple geometrical interpretation of a measurement procedure, requires a minimal operating time of the X-ray diffractometer.

  19. Paleo-Pole Positions from Martian Magnetic Anomaly Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frawley, James J.; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic component anomaly maps were made from five mapping cycles of the Mars Global Surveyor's magnetometer data. Our goal was to find and isolate positive and negative anomaly pairs which would indicate magnetization of a single source body. From these anomalies we could compute the direction of the magnetizing vector and subsequently the location of the magnetic pole existing at the time of magnetization. We found nine suitable anomaly pairs and from these we computed paleo-poles that were nearly equally divided between north, south and mid-latitudes. These results suggest that during the existence of the martian main magnetic field it experienced several reversals and excursions.

  20. Revised paleomagnetic pole for the Sonoma Volcanics, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Paleomagnetic sampling of the Miocene and Pliocene Sonoma Volcanics, northern California, was undertaken to supplement an earlier collection. Data from 25 cooling units yield positive fold and reversal tests, and a paleomagnetic pole located at 80.2??N., 069.2??E., with ??95 = 6.8??. This paleopole is significantly displaced (9.6?? ?? 5.3?? of latitude) to the farside of the geographic pole. A highly elliptical distribution of the data in both direction and VGP space indicates that incomplete averaging of geomagnetic secular variation is a more likely explanation for this anomaly than is northward translation of the volcanic field. -Author

  1. Plate motion and the secular shift of the mean pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.; Carpenter, L.; Agreen, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The global plate motion indicates that changes in the products of inertia of the earth due to tectonic plate movement may provide a secular shift of the mean pole. A mathematical procedure for calculating this shift based on the plate theory is presented. Explicit expressions were obtained for the dependence of the secular polar shift on the dimensions and locations of the plate boundaries. Numerical results show that the secular motion of the mean pole is 0.0002 sec/year in the direction of 67 W. Hence, it is deduced that the influence of the plate motion on the secular polar shift may account for 10% of the observed value.

  2. Challenges of Rover Navigation at the Lunar Poles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara; Deans, Matt; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Edwards, Larry; Dille, Michael; Fong, Terry; Colaprete, Tony; Miller, Scott; Vaughan, Ryan; Andrews, Dan; Allan, Mark; Furlong, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Observations from Lunar Prospector, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and other missions have contributed evidence that water and other volatiles exist at the lunar poles in permanently shadowed regions. Combining a surface rover and a volatile prospecting and analysis payload would enable the detection and characterization of volatiles in terms of nature, abundance, and distribution. This knowledge could have impact on planetary science, in-situ resource utilization, and human exploration of space. While Lunar equatorial regions of the Moon have been explored by manned (Apollo) and robotic missions (Lunokhod, Cheng'e), no surface mission has reached the lunar poles.

  3. From 'third pole' to north pole: a Himalayan origin for the arctic fox.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Li, Qiang; Takeuchi, Gary T; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-07-22

    The 'third pole' of the world is a fitting metaphor for the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau, in allusion to its vast frozen terrain, rivalling the Arctic and Antarctic, at high altitude but low latitude. Living Tibetan and arctic mammals share adaptations to freezing temperatures such as long and thick winter fur in arctic muskox and Tibetan yak, and for carnivorans, a more predatory niche. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first evolutionary link between an Early Pliocene (3.60-5.08 Myr ago) fox, Vulpes qiuzhudingi new species, from the Himalaya (Zanda Basin) and Kunlun Mountain (Kunlun Pass Basin) and the modern arctic fox Vulpes lagopus in the polar region. A highly hypercarnivorous dentition of the new fox bears a striking resemblance to that of V. lagopus and substantially predates the previous oldest records of the arctic fox by 3-4 Myr. The low latitude, high-altitude Tibetan Plateau is separated from the nearest modern arctic fox geographical range by at least 2000 km. The apparent connection between an ancestral high-elevation species and its modern polar descendant is consistent with our 'Out-of-Tibet' hypothesis postulating that high-altitude Tibet was a training ground for cold-environment adaptations well before the start of the Ice Age.

  4. Slanted and saw-toothed stator poles for improved performance of doubly salient permanent magnet motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, A. R. C. Sekhar; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the results of extensive finite element analyses conducted on doubly salient permanent magnet motor (DSPM) for improving the torque characteristics by novel methods; namely (i) slanted stator pole and (ii) saw-toothed stator pole. In the first method, stator poles are given a slant at the pole face; the slant in a direction opposite to the rotation of the motor has resulted in 7.33% and 71.45% increase in the average and maximum torques, respectively, when compared with the motor with original stator poles. With appropriate saw-tooth shaped stator poles, various permanent magnet torque and static torque profiles can be achieved.

  5. Catapult effect in pole vaulting: is muscle coordination determinant?

    PubMed

    Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Hug, François; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-Chollet, Claire

    2012-02-01

    This study focused on the phase between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height (HP) of vaulter and aimed at determining the catapult effect in pole vaulting on HP. Seven experienced vaulters performed 5-10 vaults recorded by two video cameras, while the surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of 10 upper limbs muscles was recorded. HP was compared with an estimated maximum height (HP(est)) allowing the computation of a push-off index. Muscle synergies were extracted from the sEMG activity profiles using a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. No significant difference (p>0.47) was found between HP(est) (4.64±0.21m) and HP (4.69±0.23m). Despite a high inter-individual variability in sEMG profiles, two muscle synergies were extracted for all the subjects which accounted for 96.1±2.9% of the total variance. While, the synergy activation coefficients were very similar across subjects, a higher variability was found in the muscle synergy vectors. Consequently, whatever the push-off index among the pole vaulters, the athletes used different muscle groupings (i.e., muscle synergy vectors) which were activated in a similar fashion (i.e., synergy activation coefficients). Overall, these results suggested that muscle coordination adopted between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height does not have a major influence on HP.

  6. Charge quantisation without magnetic poles: A topological approach to electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solha, Romero

    2016-01-01

    The present work provides a theoretical explanation for the quantisation of electric charges, an open problem since Millikan's oil drop experiment in 1909. This explanation is based solely on Maxwell's theory, it recasts Electromagnetic theory under the language of complex line bundles; therefore, neither magnetic poles nor quantum mechanics are invoked.

  7. A LINE POLE 20, DETAIL OF ORIGINAL GLASS PINTYPE INSULATORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A LINE POLE 20, DETAIL OF ORIGINAL GLASS PIN-TYPE INSULATORS AND INTACT COMMUNICATION LINE CROSS ARM WITH TWO GLASS INSULATORS. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  8. A LINE POLE 75, DETAIL OF ORIGINAL GLASS PINTYPE INSULATORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A LINE POLE 75, DETAIL OF ORIGINAL GLASS PIN-TYPE INSULATORS AND INTACT COMMUNICATION LINE CROSS ARM WITH ONE GLASS INSULATOR. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  9. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  10. Ultrasonic Imaging for Poling Uniformity Measurements in PZT Ceramic Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, E.E.

    2000-03-14

    This report summarizes the results of a project sponsored by Honeywell Corporation (formerly AlliedSignal Inc.) Federal Manufacturing and Technologies/Kansas City (FM and T/KC) and conducted jointly with the University of Missouri, Rolla, titled ''Ultrasonic Imaging for Poling Uniformity Measurements in PZT Ceramic Elements.'' In this three-month research project, a series of experiments was performed on soft and hard lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) structures to determine the effectiveness of ultrasonic measurements as a nondestructive method of evaluating poling quality and uniformity. The study revealed that acoustic velocity correlates well with the degree of poling of PZT structures, as predicted by elastic theory. Additionally, time-of-flight (TOF) imaging was shown to be an ideal tool for viewing the spatial distribution of poled material and of material affected by the electric field beyond the edge of electroded regions. Finally, the effectiveness of ultrasonic methods for flaw detection and evaluation of PZT/stainless steel bonds was also demonstrated.

  11. Detail of double pole utility tower at the edge of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of double pole utility tower at the edge of the mesa. National Old Trails Road right-of-way crosses in foreground over a dry laid basaltic rock retaining wall. View south. - La Bajada Historic Trails and Roads, Approximately 1 mile East/Northeast of intersection of State Highway 16 and Indian Service Road 841, La Bajada, Santa Fe County, NM

  12. Late 20th Century increase in South Pole snow accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosley-Thompson, E.; Paskievitch, J.F.; Gow, A.J.; Thompson, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    A compilation of the 37-year history of net accumulation at the South Pole [Mosley-Thompson et al., 1995] suggests an increase in net annual accumulation since 1965. This record is sporadic and its quality is compromised by spatially restricted observations and nonsystematic measurement procedures. Results from a new, spatially extensive network of 236 accumulation poles document that the current 5-year (1992-1997) average annual net accumulation at the South Pole is 84.5??8.9 mm water equivalent (w.e.). This accumulation rate reflects a 30% increase since the 1960s when the best, although not optimal, records indicate that it was 65 mm w.e. Identification of two prominent beta radioactivity horizons (1954/1955 and 1964/1965) in six firn cores confirms an increase in accumulation since 1965. Viewed from a longer perspective of accumulation provided by ice cores and a snow mine study, the net accumulation of the 30-year period, 1965-1994, is the highest 30-year average of this millennium. Limited data suggest this recent accumulation increase extends beyond the South Pole region and may be characteristic of the high East Antarctic Plateau. Enhanced accumulation over the polar ice sheets has been identified as a potential early indicator of warmer sea surface temperatures and may offset a portion of the current rise in global sea level. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Design and performance of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdou, Y.; Becker, K.-H.; Berdermann, J.; Bissok, M.; Bohm, C.; Böser, S.; Bothe, M.; Carson, M.; Descamps, F.; Fischer-Wolfarth, J.-H.; Gustafsson, L.; Hallgren, A.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Heller, R.; Hundertmark, S.; Karg, T.; Krieger, K.; Laihem, K.; Meures, T.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Oberson, F.; Paul, L.; Pohl, M.; Price, B.; Ribordy, M.; Ryckbosch, D.; Schunck, M.; Semburg, B.; Stegmaier, J.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Wiebusch, C.

    2012-08-01

    The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) was built to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of the South Pole ice in the 10-100 kHz frequency range, for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of an acoustic neutrino detection array at the South Pole. The SPATS hardware consists of four vertical strings deployed in the upper 500 m of the South Pole ice cap. The strings form a trapezoidal array with a maximum baseline of 543 m. Each string has seven stages equipped with one transmitter and one sensor module (glaciophone). Sound is detected or generated by piezoelectric ceramic elements inside the modules. Analogue signals are sent to the surface on electric cables where they are digitized by a PC-based data acquisition system. The data from all strings are collected on a central computer in the IceCube Laboratory from where they are sent to a central data storage facility via a satellite link or stored locally on tape. A technical overview of SPATS and its performance is presented.

  14. WEST ELEVATION WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. NOTE THE CIRCULAR OPENINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. NOTE THE CIRCULAR OPENINGS INTO THE UNDERGROUND PORTION OF THE STRUCTURE. VIEW FACING EAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. SOUTH ELEVATION OF BATTERY COMMAND CENTER WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION OF BATTERY COMMAND CENTER WITH GRADUATED MEASURING POLE. THE ENTRY STAIRWAY IS IN THE FOREGROUND. THE ABOVE-GROUND SECTION OF THE STRUCTURE IS ON THE RIGHT, UNDERGROUND PORTION ON THE LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Liquid crystal deposition on poled, single crystalline lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath, S. C.; Pimputkar, K. R.; Pronschinske, A. M.; Pearl, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    For the purpose of elucidating the mechanisms for molecular organization at poled ferroelectric surfaces, single crystalline lithium niobate (LN), 'Z-cut' along the (0 0 0 1) plane, has been prepared and characterized and subsequently exposed to liquid crystal molecules. As a model system we chose to study the anchoring of 4- n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) to LN. Liquid crystalline films are of interest because of their useful electronic and optical properties as well as chemical sensing attributes. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface contact angle measurements (CA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the surface of lithium niobate as well as the nature of 8CB films grown on the surface. Atomically flat LN surfaces were prepared as a support for monolayer thick, 8CB molecular domains. 8CB liquid crystal molecules were deposited by an ambient vaporization technique and the films were analyzed using XPS and CA. Understanding electrostatic anchoring mechanisms and thin film organization for this molecule on uniformly poled surfaces allows for a fuller appreciation of how molecular deposition of other polarizable molecules on periodically poled and patterned poled lithium niobate surfaces would occur.

  17. USACE Participation in the Pole Mountain Advanced Classification Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    mm millimeter Nfa number of false alarms PMTMA Pole Mountain Target and Maneuver Area Sky Sky Research, Inc SLO San Luis Obispo ...plus Direct Fire and Indirect Fire Areas), and most recently at Camp San Luis Obispo (SLO), Camp Butner, and Camp Beale in connection with 2009 through

  18. Participation in the north ecliptic pole sky survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, J. Patrick

    1992-01-01

    This grant supported research into the nature of the faintest x-ray sources found in the ROSAT All Sky Survey, with particular emphasis on distant clusters of galaxies. The project was broadened to include sources found in the ROSAT deep pointing at the North Ecliptic Pole. Progress on the research is briefly summarized.

  19. CROWtm FIELD DEMONSTRATION WITH BELL LUMBER AND POLE

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.; L. John Fahy

    2002-03-01

    In 1990, efforts were initiated to implement an in-situ remediation project for the contaminated aquifer at the Bell Lumber and Pole Company (Bell Pole) site in New Brighton, Minnesota. The remediation project involves the application of the Contained Recovery of Oily Waste (CROW{trademark}) process, which consists of hot-water injection to displace and recover nonaqueous phase liquids. While reviewing the site evaluation information, it became apparent that better site characterization would enhance the outcome of the project. Additional coring indicated that the areal extent of the contaminated soils was approximately eight times greater than initially believed. Because of the uncertainties, in 1993, a pilot test was conducted that provided containment and organic recovery information that assisted in the design of the full-scale CROW process demonstration. After reviewing the cost ramifications of implementing the full-scale CROW field demonstration, Bell Pole approached Western Research Institute (WRI) with a request for a staged, sequential site remediation. Bell Pole's request for the change in the project scope was prompted by budgetary constraints. Bell Pole felt that although a longer project might be more costly, by extending the length of the project, the yearly cost burden would be more manageable. After considering several options, WRI recommended implementing a phased approach to remediate the contaminated area. Phase 1 involves a CROW process demonstration to remediate the upgradient one-third of the contaminated area, which contains the largest amount of free organic material. The Bell Pole Phase 1 CROW demonstration began in mid-1995 and was operated until January 2001. The operation of the demonstration was satisfactory, although at less than the design conditions. During the demonstration, 25,502,902 gal of hot water was injected and 83,155 gal of organics was transferred to the storage tank. During operations more than 65% of the produced

  20. South Pole Queen Maud Land Traverses, 1964-68 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, C. R.

    2009-12-01

    Between early December, 1964, and late January, 1968, the three-part "South Pole Queen Maud Land Traverse" (SPQMLT), supported by the U.S. Antarctic Research Program (USARP), explored the previously unexamined interior of Queen Maud Land, making measurements of surface height and slope, surface mass balance, bore-hole temperatures, ice thickness, seismic wave velocities in and below the ice, gravity, and magnetics. The traverse followed a zigzag, space-filling route between Pole Station, the abandoned Pole of Relative Inaccessibility station, and Plateau Station on the east and roughly the Greenwich Meridian on the west. The traverse equipment featured two large Model 843 Tucker Sno-Cats, designed and built especially for work on the high East Antarctic plateau. Unfortunately, for programmatic reasons a planned 4th season to drive the Sno-Cats back to Pole Station could not be supported, so they were permanently abandoned at the end of the third traverse, at 78° 42.2'S, 6° 52'W. The SPQMLT was remarkable not only for working in a previously unexplored area, but also for the introduction of several new techniques to Antarctic traverse studies, two of which, radar sounding and determination of accumulation rates using a dated radioactive fallout horizon, were major advances that will be discussed by other authors in this session. In this presentation I will discuss the seismic, gravity, and magnetic observations and what they suggest about the character of the underlying terrain. Because of the pronounced differences in route pattern between the SPQMLT and the recent Troll-Pole-Troll traverses the data will be strongly complementary. From SPQMLT only the positions and surface heights are not up to modern standards of accuracy, but the former are adequate for regional studies and the latter have all been superseded by satellite radar and laser altimetry anyway.

  1. Is it possible to reduce the knee joint compression force during level walking with hiking poles?

    PubMed

    Jensen, S B; Henriksen, M; Aaboe, J; Hansen, L; Simonsen, E B; Alkjaer, T

    2011-12-01

    Walking with hiking poles has become a popular way of exercising. Walking with poles is advocated as a physical activity that significantly reduces the loading of the hip, knee and ankle joints. We have previously observed that pole walking does not lead to a reduction of the load on the knee joint. However, it is unclear whether an increased force transmitted through the poles can reduce the load on the knee joint. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if an increased load transmitted through the arms to the poles could reduce the knee joint compression force during level walking with poles. We hypothesized that an increased pole force would result in a reduction of the knee joint compression force. Gait analyses from 10 healthy subjects walking with poles were obtained. The pole force was measured simultaneously during the gait analyses. The knee joint compression forces were estimated by using a biomechanical knee joint model. The results showed that the subjects were able to increase the pole force by 2.4 times the normal pole force. However, this did not lead to a reduction in the knee joint compressive force and we rejected our hypothesis. In conclusion, the use of poles during level walking does not seem to reduce knee joint compressive loads. However, it is possible that the use of poles in other populations (e.g. osteoarthritis patients) and in terrain would unload the knee joint. This should be investigated in the future.

  2. Theory of electric creep and electromechanical coupling with domain evolution for non-poled and fully poled ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaodong; Wang, Yang; Zhong, Zheng; Weng, George J.

    2016-10-01

    Unlike mechanical creep with inelastic deformation, electric creep with domain evolution is a rarely studied subject. In this paper, we present a theory of electric creep and related electromechanical coupling for both non-poled and fully poled ferroelectric ceramics. We consider electric creep to be a time-dependent process, with an initial condition lying on the D (electric displacement) versus E (electric field) hysteresis loop. Both processes are shown to share the same Gibbs free energy and thermodynamic driving force, but relative to creep, the hysteresis loop is just a field-dependent process. With this view, we develop a theory with a single thermodynamic driving force but with two separate kinetic equations, one for the field-dependent loops in terms of a Lorentzian-like function and the other for the time-dependent D in terms of a dissipation potential. We use the 0°-90° and then 90°-180° switches to attain these goals. It is demonstrated that the calculated results are in broad agreement with two sets of experiments, one for a non-poled PIC-151 and the other for a fully poled PZT-5A. The theory also shows that creep polarization tends to reach a saturation state with time and that the saturated polarization has its maximum at the coercive field.

  3. Theory of electric creep and electromechanical coupling with domain evolution for non-poled and fully poled ferroelectric ceramics.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaodong; Wang, Yang; Zhong, Zheng; Weng, George J

    2016-10-01

    Unlike mechanical creep with inelastic deformation, electric creep with domain evolution is a rarely studied subject. In this paper, we present a theory of electric creep and related electromechanical coupling for both non-poled and fully poled ferroelectric ceramics. We consider electric creep to be a time-dependent process, with an initial condition lying on the D (electric displacement) versus E (electric field) hysteresis loop. Both processes are shown to share the same Gibbs free energy and thermodynamic driving force, but relative to creep, the hysteresis loop is just a field-dependent process. With this view, we develop a theory with a single thermodynamic driving force but with two separate kinetic equations, one for the field-dependent loops in terms of a Lorentzian-like function and the other for the time-dependent D in terms of a dissipation potential. We use the 0°-90° and then 90°-180° switches to attain these goals. It is demonstrated that the calculated results are in broad agreement with two sets of experiments, one for a non-poled PIC-151 and the other for a fully poled PZT-5A. The theory also shows that creep polarization tends to reach a saturation state with time and that the saturated polarization has its maximum at the coercive field.

  4. Titan's Gas Behavior During the South Pole Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Jennings, Donald E.; Gorius, Nicolas; Irwin, Patrick G. J.

    2015-11-01

    Titan’s southern middle atmosphere has been showing several changes since the start of fall season in 2009. In 2012 a large cloud appeared [1], [2], [3], temperatures became very low and condensation and gas concentration at the South Pole increased [3], [4].In this work we will show the results of gas abundances retrievals in the South Pole and their latitudinal variation changes as the cold season evolved with time.We analyzed several Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS [5]) mid-infrared observations of the South Pole acquired during 2013-2014. The data coordinates were converted in order to be centered on the atmospheric pole and refer to the 1 mbar level and not to the surface. We first determine stratospheric temperatures from the same data and latitudes from the n4 band of methane centered around 1300 cm-1. We retrieve the temperature profiles applying a radiative transfer forward model combined with a non-linear optimal estimation inversion method [6]. We then retrieve the main gases abundances and track their variation with latitude using the same method.Latitudinal changes of the main Titan’s gases - HC3N, C4H2, C6H6, C2H2, C2H4, C3H8 and HCN - show different trends in the Southern polar regions over 2014, when winter was getting closer. We observe a ring-shape in some of the gas abundance distributions, with a local maximum peak around -75 deg of latitude. We also observe an increase of abundance of most of the gases toward the south pole, as seen previously in the North during the winter. The observed increase of benzene over the South Pole is definitely evident and strong. References: [1] West, R. A. et al. (2013) BAAS, 45, 305.03. [2] Jennings, D. E. et al. (2012) ApJ, 754, L3. [3] de Kok, R. et al. (2014), Nature, 514, 7520, 65-67. [4] Vinatier S. et al. (2015) Icarus, Volume 250, p. 95-115. [5] Flasar et al. (2004) Space Sci. Rev., 115, 169-297. [6] Irwin, P.G.J. et al. (2008) J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans., 109, 1136-1150.

  5. 49 CFR 234.243 - Wire on pole line and aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wire on pole line and aerial cable. 234.243... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.243 Wire on pole line and aerial cable. Wire... bracket supported by a pole or other support. Wire shall not interfere with, or be interfered with...

  6. 49 CFR 234.243 - Wire on pole line and aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire on pole line and aerial cable. 234.243... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.243 Wire on pole line and aerial cable. Wire... bracket supported by a pole or other support. Wire shall not interfere with, or be interfered with...

  7. 49 CFR 236.71 - Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable. 236.71... Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.71 Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable. Signal wire on... pole or other support. Signal wire shall not interfere with, or be interfered by, other wires on...

  8. 49 CFR 236.71 - Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable. 236.71... Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.71 Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable. Signal wire on... pole or other support. Signal wire shall not interfere with, or be interfered by, other wires on...

  9. 49 CFR 236.71 - Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable. 236.71... Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.71 Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable. Signal wire on... pole or other support. Signal wire shall not interfere with, or be interfered by, other wires on...

  10. 49 CFR 236.71 - Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable. 236.71... Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.71 Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable. Signal wire on... pole or other support. Signal wire shall not interfere with, or be interfered by, other wires on...

  11. 49 CFR 236.71 - Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable. 236.71... Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.71 Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable. Signal wire on... pole or other support. Signal wire shall not interfere with, or be interfered by, other wires on...

  12. 78 FR 15615 - Practice and Procedure; Pole Attachment Complaint Procedures; Allocation of Unusable Space Costs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Practice and Procedure; Pole Attachment Complaint Procedures; Allocation of Unusable... policies concerning a methodology for just and reasonable rates for pole attachments, conduits, and rights... sets forth the allocation of unusable space costs in the pole attachment rate formula for...

  13. View of worlds tallest totem pole, 136.5 feet tall. First ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of worlds tallest totem pole, 136.5 feet tall. First potlatch pole since 1904. Dedicated to all things and all peoples of southeast Alaska, 1971. Oct potlatch, looking northwest - Kake Salmon Cannery, Totem Pole, Kake, Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area, AK

  14. Effect of Materials and Manufacturing on the Bending Stiffness of Vaulting Poles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP)…

  15. Voronoi poles-based saliency feature detection from point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tingting; Wei, Ning; Dong, Fangmin; Yang, Yuanqin

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we represent a novel algorithm for point cloud feature detection. Firstly, the algorithm estimates the local feature for each sample point by computing the ratio of the distance from the inner voronoi pole and the outer voronoi pole to the surface. Then the surface global saliency feature is detected by adding the results of the difference of Gaussian for local feature under different scales. Compared with the state of the art methods, our algorithm has higher computing efficiency and more accurate feature detection for sharp edge. The detected saliency features are applied as the weights for surface mesh simplification. The numerical results for mesh simplification show that our method keeps the more details of key features than the traditional methods.

  16. The South Pole Telescope: Unraveling the Mystery of Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichardt, Christian L.; de Haan, Tijmen; Bleem, Lindsey E.

    2016-07-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10-meter telescope designed to survey the millimeter-wave sky, taking advantage of the exceptional observing conditions at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. The telescope and its ground-breaking 960-element bolometric camera finished surveying 2500 square degrees at 95. 150, and 220 GHz in November 2011. We have discovered hundreds of galaxy clusters in the SPT-SZ survey through the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect. The formation of galaxy clusters the largest bound objects in the universe is highly sensitive to dark energy and the history of structure formation. I will discuss the cosmological constraints from the SPT-SZ galaxy cluster sample as well as future prospects with the soon to-be-installed SPT-3G camera.

  17. The South Pole Imaging Fabry Perot Interferometer (SPIFI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, G. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Swain, M. R.; Jackson, J. M.; Bolato, A. D.; Davidson, J. A.; Savage, M.

    1996-01-01

    The design and construction of the South Pole imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (SPIFI) is reported. The SPIFI is a direct detection imaging spectrometer for use in the far infrared and submillimeter bands accessible to the 1.7 m telescope at the South Pole, and in the submillimeter bands accessible to the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), HI. It employs a 5 x 5 silicon bolometer array and three cryogenic Fabry Perot interferometers in series in order to achieve velocity resolutions of between 300 km/s and 30 km/s over the entire field of view with a resolution of up to 1 km/s at the center pixel. The scientific justification for the instrument is discussed, considering the spectral lines available to SPIFI. The optical path, the cryogenic Fabry-Perot, the adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator and the detector array are described. The instrument's sensitivity is presented and compared with coherent systems.

  18. Lunar Prospecting: Searching for Volatiles at the South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Carvalho, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Prospector is an in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission, planned for a 2021 launch to search for and analyze volatiles at the Lunar South Pole. The mission poses unique operational challenges. Operating at the Lunar South Pole requires navigating a surface with lighting, shadow and regolith characteristics unlike those of previous missions. The short round trip communications time enables reactive surface operations for science and engineering. Navigation of permanently shadowed regions with a solar powered rover creates risks, including power and thermal management, and requires constant real time decision making for safe entry, path selection and egress. The mission plan requires a faster rover egress from the lander than any previous NASA rover mission.

  19. Atmospheric ozone at South Pole, Antarctica, in 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Grass, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Results of NOAA's measurements of the ozone vertical distributions at the South Pole and of the annual course of total ozone, conducted in 1986 with balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes and a Dobson spectrophotometer, are described. The major finding was that the stratospheric ozone decreases abruptly between September 20 and October 15, with the bulk decrease occurring between 12 and 21 km. In this period, the column ozone and ozone volume mixing ratio at 16 km (the altitude of the normal ozone maximum at South Pole) decreased by 78 percent, and column ozone between 12 and 21 km decreased by 50 percent. The results of these measurements are compared with data obtained in 1971, and the changes observed in the ozone vertical distributions and in the temporal variations of atmospheric ozone are discussed.

  20. Direct detection of variable tropospheric clouds near Titan's south pole.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael E; Bouchez, Antonin H; Griffith, Caitlin A

    Atmospheric conditions on Saturn's largest satellite, Titan, allow the possibility that it could possess a methane condensation and precipitation cycle with many similarities to Earth's hydrological cycle. Detailed imaging studies of Titan have hitherto shown no direct evidence for tropospheric condensation clouds, although there has been indirect spectroscopic evidence for transient clouds. Here we report images and spectra of Titan that show clearly transient clouds, concentrated near the south pole, which is currently near the point of maximum solar heating. The discovery of these clouds demonstrates the existence of condensation and localized moist convection in Titan's atmosphere. Their location suggests that methane cloud formation is controlled seasonally by small variations in surface temperature, and that the clouds will move from the south to the north pole on a 15-year timescale.

  1. Laser Provides First 3-D View of Mars' North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This first three-dimensional picture of Mars' north pole enables scientists to estimate the volume of its water ice cap with unprecedented precision, and to study its surface variations and the heights of clouds in the region for the first time.

    Approximately 2.6 million of these laser pulse measurements were assembled into a topographic grid of the north pole with a spatial resolution of 0.6 miles (one kilometer) and a vertical accuracy of 15-90 feet (5-30 meters).

    The principal investigator for MOLA is Dr. David E. Smith of Goddard. The MOLA instrument was designed and built by the Laser Remote Sensing Branch of Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics at Goddard. The Mars Global Surveyor Mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for the NASA Office of Space Science.

  2. Planetary science: constant illumination at the lunar north pole.

    PubMed

    Bussey, D Ben J; Fristad, Kirsten E; Schenk, Paul M; Robinson, Mark S; Spudis, Paul D

    2005-04-14

    Images returned by the spacecraft Clementine have been used to produce a quantitative illumination map of the north pole of the Moon, revealing the percentage of time that points on the surface are illuminated during the lunar day. We have used this map to identify areas that are constantly illuminated during a lunar day in summer and which may therefore be in permanent sunlight. All are located on the northern rim of Peary crater, close to the north pole. Permanently sunlit areas represent prime locations for lunar outpost sites as they have abundant solar energy, are relatively benign thermally (when compared with equatorial regions), and are close to permanently shadowed regions that may contain water ice.

  3. Seasonal Evolution of Titan's South Pole 220 cm-1 Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald

    2016-06-01

    A cloud of ices that had been seen only in Titan's north during winter began to emerge at the south pole in 2012. Discovered by Voyager IRIS as an emission feature at 220 cm-1, the cloud has been studied extensively in both the north and south by Cassini CIRS. The spectral feature acts as a tracer of the seasonal changes at Titan's poles, relating to evolving composition, temperature structure and dynamics. Although candidates have been proposed, the chemical makeup of the cloud has never been identified. The cloud is composed of condensates derived from gases created at high altitude and transported to the cold, shadowed pole. In the north the cloud has diminished gradually over the Cassini mission as Titan has transitioned from winter to spring. The southern cloud, on the other hand, grew rapidly after 2012. By late 2014 it had developed a complex ring structure that was confined to latitudes poleward of 70°S within the deep temperature well that had formed at the south pole [1]. The location of the cloud coincides in latitude with the HCN cloud reported by ISS and VIMS [2,3]. CIRS also saw enhanced gas emissions at those latitudes [4]. When it first formed, the cloud was abundant at altitudes as high as 250 km, while later it was found mostly at 100-150 km, suggesting that the material that had been deposited from above had gathered at the lower altitudes. Radiance from the southern cloud increased until mid-2015 and since then has decreased. The cloud may be transitioning to the more uniform hood morphology familiar in the north. Taking the north and south together, by the end of the Cassini mission in 2017 we will have observed almost an entire seasonal cycle of the ice cloud.

  4. Detachments of the retinal pigment epithelium at the posterior pole.

    PubMed

    Noble, K G; Levitzky, M J; Carr, R E

    1976-08-01

    Multiple vitelliform cysts of the retina, a disorder of unknown cause in which there are multiple detachments of the retinal pigment epithelium at the posterior pole, occurred in five patients. In four patients all lesions were located outside the parafoveal area while one patient showed bilateral foveal elevations associated with more eccentric detachments. Several patients showed slow resolution of some of the detachments with mild disturbances of the pigment epithelium.

  5. The treatment of lower pole renal calculi in 2003.

    PubMed

    Matlaga, Brian R; Assimos, Dean G

    2002-01-01

    The optimal treatment of patients with lower pole renal calculi is still being defined. Shock wave lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and ureteroscopy are all currently utilized to treat patients with this condition. These methods have yielded varying degrees of success. The influence of collecting system anatomy on shock wave lithotripsy results remains controversial. Ongoing randomized, prospective trials evaluating the efficacy of all of these respective therapeutic options will, it is hoped, determine the best approaches for this patient cohort.

  6. Automated Pole Placement Algorithm for Multivariable Optimal Control Synthesis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM *I. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESO N . RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (end Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED...Weighting Parameter p ..... 20 2.3 Single Input Asymptotic Root Loci ... ......... .. 22 2.4 Multiple Input Asymptotic Root Loci ... ........ .. 23...solution to the pole assignment problem in the single input (m=l) case, when it exits, can be shown to be unique. In the multiple input case (l<m<n), the

  7. Observations of a Filament in the North Ecliptic Pole Supercluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Joseph Henry

    2005-01-01

    Our work on the ROSAT All-Sky Survey at the North Ecliptic Pole has increased from 7 to 21 the group and cluster membership of a previously known supercluster there, revealing a particularly striking example of a filament. We obtained observations of two clusters in this filament to elucidate its dynamics. However, these observations were severely compromised by flares: less than 20% of the requested time survived screening. Consequently the data were inadequate for the project.

  8. 8. Finish line, marked by white poles, as viewed from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Finish line, marked by white poles, as viewed from infield tote board. Shown are all the best locations for viewing the finish line, including the Clubhouse on the left and Original Grandstand on the right. For a similar view taken in 1939 by a photographer for the Seattle Post-Intelligencer newspaper, see photo WA-201-24. (August 1993) - Longacres, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  9. Algorithm for IAU north poles and rotation parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieske, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    In 1970 the International Astronomical Union (IAU) defined any object's north pole to be that axis of rotation which lies north of the solar system's invariable plane. A competing definition in widespread use at some institutions followed the 'right hand rule' whereby the 'north' axis of rotation was generally said to be that of the rotational angular momentum. In the case of the latter definition, the planet Neptune and its satellite Triton would have their 'north' poles in opposite hemispheres because Triton's angular momentum vector is in the hemisphere opposite from that of Neptune's rotation angular momentum. The IAU resolutions have been somewhat controversial in some quarters ever since their adoption. A Working Group has periodically updated the recommended values of planet and satellite poles and rotation rates in accordance with the IAU definition of north and the IAU definition of prime meridian. Neither system is completely satisfactory in the perception of all scientists, and some confusion has been generated by publishing data in the two different systems. In this paper we review the IAU definitions of north and of the location of prime meridian and we present the algorithm which has been employed in determining the rotational parameters of the natural satellites. The IAU definition of the prime meridian contains some ambiguities which in practice have been 'specified' by the numerical values published by the IAU working group but which have not yet been explicitly documented. The purpose of this paper is to explicitly document the algorithm employed by the IAU working group in specifying satellite poles and rotation rates.

  10. Pole-phase modulated toroidal winding for an induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John Michael; Ostovic, Vlado

    1999-11-02

    A stator (10) for an induction machine for a vehicle has a cylindrical core (12) with inner and outer slots (26, 28) extending longitudinally along the inner and outer peripheries between the end faces (22, 24). Each outer slot is associated with several adjacent inner slots. A plurality of toroidal coils (14) are wound about the core and laid in the inner and outer slots. Each coil occupies a single inner slot and is laid in the associated outer slot thereby minimizing the distance the coil extends from the end faces and minimizing the length of the induction machine. The toroidal coils are configured for an arbitrary pole phase modulation wherein the coils are configured with variable numbers of phases and poles for providing maximum torque for cranking and switchable to a another phase and pole configuration for alternator operation. An adaptor ring (36) circumferentially positioned about the stator improves mechanical strength, and provides a coolant channel manifold (34) for removing heat produced in stator windings during operation.

