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Sample records for im hheren lebensalter

  1. IMS - MS Data Extractor

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-20

    An automated drift time extraction and computed associated collision cross section software tool for small molecule analysis with ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The software automatically extracts drift times and computes associated collision cross sections for small molecules analyzed using ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) based on a target list of expected ions provided by the user.

  2. IMS applications analysis

    SciTech Connect

    RODACY,PHILIP J.; REBER,STEPHEN D.; SIMONSON,ROBERT J.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.

    2000-03-01

    This report examines the market potential of a miniature, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer. Military and civilian markets are discussed, as well as applications in a variety of diverse fields. The strengths and weaknesses of competing technologies are discussed. An extensive Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) bibliography is included. The conclusions drawn from this study are: (1) There are a number of competing technologies that are capable of detecting explosives, drugs, biological, or chemical agents. The IMS system currently represents the best available compromise regarding sensitivity, specificity, and portability. (2) The military market is not as large as the commercial market, but the military services are more likely to invest R and D funds in the system. (3) Military applications should be addressed before commercial applications are addressed. (4) There is potentially a large commercial market for rugged, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer systems. Commercial users typically do not invest R and D funds in this type of equipment rather, they wait for off-the-shelf availability.

  3. Advanced Interval Management (IM) Concepts of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a high-level description of several advanced IM operations that NASA is considering for future research and development. It covers two versions of IM-CSPO and IM with Wake Mitigation. These are preliminary descriptions to support an initial benefits analysis

  4. Physical and structural basis for the strong interactions of the -ImPy- central pairing motif in the polyamide f-ImPyIm.

    PubMed

    Buchmueller, Karen L; Bailey, Suzanna L; Matthews, David A; Taherbhai, Zarmeen T; Register, Janna K; Davis, Zachary S; Bruce, Chrystal D; O'Hare, Caroline; Hartley, John A; Lee, Moses

    2006-11-14

    The polyamide f-ImPyIm has a higher affinity for its cognate DNA than either the parent analogue, distamycin A (10-fold), or the structural isomer, f-PyImIm (250-fold), has for its respective cognate DNA sequence. These findings have led to the formulation of a two-letter polyamide "language" in which the -ImPy- central pairings associate more strongly with Watson-Crick DNA than -PyPy-, -PyIm-, and -ImIm-. Herein, we further characterize f-ImPyIm and f-PyImIm, and we report thermodynamic and structural differences between -ImPy- (f-ImPyIm) and -PyIm- (f-PyImIm) central pairings. DNase I footprinting studies confirmed that f-ImPyIm is a stronger binder than distamycin A and f-PyImIm and that f-ImPyIm preferentially binds CGCG over multiple competing sequences. The difference in the binding of f-ImPyIm and f-PyImIm to their cognate sequences was supported by the Na(+)-dependent nature of DNA melting studies, in which significantly higher Na(+) concentrations were needed to match the ability of f-ImPyIm to stabilize CGCG with that of f-PyImIm stabilizing CCGG. The selectivity of f-ImPyIm beyond the four-base CGCG recognition site was tested by circular dichroism and isothermal titration microcalorimetry, which shows that f-ImPyIm has marginal selectivity for (A.T)CGCG(A.T) over (G.C)CGCG(G.C). In addition, changes adjacent to this 6 bp binding site do not affect f-ImPyIm affinity. Calorimetric studies revealed that binding of f-ImPyIm, f-PyImIm, and distamycin A to their respective hairpin cognate sequences is exothermic; however, changes in enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacity (DeltaC(p)) contribute differently to formation of the 2:1 complexes for each triamide. Experimental and theoretical determinations of DeltaC(p) for binding of f-ImPyIm to CGCG were in good agreement (-142 and -177 cal mol(-)(1) K(-)(1), respectively). (1)H NMR of f-ImPyIm and f-PyImIm complexed with their respective cognate DNAs confirmed positively cooperative formation of distinct 2

  5. IMS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2012-11-30

    Information Management System An online user interface which provides data and metadata to the science community on a 24-hour basis; accepts user orders for data; provides information about future data acquision and processing schedules ...

  6. Resistive glass IM-TOFMS.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Kimberly; Graf, Stephan; Tanner, Christian; Gonin, Marc; Fuhrer, Katrin; Knochenmuss, Richard; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hill, Herbert H

    2010-11-15

    The design of a new ion mobility mass spectrometer (IM-MS) is presented. This new design features an ambient-pressure resistive glass ion mobility drift tube (RGIMS) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) by an enhanced interface that includes two segmented quadrupoles. The interface design demonstrates an increase in sensitivity while maintaining high resolving power typically achieved for ambient-pressure IMS drift tubes. Performance of the prototype instrument was evaluated and the analytical figures of merit for standard solutions as well as complex samples such as human blood were determined. For a 3 μM solution of caffeine, the peak was collected in 36 s and gave a response of 10 counts/s. The detection limit (defined as 1 count/s) was calculated to be 300 nM concentration of caffeine from the response rate from the 36 s run. Controlled fragmentation of caffeine was achieved through adjustment of voltages applied on the interface lenses. Over 300 tentative metabolites were detected in human blood along with 80 isomers/isobars with ion counts >5. Isotope ratios from extracted mass spectra of selected mobility peaks were used to identify selected metabolite compounds. High separation power for both IMS (resolving power, t(d)/Δt(w1/2), was 85) and MS (mass resolving power, m/Δm, maximum was 7000 with a mass accuracy between 2 and 10 ppm) was measured. Developed software for data acquisition, control and display allowed flexibility in instrument control, data evaluation and visualization.

  7. Modifying the N-terminus of polyamides: PyImPyIm has improved sequence specificity over f-ImPyIm.

    PubMed

    Brown, Toni; Mackay, Hilary; Turlington, Mark; Sutterfield, Arden; Smith, Traci; Sielaff, Alan; Westrate, Laura; Bruce, Chrystal; Kluza, Jerome; O'Hare, Caroline; Nguyen, Binh; Wilson, W David; Hartley, John A; Lee, Moses

    2008-05-01

    Seven N-terminus modified derivatives of a previously published minor-groove binding polyamide (f-ImPyIm, 1) were synthesized and the biochemical and biophysical chemistry evaluated. These compounds were synthesized with the aim of attaining a higher level of sequence selectivity over f-ImPyIm (1), a previously published strong minor-groove binder. Two compounds possessing a furan or a benzofuran moiety at the N-terminus showed a footprint of 0.5microM at the cognate ACGCGT site (determined by DNase I footprinting); however, the specificity of these compounds was not improved. In contrast, PyImPyIm (4) produced a footprint of 0.5microM but showed a superior specificity using the same technique. When evaluated by thermal melting experiments and circular dichroism using ACGCGT and the non-cognate AAATTT sequence, all compounds were shown to bind in the minor-groove of DNA and stabilize the cognate sequence much better than the non-cognate (except for the non-amido-compound that did not bind either sequence, as expected). PyImPyIm (4) was interesting as the DeltaT(m) for this compound was only 4 degrees C but the footprint was very selective. No binding was observed for this compound with a third DNA (non-cognate, ACCGGT). ITC studies on compound 4 showed exothermic binding with ACGCGT and no heat change was observed for titrating the compound to the other two DNA sequences. The heat capacity (DeltaC(p)) of the PIPI/ACGCGT complex calculated from the hydrophobic interactions and SASA calculations was comparable to the experimental value obtained from ITC (-146calmol(-1)K(-1)). SPR results provided confirmation of the sequence specificity of PyImPyIm (4), with a K(eq) value determined to be 7.1x10(6) M(-1) for the cognate sequence and no observable binding to AAATTT and ACCGGT. Molecular dynamic simulations affirmed that PyImPyIm (4) binds as a dimer in an overlapped conformation, and it fits snugly in the minor-groove of the ACGCGT oligonucleotide. PyImPyIm (4) is an

  8. 23 CFR 500.111 - IMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.111 IMS. An effective IMS for intermodal facilities and systems provides... facilities and systems and improvement in the coordination in planning, and implementation of air, water,...

  9. GEOSPATIAL IT/IM QA CHECKLIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quality assurance (QA) of information technology (IT) and Information Management (IM) systems help to ensure that the end product is of known quality and integrity. As the complexity of IT & IM processes increase, so does the need for regular QA evaluation.

    The areas revi...

  10. Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) and Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2010-04-20

    In a media of finite viscosity, the Coulomb force of external electric field moves ions with some terminal speed. This dynamics is controlled by “mobility” - a property of the interaction potential between ions and media molecules. This fact has been used to separate and characterize gas-phase ions in various modes of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) developed since 1970. Commercial IMS devices were introduced in 1980-s for field detection of volatile traces such as explosives and chemical warfare agents. Coupling to soft-ionization sources, mass spectrometry (MS), and chromatographic methods in 1990-s had allowed IMS to handle complex samples, enabling new applications in biological and environmental analyses, nanoscience, and other areas. Since 2003, the introduction of commercial systems by major instrument vendors started bringing the IMS/MS capability to broad user community. The other major development of last decade has been the differential IMS or “field asymmetric waveform IMS” (FAIMS) that employs asymmetric time-dependent electric field to sort ions not by mobility itself, but by the difference between its values in strong and weak electric fields. Coupling of FAIMS to conventional IMS and stacking of conventional IMS stages have enabled two-dimensional separations that dramatically expand the power of ion mobility methods.

  11. The pinhole interface for IMS/MS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Glenn E.

    1995-01-01

    An important supplementary technique for ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is mass spectrometry (MS). A mass spectrometer coupled to an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS/MS) can provide significant information on the composition of the ions contributing to an ion mobility peak. On the other hand, the interpretation of IMS/MS results requires knowledge of processes which can occur at the pinhole interface. When the ion composition is a mixture of ion clusters, the observed cluster distribution may not be an accurate representation of the ion clusters in the IMS. Depending on the buffer gas, lower clusters can form by equilibrating with reduced concentrations in the continuum regime of the expansion and larger clusters can form by collisional stabilization in the cooled jet stream. Besides water, nitrogen molecules can also add to the ion clusters. Even though nitrogen is non-polar, this addition is made possible by an ion-induced dipole interaction between the ion and molecule.

  12. Transversal modulation ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS): exploring the IMS-IMS-MS possibilities of the instrument.

    PubMed

    Vidal-de-Miguel, G; Macía, M; Barrios, C; Cuevas, J

    2015-02-03

    A prototype is introduced based on the transversal modulation ion mobility spectrometry (TMIMS) technique, which provides a continuous output of mobility-selected ions, greatly easing the synchronization between different analyzing stages. In the new architecture, two stages of filtration are used to drastically reduce the background produced by one stage alone. Two-stages TMIMS was coupled with two different atmospheric pressure interface mass spectrometers (MS). The new system enables IMS-IMS-MS analysis and other modes of operation: IMS prefiltration, IMS-IMS, and full transmission mode. It provides a resolving power R > 60 in IMS mode, and R > 40 in each stage of IMS-IMS mode. 2-Propanol vapors were introduced in one of the stages to enhance the mobility variations, and their effect was studied on a set of tetraalkylammonium ions. We found that concentrations as low as 1% (in partial pressure) produce mobility variations as high as 20%, which suggest that IMS-IMS separation using dried N2 (in one stage) and a dopant (in the other stage), could be a very powerful way to enhance the separation capacity of the IMS-IMS prefiltration approach.

  13. (Im)migrant Voices: An Ethnographic Inquiry into Contemporary (Im)migrant Issues Faced by (Im)migrant University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines contemporary issues that 18 (im)migrant university students faced during a time of highly militarized U.S.-Mexico border relations while living in Arizona during the time of this dissertation research. Utilizing critical race theory and public sphere theory as theoretical frameworks, the project addresses several related…

  14. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? A A A I just found out that I'm 6 weeks pregnant. Do I need to get ...

  15. A Learning Design Ontology Based on the IMS Specification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorim, Ricardo R.; Lama, Manuel; Sanchez, Eduardo; Riera, Adolfo; Vila, Xose A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present an ontology to represent the semantics of the IMS Learning Design (IMS LD) specification, a meta-language used to describe the main elements of the learning design process. The motivation of this work relies on the expressiveness limitations found on the current XML-Schema implementation of the IMS LD conceptual model. To…

  16. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer instrument - IMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retinò, Alessandro; Kucharek, Harald; Saito, Yoshifumi; Fraenz, Markus; Verdeil, Christophe; Leblanc, Frederic; Techer, Jean-Denis; Jeandet, Alexis; Macri, John; Gaidos, John; Granoff, Mark; Yokota, Shoichiro; Fontaine, Dominique; Berthomier, Matthieu; Delcourt, Dominique; Kistler, Lynn; Galvin, Antoniette; Kasahara, Satoshi; Kronberg, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. Specifically, THOR will study how turbulent fluctuations at kinetic scales heat and accelerate particles in different turbulent environments within the near-Earth space. To achieve this goal, THOR payload is being designed to measure electromagnetic fields and particle distribution functions with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Here we present the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) instrument that will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of near-Earth main ion species (H+, He+, He++ and O+) at high time resolution (~ 150 ms for H+ , ~ 300 ms for He++) with energy resolution down to ~ 10% in the range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q and angular resolution ~ 10°. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting multiple sensors around the spacecraft body, in similar fashion to the MMS/FPI instrument. Each sensor combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCP) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion (TDC). IMS is being designed to address many of THOR science requirements, in particular ion heating and acceleration by turbulent fluctuations in foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built by an international consortium of scientific institutes with main hardware contributions from France, USA, Japan and Germany.