  11. Lunar South Pole Illumination: Review, Reassessment, and Power System Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews past analyses and research related to lunar south pole illumination and presents results of independent illumination analyses using an analytical tool and a radar digital elevation model. The analysis tool enables assessment at most locations near the lunar poles for any time and any year. Average illumination fraction, energy storage duration, solar/horizon terrain elevation profiles and illumination fraction profiles are presented for various highly illuminated sites which have been identified for manned or unmanned operations. The format of the data can be used by power system designers to develop mass optimized solar and energy storage systems. Data are presented for the worse case lunar day (a critical power planning bottleneck) as well as three lunar days during lunar south pole winter. The main site under consideration by present lunar mission planners (on the Crater Shackleton rim) is shown to have, for the worse case lunar day, a 0.71 average illumination fraction and 73 to 117 hours required for energy storage (depending on power system type). Linking other sites and including towers at either site are shown to not completely eliminate the need for energy storage.

  12. Pole-phase modulated toroidal winding for an induction machine

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.M.; Ostovic, V.

    1999-11-02

    A stator (10) for an induction machine for a vehicle has a cylindrical core (12) with inner and outer slots (26, 28) extending longitudinally along the inner and outer peripheries between the end faces (22, 24). Each outer slot is associated with several adjacent inner slots. A plurality of toroidal coils (14) are wound about the core and laid in the inner and outer slots. Each coil occupies a single inner slot and is laid in the associated outer slot thereby minimizing the distance the coil extends from the end faces and minimizing the length of the induction machine. The toroidal coils are configured for an arbitrary pole phase modulation wherein the coils are configured with variable numbers of phases and poles for providing maximum torque for cranking and switchable to another phase and pole configuration for alternator operation. An adaptor ring (36) circumferentially positioned about the stator improves mechanical strength, and provides a coolant channel manifold (34) for removing heat produced in stator windings during operation.

  13. Means and method for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, D.K.; Margetan, F.J.; Hasselbusch, M.D.; Wormley, S.J.; Hughes, M.S.; Thompson, D.O.

    1990-10-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers includes machining one or more indentation into an end of a piezoelectric rod and cutting the rod to present a thickened disk shape. Highly electrically conductive material is deposited on at least the indentations in the one end and on at least portions of the opposite face of the member. One or more electrodes are configured to matingly fit within the indentations on the one face of the disk, with a like number of electrodes being positionable on the opposite face of the material. Electrical power is then applied to the electrodes in desired amounts, polarity, and duration. The indentations vary the electrical field produced within the piezoelectric material to produce nonuniform poling in the material. The thick disk is then cut to remove the indentations and to present a thin, flat two sided disk for installation in a conventional piezoelectric transducer probe. The indentations are selected to produce poling in accordance with desired transducer response profiles such as Gaussian or Bessel functions. 14 figs.

  14. Dynamics of the North Sea pole tide reconsidered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsch, Carl

    1986-01-01

    The anomalous tide in the North Sea, driven by the Chandler wobble, is here re-examined. A previously published solution in which these 'pole tide' observations were explained as a forced co-oscillation from the deep water tide is shown to be untenable, because it is very unlikely that the deep ocean tide is anything but equilibrium. Using the same physics as in the previous solution (viscous, linear, quasi-geostrophic dynamics), it is now suggested that the only plausible explanation is that there is a coincidental resonance between the long-wavelength branch topographic Rossby wave of the North Sea and the direct driving by the pole tide potential. This resonance is not a basin-resonance, but that of a free wave driven by a travelling forcing function. Simplified models reproduce the observations in qualitative fashion. If this explanation is the correct one, then the Arctic seas north of Asia and North America appear to be likely candidates as other regions where there may be a large pole tide response and, hence, a locus of wobble dissipation. Given the difficulties of observation, the long times required, and the general instability of the dissipation calculation with the simplified analytical model, probably a numerical model will be required for further progress.

  15. Manliness and Exploration: The Discovery of the North Pole.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Americans crowded newsstands in early 1910 to read Robert Peary's firsthand account of his expedition to the North Pole. As they read "The Discovery of the North Pole," serialized exclusively in Hampton's Magazine, few knew that this harrowing, hypermasculine tale was really crafted by New York poet Elsa Barker. Barker's authorship of the North Pole story put her at the center of a large community of explorers, writers, patrons, and fans who were taken with Arctic exploration as much for its national symbolism as for its thrilling tales. The fact that Barker was a woman made her ascent into elite expeditionary circles remarkable. Yet this essay argues that it was also representative: women shaped the ideas and practices of manly exploration at home as well as in the field. Peary's dependence upon women writers, patrons, and audiences came at a time when explorers were breaking away from their traditional base of support: male scientific networks that had promoted their expeditions since the 1850s. Despite the "go-it-alone" ideals of their expedition accounts, explorers adopted masculine roles shaped by the world around them: by the growing influence of women writers, readers, and lecture-goers and, simultaneously, by the declining influence of traditional scientific peers and patrons. Barker and Peary's story, then, reveals a new fault line that opened up between scientists and explorers in the late nineteenth century over the issue of manliness, a fault line still largely uncharted in historical scholarship.

  16. Factorization and resummation for collinear poles in QCD amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Lance J.; Magnea, Lorenzo; Sterman, George

    2008-05-28

    We study the origin of subleading soft and collinear poles of form factors and amplitudes in dimensionally-regulated massless gauge theories. In the case of form factors of fundamental fields, these poles originate from a single function of the coupling, denoted G({alpha}{sub s}), depending on both the spin and gauge quantum numbers of the field. We relate G({alpha}{sub s}) to gauge-theory matrix elements involving the gluon field strength. We then show that G({alpha}{sub s}) is the sum of three terms: a universal eikonal anomalous dimension, a universal non-eikonal contribution, given by the coefficient B{sub {delta}}({alpha}{sub s}) of {delta}(1-z) in the collinear evolution kernel, and a process-dependent short-distance coefficient function, which does not contribute to infrared poles. Using general results on the factorization of soft and collinear singularities in fixed-angle massless gauge theory amplitudes, we conclude that all such singularities are captured by the eikonal approximation, supplemented only by the knowledge of B{sub {delta}}({alpha}{sub s}). We explore the consequences of our results for conformal gauge theories, where in particular we find a simple exact relation between the form factor and the cusp anomalous dimension.

  17. Means and method for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, David K.; Margetan, Frank J.; Hasselbusch, Michael D.; Wormley, Samuel J.; Hughes, Michael S.; Thompson, Donald O.

    1990-10-09

    An apparatus and method for nonuniform poling of piezoelectric transducers includes machining one or more indentation into an end of a piezoelectric rod and cutting the rod to present a thickened disk shape. Highly electrically conductive material is deposited on at least the indentations in the one end and on at least portions of the opposite face of the member. One or more electrodes are configured to matingly fit within the indentations on the one face of the disk, with a like number of electrodes being positionable on the opposite face of the material. Electrical power is then applied to the electrodes in desired amounts, polarity, and duration. The indentations vary the electrical field produced within the piezoelectric material to produce nonuniform poling in the material. The thick disk is then cut to remove the indentations and to present a thin, flat two sided disk for installation in a conventional piezoelectric transducer probe. The indentations are selected to produce poling in accordance with desired transducer response profiles such as Gaussian or Bessel functions.

  18. CROW{trademark} FIELD DEMONSTRATION WITH BELL LUMBER AND POLE

    SciTech Connect

    L. John Fahy; Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.

    1997-04-01

    Beginning in 1990, efforts were initiated for Western Research Institute (WRI) to implement an in situ remediation project for the contaminated aquifer at the Bell Lumber and Pole Company (Bell Pole) Site in New Brighton, Minnesota. The remediation project involves the application of the Contained Recovery of Oily Waste (CROW{trademark}) process, which consists of hot-water injection to displace and recover the non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) (Johnson and Sudduth 1989). Wood treating activities began at the Bell Pole Site in 1923 and have included the use of creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in a fuel oil carrier. Creosote was used as a wood preservative from 1923 to 1958. Provalene 4-A, a non-sludging fuel-oil-type carrier for PCP, was used from 1952 until it was no longer commercially available in 1968. A 5-6% mixture of PCP in fuel oil has been used as a wood preservative since 1952, and a fuel-oil-type carrier, P-9, has been used since 1968. While reviewing the site evaluation information, it became apparent that better site characterization would enhance the outcome of the project. Additional coring indicated that the area's extent of the contaminated soils was approximately eight times greater than initially believed. Because of these uncertainties, a pilot test was conducted, which provided containment and organic recovery information that assisted in the design of the full-scale CROW process demonstration.

  19. Background Studies for Acoustic Neutrino Detection at the South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Stamatikos, M.

    2012-01-01

    The detection of acoustic signals from ultra-high energy neutrino interactions is a promising method. to measure the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos expected on Earth. The energy threshold for this process depends strongly on the absolute noise level in the target material. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS). deployed in the upper part of four boreholes of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has monitored the noise in Antarctic ice at the geographic South Pole for more than two years down to 500 m depth. The noise is very stable and Gaussian distributed, Lacking an in situ calibration up to now, laboratory measurements have been used to estimate the absolute noise level in the 10-50 kHz frequency range to be smaller than 20 mPa. Using a threshold trigger. sensors of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup registered acoustic events in the IceCube detector volume and its vicinity. Acoustic signals from refreezing IceCube holes and from anthropogenic sources have been used to test the localization of acoustic events. An upper limit on the neutrino flux at energies E(sub v) > 10(exp 11) GeV is derived from acoustic data taken over eight months.

  20. Wind Stress Forcing of the North Sea "Pole Tide"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, William P.; Chao, Benjamin Fong; Zheng, Dawei; Au, Andrew Y.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted numerical simulations of the wind-forcing of the sea level variations in the North Sea using a barotropic ocean model with realistic geography, bathymetry, and boundary conditions, to examine the forcing of the 14-month "pole tide" which is known to be strong along the Denmark- Netherlands coast. The simulation input is the monthly-mean surface wind stress field from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis for the 40-year period 1958-1997. The output sea level response was then compared with 10 coastal tide gauge records from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). Besides the strong seasonal variations, several prominent quasi-periodicities exist at around 7 years, 3 years, 14 months, 9 months, and 6.5 months. Correlation and spectral analyses show remarkable agreement between the model output and the observations, particularly in the 14-month, or Chandler period band. The latter indicates that the enhanced pole tide found in the North Sea along the Denmark-Netherlands coast is actually the coastal setup response to wind stress forcing with a periodicity of 14 months. We find no need to invoke a geophysical explanation involving resonance-enhancement of pole tide in the North Sea to explain the observations.

  1. Poling of PVDF matrix composites for integrated structural load sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghiashtiani, Ghazaleh; Greminger, Michael A.; Zhao, Ping

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to create and evaluate a smart composite structure that can be used for integrated load sensing and structural health monitoring. In this structure, PVDF films are used as the matrix material instead of epoxy resin or other thermoplastics. The reinforcements are two layers of carbon fiber with one layer of Kevlar separating them. Due to the electrical conductivity properties of carbon fiber and the dielectric effect of Kevlar, the structure acts as a capacitor. Furthermore, the piezoelectric properties of the PVDF matrix can be used to monitor the response of the structure under applied loads. In order to exploit the piezoelectric properties of PVDF, the PVDF material must be polarized to align the dipole moments of its crystalline structure. The optimal condition for poling the structure was found by performing a 23 factorial design of experiment (DoE). The factors that were studied in DoE were temperature, voltage, and duration of poling. Finally, the response of the poled structure was monitored by exposing the samples to an applied load.

  2. Pole-Like Object Extraction from Mobile LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Han; Tan, Feitong; Wang, Ruisheng

    2016-06-01

    Object detection and recognition from LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data has been a research topic in the fields of photogrammetry and computer vision. Unlike point clouds collected in well-controlled indoor environments, point clouds in urban environments are more complex due to complexity of the real world. For example, trees sometimes close to signs or buildings, which will cause occlusions in the point clouds. Current object detection or reconstruction algorithms will have problems when recognizing objects with severe occlusions caused by trees etc. In this paper, a robust vegetation removal method and a DBSCAN based pole-like object detection method are proposed. Based on observation that major difference between vegetation and other rigid objects is their penetrability with respect to LiDAR, we introduce a local roughness measure to differentiate rigid objects from non-rigid ones (vegetation in this paper). First, a local sphere with a small radius is generated for each input point. Three principal components of the local sphere are then calculated, and a plane is determined. The roughness is obtained through calculating the standard deviation of distances from all inside points to the plane by a weighted summation of the normalized distances. The further the point to the plane, the smaller the weight is. Finally, a graph cuts based method is introduced to classify the input point sets into two groups. The data term is defined by the normalized roughness of the current point, and the smoothness term is defined by the normalized distance between the point and its nearest neighbour point. In terms of pole-like object detection, first, a uniformed 2D grid is generated through projecting all the points to the XY-plane. The seed points of the pole-like objects are obtained by determining the x and y coordinates by the centres of the highest density cells of the grid and the z coordinate by the mean height of the point sets of each object. Finally, a DBSCAN

  3. Autumn at Titan's South Pole: The 220 cm-1 Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Achterberg, R. K.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; de Kok, R. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.

    2015-10-01

    Beginning in 2012 an atmospheric cloud known by its far-infrared emission has formed rapidly at Tit an's South Pole [1, 2]. The build-up of this condensate is a result of deepening temperatures and a gathering of gases as Winter approaches. Emission from the cloud in the south has been doubling each year since 2012, in contrast to the north where it has halved every 3.8 years since 2004. The morphology of the cloud in the south is quite different from that in the north. In the north, the cloud has extended over the whole polar region beyond 55 N, whereas in the south the cloud has been confined to within about 10 degrees of the pole. The cloud in the north has had the form of a uniform hood, whereas the southern cloud has been much more complex. A map from December 2014,recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini, showed the 220 cm-1 emission coming from a distinct ring with a maximum at about 80 S. In contrast, emissions from the gases HC3N, C4H2 and C6H6 peaked near the pole and had a ring at 70 S. The 220 cm-1 ring at 80 S coincided with the minimum in the gas emission pattern. The80 S condensate ring encompassed the vortex cloud seen by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS)[3, 4]. Both the 220 cm-1 ring and the gas "bull's-eye" pattern were centered on a point that was shifted from the geographic South Pole by 4 degrees in the direction of the Sun. This corresponds to the overall tilt of Titan's atmosphere discovered from temperature maps early in the Cassini mission by Achterberg et al. [5]. The tilt may be reinforced by the presumably twice-yearly (north and south) spin-up of the atmosphere at the autumnal pole. The bull's-eye pattern of the gas emissions can be explained by the retrieved abundance distributions, which are maximum near the pole and decrease sharply toward lower latitudes, together with temperatures that are minimum at the pole and increase toward lower latitudes

  4. Rotation of the Colorado Plateau: An updated analysis of paleomagnetic poles

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, P.; Gordon, R.G. )

    1990-09-01

    All available Jurassic, Triassic, and late Paleozoic paleomagnetic poles from the Colorado Plateau and stable North America are used to estimate the rotation of the Colorado Plateau relative to stable North America since Jurassic time. The paleomagnetic poles differ from those of a prior study (Bryan and Gordon, 1986) through the addition of seven recently published poles, the deletion of one pole, and the replacement of two others. The authors also improve on the prior analysis by omitting Cretaceous poles. From the systematic offset between plateau poles and stable North American poles they estimate rotation of the Colorado Plateau to be 5.0{degree} {sup +2.4{degree}}{sub {minus}2.3{degree}} (95% confidence limits) clockwise, {approximately}1{degree} larger than they found before. The null hypothesis of no systematic difference between plateau poles and stable North American poles can be rejected with a formally high level of confidence (99.99%). The hypothesis that the systematic differences between plateau and off-plateau poles is as large as 10{degree}, as proposed by several workers using fewer poles, can be rejected at an equally high level of confidence.

  5. Live imaging of spindle pole disorganization in docetaxel-treated multicolor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaushi, Shinji . E-mail: ssaka@biochem.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Nishida, Kumi; Minamikawa, Harumi; Fukada, Takashi; Oka, Shigenori; Sugimoto, Kenji

    2007-06-08

    Treatment of cells with docetaxel at low concentrations induces aberrant bipolar spindles of which two centrosomes stay at only one pole, and also induces multipolar spindles. To gain insight into the relations between centrosome impairment and structural defects of the spindle, live-cell imaging was performed on a human MDA Auro/imp/H3 cell line in which centrosomes/mitotic spindles, nuclear membrane and chromatin were simultaneously visualized by fluorescent proteins. In the presence of docetaxel at IC{sub 50} concentration, the centrosomes did not segregate, and multiple aster-like structures ectopically arose around the disappearing nuclear membrane. Those ectopic structures formed an acentrosomal pole opposing to the two-centrosomes-containing pole. In late metaphase, one pole often fragmented into multiple spindle poles, leading multipolar division. These results suggest that spindle pole fragility may be induced by centrosome impairment, and collapse of the pole may contribute to induction of aneuploid daughter cells.

  6. Laparoscopic upper pole heminephroureterectomy in children: Seven-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Marte, Antonio; Papparella, Alfonso; Pintozzi, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Minimally invasive surgery is the current approach to perform heminephroureterectomy (HN) in children. This can be obtained through a transperitoneal (TP) or a retroperitoneal approach. Here, we report our experience using a TP approach. Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2014, 22 TP laparoscopic upper poles HN were performed at our institution. There were nine girls and 13 boys aged between 20 months and 6 years (mean age 3.9). Eight patients were diagnosed prenatally, 17 patients presented with urinary tract infection (UTI) and three with vomiting and failure to thrive. The indication for HN was reflux nephropathy and UTI in non-functioning upper pole in 19 patients and cystic dysplasia in 1 patient. The surgical technique involved the following steps: Cystoscopic recognition; positioning of 3-4 trocar (right HN); identification of the kidney (detachment of the colon); isolation and low ligation of the dilated ureter; decrossing from renal vessels; section of the parenchyma by LigaSure; haemostasis with clips and LigaSure; drain. Results: The mean operative time was 154 min (range: 81-220 min). All patients were discharged from the 2nd to 4th day. Neither major complication nor conversion was recorded. 1 patient presented leakage of urine for 7 days from the drainage which resolved spontaneously. At ultrasound follow-up, 5 patients showed a secondary perirenal cyst, 2-5 cm diameter that resolved spontaneously. Conclusion: The results indicate that laparoscopic upper pole heminephrectomy is the treatment of choice in cases of non-functioning dilated lower segments of duplicated kidneys. The use of laparoscopic approach offers a good working space, a good visual control of the vessels and allows a very low isolation of the ureteral stump which counterbalance the peritoneal violation. PMID:26712285

  7. Energy harvesting using AC machines with high effective pole count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Richard Theodore

    In this thesis, ways to improve the power conversion of rotating generators at low rotor speeds in energy harvesting applications were investigated. One method is to increase the pole count, which increases the generator back-emf without also increasing the I2R losses, thereby increasing both torque density and conversion efficiency. One machine topology that has a high effective pole count is a hybrid "stepper" machine. However, the large self inductance of these machines decreases their power factor and hence the maximum power that can be delivered to a load. This effect can be cancelled by the addition of capacitors in series with the stepper windings. A circuit was designed and implemented to automatically vary the series capacitance over the entire speed range investigated. The addition of the series capacitors improved the power output of the stepper machine by up to 700%. At low rotor speeds, with the addition of series capacitance, the power output of the hybrid "stepper" was more than 200% that of a similarly sized PMDC brushed motor. Finally, in this thesis a hybrid lumped parameter / finite element model was used to investigate the impact of number, shape and size of the rotor and stator teeth on machine performance. A typical off-the-shelf hybrid stepper machine has significant cogging torque by design. This cogging torque is a major problem in most small energy harvesting applications. In this thesis it was shown that the cogging and ripple torque can be dramatically reduced. These findings confirm that high-pole-count topologies, and specifically the hybrid stepper configuration, are an attractive choice for energy harvesting applications.

  8. Electron muon scattering in the exotic Z(0)' pole

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, H.; Ravinez, O.; Romero, D.; Reyes, J.

    2009-04-30

    The search for new physics in the future Internacional Linear Collider ILC, implies the existence of new particles, among them, the Z(0)' particle. In this regard, we calculate the e{sup +}+e{sup -}{yields}{mu}{sup +}+{mu}{sup -} scattering cross section near the Z(0)' pole, whitin the contex of the SU(3){sub L}xU(1){sub Y} weak model, which contains exotic leptons, quarks, and bosons (E,J,U,V) with the finality of obtain constraints in the parameters of the model.

  9. Two Years of Ozone Observations from the South Pole Brewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, Tom; Savastiouk, Volodya; Evans, Robert; Oltmans, Samuel; Booth, John; Cox, Amy

    2010-05-01

    A Mark III, double-monochromator Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometer has now been operating at the Amundsen-Scott Antarctic Base for more than two years. The instrument was installed under an agreement with the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) by Environment Canada in February of 2008. It has now collected more than two years of observations. Both direct sun data and moon measurements have been made and the results compared with the station Dobson Spectrophotometer observations. The Brewer has operated well under the harsh conditions at the South Pole, enduring outside temperatures below -70C. Some the results of the analysis of these data will be presented and discussed.

  10. Are Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies Viewed Pole-on?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    0.2’’ respectively. Figure 1 displays the position of each slit over a Barbosa et al. (2009) GMOS IFU image of the [S III] flux (which originates...C. Winge, H. Schmitt: Gemini/ GMOS IFU gas velocity ’tomography’ of the narrow line region of nearby active galaxies, MNRAS, 396 (2009) 2. [2] D...1995) 81. 4 P o S ( N L S 1 ) 0 5 0 Are NLS1s Pole-on? Travis C. Fischer 5 Figure 1: NGC 4051 GMOS IFU image showing integrated [SIII] flux

  11. SNAP sky background at the north ecliptic pole

    SciTech Connect

    Aldering, Greg

    2002-07-01

    I summarize the extant direct and indirect data on the sky background SNAP will see at the North Ecliptic Pole over the wavelength range 0.4 < {lambda} < 1.7 {micro}m. At the spatial resolution of SNAP the sky background due to stars and galaxies is resolved, so the only source considered is zodiacal light. Several models are explored to provide interpolation in wavelength between the broadband data from HST and COBE observations. I believe the input data are now established well enough that the accuracy of the sky background presented here is sufficient for SNAP simulations, and that it will stand up to scrutiny by reviewers.

  12. Elliptical Chandler pole motions of the Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yury; Ferrandiz, Jose

    2010-05-01

    In the work the values of the period and eccentricity of Chandler motion of poles of axes of rotation of the Earth and Mars have been determined. The research has been carried out on the basis of developed earlier by authors an intermediate rotary Chandler-Euler motion of the weakly deformable celestial bodies (Barkin, Ferrandiz and Getino, 1996; Barkin, 1998). An influence of a liquid core on Chandler motion of a pole in the given work has not considered. The periods of the specified pole motions make 447.1 d for the Earth and 218.1 d for Mars. In comparison with Euler motions of poles because of elastic properties of planets the Chandler periods are increased accordingly on 142.8 d (about 46.9 %) for the Earth and on 26.2 d (on 13.7 %) for Mars. Values of eccentricities of specified Chandler motions of pole e = √b2 --a2- b (here a both b are smaller and big semi-axes of Chandler ellipse) make 0.09884 for the Earth and 0.3688 for Mars (accordingly, on 21.1 % and 6.2 % more than the appropriate values of eccentricities for models of planets as rigid non-spherical bodies). Axes of an ellipse a also b correspond to the principal equatorial axes of inertia of a planet Ox and Oyfor which the moments of inertia have the smallest valueA and middle value B. The pole of the principal axis of inertia Ox for the Earth is displaced to the west on the angle 14°9285, and the pole of the principal axis of inertia Ox for Mars is displaced to the west on the angle 105°0178 (in the appropriate basic geographical systems of coordinates of the given planets). For ellipticties of Chandler trajectories ɛ = (b- a)-b the values 0.004897 (for the Earth) and 0.07048 (for Mars) have been obtained. The specified values surpass by Euler values of appropriate ellipticties on 46.8 % (in case of the Earth) and on 13.3 % (in the case of Mars). Love number k2describing the elastic properties of planets, were accepted equal 0.30 for the Earth and 0.153 for Mars. Estimations of Chandler periods

  13. Wind Forcing of the North Sea Pole Tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, W.; Chao, B. F.; Zheng, D. W.; Au, Z. Y.

    1998-01-01

    The Chandler wobble of the earth's rotation has a period near 14 months and sets up the 0.5 cm amplitude pole tide in the deep oceans, However, the pole tide is anomalously large in the North Sea, where the amplitude increases sharply up to 3 cm along the continental coast. It is shown here that the sea levels are well correlated with winds at the pole tide frequency. The Princeton Ocean Model is used to investigate the response of the North Sea to wind forcing. The barotropic numerical ocean model depicts realistic coastlines and bathymetry at 5 ft x 5 ft resolution, with 97 x 73 grid points. The monthly mean wind fields for the 40-year period (1958-1997) from the National Centers for Atmospheric Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis were used to force the model. The winds were converted to stress with a neutral drag coefficient that varied linearly with windspeed (instead of using the NCEP windstress). A 5-day simulation was made for each month until the resulting flow regime came into equilibrium, and model water levels at various station locations were saved for comparison with tidal-gauge observed sea levels from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). The comparison is made for 10 North Sea stations with high quality tide gauge data. We find: (1) good agreement in annual and semi-annual phases and in the trend of amplitude w.r.t. latitude; (2) more importantly for this study, the model-predicted and observed non-seasonal sea level variations show a very significant temporal correlation as well as spectral coherence. However, a large amplitude difference exists between the two sets -- the overall amplitude variability of the observed is generally a factor of 2-3 larger than the model prediction (this same phenomenon has been reported in ocean circulation studies, although the cause is not yet clear.) Our results indicate that the wind forcing is the main cause of the observed large pole tide in the North Sea.

  14. The Chandler wobble of the poles and its amplitude modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenkov, N.

    2015-08-01

    It is shown that the period of the Chandler wobble of the poles (CWP) is a combined oscillation caused by three periodic processes experienced by the Earth: (a) lunisolar tides, (b) the precession of the orbit of the Earth's monthly revolution around the barycenter of the Earth-Moon system, and (c) the motion of the perigee of this orbit. The addition of the 1.20 - year Chandler wobble to sidereal, anomalistic, and synodic lunar yearly forcing gives rise slow periodic variations in the CWP amplitude with periods of 32 to 51 years.

  15. Multi-Body Orbit Architectures for Lunar South Pole Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebow, D. J.; Ozimek, M. T.; Howell, K. C.; Folta, D. C.

    2006-01-01

    A potential ground station at the lunar south pole has prompted studies of orbit architectures that ensure adequate coverage. Constant communications can be achieved with two spacecraft in different combinations of Earth-Moon libration point orbits. Halo and vertical families, as well as other orbits near L1 and L2 are considered. The investigation includes detailed results using nine different orbits with periods ranging from 7 to 16 days. Natural solutions are generated in a full ephemeris model, including solar perturbations. A preliminary station-keeping analysis is also completed.

  16. Pole-zero form fractional model identification in frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Mansouri, R.; Djamah, T.; Djennoune, S.; Bettayeb, M.

    2009-03-05

    This paper deals with system identification in the frequency domain using non integer order models given in the pole-zero form. The usual identification techniques cannot be used in this case because of the non integer orders of differentiation which makes the problem strongly nonlinear. A general identification method based on Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is developed and allows to estimate the (2n+2m+1) parameters of the model. Its application to identify the ''skin effect'' of a squirrel cage induction machine modeling is then presented.

  17. Plasmon Pole Approximations within a GW Sternheimer implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Vincent; Cote, Michel

    We use an implementation of the GW approximation that exploits a Sternheimer equation and a Lanczos procedure to circumvent the resource intensive sum over all bands and inversion of the dielectric matrix. I will present further improvement of the method that uses Plasmon Pole approximations to evaluate the integral over all frequencies analytically. A comparison study between the von Linden-Horsh and Engel-Farid approaches for energy levels of various molecules along with benchmarking of the computational ressources needed by the method will be discussed.

  18. Low thrust power-limited transfer for a pole squatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakwell, J. V.; Golan, O. M.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of minimum fuel transfer in a central gravity field for power-limited low thrust propulsion has been studied by several investigators. Orbital averaging was used by Edelbaum in the co-axial and co-planar cases, and by Marec and Vinh for the general transfer between elliptical orbits. The co-latus rectum transfer, which has a complete analytical solution, can be applied to the Pole Squatter. Typical results for the evolution of the orbit parameters and the variation of the thrust acceleration along the orbit are shown.

  19. Evidence of water ice near the lunar poles

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, W. C.; Maurice, S.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Little, R. C.; Lawrence, S. L.; Gasnault, O. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Elphic, Richard C.,; Prettyman, T. H.; Steinberg, John Tyree; Binder, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    Lunar Prospector epithermal neutron data were studied to evaluate the probable chemical state of enhanced hydrogen, [H], reported previously to be near both lunar poles [1,2]. Improved versions of thermal and epithermal neutron data were developed for this purpose. Most important is the improved spatial resolution obtained by using shortened integration times. A new data set was created, Epi* = [Epithermal - 0.057 x Thermal], to reduce effects of composition variations other than those due to hydrogen. The Epi* counting rates are generally low near both lunar poles and high over terrane near recent impact events such as Tycho and Jackson. However, other lunar features are also associated with high Epi* rates, which represent a wide range of terrane types that seem to have little in common. If we postulate that one property all bright Epi* features do have in common is low [H], then measured Epi* counting rates appear to be quantitatively self consistent. If we assume that [H]=O above the top 98th percentile of Epi* counting rates at 2{sup o} x 2{sup o} spatial resolution, then [H]{sub ave} = 55 ppm for latitudes equatorward of [75{sup o}]. This value is close to the average found in returned lunar soil samples, [H]{sub ave} {approx} 50 ppm [3]. Using the foregoing physical interpretation of Epi* counting rates, we find that the Epi* counts within most of the large craters poleward of {+-}70{sup o} are higher, and therefore [H] is lower, than that in neighboring inter-crater plains, as shown in Figure 1. Fourteen of these craters that have areas larger than the LP epithermal spatial resolution (55 km diameter at 30 km altitude), were singled out for study. [H] is generally found to increase with decreasing distance from the poles (hence decreasing temperature). However, quantitative estimates of the diffusivity of hydrogen at low temperature show that diffusion can not be an important factor in explaining the difference between the relatively low [H] observed within

  20. Performance Prediction of a Hybrid-Excitation Synchronous Machine with Axially Arranged Excitation Poles and Permanent-Magnet Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuuchi, Kotaro; Fukami, Tadashi; Naoe, Nobuyuki; Hanaoka, Ryoichi; Takata, Shinzo; Miyamoto, Toshio

    This paper presents a method of predicting the steady-state performance of a new hybrid-excitation synchronous machine (HESM) theoretically. The field pole of this HESM is axially divided into two parts; one is an excitation part and the other a permanent-magnet (PM) part. A nonlinear equivalent circuit, which can include the saliency of the rotor and the magnetic saturation due to iron core, is derived. Based on this equivalent circuit, the steady-state performance of the HESM is calculated, and the results are confirmed through experiments.

  1. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Martin J.; Anjum, Raeesa S.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L.; Spiers, Hugo J.; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the “semantic hub” of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories. PMID:27551087

  2. Towards a research pole in photonics in Western Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Rominu, Mihai; Miutescu, Eftimie; Burlea, Amelia; Vlascici, Miomir; Gheorghiu, Nicolae; Cira, Octavian; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Mnerie, Corina; Demian, Dorin; Marcauteanu, Corina; Topala, Florin; Rolland, Jannick P.; Voiculescu, Ioana; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-07-01

    We present our efforts in establishing a Research Pole in Photonics in the future Arad-Timisoara metropolitan area projected to unite two major cities of Western Romania. Research objectives and related training activities of various institutions and groups that are involved are presented in their evolution during the last decade. The multi-disciplinary consortium consists principally of two universities, UAVA (Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad) and UMF (Victor Babes Medicine and Pharmacy University of Timisoara), but also of the Arad County Emergency University Hospital and several innovative SMEs, such as Bioclinica S.A. (the largest array of medical analysis labs in the region) and Inteliform S.R.L. (a competitive SME focused on mechatronics and mechanical engineering). A brief survey of the individual and joint projects of these institutions is presented, together with their teaching activities at graduate and undergraduate level. The research Pole collaborates in R&D, training and education in biomedical imaging with universities in USA and Europe. Collaborative activities, mainly on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) projects are presented in a multidisciplinary approach that includes optomechatronics, precision mechanics and optics, dentistry, medicine, and biology.

  3. Skiing efficiency versus performance in double-poling ergometry.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, L Joakim; Lund Ohlsson, Marie; Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2013-01-01

    This study is on how leg utilisation may affect skiing efficiency and performance in double-poling ergometry. Three experiments were conducted, each with a different style of the double-poling technique: traditional with small knee range-of-motion and fixed heels (TRAD); modern with large knee range-of-motion and fixed heels (MOD1) and modern with large knee range-of-motion and free heels (MOD2). For each style, motion data were extracted with automatic marker recognition of reflective markers and applied to a 3D full-body musculoskeletal simulation model. Skiing efficiency (skiing work divided by metabolic muscle work) and performance (forward impulse) were computed from the simulation output. Skiing efficiency was 4.5%, 4.1% and 4.1% for TRAD, MOD1 and MOD2, respectively. Performance was 111, 143 and 149 Ns for TRAD, MOD1 and MOD2, respectively. Thus, higher lower body utilisation increased the performance but decreased the skiing efficiency. These results demonstrate the potential of musculoskeletal simulations for skiing efficiency estimations.

  4. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-06

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories.

  5. Acoustic wave filter based on periodically poled lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Courjon, Emilie; Bassignot, Florent; Ulliac, Gwenn; Benchabane, Sarah; Ballandras, Sylvain

    2012-09-01

    Solutions for the development of compact RF passive transducers as an alternative to standard surface or bulk acoustic wave devices are receiving increasing interest. This article presents results on the development of an acoustic band-pass filter based on periodically poled ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate. The fabrication of periodically poled transducers (PPTs) operating in the range of 20 to 650 MHz has been achieved on 3-in (76.2-mm) 500-μm-thick wafers. This kind of transducer is able to excite elliptical as well as longitudinal modes, yielding phase velocities of about 3800 and 6500 ms(-1), respectively. A new type of acoustic band-pass filter is proposed, based on the use of PPTs instead of the SAWs excited by classical interdigital transducers. The design and the fabrication of such a filter are presented, as well as experimental measurements of its electrical response and transfer function. The feasibility of such a PPT-based filter is thereby demonstrated and the limitations of this method are discussed.

  6. Solvent cleaning of pole transformers containing PCB contaminated insulating oil.

    PubMed

    Kanbe, H; Shibuya, M

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, it was discovered that the recycled insulation oil in pole transformers for electric power supply was contaminated with trace amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; maximum 50 mg-PCB/kg-insulation oil). In order to remove the PCBs from transformer components using n-hexane as a solvent, we investigated the relationship between progressive stages of dismantling and cleaning results. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Based on the cleaning test results, we made an estimate of the residual PCB amount on iron and copper components. By dismantling the test pole transformers into the "iron core and coil portion" and cleaning the components, we achieved a residual PCB amount that was below the limit of detection (0.05 mg-PCB/kg-material). To achieve a residual PCB amount below the limit of detection for the transformer paper component, it was necessary to cut the paper into pieces smaller than 5 mm. We were unable to achieve a residual PCB amount below the limit of detection for the wood component. (2) Compared to Japan's stipulated limited concentration standard values for PCBs, the results of the cleaning test show that cleaning iron or copper components with PCBs only on their surface with the solvent n-hexane will satisfy the limited concentration standard values when care is taken to ensure the component surfaces have adequate contact with the cleaning solvent.

  7. Taking on the tall poles of autonomous robot navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblum, Mark; Rajagopalan, Venkat; Steinbis, John; Haddon, John; Cannon, Paul

    2011-05-01

    The Holy Grail of autonomous ground robotics has been to make ground vehicles that behave like humans. Over the years, as a community, we have realized the difficulty of this task, and we have back pedaled from the initial Holy Grail and have constrained and narrowed the domains of operation in order to get robotic systems fielded. This has lead to phrases such as "operation in structured environments" and "open-and-rolling terrain" in the context of autonomous robot navigation. Unfortunately, constraining the problem in this way has only put off the inevitable, i.e., solving the myriad of difficult robotics problems that we identified as long ago as the 1980's on the Autonomous Land Vehicle Project and in most cases are still facing today. These "Tall Poles" have included but are not limited to navigation through complex terrain geometry, navigation through thick vegetation, the detection of geometry-less obstacles such as negative obstacles and thin obstacles, the ability to deal with diverse and dynamic environmental conditions, the ability to function in dynamic and cluttered environments alongside other humans, and any combination of the above. This paper is an overview of the progress we have made at Autonomous Systems over the last three years in trying to knock down some of the tall poles remaining in the field of autonomous ground robotics.

  8. DISCOVERY OF FOG AT THE SOUTH POLE OF TITAN

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M. E.; Smith, A. L.; Chen, C.; Adamkovics, M.

    2009-11-20

    While Saturn's moon Titan appears to support an active methane hydrological cycle, no direct evidence for surface-atmosphere exchange has yet appeared. The indirect evidence, while compelling, could be misleading. It is possible, for example, that the identified lake features could be filled with ethane, an involatile long-term residue of atmospheric photolysis; the apparent stream and channel features could be ancient remnants of a previous climate; and the tropospheric methane clouds, while frequent, could cause no rain to reach the surface. We report here the detection of fog at the south pole of Titan during late summer using observations from the VIMS instrument on board the Cassini spacecraft. While terrestrial fog can form from a variety of causes, most of these processes are inoperable on Titan. Fog on Titan can only be caused by evaporation of nearly pure liquid methane; the detection of fog provides the first direct link between surface and atmospheric methane. Based on the detections presented here, liquid methane appears widespread at the south pole of Titan in late southern summer, and the hydrological cycle on Titan is currently active.

  9. Elemental Mercury Diffusion Processes and Concentration at the Lunar Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxley, F. I.; Killen, R. M.; Hurley, D. M.; Dream

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft made the first detection of element mercury (Hg) vapor in the lunar exosphere after the Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted into the Cabeus crater in the southern polar region of the Moon. The lunar regolith core samples from the Apollo missions determined that Hg had a devolatilized pattern with a concentration gradient increasing with depth, in addition to a layered pattern suggesting multiple episodes of burial and volatile loss. Hg migration on the lunar surface resulted in cold trapping at the poles. We have modeled the rate at which indigenous Hg is lost from the regolith through diffusion out of lunar grains. We secondly modeled the migration of Hg vapor in the exosphere and estimated the rate of cold-trapping at the poles using a Monte Carlo technique. The Hg vapor may be lost from the exosphere via ionization, Jeans escape, or re-impact into the surface causing reabsorption.

  10. Transient Broad Specular Reflections from Titan's North Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhingra, Rajani D.; Barnes, Jason W.

    2016-10-01

    In 2014, Cassini observed rough patches or transient broad specular reflections on one of Titan's seas, Punga Mare. These observations were made by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). The rough patches were interpreted to be waves on the surface of the hydrocarbon sea with slopes of 60 ± 10. Although long anticipated, this was an important observation since there was no detection of waves in the initial flybys of north polar lakes and seas until the northern summer approached.We have analyzed several recent VIMS flybys of Titan's north pole looking for these rough surfaces. Our observations are classified as clouds, mudflats, specular reflections, or waves based on VIMS color composites. We observe waves in at least two seas at the north pole, Ligeia Mare and Kraken Mare. In addition, we also observe specular reflections from the shoreline or land, indicating the wet sidewalk effect or mudflat in other flybys. Wet sidewalk observations indicate a recent rainfall event causing diffuse specular reflection.These new observations help us understand more about the weather conditions and sea-wind interaction generating waves on the seas.

  11. Bell Pole CROW pilot test results and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fahy, L.J.; Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Sola, D.V.; Horn, S.G.; Christofferson, J.L.

    1992-11-01

    Beginning in 1990, efforts were initiated to implement an in situ remediation project to address the creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated surficial aquifer at the Bell Lumber and Pole Company (Bell Pole) Site. The remediation project involves the application of the Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes (CROW{trademark}) process which consists of hot-water injection to displace and recover the non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). Based on the results from the pilot test the following conclusions can be made: (1) The pilot test provided sufficient hydraulic information to design the full-scale CROW remediation system. The pumping test portion of the pilot test indicated uniform aquifer properties. The entire thickness of the aquifer reached the target temperature range and containment of the injected hot water was achieved. (2) Pretest injection and production rate predictions were achieved. (3) The post test soil boring data indicated hot-water injection displaced greater than 80% of the NAPL near the injection well. The data indicates that a NAPL saturation of approximately 19% (pore volume basis) and a 500 fold decrease in PCP concentration can be achieved with 20 pore volumes of flushing. (4) The treatment system used during the pilot test was effective in reducing PCP and PAH compounds to concentrations acceptable for sanitary sewer discharge. (5) The microbial assay of the post test samples found an encouraging increase in microbial population compared to earlier data collected before the pilot test.

  12. Bell Pole CROW pilot test results and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fahy, L.J.; Johnson, L.A. Jr. ); Sola, D.V.; Horn, S.G.; Christofferson, J.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, efforts were initiated to implement an in situ remediation project to address the creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated surficial aquifer at the Bell Lumber and Pole Company (Bell Pole) Site. The remediation project involves the application of the Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes (CROW[trademark]) process which consists of hot-water injection to displace and recover the non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). Based on the results from the pilot test the following conclusions can be made: (1) The pilot test provided sufficient hydraulic information to design the full-scale CROW remediation system. The pumping test portion of the pilot test indicated uniform aquifer properties. The entire thickness of the aquifer reached the target temperature range and containment of the injected hot water was achieved. (2) Pretest injection and production rate predictions were achieved. (3) The post test soil boring data indicated hot-water injection displaced greater than 80% of the NAPL near the injection well. The data indicates that a NAPL saturation of approximately 19% (pore volume basis) and a 500 fold decrease in PCP concentration can be achieved with 20 pore volumes of flushing. (4) The treatment system used during the pilot test was effective in reducing PCP and PAH compounds to concentrations acceptable for sanitary sewer discharge. (5) The microbial assay of the post test samples found an encouraging increase in microbial population compared to earlier data collected before the pilot test.

  13. Geologic Mapping of the Lunar South Pole Quadrangle (LQ-30)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Petro, N. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we use recent image, spectral and topographic data to map the geology of the lunar South Pole quadrangle (LQ-30) at 1:2.5M scale [1-7]. The overall objective of this research is to constrain the geologic evolution of LQ-30 (60 -90 S, 0 - 180 ) with specific emphasis on evaluation of a) the regional effects of impact basin formation, and b) the spatial distribution of ejecta, in particular resulting from formation of the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin and other large basins. Key scientific objectives include: 1) Determining the geologic history of LQ-30 and examining the spatial and temporal variability of geologic processes within the map area. 2) Constraining the distribution of impact-generated materials, and determining the timing and effects of major basin-forming impacts on crustal structure and stratigraphy in the map area. And 3) assessing the distribution of potential resources (e.g., H, Fe, Th) and their relationships with surface materials.

  14. Groebner Basis Solutions to Satellite Trajectory Control by Pole Placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukelova, Z.; Krsek, P.; Smutny, V.; Pajdla, T.

    2013-09-01

    Satellites play an important role, e.g., in telecommunication, navigation and weather monitoring. Controlling their trajectories is an important problem. In [1], an approach to the pole placement for the synthesis of a linear controller has been presented. It leads to solving five polynomial equations in nine unknown elements of the state space matrices of a compensator. This is an underconstrained system and therefore four of the unknown elements need to be considered as free parameters and set to some prior values to obtain a system of five equations in five unknowns. In [1], this system was solved for one chosen set of free parameters with the help of Dixon resultants. In this work, we study and present Groebner basis solutions to this problem of computation of a dynamic compensator for the satellite for different combinations of input free parameters. We show that the Groebner basis method for solving systems of polynomial equations leads to very simple solutions for all combinations of free parameters. These solutions require to perform only the Gauss-Jordan elimination of a small matrix and computation of roots of a single variable polynomial. The maximum degree of this polynomial is not greater than six in general but for most combinations of the input free parameters its degree is even lower. [1] B. Palancz. Application of Dixon resultant to satellite trajectory control by pole placement. Journal of Symbolic Computation, Volume 50, March 2013, Pages 79-99, Elsevier.

  15. Effect of plasticity on the dynamics of Enceladus's south pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behounkova, M.; Cadek, O.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.

    2012-09-01

    The intense activity at the south pole of Enceladus hints at an internal water reservoir. However, there is no direct evidence of liquid water at present and its long-term stability in the interior remains problematic. By modeling heat production and transfer in the ice shell in a spherical geometry, in a previous study Behounková et al. [1], we have shown that tidal heating naturally leads to a concentration of convective hot upwellings in the south polar region, favoring the preservation of liquid water at depth. We show that large volumes of water are produced within the ice shell at the south pole during periods of elevated orbital eccentricity (3-5 times the present-day value). Strong lateral variations in the melt production and crystallization rates result in stress concentration in the south polar region, thus providing an explanation for the tectonic activity observed today. We predict that an internal ocean may be sustained over the long term as the consequence of repeated periods with elevated orbital eccentricity, leading to episodic melting and resurfacing events. In order to model the resurfacing event following a tidally-induced melting episode, we are currently incorporating plasticity effects. We also improve the modeling of tidal deformation by incorporating the Andrade model, which is expected to better reproduce the viscoelastic properties of water ice Castillo-Rogez et al. [2].

  16. Uncertainty maps for asteroid shape and pole solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartczak, Przemyslaw; Dudzinski, Grzegorz

    2016-10-01

    SAGE (Shaping Asteroids with Genetic Evolution) inversion method is based on genetic algorithm to obtain pole solutions, rotation periods and non-convex shapes of asteroids (Bartczak et.al, 2014). During the process computer graphics methods are used to compare model's synthetic lightcurves to photometric observations. The method is suitable for modelling both single and binary objects. A modelling run starts with a sphere, with no assumptions about the shape, and subsequently it converges to a stable spin and shape solution. Center of mas and moment of inertia are calculated for each model.Modelling of an asteroid consists of multiple runs of the process, each of them following different path towards a stable solution. As a result we obtain a family of solutions. If enough data is provided, solutions are consistent with each other and can be used for error estimation.We choose only the best models from a family of solutions, meaning every model that fits 5% threshold above best χ2 found. By comparing them we are able to construct a map of uncertainties for the shape, showing areas in good and poor agreement with chosen models. Such map can then be represented with a 3D visualisation. Moreover, we create a map of errors for pole solutions and periods.

  17. Scaphoid Proximal Pole Fracture Following Headless Screw Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Rancy, Schneider K.; Zelken, Jonathan A.; Lipman, Joseph D.; Wolfe, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Headless screw fixation of scaphoid fractures and nonunions yields predictably excellent outcomes with a relatively low complication profile. However, intramedullary implants affect the load to failure and stress distribution within bone and may be implicated in subsequent fracture. Case Description We describe a posttraumatic fracture pattern of the scaphoid proximal pole originating at the previous headless screw insertion site in three young male patients with healed scaphoid nonunions. Each fracture was remarkably similar in shape and size, comprised the volar proximal pole, and was contiguous with the screw entry point. Treatment was challenging but successful in all cases. Literature Review Previous reports have posited that stress-raisers secondary to screw orientation may be implicated in subsequent peri-implant fracture of the femoral neck. Repeat scaphoid fracture after screw fixation has also been reported. However, the shape and locality of secondary fracture have not been described, nor has the potential role of screw fixation in the production of distinct fracture patterns. Clinical Relevance Hand surgeons must be aware of this difficult complication that may follow antegrade headless screw fixation of scaphoid fracture nonunion, and of available treatment strategies. PMID:26855840

  18. Elemental Mercury Diffusion Processes and Concentration at the Lunar Poles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moxley, Frederick; Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft made the first detection of element mercury (Hg) vapor in the lunar exosphere after the Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted into the Cabeus crater in the southern polar region of the Moon. The lunar regolith core samples from the Apollo missions determined that Hg had a devolatilized pattern with a concentration gradient increasing with depth, in addition to a layered pattern suggesting multiple episodes of burial and volatile loss. Hg migration on the lunar surface resulted in cold trapping at the poles. We have modeled the rate at which indigenous Hg is lost from the regolith through diffusion out of lunar grains. We secondly modeled the migration of Hg vapor in the exosphere and estimated the rate of cold-trapping at the poles using a Monte Carlo technique. The Hg vapor may be lost from the exosphere via ionization, Jeans escape, or re-impact into the surface causing reabsorption.

  19. Hemispheric View of Venus Centered at the North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The hemispheric view of Venus, as revealed by more than a decade of radar investigations culminating in the 1990-1994 Magellan mission, is centered on the North Pole. The Magellan spacecraft imaged more than 98% of Venus at a resolution of about 100 meters; the effective resolution of this image is about 3 km. A mosaic of the Magellan images (most with illumination from the west) forms the image base. Gaps in the Magellan coverage were filled with images from the Earth-based Arecibo radar in a region centered roughly on 0 degree latitude and longitude, and with a neutral tone elsewhere (primarily near the south pole). The composite image was processed to improve contrast and to emphasize small features, and was color-coded to represent elevation. Gaps in the elevation data from the Magellan radar altimeter were filled with altimetry from the Venera spacecraft and the U.S. Pioneer Venus missions. An orthographic projection was used, simulating a distant view of one hemisphere of the planet. The Magellan mission was managed for NASA by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA. Data processed by JPL, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, and the U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ.

  20. Albedo of Permanently Shadowed Regions of the Lunar Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riner, M. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Bussey, B.; Cahill, J. T.; McGovern, A.

    2012-12-01

    Due to the slight tilt in the Moon's spin axis, some topographic depressions near the lunar poles experience permanent shadow and may serve as cold traps, harboring water ice and/or other volatile compounds [1]. Permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) provide an opportunity toward understanding the amount, nature and transport of volatiles on the Moon and may also be a potential resource for human exploration. While many different data sets have suggested the presence of water ice in PSRs near the lunar poles many questions remain. For example, ice does not appear to be uniformly distributed across identified PSRs. More work is needed to understand the distribution of ice in PSRs and how delivery and retention mechanisms influence the distribution. The active illumination of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) provides a unique contribution toward exploration PSR exploration. While LOLA is principally a laser altimeter used for quantitative topography and related cartographic and geodetic applications [2], LOLA also measures the intensity and width of the return laser pulse (1064 nm) from the surface. Here we use a global mosaic (4 pixels per degree) of LOLA albedo data corrected for instrumental drift, irregular variations, and calibrated to normal albedo using local equatorial measurements of normal albedo obtained by the Kaguya Multiband Imager [3]. Recent work using LOLA albedo shows the floor of Shackleton crater, near the lunar south pole, is brighter than the surrounding terrain (and the interior of nearby craters) at 1064 nm [4]. This albedo difference may be due to decreased space weathering due to shadowing from the Sun or to a 1 μm thick layer with 20% water ice a the surface of the crater floor [4]. Here we use LOLA dayside reflectance measurements to examine the albedo of PSRs catalogued by [5] derived from illumination modeling of a hybrid 100 m/pixel LOLA-LROC digital terrain model (DTM) up to 83° north and south latitudes. The upper latitude

  1. Pole of rotating analysis of present-day Juan de Fuca plate motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, C.; Wilson, D. S.; Hey, R. N.

    1984-01-01

    Convergence rates between the Juan de Fuca and North American plates are calculated by means of their relative, present-day pole of rotation. A method of calculating the propagation of errors in addition to the instantaneous poles of rotation is also formulated and applied to determine the Euler pole for Pacific-Juan de Fuca. This pole is vectorially added to previously published poles for North America-Pacific and 'hot spot'-Pacific to obtain North America-Juan de Fuca and 'hot spot'-Juan de Fuca, respectively. The errors associated with these resultant poles are determined by propagating the errors of the two summed angular velocity vectors. Under the assumption that hot spots are fixed with respect to a mantle reference frame, the average absolute velocity of the Juan de Puca plate is computed at approximately 15 mm/yr, thereby making it the slowest-moving of the oceanic plates.

  2. Fungal associates, detection, and fumigant control of decay in treated southern pine poles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, R.A.; Wang, C.J.K.; Terracina, F.C.

    1982-12-01

    Efforts to demonstrate the effective arrest and control of fungi growth in southern pine poles (by the application of the fumigants Vapam and chloropicrin) are described. Agreement percentages and confidence limits are determined for electrical resistance, torque changes during drilling, x-ray radiographs, culturing of decay fungi, and impact energy absorption. Based on cultural and dissection studies, this report describes seven decay patterns in the poles and the associated fungi indicated and speculates when some fungi invade the poles.

  3. Measuring the Electro-Optic Coefficients of Bulk-poled Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    This report describes the construction of an optical test system to measure the electro - optic coefficients of poled polymers directly. The poling...spontaneous orientation confers upon the poled polymer a variety of useful optical effects, the linear electro - optic effect being chief among them. The...optical test system measures the electro - optic coefficient directly by measuring the relative retardance of one polarization, the p-polarization

  4. MOLA: Seasonal Snow Variations on Mars: Slow Flyover of the Martian North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    MOLA: Seasonal Snow Variations on Mars: Slow Flyover of the Martian North Pole: False Color. This is a visualization of the topography near the Martian north pole as measured with the MOLA instrument. This particular animation shows a slow zoom to the surface of the pole, a flyover of the polar cap and a slow zoom out. The surface color is based on the elevation of the topography.

  5. The Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Lower and Middle Atmosphere Temperatures at the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X.; Pan, W.; Gardner, C. S.

    2001-05-01

    An Fe Boltzmann Temperature Lidar was operated at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station from 1999-2001. Temperature profiles were obtained by combining the lidar data from 30-75 km and the balloon data from ground to around 35 km. We summarize the seasonal variations of the troposphere up to mesosphere temperatures at the South Pole. Furthermore, more than 24 hours continuous lidar observations at the South Pole allow us to study the diurnal variations of the stratosphere temperatures. We also present the seasonal and diurnal variations of the mesospheric Fe densities, which indicate the effects of Fe chemistry and the persistent oscillations at the South Pole.

  6. Reliability and validity of a new double poling ergometer for cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Nilsson, Johnny

    2008-01-15

    Thirty-eight competitive cross-country skiers were divided into three groups to assess the reliability and validity of a new double poling ergometer. Group A (n = 22) performed two maximal 60-s tests, Group B (n = 8) repeated peak oxygen uptake tests on the double poling ergometer, and Group C (n = 8) performed a maximal 6-min test on the double poling ergometer and a double poling time-trial on snow. The correlation between the power calculated at the flywheel and the power applied at the base of the poles was r = 0.99 (P < 0.05). The power at the poles was 50-70% higher than that at the flywheel. There was a high test-retest reliability in the two 60-s power output tests (coefficient of variation = 3.0%) and no significant difference in peak oxygen uptake in the two 6-min all-out tests (coefficient of variation = 2.4%). There was a strong correlation between the absolute (W) and relative power (W x kg(-1)) output in the 6-min double poling ergometer test and the double poling performance on snow (r = 0.86 and 0.89 respectively; both P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results show that the double poling ergometer has both high reliability and validity. However, the power calculated at the flywheel underestimated the total power produced and needs to be corrected for in ergonomic estimations.

  7. Formation of a Bright Polar Hood over the Summer North Pole of Saturn in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Blalock, John J.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ewald, Shawn P.

    2016-10-01

    We report that a bright polar hood has formed over the north pole of Saturn, seen first in images captured by the Cassini ISS camera in 2016. When the north pole was observed during the previous period of Cassini spacecraft's high-inclination orbits in 2012-2013, the concentration of light-scattering aerosols within 2-degree latitude of the north pole appeared to be less than that of the surrounding region, and appeared as a dark hole in all ISS filters, in particular in the shorter wavelength filters BL1 (460 nm), and VIO (420 nm). The north pole's appearance in 2012 was in contrast to that of the south pole in 2007, when the south pole had a bright polar hood in those short wavelengths; the south pole appeared dark in all other ISS filters in 2007. The difference between the south pole in 2007 and the north pole in 2012 was interpreted to be seasonal; in 2007, Saturn was approaching the equinox of 2009 and the south pole had been continuously illuminated since the previous equinox in 1995. In 2012, the north pole had been illuminated for only ~3 years after the long winter polar night. The bright hood over the summer south pole in 2007 was hypothesized to consist of aerosols produced by ultraviolet photodissociation of hydrocarbon molecules. Fletcher et al (2015) predicted that a similar bright hood should form over the north pole as Saturn approaches the 2017 solstice. In 2016, the Cassini spacecraft raised its orbital inclination again in preparation for its Grande Finale phase of the mission, from where it has a good view of the north pole. New images captured in 2016 show that the north pole has developed a bright polar hood. We present new images of the north polar region captured in 2016 that show the north pole, and other seasonally evolving high-latitude features including the northern hexagon. Our research has been supported by the Cassini Project, NASA grants OPR NNX11AM45G, CDAPS NNX15AD33G PATM NNX14AK07G, and NSF grant AAG 1212216.

  8. BLDG 1 FRONT ELEVATION W/POLE Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1 FRONT ELEVATION W/POLE - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Clarifications concerning the definition and determination of the celestial ephemeris pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capitaine, N.; Williams, J. G.; Seidelmann, P. K.

    1985-01-01

    The precise meaning and consequences of the introduction beginning in 1984 of the 1980 IAU theory of nutation (Wahr, 1980; Seidelmann, 1982) based on the celestial ephemeris pole (CEP) rather than the instantaneous pole of rotation (IPR) of the previous theory (Woolard, 1953) are analyzed and discussed. The CEP implicitly accounts for the forced diurnal polar motion and thus implies a fixed change of 0.0087 arcsec in the mean celestial pole. It is pointed out that past determinations of the obliquity and the celestial pole which were assumed to be referred to the IPR were actually referred to the CEP. A number of clarified formulations of the new theory are proposed.

  10. Arthroscopic excision of distal pole of patella for refractory patellar tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, John D

    2009-07-01

    This article examines the results of arthroscopic tendon debridement with excision of the distal pole of the patella for refractory patellar tendinitis. Nine patients failed at least 3 months of conservative therapy and underwent arthroscopic excision of the distal patellar pole with debridement of the deep proximal patella tendon. At least 3 months postoperatively (range, 3 months-5 years), 8 patients reported no distal patellar pole tenderness (Bassett sign), and 1 patient reported only mild tenderness. Arthroscopic excision of the distal patellar pole with tendon debridement holds promise for the treatment of refractory patellar tendinitis.

  11. What is the South Pole-Aitken basin hiding?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick-Bethell, I.; Nimmo, F.; Wieczorek, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The South Pole-Aitken (SP-A) basin is remarkable because of its great age, size, elliptical structure, and asymmetrical depth of excavation. Recent studies have elucidated its general shape (e.g. [1]), but questions still remain about what processes influenced the distribution of topography and crustal thickness inside the basin. There are emerging indications that SP-A may have impacted into a unique terrain, and that there is a remaining signature of that terrain imbedded in the details of the SP-A topography and crustal thickness. A recent study of the lunar farside highlands north of the basin [2] demonstrated that their crustal structure and shape can be described by a degree-2 harmonic that extends over about a quarter of the lunar surface. The process that generated this terrain would have likely once extended into the southern half of the farside and its characteristic degree-2 shape would have been obscured by the South Pole-Aitken impact. If so, the low topography in the southern central part of the basin, which is the lowest on the Moon, would be partially the result of the superposition of the SP-A excavation cavity over a preexisting degree-2 terrain that decreases in elevation and crustal thickness towards the south pole. We tested this hypothesis in several ways, including fitting degree-2 harmonics to the farside highlands and extrapolating them across the basin, “removing” the expected degree-2 signal from SP-A, and measuring the degree-2 character of the interior basin topography and crustal thickness. In all cases, there is evidence that the preexisting terrain was degree-2 in character, and that it controlled portions of the basin topography and crustal structure we see now. There are three implications of these results. The first is that the north-south asymmetry in the depth of SP-A [1] is not likely due to some asymmetry in the impact process that develops at very large scales. The second is that knowledge of the preexisting crustal

  12. Patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymer electrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xunlin

    2010-07-01

    Polymers with strong piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity are attractive for a wide range of applications. In particular, semicrystalline ferroelectric polymers are suitable for a large variety of piezo- and pyroelectric transducers or sensors, while amorphous polymers containing chromophore molecules are particularly interesting for photonic devices. Recently, a new class of polymer materials has been added to this family: internally charged cellular space-charge polymer electrets (so-called "ferroelectrets"), whose piezoelectricity can be orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional ferroelectric polymers. Suitable patterning of these materials leads to improved or unusual macroscopic piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectric or nonlinear optical properties that may be particularly useful for advanced transducer or waveguide applications. In the present paper, the piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymers is briefly introduced, an overview on the preparation of polymer electrets with patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity is provided and a survey of selected applications is presented.

  13. Roadside tree/pole crash barrier field test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    A series of tests was carried out to evaluate the performance of a crash barrier designed to protect the occupants of an automobile from serious injury. The JPL barrier design is a configuration of empty aluminum beverage cans contained in a tear-resistant bag which, in turn, is encased in a collapsible container made of plywood and steel. Tests were conducted with a driven vehicle impacting the barrier. The basic requirements of NCHRP Report 153 were followed except that speeds of 30 mph rather than 60 mph were used. Accelerometer readings on the driver's helmet showed that the driver was never subjected to dangerous decelerations, and never experienced more than temporary discomfort. Also, all of the requirements of the cited report were met. An extrapolation of data indicated that the JPL barrier installed in front of a tree or telephone pole along a roadside would also have met the requirements at a speed of 40 mph.

  14. Titan's temporal evolution in stratospheric trace gases near the poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D.; Achterberg, R.; Bampasidis, G.; Lavvas, P.; Nixon, C.; Teanby numeration="7">Teanby, N.; Anderson, C.; Cottini, V.; Flasar, F. M.

    2015-10-01

    We analyze spectra acquired by the Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) at high resolution from October 2010 until September 2014 in nadir mode. Up until mid 2012, Titan's Northern atmosphere exhibited the enriched chemical content found since the Voyager days (November 1980), with a peak around the Northern Spring Equinox (NSE) in 2009. Since then, we have observed the appearance at Titan's south pole of several trace species for the first time, such as HC3N and C6H6, observed only at high northern latitudes before equinox. We investigate here latitudes poleward of 50°S and 50°N from 2010 (after the Southern Autumnal Equinox : SAE) until 2014.

  15. Aerosol measurements at the south pole during 1987. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodhaine, B.A.; Harris, J.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates an atmospheric monitoring observatory at Amundsen-Scott Station, South Pole. The aerosol measurement program consists of the continuous measurement of condensation nuclei (CN) concentration and aerosol scattering extinction coefficient. During 1987, a special aerosol experiment was conducted that included filter samples for subsequent analysis by the proton induced x-ray emission technique, diffusion battery measurements for size information in the sub-0.1 micrometer size range, and aerosol absorption measurements using an aethalometer. Surface and upper air meteorological data were also available. The purpose of the report is to present all of the aerosol data obtained during 1987.

  16. South Pole submillimeter isotropy measurements of the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Dragovan, M. ); Platt, S.R.; Pernic, R.J. ); Stark, A.A. )

    1990-01-15

    Observations were made from the United States Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station during the austral summer of 1988--89 to search for spatial anisotropy in the submillimeter Cosmic Microwave Background. Three 30{prime}{times}30{prime} regions of the sky were observed at 350 {mu}m, 450 {mu}m, and 600 {mu}m with the University of Chicago 32-Channel Submillimeter Photometer and a 1.2-meter off-axis parabolic telescope, designed and constructed at AT T Bell Laboratories. Reimaging optics gave each of the 32 bolometers in the array a 5-arc minute field of view. The search is sensitive to fluctuations on all angular scales between 5- and 30-arc minutes.

  17. THE SPITZER-WISE SURVEY OF THE ECLIPTIC POLES

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Cutri, R. M.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Cohen, M.; Wright, E.; Petty, S.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P.; Mainzer, A.; Ressler, M.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Carey, S.; Surace, J.; Lonsdale, C.; Skrutskie, M.; Stanford, S.

    2011-07-10

    We have carried out a survey of the north and south ecliptic poles, EP-N and EP-S, respectively, with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The primary objective was to cross-calibrate WISE with the Spitzer and Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) photometric systems by developing a set of calibration stars that are common to these infrared missions. The ecliptic poles were continuous viewing zones for WISE due to its polar-crossing orbit, making these areas ideal for both absolute and internal calibrations. The Spitzer IRAC and MIPS imaging survey covers a complete area of 0.40 deg{sup 2} for the EP-N and 1.28 deg{sup 2} for the EP-S. WISE observed the whole sky in four mid-infrared bands, 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 {mu}m, during its eight-month cryogenic mission, including several hundred ecliptic polar passages; here we report on the highest coverage depths achieved by WISE, an area of {approx}1.5 deg{sup 2} for both poles. Located close to the center of the EP-N, the Sy-2 galaxy NGC 6552 conveniently functions as a standard calibrator to measure the red response of the 22 {mu}m channel of WISE. Observations from Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS/IRS-LL and WISE show that the galaxy has a strong red color in the mid-infrared due to star-formation and the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN), while over a baseline >1 year the mid-IR photometry of NGC 6552 is shown to vary at a level less than 2%. Combining NGC 6552 with the standard calibrator stars, the achieved photometric accuracy of the WISE calibration, relative to the Spitzer and MSX systems, is 2.4%, 2.8%, 4.5%, and 5.7% for W1 (3.4 {mu}m), W2 (4.6 {mu}m), W3 (12 {mu}m), and W4 (22 {mu}m), respectively. The WISE photometry is internally stable to better than 0.1% over the cryogenic lifetime of the mission. The secondary objective of the Spitzer-WISE Survey was to explore the poles at greater flux-level depths, exploiting the higher angular resolution Spitzer observations and the

  18. Lunar South Pole space water extraction and trucking system

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A. |; Zupp, G.; Schnitzler, B.; Larson, T.K.; Rice, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    This concept proposes to use thermal processes alone to extract water from the lunar South Pole and launch payloads to low lunar orbit. Thermal steam rockets would use water propellant for space transportation. The estimated mass of a space water tanker powered by a nuclear heated steam rocket suggests it can be designed for launch in the Space Shuttle bay. The performance depends on the feasibility of a nuclear reactor rocket engine producing steam at 1,100 degrees Kelvin, with a power density of 150 Megawatts per ton of rocket, and operating for thousands of 20 minute cycles. An example uses reject heat from a small nuclear electric power supply to melt 17,800 tons per year of lunar ice. A nuclear heated steam rocket would use the propellant water to launch and deliver 3,800 tons of water per year to a 100 km low lunar orbit.

  19. Shapes and Poles of the Small Satellites of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Simon B.; Showalter, Mark R.; Spencer, John R.; Weaver, H. A.; Binzel, Richard P.; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Stern, S. A.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Young, Leslie A.; Ennico, Kimberly

    2015-11-01

    Pluto-Charon is a binary dwarf planet surrounded by four much smaller satellites: Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra (in order of increasing distance from the barycenter). These satellites were discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope, which also showed that their orbits are nearly circular around the system barycenter and coplanar to the central binary. NASA's New Horizons spacecraft flew through the Pluto system on July 14, 2015, and obtained the first resolved images of all four small satellites. We will present initial models for the shapes and densities of the small satellites determined from both those resolved images and earlier unresolved images, as well as measurements of the rotational poles of small satellites at the time of the Pluto encounter. This work was supported by the NASA New Horizons Project.

  20. A New Source of Micrometeorites: The South Pole Water Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S.; Lever, J.; Harvey, R.

    1996-03-01

    In 1995 we built, tested and deployed a collector to suction particulates from the bottom of the South Pole drinking water well (SPWW) in the hope of finding large numbers of micrometeorites. The SPWW, because it melts huge amounts of firn and ice, provides an efficient way of concentrating micrometeorites, which occur ubiquitously but in low concentrations in terrestrial environments. We made 5 separate collections, traversing an area of about 30 m^2 and collecting approximately 200 g of material. Microscopic examination of the 250-425 micrometer size fraction from 2 of the 5 collections suggests that 1 of every 1000 particles in this size fraction is a melted micrometeorite. There are also translucent and transparent spherules, similar to those described by Maurette et al., which are thought to be extraterrestrial and particles which appear to be unmelted micrometeorites. Dating of the ice brackets the depositional age of any micrometeorites collected between 1000-1500 AD.

  1. Incomplete rotational cooling in a 22-pole ion trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, E. S.; Egger, G.; Lee, S.; Lakhmanskaya, O.; Simpson, M.; Wester, R.

    2017-02-01

    Cryogenic 22-pole ion traps have found many applications in ion-molecule reaction kinetics and in high resolution molecular spectroscopy. For most of these applications it is important to know the translational and internal temperatures of the trapped ions. Here, we present detailed rotational state thermometry measurements over an extended temperature range for hydroxyl anions in He, HD, and H2. The measured rotational temperatures show a termination of the thermalisation with the buffer gas around 25 K, independent of mass ratio and confinement potential of the trap. Different possible explanations for this incomplete thermalisation are discussed, among them the thermalisation of the buffer gas, room temperature blackbody radiation or warm gas entering the trap, and heating due to energy transfer from rotationally excited hydrogen molecules.

  2. Sturm-Liouville eigenproblems with an interior pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of self-adjoint Sturm-Liouville problems with a simple pole on the interior of an interval are investigated. Three general theorems are proved, and it is shown that as n approaches infinity, the eigenfunctions more and more closely resemble those of an ordinary Sturm-Liouville problem. The low-order modes differ significantly from those of a nonsingular eigenproblem in that both eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are complex, and the eigenvalues for all small n may cluster about a common value in contrast to the widely separated eigenvalues of the corresponding nonsingular problem. In addition, the WKB is shown to be accurate for all n, and all eigenvalues of a normal one-dimensional Sturm-Liouville equation with nonperiodic boundary conditions are well separated.

  3. Alpine tectonics and rotation pole evolution of Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Koen

    1990-12-01

    The geological evolution of the Betic Cordilleras and Pyrenees reflects the Cretaceous and Tertiary rotation pole and kinematic evolution of the Iberian and African plates. New constraints on the Alpine tectonic evolution of the Iberian plate are provided by P- T- t data and regionally consistent stretching lineations from the metamorphic parts of the Betic Cordilleras. High-pressure low-temperature metamorphism in the Betic Cordilleras resulted from continent-continent collision which caused subduction to a maximum depth of 37 km. A preliminary 116 ± 10 Ma radiometric age for this event corresponds to the initiation of seafloor spreading to the west of Iberia which lasted until about 80 Ma. Intracontinental thrusting in the Betics between 99 Ma and 83 Ma took place after subduction ended. E-W to ESE-WNW trending stretching lineations indicate the direction of thrusting, which resulted in extensional strains of 200-600%. The timing of thrusting in the Betics coincides with a 95-80 Ma tectonic phase in northern Africa, during which E-W stretching lineations were formed. The stretching lineations are coincident with the 110-80 Ma motion vector of Africa-Iberia with respect to Eurasia. Thrusting in the Betics and deformation in northern Africa was driven by convergence of Africa-Iberia and Eurasia. Cretaceous deformation is further recorded by terrigeneous sedimentation in the Mauritanian Flysch and by the tectosedimentary evolution of the Malaguide Complex. Crustal thinning, magmatism and metamorphism in the Pyrenees during the 110-85 Ma period is governed by a left-lateral strike-slip of Africa-Iberia with respect to Eurasia around the same rotation pole as thrusting in the Betics. During the 80-54 Ma period the rotation pole was situated west of Gibraltar, near the previous active collision zone. This inhibited large-scale overthrusting and related penetrative deformation in northern Africa and the Betic Cordilleras. Deformation was instead transferred to the

  4. Lack of exposed ice inside lunar south pole Shackleton Crater.

    PubMed

    Haruyama, Junichi; Ohtake, Makiko; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Morota, Tomokatsu; Honda, Chikatoshi; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Pieters, Carle M; Hara, Seiichi; Hioki, Kazuyuki; Saiki, Kazuto; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Iwasaki, Akira; Abe, Masanao; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Takeda, Hiroshi; Shirao, Motomaro; Yamaji, Atsushi; Josset, Jean-Luc

    2008-11-07

    The inside of Shackleton Crater at the lunar south pole is permanently shadowed; it has been inferred to hold water-ice deposits. The Terrain Camera (TC), a 10-meter-resolution stereo camera onboard the Selenological and Engineering Explorer (SELENE) spacecraft, succeeded in imaging the inside of the crater, which was faintly lit by sunlight scattered from the upper inner wall near the rim. The estimated temperature of the crater floor, based on the crater shape model derived from the TC data, is less than approximately 90 kelvin, cold enough to hold water-ice. However, at the TC's spatial resolution, the derived albedo indicates that exposed relatively pure water-ice deposits are not on the crater floor. Water-ice may be disseminated and mixed with soil over a small percentage of the area or may not exist at all.