  17. Evaluation of Arizona's enhanced I/M program

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Tom

    1999-04-21

    MOBILE5 slightly overpredicts initial reductions in CO and HC, and dramatically overpredicts initial reductions in NOx. About one-third of the vehicles that fail initial I/M testing do not complete the I/M program. Only a small portion of these receive a waiver. Initial I/M repair effectiveness as measured by remote sensing is only half of that as measured by IM240. Possible causes are sensitivity to operating mode, and how long after repair emissions are measured. 37% of the vehicles that initially fail and eventually pass in 1995 fail again in 1997. Half of these fail for the same combination of pollutants in both years. Vehicles that never pass the Im240 are still being driven in the I/M area; these vehicles are from all model years.

  18. OPSN: The IMS COMSYS 1 and 2 Data Preprocessing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, John

    The Instructional Management System (IMS) developed by the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) processes student and teacher-generated data through the use of an optical scanner that produces a magnetic tape (Scan Tape) for input to IMS. A series of computer routines, OPSN, preprocesses the Scan Tape and prepares the data for transmission to the…

  19. Isothermal aging of IM7/8320 and IM7/5260

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Roderick H.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Gates, Thomas S.

    1992-01-01

    Isothermal aging was conducted on two composite systems being considered as possible candidates for the next generation supersonic transport. The composite systems were IM7/5260, a carbon/thermoset, and IM7/8320, a carbon/amorphous thermoplastic. The materials were isothermally aged for a total of 5000 hours at 125 C and 175 C. These temperatures are approximately equivalent to the upper skin temperatures of an aircraft flying at Mach 2.0 and Mach 2.4, respectively. The variations of the following properties were determined as a function of aging time: weight loss, moduli, glass transition temperature, microcracking, and modulus and strength of a +/- 45 laminate. The difficulties and accuracy of strain measurements are also discussed.

  20. GC-IMS: a technology for many applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, Lawrence V.; Romeskie, Julian M.

    1998-12-01

    Fast GC (gas chromatography) - IMS (ion mobility spectrometry) as a core technology is sufficiently flexible with respect to a broad range of chemical detection capabilities. The application of this dual technology can provide unique solutions in many operational environments. GC-IMS is the next evolutionary step in the advancement of IMS technology. Using the advantages of IMS (i.e., small, high sensitivity, rugged, operates at atmospheric pressure, etc.) And the chemical selection capability of GC, this detector configuration can be customized to detect and identify explosives, ICAO markers, and narcotics. This paper will present a technical discussion on GC-IMS and describe several commercial off the shelf (COTS) systems with potential application in many operating environments. Instruments include the Orion for explosives detection, Ariel for narcotics detection, Sirius for both explosives and narcotics detection, and NorthStar for handheld narcotics detection.

  1. IMS R and D program at Canada customs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilon, Pierre; Mungham, Tony; Ng, Lay-Keow; Lawrence, Andre

    1995-01-01

    Over the last few years, Revenue Canada, in collaboration with Barringer Instruments Limited, has been involved in the development of a field-usable ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for the detection of drugs of abuse. This work has culminated in the manufacturing and commercialization by Barringer of the Ionscan 350 instruments, now in use by various law enforcement agencies worldwide. Although IMS exhibits a very strong and distinctive response toward some nitrogen containing drugs, e.g., cocaine, like all separation techniques it has inherent limitations, namely moderate resolution and low chemical signal to noise ratio which may affect the reliability of IMS-based drug detectors. A program is in place at the Laboratory and Scientific Services Directorate (LSSD) to investigate the applicability of various digital signal processing (DSP) techniques to IMS output signals. The application of neural network techniques to overlapping IMS peaks is presented.

  2. Grundlegende Steuerungsverfahren im heterogenen Logistiknetz mit Kanban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Lödding, Hermann; Möller, Niklas; Rücker, Thomas; Schneider, Herfried M.; Zäh, Michael F.

    In vielen Unternehmen werden heterogene (verschiedene) Steuerungen in einem abgestimmten Konzept kombiniert. Je nach Anwendungsfall und Rahmenbedingungen werden Kombinationen allgemein bekannter Steuerungen oder Steuerungsvarianten gemischt eingesetzt, um eine optimale Steuerung für unterschiedliche Fälle zu erreichen. Hierbei stehen neben den bekannten und weit verbreiteten Methoden, wie Material Requirements Planning (MRP) oder Kanban, auch weniger bekannte oder neue Methoden zur Auswahl, wie die Produktionssteuerung mit dezentraler, bestandsorientierter Fertigungsregelung (DBF). Kanban ist ein simples und effizientes Steuerungskonzept, das in der klassischen Form für spezifische einfache Anwendungsfälle umsetzbar ist. Hochentwickelte Steuerungsalgorithmen können helfen, komplexe Abläufe optimal abzubilden. Mit einer grundlegenden Vereinfachung der Abläufe kann allerdings in vielen Fällen ein wesentlich stärkerer und umfassender Verbesserungseffekt erzielt werden. Die wesentliche Fragestellung sollte folglich lauten: Warum ist der Ablauf nicht mit einer einfachen Steuerung wie Kanban abzubilden? Um die Vorteile des Konzepts auch in untypischen Bereichen anwenden zu können, sind jedoch verschiedene Varianten oder Kanban-ähnliche Steuerungsmethoden entstanden. Darüber hinaus sind in der Praxis hybride Steuerungen im Einsatz, welche so kombiniert werden, dass die Zusammensetzung anspruchsvolle Eigenschaftsbilder noch exakt abbildet. In der Praxis basieren die Steuerungsentscheidungen nur zu einem kleinen Teil auf den eigentlichen Steuerungsalgorithmen, wie sie uns das MRP-System zur Verfügung stellt. Moderne Steuerungswelten" schließen alle relevanten Informationsquellen in eine heterogene Entscheidungsmatrix mit ein. Letztlich zählt nicht, ob die Entscheidung auf den Informationen aus dem MRP-System oder auf Softfacts basierend getroffen wurde, sondern nur, ob die Entscheidung erfolgreich war.

  3. IM Normae: A Second T Pyx? (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J.; Monard, B.; Warhurst, P.; Myers, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) T Pyx is the Galaxy's most famous recurrent nova, erupting to magnitude 6 about every 20 years. For nova hunters and variable-star observers generally, it should be quite easy to discover stars with similar properties. There are probably half a million CVs out to the distance of T Pyx, and most have an underlying structure similar to that of T Pyx: low-mass secondary, fairly massive white dwarf, short orbital period. But of these half million stars, there is no second T Pyx. The star is unique in another way: its orbital period is increasing on a timescale of 300,000 years. Like the proverbial bat out of hell. A 2002 nova eruption nominated a second star for this elite club: IM Nor, a short-orbital-period (2.5 hours) star which previously erupted in 1920. We began a program of time-series photometry to track the shallow eclipses—to test for orbital period change, the other signature of T Pyx resemblance. By 2015 we found this effect: Porb increases on a timescale of 2 million years. Thus, the two stars appear to be blowing themselves apart on a timescale of roughly a million years. This could explain why the stars are so rare: because they are rapidly self-immolating. And that could happen because the classical-nova outburst overwhelms the low-mass secondaries that live in short-period CVs—leading to unstable mass transfer which quickly evaporates the secondary. This implies that all short-Porb classical novae should be "recurrent" (erupting on a timescale of decades). Greater attention to CP Pup (1942), RW UMi (1956), GQ Mus (1983), and V Per (1887) is definitely warranted.

  4. Overview of IMS infrasound station and engineering projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, J.; Doury, B.; Kramer, A.; Martysevich, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBTO) has a continuous interest in enhancing its capability in acoustic source detection, localization and characterization. The infrasound component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) constitutes the only worldwide ground-based infrasound network. It consists of sixty stations, among which forty-eight are already certified and continuously transmit data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria. Each infrasound station is composed of an array of infrasound sensors capable of measuring micro-pressure changes produced at ground level by infrasonic waves. The characteristics of infrasonic waves are computed in near real-time by IDC automatic detection software and are used as an input to IDC source categorization and localization algorithms. The PTS is continuously working towards the completion and sustainment of the IMS infrasound network. The objective of this presentation is to review the main activities performed in the IMS infrasound network over the last five years. This includes construction, installation, certification, major upgrade and revalidation activities. Major technology development projects to improve the reliability and robustness of IMS infrasound stations as well as their compliance with IMS Operational Manual requirements will also be presented. This includes advances in array geometry, wind noise reduction, system calibration, meteorological data as well as power and communication infrastructures. Finally the impact of all these changes on the overall detection capability of the IMS infrasound network will be highlighted.

  5. Thin layer chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (TLC-IMS).

    PubMed

    Ilbeigi, Vahideh; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-06

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a fast and sensitive analytical method which operates at the atmospheric pressure. To enhance the capability of IMS for the analysis of mixtures, it is often used with preseparation techniques, such as GC or HPLC. Here, we report for the first time the coupling of the thin-layer chromatography and IMS. A variety of coupling schemes were tried that included direct electrospray from the TLC strip tip, indirect electrospray from a needle connected to the TLC strip, introducing the moving solvent into the injection port, and, the simplest way, offline introduction of scratched or cut pieces of strips into the IMS injection port. In this study a special solvent tank was designed and the TLC strip was mounted horizontally where the solvent would flow down. A very small funnel right below the TLC tip collected the solvent and transferred it to a needle via a capillary tubing. Using the TLC-ESI-IMS technique, acceptable separations were achieved for two component mixtures of morphine-papaverine and acridine-papaverine. A special injection port was designed to host the pieces cut off the TLC. The method was successfully used to identify each spot on the TLC by IMS in a few seconds.

  6. 40 CFR 51.352 - Basic I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Basic I/M performance standard. 51.352... Requirements § 51.352 Basic I/M performance standard. (a) Basic I/M programs shall be designed and implemented... following model I/M program inputs and local characteristics, such as vehicle mix and local fuel...

  7. 40 CFR 51.352 - Basic I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic I/M performance standard. 51.352... Requirements § 51.352 Basic I/M performance standard. (a) Basic I/M programs shall be designed and implemented... following model I/M program inputs and local characteristics, such as vehicle mix and local fuel...

  8. Evaluation of Gas Chromatography/Mini-IMS to Detect VOCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Peters, Randy; James, John T.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Toxicology Laboratory at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has pioneered the use of gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC/IMS) for measuring target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) aboard spacecraft. Graseby Dynamics, under contract to NASA/Wyle, has built several volatile organic analyzers (VOA) based on GC/IMS. Foremost among these have been the volatile organic analyzer-risk mitigation unit and the two flight VOA units for International Space Station (ISS). The development and evaluation of these instruments has been chronicled through presentations at the International Conference on Ion Mobility Spectrometry over the past three years. As the flight VOA from Graseby is prepared for operation on ISS at JSC, it is time to begin evaluations of technologies for the next generation VOA, Although the desired instrument characteristics for the next generation unit are the same as the current unit, the requirements are much more stringent. As NASA looks toward future missions beyond Earth environs, a premium will be placed upon small, light, reliable, autonomous hardware. It is with these visions in mind that the JSC Toxicology Laboratory began a search for the next generation VOA. One technology that is a candidate for the next generation VOA is GC/IMS. The recent miniaturization of IMS technology permits it to compete with other, inherently small, technologies such as chip-sized sensor arrays. This paper will discuss the lessons learned from the VOA experience and how that has shaped the design of a potential second generation VOA based upon GC/IMS technology. Data will be presented from preliminary evaluations of GC technology and the mini-IMS when exposed to VOCs likely to be detected aboard spacecraft. Results from the evaluation of an integrated GC/mini-IMS system will be shown if available.

  9. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  10. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time

  11. IMS/Satellite Situation Center report. Special IMS periods for 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Special International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) Satellite Periods selected at times when two or more satellites are expected to be in interesting regions of the magnetosphere simultaneously are described. Data are presented to aid in defining a program of magnetospheric observations which emphasizes coordinated measurements of satellites, rockets, balloons, aircraft, and ground-based stations. The position is given of currently operating high altitude spacecraft in the Geocentric Solar Ecliptic, Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric, and Solar Magnetic coordinate systems to determine their passage through the bow shock, the magnetopause, the cusp, or the neutral sheet region. Information on the synchronous and low altitude spacecraft and experiments are included in tabular form along with a tabular summary of all the rocket, balloon, and aircraft campaigns in 1976.