  5. Crystal oscillators using negative voltage gain, single pole response amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive crystal oscillator is provided which employs negative voltage gain, single pole response amplifiers. The amplifiers may include such configurations as gate inverters, operational amplifiers and conventional bipolar transistor amplifiers, all of which operate at a frequency which is on the roll-off portion of their gain versus frequency curve. Several amplifier feedback circuit variations are employed to set desired bias levels and to allow the oscillator to operate at the crystal's fundamental frequency or at an overtone of the fundamental frequency. The oscillator is made less expensive than comparable oscillators by employing relatively low frequency amplifiers and operating them at roll-off, at frequencies beyond which they are customarily used. Simplicity is provided because operation at roll-off eliminates components ordinarily required in similar circuits to provide sufficient phase-shift in the feedback circuitry for oscillation to occur.

  6. Persistent parainfluenza virus shedding during isolation at the South Pole.

    PubMed

    Muchmore, H G; Parkinson, A J; Humphries, J E; Scott, E N; McIntosh, D A; Scott, L V; Cooney, M K; Miles, J A

    1981-01-15

    Persistent parainfluenza virus shedding in healthy young adults occurred throughout the 8 1/2-month winter isolation period at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station during 1978. Two episodes of respiratory illness were observed after 10 and 29 weeks of complete social isolation. Throat swabs collected both routinely, and during each outbreak of respiratory illness, were directly inoculated into cell cultures. Parainfluenza virus types 1 and 3 were recovered from both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects throughout the winter. No other viruses were obtained by these efforts. The presence of parainfluenza virus in these subjects long after the accepted incubation period for viral upper respiratory illness, and when the introduction of new virus to this community was impossible, suggests its persistence in man.

  7. Pediatric Scaphoid Proximal Pole Nonunion With Avascular Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Edward W; Smetana, Brandon S; Patterson, J Megan M

    2016-12-24

    A 13-year-old, right hand-dominant, otherwise healthy boy presented with left wrist pain 19 months after a nonmotorized scooter injury. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging at presentation demonstrated proximal pole scaphoid nonunion with avascular necrosis of the proximal fragment. Operative and nonsurgical treatment options were discussed and the family elected for an attempt at nonsurgical management. The patient was placed in a short-arm thumb spica cast, with a window for a bone stimulator, for 14 weeks. At the conclusion of the treatment, the pain had resolved and x-ray and computed tomography scan demonstrated bony union. The authors recommend considering an initial trial of nonsurgical management for treatment of all pediatric scaphoid nonunions.

  8. Dynamical origin and the pole structure of X(3872).

    PubMed

    Danilkin, I V; Simonov, Yu A

    2010-09-03

    The dynamical mechanism of channel coupling with the decay channels is applied to the case of coupled charmonium--DD* states with JPC=1++. A pole analysis is done and the DD* production cross section is calculated in qualitative agreement with experiment. The sharp peak at the D0D0* threshold and flat background are shown to be due to Breit-Wigner resonance, shifted by channel coupling from the original position of 3954 MeV for the 23P1, QQ state. A similar analysis, applied to the n=2, 3P2, 1P1, 3P0, allows us to associate the first one with the observed Z(3930) J=2 and explains the destiny of 3P0.

  9. A very deep IRAS survey at the north ecliptic pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. R.; Hacking, P. B.; Condon, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    The data from approximately 20 hours observation of the 4- to 6-square degree field surrounding the north ecliptic pole have been combined to produce a very deep IR survey at the four IRAS bands. Scans from both pointed and survey observations were included in the data analysis. At 12 and 25 microns the deep survey is limited by detector noise and is approximately 50 times deeper than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). At 60 microns the problems of source confusion and Galactic cirrus combine to limit the deep survey to approximately 12 times deeper than the PSC. These problems are so severe at 100 microns that flux values are only given for locations corresponding to sources selected at 60 microns. In all, 47 sources were detected at 12 microns, 37 at 25 microns, and 99 at 60 microns. The data-analysis procedures and the significance of the 12- and 60-micron source-count results are discussed.

  10. Optical poling of several halogen derivatives of pyrazoloquinoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koścień, E.; Sanetra, J.; Gondek, E.; Jarosz, B.; Kityk, I. V.; Ebothe, J.; Kityk, A. V.

    2004-12-01

    Paper deals with optical absorption and second-order optical poling effect in a new synthesized halogen derivatives of 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline. The experimental study and quantum chemical simulations are presented. In optical poling experiment (fundamental wavelength λ = 1.76 μm) we have found that the maximal output of second-order susceptibility (up to 1.53 pm/V) is observed for the chromophore possessing two methyl groups and fluor. The quantum chemical analysis reveals similarity in the absorption spectra of methyl-containing halogen derivatives which are characterized by four or five strong absorption bands in the spectral range 200-500 nm. A substitution of the methyl groups by the phenyl group causes the substantial changes of the absorption spectra mainly in the spectral range 240-370 nm. The comparison of measured and calculated absorption spectra manifests rather good agreement, namely in the part regarding the spectral positions of the first oscillator (absorption threshold). At the same time, the measured spectra reveal the considerable broadening almost of all absorption bands and even complete damping some of them in the case of phenyl derivatives. Semi-empirical PM3 method demonstrate substantially better agreement with the experimental values compared to the AM1 method. The lowest magnitude of the nonlinear optical susceptibility is revealed for Br-containing [PQ]-derivative. It is assumed that Br leads here to a suppressing of the charge transfers mechanism what is the reason for a relatively low nonlinear optical efficiency.

  11. Orographic Condensation at the South Pole of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlies, Paul; Hayes, Alexander; Adamkovics, Mate

    2016-10-01

    Although many clouds have been observed on Titan over the past two decades (Griffith et al. 1998, Rodriquez et al 2009, Brown et al. 2010), only a handful of clouds have been analyzed in detail (Griffith et al 2005, Brown et al 2009, Adamkovics et al 2010). In light of new data and better radiative transfer (RT) modelling, we present here a reexamination of one of these cloud systems observed in March 2007, formerly identified as ground fog (Brown et al 2009), using the Cassini VIMS instrument. Combining our analysis with RADAR observations we attempt to understand the connection and correlation between this low altitude atmospheric phenomenon and the local topography, suggesting instead, a topographically driven (orographic) cloud formation mechanism. This analysis would present the first links between cloud formation and topography on Titan, and has valuable implications in understanding additional cloud formation mechanisms, allowing for a better understanding of Titan's atmospheric dynamics.We will also present an update on an ongoing ground based observation campaign looking for clouds on Titan. This campaign, begun back in April 2014, has been (nearly) continuously monitoring Titan for ongoing cloud activity. Although a variety of telescope and instruments have been used in an effort to best capture the onset of cloud activity expected at Titan's North Pole, no cloud outbursts have yet been observed from the ground (though frequent observations have been made with Cassini ISS/VIMS). This is interesting because it further suggests a developing dichotomy between Titan's seasons, since clouds were observable from the ground during southern summer. Thus, monitoring the onset of large scale cloud activity at Titan's North Pole will be crucial to understanding Titan's hydrologic cycle on seasonal timescales.

  12. Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The lighter GFRP pole enabled the athletes to have a faster run-up, resulting in a greater take-off speed, giving them more kinetic energy to convert into potential energy and hence height. GFRP poles also have a much higher failure stress than bamboo, so the poles were engineered to bend under the load of the athlete, thereby storing elastic strain energy that can be released as the pole straightens, resulting in greater energy efficiency. The bending also allowed athletes to change their vaulting technique from a style that involved the body remaining almost upright during the vault to one where the athlete goes over the bar with their feet upwards. Modern vaulting poles can be made from GFRP and/or carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The addition of carbon fibres maintains the mechanical properties of the pole, but allows a reduction in the weight. The number and arrangement of the fibres determines the mechanical properties, in particular the bending stiffness. Vaulting poles are also designed for an individual athlete to take into account each athlete’s ability and physical characteristics. The poles are rated by ‘weight’ to allow athletes to select an appropriate pole for their ability. This paper will review the development of vaulting poles and the requirements to maximize performance. The properties (bending stiffness and pre-bend) and microstructure (fibre volume fraction and lay-up) of typical vaulting poles will be discussed. Originally published as Davis C L and Kukureka S N (2004) Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles The Engineering of

  13. Trekking poles increase physiological responses to hiking without increased perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Michael J; Hipp, G Ryan; Wenos, David L; Deaton, Michael L

    2008-09-01

    Trekking poles are used by hikers for improved stability and lowered leg fatigue due to increased upper body muscle involvement. However, the weight of the poles and exaggerated upper body movement when using poles may increase total energy expenditure at a given walking speed. Few studies have investigated the physiological responses of hiking with trekking poles outside the laboratory setting. The purposes of this study were to determine if trekking poles altered physiological responses to hiking on varied terrain, and whether responses between trials were dependent on the grade of the terrain. Fourteen recreational hikers completed four hiking trials over a course that included sustained sections of flat (0 +/- 1% grade), steep uphill (>10% grade), gradual uphill (5% grade), gradual downhill (-5% grade) and steep downhill (<-10% grade) terrain. Subjects walked at a self-selected speed that was matched across trials using time-splits and a metronome. Two trials were conducted with hiking poles and two without poles. [latin capital V with dot above]O2 was significantly elevated (p <0.05) during the pole trials (1502.9 +/- 510.7 ml/min) compared to the no-pole trials (1362.4 +/- 473.2 ml/min). Similarly, ventilatory efficiency ([latin capital V with dot above]E) (43.1 +/- 9.6; 38.3 +/- 10.1 L/min) and heart rate (HR) (112.1 +/- 9.7; 105.7 +/- 10.4 bt/min) were significantly higher during the pole trials than the no-pole trials. However, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) was not altered by pole condition (8.5 +/- 0.7; 8.4 +/- 0.8). Comparisons within each grade revealed significantly higher physiological responses for [latin capital V with dot above]O2, [latin capital V with dot above]E and HR in the pole-condition at all grades, with no significant variable*grade interactions. RPE measures were not significantly different between pole trials at any grade. These data suggest that trekking poles may be a beneficial tool for increasing caloric expenditure, as energy

  14. Research on the Distribution of Magnetic Particles by Changing The Rate of the Radius of the Pole and the Length between Two Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiao-Ye; Gong, Yong-Yong; Yang, Kai; Huang, Zhe-Yong; Pei, Ning

    2016-05-01

    We propose an innovate program in order to improve the distribution of magnetic particles aggregated in magnetic field by changing the radius of the pole(R) and the spacing between two poles(D). The finite element software ANSYS is used to research the changes in magnetic flux density and magnetic gradient in the experiment. The analysis by Origin indicates that the force along radius reduced to less than half of the original, improving the aggregation at the center greatly.

  15. Live Site Demonstrations: Former Pole Mountain Target and Maneuver Area, Laramie, WY. MetalMapper Data Analysis for Pole Mountain Target and Maneuver Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-08

    FINAL REPORT Live Site Demonstrations: Former Pole Mountain Target and Maneuver Area, Laramie, WY MetalMapper Data Analysis for Pole...Mountain Target and Maneuver Area ESTCP Project MR-201157 March 2012 John Baptiste Parsons Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) REPORT ...DOCUMENTATION PAGE Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is

  16. Risk Management in the Original Extreme Sporting Event: The Pole Vault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemiller, Jim; Hardin, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The pole vault was considered the ultimate test of physical ability and daring before the advent of modern extreme sports such as skateboarding, snowboarding, and mountain biking. The inherent risks of the pole vault have been well documented. The National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research reported in 2007 that the catastrophic injury…

  17. A Simple Algorithm for Computing Partial Fraction Expansions with Multiple Poles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2007-01-01

    A simple algorithm for computing the partial fraction expansions of proper rational functions with multiple poles is presented. The main idea is to use the Heaviside's cover-up technique to determine the numerators of the partial fractions and polynomial divisions to reduce the multiplicities of the poles involved successively, without the use of…

  18. Fumigant effectiveness in creosote- and penta-treated southern pine poles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.J.K.; Terracina, F.C.; Zabel, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of the fumigants, Vapam and chloropicrin, to arrest decay development in the groundline zone of southern pine poles, and to determine the types and prevalence of fungi reinvading the poles after fumigation. Fifty-one creosote- and penta-treated poles representing various service ages and decay conditions were fumigated with Vapam or chloropicrin. Cores were extracted from the groundline zone for fungus isolations and decay determinations, prior to fumigation and annually thereafter for 8 years. The reappearance of decay fungi was the major criterion used for judging fumigant effectiveness. Both Vapam and chloropicrin were effective disinfectants and killed all of the previously detected fungi in all poles. The protection periods of the fumigants from decay fungus reinvasions varied with pole age, prior decay condition, and preservative treatment. They ranged from less than 1 to 7 years and were least in older poles with prior decay. Soft-rot fungi were major decay agents which reinvaded the fumigated poles. The reinvading fungi were generally those tolerant to the preservatives or fumigants used in the study. Chloropicrin concentrations at 5, 6, and 7 years after fumigation were highly variable, and below toxic threshold levels in the outer core zones of most poles. 33 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Performance Analysis of a Pole and Tree Trunk Detection Method for Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtomäki, M.; Jaakkola, A.; Hyyppä, J.; Kukko, A.; Kaartinen, H.

    2011-09-01

    Dense point clouds can be collected efficiently from large areas using mobile laser scanning (MLS) technology. Accurate MLS data can be used for detailed 3D modelling of the road surface and objects around it. The 3D models can be utilised, for example, in street planning and maintenance and noise modelling. Utility poles, traffic signs, and lamp posts can be considered an important part of road infrastructure. Poles and trees stand out from the environment and should be included in realistic 3D models. Detection of narrow vertical objects, such as poles and tree trunks, from MLS data was studied. MLS produces huge amounts of data and, therefore, processing methods should be as automatic as possible and for the methods to be practical, the algorithms should run in an acceptable time. The automatic pole detection method tested in this study is based on first finding point clusters that are good candidates for poles and then separating poles and tree trunks from other clusters using features calculated from the clusters and by applying a mask that acts as a model of a pole. The method achieved detection rates of 77.7% and 69.7% in the field tests while 81.0% and 86.5% of the detected targets were correct. Pole-like targets that were surrounded by other objects, such as tree trunks that were inside branches, were the most difficult to detect. Most of the false detections came from wall structures, which could be corrected in further processing.

  20. The HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Public Data Archive at CDIAC: Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gas Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, S. W.; Hook, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    The HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) project is investigating the carbon cycle and greenhouse gases throughout various altitudes in the atmosphere over the Pacific Basin through the annual cycle (Wofsy and the HIPPO Science Team 2011, this session). Aircraft-based data collection occurred during 2009-2011. Data analyses, comparisons, and integration are ongoing. A permanent public archive of HIPPO data has been established at the U. S. DOE Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). Datasets are provided primarily by the Lead Principal Investigator (PI), who draws on a comprehensive set of aircraft navigation information, meteorological measurements, and research instrument and sampling system results from multiple co-investigators to compile integrated and generate value-added products. A website/ftp site has been developed for HIPPO data and metadata (http://hippo.ornl.gov), in coordination with the UCAR website that presents field catalogs and other detailed information about HIPPO missions (http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/hippo/dm/). A data policy was adopted that balances the needs of the project investigators with the interests of the scientific user community. A data dictionary was developed to capture the basic characteristics of the hundreds of measurements. Instrument descriptions were compiled. A user's guide is presented for each dataset that also contains data file information enabling users to know when data have been updated. Data are received and provided as space-delimited ASCII files. Metadata records are compiled into a searchable CDIAC index and will be submitted to climate change research data clearinghouses. Each dataset is given a persistent identifier (DOI) to facilitate attribution. We expect that data will continue to be added to the archive for the next year or more. In the future we anticipate creating a database for HIPPO data, with a web interface to facilitate searching and customized data extraction.

  1. A Study of Microstrip Line Balanced Filters with Attenuation Poles Based on Tapped Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Wada, Kouji

    We propose microstrip-line balanced filters with controllable attenuation poles by using tapped resonators. These filters are basically composed of a coupled-line and tapped resonators. The coupled-line provides bandpass responses with attenuation poles and balanced filter operation. Also, the tappd resonators provide bandpass responses and attenuation poles. The position and number of the attenuation pole are controlled by the choice of the kind of the tapped resonator. In this paper, we examine a filter with an unbalanced port and a balanced port as well as a filter with a balanced port and a balanced port. The presented filters are simulated with commercial simulators and are measured with a vector network analyzer. We have confirmed that the bandpass characteristics with controllable attenuation poles and balanced characteristics(amplitude and phase balance performances) are obtained. The measured results of the fabricated filters agree well with the simulated results.

  2. Computation of equivalent poles placement for class of 2nd order discrete bilinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadek, Lukasz; Koszalka, Leszek; Burnham, Keith

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces an adaptation of the classical linear control theory representation of zeros, poles and gain into a bilinear approach. The placement of poles at the complex plane is a complete description of plants dynamics; hence it is a convenient form from which calculation of various properties, e.g. rise time, settling time, is plausible. Such technique can be adjusted into the bilinear structure if poles of a quasi-linear representation (linear with respect to input) are concerned. The research outcomes with conclusion on the equivalent poles displacement and generalized rules for a 2nd order bilinear system equivalent poles input dependent loci. The proposed approach seems to be promising, as simplification of design and identification of a bilinear system increases transparency during modelling and control in practical applications and hence it may be followed by applicability of such structure in common industrial problems.

  3. Membrane recycling at the infranuclear pole of the outer hair cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harasztosi, Csaba; Harasztosi, Emese; Gummer, Anthony W.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid endocytic activity of outer hair cells (OHCs) in the guinea-pig cochlea has been already studied using the fluorescent membrane marker FM1-43. It was demonstrated that vesicles were endocytosed at the apical pole of OHCs and transcytosed to the basolateral membrane and through a central strand towards the nucleus. The significance of endocytic activity in the infranuclear region is still not clear. Therefore, in this study endocytic activity at the synaptic pole of OHCs was investigated. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize dye uptake of OHCs isolated from the guinea-pig cochlea. Signal intensity changes were quantified in the apical and basal poles relative to the signal at the membrane. Data showed no significant difference in fluorescent signal intensity changes between the opposite poles of the OHC. These results suggest that endocytic activities in both the basal and the apical poles contribute equally to the membrane recycling of OHCs.

  4. Memory for famous faces and the temporal pole: functional imaging findings in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Griffith, H Randall; Richardson, Elizabeth; Pyzalski, Robert W; Bell, Brian; Dow, Christian; Hermann, Bruce P; Seidenberg, Michael

    2006-08-01

    The ability to recognize, name, and provide information about famous persons is deficient in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), although the neural basis for these deficits is not well understood. We examined the relationship of resting metabolism of the temporal poles, as determined by [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, to performance on a task of famous face recognition, naming, and generation of semantic information in 12 patients with TLE. Correlations between metabolic measures of the temporal poles and performance on the Famous Faces Task revealed strong relationships between all aspects of the Famous Faces Task and the left temporal pole, whereas Famous Faces Task correlations with the right temporal pole were not significant. These findings indicate that the left temporal pole is associated with lexical and semantic retrieval of knowledge of famous persons in patients with TLE. Further study appears warranted to elucidate the networks involved in semantic knowledge for famous faces.

  5. On the Distribution of Orbital Poles of Milky Way Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, Christopher; Majewski, Steven R.; Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2002-01-01

    In numerous studies of the outer Galactic halo some evidence for accretion has been found. If the outer halo did form in part or wholly through merger events, we might expect to find coherent streams of stars and globular clusters following orbits similar to those of their parent objects, which are assumed to be present or former Milky Way dwarf satellite galaxies. We present a study of this phenomenon by assessing the likelihood of potential descendant ``dynamical families'' in the outer halo. We conduct two analyses: one that involves a statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of all known Galactic dwarf satellite galaxies (DSGs) and globular clusters, and a second, more specific analysis of those globular clusters and DSGs for which full phase space dynamical data exist. In both cases our methodology is appropriate only to members of descendant dynamical families that retain nearly aligned orbital poles today. Since the Sagittarius dwarf (Sgr) is considered a paradigm for the type of merger/tidal interaction event for which we are searching, we also undertake a case study of the Sgr system and identify several globular clusters that may be members of its extended dynamical family. In our first analysis, the distribution of possible orbital poles for the entire sample of outer (Rgc>8 kpc) halo globular clusters is tested for statistically significant associations among globular clusters and DSGs. Our methodology for identifying possible associations is similar to that used by Lynden-Bell & Lynden-Bell, but we put the associations on a more statistical foundation. Moreover, we study the degree of possible dynamical clustering among various interesting ensembles of globular clusters and satellite galaxies. Among the ensembles studied, we find the globular cluster subpopulation with the highest statistical likelihood of association with one or more of the Galactic DSGs to be the distant, outer halo (Rgc>25 kpc), second-parameter globular clusters. The

  6. Ulysses(*) reaches the South Pole of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-08-01

    One of the many investigations being carried out is a search for the Sun's south magnetic pole. As in the case of the Earth, the magnetic pole is offset from the rotation axis, and at some time in September it should sweep directly into line with Ulysses. Just as the polar regions of the Earth were the last to be explored, so it is with the Sun. For more than thirty years spacecraft have investigated the stream of electric particles know as the solar wind. Ulysses, developed by ESA, built by European Industry and flown in collaboration with NASA, is the first to fly through the solar wind coming from the poles. As Ulysses reaches its highest solar latitude of 80.2 degrees on 13 September, European and American researchers will gather at the ESA/ESTEC, the European Space Research and Technology Centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, for a scientific workshop at which they will assess the results from the nine experiments carried by the spacecraft. For the week of the workshop, the ESA/ESTEC conference centre will be transformed into a busy scientific laboratory. The large meeting rooms will be divided into 24 working areas, where the Ulysses experiment teams will take up temporary residence. Bringing a variety of computing equipment with them, the scientists will be able to retrieve the latest data from the spacecraft and perform detailed analyses. The emphasis will be on informality, with exchange of scientific ideas - and data - the key ingredient, leading ultimately to a better understanding of the fascinating information being gathered by Ulysses on its unique exploratory journey. Presentations to the media at ESA/ESTEC will start at 10h00 on 16 September. Media representatives wishing to attend are kindly requested to fill out the attached form and return it - preferably by fax (+33.1.42.73.76.90) - to : ESA Public Relations Division, 8/10, rue Mario Nikis - 75015-PARIS. Note to Television Editors : A video index, containing extensive background material on the

  7. New Pacific-Nazca(Farallon) finite rotation poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, D.; Naar, D.; Tebbens, S.; Wessel, P.; Harada, Y.; Johnson, K.; Pyle, D.; Ray, J.; Mahoney, J.; Duncan, R.

    2003-04-01

    We present 9 new finite rotation poles for the Pacific-Nazca (and previous Farallon) plates for the magnetic anomalies listed below in an effort to provide the best possible relative motion model for the Pacific and Nazca plates during the time that the Easter-Salas y Gomez hotspot formed the volcanic chain that extends from about the EPR to the Peru-Chile Trench. This relative motion model allows calculation of the Nazca-hotspot finite rotations by adding the Nazca-Pacific to the Pacific-hotspot finite rotations. The Nazca-hotpsot motion model is used to compare to the Ar radiometric ages (Duncan et al., this session) of samples we collected in Nov-Dec 2001 on the R/V Revelle. This comparision provides a test of hotspot fixity and predictions derived by mantle circulation models (Steinberger, 2002; Duncan et al., this session). As part of this tectonic modeling effort, new magnetic isochrons have been identified and compared to previous interpretations in the dissertations of Liu (1996) and Cornaglia (1995). As expected, the time period between magnetic anomaly 5d and 6c is comprised of a major plate boundary reorganizations involving large changes in relative plate motion and the formation of microplates (including the Mendoza paleomicroplate), preventing Pacific-Nazca finite rotations to be calculated during that time period without additional magnetic and bathmetry data. Listed below are preliminary pole locations and rotation angles as we finalize our analyses of the magnetic and altimetry data from this region. Magnetic Anomaly, Latitude, Longitude, Degrees of Finite Rotation: 3a,-56.402,86.377,9.68; 4a,-58.229,86.357,13.18; 5o, -60.012,86.728,16.86; 5aa,-61.997,87.206,19.63; 5b,-64.519,83.614,23.10l; 5d,-72.215,89.268,26.49; 6c,-59.681,88.984,38.44; 7y,-61.151,88.859, 38.88; 10y,-65.595,82.612,43.83.

  8. Interpreting Radar View near Mars' North Pole, Orbit 1512

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    A radargram from the Shallow Subsurface Radar instrument (SHARAD) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is shown in the upper-right panel and reveals detailed structure in the polar layered deposits of the north pole of Mars (with blowups shown in the upper-left panels). The sounding radar collected the data presented here during orbit 1512 of the mission, on Nov. 22, 2006.

    The horizontal scale in the radargram is distance along the ground track. It can be referenced to the ground track map shown in the lower right. The radar traversed from about 83.5 degrees to 80.5 degrees north latitude, or about 180 kilometers (110 miles). The ground track map shows elevation measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Green indicates low elevation; reddish-white indicates higher elevation. The traverse is from the high elevation of the plateau formed by the layers to the lowlands below.

    The vertical scale on the radargram is time delay of the radar signals reflected back to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter from the surface and subsurface. For reference, using an assumed velocity of the radar waves in the subsurface, time is converted to depth below the surface in two places: about 600 meters (2,000 feet) to the lowest of an upper series of bright reflectors and about 2,000 meters (6,500 feet) to the base of the polar layered deposits. The color scale of the radargram varies from black for weak reflections to bright yellow for strong reflections.

    The lower-left panel is a image from the Mars Orbiter Camera on Mars Global Surveyor showing exposed polar layering in the walls of a canyon near the north pole. The layering is divided into a finely structured upper unit (labeled 'Upper PLD') and less-well-defined stratigraphy in the lower unit (labeled 'Lower PLD'). The radargram clearly reveals the complexity of the layering in the upper unit, additional reflections from the lower unit, and the base of the entire stack of

  9. Searching for Terrain Softening near Mercury's North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobian, P. S.; Vilas, F.; Lederer, S. M.; Barlow, N. G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, following the initial discovery of radar bright craters near both poles of Mercury measured the depth-todiameter (d/D) ratios of 170 impact craters in Mariner 10 images covering four different regions on Mercury s surface. Rapid softening of crater structure, indicated by lower d/D ratios, could indicate the possibility of subsurface water ice in Mercury's terrain originating from an internal source in the planet. Their study included 3 specific radar bright craters suggested to contain ice. They concluded that no terrain softening was apparent, and a rapidly emplaced exogenic water source was the most likely source for the proposed ice in these craters. Recent radar observations of the Mercurian North pole have pinpointed many additional radar bright areas with a resolution 10x better than previous radar measurements, and which correlate with craters imaged by Mariner 10. These craters are correlated with regions that are permanently shaded from direct sunlight, and are consistent with observations of clean water ice. We have expanded the initial study by Barlow et al. to include d/D measurements of 12 craters newly identified as radar bright at latitudes poleward of +80o. The radar reflectivity resemblances to Mars south polar cap and echoes from three icy Galilean satellites suggest that these craters too may have polar ice on Mercury. The effect of subsurface H20 on impact craters is a decrease in its d/D ratio, and softening of crater rims over a period of time. The study of Barlow et al., focused on determining the d/D ratios of 170 impact craters in the Borealis (north polar), Tolstoj (equatorial), Kuiper (equatorial), and Bach (south polar) quadrangles. This work focuses on the newly discovered radar bright craters, investigating their d/D ratios as an expansion of the earlier work..We compare our results to the statistical results from Barlow et al. here. With the upcoming Messenger spacecraft mission to Mercury, this is an especially timely study

  10. Blue light generation using periodically poled nonlinear crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademian, Ali; Shiner, David

    2013-05-01

    We have studied blue light generation using SHG of IR light. We have used single pass waveguides and bulk crystals with buildup cavities. The nonlinear crystals used were periodically poled Lithium Niobate (LN) and Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTP). Each of these approaches had limitations with regards to the maximum power handling and the stability of operation. Currently we are working on a different crystal in a new buildup cavity to circumvent some of the previous difficulties resulting from photorefractive damage and excessive heating due to blue absorption. Our initial measurements show that Lithium Tantalite (LT) has higher photorefractive threshold and much lower blue absorption (2% vs 15% for 20 mm crystal length). The new buildup cavity incorporates a more convenient commercial piezo mirror translator for feedback control. The buildup cavity can be operated with a minimum of 6 V as opposed to the 1000 V previously. We are exploring the use of a single DSP (digital signal processor) to perform all the locking and electronic control functions of the cavity. We are studying the coupling and propagation properties of the IR beams more carefully to minimize cavity and coupling losses, particularly due to front wave distortion caused by mirrors and lenses used in the setup. To optimize our cavity and to make the best and simplest choice of optical elements possible, different commercial (off the shelf) lenses and mirrors have been evaluated experimentally in our setup. This work is supported by NSF grant PHY-1068868.

  11. Mesospheric Winds and Magnetic Fields from the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C. L.; Burrows, S. M.; Brown, M. J.; Roberts, E. A.

    2007-12-01

    We show how carbon monoxide (CO) can be used as a tracer of mesospheric neutral wind speeds, by measuring small Doppler shifts in its rotational emission spectrum. Since the altitude range we are most sensitive to is generally inaccessible to many other measurement techniques, this fills a significant experimental gap. Using this method, high-resolution ground-based measurements of mesospheric CO taken from the AST/RO sub-millimeter telescope, located at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station have been used to calculate wind speeds and column densities over the Antarctic from 2002 to 2005. For more information see Burrows et al. JGR-Atmospheres doi:10.1029/2006JD007993. In addition, the 2→ 1 rotational transition of O18O has been measured and used as a tracer of the mesospheric magnetic field over the Antarctic. We demonstrate how the Zeeman splitting of this molecule was used to measure the Earth's magnetic field during the geomagnetic storm of January 2003.

  12. Molecular Modeling of the Poling of Piezoelectric Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. A.; Farmer, B. L.; Hinkley, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    The computational method described in this paper allows the calculation of the dielectric relaxation strength of an amorphous polymer based solely upon its chemical structure. The 4,4' oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA) dianhydride and bis-aminophenoxybenzene (APB) diamine based polyimides, (beta-CN) APB-ODPA and APB-ODPA were studied. Amorphous cells were constructed and then poled using molecular dynamics. Dielectric relaxation strengths of Delta(epsilon) = 17.8 for (beta-CN) APB-ODPA and Delta(epsilon) = 7.7 for APB-ODPA were predicted. These values are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. It was found that both the pendant nitrile dipole and the backbone anhydride residue dipole make significant contributions to the polyimides dielectric response. Specifically, it was shown that the difference in the magnitude of the dielectric relaxations is directly attributable to the nitrile dipole. The size of the relaxations indicate an absence of cooperative dipolar motions, The model was used to explain these results in terms of the average orientation of the nitrile and anhydride dipoles to within 51 deg. and 63 deg., respectively, of the applied electric field.

  13. Authentication Based on Pole-zero Models of Signature Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Saeid; Fallah, Ali; Towhidkhah, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    With the increase of communication and financial transaction through internet, on-line signature verification is an accepted biometric technology for access control and plays a significant role in authenticity and authorization in modernized society. Therefore, fast and precise algorithms for the signature verification are very attractive. The goal of this paper is modeling of velocity signal that pattern and properties is stable for persons. With using pole-zero models based on discrete cosine transform, precise method is proposed for modeling and then features is founded from strokes. With using linear, parzen window and support vector machine classifiers, the signature verification technique was tested with a large number of authentic and forgery signatures and has demonstrated the good potential of this technique. The signatures are collected from three different database include a proprietary database, the SVC2004 and the Sabanci University signature database benchmark databases. Experimental results based on Persian, SVC2004 and SUSIG databases show that our method achieves an equal error rate of 5.91%, 5.62% and 3.91% in the skilled forgeries, respectively. PMID:24696797

  14. Accretion rate of cosmic spherules measured at the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Susan; Lever, James H.; Harvey, Ralph P.

    1998-04-01

    Micrometeorites are terrestrially collected, extraterrestrial particles smaller than about 1mm, which account for most of the mass being accreted to the Earth,. Compared with meteorites, micrometeorites more completely represent the Earth-crossing meteoroid complex, and should include fragments of asteroids, comets, Mars and our Moon, as well as pre-solar and interstellar grains,. Previous measurements of the flux of micrometeoroids that survive to the Earth's surface have large uncertainties owing to the destruction of particles by weathering, inefficiencies in magnetic collection or separation techniques, low particle counts,, poor age constraint,, or highly variable concentrating processes,. Here we describe an attempt to circumvent these problems through the collection of thousands of well preserved and dated micrometeorites from the bottom of the South Pole water well, which supplies drinking water for the Scott-Amundsen station. Using this collection, we have determined precise estimates of the flux and mass distribution for 50-700-µm cosmic spherules (melted micrometeorites). Allowing for the expected abundance of unmelted micrometeorites in the samples, our results indicate that about 90% of the incoming mass of submillimetre particles evaporates during atmospheric entry. Our data indicate the loss of glass-rich and small stony spherules from deep-sea deposits,, and they provide constraints for models describing the survival probability of micrometeoroids,.

  15. A Southern Bald Eagle perches on a pole at KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A Southern Bald Eagle perches on top of a utility pole at Kennedy Space Center. About a dozen bald eagles live in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The Southern Bald Eagle ranges throughout Florida and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana, and the south Atlantic states. Bald Eagles are listed as endangered in the U.S., except in five states where they are listed as threatened. The number of nesting pairs of the southern race once numbered several thousand; recent estimates are only 350-375. Most of the southern race nest in Florida. Eagles arrive at KSC during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  16. A Southern Bald Eagle perches on a pole at KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A Southern Bald Eagle perched on top of a utility pole searches the area. About a dozen bald eagles live in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The Southern Bald Eagle ranges throughout Florida and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana, and the south Atlantic states. Bald Eagles are listed as endangered in the U.S., except in five states where they are listed as threatened. The number of nesting pairs of the southern race once numbered several thousand; recent estimates are only 350-375. Most of the southern race nest in Florida. Eagles arrive at KSC during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  17. Structure of the Galactic Halo Towards the North Galactic Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinman, T. D.; Bragaglia, A.; Cacciari, C.; Buzzoni, A.; Spagna, A.

    2005-01-01

    We have used RR Lyrae and Blue HB stars as tracers of the old Galactic halo, in order to study the halo structure and the galactic rotation as a function of height above the plane. Our sample includes 40 RR Lyrae and 80 BHB stars that are about 2 to 15 kpc above the plane, in a roughly 250 deg2 area around the North Galactic Pole (NGP). We use proper motions (derived from the GSCII data base) and radial velocities to determine the rotation of the halo. From the whole sample the motion appears to be significantly more retrograde than the samples in the solar neighbourhood, confirming Majewski (1992) results and our own preliminary results based on 1/3 the present sample (Kinman et al. 2003; Spagna et al. 2003). However, the better statistics have now revealed the likely existence of two components, whose characteristics need an accurate analysis of systematic errors on the proper motions in order to be assessed in detail.

  18. The North Galactic Pole Rift and the Local Hot Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lallement, R.; Puspitarini, L.

    2015-06-01

    The North Galactic Pole Rift (NGPR) is one of the few distinct neutral hydrogen clouds at high Galactic latitudes that have well-defined distances. It is located at the edge of the Local Cavity (LC) and provides an important test case for understanding the Local Hot Bubble (LHB), the presumed location for the hot diffuse plasma responsible for much of the observed 1/4 keV emission originating in the solar neighborhood. Using data from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and the Planck reddening map, we find the path length within the LC (LHB plus Complex of Local Interstellar Clouds) to be 98 ± 27 pc, in excellent agreement with the distance to the NGPR of 98 ± 6 pc. In addition, we examine another 14 directions that are distributed over the sky where the LC wall is apparently optically thick at 1/4 keV. We find that the data in these directions are also consistent with the LHB model and a uniform emissivity plasma filling most of the LC.

  19. Regionalized Lunar South Pole Surface Navigation System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Apollo missions utilized Earth-based assets for navigation because the landings took place at lunar locations in constant view from the Earth. The new exploration campaign to the lunar south pole region will have limited Earth visibility, but the extent to which a navigation system comprised solely of Earth-based tracking stations will provide adequate navigation solutions in this region is unknown. This report presents a dilution-of-precision (DoP)-based, stationary surface navigation analysis of the performance of multiple lunar satellite constellations, Earth-based deep space network assets, and combinations thereof. Results show that kinematic and integrated solutions cannot be provided by the Earth-based deep space network stations. Also, the stationary surface navigation system needs to be operated either as a two-way navigation system or as a one-way navigation system with local terrain information, while the position solution is integrated over a short duration of time with navigation signals being provided by a lunar satellite constellation.

  20. The Yale Gas-Filled Split Pole Magnetic Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cata-Danil, G.; Beausang, C. W.; Casten, R. F.; Chen, A.; Chubrich, N.; Cooper, J. R.; Krücken, R.; Liu, B.; Novak, J. R.; Visser, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    1998-10-01

    Design and construction of a gas-filled recoil separator is underway at the Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory at Yale University. By filling the magnetic field region of the existing Enge Split-Pole magnet with N2 or He2 gases in the 1 to 15 mbar pressure range a gradual focussing of discrete charge states has been measured. The incident ions were ^16O and ^35,37Cl with 49 MeV and 95 MeV energies, respectively. The process is understood as a result of coalescing of trajectories of different charge states around a trajectory defined by the mean charge state (q¯) of the ion in gas. Because q¯ depends on the atomic number Z and is roughly proportional with the ion velocity, the average magnetic rigidity (B¯ρ=Av/q¯) is almost independent of the velocity distribution of the incident ions. The ion trajectories will be therefore be mainly determined by the mass number A and the atomic number Z of the ion. Monte Carlo simulations with the code RAYTRACE closely reproduce the experimental behavior. We plan to use the Yale Mass Separator (YaMS) for nuclear structure studies in conjunction with high efficency gamma detectors (clover detectors) for enhancing weak reaction channels and fission background reduction. Work supported by the US-DOE under contract numbers DE-FG02-91ER-40609 and DE-FG02-88ER-40417.

  1. Ethylene line emission from the North Pole of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Espenak, F.; Romani, P.; Goldstein, J.

    1991-01-01

    A significant enhancement in infrared emission from hydrocarbon constituents of Jupiter's stratosphere was observed at a north polar hot spot (60 degrees latitude, 180 degrees longitude). A unique probe of this phenomena is ethylene (C2H4), which has not been observed previously from the ground. The profile of the emission line from ethylene at 951.742 cm-1, measured near the north pole of Jupiter, was analyzed to determine the morphology of the enhancement, the increase in C2H4 abundance and local temperature, as well as possible information on the altitude (pressure regions) where the increased emission is formed. Measurements were made using infrared heterodyne spectroscopy at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii in December 1989. At 181 degrees longitude a very strong emission line was seen, which corresponds to a 13-fold increase in C2H4 abundance or a 115K increase in temperature in the upper stratosphere, compared to values outside the hot spot. The hot spot was found to be localized to approx. 10 degrees in longitude; the line shape (width) implied that the enhanced emission originated very high in the stratosphere.

  2. The North Galactic Pole Rift and the Local Hot Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lallement, R.; Puspitarini, L.

    2015-01-01

    The North Galactic Pole Rift (NGPR) is one of the few distinct neutral hydrogen clouds at high Galactic latitudes that have well-defined distances. It is located at the edge of the Local Cavity (LC) and provides an important test case for understanding the Local Hot Bubble (LHB), the presumed location for the hot diffuse plasma responsible for much of the observed 1/4 keV emission originating in the solar neighborhood. Using data from the ROSAT All- Sky Survey and the Planck reddening map, we find the path length within the LC (LHB plus Complex of Local Interstellar Clouds) to be 98 plus or minus 27 pc, in excellent agreement with the distance to the NGPR of 98 +/- 6 pc. In addition, we examine another 14 directions that are distributed over the sky where the LC wall is apparently optically thick at 1/4 keV. We find that the data in these directions are also consistent with the LHB model and a uniform emissivity plasma filling most of the LC.

  3. Not across the North Pole: plant migration in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Matthias H

    2012-01-01

    • The vascular plant flora of 66 arctic islands was studied to determine whether the islands have been occupied by random long-distance dispersal (LDD) or in a highly structured northward migration pattern via intervening islands as stepping-stones. • A maximum parsimonious migration model minimizing dispersal distances of 1256 vascular plant taxa was calculated in the framework of network analysis. • Plant dispersal is not stochastic in the Arctic at the global scale. Inferred mean dispersal distances of the plants occurring on arctic islands are c. 580 km (median 460 km). A LDD across the North Pole could not be inferred in the model and species may be recruited mainly from the nearest mainland or islands. At smaller scales, among adjacent islands, dispersal of vascular plants may be incomplete. Arctic islands do not yet appearto be saturated with species. • The results suggest that changes in biodiversity in Arctic islands can be more easily predicted at the global scale than at the local scale. Because islands are not yet saturated with species, new colonizations may not necessarily be linked to climate change.

  4. Radio-frequency probes of Antarctic ice at South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, D.; Kravchenko, I.

    2013-05-01

    Using hardware developed for the ARA (Askaryan Radio Array) particle astrophysics experiment, we herein report on the amplitude and temporal characteristics of polarized surface radar echo data collected in South Polar ice using radio sounding equipment with 0.5-ns echo-time sampling. We observe strong echoes at 6, 9.6, 13.9, 17, and 19 μs following vertical pulse emission from the surface, corresponding to reflectors in the upper half of the ice sheet. The synchronicity of those echoes for all broadcast azimuthal polarizations affirms the lack of observable birefringence over the upper half of the ice sheet. Of the five strongest echoes, three exhibit an evident amplitude correlation with the local surface ice flow direction, qualitatively consistent with measurements in East Antarctica. Combined with other radio echo sounding data, we conclude that observed birefringent asymmetries at South Pole are generated entirely in the lower half of the ice sheet. By contrast, birefringent asymmetries are observed at shallow depths in East Antarctica.

  5. Numerical Modeling of the South Pole-Aitkin Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, G. S.; Melosh, H. J.

    2004-01-01

    The South Pole-Aitkin (SPA) basin, on the far side of the Moon, is the largest and oldest impact structure still preserved in the solar system. The crater is about 2500 km in diameter and formed in the Pre-Nectarian era of lunar history, over 4 Gyr ago. At this time, the thermal state of the Moon was much hotter than it is today. Accretional energy from the rapidly forming Moon melted the outermost few hundred kilometers of the Moon. As this magma ocean differentiated and cooled a 60 100-km thick low-density crust formed at the surface; below this the residual melt, with a higher density, cooled to form the lunar mantle. The giant SPA impact event punctured the Moon some time during the cooling of the magma ocean and thus provides a unique window for studying the lunar interior and the early formative processes of the Moon. The impact excavated otherwise inaccessible samples of the deep crust and (possibly) upper mantle, which has inspired proposed sample return missions. Furthermore, the thermal and rheologic state of the early Moon played a role in shaping the final structure of the basin. To aid in site selection for future sample return missions to the SPA basin, and to investigate the effect of thermal state on final crater structure, we performed some numerical simulations of the SPA impact event.

  6. Bacterial diversity in snow on North Pole ice floes.

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, Aviaja L; Stibal, Marek; Bælum, Jacob; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Brunak, Søren; Bowman, Jeff S; Hansen, Lars H; Jacobsen, Carsten S; Blom, Nikolaj

    2014-11-01

    The microbial abundance and diversity in snow on ice floes at three sites near the North Pole was assessed using quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing. Abundance of 16S rRNA genes in the samples ranged between 43 and 248 gene copies per millilitre of melted snow. A total of 291,331 sequences were obtained through 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, resulting in 984 OTUs at 97 % identity. Two sites were dominated by Cyanobacteria (72 and 61 %, respectively), including chloroplasts. The third site differed by consisting of 95 % Proteobacteria. Principal component analysis showed that the three sites clustered together when compared to the underlying environments of sea ice and ocean water. The Shannon indices ranged from 2.226 to 3.758, and the Chao1 indices showed species richness between 293 and 353 for the three samples. The relatively low abundances and diversity found in the samples indicate a lower rate of microbial input to this snow habitat compared to snow in the proximity of terrestrial and anthropogenic sources of microorganisms. The differences in species composition and diversity between the sites show that apparently similar snow habitats contain a large variation in biodiversity, although the differences were smaller than the differences to the underlying environment. The results support the idea that a globally distributed community exists in snow and that the global snow community can in part be attributed to microbial input from the atmosphere.

  7. Using airborne HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) to evaluate model and remote sensing estimates of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankenberg, Christian; Kulawik, Susan S.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Chevallier, Frédéric; Daube, Bruce; Kort, Eric A.; O'Dell, Christopher; Olsen, Edward T.; Osterman, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, space-borne observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasingly used in global carbon-cycle studies. In order to obtain added value from space-borne measurements, they have to suffice stringent accuracy and precision requirements, with the latter being less crucial as it can be reduced by just enhanced sample size. Validation of CO2 column-averaged dry air mole fractions (XCO2) heavily relies on measurements of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Owing to the sparseness of the network and the requirements imposed on space-based measurements, independent additional validation is highly valuable. Here, we use observations from the High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) flights from 01/2009 through 09/2011 to validate CO2 measurements from satellites (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite - GOSAT, Thermal Emission Sounder - TES, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder - AIRS) and atmospheric inversion models (CarbonTracker CT2013B, Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) v13r1). We find that the atmospheric models capture the XCO2 variability observed in HIPPO flights very well, with correlation coefficients (r2) of 0.93 and 0.95 for CT2013B and MACC, respectively. Some larger discrepancies can be observed in profile comparisons at higher latitudes, in particular at 300 hPa during the peaks of either carbon uptake or release. These deviations can be up to 4 ppm and hint at misrepresentation of vertical transport. Comparisons with the GOSAT satellite are of comparable quality, with an r2 of 0.85, a mean bias μ of -0.06 ppm, and a standard deviation σ of 0.45 ppm. TES exhibits an r2 of 0.75, μ of 0.34 ppm, and σ of 1.13 ppm. For AIRS, we find an r2 of 0.37, μ of 1.11 ppm, and σ of 1.46 ppm, with latitude-dependent biases. For these comparisons at least 6, 20, and 50 atmospheric soundings have been averaged for GOSAT, TES, and AIRS

  8. Large scale dynamical structure measured over the South Pole, 2001-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palo, S. E.; Iimura, H.; South Pole Team

    In January 2001 the University of Colorado in conjunction with the Institute for Experimental Meteorology in Obninsk Russia installed a new 46.3MHz all-sky meteor radar system at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. This system utilizes a single transmitter and receiver with multiple data acquisitions systems. These data acquisition systems are adapted from the Colorado Obninsk Radar system (COBRA) and the Meteor Echo Detection and Collection system (MEDAC). Because of its unique location at the rotational pole of the Earth this system has the ability to measure the meridional winds at four distinct longitudes around the pole. Utilizing these measurements the spatial structure including zonal wavenumber and direction of propagation can be determined for disturbances in the vicinity of the pole. Results for the large-scale dynamical features observed over the pole including the migrating diurnal and nonmigrating semidiurnal tides will be presented. With observations spanning multiple years it is now possible to investigate the interannual variability of these features over the pole. These results will be compared with previous meteor radar measurements made at the South Pole in 1996 and 1997.

  9. EVOLUTION OF THE FAR-INFRARED CLOUD AT TITAN’S SOUTH POLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Donald E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Kunde, V. G.; Carlson, R. C.; Guandique, E.; Kaelberer, M. S.; Tingley, J. S.; Albright, S. A.; Segura, M. E.; Kok, R. de; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Bampasidis, G.; Teanby, N. A.; Calcutt, S.

    2015-05-10

    A condensate cloud on Titan identified by its 220 cm{sup −1} far-infrared signature continues to undergo seasonal changes at both the north and south poles. In the north, the cloud, which extends from 55 N to the pole, has been gradually decreasing in emission intensity since the beginning of the Cassini mission with a half-life of 3.8 years. The cloud in the south did not appear until 2012 but its intensity has increased rapidly, doubling every year. The shape of the cloud at the south pole is very different from that in the north. Mapping in 2013 December showed that the condensate emission was confined to a ring with a maximum at 80 S. The ring was centered 4° from Titan's pole. The pattern of emission from stratospheric trace gases like nitriles and complex hydrocarbons (mapped in 2014 January) was also offset by 4°, but had a central peak at the pole and a secondary maximum in a ring at about 70 S with a minimum at 80 S. The shape of the gas emission distribution can be explained by abundances that are high at the atmospheric pole and diminish toward the equator, combined with correspondingly increasing temperatures. We discuss possible causes for the condensate ring. The present rapid build up of the condensate cloud at the south pole is likely to transition to a gradual decline from 2015 to 2016.

  10. Electrical Transfer Function and Poling Mechanisms for Nonlinear Optical Polymer Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael Dale

    2004-01-01

    Electro-Optic Polymers hold great promise in increased electro-optic coefficients as compared to their inorganic corollaries. Many researchers have focused on quantum chemistry to describe how the dipoles respond to temperature and electric fields. Much work has also been done for single layer films to confirm these results. For optical applications, waveguide structures are utilized to guide the optical waves in 3 layer stacks. Electrode poling is the only practical poling method for these structures. This research takes an electrical engineering approach to develop poling models and electrical and optical transfer functions of the waveguide structure. The key aspect of the poling model is the large boundary charge density deposited during the poling process. The boundary charge density also has a large effect on the electrical transfer function which is used to explain the transient response of the system. These models are experimentally verified. Exploratory experiment design is used to study poling parameters including time, temperature, and voltage. These studies verify the poling conditions for CLDX/APC and CLDZ/APEC guest host electro optic polymer films in waveguide stacks predicted by the theoretical developments.

  11. Evolution of the Far-Infrared Cloud at Titan's South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Kunde, V. G.; Carlson, R. C.; Guandique, E.; Kaelberer, M. S.; Tingley, J. S.; Albright, S. A.; Segura, M. E.; de Kok, R.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Bampasidis, G.; Teanby, N. A.; Calcutt, S.

    2015-01-01

    A condensate cloud on Titan identified by its 220 cm (sup -1) far-infrared signature continues to undergo seasonal changes at both the north and south poles. In the north the cloud, which extends from 55 North to the pole, has been gradually decreasing in emission intensity since the beginning of the Cassini mission with a half-life of 3.8 years. The cloud in the south did not appear until 2012 but its intensity has increased rapidly, doubling every year. The shape of the cloud at the South Pole is very different from that in the north. Mapping in December 2013 showed that the condensate emission was confined to a ring with a maximum at 80 South. The ring was centered 4 degrees from Titan's pole. The pattern of emission from stratospheric trace gases like nitriles and complex hydrocarbons (mapped in January 2014) was also offset by 4 degrees, but had a central peak at the pole and a secondary maximum in a ring at about 70 South with a minimum at 80 South. The shape of the gas emissions distribution can be explained by abundances that are high at the atmospheric pole and diminish toward the equator, combined with correspondingly increasing temperatures. We discuss possible causes for the condensate ring. The present rapid build up of the condensate cloud at the South Pole is likely to transition to a gradual decline during 2015-16.

  12. Standard, Random, and Optimum Array conversions from Two-Pole resistance data

    DOE PAGES

    Rucker, D. F.; Glaser, Danney R.

    2014-09-01

    We present an array evaluation of standard and nonstandard arrays over a hydrogeological target. We develop the arrays by linearly combining data from the pole-pole (or 2-pole) array. The first test shows that reconstructed resistances for the standard Schlumberger and dipoledipole arrays are equivalent or superior to the measured arrays in terms of noise, especially at large geometric factors. The inverse models for the standard arrays also confirm what others have presented in terms of target resolvability, namely the dipole-dipole array has the highest resolution. In the second test, we reconstruct random electrode combinations from the 2-pole data segregated intomore » inner, outer, and overlapping dipoles. The resistance data and inverse models from these randomized arrays show those with inner dipoles to be superior in terms of noise and resolution and that overlapping dipoles can cause model instability and low resolution. Finally, we use the 2-pole data to create an optimized array that maximizes the model resolution matrix for a given electrode geometry. The optimized array produces the highest resolution and target detail. Thus, the tests demonstrate that high quality data and high model resolution can be achieved by acquiring field data from the pole-pole array.« less

  13. Standard, Random, and Optimum Array conversions from Two-Pole resistance data

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, D. F.; Glaser, Danney R.

    2014-09-01

    We present an array evaluation of standard and nonstandard arrays over a hydrogeological target. We develop the arrays by linearly combining data from the pole-pole (or 2-pole) array. The first test shows that reconstructed resistances for the standard Schlumberger and dipoledipole arrays are equivalent or superior to the measured arrays in terms of noise, especially at large geometric factors. The inverse models for the standard arrays also confirm what others have presented in terms of target resolvability, namely the dipole-dipole array has the highest resolution. In the second test, we reconstruct random electrode combinations from the 2-pole data segregated into inner, outer, and overlapping dipoles. The resistance data and inverse models from these randomized arrays show those with inner dipoles to be superior in terms of noise and resolution and that overlapping dipoles can cause model instability and low resolution. Finally, we use the 2-pole data to create an optimized array that maximizes the model resolution matrix for a given electrode geometry. The optimized array produces the highest resolution and target detail. Thus, the tests demonstrate that high quality data and high model resolution can be achieved by acquiring field data from the pole-pole array.

  14. The effect of dc poling duration on space charge relaxation in virgin XLPE cable peelings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzimas, Antonios; Rowland, Simon M.; Dissado, Leonard A.; Fu, Mingli; Nilsson, Ulf H.

    2010-06-01

    The effect of dc poling time upon the time-dependent decay of space charge in insulation peelings of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable that had not previously experienced either electrical or thermal stressing is investigated. Two dc poling durations were used, 2 h and 26 h at an electric field of 50 kV mm-1 and at ambient temperature. Space charge was measured in the two samples investigated both during space charge accumulation and throughout its subsequent decay. The results show that the length of dc poling plays an important role in the subsequent decay. Despite the fact that both samples have had the same amount of space charge by the end of both short and long poling durations the time dependence of the space charge decay is different. Most of the charge stored in the sample that had experienced the short time poling decays rapidly after voltage removal. On the other hand, the charge that is stored in the sample with the long dc poling duration decays slowly and its decay occurs in two stages. The data, which are analysed by means of the de-trapping theory of space charge decay, imply that the charge stored in the material has occupied energy states with different trap depth ranges. The two poling durations lead to different relative amounts of charge in each of the two trap depth ranges. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  15. Electrical transfer function and poling mechanisms for nonlinear optical polymer modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Michael Dale

    2005-07-01

    Electro-Optic Polymers hold great promise in increased electro-optic coefficients as compared to their inorganic corollaries. Many researchers have focused on quantum chemistry to describe how the dipoles respond to temperature and electric fields. Much work has also been done for single layer films to confirm these results. For optical applications, waveguide structures are utilized to guide the optical waves in 3 layer stacks. Electrode poling is the only practical poling method for these structures. This research takes an electrical engineering approach to develop poling models and electrical and optical transfer functions of the waveguide structure. The key aspect of the poling model is the large boundary charge density deposited during the poling process. The boundary charge density also has a large effect on the electrical transfer function which is used to explain the transient response of the system. These models are experimentally verified. Experiments study poling parameters, including time, temperature, and voltage. These studies verify the poling conditions for CLDX/APC and CLDZ/APEC guest host electro-optic polymer films in waveguide stacks predicted by the theoretical developments.

  16. A Linear Quadratic Regulator Weight Selection Algorithm for Robust Pole Assignment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    MATLAB . Five test cases are run with the algorithm. First and second order systems that can be solved in closed form are compared with the algorithm poles...The MATLAB "m"-file used to solve the second order SISO system is included in appendix A. Run time on the Compaq 286 was 4 minutes. Table I! Second...poles but it should get close. When this system 3 was run on MATLAB with the algorithm m-files, the achievable poles were found to be -2.096 z 2.389j

  17. Integrated fiber Michelson interferometer based on poled hollow twin-core fiber.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihai; Bo, Fusen; Wang, Lei; Tian, Fengjun; Yuan, Libo

    2011-07-01

    We propose an integrated fiber Michelson interferometer based on a poled hollow twin-core fiber. The Michelson interferometer can be used as an electro-optic modulator by thermal poling one core of the twin-core fiber and introducing second-order nonlinearity in the fiber. The proposed fiber Michelson interferometer is experimentally demonstrated under driving voltages at the frequency range of 149 to 1000 Hz. The half-wave voltage of the poled fiber is 135 V, and the effective second-order nonlinear coefficient χ² is 1.23 pm/V.

  18. Re-poling process for piezoelectric-based multilayer ceramic capacitors force sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Keng-Ren; Chang, Chih-Han; Chiang, Cheng-Hung; Lin, Che-Hsin

    2013-04-01

    This study presents an industrial-grade piezoelectric-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) force sensor. In order to increase the sensitivity and reduce the variation of different MLCCs, a simple re-poling process is adopted by applying an external electric field at the Curie temperature of MLCCs. Results indicate that the re-poling treatment improved up to 100-fold for the force detection sensitivity and reduced the variation for the output force response by 10-fold in comparison with the MLCC sensors without re-poling.

  19. The self-consistent dynamic pole tide in non-global oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The dynamic pole tide is determined by solving Laplace tide equations which take into account the presence of continents in oceans, oceanic self-gravitation and loading, and mantle elasticity. Dynamical effects are found to be only mild. It is shown that the dynamical pole tide contributes about one day more to the Chandler period than a static pole tide would, and dissipates wobble energy at a very weak rate. It is noted that, depending on the wobble period predicted for an oceanless elastic earth, mantle anelasticity at low frequencies may nevertheless contribute negligibly to the Chandler period.

  20. Total ozone, ozone vertical distributions, and stratospheric temperatures at South Pole, Antarctica, in 1986 and 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.; Reitelbach, P. J.; Franchois, P. R.; Kuester, S. E.

    1988-01-01

    Seventy-six electrochemical cell (ECC) ozonesondes were flown at South Pole, Antarctica, during 1987 in a continuing program to document year-round changes in Antarctica ozone that are dynamically and photochemically induced. Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone observations were also made. For the twilight months of March and September when Dobson instrument observations cannot be made at South Pole, total ozone amounts were deduced from the ECC ozonesonde soundings. ECC sonde total ozone data obtained during the polar night (April to August), supplemented the sparse total ozone data obtained from Dobson instrument moon observations. Similar ozone profile and total ozone observations were made at South Pole in 1986.

  1. Shaping the joint spectrum of down-converted photons through optimized custom poling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosseva, Annamaria; Cincio, Łukasz; Brańczyk, Agata M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a scheme for engineering the joint spectrum of photon pairs created via spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our method relies on customizing the poling configuration of a quasi-phase-matched crystal. We use simulated annealing to find an optimized poling configuration which allows almost arbitrary shaping of the crystal's phase-matching function. This has direct application in the creation of pure single photons—currently one of the most important goals of single-photon quantum optics. We describe the general algorithm and provide code, written in C++, that outputs an optimized poling configuration given specific experimental parameters.

  2. Seasonal variations of temperature and composition at the Titan poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, Athena; Jennings, Donald E.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Bampasidis, Georgios; Lavvas, Panayiotis; Nixon, Conor A.; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Cottini, Valeria; Anderson, Carrie M.; Flasar, F. Michael

    2015-11-01

    We present an analysis of spectra acquired by Cassini/CIRS at high resolution from October 2010 until September 2014 in nadir mode ([1] & refs therein). Since 2010 we have observed the appearance at Titan’s south pole of several trace species for the first time, such as HC3N and C6H6, observed only at high northern latitudes before equinox. We investigate here latitudes poleward of 50°S and 50°N from 2010 (after the Southern Autumnal Equinox) until 2014. For some of the most abundant and longest-lived hydrocarbons (C2H2, C2H6 and C3H8) and CO2, the evolution in the past 4 years at a given latitude is not significant within error bars until mid-2013. More recently, these molecules show a trend for increase in the south. This trend is dramatically more pronounced for the other trace species, especially in 2013-2014, and at 70°S relative to 50°S. These two regions then demonstrate that they are subject to different dynamical processes in and out of the polar vortex region. For most species, we find higher abundances at 50°N compared to 50°S, with the exception of C3H8, CO2, C6H6 and HC3N, which arrive at similar mixing ratios after mid-2013. While the 70°N data show generally no change except a small decrease for most species within 2014, the 70°S results indicate a strong enhancement in trace stratospheric gases after 2012. The 663 cm-1 HC3N and the C6H6 674 cm-1 emission bands appeared in late 2011/early 2012 in the south polar regions and have since then exhibited a dramatic increase in their abundances. At 70°S HC3N, HCN and C6H6 have increased by 3 orders of magnitude over the past 3-4 years while other molecules, including C2H4, C3H4 and C4H2, have increased less sharply (by 1-2 orders of magnitude). This is a strong indication of the rapid and sudden buildup of the gaseous inventory in the southern stratosphere during 2013-2014, as expected as the pole moves deeper into winter shadow. Subsiding gases that accumulate in the absence of ultraviolet

  3. Titan's temporal evolution in stratospheric trace gases near the poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, Athena; Jennings, Donald E.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Bampasidis, Georgios; Lavvas, Panayiotis; Nixon, Conor A.; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Anderson, Carrie M.; Cottini, Valeria; Flasar, F. Michael

    2016-05-01

    We analyze spectra acquired by the Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) at high resolution from October 2010 until September 2014 in nadir mode. Up until mid 2012, Titan's Northern atmosphere exhibited the enriched chemical content found since the Voyager days (November 1980), with a peak around the Northern Spring Equinox (NSE) in 2009. Since then, we have observed the appearance at Titan's south pole of several trace species for the first time, such as HC3N and C6H6, observed only at high northern latitudes before equinox. We investigate here latitudes poleward of 50°S and 50°N from 2010 (after the Southern Autumnal Equinox) until 2014. For some of the most abundant and longest-lived hydrocarbons (C2H2, C2H6 and C3H8) and CO2, the evolution in the past 4 years at a given latitude is not very significant within error bars especially until mid-2013. In more recent dates, these molecules show a trend for increase in the south. This trend is dramatically more pronounced for the other trace species, especially in 2013-2014, and at 70°S relative to 50°S. These two regions then demonstrate that they are subject to different dynamical processes in and out of the polar vortex region. For most species, we find higher abundances at 50°N compared to 50°S, with the exception of C3H8, CO2, C6H6 and HC3N, which arrive at similar mixing ratios after mid-2013. While the 70°N data show generally no change with a trend rather to a small decrease for most species within 2014, the 70°S results indicate a strong enhancement in trace stratospheric gases after 2012. The 663 cm-1 HC3N and the C6H6 674 cm-1 emission bands appeared in late 2011/early 2012 in the south polar regions and have since then exhibited a dramatic increase in their abundances. At 70°S HC3N, HCN and C6H6 have increased by 3 orders of magnitude over the past 3-4 years while other molecules, including C2H4, C3H4 and C4H2, have increased less sharply (by 1-2 orders of magnitude). This is a strong

  4. Sampling South Pole-Aitken Basin: The Moonrise Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Shearer, C. K.; Cohen, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA) is the largest of the giant impact basins in the inner Solar System, and its location on Earth s Moon makes it the most accessible. Exploration of SPA through direct collection and analysis of representative materials addresses issues as fundamental as the characteristics of the chemical reservoir from which the Moon originated, early differentiation and production of crust and development of global asymmetry, relationships between magmatic activity and internal thermal evolution, and effects of giant impact events on the terrestrial planets. Owing to its great size and superposition relationships with other lunar impact basins, SPA is the oldest and as such anchors the lunar chronology. Moreover, numerous large impact craters and basins are contained within it such that materials (rocks) of the SPA basin contain a record of the early impact chronology, one less likely to have been affected by the large, late nearside basins (e.g., Imbrium). Understanding the early basin chronology is key to deciphering the sequence and effects of early giant impact bombardment of the inner Solar System. That record exists on the Moon, and materials of the SPA basin will allow us to read that record. Knowledge of the early bombardment history will test - and may reshape - a key paradigm relating to early Solar System evolution. Did the planets form with the alignment of today, or was there a major reorientation of the giant planets that led to destabilization of asteroid orbits, and a cataclysmic bombardment of the inner Solar System hundreds of millions of years after accretion of the planets? Implications include understanding environments for early life-supporting habitats on Earth and Mars, and relationships to new observations of extra-solar planetary systems.

  5. The North Ecliptic Pole Extragalactic Background LIght Fluctuations Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James; Zemcov, Michael; Cooray, Asantha; Smidt, Joseph; Serjeant, Stephen; Malkan, Matt; Matsuhara, Hideo; Matsumoto, Toshia; Matsuura, Shuji; Clements, David; Pearson, Chris; Im, Myung Shin

    2013-10-01

    We propose to image 6 deg^2 in the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) with IRAC to determine the origin of Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) fluctuations. These Spitzer images will be combined with CIBER data at 1.1 and 1.6 um, and Akari data at 2.4, 3.2, and 4.1 um, to probe the spectrum and band-to-band correlations of the fluctuations. The fluctuations have been reported by Spitzer and Akari, and are now positively detected in new and CIBER data, but their origin is controversial. This multi-wavelength analysis will allow us to determine if EBL fluctuations arise from epoch of reionization galaxies or diffuse intra-halo light emission both by measuring their spectral energy distribution (SED) from 1.0 to 4.5 um, and by measuring the cross-correlation between different bands. The analysis uses multiple field combinations in Spitzer, CIBER and Akari data to carry out a robust measurement with multiple data combinations for internal consistency tests. In addition, the proposed survey will be used in conjunction with Akari and Herschel data in the NEP survey that has the most comprehensive multi-band infrared coverage of any degree-scale field on the sky and the best available constraints on dust phases (e.g. PAH, silicate absorption, AGN dust tori, GMCs) in galaxies. We will use this multi-wavelength coverage to cross-identify IRAC counterparts to Herschel and Akari sources and obtain SEDs of dusty, star bursting galaxies at z ~ 1 to 3 from the UV to radio, and obtain accurate PAH luminosities of Akari 7.7 um-rest detected galaxies and AGNs.

  6. B physics at the Z sup 0 pole

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, W.B.; Mours, B.

    1989-10-01

    The SLC has been running at SLAC since April, and more than 100 Z{sup 0} events have been reconstructed. Shortly the new European facility at CERN-LEP-will also turn on, and by the end of the year we anticipate that more than 10,000 Z{sup 0} events will have been registered by each of the four LEP detectors. Most of the experimental facilities at these two machines are equipped with excellent particle tracking and identification. Some have close-in tracking devices which will provide unparalleled precision in trajectory reconstruction, and lead to the possibility of identifying a large proportion of the charmed and beauty particles. Not only does the Z{sup 0} pole offer a relatively large production cross section for e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} machines, but a large proportion of the events are b{bar b} pairs. One sees from this figure that a gain of six or more is obtained from running at the Z{sup 0}. An SLC producing 10{sup 5} events per year yields 20,000 b{bar b} events. Similarly, for LEP, over 200,000 b{bar b} events will become available per year. In addition, the planned upgrade for LEP will increase its luminosity by about an order of magnitude, and the SLC will run with polarized electron beams. The physics that may be studies from these event samples fall into two general categories: tests of the Standard Model; and studies of B mesons and B baryons, including lifetimes, mixing, spectroscopy, and CP violation. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Written-pole motor generator technologies application guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Melhorn, C.J.

    1998-09-01

    Con Edison has entered into a demonstration project with EPRI, a Con Edison customer, and a Con Edison facility to evaluate different technologies for energy storage and other power quality mitigation techniques. The focus of this project was to select, test, and install a power conditioning device that would provide voltage sag ride-through for Con Edison customers. The Roesel written-pole motor generator (RMG) was selected as a result of the initial phase of the project. The RMG is a relatively new type of electrical device that can offer many of these needs in one package. The RMG can compensate for transients, and voltage variations and regulation in customer facilities. This application guide is designed as a resource for engineers to better understand the RMGs as customer end-use power quality solutions. The guide explains the basic operation of the RMG and how they compensate for voltage variations on the power system. Common power quality problems are also discussed, test results from two demonstration projects are presented, and information is given for determining the applications for the use of RMGs. A description of EPRI`s and Con Edison`s experience with a three, 35 kVA RMG installation in Manhattan and a single, 35 kVA RMG installation at a Westchester location is included. These case studies were designed to demonstrate the power quality impact of an actual RMG in the field. Important practical considerations such as the RMGs ability to regulate the output voltage during variations on the input are discussed. Also, installation concerns are addressed in the design guide. The process by which the RMG was selected as a power quality solution is also explained. This includes a discussion on pre- and post-installation power quality audits and how to compare the results of this examination against the capabilities of the RMG.

  8. ULYSSES comes full circle, before revisiting the Sun's poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-04-01

    From its unique perspective, Ulysses has provided scientists with the very first all-round map of the heliosphere, the huge bubble in space filled by the Sun's wind. The Earth swims deep inside the heliosphere, and gusts and shocks in the solar wind can harm satellites, power supplies and ommunications. They may also affect our planet's weather. A better grasp of the solar weather in the heliosphere is therefore one of the major aims of ESA's science programme. In a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA, Ulysses was launched towards Jupiter in October 1990 by the US space shuttle Discovery. Arriving in February 1992, Ulysses stole energy from the giant planet in a slingshot manoeuvre and was propelled back towards the Sun in an elongated orbit almost at right angles to the ecliptic plane, where the Earth and other planets circle the Sun. "This month Ulysses returns to the point in space where its out-of-ecliptic journey began, but Jupiter isn't there," explains Richard Marsden, ESA's project scientist for Ulysses. "Following its own inexorable path around the Sun, Jupiter is far away on the opposite side of the Solar System. So Ulysses' course will not be changed a second time. The spacecraft is now in effect a man-made comet, forever bound into a 6-year polar orbit around the Sun." Ulysses now starts its second orbit. It will travel over the poles of the Sun in 2000-2001 just as the count of dark sunspots is expected to reach a maximum. With its operational life extended for the Ulysses Solar Maximum Mission, the spacecraft will find the heliosphere much stormier than during its first orbit. Discoveries so far Like its mythical namesake, Ulysses has already had an eventful voyage of discovery. Its unique trajectory has provided the scientific teams with a new perspective, from far out in space and especially in the previously unknown regions of the heliosphere over the Sun's poles. Passing within 9.8 degrees of the polar axis, the highly

  9. Optimizing electrical poling for tetragonal, lead-free BZT-BCT piezoceramic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Binzhi; Ehmke, Matthias C.; Blendell, John E.; Bowman, Keith J.