  12. Current status of IMS plasma wave research. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a review of the status of magnetospheric plasma wave science as a result of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). The presence of an international effort has supported the development and completion of the numerous magnetospheric science spacecraft launched during the IMS, including GEOS, ISEE, and EXOS B. Ground-based VLF observations are considered along with coordinated ground-based and satellite observations. During the IMS, plasma wave research using satellite data has covered a wide range of subjects. Attention is given to magnetospheric electrostatic emissions, magnetospheric electromagnetic plasma waves, continuum radiation, auroral kilometric radiation, auroral zone plasma waves, plasma waves in the magnetosheath and near the mangetopause, and plasma waves at the bow shock.

  13. Robust sliding mode continuous control of an IM drive

    SciTech Connect

    Jezernik, K.; Hren, A.; Drevensek, D.

    1995-12-31

    A control approach for robust trajectory tracking of IM servodrive based on the variable structure systems (VSS) is described. A new discrete-time control algorithm has been developed by combining VSS and Lyapunov design. It possesses all the good properties of the sliding mode and avoids the unnecessary discontinuity of the control input, thus eliminating chattering which has been considering as serious obstacles for applications of VSS. A unified control approach for current, torque and motion control based on the discrete-time sliding mode for application in indirect vector control of an IM drive is developed. The sliding mode approach can be applied to the control of an Im drive due to the replacement of the hysteresis controller with widely used PWM technique. All the theoretical issues are verified by experiment. The experimental system consists of a transputer and a microcontroller, thus allowing parallel processing.

  14. Direct analysis of organic priority pollutants by IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giam, C. S.; Reed, G. E.; Holliday, T. L.; Chang, L.; Rhodes, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    Many routine methods for monitoring of trace amounts of atmospheric organic pollutants consist of several steps. Typical steps are: (1) collection of the air sample; (2) trapping of organics from the sample; (3) extraction of the trapped organics; and (4) identification of the organics in the extract by GC (gas chromatography), HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), or MS (Mass Spectrometry). These methods are often cumbersome and time consuming. A simple and fast method for monitoring atmospheric organics using an IMS (Ion Mobility Spectrometer) is proposed. This method has a short sampling time and does not require extraction of the organics since the sample is placed directly in the IMS. The purpose of this study was to determine the responses in the IMS to organic 'priority pollutants'. Priority pollutants including representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, phenols, chlorinated pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) were analyzed in both the positive and negative detection mode at ambient atmospheric pressure. Detection mode and amount detected are presented.

  15. Data from ISEE-3 for the IMS period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1982-01-01

    The International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) Project represents a joint effort between the European Space Agency and NASA. The primary objective of the project is the study of the outer magnetosphere. A review is presented concerning the data available from ISEE-3 up to the end of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) period (December 31, 1979), taking into account the approaches used to obtain the data. Attention is given to the ISEE-3 as an upstream monitor, ISEE-3 an an observer of the magnetosphere, aspects of ISEE-3 data availability, questions regarding the data link, and the definitive orbit position of ISEE-3 throughout the IMS.

  16. A Trust Ranking Method to Prevent IM Spam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jun

    The problem of IM (Instant Messaging) SPAM, also known as SPIM, has become a challenge in recent years. The current anti-SPAM methods are not quite suitable for SPIM because of the differences in system infrastructures and characteristics between IM and email service. In order to effectively eliminate SPIM, we propose a trust ranking method in this paper. The mechanism to build up reputation network, global reputation and local trust ranking algorithms, reputation management, and SPIM filtering methods are presented. The experiments under five treat modes and algorithms enhancement are also introduced. The experiment shows that the proposed method is resilient to deal with SPIM attacks under several threat models.

  17. Hinderniserkennung und -verfolgung mit einer PMD-kamera im automobil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamm, Thomas; Vacek, Stefan; Natroshvilli, Koba; Marius Zöllner, J.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Die Detektion von Hindernissen vor dem Automobil ist eine Hauptanforderung an moderne Fahrerassistenzsysteme (FAS). In dieser Arbeit wird ein System vorgestellt, das mit Hilfe einer PMDKamera (Photomischdetektor) Hindernisse auf der Fahrspur erkennt und deren relevante Parameter bestimmt. Durch die PMD-Kamera werden zunächst 3D-Tiefenbilder der Fahrzeugumwelt generiert. Nach einem initialen Filterprozess werden im Tiefenbild mit Hilfe eines Bereichswachstumsverfahrens Hindernisse gesucht. Zur Stabilisierung des Verfahrens und zur Parameterberechnung wird ein Kaiman Filter eingesetzt. Das Ergebnis ist eine Liste aller Hindernisse im Fahrbereich des Automobils.

  18. Static corrections for enhanced signal detection at IMS seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Neil; Wookey, James; Selby, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Seismic monitoring forms an important part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for verifying the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Analysis of seismic data can be used to discriminate between nuclear explosions and the tens of thousands of natural earthquakes of similar magnitude that occur every year. This is known as "forensic seismology", and techniques include measuring the P-to-S wave amplitude ratio, the body-to-surface wave magnitude ratio (mb/Ms), and source depth. Measurement of these seismic discriminants requires very high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data, and this has led to the development and deployment of seismic arrays as part of the IMS. Array processing methodologies such as stacking can be used, but optimum SNR improvement needs an accurate estimate of the arrival time of the particular seismic phase. To enhance the imaging capability of IMS arrays, we aim to develop site-specific static corrections to the arrival time as a function of frequency, slowness and backazimuth. Here, we present initial results for the IMS TORD array in Niger. Vespagrams are calculated for various events using the F-statistic to clearly identify seismic phases and measure their arrival times. Observed arrival times are compared with those predicted by 1D and 3D velocity models, and residuals are calculated for a range of backazimuths and slownesses. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement in signal fidelity provided by these corrections.

  19. VLBI for Gravity Probe B: the guide star, IM Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Lebach, D. E.; Ransom, R. R.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.

    2015-11-01

    We review the radio very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the guide star, IM Peg, and three compact extragalactic reference sources, made in support of the NASA/Stanford gyroscope relativity mission, Gravity Probe B (GP-B). The main goal of the observations was the determination of the proper motion of IM Peg relative to the distant Universe. VLBI observations made between 1997 and 2005 yield a proper motion of IM Peg of -20.83 ± 0.09 mas yr-1 in α and -27.27 ± 0.09 mas yr-1 in δ in a celestial reference frame of extragalactic radio galaxies and quasars virtually identical to the International Celestial Reference Frame 2 (ICRF2). They also yield a parallax for IM Peg of 10.37 ± 0.07 mas, corresponding to a distance of 96.4 ± 0.7 pc. The uncertainties are standard errors with statistical and estimated systematic contributions added in quadrature. These results met the pre-launch requirements of the GP-B mission to not discernibly degrade the estimates of the geodetic and frame-dragging effects.

  20. The (Im)possibility of the Project: Radford Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill

    2010-01-01

    In this address, the author engages both with the possibility "and" the impossibility of the educational project--and suggests something of what it means to say this. His presentation is specifically addressed to the theme of the (im)possibility of the educational project. He draws from philosophy, literature, psychoanalysis and history,…

  1. The Education of Children in Im/Migrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arzubiaga, Angela E.; Nogueron, Silvia C.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of im/migrant children in schools have increased throughout the world. The principal receiving areas are North America, Western Europe, the Persian Gulf, Asia and the Pacific, and the Southern Cone of South America. In the United States, one out of every four children younger than the age of 8 lives in a family where at least one…

  2. VoIM-Mediated Cooperative Tasks for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnery, George M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of telephones--even mobile phones--in language learning is not unique (see Chinnery 2006). The literature is also The literature is also replete with imaginative ideas on how to apply Internet chat software like instant messengers (IM) to language learning. A more recent technological development of use to educators is Internet telephony,…

  3. Synchronization of IM and HC: The Navy Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Confidential letter to Admiral R.L.J. Long, Vice Chief of Naval Operations dated 27 February 1979. [2] CNO Memo Ser : 987/239915 dated 22 August 1979...Oriskany (1966) IM can save lives and resources. Bien -Hoa Air Base, Vietnam (1965) Ammunition train explosion, Roseville, CA. (1973) Bomb explosion

  4. Regelungen im Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen in Deutschland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gundula; Freund, Astrid; Gründig, Friedrich

    Im Zuge der Globalisierung von Produktion und Handel ändert sich auch der Charakter der Vorschriften im Lebensmittelrecht. Zunehmend treten internationale Rechtsbestimmungen, Abkommen, Standards und andere Normen an die Stelle nationaler Regelungen.

  5. Choosing the Right Free IM Providers and Clients for Your Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izenstark, Amanda K.

    2009-01-01

    With virtual library services increasing, public services librarians may find themselves with questions such as: What instant messaging services (IM) are available? Which IM service would best suit my patrons' needs? Which IM service best suits my library's technology profile? This column describes the features and functionality of major instant…

  6. Flexible Authoring and Delivery of Online Courses Using IMS Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Henry; Janssen, José; Koper, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the IMS Learning Design (IMS LD) specification in 2003, many initiatives have been undertaken to build authoring tools that are simple enough to be used by non-technical instructors and teachers. IMS LD's technical complexity is believed to be a major burden for the adoption of the specification. We have developed a new…

  7. IM30 triggers membrane fusion in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Raoul; Heidrich, Jennifer; Saur, Michael; Schmüser, Lars; Roeters, Steven J; Hellmann, Nadja; Woutersen, Sander; Bonn, Mischa; Weidner, Tobias; Markl, Jürgen; Schneider, Dirk

    2015-05-08

    The thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria is a unique internal membrane system harbouring the complexes of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain. Despite their apparent importance, little is known about the biogenesis and maintenance of thylakoid membranes. Although membrane fusion events are essential for the formation of thylakoid membranes, proteins involved in membrane fusion have yet to be identified in photosynthetic cells or organelles. Here we show that IM30, a conserved chloroplast and cyanobacterial protein of approximately 30 kDa binds as an oligomeric ring in a well-defined geometry specifically to membranes containing anionic lipids. Triggered by Mg(2+), membrane binding causes destabilization and eventually results in membrane fusion. We propose that IM30 establishes contacts between internal membrane sites and promotes fusion to enable regulated exchange of proteins and/or lipids in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts.

  8. Information Management (IM) Strategic Plan. Version 2.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    commercial standards facilitate outsourcing of activities where appropriate. People routinely telecommute , saving office space and reducing impacts on... people and embodies the principles of a “learning organization”. The IM community, working in partnership with its customers, has redesigned how it does...wide perspective to realize our shared vision for the future. We must become a learning organization, work as a team, and empower people to achieve

  9. QUARTERLY TECHNICAL REPORT FOR IN-MINE (IM) SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2001-07-01

    A circuit that had been earlier lab-tested to eliminate multi-antenna interference in the In-mine (IM) system was fabricated, implemented and tested successfully in a system setting. An adaptive, tracking comb-filter for the through-the-earth (TTE) communications system was designed and implemented. This resulted in noticeable noise reduction. Studies for multi-channel transmission have begun.

  10. 'Immobile' (im), a recessive lethal mutation of Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Droin, A; Beauchemin, M L

    1975-10-01

    'Immobile' (im) is a recessive lethal mutation discovered in the F3 of a Xenopus (Xenopus laevis laevis) originating from a mesodermal nucleus of a neurula transplanted into an enucleated egg. The im embryos do not contract after mechanical stimulation nor do they present any spontaneous contraction from the neurula stage onwards. Development proceeds normally during the first days after which deformation of the lower jaw and tail are observed. The im tadpoles die when normal controls are at the feeding stage. Nevous and muscular tissues are histologically normal in the mutant tadpoles; at advanced stages, however, an irregularity in the path of the myofibrils is observed which is especially conspicuous in the electron microscope. Cholinesterases and ATPase are present in the mutant muscles. Parabiosis and chimerae experiments have shown that parabionts and grafts behave according to their own genotype. Cultures of presumptive axial systems with or without ectoderm lead to the conclusion that, first of all, the abnormality is situated in the mesodermal cells and secondly that the first muscular contractions in normal Xenopus laevis are of myogenic origin. The banding pattern of the myofibrils is normal as was shown by obtaining contractions of glycerol extracted in myoblasts with ATP. It seems therefore that in this mutation, the abnormality is situated in the membraneous system of the muscular cell, sarcoplasmic reticulum and/or tubular system as is probably the case in the mdg mutation of the mouse.