    2014-02-13

    The piezoelectric properties of tetragonal BZT–BCT materials have been shown to be improved by using the field cooling poling method. It is shown that the piezoelectric coefficient of tetragonal BZT–BCT materials increases with higher poling temperature, and the optimum poling temperature lies near the Curie temperatures for a broad range of compositions. It is also observed from in situ X-ray diffraction measurements with an applied electric field that the magnitude of domain alignment is enhanced with electrical poling at higher electric fields, whereas the remnant ferroelastic domain texture is not affected. Furthermore, these results show a direct correlation between the development of internal bias field, which is induced by the accumulation of defect charge carriers, and the enhanced piezoelectric coefficient. These observations suggest an important role played by the alignment of defect charge carriers in achieving optimum piezoelectric coefficient in lead-free piezoelectric ceramics.

  10. Cassini Returns to Saturn's Poles: Seasonal Change in the Polar Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, G. S.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Sinclair, J. A.; Hesman, B. E.; Hurley, J.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    High inclination orbits during Cassini's solstice mission (2012) are providing us with our first observations of Saturn's high latitudes since the prime mission (2007). Since that time, the northern spring pole has emerged into sunlight and the southern autumn pole has disappeared into winter darkness, allowing us to study the seasonal changes occurring within the polar vortices in response to these dramatic insolation changes. Observations from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer] have revealed (i) the continued presence of small, cyclonic polar hotspots at both spring and autumn poles; and (ii) the emergence of an infrared-bright polar vortex at the north pole, consistent with the historical record of Saturn observations from the 1980s (previous northern spring).

  11. BLDG 2 FRONT ELEVATION W/POLE Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 2 FRONT ELEVATION W/POLE - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Police Station, Kolekole Road & Constitution Street intersection, north side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Unfolding the Second Riemann sheet with Pade Approximants: hunting resonance poles

    SciTech Connect

    Masjuan, Pere

    2011-05-23

    Based on Pade Theory, a new procedure for extracting the pole mass and width of resonances is proposed. The method is systematic and provides a model-independent treatment for the prediction and the errors of the approximation.

  13. Effects of pole geometry on recording performance of narrow track thin film heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, William C.; Thayamballi, Pradeep K.; Vea, Mathew P.

    1994-03-01

    The effects of pole trimming on the recording performance of thin film heads is investigated through experiment and modeling. Three dimensional head fields are computed numerically for various pole geometries, and are used by a simple two dimensional recording simulation to determine written width, erase width, read width, and isolated pulse response. These parameters are then compared to experimental values measured on trimmed and untrimmed heads. Both modeled and experimental parameters are then used as input to a system error rate simulation to determine the effects of pole trimming on system error rate as a function of track density. Good agreement is found between model and experimental parameters. The error rate results suggest that in a system with a reasonable track misregistration (TMR), a track density increase of 7 to 9% can be obtained by trimming the inductive head poles.

  14. 76 FR 4078 - Television Broadcasting Services; North Pole and Plattsburgh, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; North Pole and Plattsburgh, NY AGENCY: Federal... CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble,...

  15. A LINE POLE 77A, DETAIL OF HISTORIC REPLACEMENT PINTYPE INSULATORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A LINE POLE 77A, DETAIL OF HISTORIC REPLACEMENT PIN-TYPE INSULATORS MADE OF BROWN PORCELAIN. VIEW TO WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  16. J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 SOUTH ELEVATION W/POLE. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 SOUTH ELEVATION W/POLE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. On the universality of the J = 0 fixed pole contribution in DVCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K.

    2016-03-01

    S. Brodsky, F.J. Llanes-Estrada and A. Szczepaniak formulated the J = 0 fixed pole universality hypothesis for (deeply) virtual Compton scattering. We show that in the Bjorken limit this hypothesis is equivalent to the validity of the inverse moment sum rule for the D-term form factor. However, any supplementary D-term added to a generalized parton distribution (GPD) results in an additional J = 0 fixed pole contribution that violates universality. Unfortunately, one can not provide any reliable theoretical argument excluding the existence of such supplementary D-term. Moreover, the violation of J = 0 fixed pole universality was revealed in field theoretical GPD models. Therefore, J = 0 fixed pole universality hypothesis remains just an external assumption and probably will never be proven theoretically.

  18. Comparison of the Jovian north and south pole aurorae using the IUE observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, T. E.; Moos, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    New results on the spatial and temporal variability of the auroral emissions from Jupiter have been obtained from three IUE observations of the south pole made during the period July 1983 to March 1984. The current observations, together with previous IUE studies of the north pole aurora, provide convincing evidence for persistent longitudinal asymmetries in the Jovian auroral emissions. The strongest emissions appear to originate from regions centered near lambda-III of about 0 deg at the south pole and lambda-III of about 185 deg at the north pole. Differences in surface magnetic field strength seem inadequate to explain the extent to which particles precipitating along field lines into a given longitude sector in one hemisphere are inhibited from precipitating along the same field lines into the opposite hemisphere. Thus, the IUE auroral results present a challenge to existing models of auroral production.

  19. Characterizing the ear canal acoustic impedance and reflectance by pole-zero fitting.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sarah R; Nguyen, Cac T; Allen, Jont B

    2013-07-01

    This study characterizes middle ear complex acoustic reflectance (CAR) and impedance by fitting poles and zeros to real-ear measurements. The goal of this work is to establish a quantitative connection between pole-zero locations and the underlying physical properties of CAR data. Most previous studies have analyzed CAR magnitude; while the magnitude accounts for reflected power, it does not encode latency information. Thus, an analysis that studies the real and imaginary parts of the data together, being more general, should be more powerful. Pole-zero fitting of CAR data is examined using data compiled from various studies, dating back to Voss and Allen (1994). Recent CAR measurements were taken using the Mimosa Acoustics HearID system, which makes complex acoustic impedance and reflectance measurements in the ear canal over a 0.2-6.0 [kHz] frequency range. Pole-zero fits to measurements over this range are achieved with an average RMS relative error of less than 3% with 12 poles. Factoring the reflectance fit into its all-pass and minimum-phase components estimates the effect of the residual ear canal, allowing for comparison of the eardrum impedance and admittance across measurements. It was found that individual CAR magnitude variations for normal middle ears in the 1-4 [kHz] range often give rise to closely-placed pole-zero pairs, and that the locations of the poles and zeros in the s-plane may systematically differ between normal and pathological middle ears. This study establishes a methodology for examining the physical and mathematical properties of CAR using a concise parametric model. Pole-zero modeling accurately parameterizes CAR data, providing a foundation for detection and identification of middle ear pathologies. This article is part of a special issue entitled "MEMRO 2012".

  20. Study of polar faculae with north pole coverage of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Okunev, O.; Puschmann, K. G.; Kneer, F.

    We present here a description of the main characteristics of faculae at the poles of the Sun (polar faculae PFe) observed in a series of observations covering the north solar pole. Statistics of a group of these PFe are used to estimate the contrast behaviour from [mμ] = 0.6 towards the limb as well as their magnetic field. Hα is also observed to analyse the behaviour of PFe in the chromosphere.

  1. Poles of integrále tritronquée and anharmonic oscillators. A WKB approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoero, Davide

    2010-03-01

    Poles of solutions to the Painlevé-I equations are intimately related to the theory of the cubic anharmonic oscillator. In particular, poles of integrále tritronquée are in bijection with cubic oscillators that admit the simultaneous solutions of two quantization conditions. We analyze this pair of quantization conditions by means of a suitable version of the complex WKB method. Ai miei zii Ivan e Silvia.

  2. STS-47 MS Jemison extends side hatch mockup CES pole during JSC training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison extends crew escape system (CES) pole through a side hatch mockup during launch emergency egress (bailout) training in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. MS Jerome Apt (right) looks on. The crewmembers practiced extending the CES pole prior to donning their launch and entry suits (LESs) and conducting the simulation in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT).

  3. Pole-Shaped Object Detection Using Mobile LIDAR Data in Rural Road Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, M.; Husain, A.; Singh, A. K.; Lohani, B.

    2015-08-01

    Pole-shaped objects (PSOs) located along a road play key role in road safety and planning. Automation is required for calculating the numbers of trees need to be removed and utility poles need to be relocated during rural road widening. Road-side poles are among the most frequently struck road-side objects during road-side accidents. An automatic method is therefore proposed for detecting PSOs using LiDAR point cloud captured along the roadway using Mobile LiDAR system. The proposed method is tested on the point cloud data of rural road environment in India. Dataset of study area having text file size of 1.22 GB is processed in 13 minutes resulting in completeness of 88.63 % and correctness of 95.12 % in identifying PSOs within 10m of the road boundary. In data of across road coverage of 5m of the road boundary, the completeness of 93.10 % and correctness of 100% are achieved. Poles attached with other objects, tilted poles and the poles occluded by tree branches and shrubs are detected by the proposed method.

  4. Poling and characterization of a novel organic/polymer electro-optic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jinkun; Tang, Xianzhong; Lu, Rongguo; Tang, Xionggui; Li, Heping; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Yongzhi

    2010-10-01

    Electro-optic organic/polymer material is important for the fabrication of polymer integrated optic-electronic devices and organic sensors. Recently, a novel organic high μβ value chromophore FFC have been synthesized by molecular design. The absorption spectrum in 400-4000 cm-1 is measured for the material, and the measurement result shows that the absorption loss is negligibly small. An organic/polymer high electro-optic activity material FFC/PSU is obtained by dissolving guest FFC (wt. 20%) and a host polysulfone (PSU) in a solvent. The resolvability of cyclohexanone for the material is satisfactory by comparison with other solvents experimentally, and the preparation of FFC/PSU thin film is ease relatively. The materiel is poled by electric field-assisted contact poling, and the near optimum poling condition is determined by adjusting poling parameters as pre-curing duration, poling temperature and poling voltage etc. The electro-optic coefficient of the material is measured as high as 130pm/V by using the widely accepted simple reflection technique. The investigation indicates that the FFC/PSU has excellent characteristics, such as high electro-optic coefficient, low absorption loss, good thermal stability and capability for withstanding the subsequent process techniques, suitable for the fabrication of high-performance integrated optic-electronic devices and sensors.

  5. Aurora A kinase contributes to a pole-based error correction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Anna A.; Deretic, Jovana; Hoel, Christopher M.; Hinman, Albert W.; Cimini, Daniela; Welburn, Julie P.; Maresca, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chromosome biorientation, where sister kinetochores attach to microtubules (MTs) from opposing spindle poles, is the configuration that best ensures equal partitioning of the genome during cell division. Erroneous kinetochore-microtubule (kt-MT) attachments are commonplace but often corrected prior to anaphase [1, 2]. Error correction, thought to be mediated primarily by the centromere-enriched Aurora B kinase (ABK) [3-5], typically occurs near spindle poles [6]; albeit, the relevance of this locale is unclear. Furthermore, polar ejection forces (PEFs), highest near poles [7], can stabilize improper attachments by pushing mal-oriented chromosome arms away from spindle poles [8, 9]. Hence, a conundrum: erroneous kt-MT attachments are weakened where PEFs are most likely to strengthen them. Here, we report that Aurora A kinase (AAK) opposes the stabilizing effect of PEFs. AAK activity contributes to phosphorylation of kinetochore substrates near poles and its inhibition results in chromosome mis-alignment and an increased incidence of erroneous kt-MT attachments. Furthermore, AAK directly phosphorylates a site in the N-terminal tail of Ndc80/Hec1 that has been implicated in reducing the affinity of the Ndc80 complex for MTs when phosphorylated [10-12]. We propose that an AAK activity gradient contributes to correcting mal-oriented kt-MT attachments in the vicinity of spindle poles. PMID:26166783

  6. [Do histologic changes of the upper renal pole in double ectopic ureterocele justify a conservative approach?].

    PubMed

    Arena, F; Nicotina, P A; Cruccetti, A; Centonze, A; Arena, S; Romeo, G

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the histology of the upper pole segment in patients with duplex ectopic ureterocele to verify if a less aggressive surgery is justified in the prenatally diagnosed patients. We reviewed the histology of the upper pole segment of 15 consecutive patients with duplex system ectopic ureterocele treated between 1991 and 1999 at the Paediatric Surgery Unit of University Hospital of Messina. The diagnosis of duplex system ectopic ureterocele was made according to the criteria of the Section on Urology of the American Academy of Paediatrics. The histology specimens were assessed for dysplastic, inflammatory and obstructive changes. All 15 patients with duplex system ectopic ureterocele were surgically treated with heminephro-ureterectomy and the surgical specimens were histologically examined. Nine of the 15 patients were prenatally diagnosed. The histology of the upper pole segment of the 9 prenatally diagnosed showed in all patients segmental renal microcystic dysplasia, chondroid metaplasic islands and an inflammatory tubulo-interstitial nephropathy in 6 patients (66.6%) and in 2 (22.2%) nephroblastomatosis. The histology of six the postnatal postnatally diagnosed patients showed in all patients segmental multicystic renal dysplasia, inflammatory tubulo-interstitial nephropathy and segmental parenchymal scars. The upper pole histology of the patients with duplex ectopic ureterocele diagnosed prenatally did not show any evidence of reversible histological change. Considering the histology and the good outcome of patients treated with upper pole nephroureterectomy a less aggressive surgery with preservation of the upper pole does not seem justified.

  7. Environmental effects of supplemental wood preservative treatments of electric utility poles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, M.E.

    1995-12-01

    A field study and associated risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the potential ecological and human health impacts related to the standard application of five supplemental wood preservatives to 20 electric utility transmission poles. Post-application monitoring for chemical residuals and microbiological effects was conducted over a 17 month post-application period (June 6, 1990--November 7, 1991). The utility wood poles in the study were located in wetland sites of the New York State Adirondack Park. All poles were western red cedar and all had been treated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) prior to installation. At the time supplemental preservatives were applied, the poles had been in service for approximately 40 years. Groundwater, surface water, and soil around each treated pole were monitored for release of active ingredients, organic carriers and subsequent degradation products of the commercial wood preservatives. The analytes were as follows: chlorpyrifos, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, creosote, 2,4-dinitrophenol, fluoride, chromium, arsenic, copper, naphthenate, sodium methyl dithiocarbamate and methyl isothiocyanate. Ecological response to chemical exposure was estimated by means of measuring soil gases (carbon dioxide and methane), soil macroinvertebrate populations and soil microbial biomass. Results from near-pole post-treatment sampling were compared to pre-treatment samples and reference plots used to establish preapplication biological conditions and background levels of wood preservative constituents.

  8. Piezoelectric and dielectric characterization of corona and contact poled PZT-epoxy-MWCNT bulk composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, S.; Cook-Chennault, K. A.; Du, W.; Sundar, U.; Halim, H.; Tang, A.

    2016-11-01

    Three-phase lead zirconate titanate (PZT, PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3)-epoxy-multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) bulk composites were prepared, where the volume fraction of PZT was held constant at 30%, while the volume fraction of the MWCNTs was varied from 1.0%-10%. The samples were poled using either a parallel plate contact or contactless (corona) poling technique. The piezoelectric strain coefficient (d 33), dielectric constant (ɛ), and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) of the samples were measured at 110 Hz, and compared as a function of poling technique and volume fraction of MWCNTs. The highest values for dielectric constant and piezoelectric strain coefficients were 465.82 and 18.87 pC/N for MWCNT volume fractions of 10% and 6%, respectively. These values were obtained for samples that were poled using the corona contactless method. The impedance and dielectric spectra of the composites were recorded over a frequency range of 100 Hz-20 MHz. The impedance values observed for parallel-plate contact poled samples are higher than that of corona poled composites. The fractured surface morphology and distribution of the PZT particles and MWCNTs were observed with the aid of electron dispersion spectroscopy and a scanning electron microscope. The surface morphology of the MWCNTs was observed with the aid of a field emission transmission electron microscope.

  9. Aurora A Kinase Contributes to a Pole-Based Error Correction Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ye, Anna A; Deretic, Jovana; Hoel, Christopher M; Hinman, Albert W; Cimini, Daniela; Welburn, Julie P; Maresca, Thomas J

    2015-07-20

    Chromosome biorientation, where sister kinetochores attach to microtubules (MTs) from opposing spindle poles, is the configuration that best ensures equal partitioning of the genome during cell division. Erroneous kinetochore-MT attachments are commonplace but are often corrected prior to anaphase. Error correction, thought to be mediated primarily by the centromere-enriched Aurora B kinase (ABK), typically occurs near spindle poles; however, the relevance of this locale is unclear. Furthermore, polar ejection forces (PEFs), highest near poles, can stabilize improper attachments by pushing mal-oriented chromosome arms away from spindle poles. Hence, there is a conundrum: erroneous kinetochore-MT attachments are weakened where PEFs are most likely to strengthen them. Here, we report that Aurora A kinase (AAK) opposes the stabilizing effect of PEFs. AAK activity contributes to phosphorylation of kinetochore substrates near poles and its inhibition results in chromosome misalignment and an increased incidence of erroneous kinetochore-MT attachments. Furthermore, AAK directly phosphorylates a site in the N-terminal tail of Ndc80/Hec1 that has been implicated in reducing the affinity of the Ndc80 complex for MTs when phosphorylated. We propose that an AAK activity gradient contributes to correcting mal-oriented kinetochore-MT attachments in the vicinity of spindle poles.

  10. Freshwater Variability between Ellesmere Island and the North Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smethie, W. M.; Schlosser, P.; Newton, R.; Friedrich, R.; Steele, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Switchyard Project has established a time series of CTD and chemical measurements between Ellesmere Island and the North Pole and annual observations have been taken since 2005 to the present. The total freshwater inventory and inventories of the freshwater components (meteoric water [MEW], sea-ice melt water [SIMW] and inflow from the Pacific Ocean [PFW]) are determined from measurements of temperature, salinity, delta O-18, nitrate and phosphate, each year. The total inventory has varied by about 5 m between 2005 and 2013, which is about 50% of the lowest inventory. The total inventory was fairly stable between 2003 - 2007, then increased dramatically between 2007 and 2008 and again between 2008 and 2009. It then decreased between 2009 and 2011 and increased from 2011 to 2013. The increase between 2007 and 2008 resulted primarily from an increase in MEW tempered by decreases in SIMW and PFW. Back tracks of ice flow suggested that these waters came from the Russian continental shelves via the Transpolar Drift along the Lomonosov Ridge. The continued freshening in 2009 corresponded with a change is the large scale circulation of the Canada Basin with a weakening of the Beaufort Gyre and expulsion of freshwater, which included water from the large sea ice melting event of 2007. SIMW accounted for about two-thirds of the freshening. Ice back tracks suggest that water flowed out of the Beaufort Sea in an anticylonic pattern and crossed the Canada Basin along the Mendelev Ridge to reach the Lincoln Sea with a transport time of 2-3 years. The freshwater decrease between 2010 and 2011 was the result of a 70% decrease in SIMW and 30% decrease in MEW and the ice track flow pattern had shifted back to the pattern prior to 2009. The source of freshwater for the increase in freshwater inventory between 2011 and 2013 was MEW. PFW retreated to the continental shelf of Ellesmere Island, decreasing by about 30% and SIMW decreased to more negative values indicating water

  11. Faculae at the poles of the Sun revisited: infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Kneer, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: This study extends earlier investigations on faculae and their small-scale magnetic fields near the solar poles (polar faculae - PFe) to measurements of the magnetically sensitive infrared (IR) Fe I lines at 1.5 μm, which provide more accurate information about the magnetic field than lines in the visible spectral range. Methods: PFe were observed with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP II) mounted at the Vacuum Tower Telescope/Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife. Several areas at various heliocentric angles were scanned. Faculae near the solar equator (equatorial faculae - EFe) were also observed for comparison with PFe. The full Stokes vector of the Fe I line pair at 1.5 μm was measured. The magnetic field properties were determined (1) from the centre of gravity (COG); (2) with the weak field approximation (WFA); (3) assuming the strong field regime (SFR); and (4) with inversions under the hypothesis of Milne-Eddington (ME) atmospheres. Line-of-sight (LOS) velocities were determined from the COG of I profiles and from the zero-crossing of the V profiles. Results: The main findings of this work can be divided in five parts: (1) the detected PFe do not harbour sufficient magnetic flux to account for the global flux observed with other methods. (2) Near the solar limb, the apparent, measured transversal field components are most times stronger than the longitudinal components by factors of up to 10 for both PFe and EFe, as found from observations with HINODE SOT. (3) Many PFe indeed harbour kilo-G magnetic fields. Of those, more than 85% possess the same magnetic polarity as the global field. The inclinations γ of the strong fields, \\vert B\\vert≥ 900 G in the SFR, are compatible with their vertical emergence from the solar surface. (4) The results for weaker fields, \\vert B\\vert≤ 600 G from ME inversions, indicate a random magnetic field orientation. (5) The velocities from I profiles and V zero-crossings are in average 0.3 km s-1 towards observer

  12. Interpreting Radar View near Mars' South Pole, Orbit 1334

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    A radargram from the Shallow Subsurface Radar instrument (SHARAD) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is shown in the upper-right panel and reveals detailed structure in the polar layered deposits of the south pole of Mars.

    The sounding radar collected the data presented here during orbit 1334 of the mission, on Nov. 8, 2006.

    The horizontal scale in the radargram is distance along the ground track. It can be referenced to the ground track map shown in the lower right. The radar traversed from about 75 to 85 degrees south latitude, or about 590 kilometers (370 miles). The ground track map shows elevation measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Green indicates low elevation; reddish-white indicates higher elevation. The traverse proceeds up onto a plateau formed by the layers.

    The vertical scale on the radargram is time delay of the radar signals reflected back to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter from the surface and subsurface. For reference, using an assumed velocity of the radar waves in the subsurface, time is converted to depth below the surface at one place: about 1,500 meters (5,000 feet) to one of the deeper subsurface reflectors. The color scale varies from black for weak reflections to white for strong reflections.

    The middle panel shows mapping of the major subsurface reflectors, some of which can be traced for a distance of 100 kilometers (60 miles) or more. The layers are not all horizontal and the reflectors are not always parallel to one another. Some of this is due to variations in surface elevation, which produce differing velocity path lengths for different reflector depths. However, some of this behavior is due to spatial variations in the deposition and removal of material in the layered deposits, a result of the recent climate history of Mars.

    The Shallow Subsurface Radar was provided by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). Its operations are led by the University of Rome and its

  13. Interpreting Radar View near Mars' South Pole, Orbit 1360

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    A radargram from the Shallow Subsurface Radar instrument (SHARAD) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is shown in the upper-right panel and reveals detailed structure in the polar layered deposits of the south pole of Mars.

    The sounding radar collected the data presented here during orbit 1360 of the mission, on Nov. 10, 2006.

    The horizontal scale in the radargram is distance along the ground track. It can be referenced to the ground track map shown in the lower right. The radar traversed from about 74 degrees to 85 degrees south latitude, or about 650 kilometers (400 miles). The ground track map shows elevation measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Green indicates low elevation; reddish-white indicates higher elevation. The traverse proceeds up onto a plateau formed by the layers.

    The vertical scale on the radargram is time delay of the radar signals reflected back to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter from the surface and subsurface. For reference, using an assumed velocity of the radar waves in the subsurface, time is converted to depth below the surface at one place: about 800 meters (2,600 feet) to one of the strongest subsurface reflectors. This reflector marks the base of the polar layered deposits. The color scale varies from black for weak reflections to white for strong reflections.

    The middle panel shows mapping of the major subsurface reflectors, some of which can be traced for a distance of 100 kilometers (60 miles) or more. The layering manifests the recent climate history of Mars, recorded by the deposition and removal of ice and dust.

    The Shallow Subsurface Radar was provided by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). Its operations are led by the University of Rome and its data are analyzed by a joint U.S.-Italian science team. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for the NASA Science

  14. Temperature retrieval at the southern pole of the Venusian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garate-Lopez, Itziar; Garcia-Munoz, A.; Hueso, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2013-10-01

    Venus’ thermal radiation spectrum is punctuated by CO2 bands of various strengths probing into different atmospheric depths. It is thus possible to invert measured spectra of thermal radiation to infer atmospheric temperature profiles. VIRTIS-M observations of Venus in the 3-5 µm range allow us to study the night time thermal structure of the planet’s upper troposphere and lower mesosphere from 50 to 105 km [1, 2]. Building a forward radiative transfer model that solves the radiative transfer equation for the atmosphere on a line-by-line basis, we confirmed that aerosol scattering must be taken into account and we studied the impact of factors such as cloud opacity, and the size, composition and vertical distribution of aerosols [3]. The cloud top altitude and aerosol scale height have a notable impact on the spectrum. However, their weighting function matrices have similar structures contributing to the degeneracy of the temperature retrieval algorithm [2]. Our retrieval code is focused on the strong 4.3µm CO2 band, which enables the determination of the thermal profile above the cloud top, and based on the algorithm proposed by Grassi et al. (2008) in their equation (2). We present temperature maps for the south pole of Venus, where a highly variable vortex is observed. We aim to combine these maps with our previously measured velocity fields from the same VIRTIS-M infrared images [4], in order to infer the potential vorticity distribution for different vortex configurations and to improve the understanding of its unpredictable character and its role in the general atmospheric circulation. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN projects AYA2009-10701 and AYA2012-36666 with FEDER funds, by Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-765-13 and by Universidad País Vasco UPV/EHU through program UFI11/55. IGL and AGM gratefully acknowledge ESA/RSSD for hospitality and access to ‘The Grid’ computing resources. References [1] Roos-Serote, M., et al

  15. Periods, poles, and shapes of Saturn's irregular moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    We report rotational-lightcurve observations of irregular moons of Saturn based on disk-integrated observations with the Narrow-Angle Camera of the Cassini spacecraft. From 24 measured rotation periods, 20 are now known with an accuracy of ~2% or better. The numbers are as follows (in hours; an '*' marks the less reliable periods): Hati 5.42; Mundilfari 6.74; Loge 6.94*; Skoll 7.26; Kari 7.70; Suttungr 7.82*, Bergelmir 8.13; Phoebe 9.274; Siarnaq 10.188; Narvi 10.21; Tarvos 10.69; Skathi 11.30; Ymir 11.922; Hyrrokkin 12.76; Greip 12.79*; Ijiraq 13.03; Albiorix 13.32; Bestla 14.624; Bebhionn 16.40; Paaliaq 18.75; Kiviuq 21.96; Erriapus 28.15; Thrymr 35 or >45* Tarqeq 76.8.More recent data strengthen the notion that objects in orbits with an inclination supplemental angle i' > 27° have significantly slower spin rates than those at i' < 27° (i' = 180°-i for retrograde objects, and i' = i for prograde moons, with i being the orbit inclination). Actually, the fastest rotator with i' > 27°, Siarnaq, stands opposed to at least eight objects with faster spins and i' < 27°. A null hypothesis claiming that objects of the two inclination bins come from the same population is rejected at the 99% confidence level. The i' > 27° bin contains all nine known prograde moons and four retrograde objects.A total of 25 out of 38 known outer moons has been observed with Cassini, and there is no chance to observe the 13 missing objects until end-of-mission. However, all unobserved objects are part of the i' < 27° bin. This means that the periods of all known moons with i' > 27° are known, and none of them is a fast rotator, with no exception.Several objects were observed repeatedly to determine pole directions, sidereal periods, and convex shapes. A few lightcurves have been observed to show three maxima and three minima even at low phase angles, suggesting objects with a triangular equatorial cross-section. Some objects with 2 maxima/ 2 minima are probably quite elongated. One

  16. Sample Return Mission to the South Pole Aitken Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, M. B.; Clark, B. C.; Gamber, T.; Lucey, P. G.; Ryder, G.; Taylor, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    The South Pole Aitken Basin (SPA) is the largest and oldest observed feature on the Moon. Compositional and topographic data from Galileo, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector have demonstrated that SPA represents a distinctive major lunar terrane, which has not been sampled either by sample return missions (Apollo, Luna) or by lunar meteorites. The floor of SPA is characterized by mafic compositions enriched in Fe, Ti, and Th in comparison to its surroundings. This composition may represent melt rocks from the SPA event, which would be mixtures of the preexisting crust and mantle rocks. However, the Fe content is higher than expected, and the large Apollo basin, within SPA, exposes deeper material with lower iron content. Some of the Fe enrichment may represent mare and cryptomare deposits. No model adequately accounts for all of the characteristics of the SPA and disagreements are fundamental. Is mantle material exposed or contained as fragments in melt rock and breccias? If impact melt is present, did the vast sheet differentiate? Was the initial mantle and crust compositionally different from other regions of the Moon? Was the impact event somehow peculiar, (e.g., a low-velocity impact)? The precise time of formation of the SPA is unknown, being limited only by the initial differentiation of the Moon and the age of the Imbrium event, believed to be 3.9 b.y. The questions raised by the SPA can be addressed only with detailed sample analysis. Analysis of the melt rocks, fragments in breccias, and basalts of SPA can address several highly significant problems for the Moon and the history of the solar system. The time of formation of SPA, based on analysis of melt rocks formed in the event. would put limits on the period of intense bombardment of the Moon, which has been inferred by some to include a "terminal cataclysm." If close to 3.9 Ga, the presumed age of the Imbrium Basin, the SPA date would confirm the lunar cataclysm. This episode, if it occurred, would have

  17. Evolution of the Far-Infrared Cloud at Titan's South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Kunde, V. G.; Carlson, R. C.; Guandique, E.; Kaelberer, M. S.; Tingley, J. S.; Albright, S. A.; Segura, M. E.; de Kok, R.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Bampasidis, G.; Teanby, N. A.; Calcutt, S.

    2015-01-01

    A condensate cloud on Titan identified by its 220 cm-1 far-infrared signature continues to undergo seasonal changes at both the north and south poles. In the north, the cloud, which extends from 55 N to the pole, has been gradually decreasing in emission intensity since the beginning of the Cassini mission with a half-life of 3.8 years. The cloud in the south did not appear until 2012 but its intensity has increased rapidly, doubling every year. The shape of the cloud at the south pole is very different from that in the north. Mapping in 2013 December showed that the condensate emission was confined to a ring with a maximum at 80 S. The ring was centered 4deg from Titan's pole. The pattern of emission from stratospheric trace gases like nitriles and complex hydrocarbons (mapped in 2014 January) was also offset by 4deg, but had a central peak at the pole and a secondary maximum in a ring at about 70 S with a minimum at 80 S. The shape of the gas emission distribution can be explained by abundances that are high at the atmospheric pole and diminish toward the equator, combined with correspondingly increasing temperatures. We discuss possible causes for the condensate ring. The present rapid build up of the condensate cloud at the south pole is likely to transition to a gradual decline from 2015 to 2016. Key words: molecular processes - planets and satellites: atmospheres - planets and satellites: composition - planets and satellites: individual (Titan) - radiation mechanisms: thermal

  18. Load carriage energy expenditure with and without hiking poles during inclined walking.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, B H; Wright, T; Dugan, B

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare load carriage energy expenditure with and without using hiking poles. Twenty male volunteers aged 20-48yr (Mean=29.8yr) completed two randomly ordered submaximal treadmill trials with poles (E) and without poles (C). Poles and load (15 kg backpack) were fitted for each subject according to the manufacturers' suggestions. Heart rates (HR), minute ventilation (V(E)), oxygen consumption (O2), caloric expenditure (Kcal), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded at the end of each minute. Two trials separated by one week consisted of a constant treadmill speed of 1.5 mph and 1 min at 10% grade, 2 min at 15% grade, 2 min at 20% grade, and 10 min. at 25% grade. Mean HR (E = 144.8 +/- 24.4 b x min(-1); C = 144.0 +/- 25.7 b x min(-1)) and mean V(E) (E=51.4 +/- 15.8L x min(-1); C=50.8 +/- 17.0L x min(-1)), VO2 (E = 26.9 +/- 6.1 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); C = 27.4 +/- 6.6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)), and Kcal (E = 10.6 +/- 2.9 Kcal x min(-1); C = 10.8 +/- 3.1 Kcal x min(-1)) were not significantly different between the two conditions. RPE (E = 13.28 +/- 1.2; C = 14.56 +/- 1.2) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) with hiking poles. Analysis of paired time points yielded no significant differences in HR, VO2, V(E), and Kcal, however, RPE means were significantly lower for 5 of the last 7 trial minutes with the use of poles. These results suggest that during load carriage on moderate grade, the weight and use of hiking poles does not increase energy expenditure but may provide reduced perceptions of physical exertion.

  19. Springtime Dust Storm Swirls at Martian North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    previously either in ground-based or spacecraft observation. The snow line marking the edge of the cap receded northward by approximately 120 miles (200 kilometers), while the distance to the Red Planet narrowed to 170 million miles (275 million kilometers).

    Technical notes: To help compare locations and sizes of features, map projections (right of each disk) are centered on the geographic north pole. Maps are oriented with 0 degrees longitude at the top and show meridians every 45 degrees of longitude (longitude increases clockwise); latitude circles are also shown for 40, 60, and 80 degrees north latitude. The color images were assembled from separate exposures taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http:// oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  20. The 1500m South Pole Ice Core: Recovering a 40 Ka Environmental Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, Kimberly Ann; Neumann, Thomas Allen; Fudge, T. J.; Neumann, T. A.; Steig, E. J.; Cavitte, M. G. P.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2014-01-01

    Supported by the US National Science Foundation, a new 1500 m, approximately 40 ka old ice core will be recovered from South Pole during the 2014/15 and 2015/16 austral summer seasons using the new US Intermediate Depth Drill. The combination of low temperatures, relatively high accumulation rates and low impurity concentrations at South Pole will yield detailed records of ice chemistry and trace atmospheric gases. The South Pole ice core will provide a climate history record of a unique area of the East Antarctic plateau that is partly influenced by weather systems that cross the West Antarctic ice sheet. The ice at South Pole flows at approximately 10m a(exp-1) and the South Pole ice-core site is a significant distance from an ice divide. Therefore, ice recovered at depth originated progressively farther upstream of the coring site. New ground-penetrating radar collected over the drill site location shows no anthropogenic influence over the past approximately 50 years or upper 15 m. Depth-age scale modeling results show consistent and plausible annual-layer thicknesses and accumulation rate histories, indicating that no significant stratigraphic disturbances exist in the upper 1500m near the ice-core drill site.

  1. Integrating models and data to estimate the structural reliability of utility poles during hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Ryong; Rosowsky, David; Guikema, Seth

    2014-06-01

    Utility systems such as power and communication systems regularly experience significant damage and loss of service during hurricanes. A primary damage mode for these systems is failure of wooden utility poles that support conductors and communication lines. In this article, we present an approach for combining structural reliability models for utility poles with observed data on pole performance during past hurricanes. This approach, based on Bayesian updating, starts from an imperfect but informative prior and updates this prior with observed performance data. We consider flexural and foundation failure mechanisms in the prior, acknowledging that these are an incomplete, but still informative, subset of the possible failure mechanisms for utility poles during hurricanes. We show how a model-based prior can be updated with observed failure data, using pole failure data from Hurricane Katrina as a case study. The results of this integration of model-based estimates and observed performance data then offer a more informative starting point for power system performance estimation for hurricane conditions.

  2. The December 2015 North Pole Warming Event and the Increasing Occurrence of Such Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G. W. K.