  11. ImSET: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, Joseph M.; Scott, Michael J.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2005-07-19

    This version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the ''next generation'' of the previously developed Visual Basic model (ImBUILD 2.0) that was developed in 2003 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. More specifically, a special-purpose version of the 1997 benchmark national Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) -developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version allows for more complete and automated analysis of the essential features of energy efficiency investments in buildings, industry, transportation, and the electric power sectors. This version also incorporates improvements in the treatment of operations and maintenance costs, and improves the treatment of financing of investment options. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act.

  12. Assessing the detection capability of the global IMS infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, A.; Vergoz, J.; Brachet, N.; Ceranna, L.; Green, D.; Evers, L.

    2008-12-01

    A global scale analysis based on available detection lists for all operating IMS infrasound stations confirms that the primary factor controlling signal detectability is the seasonal variability of the stratospheric wind circulation. At most arrays, near %80 of the detections in the 0.2 to 2 Hz bandpass are associated with propagation downwind of the dominant wind direction. The seasonal transition in the bearings and number of detections between easterly and westerly directions is presented. The observed detection capability of the IMS network is compared to the predicted one using near-real time atmospheric updates and station- dependent wind noise models. The influence of individual model parameters on the network performance is systematically assessed. At frequencies of interest for detecting atmospheric explosions (0.2 to 2 Hz), the simulations predict that explosions equivalent to ~500 t of TNT would be detected by at least two stations of the full IMS network at any time of the year. Comprehensive ground-truth databases provide a statistical approach for evaluating the potential of infrasound monitoring. Accidental explosions are analysed and used here as benchmark for validating the calculated threshold maps. Such studies would help to optimize the siting of infrasound arrays with respect to both the number and configuration in order to monitor infrasonic sources of interest. They are an important step to enable a successful monitoring regime for atmospheric or surface events to act as an effective verification tool in any future enforcement of the CTBT.

  13. Achieving E-learning with IMS Learning Design--Workflow Implications at the Open University of the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westera, Wim; Brouns, Francis; Pannekeet, Kees; Janssen, Jose; Manderveld, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses the Open University of the Netherlands as an instructive case for the introduction of e-learning based on the IMS Learning Design specification (IMS LD). The IMS LD specification, as approved by the IMS Global Learning Consortium in 2003, enables the specification and encoding of learning scenarios that describe any design of a…

  14. Trace concentrations of imazethapyr (IM) affect floral organs development and reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana: IM-induced inhibition of key genes regulating anther and pollen biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haifeng; Li, Yali; Sun, Chongchong; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Bai, Xiaocui; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how herbicides affect plant reproduction and growth is critical to develop herbicide toxicity model and refine herbicide risk assessment. Although our knowledge of herbicides toxicity mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level in plant vegetative phase has increased substantially in the last decades, few studies have addressed the herbicide toxicity problematic on plant reproduction. Here, we determined the long-term (4-8 weeks) effect of a chiral herbicide, imazethapyr (IM), which has been increasingly used in plant crops, on floral organ development and reproduction in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. More specifically, we followed the effect of two IM enantiomers (R- and S-IM) on floral organ structure, seed production, pollen viability and the transcription of key genes involved in anther and pollen development. The results showed that IM strongly inhibited the transcripts of genes regulating A. thaliana tapetum development (DYT1: DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM 1), tapetal differentiation and function (TDF1: TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION1), and pollen wall formation and developments (AMS: ABORTED MICROSPORES, MYB103: MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 103, MS1: MALE STERILITY 1, MS2: MALE STERILITY 2). Since DYT1 positively regulates 33 genes involved in cell-wall modification (such as, TDF1, AMS, MYB103, MS1, MS2) that can catalyze the breakdown of polysaccharides to facilitate anther dehiscence, the consistent decrease in the transcription of these genes after IM exposure should hamper anther opening as observed under scanning electron microscopy. The toxicity of IM on anther opening further lead to a decrease in pollen production and pollen viability. Furthermore, long-term IM exposure increased the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) in the DNA of A. thaliana and also altered the DNA of A. thaliana offspring grown in IM-free soils. Toxicity of IM on floral organs development and reproduction was generally higher in the presence of the R-IM

  15. PREFACE: 3rd International Meeting on Silicene (IMS-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Abdelkader; Enriquez, Hanna; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Oughaddou, Hamid

    2014-03-01

    Silicene, the new supernova material Silicon is formed in a large amount during supernova nucleo-synthesis and it is the 8th most common chemical element in the universe. Today modern electronics make large use of bulk silicon, which has consequently an extremely large impact on the world industry and economy. The need for more powerful, faster and less energy-consuming integrated circuits requires in the future the use of nanotechnologies. The ultimate step concerning silicon is silicene (the 2D silicon-based analogue of graphene). This material is of paramount importance as it requires the use of the same technologies and production lines as silicon. Even if theoreticians had predicted its possible existence, it is only in 2010 that a team of pioneers from CINAM-France, ISMO-France and UCF-USA has presented for the first time the experimental evidence of the formation of silicene. Since then research is exploding (like a supernova!) both on the experimental and theoretical sides, with the main aim of replacing bulk silicon with this potentially revolutionary material. However, before any possible industrial use, it has first to be prepared or synthesized in various stripe and sheet shapes on insulating surfaces on which its physical and chemical properties have to be analyzed in detail. A second step is its chemical functionalization through various dopants to achieve different tasks, expected or not yet imagined. Chemists and physicists, experimentalists and theoreticians are involved in this thrilling work. A wide array of techniques, from the subtle chemistry reaction networks, to all those of experimental surface science (from synchrotron radiation to scanning tunneling microscopy) as well as those of theoretical chemistry (from {\\it ab initio} to density functional theory calculations) are involved. Big progress has been made since 2010 and the success of this third International Meeting on Silicene (IMS-3) is demonstrated by the present proceedings

  16. Bedeutung der Informationsqualität bei Kaufentscheidungen im Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräfe, Gernot; Maaß, Christian

    Bei Kauf- und Verkaufsentscheidungen ist das Internet eine bedeutende Informationsquelle für Anbieter und Nachfrager. Während Anbieter ihre Produkte und Dienstleistungen sehr gut kennen und dazu Informationen bereitstellen, sehen sich Nachfrager oft mit einem Informationsdefizit konfrontiert. Sie haben unvollständige Kenntnisse über die Anbieter, ihre Produkte, Preise und weitere Geschäftsbedingungen und informieren sich daher im Internet. Die unausgewogene Informationsverteilung zwischen beiden Parteien wird als Informationsasymmetrie bezeichnet [Kaas 1991, S. 360], [Kleinaltenkamp 1992, S. 812], [Rohrbach 1997, S. 49].

  17. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  18. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, E. C.; Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Paterson, W. R.; Lipatov, A. S.; Paschalidis, N. P.; Coplan, M. A.; Cassidy, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    NASA and ESA are planning the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) to the Jupiter system with specific emphases on Europa and Ganymede from these respective space agencies. The Japanese Space Agency is also planning an orbiter mission to explore Jupiter’s magnetosphere and the Galilean satellites. For NASA’s Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) we are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) with two main goals which can also be applied to the other Galilean moons, 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter’s magnetosphere and 2) infer the 4π surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa’s sub-surface ocean, while the second gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, and between the moon surfaces and subsurface layers putatively including oceans. The measurement of the interactions for all the Galilean moons can be used to trace the in situ ion measurements of pickup ions back to either Europa’s or Ganymede’s surface from the respectively orbiting spacecraft. The IMS instrument, being developed under NASA’s Astrobiology Instrument Development Program (ASTID), would maximally achieve plasma measurement requirements for JEO and EJSM while moving forward our knowledge of Jupiter system composition and source processes to far higher levels than previously envisaged. The ASTID-supported IMS, applicable to the NASA spacecraft, is designed to operate in a high radiation environment with minor and trace ion detection capability. The latter goal is achieved by measuring pickup ions at spacecraft altitudes and using a 3D hybrid model of the interaction in order to construct 3D global model of the electric and magnetic fields around these bodies. The pickup ion trajectories can then be traced back down to the surface. In the case of Europa we also show that Europa’s ionosphere is

  19. Building Adaptive Game-Based Learning Resources: The Integration of IMS Learning Design and

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgos, Daniel; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Sierra, Jose Luis; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD) is a specification to create units of learning (UoLs), which express a certain pedagogical model or strategy (e.g., adaptive learning with games). However, the authoring process of a UoL remains difficult because of the lack of high-level authoring tools for IMS-LD, even more so when the focus is on specific topics,…

  20. IMS method performance analyses for Giardia in water under differing conditions.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Huang, Chihpin

    2007-08-01

    Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) has been specified as a standard method for the measurement of Giardia under USEPA Method 1623. In this study, IMS was evaluated on the basis of recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts under various IMS operation conditions. Significant change in recovery was observed by altering the debris ratio of water samples. Notably, cyst recovery efficiencies utilizing IMS dropped with increased turbidity, and results for varying dosages of magnetic beads and cysts indicate that 1 / 100 immunomagnetic beads is sufficient to conjugate large numbers of cysts. Changing vessel volume and replacing the sample buffer had no significant effect on cyst recovery efficiencies.

  1. Completing and sustaining IMS network for the CTBT Verification Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meral Ozel, N.

    2015-12-01

    The CTBT International Monitoring System is to be comprised of 337 facilities located all over the world for the purpose of detecting and locating nuclear test explosions. Major challenges remain, namely the completion of the network where most of the remaining stations have either environmental, logistical and/or political issues to surmont (89% of the stations have already been built) and the sustainment of a reliable and state-of the-art network covering 4 technologies - seismic, infrasound , hydroacoustic and radionuclide. To have a credible and trustworthy verification system ready for entry into force of the Treaty, the CTBTO is protecting and enhancing its investment of its global network of stations and is providing effective data to the International Data Centre (IDC) and Member States. Regarding the protection of the CTBTO's investment and enhanced sustainment of IMS station operations, the IMS Division is enhancing the capabilities of the monitoring system by applying advances in instrumentation and introducing new software applications that are fit for purpose. Some examples are the development of noble gas laboratory systems to process and analyse subsoil samples, development of a mobile noble gas system for onsite inspection purposes, optimization of Beta Gamma detectors for Xenon detection, assessing and improving the efficiency of wind noise reduction systems for infrasound stations, development and testing of infrasound stations with a self-calibrating capability, and research into the use of modular designs for the hydroacoustic network.

  2. IM7/LARC(tm) MPEI-1 Polymide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, T. H.; Cano, R. J.; Jensen, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    LARC(Trademark) MPEI-1 (Langley Research Center(Trademark) modified phenylethynyl imide-1) phenylethynyl containing aromatic polymide, is based on the reaction of biphenyl dianhydride (BPDA), 3,4'-oxydianiline (3,4'-ODA), 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxy)benzene (APB), 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAP) and 4-phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride (PEPA), presumably resulting in a mixture of linear, branched and star shaped phenylethynyl containing imides which was evaluated as a matrix for high-performance composites. The poly(amid acid) solution of MPEI-1 in N-methypyrrolidinone was synthesized at 35% and 42% solids. Unidirectional prepreg was fabricated from these solutions and Hercules IM7 carbon fiber utilizing NASA- Langley's multipurpose prepreg machine. The temperature-dependent volatile depletion rates, thermal crystallization behavior and resin theology were characterized. Based on this information, a composite molding cycle was developed which yielded well consolidated, void-free laminates. Composite mechanical properties such as short beam shear strength, longitudinal and transverse flexural strength and flexural modulus, longitudinal tensile strength and notched and unnotched compression strengths were measured at room temperature (RT) and elevated temperatures. These mechanical properties are compared with those of IM7/LARC(Trademark) PETI-5 composites.

  3. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Hartle, R.; Lipatov, A.; Mahaffy, P.; Paterson, W.; Paschalidis, N.; Coplan, M.; Cassidy, T.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA are planning the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) to the Jupiter system with specific emphasis to Europa and Ganymede, respectively. The Japanese Space Agency is also planning an orbiter mission to explore Jupiter's magnetosphere and the Galilean satellites. For NASA's Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) we are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) with two main goals which can also be applied to the other Galilean moons, 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the 4n surface composition to trace elemental [1] and significant isotopic levels. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, and between the moon surfaces and subsurface layers putatively including oceans. The measurement of the interactions for all the Galilean moons can be used to trace the in situ ion measurements of pickup ions back to either Europa's or Ganymede's surface from the respectively orbiting spacecraft. The IMS instrument, being developed under NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development Program, would maximally achieve plasma measurement requirements for JEO and EJSM while moving forward our knowledge of Jupiter system composition and source processes to far higher levels than previously envisaged.

  4. The Applicability of Incoherent Array Processing to IMS Seismic Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.

    2014-03-01

    The seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) are highly diverse in size and configuration, with apertures ranging from under 1 km to over 60 km. Large and medium aperture arrays with large inter-site spacings complicate the detection and estimation of high-frequency phases lacking coherence between sensors. Pipeline detection algorithms often miss such phases, since they only consider frequencies low enough to allow coherent array processing, and phases that are detected are often attributed qualitatively incorrect backazimuth and slowness estimates. This can result in missed events, due to either a lack of contributing phases or by corruption of event hypotheses by spurious detections. It has been demonstrated previously that continuous spectral estimation can both detect and estimate phases on the largest aperture arrays, with arrivals identified as local maxima on beams of transformed spectrograms. The estimation procedure in effect measures group velocity rather than phase velocity, as is the case for classical f-k analysis, and the ability to estimate slowness vectors requires sufficiently large inter-sensor distances to resolve time-delays between pulses with a period of the order 4-5 s. Spectrogram beampacking works well on five IMS arrays with apertures over 20 km (NOA, AKASG, YKA, WRA, and KURK) without additional post-processing. Seven arrays with 10-20 km aperture (MJAR, ESDC, ILAR, KSRS, CMAR, ASAR, and EKA) can provide robust parameter estimates subject to a smoothing of the resulting slowness grids, most effectively achieved by convolving the measured slowness grids with the array response function for a 4 or 5 s period signal. Even for medium aperture arrays which can provide high-quality coherent slowness estimates, a complementary spectrogram beampacking procedure could act as a quality control by providing non-aliased estimates when the coherent slowness grids display

  5. Computer-Aided Teaching Using MATLAB/Simulink for Enhancing an IM Course With Laboratory Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentounsi, A.; Djeghloud, H.; Benalla, H.; Birem, T.; Amiar, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic procedure using MATLAB software to plot the circle diagram for two induction motors (IMs), with wound and squirrel-cage rotors, from no-load and blocked-rotor tests. The advantage of this approach is that it avoids the need for a direct load test in predetermining the IM characteristics under reduced power.…

  6. Crystal Structure of the 25 kDa Subunit of Human Cleavage Factor I{m}

    SciTech Connect

    Coseno,M.; Martin, G.; Berger, C.; Gilmartin, G.; Keller, W.; Doublie, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cleavage factor Im is an essential component of the pre-messenger RNA 3'-end processing machinery in higher eukaryotes, participating in both the polyadenylation and cleavage steps. Cleavage factor Im is an oligomer composed of a small 25 kDa subunit (CF Im25) and a variable larger subunit of either 59, 68 or 72 kDa. The small subunit also interacts with RNA, poly(A) polymerase, and the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein. These protein-protein interactions are thought to be facilitated by the Nudix domain of CF Im25, a hydrolase motif with a characteristic {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} fold and a conserved catalytic sequence or Nudix box. We present here the crystal structures of human CF Im25 in its free and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) bound forms at 1.85 and 1.80 Angstroms, respectively. CF Im25 crystallizes as a dimer and presents the classical Nudix fold. Results from crystallographic and biochemical experiments suggest that CF Im25 makes use of its Nudix fold to bind but not hydrolyze ATP and Ap4A. The complex and apo protein structures provide insight into the active oligomeric state of CF Im and suggest a possible role of nucleotide binding in either the polyadenylation and/or cleavage steps of pre-messenger RNA 3'-end processing.

  7. 40 CFR 51.352 - Basic I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following model I/M program inputs and local characteristics, such as vehicle mix and local fuel controls... both in operation and for SIP approval. (1) Network type. Centralized testing. (2) Start date. For areas with existing I/M programs, 1983. For areas newly subject, 1994. (3) Test frequency....

  8. 40 CFR 51.352 - Basic I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... following model I/M program inputs and local characteristics, such as vehicle mix and local fuel controls... both in operation and for SIP approval. (1) Network type. Centralized testing. (2) Start date. For areas with existing I/M programs, 1983. For areas newly subject, 1994. (3) Test frequency....

  9. 40 CFR 51.352 - Basic I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... areas with existing I/M programs, 1983. For areas newly subject, 1994. (3) Test frequency. Annual... implemented I/M programs shall include NOX controls from the start. (c) On-board diagnostics (OBD). For those... of malfunctions or system deterioration identified by or affecting OBD systems as specified in §...

  10. The Conceptual Structure of IMS Learning Design Does Not Impede Its Use for Authoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derntl, M.; Neumann, S.; Griffiths, D.; Oberhuemer, P.

    2012-01-01

    IMS Learning Design (LD) is the only available interoperability specification in the area of technology enhanced learning that allows the definition and orchestration of complex activity flows and resource environments in a multirole setting. IMS LD has been available since 2003, and yet it has not been widely adopted either by practitioners or by…

  11. I'm just a girl who can't say no... or yes.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jane

    2017-02-08

    'I'm just a girl who can't say no,' sang Ado Annie in the musical Oklahoma. Well, I'm just a girl who can't say yes or no, I discovered, when taking part in a health questionnaire. 'These are yes or no answers,' said the person grilling me, pointedly.

  12. Having an IM-PACT: A Model for Improving Instructional Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    Explains IM-PACT (Instructional Model-Purpose, Audience, Content, Technique), a framework for systematic lesson design in an information literacy context. Includes an example of IM-PACT's application to a high school-level information skills lesson plan, collaboratively designed by the teacher-librarian and English teacher. (LRW)

  13. Software enhancements to the IVSEM model of the CTBTO IMS.

    SciTech Connect

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2011-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) developed the Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model (IVSEM) to estimate the performance of the International Monitoring System (IMS) operated by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). IVSEM was developed in several phases between 1995 and 2000. The model was developed in FORTRAN with an IDL-based user interface and was compiled for Windows and UNIX operating systems. Continuing interest in this analysis capability, coupled with numerous advances in desktop computer hardware and software since IVSEM was written, enabled significant improvements to IVSEM run-time performance and data analysis capabilities. These improvements were implemented externally without modifying the FORTRAN executables, which had been previously verified. This paper describes the parallelization approach developed to significantly reduce IVSEM run-times and the new test setup and analysis tools developed to facilitate better IVSEM operation.

  14. Use of the IMS infrasound network for global atmospheric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Elisabeth; Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, Lars; Farges, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The development of the Infrasound International Monitoring System (IMS), used for the verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, represents a powerful tool to measure permanently, at a global scale and over large periods of time, the disturbances of the atmosphere. The network is mostly sensitive to infrasound in the range 0.02 to 5 Hz, but it also measures gravity waves at lower frequencies and tidal waves. Measurements with the IMS infrasound network provide both the state of the atmospheric wave guide and of the atmospheric waves which can be used to study the dynamics of the atmosphere. The first way is to study the variability of infrasound from quasi continuous sources such as ocean swells or volcanoes in relation with changes in large scale atmospheric structures. Since infrasound propagate in the stratosphere and mesosphere, atmospheric parameters which affect the infrasound propagation can be investigated from ground measurements of infrasound. Azimuth changes of infrasound from volcanis eruption were used to retrieve mesospheric zonal winds. The amplitude fluctuations of infrasound from ocean swells represent planetary waves which modulate the atmospheric wave guide. Fluctuations are much larger in Northern hemispheres than in Southern hemisphere, because the amplitude of planetary waves is larger in Northern hemisphere where continental areas are more important. Infrasound monitoring also revealed anomalies at a seasonal scale in Antarctica or at the scale of several days in Arctic regionsin relation with Sudden Stratospheric Warming. The second way is the direct observation of large scale gravity waves. These waves, mainly produced in the troposphere, propagate upwards and break in the stratosphere producing a chaotic forcing of the stratosphere. This is at the origin of a slow and large scale motion in which air masses are driven upward and poleward from the tropical lower stratosphere. In polar regions, they are pushed downward producing

  15. Sorrell v. IMS Health: issues and opportunities for informaticians

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Carolyn; DeMuro, Paul; Goodman, Kenneth W; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the US Supreme Court decided Sorrell v. IMS Health, Inc., a case that addressed the mining of large aggregated databases and the sale of prescriber data for marketing prescription drugs. The court struck down a Vermont law that required data mining companies to obtain permission from individual providers before selling prescription records that included identifiable physician prescription information to pharmaceutical companies for drug marketing. The decision was based on constitutional free speech protections rather than data sharing considerations. Sorrell illustrates challenges at the intersection of biomedical informatics, public health, constitutional liberties, and ethics. As states, courts, regulatory agencies, and federal bodies respond to Sorrell, informaticians’ expertise can contribute to more informed, ethical, and appropriate policies. PMID:23104048

  16. Observed and predicted performance of the global IMS infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Landes, M.

    2012-04-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network is being deployed to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Global-scale analyses of data recorded by this network indicate that the detection capability exhibits strong spatio-temporal variations. Previous studies estimated radiated acoustic source energy from remote infrasound observations using empirical yield-scaling relations, which account for the along-path stratospheric winds. Although the empirical wind correction reduces the variance in the explosive energy versus pressure relationship, large error remains in the yield estimates. Numerical modeling techniques are now widely employed to investigate the role of different factors describing atmospheric infrasound sources and propagation. Here we develop a theoretical attenuation relation from a large set of numerical simulations using the Parabolic Equation method. This relation accounts for the effects of the source frequency; geometrical spreading and dissipation; and realistic atmospheric specifications on the pressure wave attenuation. Compared with previous studies, the derived attenuation relation incorporates a more realistic physical description of infrasound propagation. By incorporating real ambient noise information at the receivers, we obtain the minimum detectable source amplitude in the frequency band of interest for detecting explosions. Empirical relations between the source spectrum and explosion yield are used to infer detection thresholds in tons of TNT equivalent. In the context of future verification of the CTBT, the obtained attenuation relation provides a more realistic picture of the spatio-temporal variability of the IMS network performance. The attenuation relation could also be used in the design and maintenance of an arbitrary infrasound monitoring network.

  17. Sequence-specific DNA alkylation by tandem Py-Im polyamide conjugates.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rhys Dylan; Kawamoto, Yusuke; Hashiya, Kaori; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Tandem N-methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole (Py-Im) polyamides with good sequence-specific DNA-alkylating activities have been designed and synthesized. Three alkylating tandem Py-Im polyamides with different linkers, which each contained the same moiety for the recognition of a 10 bp DNA sequence, were evaluated for their reactivity and selectivity by DNA alkylation, using high-resolution denaturing gel electrophoresis. All three conjugates displayed high reactivities for the target sequence. In particular, polyamide 1, which contained a β-alanine linker, displayed the most-selective sequence-specific alkylation towards the target 10 bp DNA sequence. The tandem Py-Im polyamide conjugates displayed greater sequence-specific DNA alkylation than conventional hairpin Py-Im polyamide conjugates (4 and 5). For further research, the design of tandem Py-Im polyamide conjugates could play an important role in targeting specific gene sequences.

  18. IMS/Satellite Situation Center report. Daily summary for IMS high-altitude satellites, days 182-365 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The orbital positions of a number of high-altitude satellites, capable of making magnetospheric measurements in the second half of 1977, are described. The following satellites are considered: Vela 5A, Vela 5B, Vela 6A, Vela 6B, Solrad 11A, Solrad 11B, Hawkeye 1, Prognoz 5, Explorer 47, Explorer 50, and ISEE-A/-B. The orbit elements used for generating the satellite ephemeris are shown. Complete presentations of the positions of these satellites for the second half of 1977 are given, as well as the IMS/SSC special periods. Detailed plots illustrating these periods are provided. Time-ordered tables of magnetopause crossings, bow shock crossings, neutral sheet passes, midlatitude magnetotail passes, high-latitude magnetotail passes, and Hawkeye 1 northern cusp passes are presented. Bar charts covering the second half of 1977 are given which identify thirteen special periods (Nos. 10-22) based upon certain conjunctions of the high-altitude satellites.

  19. 78 FR 56939 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on August 16, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a...''), IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. (``IMS Global'') has filed written notifications...

  20. 78 FR 22297 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on March 19, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a...''), IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. (``IMS Global'') has filed written notifications...

  1. 77 FR 66635 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on October 9, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a...''), IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. (``IMS Global'') has filed written notifications...

  2. 77 FR 54611 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given... Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. has filed... research project. Membership in this group research project remains open, and IMS Global...