    2016-12-01

    In late December 2015, widespread media interest revolved around forecasts that the surface air temperature at the North Pole would rise above freezing. Although there has been significant interest in the enhanced warming that is occurring at high northern latitudes, a process known as arctic amplification, remarkably little is known about these midwinter warming events at the pole including their frequency, duration and magnitude as well as the environmental conditions responsible for their occurrence. Here we use buoy and radiosonde data along with operational weather forecasts and atmospheric reanalyses to show that such events are associated with surface cyclones near the pole as well as a highly perturbed polar vortex. They occur once or twice each decade with the earliest identified event taking place in 1959. In addition, the warmest midwinter temperatures at the North Pole have been increasing at a rate that is twice as large as that for mean midwinter temperatures at the pole. It is argued that this enhanced trend is consistent with the loss of winter sea ice from the Nordic Seas that moves the reservoir of warm air over this region northwards making it easier for weather systems to transport this heat polewards.

  3. Lunar Pole Illumination and Communications Statistics Computed from GSSR Elevation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System RADAR (GSSR) group at JPL produced a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the lunar south pole using data obtained in 2006. This model has 40-meter horizontal resolution and about 5-meter relative vertical accuracy. This paper uses that Digital Elevation Model to compute average solar illumination and Earth visibility near the lunar south pole. This data quantifies solar power and Earth communications resources at proposed lunar base locations. The elevation data were converted into local terrain horizon masks, then converted into selenographic latitude and longitude coordinates. The horizon masks were compared to latitude, longitude regions bounding the maximum Sun and Earth motions relative to the moon. Proposed lunar south pole base sites were examined in detail, with the best site showing multi-year averages of solar power availability of 92% and Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communication availability of about 50%. Results are compared with a theoretical model, and with actual sun and Earth visibility averaged over the years 2009 to 2028. Results for the lunar North pole were computed using the GSSR DEM of the lunar North pole produced in 1997. The paper also explores using a heliostat to reduce the photovoltaic power system mass and complexity.

  4. Can histologic changes of the upper pole justify a conservative approach in neonatal duplex ectopic ureterocele?

    PubMed

    Arena, F; Nicotina, A; Cruccetti, A; Centonze, A; Arena, S; Romeo, G

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review the histology of the upper-pole segment in patients with duplex-system ectopic ureterocele (DEU) to determine if less aggressive surgery is justified in prenatally-diagnosed cases. The study included 15 consecutive patients with DEU treated between 1991 and 1999. The diagnosis was made according to the criteria of the Section on Urology of the American Academy of Pediatrics. The histology specimens were assessed for dysplastic, inflammatory, and obstructive changes. All 15 patients were surgically treated by heminephro-ureterectomy and the surgical specimens were histologically examined. Nine cases were diagnosed prenatally; the histology of the upper-pole segment in these patients showed segmental renal microcystic dysplasia, chondroid metaplasic islands, and an inflammatory tubulointerstitial nephropathy in 6 (66.6%) and nephroblastomatosis in 2 (22.2%). The histology of the 6 postnatally-diagnosed patients showed segmental multicystic renal dysplasia, inflammatory tubulo-interstitial nephropathy, and segmental parenchymal scars. The upper-pole histology of the prenatally-diagnosed patients did not show any evidence of reversible histologic changes. Considering this findings and the good outcome of patients treated with upper-pole nephroureterectomy, less aggressive surgery with preservation of the upper pole does not seem justified.

  5. zic-1 Expression in Planarian neoblasts after injury controls anterior pole regeneration.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Doorman, Constanza; Petersen, Christian P

    2014-07-01

    Mechanisms that enable injury responses to prompt regenerative outgrowth are not well understood. Planarians can regenerate essentially any tissue removed by wounding, even after decapitation, due to robust regulation of adult pluripotent stem cells of the neoblast population. Formation of pole signaling centers involving Wnt inhibitors or Wnt ligands promotes head or tail regeneration, respectively, and this process requires the use of neoblasts early after injury. We used expression profiling of purified neoblasts to identify factors needed for anterior pole formation. Using this approach, we identified zic-1, a Zic-family transcription factor, as transcriptionally activated in a subpopulation of neoblasts near wound sites early in head regeneration. As head regeneration proceeds, the Wnt inhibitor notum becomes expressed in the newly forming anterior pole in zic-1-expressing cells descended from neoblasts. Inhibition of zic-1 by RNAi resulted in a failure to express notum at the anterior pole and to regenerate a head, but did not affect tail regeneration. Both injury and canonical Wnt signaling inhibition are required for zic-1 expression, and double-RNAi experiments suggest zic-1 inhibits Wnt signaling to allow head regeneration. Analysis of neoblast fate determinants revealed that zic-1 controls specification of notum-expressing cells from foxD-expressing neoblasts to form the anterior pole, which organizes subsequent outgrowth. Specialized differentiation programs may in general underlie injury-dependent formation of tissue organizing centers used for regenerative outgrowth.

  6. Pole coordinates data prediction by combination of least squares extrapolation and double autoregressive prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosek, Wieslaw

    2016-04-01

    Future Earth Orientation Parameters data are needed to compute real time transformation between the celestial and terrestrial reference frames. This transformation is realized by predictions of x, y pole coordinates data, UT1-UTC data and precesion-nutation extrapolation model. This paper is focused on the pole coordinates data prediction by combination of the least-squares (LS) extrapolation and autoregressive (AR) prediction models (LS+AR). The AR prediction which is applied to the LS extrapolation residuals of pole coordinates data does not able to predict all frequency bands of them and it is mostly tuned to predict subseasonal oscillations. The absolute values of differences between pole coordinates data and their LS+AR predictions increase with prediction length and depend mostly on starting prediction epochs, thus time series of these differences for 2, 4 and 8 weeks in the future were analyzed. Time frequency spectra of these differences for different prediction lengths are very similar showing some power in the frequency band corresponding to the prograde Chandler and annual oscillations, which means that the increase of prediction errors is caused by mismodelling of these oscillations by the LS extrapolation model. Thus, the LS+AR prediction method can be modified by taking into additional AR prediction correction computed from time series of these prediction differences for different prediction lengths. This additional AR prediction is mostly tuned to the seasonal frequency band of pole coordinates data.

  7. zic-1 Expression in Planarian Neoblasts after Injury Controls Anterior Pole Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Doorman, Constanza; Petersen, Christian P.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms that enable injury responses to prompt regenerative outgrowth are not well understood. Planarians can regenerate essentially any tissue removed by wounding, even after decapitation, due to robust regulation of adult pluripotent stem cells of the neoblast population. Formation of pole signaling centers involving Wnt inhibitors or Wnt ligands promotes head or tail regeneration, respectively, and this process requires the use of neoblasts early after injury. We used expression profiling of purified neoblasts to identify factors needed for anterior pole formation. Using this approach, we identified zic-1, a Zic-family transcription factor, as transcriptionally activated in a subpopulation of neoblasts near wound sites early in head regeneration. As head regeneration proceeds, the Wnt inhibitor notum becomes expressed in the newly forming anterior pole in zic-1-expressing cells descended from neoblasts. Inhibition of zic-1 by RNAi resulted in a failure to express notum at the anterior pole and to regenerate a head, but did not affect tail regeneration. Both injury and canonical Wnt signaling inhibition are required for zic-1 expression, and double-RNAi experiments suggest zic-1 inhibits Wnt signaling to allow head regeneration. Analysis of neoblast fate determinants revealed that zic-1 controls specification of notum-expressing cells from foxD-expressing neoblasts to form the anterior pole, which organizes subsequent outgrowth. Specialized differentiation programs may in general underlie injury-dependent formation of tissue organizing centers used for regenerative outgrowth. PMID:24992682

  8. The December 2015 North Pole Warming Event and the Increasing Occurrence of Such Events

    PubMed Central

    Moore, G. W. K.

    2016-01-01

    In late December 2015, widespread media interest revolved around forecasts that the surface air temperature at the North Pole would rise above freezing. Although there has been significant interest in the enhanced warming that is occurring at high northern latitudes, a process known as arctic amplification, remarkably little is known about these midwinter warming events at the pole including their frequency, duration and magnitude as well as the environmental conditions responsible for their occurrence. Here we use buoy and radiosonde data along with operational weather forecasts and atmospheric reanalyses to show that such events are associated with surface cyclones near the pole as well as a highly perturbed polar vortex. They occur once or twice each decade with the earliest identified event taking place in 1959. In addition, the warmest midwinter temperatures at the North Pole have been increasing at a rate that is twice as large as that for mean midwinter temperatures at the pole. It is argued that this enhanced trend is consistent with the loss of winter sea ice from the Nordic Seas that moves the reservoir of warm air over this region northwards making it easier for weather systems to transport this heat polewards. PMID:27976745

  9. Cu, Cr and As distribution in soils adjacent to pressure-treated decks, fences and poles.

    PubMed

    Chirenje, Tait; Ma, L Q; Clark, C; Reeves, M

    2003-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood has been widely used in the Southeastern United States to protect wood products from microbial and fungal decay. The aims of this study were to (1). determine the distribution of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu), in soils surrounding CCA-treated wood structures such as decks, fences and poles; and (2). evaluate the impacts of these structures on As, Cr and Cu loading of the soils. Profile and lateral soil samples were collected under CCA-treated decks and adjacent to poles and fences. The results showed elevation of As, Cr and Cu concentrations close to and under the structures, with mean As concentrations as high as 23 mg x kg(-1) close to utility poles compared with less than 3 mg x kg (-1) at distances of about 1.5 m away. Concentrations of As, Cr, and Cu decreased with depth in areas close to CCA-treated poles. However, these results were only apparent in relatively new structures. A combination of weathering and leaching with time may have reduced the impact in older poles. Increased concentrations of As, Cu and Cr were also observed close to CCA-treated decks and fences, with age showing a similar impact. These results are helpful for CCA-treated wood product users to determine the safe use of these structures.

  10. The December 2015 North Pole Warming Event and the Increasing Occurrence of Such Events.

    PubMed

    Moore, G W K

    2016-12-15

    In late December 2015, widespread media interest revolved around forecasts that the surface air temperature at the North Pole would rise above freezing. Although there has been significant interest in the enhanced warming that is occurring at high northern latitudes, a process known as arctic amplification, remarkably little is known about these midwinter warming events at the pole including their frequency, duration and magnitude as well as the environmental conditions responsible for their occurrence. Here we use buoy and radiosonde data along with operational weather forecasts and atmospheric reanalyses to show that such events are associated with surface cyclones near the pole as well as a highly perturbed polar vortex. They occur once or twice each decade with the earliest identified event taking place in 1959. In addition, the warmest midwinter temperatures at the North Pole have been increasing at a rate that is twice as large as that for mean midwinter temperatures at the pole. It is argued that this enhanced trend is consistent with the loss of winter sea ice from the Nordic Seas that moves the reservoir of warm air over this region northwards making it easier for weather systems to transport this heat polewards.

  11. South-polar features on Venus similar to those near the north pole.

    PubMed

    Piccioni, G; Drossart, P; Sanchez-Lavega, A; Hueso, R; Taylor, F W; Wilson, C F; Grassi, D; Zasova, L; Moriconi, M; Adriani, A; Lebonnois, S; Coradini, A; Bézard, B; Angrilli, F; Arnold, G; Baines, K H; Bellucci, G; Benkhoff, J; Bibring, J P; Blanco, A; Blecka, M I; Carlson, R W; Di Lellis, A; Encrenaz, T; Erard, S; Fonti, S; Formisano, V; Fouchet, T; Garcia, R; Haus, R; Helbert, J; Ignatiev, N I; Irwin, P G J; Langevin, Y; Lopez-Valverde, M A; Luz, D; Marinangeli, L; Orofino, V; Rodin, A V; Roos-Serote, M C; Saggin, B; Stam, D M; Titov, D; Visconti, G; Zambelli, M; Ammannito, Eleonora; Barbis, Alessandra; Berlin, Rainer; Bettanini, Carlo; Boccaccini, Angelo; Bonnello, Guillaume; Bouye, Marc; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Moinelo, Alejandro Cardesin; Carraro, Francesco; Cherubini, Giovanni; Cosi, Massimo; Dami, Michele; De Nino, Maurizio; Del Vento, Davide; Di Giampietro, Marco; Donati, Alessandro; Dupuis, Olivier; Espinasse, Sylvie; Fabbri, Anna; Fave, Agnes; Veltroni, Iacopo Ficai; Filacchione, Gianrico; Garceran, Katia; Ghomchi, Yamina; Giustini, Maurizio; Gondet, Brigitte; Hello, Yann; Henry, Florence; Hofer, Stefan; Huntzinger, Gerard; Kachlicki, Juergen; Knoll, René; Driss, Kouach; Mazzoni, Alessandro; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Mondello, Giuseppe; Monti, Francesco; Neumann, Christian; Nuccilli, Fabrizio; Parisot, Jerome; Pasqui, Claudio; Perferi, Stefano; Peter, Gisbert; Piacentino, Alain; Pompei, Carlo; Reess, Jean-Michel; Rivet, Jean-Pierre; Romano, Antonio; Russ, Natalie; Santoni, Massimo; Scarpelli, Adelmo; Semery, Alain; Soufflot, Alain; Stefanovitch, Douchane; Suetta, Enrico; Tarchi, Fabio; Tonetti, Nazzareno; Tosi, Federico; Ulmer, Bernd

    2007-11-29

    Venus has no seasons, slow rotation and a very massive atmosphere, which is mainly carbon dioxide with clouds primarily of sulphuric acid droplets. Infrared observations by previous missions to Venus revealed a bright 'dipole' feature surrounded by a cold 'collar' at its north pole. The polar dipole is a 'double-eye' feature at the centre of a vast vortex that rotates around the pole, and is possibly associated with rapid downwelling. The polar cold collar is a wide, shallow river of cold air that circulates around the polar vortex. One outstanding question has been whether the global circulation was symmetric, such that a dipole feature existed at the south pole. Here we report observations of Venus' south-polar region, where we have seen clouds with morphology much like those around the north pole, but rotating somewhat faster than the northern dipole. The vortex may extend down to the lower cloud layers that lie at about 50 km height and perhaps deeper. The spectroscopic properties of the clouds around the south pole are compatible with a sulphuric acid composition.

  12. Assessment of wood utility pole climbability using psychophysical and mechanical measurements.

    PubMed

    Beauchamps, Y; Thomas, M; Arteau, J; Marchand, D

    1999-01-01

    The issue of climbability has been raised on several occasions for more than a decade in North America. Presently, climbability is estimated from the pole hardness measured by the Pilodyn measurements (6 J). However, the use of Pilodyn measurements to discriminate the pole hardness value is criticized by climbers, who claim that the Pilodyn hardness measurement is affected by species-treatment combinations and that it does not reflect gaff penetration or climbability. Furthermore, climbability evaluations have been conducted in which test poles were climbed by linemen, and corresponding subjective ratings were recorded. However, the ability of psychophysical measurements to accurately discriminate close hardness pole values and to differentiate species-treatment combinations at specific hardness levels have not yet been fully documented. The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychophysical perception of linemen and the mechanical measurements of gaff penetration and gaff impact during the climbing of different wood species and treatment combinations in order to compare these results with Pilodyn measurements within a precise range of pole hardnesses, to study the relationships between these variables, and, finally, to propose various design guidelines for the development of a better tool for the evaluation of climbability.

  13. Permanent Magnet Machine And Method With Reluctance Poles For High Strength Undiffused Brushless Operation.

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2005-12-06

    A method and apparatus in which a rotor (11) and a stator (17) define a radial air gap (20) for receiving AC flux and at least one, and preferably two, DC excitation assemblies (23, 24) are positioned at opposite ends of the rotor (20) to define secondary air gaps (21, 22). Portions of PM material (14a, 14b) are provided as boundaries separating the rotor pole portions (12a, 12b) of opposite polarity from other portions of the rotor (11) and from each other to define PM poles (12a, 12b) for conveying the DC flux to or from the primary air gap (20) and for inhibiting flux from leaking from the pole portions prior to reaching the primary air gap (20). The portions of PM material (14a, 14b) are spaced from each other so as to include reluctance poles (15) of ferromagnetic material between the PM poles (12a, 12b) to interact with the AC flux in the primary-air gap (20).

  14. Fluxes of fast and epithermal neutrons from Lunar Prospector: evidence for water ice at the lunar poles.

    PubMed

    Feldman, W C; Maurice, S; Binder, A B; Barraclough, B L; Elphic, R C; Lawrence, D J

    1998-09-04

    Maps of epithermal- and fast-neutron fluxes measured by Lunar Prospector were used to search for deposits enriched in hydrogen at both lunar poles. Depressions in epithermal fluxes were observed close to permanently shaded areas at both poles. The peak depression at the North Pole is 4.6 percent below the average epithermal flux intensity at lower latitudes, and that at the South Pole is 3.0 percent below the low-latitude average. No measurable depression in fast neutrons is seen at either pole. These data are consistent with deposits of hydrogen in the form of water ice that are covered by as much as 40 centimeters of desiccated regolith within permanently shaded craters near both poles.

  15. Optimal management of lower pole stones: the direction of future travel

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sacha L.; Bres-Niewada, Ewa; Cook, Paul; Wells, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Kidney stone disease is increasing worldwide with its most common location being in the lower pole. A clear strategy for effective management of these stones is essential in the light of ever increasing choice, effectiveness, and complications of different treatment options. Material and methods This review identifies the latest and clinically relevant publications focused on optimal management of lower pole stones. Results We present an up-to-date European Association of Urology and American Urological Association algorithm for lower pole stones, risks and benefits of different treatments, and changing landscape with the miniaturization of percutaneous stone treatments. Conclusions Available literature seems to be deficient on quality of life, patient centered decision making, and cost analysis of optimal management with no defined standard of ‘stone free rate’, all of which are critical in any surgical consultation and outcome analysis. PMID:27729994

  16. Phloem unloading in Arabidopsis roots is convective and regulated by the phloem-pole pericycle.

    PubMed

    Ross-Elliott, Timothy J; Jensen, Kaare H; Haaning, Katrine S; Wager, Brittney M; Knoblauch, Jan; Howell, Alexander H; Mullendore, Daniel L; Monteith, Alexander G; Paultre, Danae; Yan, Dawei; Otero, Sofia; Bourdon, Matthieu; Sager, Ross; Lee, Jung-Youn; Helariutta, Ykä; Knoblauch, Michael; Oparka, Karl J

    2017-02-23

    In plants, a complex mixture of solutes and macromolecules is transported by the phloem. Here, we examined how solutes and macromolecules are separated when they exit the phloem during the unloading process. We used a combination of approaches (non-invasive imaging, 3D-electron microscopy, and mathematical modelling) to show that phloem unloading of solutes in Arabidopsis roots occurs through plasmodesmata by a combination of mass flow and diffusion (convective phloem unloading). During unloading, solutes and proteins are diverted into the phloem-pole pericycle, a tissue connected to the protophloem by a unique class of 'funnel plasmodesmata'. While solutes are unloaded without restriction, large proteins are released through funnel plasmodesmata in discrete pulses, a phenomenon we refer to as 'batch unloading'. Unlike solutes, these proteins remain restricted to the phloem-pole pericycle. Our data demonstrate a major role for the phloem-pole pericycle in regulating phloem unloading in roots.

  17. Epiretinal deposit of triamcinolone acetonide at the posterior pole after intravitreal injection.

    PubMed

    Jaissle, Gesine B; Szurman, Peter; Völker, Michael; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated possible toxic side effects of epiretinal triamcinolone acetonide deposits at the posterior pole after an intravitreal injection in both a vitrectomized and a non-vitrectomized eye. The vitrectomized eye developed massive epiretinal triamcinolone acetonide deposits at the posterior pole that were less pronounced in the non-vitrectomized eye. After resolution of the deposits, no morphologic signs of retinal toxicity were apparent. Mild scattered visual field defects did not correlate with the localization of the triamcinolone acetonide deposits. However, because recent in vitro studies indicate potential cytotoxicity, patients should be instructed to keep their heads in an upright position after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection to avoid deposits at the posterior pole.

  18. The first ozone observations with the Brewer spectrophotometer at the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savastiouk, V.; McElroy, C. T.; Evans, R. D.

    2009-05-01

    In February of 2008, Environment Canada in cooperation with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration installed the Brewer ozone spectrophotometer, serial number #085, at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica. The Brewer spectrophotometer (the Brewer) is a fully automated instrument, which allows continuous 24-hour a day direct-sun observations at the South Pole from September to March and periodic moon observations for the remainder of the year. Brewer #085 has been independently calibrated before its deployment at the South Pole and the internal tests from the instrument show that the instrument has been stable for the past year. Brewer #085 has now collected more than a year worth of data. Both the direct-sun and moon observations have been processed and analyzed. The results of this analysis are presented and discussed.

  19. Anomalous change in leakage and displacement currents after electrical poling on lead-free ferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkar, Hitesh; Tomar, M.; Gupta, Vinay; Scott, J. F.; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    We report the polarization, displacement current, and leakage current behavior of a trivalent nonpolar cation (Al3+) substituted lead free ferroelectric (Na0.46Bi0.46-xAlxBa0.08)TiO3 (NBAT-BT) (x = 0, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.10) electroceramics with tetragonal phase and P4 mm space group symmetry. Almost, three orders of magnitude decrease in leakage current were observed under electrical poling, which significantly improves microstructure, polarization, and displacement current. Effective poling neutralizes the domain pinning, traps charges at grain boundaries and fills oxygen vacancies with free charge carriers in matrix, thus saturated macroscopic polarization in contrast to that in unpoled samples. E-poling changes "bananas" type polarization loops to real ferroelectric loops.

  20. Analysis of efficiently poled electro-optic polymer/Tio2 vertical slot waveguide modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enami, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Luo, J.; Jen, A. K.-Y.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the advantages of an electro-optic (EO) polymer/TiO2 vertical slot waveguide modulator based on a low-index EO polymer (SEO125). This modulator can realize a lower half-wave voltage (Vπ)-electrode length (Le) product (VπLe) when compared with hybrid EO polymer (EOP)/sol-gel silica waveguide modulators because of the high mode confinement of the guided light and the high poling efficiency. We show the enhancement of the poling efficiency in these devices when the EO polymers are poled with TiO2 and sol-gel silica layers. We also enhance the EO coefficient to a level of 260 pm/V at a wavelength of 1.31 μm for a high-index EOP (SEO100) deposited on TiO2, a sol-gel silica cladding layer, and an additional interfacial layer.

  1. Design of Optimal Low-Thrust Lunar Pole-Sitter Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebow, Daniel J.; Ozimek, Martin T.; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2011-01-01

    Using a thruster similar to Deep Space 1's NSTAR, pole-sitting low-thrust trajectories are discovered in the vicinity of the L 1 and L 2 libration points. The trajectories are computed with a seventh-degree Gauss-Lobatto collocation scheme that automatically positions thrusting and coasting arcs, and aligns the thruster as necessary to satisfy the problem constraints. The trajectories appear to lie on slightly deformed surfaces corresponding to the L 1 and L 2 halo orbit families. A collocation scheme is also developed that first incorporates spiraling out from low-Earth orbit, and finally spiraling down to a stable lunar orbit for continued uncontrolled surveillance of the lunar south pole. Using direct transcription via collocation, the pole-sitting coverage time is maximized to 554.18 days, and the minimum elevation angle associated with the optimal trajectory is 13.0°.

  2. Characterization of coplanar poled electro optic polymer films for Si-photonic devices with multiphoton microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelhuber, R. Mehravar, S. S.; Herrera, O. D.; Demir, V.; Kieu, K.; Norwood, R. A.; Peyghambarian, N.; Luo, J.; Jen, A. K.-Y.

    2014-04-21

    We imaged coplanar poled electro optic (EO) polymer films on transparent substrates with a multiple-photon microscope in reflection and correlated the second-harmonic light intensity with the results of Pockels coefficient (r{sub 33}) measurements. This allowed us to make quantitative measurements of poled polymer films on non-transparent substrates like silicon, which are not accessible with traditional Pockels coefficient measurement techniques. Phase modulators consisting of silicon waveguide devices with EO polymer claddings with a known Pockels coefficient (from V{sub π} measurements) were used to validate the correlation between the second-harmonic signal and r{sub 33}. This also allowed us to locally map the r{sub 33} coefficient in the poled area.

  3. STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF POLED PZT SUBJECTED TO BIAXIAL FLEXURAL LOADING IN HIGH ELECTRIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Lin, Hua-Tay; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2010-01-01

    Failure of poled PZT has been experimentally studied using ball-on-ring (BoR) biaxial flexure strength tests with an electric field concurrently applied. The as-received and aged PZTs were tested in high electric fields of -3 to 4 times the coercive field. Both the sign and the magnitude of electric field had a significant effect on the strength of poled PZT. A surface flaw type with a depth of around 18 m was identified as the strength limiter and responsible for the failure of the tested PZT. With a value of 0.76 MPa m1/2 in the open circle condition, the fracture toughness of the poled PZT was affected by an applied electric field just as the strength was affected. These results and observations have the potential to serve probabilistic reliability analysis and design optimization of multilayer PZT piezo actuators.

  4. Instrument for analysis of electric motors based on slip-poles component

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.; Casada, D.A.

    1996-11-26

    A new instrument is described for monitoring the condition and speed of an operating electric motor from a remote location. The slip-poles component is derived from a motor current signal. The magnitude of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor condition monitor, while the frequency of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor speed monitor. The result is a simple-to-understand motor health monitor in an easy-to-use package. Straightforward indications of motor speed, motor running current, motor condition (e.g., rotor bar condition) and synthesized motor sound (audible indication of motor condition) are provided. With the device, a relatively untrained worker can diagnose electric motors in the field without requiring the presence of a trained engineer or technician. 4 figs.

  5. Instrument for analysis of electric motors based on slip-poles component

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Casada, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    A new instrument for monitoring the condition and speed of an operating electric motor from a remote location. The slip-poles component is derived from a motor current signal. The magnitude of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor condition monitor, while the frequency of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor speed monitor. The result is a simple-to-understand motor health monitor in an easy-to-use package. Straightforward indications of motor speed, motor running current, motor condition (e.g., rotor bar condition) and synthesized motor sound (audible indication of motor condition) are provided. With the device, a relatively untrained worker can diagnose electric motors in the field without requiring the presence of a trained engineer or technician.

  6. The Orbits of the Neptunian Satellites and the Orientation of the Pole of Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Robert A.

    2008-05-01

    Our previous ephemerides for the Neptunian satellites (Triton and Nereid) and our Neptune pole orientation were produced at the time of the Voyager Neptune encounter (Jacobson et al. 1991, A&A 247, 565). That work was done in the B1950 reference system. Since then we have amassed a quantity of high quality Earthbased observations of the satellites. We have also reconstructed the Voyager trajectory in the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). This paper reports on an update to the satellite orbits and Neptune pole based on re-fitting all of the observations used previously together with those acquired through the opposition of 2007. We now include Proteus in our satellite system as it was used for an optical navigation target in the Voyager reconstruction. The new orbits and pole are referred to the ICRF. When processing the Voyager observations we use the new ICRF Voyager trajectory.

  7. The occultation of 28 Sgr by Saturn - Saturn pole position and astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Porco, C. C.; Hunten, D. M.; Rieke, G. H.; Rieke, M. J.; Mccarthy, D. W.; Haemmerle, V.; Clark, R.; Turtle, E. P.; Haller, J.

    1993-01-01

    Saturn's ring plane-defined pole position is presently derived from the geometry of Saturn's July 3, 1989 occultation of 28 Sgr, as indicated by the timings of 12 circular edges in the Saturn C-ring as well as the edges of the Encke gap and the outer edge of the Keeler gap. The edge timings are used to solve for the position angle and opening angle of the apparent ring ellipses; the internal consistency of the data set and the redundancy of stations indicates an absolute error of the order of 5 km. The pole position thus obtained is consistent with the pole and ring radius scale derived from Voyager occultation observations.

  8. The 14 month wind stressed residual circulation (pole tide) in the North Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnor, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    From published research it is known that a quasi-periodic 14 month atmospheric pressure oscillation of a few tenths of a millibar exists in the region of the North and Baltic Seas. At some time in the cycle the associated wind stress has a westerly component that drives a circulation in the North Sea. The results of a dynamical model and comparisons with several North Sea residual circulation studies show that a large sea level gradient results along the Dutch coast. It is this feature that has been referred to as the enhanced pole tide. The dynamical similarity of this pole tide in the North and Baltic Seas to the annual and seasonal wind forced circulations is considered. It is inferred that the large deviations of the pole tide from equilibrium at coastal stations are the result of this sea level set up forces by the 14 month wind stress cycle.

  9. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fin1 protein forms cell cycle-specific filaments between spindle pole bodies.

    PubMed

    van Hemert, Martijn J; Lamers, Gerda E M; Klein, Dionne C G; Oosterkamp, Tjerk H; Steensma, H Yde; van Heusden, G Paul H

    2002-04-16

    The FIN1 gene from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a basic protein with putative coiled-coil regions. Here we show that in large-budded cells a green fluorescent protein-Fin1 fusion protein is visible as a filament between the two spindle pole bodies. In resting cells the protein is undetectable, and in small-budded cells it is localized in the nucleus. During late mitosis it localizes on the spindle pole bodies. Filaments of cyano fluorescent protein-tagged Fin1 colocalize with filaments of green fluorescent protein-tagged Tub1 only in large-budded cells. By electron and atomic force microscopy we showed that purified recombinant Fin1p self-assembles into filaments with a diameter of approximately 10 nm. Our results indicate that the Fin1 protein forms a cell cycle-specific filament, additional to the microtubules, between the spindle pole bodies of dividing yeast cells.

  10. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fin1 protein forms cell cycle-specific filaments between spindle pole bodies

    PubMed Central

    van Hemert, Martijn J.; Lamers, Gerda E. M.; Klein, Dionne C. G.; Oosterkamp, Tjerk H.; Steensma, H. Yde; van Heusden, G. Paul H.

    2002-01-01

    The FIN1 gene from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a basic protein with putative coiled-coil regions. Here we show that in large-budded cells a green fluorescent protein-Fin1 fusion protein is visible as a filament between the two spindle pole bodies. In resting cells the protein is undetectable, and in small-budded cells it is localized in the nucleus. During late mitosis it localizes on the spindle pole bodies. Filaments of cyano fluorescent protein-tagged Fin1 colocalize with filaments of green fluorescent protein-tagged Tub1 only in large-budded cells. By electron and atomic force microscopy we showed that purified recombinant Fin1p self-assembles into filaments with a diameter of ≈10 nm. Our results indicate that the Fin1 protein forms a cell cycle-specific filament, additional to the microtubules, between the spindle pole bodies of dividing yeast cells. PMID:11929974

  11. Automatic pole-like object modeling via 3D part-based analysis of point cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liu; Yang, Haoxiang; Huang, Yuchun

    2016-10-01

    Pole-like objects, including trees, lampposts and traffic signs, are indispensable part of urban infrastructure. With the advance of vehicle-based laser scanning (VLS), massive point cloud of roadside urban areas becomes applied in 3D digital city modeling. Based on the property that different pole-like objects have various canopy parts and similar trunk parts, this paper proposed the 3D part-based shape analysis to robustly extract, identify and model the pole-like objects. The proposed method includes: 3D clustering and recognition of trunks, voxel growing and part-based 3D modeling. After preprocessing, the trunk center is identified as the point that has local density peak and the largest minimum inter-cluster distance. Starting from the trunk centers, the remaining points are iteratively clustered to the same centers of their nearest point with higher density. To eliminate the noisy points, cluster border is refined by trimming boundary outliers. Then, candidate trunks are extracted based on the clustering results in three orthogonal planes by shape analysis. Voxel growing obtains the completed pole-like objects regardless of overlaying. Finally, entire trunk, branch and crown part are analyzed to obtain seven feature parameters. These parameters are utilized to model three parts respectively and get signal part-assembled 3D model. The proposed method is tested using the VLS-based point cloud of Wuhan University, China. The point cloud includes many kinds of trees, lampposts and other pole-like posters under different occlusions and overlaying. Experimental results show that the proposed method can extract the exact attributes and model the roadside pole-like objects efficiently.

  12. Relationship between settling time and pole-zero placements for three-stage CMOS opamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanu Singh Chandrawat, Uday; Mishra, D. K.

    2011-07-01

    In this article, the effect of pole-zero placements on settling time has been analysed for a three-stage CMOS operational amplifier (opamp) with nested Miller compensation (NMC) and reversed nested Miller compensation (RNMC) schemes. In this study, optimised balancing of speed and power is done for a three-stage CMOS opamp for a given load condition (on-chip opamp). Optimum values of circuit parameters have been derived for power efficient shifting of poles and zeros. The effect of placement of poles and zeros on dynamic settling error (DSE) is analysed by means of numerical simulation using MATLAB. This analysis will be useful to ascertain the relationship between pole-zero placements and settling time. The study of the effects of compensation elements on pole-zero placements has been done to assist the circuit designers to achieve better performance. Analysis of the effect of capacitive load on pole-zero placements and DSE has been done in this study. A technique has been developed to find out the upper and lower limits of compensation capacitor that allows fast settling with low power. The validity of the analytical work has been checked by simulation using Tanner tool in 0.35-µm CMOS technology. In the case of RNMC scheme, a power dissipation of 60.17 µw and a settling time of 340 ns are achieved; the results obtained are better than the earlier reported design technique. In the case of NMC, the simulation has been done to validate the analytical analysis.

  13. Neurodynamics-Based Robust Pole Assignment for High-Order Descriptor Systems.

    PubMed

    Le, Xinyi; Wang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a neurodynamic optimization approach is proposed for synthesizing high-order descriptor linear systems with state feedback control via robust pole assignment. With a new robustness measure serving as the objective function, the robust eigenstructure assignment problem is formulated as a pseudoconvex optimization problem. A neurodynamic optimization approach is applied and shown to be capable of maximizing the robust stability margin for high-order singular systems with guaranteed optimality and exact pole assignment. Two numerical examples and vehicle vibration control application are discussed to substantiate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  14. Exertion During Uphill, Level and Downhill Walking With and Without Hiking Poles

    PubMed Central

    Perrey, Stephane; Fabre, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of poles when walking on the rate of perceived exertion (RPE), physiological and kinematics parameters, and upon the mean ratio between locomotor and respiratory rhythms. Twelve healthy male and female volunteers, aged 22 to 49 years old, completed on a motorized treadmill in a counterbalanced randomized order 12 walking trials for 10 min at an individually preferred walking speed, with three grades (horizontal level, uphill or downhill with a slope of 15%), with and without hiking poles and a load carriage of 15% of body mass. During all testing sessions, heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (Bf), and stride frequency were recorded continuously during the last 5-min of each trial. At the end of each trial, subjects were asked to give RPE. Energy cost (EC) and VE increased significantly with the grade (-15% < 0% < +15%) and with the carrying load. VT was significantly less important with hiking poles, while Bf was significantly more elevated. VO2 and EC increased (p < 0.05) with the use of the hiking poles only during the downhill trials. No significant effect of poles was observed on HR, RPE, and preferred walking speed. The average ratio between the locomotor and respiratory frequencies was significantly influenced by the three experimental factors tested. There was a significant relationship between average ratio of leg movement per breath and EC of walking among all conditions (r = 0.83, n = 12). These results suggest that the use of the hiking poles had a significant influence on the respiratory and energetic responses only during downhill walking. Key pointsEnergetic cost, respiratory responses, stride rate, respiratory to cycle rate ratio were significantly influenced by the use of hiking poles according to the grade at self-selected walking speed.Hiking poles induced an increase in respiratory frequency, VE and energetic cost during downhill, while little changes

  15. Topography of the lunar poles from radar interferometry: a survey of cold trap locations.

    PubMed

    Margot, J L; Campbell, D B; Jurgens, R F; Slade, M A

    1999-06-04

    Detailed topographic maps of the lunar poles have been obtained by Earth-based radar interferometry with the 3.5-centimeter wavelength Goldstone Solar System Radar. The interferometer provided maps 300 kilometers by 1000 kilometers of both polar regions at 150-meter spatial resolution and 50-meter height resolution. Using ray tracing, these digital elevation models were used to locate regions that are in permanent shadow from solar illumination and may harbor ice deposits. Estimates of the total extent of shadowed areas poleward of 87.5 degrees latitude are 1030 and 2550 square kilometers for the north and south poles, respectively.