  3. Monitoring the Earth's Atmosphere with the Global IMS Infrasound Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachet, Nicolas; Brown, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Le Bras, Ronan; Coyne, John; Given, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    , they represent valuable data for other civil applications like monitoring of natural hazards (volcanic activity, storm tracking) and climate change. Non-noise detections are used in network processing at the IDC along with seismic and hydroacoustic technologies. The arrival phases detected on the three waveform technologies may be combined and used for locating events in an automatically generated bulletin of events. This automatic event bulletin is routinely reviewed by analysts during the interactive review process. However, the fusion of infrasound data with the other waveform technologies has only recently (in early 2010) become part of the IDC operational system, after a software development and testing period that began in 2004. The build-up of the IMS infrasound network, the recent developments of the IDC infrasound software, and the progress accomplished during the last decade in the domain of real-time atmospheric modelling have allowed better understanding of infrasound signals and identification of a growing data set of ground-truth sources. These infragenic sources originate from natural or man-made sources. Some of the detected signals are emitted by local or regional phenomena recorded by a single IMS infrasound station: man-made cultural activity, wind farms, aircraft, artillery exercises, ocean surf, thunderstorms, rumbling volcanoes, iceberg calving, aurora, avalanches. Other signals may be recorded by several IMS infrasound stations at larger distances: ocean swell, sonic booms, and mountain associated waves. Only a small fraction of events meet the event definition criteria considering the Treaty verification mission of the Organization. Candidate event types for the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin include atmospheric or surface explosions, meteor explosions, rocket launches, signals from large earthquakes and explosive volcanic eruptions.

  4. Platoon Interactions and Real-World Traffic Simulation and Validation Based on the LWR-IM.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kok Mun; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne

    2016-01-01

    Platoon based traffic flow models form the underlying theoretical framework in traffic simulation tools. They are essentially important in facilitating efficient performance calculation and evaluation in urban traffic networks. For this purpose, a new platoon-based macroscopic model called the LWR-IM has been developed in [1]. Preliminary analytical validation conducted previously has proven the feasibility of the model. In this paper, the LWR-IM is further enhanced with algorithms that describe platoon interactions in urban arterials. The LWR-IM and the proposed platoon interaction algorithms are implemented in the real-world class I and class II urban arterials. Another purpose of the work is to perform quantitative validation to investigate the validity and ability of the LWR-IM and its underlying algorithms to describe platoon interactions and simulate performance indices that closely resemble the real traffic situations. The quantitative validation of the LWR-IM is achieved by performing a two-sampled t-test on queues simulated by the LWR-IM and real queues observed at these real-world locations. The results reveal insignificant differences of simulated queues with real queues where the p-values produced concluded that the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. Thus, the quantitative validation further proved the validity of the LWR-IM and the embedded platoon interactions algorithm for the intended purpose.

  5. Platoon Interactions and Real-World Traffic Simulation and Validation Based on the LWR-IM

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kok Mun; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne

    2016-01-01

    Platoon based traffic flow models form the underlying theoretical framework in traffic simulation tools. They are essentially important in facilitating efficient performance calculation and evaluation in urban traffic networks. For this purpose, a new platoon-based macroscopic model called the LWR-IM has been developed in [1]. Preliminary analytical validation conducted previously has proven the feasibility of the model. In this paper, the LWR-IM is further enhanced with algorithms that describe platoon interactions in urban arterials. The LWR-IM and the proposed platoon interaction algorithms are implemented in the real-world class I and class II urban arterials. Another purpose of the work is to perform quantitative validation to investigate the validity and ability of the LWR-IM and its underlying algorithms to describe platoon interactions and simulate performance indices that closely resemble the real traffic situations. The quantitative validation of the LWR-IM is achieved by performing a two-sampled t-test on queues simulated by the LWR-IM and real queues observed at these real-world locations. The results reveal insignificant differences of simulated queues with real queues where the p-values produced concluded that the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. Thus, the quantitative validation further proved the validity of the LWR-IM and the embedded platoon interactions algorithm for the intended purpose. PMID:26731745

  6. Large meteoroid detection using the global IMS infrasound system

    SciTech Connect

    ReVelle, D. O.

    2002-01-01

    Numerous signals will be routinely detected using the 60 array, global IMS (International Monitoring System) infrasound network. Infrasonic signals are sub-audible quasi longitudinal, atmospheric waves in the frequency band from about 10 Hz to -5 minutes in period (limited by human acoustic audibility in the high frequency limit and by the wave-guide acoustic cut-off frequency and the Brunt Vaisalla frequency in the low frequency limit) These small amplitude waves are a natural subset of the well-known atmospheric acoustic-gravity wave regime which has been identified from the linearized equations of geophysical fluid mechanics in the flat earth approximation, neglecting the earth's rotation, etc. For the IMS network the instrumental pressure sensor response was chosen to range from -4 to 0.02 Hz. These are ground-based arrays of typically 4 to 9 sensors with separations of about 1-2 km between the array elements. Examples of naturally occurring impulsive sources of infrasound include volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, bolides (large meteor-fireballs entering the atmospheric at very high speeds up to -300 times faster than ground-level sound waves), microbaroms (the 'voice of the sea' due to the interaction of atmospheric storms and surface ocean waves) and the supersonic motion of the auroral electrojet at about 100 km altitude (auroral infrasonic waves), etc. In this paper we will briefly summarize our current state of knowledge of infrasound signals from bolides. This summary will include the generation of the signals at the complex, quasi-cylindrical line source, to the refraction and diffraction of the propagating waves by the middle atmospheric and tropospheric temperature and wind systems and finally, the detection of the signals and their interpretation by inferring the source properties, Le., source altitude, blast radius (see below) and the source energy, etc. In addition, we will use infrasound from energetic bolides to estimate the expected steady state

  7. CDDO-Im protects from acetaminophen hepatotoxicity through induction of Nrf2-dependent genes

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, Scott A.; Buckley, David B.; Tanaka, Yuji; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2009-04-01

    CDDO-Im is a synthetic triterpenoid recently shown to induce cytoprotective genes through the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway, an important mechanism for the induction of cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. Upon oxidative or electrophilic insult, the transcription factor Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus, heterodimerizes with small Maf proteins, and binds to antioxidant response elements (AREs) in the upstream promoter regions of various cytoprotective genes. To further elucidate the hepatoprotective effects of CDDO-Im, wild-type and Nrf2-null mice were pretreated with CDDO-Im (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (DMSO), and then administered acetaminophen (500 mg/kg, i.p.). Pretreatment of wild-type mice with CDDO-Im reduced liver injury caused by acetaminophen. In contrast, hepatoprotection by CDDO-Im was not observed in Nrf2-null mice. CDDO-Im increased Nrf2 protein expression and Nrf2-ARE binding in wild-type, but not Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, CDDO-Im increased the mRNA expression of the Nrf2 target genes NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (Nqo1); glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (Gclc); and heme-oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. Conversely, CDDO-Im did not induce Nqo1, Gclc, and Ho-1 mRNA expression in Nrf2-null mice. Collectively, the present study shows that CDDO-Im pretreatment induces Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective genes and protects the liver from acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury.

  8. A two-stage extraction procedure for insensitive munition (IM) explosive compounds in soils.

    PubMed

    Felt, Deborah; Gurtowski, Luke; Nestler, Catherine C; Johnson, Jared; Larson, Steven

    2016-12-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is developing a new category of insensitive munitions (IMs) that are more resistant to detonation or promulgation from external stimuli than traditional munition formulations. The new explosive constituent compounds are 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), nitroguanidine (NQ), and nitrotriazolone (NTO). The production and use of IM formulations may result in interaction of IM component compounds with soil. The chemical properties of these IM compounds present unique challenges for extraction from environmental matrices such as soil. A two-stage extraction procedure was developed and tested using several soil types amended with known concentrations of IM compounds. This procedure incorporates both an acidified phase and an organic phase to account for the chemical properties of the IM compounds. The method detection limits (MDLs) for all IM compounds in all soil types were <5 mg/kg and met non-regulatory risk-based Regional Screening Level (RSL) criteria for soil proposed by the U.S. Army Public Health Center. At defined environmentally relevant concentrations, the average recovery of each IM compound in each soil type was consistent and greater than 85%. The two-stage extraction method decreased the influence of soil composition on IM compound recovery. UV analysis of NTO established an isosbestic point based on varied pH at a detection wavelength of 341 nm. The two-stage soil extraction method is equally effective for traditional munition compounds, a potentially important point when examining soils exposed to both traditional and insensitive munitions.

  9. [IM/FM phase delay time measurement method of laser for TDLAS].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Ma, Wei-Guang

    2014-11-01

    The present paper presents an method of using fiber Michelson interferometer to measure the Intensity-frequency (IM/FM) phase delay change of the laser, it could realize the phase delay time measurement, while modulating the laser. Experimental results show that the laser output signal intensity-frequency (IM/FM) phase delay of the laser has some differences from the theoretical value. The proposed method can be used to compensate for real-time signal strength-frequency (IM/FM) phase delay effect on the gas concentration measurement results.

  10. Membrane chaperoning by members of the PspA/IM30 protein family

    PubMed Central

    Thurotte, Adrien; Brüser, Thomas; Mascher, Thorsten; Schneider, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT PspA, IM30 (Vipp1) and LiaH, which all belong to the PspA/IM30 protein family, form high molecular weight oligomeric structures. For all proteins membrane binding and protection of the membrane structure and integrity has been shown or postulated. Here we discuss the possible membrane chaperoning activity of PspA, IM30 and LiaH and propose that larger oligomeric structures bind to stressed membrane regions, followed by oligomer disassembly and membrane stabilization by protein monomers or smaller/different oligomeric scaffolds.

  11. IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics database.

    PubMed Central

    Giudicelli, V; Chaume, D; Bodmer, J; Müller, W; Busin, C; Marsh, S; Bontrop, R; Marc, L; Malik, A; Lefranc, M P

    1997-01-01

    IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics database, is an integrated database specializing in immunoglobulins, T-cell receptors (TcR) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of all vertebrate species, initiated and co-ordinated by Marie-Paule Lefranc, CNRS, Montpellier II University, Montpellier, France (lefranc@ligm.crbm.cnrs-mop.fr). IMGT includes two databases: LIGM-DB (for immunoglobulins and TcR) and MHC/HLA-DB. IMGT comprises expertly annotated sequences and alignment tables. LIGM-DB contains more than 19 000 immunoglobulin and TcR sequences from 78 species. MHC/HLA-DB contains class I and class II human leukocyte antigen alignment tables. An IMGT tool, DNAPLOT, developed for immunoglobulins, TcR and MHC sequence alignments, is also available. IMGT works in close collaboration with the EMBL database. IMGT goals are to establish a common data access to all immunogenetics data, including sequences, oligonucleotide primers, gene maps and other genetic data of immunoglobulins, TcR and MHC molecules, and to provide a graphical user-friendly data access. IMGT will have important implications in medical research (repertoire in autoimmune diseases, AIDS, leukemias, lymphomas), therapeutical approaches (antibody engineering), genome diversity and genome evolution studies. IMGT can be accessed at http://imgt.cnusc.fr:8104 and http://www.ebi.ac.uk/IMGT PMID:9016537

  12. The IMS Satellite Situation Center. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.; Vette, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    Following a brief historical review of the SSC (Satellite Situation Center), created by the U.S. for the IMS (International Magnetospheric Study), its main functions are discussed. The services of the SSC include the accurate orbit determination of the satellites, 12-18 months in advance and the coordination of simultaneous observations by a multispacecraft system, which are essential for the optimization of the scientific gains from experiments conducted with limited resources. For 1976 SSC generated plots of the satellites Vela 5B, Vela 6A, Vela 6B, Hawkeye 1, Imp H (7), Imp J (8) by computing certain projections of the solar ecliptic, solar magnetospheric, and solar magnetic coordinate systems. The SSC system was automated by the addition of a computer system capable of interactive graphics. The SSC can also provide the ground-based campaigns with a graphical or tabular information about the position low-altitude satellites in any coordinate system. The possible participation of the SSC in future Electrodynamics Explorer mission, Space Shuttle programs is also being explored.

  13. Evaluation of infrasonic detection capability for the CTBT/IMS

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, W.T.; Whitaker, R.W.; Olson, J.V.

    1996-09-01

    Evaluation of infrasonic detection capability for the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (IMS/CTBT) is made with respect to signal analysis and global coverage. Signal analysis is anecdotally reviewed with respect to composite power, correlation and F-statistic detection algorithms. In the absence of adaptive pre-filtering, either cross-correlation or F-statistic detection is required. As an unbounded quantity, the F-statistic offers potentially greater sensitivity to signals of interest. With PURE state pre-filtering, power detection begins to become competitive with correlation and F-statistic detection. Additional application of simple post-filters of minimum duration and maximum bearing deviation results in unique positive detection of an identified impulsive infrasonic signal. Global coverage estimates are performed as a useful deterministic evaluation of networks, offering an easily interpreted network performance, which compliments previous probabilistic network evaluations. In particular, adequate coverage (2 sites), uniform coverage, and redundant coverage (3 to 4 sites) provide figures of merit in evaluating detection, location and vulnerability, respectively. Coverage estimates of the I60 network have been performed which indicate generally adequate coverage for the majority of the globe. Modest increase of station gain (increase of number of elements from 4 to 7) results in significant increase in coverage for mean signal values. Ineffective sites and vulnerability sites are identified which suggest further refinement of the network is possible.

  14. Synthesis of cyclic Py-Im polyamide libraries.

    PubMed

    Li, Benjamin C; Montgomery, David C; Puckett, James W; Dervan, Peter B

    2013-01-04

    Cyclic Py-Im polyamides containing two GABA turn units exhibit enhanced DNA binding affinity, but extensive studies of their biological properties have been hindered due to synthetic inaccessibility. A facile modular approach toward cyclic polyamides has been developed via microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis of hairpin amino acid oligomer intermediates followed by macrocyclization. A focused library of cyclic polyamides 1-7 targeted to the androgen response element (ARE) and the estrogen response element (ERE) were synthesized in 12-17% overall yield. The Fmoc protection strategy also allows for selective modifications on the GABA turn units that have been shown to improve cellular uptake properties. The DNA binding affinities of a library of cyclic polyamides were measured by DNA thermal denaturation assays and compared to the corresponding hairpin polyamides. Fluorescein-labeled cyclic polyamides have been synthesized and imaged via confocal microscopy in A549 and T47D cell lines. The IC(50) values of compounds 1-7 and 9-11 were determined, revealing remarkably varying levels of cytotoxicity.

  15. Subretinal Visual Implant Alpha IMS--Clinical trial interim report.

    PubMed

    Stingl, Katarina; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Besch, Dorothea; Chee, Caroline K; Cottriall, Charles L; Gekeler, Florian; Groppe, Markus; Jackson, Timothy L; MacLaren, Robert E; Koitschev, Assen; Kusnyerik, Akos; Neffendorf, James; Nemeth, Janos; Naeem, Mohamed Adheem Naser; Peters, Tobias; Ramsden, James D; Sachs, Helmut; Simpson, Andrew; Singh, Mandeep S; Wilhelm, Barbara; Wong, David; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2015-06-01

    A subretinal visual implant (Alpha IMS, Retina Implant AG, Reutlingen, Germany) was implanted in 29 blind participants with outer retinal degeneration in an international multicenter clinical trial. Primary efficacy endpoints of the study protocol were a significant improvement of activities of daily living and mobility to be assessed by activities of daily living tasks, recognition tasks, mobility, or a combination thereof. Secondary efficacy endpoints were a significant improvement of visual acuity/light perception and/or object recognition (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01024803). During up to 12 months observation time twenty-one participants (72%) reached the primary endpoints, of which thirteen participants (45%) reported restoration of visual function which they use in daily life. Additionally, detection, localization, and identification of objects were significantly better with the implant power switched on in the first 3 months. Twenty-five participants (86%) reached the secondary endpoints. Measurable grating acuity was up to 3.3 cycles per degree, visual acuities using standardized Landolt C-rings were 20/2000, 20/2000, 20/606 and 20/546. Maximal correct motion perception ranged from 3 to 35 degrees per second. These results show that subretinal implants can restore very-low-vision or low vision in blind (light perception or less) patients with end-stage hereditary retinal degenerations.

  16. Analyzing Electric Field Morphology Through Data-Model Comparisons of the GEM IM/S Assessment Challenge Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liemohn, Michael W.; Ridley, Aaron J.; Kozyra, Janet U.; Gallagher, Dennis L.; Thomsen, Michelle F.; Henderson, Michael G.; Denton, Michael H.; Brandt, Pontus C.; Goldstein, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    The storm-time inner magnetospheric electric field morphology and dynamics are assessed by comparing numerical modeling results of the plasmasphere and ring current with many in situ and remote sensing data sets. Two magnetic storms are analyzed, April 22,2001 and October 21-23,2001, which are the events selected for the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Inner Magnetosphere/Storms (IM/S) Assessment Challenge (IMSAC). The IMSAC seeks to quantify the accuracy of inner magnetospheric models as well as synthesize our understanding of this region. For each storm, the ring current-atmosphere interaction model (RAM) and the dynamic global core plasma model (DGCPM) were run together with various settings for the large-scale convection electric field and the nightside ionospheric conductance. DGCPM plasmaspheric parameters were compared with IMAGE-EUV plasmapause extractions and LANL-MPA plume locations and velocities. RAM parameters were compared with Dst*, LANL-MPA fluxes and moments, IMAGE-MENA images, and IMAGE-HENA images. Both qualitative and quantitative comparisons were made to determine the electric field morphology that allows the model results to best fit the plasma data at various times during these events. The simulations with self-consistent electric fields were, in general, better than those with prescribed field choices. This indicates that the time-dependent modulation of the inner magnetospheric electric fields by the nightside ionosphere is quite significant for accurate determination of these fields (and their effects). It was determined that a shielded Volland-Stern field description driven by the 3-hour Kp index yields accurate results much of the time, but can be quite inconsistent. The modified Mcllwain field description clearly lagged in overall accuracy compared to the other fields, but matched some data sets (like Dst*) quite well. The rankings between the simulations varied depending on the storm and the individual data sets, indicating that

  17. Dynamic hydrogen bonding and DNA flexibility in minor groove binders: molecular dynamics simulation of the polyamide f-ImPyIm bound to the Mlu1 (MCB) sequence 5'-ACGCGT-3' in 2:1 motif.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Chrystal D; Ferrara, Maddi M; Manka, Julie L; Davis, Zachary S; Register, Janna

    2015-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of the DNA 10-mer 5'-CCACGCGTGG-3' alone and complexed with the formamido-imidazole-pyrrole-imidazole (f-ImPyIm) polyamide minor groove binder in a 2:1 fashion were conducted for 50 ns using the pbsc0 parameters within the AMBER 12 software package. The change in DNA structure upon binding of f-ImPyIm was evaluated via minor groove width and depth, base pair parameters of Slide, Twist, Roll, Stretch, Stagger, Opening, Propeller, and x-displacement, dihedral angle distributions of ζ, ε, α, and γ determined using the Curves+ software program, and hydrogen bond formation. The dynamic hydrogen bonding between the f-ImPyIm and its cognate DNA sequence was compared to the static image used to predict sequence recognition by polyamide minor groove binders. Many of the predicted hydrogen bonds were present in less than 50% of the simulation; however, persistent hydrogen bonds between G5/15 and the formamido group of f-ImPyIm were observed. It was determined that the DNA is wider in the Complex than without the polyamide binder; however, there is flexibility in this particular sequence, even in the presence of the f-ImPyIm as evidenced by the range of minor groove widths the DNA exhibits and the dynamics of the hydrogen bonding that binds the two f-ImPyIm ions to the minor groove. The Complex consisting of the DNA and the 2 f-ImPyIm binders shows slight fraying of the 5' end of the 10-mer at the end of the simulation, but the portion of the oligomer responsible for recognition and binding is stable throughout the simulation. Several structural changes in the Complex indicate that minor groove binders may have a more active role in inhibiting transcription than just preventing binding of important transcription factors.

  18. The IM30/Vipp1 C-terminus associates with the lipid bilayer and modulates membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Raoul; West, Ana; Debus, Martina; Saur, Michael; Markl, Jürgen; Sachs, Jonathan N; Schneider, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    IM30/Vipp1 proteins are crucial for thylakoid membrane biogenesis in chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. A characteristic C-terminal extension distinguishes these proteins from the homologous bacterial PspA proteins, and this extension has been discussed to be key for the IM30/Vipp1 activity. Here we report that the extension of the Synechocystis IM30 protein is indispensable, and argue that both, the N-terminal PspA-domain as well as the C-terminal extension are needed in order for the IM30 protein to conduct its in vivo function. In vitro, we show that the PspA-domain of IM30 is vital for stability/folding and oligomer formation of IM30 as well as for IM30-triggered membrane fusion. In contrast, the IM30 C-terminal domain is involved in and necessary to stabilize defined contacts to negatively charged membrane surfaces, and to modulate the IM30-induced membrane fusion activity. Although the two IM30 protein domains have distinct functional roles, only together they enable IM30 to work properly.

  19. Global R&D through the Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huray, Paul G.

    1997-01-01

    The industry-led, international intelligent manufacturing systems (IMS) program provides a special vehicle for joint research and development between government, industry and academia in the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, and Europe. Since its beginning in 1989, the IMS program has progressed through a feasibility phase which demonstrated that international legal barriers, trade issues, and intellectual property problems could be overcome. The program is constructed to provide higher quality design, customized products, shorter delivery cycles and lower costs. Interactions between partner companies have led to new business opportunities for mutual profit and some claim to have learned strategic information about their international competitors. The IMS program is growing through the participation of hundreds of corporate and university partners who share responsibilities in specific projects and jointly reap benefits for their manufacturing products and processes. The logic for choosing or not choosing the IMS mechanisms will be discussed and R and D projects will be identified.

  20. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYST RECOVERY IN WATER BY EPA METHOD 1623: EVALUATION OF A MODIFIED IMS DISSOCIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Methods 1622 and 1623 are the benchmarks for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in water. These methods consist of filtration, elution, purification by immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and microscopic analysis after staining with a fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate...

  1. A blue luminescent MOF as a rapid turn-off/turn-on detector for H2O, O2 and CH2Cl2, MeCN: ∞³[Ce(Im)3ImH]·ImH.

    PubMed

    Meyer, L V; Schönfeld, F; Zurawski, A; Mai, M; Feldmann, C; Müller-Buschbaum, K

    2015-03-07

    The blue emitting luminescent MOF ∞³[Ce(Im)3ImH]·ImH forms a 3D-framework with Kagomé net topology. The framework exhibits an intense blue luminescence which can be retained upon activation of the MOF with the formula ∞³[Ce(Im)3ImH]. The luminescence is metal-based due to parity-allowed 5d-4f-transitions. Time-dependent investigations of the interaction with liquid and gas analytes show that the MOF – by utilising 5d-4f-transitions of Ce(3+) – can be used as a high-speed "turn-off" detector for water and oxygen in dry air. Other protic or polar solvents, like methanol, acetone or pyridine, which also show a "turn-off"-effect can be distinguished from water-detection either on a time scale (ranging up to 250,000 : 1) or a shift of the chromaticity, the latter being pronounced for MeOH. The fast time-dependent decrease of the luminescence intensity for water arises from an extremely fast hydrolysis and is irreversible. Polar aprotic molecules like dichloromethane and acetonitrile can also result in a "turn-on"-effect of the luminescence intensity due to their behaviour as additional sensitizers for Ce(3+)-emission. We conclude that the cerium-MOF can be utilised in gas and liquid sensing applications as a detector material for water and oxygen in dry air. The luminescence is intense with good quantum yield between 55% (as-synthesised) and 36% (activated). This implies that only milligram amounts of the material are needed to detect the analyte species and is especially useful, as the MOF can be directly used as-synthesised for water detection in applications for which an irreversible signal change is desired, e.g. preventing a signal change upon unwanted re-drying.

  2. Method for Estimating Evaporative Potential (IM/CLO) from ASTM Standard Single Wind Velocity Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-10

    actual measured values of im/clo at 1 m/s, RMSE = 0.013 and MAE = 0.009. This report describes the mathematical methods for estimating the...thermal manikin; mathematical model; thermoregulation modeling; predictive modeling; physiological Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified...and actual measured values of im/clo at 1 m/s, RMSE = 0.013 and MAE = 0.009. This report describes the mathematical methods for estimating the

  3. ImOSM: intermittent evolution and robustness of phylogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Thi Nguyen, Minh Anh; Gesell, Tanja; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-02-01

    Among the criteria to evaluate the performance of a phylogenetic method, robustness to model violation is of particular practical importance as complete a priori knowledge of evolutionary processes is typically unavailable. For studies of robustness in phylogenetic inference, a utility to add well-defined model violations to the simulated data would be helpful. We therefore introduce ImOSM, a tool to imbed intermittent evolution as model violation into an alignment. Intermittent evolution refers to extra substitutions occurring randomly on branches of a tree, thus changing alignment site patterns. This means that the extra substitutions are placed on the tree after the typical process of sequence evolution is completed. We then study the robustness of widely used phylogenetic methods: maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and a distance-based method (BIONJ) to various scenarios of model violation. Violation of rates across sites (RaS) heterogeneity and simultaneous violation of RaS and the transition/transversion ratio on two nonadjacent external branches hinder all the methods recovery of the true topology for a four-taxon tree. For an eight-taxon balanced tree, the violations cause each of the three methods to infer a different topology. Both ML and MP fail, whereas BIONJ, which calculates the distances based on the ML estimated parameters, reconstructs the true tree. Finally, we report that a test of model homogeneity and goodness of fit tests have enough power to detect such model violations. The outcome of the tests can help to actually gain confidence in the inferred trees. Therefore, we recommend using these tests in practical phylogenetic analyses.