  16. Science, the South Pole, and the Japanese expedition of 1910-1912.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, William R

    2011-12-01

    In November 1910, Shirase Nobu (1861-1946) sailed from Tokyo Bay aboard the Kainan Maru as part of an international race for the South Pole. The Japanese had no history of polar exploration and looked to British precedence to compensate for their lack of experience. Following the British example required that they include a scientific dimension to their venture. It is clear, however, that Shirase and his men had little scientific understanding. Nevertheless, on failing to reach the Pole, science became the central aim of the expedition and the primary means to declaring their efforts a success.

  17. Are they fellow countrymen or not? The migration of ethnic Poles from Kazakhstan to Poland.

    PubMed

    Iglicka, K

    1998-01-01

    "This article presents the process of migration of Kazakhs of Polish ancestry from Kazakhstan to Poland which has been taking place since the early 1990s. Poles deported in the past to Kazakhstan were mostly inhabitants of territories which did not belong to Poland; neither were they citizens of Poland. Therefore, the process of adaptation and integration was rather painful. The article points to factors that may simplify and those that may impede integration. The other problem...concerns the piecemeal policy towards Kazakhstan Poles, adopted by the Polish government, which seems risky if not dangerous. The author explains why it may cause a huge wave of illegal immigration to Poland."

  18. AMIE/SMART-1 Moon North and South Poles First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, J. L.; Beauvivre, S.; Amie Science Team

    The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment AMIE on board ESA SMART-1 the first European mission to the Moon launched on 27th September 2003 is an imaging system with scientific technical and public outreach oriented objectives The SMART-1 polar orbit around the Moon with an apolune at about 2500 km and a perilune at about 500 km allows to image the poles areas with different illumination conditions We present here the first results obtained by AMIE Camera System at North and South poles

  19. Simulation study of poled low-water ionomers with different architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip L.; Löwen, Hartmut

    2011-11-01

    The role of the ionomer architecture in the formation of ordered structures in poled membranes is investigated by molecular dynamics computer simulations. It is shown that the length of the sidechain Ls controls both the areal density of cylindrical aggregates Nc and the diameter of these cylinders in the poled membrane. The backbone segment length Lb tunes the average diameter Ds of cylindrical clusters and the average number of sulfonates Ns in each cluster. A simple empirical formula is noted for the dependence of the number density of induced rod-like aggregates on the sidechain length Ls within the parameter range considered in this study.

  20. THE ORBITS OF THE NEPTUNIAN SATELLITES AND THE ORIENTATION OF THE POLE OF NEPTUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, R. A.

    2009-05-15

    This paper reports on an update to the orientation of Neptune's pole and to the orbits of the Neptunian satellites, Triton, Nereid, and Proteus. We determined the new pole and orbits in the International Celestial Reference Frame by fitting them to all available observations through the opposition of 2008. The new data in the fit are high-quality modern astrometry and constitute a 19 year extension of the previous data arc. We assess the accuracy of the orbits and compare them with our earlier orbits. We also provide mean elements as a geometrical description for the orbits.

  1. The south pole region of the moon as seen by Clementine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Eliason, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Clementine mission has provided the first comprehensive set of high-resolution images of the south pole region of the moon. Within 5?? of latitude of the pole, an area of an estimated 30,000 square kilometers remained in shadow during a full lunar rotation and is a promising target for future exploration for ice deposits. The Schrodinger Basin (320 kilometers in diameter), centered at 75??S, is one of the two youngest, least modified, great multiring impact basins on the moon. A large maar-type volcano localized along a graben within the Schrodinger Basin probably erupted between 1 and 2 billion years ago.

  2. Submillimeter Atmospheric Transparency at Maunakea, at the South Pole, and at Chajnantor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, Simon J. E.; Peterson, Jeffery B.

    2016-07-01

    For a systematic assessment of submillimeter observing conditions at different sites, we constructed tipping radiometers to measure the broad band atmospheric transparency in the window around 350 μm wavelength. The tippers were deployed on Maunakea, Hawaii, at the South Pole, and in the vicinity of Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile. Identical instruments permit direct comparison of these sites. Observing conditions at the South Pole and in the Chajnantor area are better than on Maunakea. Simultaneous measurements with two tippers demonstrate conditions at the summit of Cerro Chajnantor are significantly better than on the Chajnantor plateau.

  3. Effects of the poling process on dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prewitt, Anderson D.

    Smart materials are widely used in many of today's relevant technologies such as nano and micro electromechanical systems (NEMS and MEMS), sensors, actuators, nonvolatile memory, and solid state devices. Many of these systems rely heavily on the electromechanical properties of certain smart materials, such as piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity. By definition, piezoelectricity is a mechanical stress in a material that produces an electric displacement (known as the direct piezoelectric effect) or electrical charge in a material which produces a mechanical strain (known as the converse piezoelectric effect). Ferroelectricity is a sub-class of piezoelectricity in which the polarization occurs spontaneously and the dipoles can be reoriented. Domain walls are the nanoscale regions separating two finite distinctively polarized areas in a ferroelectric. The reorientation of polarization in a material is called the poling process and many factors can influence the effectiveness of this process. A more fundamental understanding of how electrical and mechanical loading changes the domain structure of these materials could lead to enhanced properties such as increased energy transduction and decreased nonlinear behavior. This research demonstrates the influence of mechanical pressure and electrical field during and after the poling process on domain walls. The effects of strong mechanical forces on large-scale domain switching and weak cyclic forces on small-scale domain wall motion are investigated to show how they affect the macroscopic behavior of these materials. Commercial lead zirconate titanate ceramics were studied under various poling conditions and the effect of domain wall motion on the piezoelectric, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties was investigated. Polarization and strain measurements from samples poled at specific conditions and converse piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric permittivity data was extracted and interpreted in the context of

  4. The Orbits of the Neptunian Satellites and the Orientation of the Pole of Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R. A.

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports on an update to the orientation of Neptune's pole and to the orbits of the Neptunian satellites, Triton, Nereid, and Proteus. We determined the new pole and orbits in the International Celestial Reference Frame by fitting them to all available observations through the opposition of 2008. The new data in the fit are high-quality modern astrometry and constitute a 19 year extension of the previous data arc. We assess the accuracy of the orbits and compare them with our earlier orbits. We also provide mean elements as a geometrical description for the orbits.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Vilnius photometry in North Ecliptic Pole (Zdanavicius+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdanavicius, K.; Straizys, V.; Zdanavicius, J.; Chmieliauskaite, R.; Kazlauskas, A.

    2012-06-01

    Table 2 contains the results of photometry of 948 stars down to V=16.2mag in the Vilnius seven-color system at the North Ecliptic Pole. Photometric data are used to classify about 500 stars in spectral and luminosity classes. For the remaining stars one-dimensional spectral classes are given. The results of photometry and classification can be used to supplement the catalog of Gaia standard stars near the Ecliptic poles. To facilitate this, Table 3 presents the magnitudes of the SDSS and Gaia systems transformed from the Vilnius seven-color photometry. (3 data files).

  6. Transcendental and interpolation methods in simultaneous stabilization and simultaneous partial pole placement problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, B. K.

    1986-01-01

    The existence of a compensator which simultaneously renders a given r-tuple of multiinput-multioutput p x m linear dynamical systems internally stable is investigated. In particular, a set of simultaneously stabilizable r-tuples of plants is parametrized, and it is shown that, provided r = max(m,p) or less, the above set is semialgebraic and dense in the space Sigma of r-tuples of plants. An extension of the classical pole placement and stabilization problems is considered, and the simultaneous partial pole placement problem is investigated.

  7. Exertion during uphill, level and downhill walking with and without hiking poles.

    PubMed

    Perrey, Stephane; Fabre, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of poles when walking on the rate of perceived exertion (RPE), physiological and kinematics parameters, and upon the mean ratio between locomotor and respiratory rhythms. Twelve healthy male and female volunteers, aged 22 to 49 years old, completed on a motorized treadmill in a counterbalanced randomized order 12 walking trials for 10 min at an individually preferred walking speed, with three grades (horizontal level, uphill or downhill with a slope of 15%), with and without hiking poles and a load carriage of 15% of body mass. During all testing sessions, heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (Bf), and stride frequency were recorded continuously during the last 5-min of each trial. At the end of each trial, subjects were asked to give RPE. Energy cost (EC) and VE increased significantly with the grade (-15% < 0% < +15%) and with the carrying load. VT was significantly less important with hiking poles, while Bf was significantly more elevated. VO2 and EC increased (p < 0.05) with the use of the hiking poles only during the downhill trials. No significant effect of poles was observed on HR, RPE, and preferred walking speed. The average ratio between the locomotor and respiratory frequencies was significantly influenced by the three experimental factors tested. There was a significant relationship between average ratio of leg movement per breath and EC of walking among all conditions (r = 0.83, n = 12). These results suggest that the use of the hiking poles had a significant influence on the respiratory and energetic responses only during downhill walking. Key pointsEnergetic cost, respiratory responses, stride rate, respiratory to cycle rate ratio were significantly influenced by the use of hiking poles according to the grade at self-selected walking speed.Hiking poles induced an increase in respiratory frequency, VE and energetic cost during downhill, while little changes

  8. Micro-structuring the surface reactivity of a borosilicate glass via thermal poling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepicard, A.; Cardinal, T.; Fargin, E.; Adamietz, F.; Rodriguez, V.; Richardson, K.; Dussauze, M.

    2016-11-01

    Thermal poling was proven successful to induce second order nonlinear properties and concurrent modification of composition, structure and chemical reactivity in glasses. With current efforts to reduce devices sizes in components employing such attributes, means to control changes at the micrometer scale are needed. We present a micro-imprinting poling process to locally tailor surface properties of a glass. Measurements using infrared, Raman and second harmonic generation microscopies confirm that changes in glass structure associated with an induced static electric field are responsible for the enhanced surface reactivity that is successfully controlled at the micrometer scale.

  9. Trajectories of S-matrix poles in a new finite-range potential

    SciTech Connect

    Racz, A.; Salamon, P.; Vertse, T.

    2011-09-15

    The trajectories of S-matrix poles are calculated in the finite-range phenomenological potential introduced recently by Salamon and Vertse [Phys. Rev. C 77, 037302 (2008)] (SV). The potential is similar to a Woods-Saxon (WS) interaction, but it is exactly zero beyond a radius, without any cutoff. The trajectories of the resonance poles in this SV potential are compared to the corresponding trajectories in a cutoff WS potential for l>0. The dependence on the cutoff radius is demonstrated. The starting points of the trajectories turn out to be related to the average ranges of the two terms in the SV potential.

  10. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome with Extensive Deep White Matter Lesions Including the Temporal Pole

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, Junichiro; Mori, Nobuyuki; Kajikawa, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Takeshi; Arisato, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Makio

    2016-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) typically affects the posterior subcortical white matter. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with atypical PRES, who had malignant hypertension and renal dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed extensive vasogenic edema in the deep white matter including the temporal pole, as well as in the brainstem and cerebellum. Antihypertensive therapy and hemodialysis contributed to both clinical and radiological improvement. Involvement of the deep white matter including the temporal pole, which is rarely affected in an ischemic stroke, should be recognized as a potential sign of PRES. PMID:27904123

  11. Acute effects of walking with Nordic poles in persons with mild to moderate low-back pain

    PubMed Central

    REVORD, LANDON P; LOMOND, KAREN V; LOUBERT, PETER V; HAMMER, ROGER L

    2016-01-01

    Regular walking with or without Nordic poles is effective over time at reducing discomfort in individuals with chronic low back pain (LBP). Nordic pole use increases balance and stability, distributes weight through the arms and torso, and decreases loading of the spine and lower limbs. The purpose of this study was to determine if Nordic poles would reduce perceived acute discomfort while self-paced walking in individuals with LBP. We also examined whether walking with or without poles increased heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) or speed of movement. Subjects included 20 adults (12 males, 8 females; mean age of 45.1±16.3) who were experiencing LBP of at least six months’ duration (Oswestry Disability Index (ODI): mean 17 ± 8%, range 6–36% indicating minimal to moderate disability) with no current active flare-up. Participants walked a predetermined dirt-path course (805 m or 0.5 mi) with and without poles in randomized order. Data were analyzed using a 2 X 2 repeated measures ANOVA (Condition X Time), where Condition was poles vs no poles and Time was pre- and post-walk. HR and RPE increased significantly from walking the course, whereas pain did not change. There were also no differences between walking with or without poles for pain (ODI Sec #1: 0.2 points, p=0.324), HR (4 bpm, p=0.522) and RPE (0 points, p=0.759). The mean course time (sec) was slower with poles: 617±87 vs 566±65 (p<0.001). Unexpectedly, there was a noticeable drop in pain following the warm up which was done using poles (0.9 points, p<0.001). Nordic pole use is well tolerated in those with current back pain and can be encouraged, however it cannot be recommended as a superior method of addressing acute symptoms when walking. PMID:27990219

  12. Observation of 18.6-year modulation tide at the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydelek, P. A.; Knopoff, L.; Zürn, W.

    1982-07-01

    We have observed long-period variations in the amplitudes of the diurnal and semidiurnal gravity tides at the South Pole which we attribute to the tidal effects of the 18.6-year regression of the nodes of the lunar orbit. The observations are in agreement with theoretical values of the 18.6-year amplitude modulation of these tides.

  13. Direct localization of poles of a meromorphic function from measurements on an incomplete boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, Takaaki; Ando, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an algebraic method to reconstruct the positions of multiple poles in a meromorphic function field from measurements on an arbitrary simple arc in it. A novel issue is the exactness of the algorithm depending on whether the arc is open or closed, and whether it encloses or does not enclose the poles. We first obtain a differential equation that can equivalently determine the meromorphic function field. From it, we derive linear equations that relate the elementary symmetric polynomials of the pole positions to weighted integrals of the field along the simple arc and end-point terms of the arc when it is an open one. Eliminating the end-point terms based on an appropriate choice of weighting functions and a combination of the linear equations, we obtain a simple system of linear equations for solving the elementary symmetric polynomials. We also show that our algorithm can be applied to a 2D electric impedance tomography problem. The effects of the proximity of the poles, the number of measurements and noise on the localization accuracy are numerically examined.

  14. Trekking poles reduce downhill walking-induced muscle and cartilage damage in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of the use of trekking poles on muscle and cartilage damage and fatigue during downhill walking in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included eight obese women who had a body fat percentage greater than 30. Subjects performed downhill walking without a trekking pole (NP) and with a trekking pole (TP) at 50% heart rate reserve for 30 minutes on a treadmill. The treadmill was set at a 15% downhill declination. Blood samples were collected to examine muscle damage (serum creatine kinase [CK] and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] levels), cartilage damage (serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein [COMP] levels), and fatigue (plasma lactate levels) at the pre-walking baseline (PWB), immediately after walking (IAW), and 2 hours post-walking (2HPW). [Results] The CK, LDH, COMP, and lactate levels were significantly increased IAW when compared with those at the PWB in both trials. In addition, in the NP trial, the CK, LDH, and COMP levels were significantly increased at 2HPW when compared with those at the PWB. [Conclusion] Downhill walking can cause muscle and cartilage damage, and our results suggest that the use of a trekking pole can reduce temporary muscle and cartilage damage after downhill walking. PMID:27313374

  15. The Importance of Ice Flow at the North Pole of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sori, M. M.; Byrne, S.; Hamilton, C. W.; Landis, M. E.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the importance of ice flow at the north pole of Mars for features only recently discovered by HiRISE. We use a combination of image analysis and finite element modeling to quantify flow and discuss implications for NPLD evolution.

  16. Spindle pole mechanics studied in mitotic asters: dynamic distribution of spindle forces through compliant linkages.

    PubMed

    Charlebois, Blake D; Kollu, Swapna; Schek, Henry T; Compton, Duane A; Hunt, Alan J

    2011-04-06

    During cell division, chromosomes must faithfully segregate to maintain genome integrity, and this dynamic mechanical process is driven by the macromolecular machinery of the mitotic spindle. However, little is known about spindle mechanics. For example, spindle microtubules are organized by numerous cross-linking proteins yet the mechanical properties of those cross-links remain unexplored. To examine the mechanical properties of microtubule cross-links we applied optical trapping to mitotic asters that form in mammalian mitotic extracts. These asters are foci of microtubules, motors, and microtubule-associated proteins that reflect many of the functional properties of spindle poles and represent centrosome-independent spindle-pole analogs. We observed bidirectional motor-driven microtubule movements, showing that microtubule linkages within asters are remarkably compliant (mean stiffness 0.025 pN/nm) and mediated by only a handful of cross-links. Depleting the motor Eg5 reduced this stiffness, indicating that Eg5 contributes to the mechanical properties of microtubule asters in a manner consistent with its localization to spindle poles in cells. We propose that compliant linkages among microtubules provide a mechanical architecture capable of accommodating microtubule movements and distributing force among microtubules without loss of pole integrity-a mechanical paradigm that may be important throughout the spindle.

  17. Dominant pole and eigenstructure assignment for positive systems with state feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhao; Lam, James

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the dominant pole assignment problem, the dominant eigenstructure assignment problem and the robust dominant pole assignment problem for linear time-invariant positive systems with state feedback are considered. The dominant pole assignment problem is formulated as a linear programming problem, and the dominant eigenstructure problem is formulated as a quasiconvex optimisation problem with linear constraints. The robust dominant pole assignment problem is formulated as a non-convex optimisation problem with non-linear constraints which is solved using particle swarm optimisation (PSO) with an efficient scheme which employs the dominant eigenstructure assignment technique to accelerate the convergence of the PSO procedure. Each of the three problems can be further constrained by requiring that the controller has a pre-specified structure, or the gain matrix have both elementwise upper and lower bounds. These constraints can be incorporated into the proposed scheme without increasing the complexity of the algorithms. Both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case are treated in the paper.

  18. Recent increase in Ba concentrations as recorded in a South Pole ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkikh, Elena V.; Mayewski, Paul A.; Dixon, Daniel; Kurbatov, Andrei V.; Handley, Michael J.

    2014-06-01

    Here we present high-resolution (∼9.4 samples/year) records of Ba concentrations for the period from 1541 to 1999 A.D. obtained from an ice core recovered at the South Pole (US ITASE-02-6) site. We note a significant increase in Ba concentration (by a factor of ∼23) since 1980 A.D. The Ba crustal enrichment factor (EFc) values rise from ∼3 before 1980 A.D. to ∼32 after 1980 A.D. None of the other measured major and trace elements reveal such significant increases in concentrations and EFc values. Comparison with previously reported Antarctic Ba records suggests that significant increases in Ba concentrations at South Pole since 1980 A.D. are most likely caused by local source pollution. The core was collected in close proximity to Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station; therefore activities at the station, such as diesel fuel burning and intense aircraft activity, most likely caused the observed increase in Ba concentrations and its EFc values in the South Pole ice core record.

  19. Dynamics of the lower thermosphere over South Pole from meteor radar wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, J. M.; Portnyagin, Yu. I.; Makarov, N. A.; Palo, S. E.; Merzlyakov, E. G.; Zhang, X.

    1999-07-01

    A meteor radar was operated at Amundsen-Scott Station, South Pole, from January 19, 1995 through January 26, 1996 and from November 21, 1996 through January 27, 1997. Hourly wind measurements were obtained nearly continuously over these time periods, at an approximate altitude of 95 km and at about 2° latitude from South Pole along the longitude meridians 0°, 90°E, 90°W, and 180°. The scientific advances achieved to date through analyses of these data are presented, including updates to several of our previously published works. The findings addressed herein include the following: (1) Strong divergences of zonal-mean meridional winds occasionally occur over South Pole, implying extreme vertical winds; (2) The monthly mean zonally asymmetric (zonal wavenumber s = 1) wind component varies during the year in a manner consistent with migration of the center of the polar vortex with respect to the geographic (rotational) pole; (3) Strong (>15 m/s) westward-propagating migrating diurnal ( s = 1) and non-migrating semidiurnal ( s = 1) oscillations exist except during winter months; (4) Long-period (˜2-10 days) waves exist during winter months which are primarily eastward-propagating; (5) Intradiurnal (periods ˜6-11.5 hours) westward-propagating oscillations exist, which are thought to be gravitational normal modes, or "Lamb" waves.

  20. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhen; Ruiz, H. S.; Coombs, T. A.

    2017-03-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied under the same experimental conditions, what results in about three times larger magnetic pole areas but with an average drop on the peaks of trapped magnetic field of about 50%.

  1. The effects of CO and HCN on pole-jump avoidance-escape behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, W.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of carbon monoxide and mixtures of carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide at different concentrations and times of exposure were studied in a pole-jump apparatus. The time to loose the avoidance and escape response for mice exposed to these atmospheres was obtained. Correlations to predict the loss as a function of dosage are presented.

  2. PolyPole-1: An accurate numerical algorithm for intra-granular fission gas release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzocri, D.; Rabiti, C.; Luzzi, L.; Barani, T.; Van Uffelen, P.; Pastore, G.

    2016-09-01

    The transport of fission gas from within the fuel grains to the grain boundaries (intra-granular fission gas release) is a fundamental controlling mechanism of fission gas release and gaseous swelling in nuclear fuel. Hence, accurate numerical solution of the corresponding mathematical problem needs to be included in fission gas behaviour models used in fuel performance codes. Under the assumption of equilibrium between trapping and resolution, the process can be described mathematically by a single diffusion equation for the gas atom concentration in a grain. In this paper, we propose a new numerical algorithm (PolyPole-1) to efficiently solve the fission gas diffusion equation in time-varying conditions. The PolyPole-1 algorithm is based on the analytic modal solution of the diffusion equation for constant conditions, combined with polynomial corrective terms that embody the information on the deviation from constant conditions. The new algorithm is verified by comparing the results to a finite difference solution over a large number of randomly generated operation histories. Furthermore, comparison to state-of-the-art algorithms used in fuel performance codes demonstrates that the accuracy of PolyPole-1 is superior to other algorithms, with similar computational effort. Finally, the concept of PolyPole-1 may be extended to the solution of the general problem of intra-granular fission gas diffusion during non-equilibrium trapping and resolution, which will be the subject of future work.

  3. To the problem of the intraday nutational motions of the earth pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Yu. G.; Krylov, S. S.; Perepelkin, V. V.; Filippova, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Based on celestial-mechanics concepts, we provide an amplitude-frequency analysis of the intraday Earth pole oscillations in terms of classical mechanics. An approximate analytical model for real trajectory measurements of the polar motion in a near-day time interval has been identified.

  4. A paleomagnetic pole position for the Franklin Mountains Precambrian sequence, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Whitelaw, M.J. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    The Franklin Mountains, West Texas, contain a well preserved sequence of Proterozoic rocks that were probably formed on the southern margin of the Proterozoic North American continent. This sequence includes, in ascending order, the Castner Marble, the basaltic Mundy Breccia, quartzites and hornfels of the Lanoria Formation, and meta-sedimentary and meta-volcanic units of the Thunderbird Group. The lower part of this sequence is intruded by several phases of the 1.1 Ga Red Bluff Granite complex. Oriented paleomagnetic core samples were collected from the Castner Marble, the Mundy Breccia, and a quartz syenite phase of the Red Bluff Granite complex, in order to determine pole positions for each individual unit. Intensive demagnetization studies revealed that primary magnetic directions of both the Castner Marble and the Mundy Breccia have been totally overprinted by the Red Bluff intrusive event. Therefore, the following 1.1 Ga paleopole is based on combined tilt corrected data from the Castner Marble, Mundy Breccia and the Red Bluff Granite quartz syenite phase: Dec. = 288.8, Inc. = 52.7 (N = 87, R= 78.42, a[sub 95] = 5.05[degree], k = 10.02) Pole long. = 174.4[degree] W, Pole lat. = 31.3[degree] N (dp = 4.8, dm = 7.0). This pole is indistinguishable from 1.1 Ga Keweenawan Rift paleopoles.

  5. Conceptual Design of a Three-Pole Wiggler for the APS Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Abliz, M.; Grimmer, J.; Dejus, R.; Ramanathan, M.

    2016-07-01

    The current design of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade (APS-U) project is a multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice, which incorporates three-pole wigglers as radiation sources for the bending magnet beamlines. They are located in the short section between the M4 dipole and Q8 quadrupole magnets. Due to space constraints, a hybrid permanent magnet design is necessary to provide the required magnetic field strength. A three-pole wiggler with a flat peak field profile along the beam axis was designed to enhance the photon flux and flatten the transverse flux density distributions. The magnetic peak field at the center pole reached 1.08 Tesla for a magnetic gap of 26 mm. The maximum power density, integrated over all vertical angles, is 3.1 W/mm2, which is substantially higher than that of the existing bending magnets at the APS (0.86 W/mm2). Detailed designs of the three-pole wiggler is presented, including calculated spectral-angular flux distributions.

  6. Building Peace Poles: Inexpensive Woodworking Project Great for Middle and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roccanova, John

    2013-01-01

    The World Peace Prayer Society (WPPS) has at its core the message: "May peace prevail on Earth." This axiom appears on the roughly 200,000 Peace Poles that are planted at private residences, schools, in parks, and at other public places worldwide including at the Pentagon, the Pyramids in Egypt, and on Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest free-standing…

  7. The Learning of Visually Guided Action: An Information-Space Analysis of Pole Balancing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, David M.; Vaz, Daniela V.; Michaels, Claire F.

    2012-01-01

    In cart-pole balancing, one moves a cart in 1 dimension so as to balance an attached inverted pendulum. We approached perception-action and learning in this task from an ecological perspective. This entailed identifying a space of informational variables that balancers use as they perform the task and demonstrating that they improve by traversing…

  8. Creosote-treated wood poles and crossarms: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, M.E. ); Holcombe, L.; Owens, J.B. )

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative database on leachable concentrations of cresols (i.e., m-, o- and p-cresol isomers) from a population of creosote-treated utility wood poles and crossarms by application of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The TCLP was promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in March 1990 (55FR 11798). Data generated in this study indicate that creosote-treated utility poles and crossarms are non-hazardous. Measured concentrations of total cresols and other semi-volatile organic compounds, from wood subjected to TCLP analysis, were an order of magnitude or more below their current Toxicity Characteristic (TC) regulatory levels. The wood analyzed in this study consisted of 54 samples of wood poles and 6 crossarms. Subsamples, removed from full cross sectional slices of poles and crossarms, were prepared according to EPA procedures, subjected to the TCLP, and the resultant leachates analyzed for the presence of cresols and other semi-volatile compounds.

  9. Creosote-treated wood poles and crossarms: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, M.E.; Holcombe, L.; Owens, J.B.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative database on leachable concentrations of cresols (i.e., m-, o- and p-cresol isomers) from a population of creosote-treated utility wood poles and crossarms by application of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The TCLP was promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in March 1990 (55FR 11798). Data generated in this study indicate that creosote-treated utility poles and crossarms are non-hazardous. Measured concentrations of total cresols and other semi-volatile organic compounds, from wood subjected to TCLP analysis, were an order of magnitude or more below their current Toxicity Characteristic (TC) regulatory levels. The wood analyzed in this study consisted of 54 samples of wood poles and 6 crossarms. Subsamples, removed from full cross sectional slices of poles and crossarms, were prepared according to EPA procedures, subjected to the TCLP, and the resultant leachates analyzed for the presence of cresols and other semi-volatile compounds.

  10. Periods, Poles, and Shapes of Irregular Satellites of Saturn from Lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    The lightcurve-observation campaign of irregular (outer) moons of Saturn with the Cassini Imaging experiment is ongoing successfully. 21 rotation periods are now known, ranging from 5.5 h to ~3 d. The position of the Cassini spacecraft inside the orbits of the irregular moons allows observations from unusual geometries, especially at various phase angles and rapidly changing aspect angles. Many lightcurves are non-symmetric, and the large diversity of lightcurves for different objects indicates very different shapes. Lightcurves with three prominent maxima and minima are quite common, especially at phase angles higher than ~50°. For several moons, recent observations from different viewing geometries provide the potential to reveal pole directions and convex-hull "photometric shapes". As seen from the poles, Ymir is now known to have a triangular shape with two about equally long sides and one shorter side. Its pole is approximately oriented antipodally to the major planets. Siarnaq data indicate that this moon has also a triangular cross-section, but with a very different pole direction and extreme seasons. Kiviuq’s lightcurves show a very large amplitude even at low phase angles, suggesting a very elongated configuration with a ratio of the equatorial axes of about 3:1.

  11. Origin of UV-induced poling inhibition in lithium niobate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigerwald, H.; Lilienblum, M.; von Cube, F.; Ying, Y. J.; Eason, R. W.; Mailis, S.; Sturman, B.; Soergel, E.; Buse, K.

    2010-12-01

    Short-term exposure of the +z face of LiNbO3 crystals to focused UV laser light leads to persistent inhibition of ferroelectric domain reversal at the irradiated area, a phenomenon referred to as “poling inhibition.” Different types of crystals (stoichiometric, congruent, or Mg-doped ones) are exposed, creating the so-called “latent state” and domain growth during subsequent electric-field poling is visualized. The latent state is robust against thermal annealing up to 250°C and uniform illumination. With the tip of a scanning force microscope the coercive field is mapped, showing not only the expected resistance against domain reversal in the UV-irradiated region but also easier poling adjacent to the UV-irradiated section. These results and theoretical estimates point to the following mechanism of poling inhibition: the UV light-induced heating results in a local reduction of the lithium concentration, via thermodiffusion. The required charge compensation is provided by UV-excited free electrons/holes. After cooling, the lithium ions become immobile, and the reduced lithium concentration causes a strong local increase in the coercive field in the exposed area, while the increased Li concentration next to this area reduces the coercive field.

  12. Chromosome- and spindle-pole-derived signals generate an intrinsic code for spindle position and orientation.

    PubMed

    Kiyomitsu, Tomomi; Cheeseman, Iain M

    2012-02-12

    Mitotic spindle positioning by cortical pulling forces defines the cell division axis and location, which is critical for proper cell division and development. Although recent work has identified developmental and extrinsic cues that regulate spindle orientation, the contribution of intrinsic signals to spindle positioning and orientation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that cortical force generation in human cells is controlled by distinct spindle-pole- and chromosome-derived signals that regulate cytoplasmic dynein localization. First, dynein exhibits a dynamic asymmetric cortical localization that is negatively regulated by spindle-pole proximity, resulting in spindle oscillations to centre the spindle within the cell. We find that this signal comprises the spindle-pole-localized polo-like kinase (Plk1), which regulates dynein localization by controlling the interaction between dynein-dynactin and its upstream cortical targeting factors NuMA and LGN. Second, a chromosome-derived RanGTP gradient restricts the localization of NuMA-LGN to the lateral cell cortex to define and maintain the spindle orientation axis. RanGTP acts in part through the nuclear localization sequence of NuMA to locally alter the ability of NuMA-LGN to associate with the cell cortex in the vicinity of chromosomes. We propose that these chromosome- and spindle-pole-derived gradients generate an intrinsic code to control spindle position and orientation.

  13. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronauts Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the reflection of the Apollo Telescope Mount and the Earth in Lousma's helmet visor.

  14. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the striking reflection of the Earth in Lousma's helmet visor.

  15. Photoelectric Photometry of Faint M-Type Stars in the Direction of the South Galactic Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesch, P.

    1982-04-01

    Photoelectric V (Johnson-Morgan UBV system) and (V I) (Kron-Mayall PVI system) photometry is presented for 54 faint M-type stars from Pesch and Sanduleak's catalog of probable dwarf stars of type M3 and later in the direction of the south galactic pole. The observations were made in November 1978 with the 1.5-m CTIO reflector.

  16. Pole tide Love number - an important parameter for polar motion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, S.; Schmidt, M. G.; Seitz, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Euler-Liouville equation is the basic physical model to describe Earth rotation. It is based on the balance of angular momentum in the Earth system. The pole tide Love number is needed to characterize the rotational deformation effect, which depends on the internal structure and rheology of the Earth. There is a direct dependency between the pole tide Love number and the period and damping of the Chandler oscillation. Here we estimate the pole tide Love number on the basis of an inversion of the Euler-Liouville equation. The Earth orientation parameters are used as input parameters. They have been observed precisely over several decades by geodetic methods (C01 and C04 time series). It will be shown that the estimated pole tide Love number leads to significantly better results for polar motion compared to the original value taken from the Conventions of the International Earth Rotation and Reference System Service (IERS). Nevertheless the estimation is dependent on the input models for the subsystems (e.g. atmosphere and ocean models), applied estimation approach and time frame. These aspects are analyzed and discussed in detail.

  17. Zc(3900 ) as a D ¯D* molecule from the pole counting rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Qin-Rong; Guo, Zhi-Hui; Meng, Ce; Tang, Guang-Yi; Wang, Yu-Fei; Zheng, Han-Qing

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive study on the nature of the Zc(3900 ) resonant structure is carried out in this work. By constructing the pertinent effective Lagrangians and considering the important final-state-interaction effects, we first give a unified description to all the relevant experimental data available, including the J /ψ π and π π invariant mass distributions from the e+e-→J /ψ π π process, the hcπ distribution from e+e-→hcπ π , and also the D D¯* spectrum in the e+e-→D D¯*π process. After fitting the unknown parameters to the previous data, we search the pole in the complex energy plane and find only one pole in the nearby energy region in different Riemann sheets. Therefore, we conclude that Zc(3900 ) is of D D¯* molecular nature, according to the pole counting rule method [Nucl. Phys. A543, 632 (1992); Phys. Rev. D 35, 1633 (1987)]. We emphasize that the conclusion based upon the pole counting method is not trivial, since both the D D¯* contact interactions and the explicit Zc exchanges are introduced in our analyses and they lead to the same conclusion.

  18. Optical investigation of the J-pole and Vee antenna families.

    PubMed

    James, Timothy D; Davis, Timothy J; Roberts, Ann

    2014-01-27

    The J-pole and Vee RF antenna design families are investigated for their suitability as optical antennas. The modal and spectral properties are experimentally examined to select the most suitable resonant optical plasmonic mode, which is used to inform the optimal positioning of a quantum emitter in relation to the antennas.

  19. Lunar Pole Illumination and Communications Maps Computed from GSSR Elevation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Scott

    2009-01-01

    A Digital Elevation Model of the lunar south pole was produced using Goldstone Solar System RADAR (GSSR) data obtained in 2006.12 This model has 40-meter horizontal resolution and about 5-meter relative vertical accuracy. This Digital Elevation Model was used to compute average solar illumination and Earth visibility with 100 kilometers of the lunar south pole. The elevation data were converted into local terrain horizon masks, then converted into lunar-centric latitude and longitude coordinates. The horizon masks were compared to latitude, longitude regions bounding the maximum Sun and Earth motions relative to the moon. Estimates of Earth visibility were computed by integrating the area of the region bounding the Earth's motion that was below the horizon mask. Solar illumination and other metrics were computed similarly. Proposed lunar south pole base sites were examined in detail, with the best site showing yearly solar power availability of 92 percent and Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communication availability of about 50 percent. Similar analysis of the lunar south pole used an older GSSR Digital Elevation Model with 600-meter horizontal resolution. The paper also explores using a heliostat to reduce the photovoltaic power system mass and complexity.

  20. Application of ring lasers to determine the directions to the poles of Earth's rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Golyaev, Yu D; Kolbas, Yu Yu

    2012-10-31

    Application of a ring laser to determine the directions to the poles of Earth's rotation is considered. The maximum accuracy of determining the directions is calculated, physical and technical mechanisms that limit the accuracy are analysed, and the instrumental errors are estimated by the example of ring He - Ne lasers with Zeeman biasing. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)