  4. A critical analysis of Sorrell v. IMS Health, Inc.: Pandora's box at best.

    PubMed

    Bibet-Kalinyak, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Sorrell v. IMS Health, Inc. ("IMS Health"), a remarkable health care case with resounding First Amendment and economic repercussions, features the clashing interests of the State of Vermont and aggressive free market players from the pharmaceutical and data mining industries in a constitutional battle over Free Speech. In 2007, Vermont enacted Act 80, The Confidentiality of Prescription Information Act, prohibiting the sale, disclosure, and use of pharmacy records. Together with two other data miners and PhRMA, an association of brand-name drug manufacturers, IMS Health successfully challenged the constitutionality of Act 80 on First Amendment grounds. This article examines the legal arguments of IMS Health and Act 80 and analyzes why IMS Health stands out for potentially challenging the traditional doctrine of commercial speech and the resulting legal implications. After reviewing the Supreme Court's reasoning, the article concludes that, although the Supreme Court reached the appropriate outcome, it did so by unjustifiably departing from the established legal doctrine of commercial speech and the American tradition of consumer protection. At best, IMS Health's reasoning opens a legal Pandora's Box potentially leading to an onset of new commercial speech challenges; at worst, it manufactured a Trojan Horse aimed at eroding the traditional regulatory safeguards that maintain a balance between the needs of consumers and corporations alike.

  5. The Helicobacter pylori genome is modified at CATG by the product of hpyIM.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Q; Peek, R M; Miller, G G; Blaser, M J

    1997-01-01

    To understand mechanisms of DNA methylation in Helicobacter pylori, a human pathogen associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma, we cloned a putative DNA methyltransferase gene, hpyIM. This gene contains a 990-bp open reading frame encoding a 329-amino-acid protein, M.HpyI. Sequence analysis revealed that M.HpyI was closely related to CATG-recognizing adenine DNA methyltransferases, including M.NlaIII in N. lactamica. hpyIM was present in all H. pylori strains tested. DNA from wild-type H. pylori strains was resistant to digestion by SphI and NlaIII, which recognize DNA at sites containing CATG, whereas their isogenic hpyIM mutants were susceptible, indicating lack of modification. Overexpression of hpyIM in Escherichia coli rendered DNA from these cells resistant to NlaIII digestion, confirming the role of hpyIM in modifying CATG sites. We conclude that hpyIM encodes a DNA methyltransferase, M.HpyI, that is well conserved among diverse H. pylori strains and that modifies H. pylori genomes at CATG sites. PMID:9352933

  6. Determination of volatile compounds by GC-IMS to assign the quality of virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocío; Dobao-Prieto, María del Mar; Arce, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-11-15

    The characterisation of different olive oil categories (extra virgin, virgin and lampante) using Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) was improved by replacing the multicapillary column (MCC) with a capillary column (CC). The data obtained with MCC-IMS and CC-IMS were evaluated, studying both the global and the specific information obtained after the analysis of the volatile fraction of olive oils. A better differentiation of the oil categories was obtained employing CC vs MCC, since the classification percentage obtained with the CC-IMS was 92% as opposed to 87% obtained with MCC-IMS; although in productivity analytical terms, MCC offer a faster analysis than GC. The specific information obtained was also used to build a database, with a view to facilitating the characterization of specific attributes of olive oils. A total of 26 volatile metabolites (aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and esters) were identified. Finally, as revealed by an ANOVA test, some volatiles differed markedly in content among the different categories of oil. The data obtained confirms the potential of IMS as a reliable analytical screening technique, which can be used to assign the correct category to an olive oil sample.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of azithromycin after i.v. and i.m. administration to sheep.

    PubMed

    Cárceles, C M; Font, A; Escudero, E; Espuny, A; Marín, P; Fernández-Varón, E

    2005-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of azithromycin after i.v. and i.m. injection at a single dosage of 20 mg/kg bodyweight was studied in sheep. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein until 120 h after dosing for both routes. Plasma concentrations of azithromycin were determined by bioassay. The plasma concentration-time data of azithromycin best fitted a three-compartment model after i.v. administration and a two-compartment model with first-order absorption after i.m. administration. The elimination half-life (t(1/2lambdaz)) was 47.70 +/- 7.49 h after i.v. administration and 61.29 +/- 13.86 h after i.m. administration. Clearance value after i.v. dosing was 0.52 +/- 0.08 L/kg.h. After i.m. administration a peak azithromycin concentration (C(max)) of 1.26 +/- 0.19 mg/L was achieved at 1.24 +/- 0.31 h (t(max)). Area under the curve (AUC) were 38.85 +/- 5.83 mg.h/L and 36.03 +/- 1.52 mg.h/L after i.v. and i.m. administration respectively. Bioavailability obtained after i.m. administration was 94.08 +/- 11.56%. The high tolerability of this i.m. preparation and the favourable PK behaviour such as the long half-life and high bioavailability make azithromycin likely to be effective in sheep.

  8. Improved Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Bovine Lymph Node Tissue Using Immunomagnetic Separation (IMS)-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Linda D.; McNair, James; McCallan, Lyanne; Gordon, Alan; Grant, Irene R.

    2013-01-01

    Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) can selectively isolate and concentrate Mycobacterium bovis cells from lymph node tissue to facilitate subsequent detection by PCR (IMS-PCR) or culture (IMS-MGIT). This study describes application of these novel IMS-based methods to test for M. bovis in a survey of 280 bovine lymph nodes (206 visibly lesioned (VL), 74 non-visibly lesioned (NVL)) collected at slaughter as part of the Northern Ireland bovine TB eradication programme. Their performance was evaluated relative to culture. Overall, 174 (62.1%) lymph node samples tested positive by culture, 162 (57.8%) by IMS-PCR (targeting IS6110), and 191 (68.2%) by IMS-MGIT culture. Twelve (6.9%) of the 174 culture positive lymph node samples were not detected by either of the IMS-based methods. However, an additional 79 M. bovis positive lymph node samples (27 (13.1%) VL and 52 (70.3%) NVL) were detected by the IMS-based methods and not by culture. When low numbers of viable M. bovis are present in lymph nodes (e.g. in NVLs of skin test reactor cattle) decontamination prior to culture may adversely affect viability, leading to false negative culture results. In contrast, IMS specifically captures whole M. bovis cells (live, dead or potentially dormant) which are not subject to any deleterious treatment before detection by PCR or MGIT culture. During this study only 2.7% of NVL lymph nodes tested culture positive, whereas 70.3% of the same samples tested M. bovis positive by the IMS-based tests. Results clearly demonstrate that not only are the IMS-based methods more rapid but they have greater detection sensitivity than the culture approach currently used for the detection of M. bovis infection in cattle. Adoption of the IMS-based methods for lymph node testing would have the potential to improve M. bovis detection in clinical samples. PMID:23469275

  9. Data collection in IMS: It's not as easy as it looks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis M.; Maswadeh, Waleed; Shoff, Donald B.; Harden, Charles S.; Snyder, A. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Data collection in Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is not as easy an endeavor as it appears. Despite the advent of high speed personal computers and fast analog-to-digital converters (ADC's), care must be taken to ensure that reliable data are obtained in a timely fashion. This is especially true in hyphenated techniques, e.g. GC-IMS, where the amount of data increases dramatically when gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) data is being collected. Using the Graseby GC-IMS, with a gate repetition rate of 33 Hz, it is theoretically possible to collect 33 spectra per second. This collection rate is not realistically obtained due to a number of factors. Among these factors are inaccuracy of the timing signal from the IMS, the necessity to store the data, disk input/output limitations, disk operating system limitations, and program overhead. Taking these factors into account, we have achieved a data collection rate of 20 spectra per second. This paper will describe these problems, demonstrate the practical effects these problems present, and present methods for minimizing these effects.

  10. 2016 IMS Recommendations on women's midlife health and menopause hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Baber, R J; Panay, N; Fenton, A

    2016-04-01

    The International Menopause Society (IMS) has produced these new 2016 recommendations on women's midlife health and menopause hormone therapy (MHT) to help guide health-care professionals in optimizing their management of women in the menopause transition and beyond. The term MHT has been used to cover therapies including estrogens, progestogens and combined regimens. For the first time, the 2016 IMS recommendations now include grades of recommendations, levels of evidence and 'good practice points', in addition to section-specific references. Where possible, the recommendations are based on and linked to the evidence that supports them, unless good-quality evidence is absent. Particular attention has been paid to published evidence from 2013 onwards, the last time the IMS recommendations were updated. Databases have been extensively searched for relevant publications using key terms specific to each specialist area within menopause physiology and medicine. Information has also been drawn from international consensus statements published by bodies such as the IMS, the European Menopause and Andropause Society and the North American Menopause Society. The recommendations have been produced by experts derived mainly from the IMS, with the assistance of key collaborators where deemed advantageous. In preparing these international recommendations, experts have taken into account geographical variations in medical care, prevalence of diseases, and country-specific attitudes of the public, medical community and health authorities towards menopause management. The variation in availability and licensing of MHT and other products has also been considered.

  11. Suggested severe local storm operational scenario for GOES I-M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, William E.; Mosher, Fredrick

    1987-01-01

    The GOES I-M satellite system is expected to provide continuous high resolution estimates of temperature and moisture profiles, winds from cloud motions, surface temperature, cloud properties, and precipitation for severe local storm and tropical cyclone events. The suggested operational schedule for the GOES I-M satellite emphasizes the observation frequencies, spatial coverage, spectral bands, etc. for the GOES I-M imager and sounder instruments that are expected to optimize the determination of the relevant meteorological parameters. During severe local storm events, the imager would be programmed to perform high frequency imaging (less than or= 3.5 min) for determining winds from cloud motions and for monitoring severe convection. In addition, the sounder would provide temperature and moisture profiles every hour over a 3000 X 3000 km domain during the antecedent stage or over a 1000 X 1000 km area every 10 minutes during the mature storm stage.

  12. An IMS Station life cycle from a sustainment point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brely, Natalie; Gautier, Jean-Pierre; Foster, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) is to consist of 321 monitoring facilities, composed of four different technologies with a variety of designs and equipment types, deployed in a range of environments around the globe. The International Monitoring System is conceived to operate in perpetuity through maintenance, replacement and recapitalization of IMS facilities' infrastructure and equipment when the end of service life is reached [CTBT/PTS/INF.1163]. Life Cycle techniques and modellization are being used by the PTS to plan and forecast life cycle sustainment requirements of IMS facilities. Through historical data analysis, Engineering inputs and Feedback from experienced Station Operators, the PTS currently works towards increasing the level of confidence on these forecasts and sustainment requirements planning. Continued validation, feedback and improvement of source data from scientific community and experienced users is sought and essential in order to ensure limited effect on data availability and optimal costs (human and financial).

  13. Monitoring the inflammatory response to infection through the integration of MALDI IMS and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Ahmed S.; Schroeder, Kaitlin A.; Seeley, Erin H.; Wilson, Kevin J.; Hammer, Neal D.; Colvin, Daniel C.; Manier, M. Lisa; Nicklay, Joshua J.; Rose, Kristie L.; Gore, John C.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Systemic bacterial infection is characterized by a robust whole organism inflammatory response. Analysis of the immune response to infection involves technologies that typically focus on single organ systems and lack spatial information. Additionally, the analysis of individual inflammatory proteins requires antibodies specific to the protein of interest, limiting the panel of proteins that can be analyzed. Herein we describe the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) to mice systemically infected with Staphylococcus aureus to identify inflammatory protein masses that respond to infection throughout an entire infected animal. Integrating the resolution afforded by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the sensitivity of MALDI IMS provides three-dimensional spatially resolved information regarding the distribution of innate immune proteins during systemic infection, allowing comparisons to in vivo structural information and soft tissue contrast via MRI. Thus, integrating MALDI IMS with MRI provides a systems biology approach to study inflammation during infection. PMID:22704626

  14. Miniature GC-Minicell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) for In Situ Measurements in Astrobiology Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Holland, Paul M.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of volatile chemical species and minerals present in the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and asteroids. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The use of land rovers and balloon aero-rovers place additional emphasis on miniaturization of the analytical instrumentation. In addition, smaller instruments, using tiny amounts of consumables, allow the use of more instrumentation and/or ionger mission life for stationary landers/laboratories. The miniCometary Ice and Dust Experiment (miniCIDEX), which combined Gas Chromatography (GC) with helium Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), was capable of providing the wide range of analytical information required for Astrobiology missions. The IMS used here was based on the PCP model 111 IMS. A similar system, the Titan Ice and Dust Experiment (TIDE), was proposed as part of the Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission (TOAM). Newer GC systems employing Micro Electro- Mechanical System (MEMS) based technology have greatly reduced both the size and resource requirements for space GCs. These smaller GCs, as well as the continuing miniaturization of Astrobiology analytical instruments in general, has highlighted the need for smaller, dry helium IMS systems. We describe here the development of a miniature, MEMS GC-IMS system (MEMS GC developed by Thorleaf Research Inc.), employing the MiniCell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS), from Ion Applications Inc., developed through NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program and NASA s Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program.

  15. Nanomaterial size distribution analysis via liquid nebulization coupled with ion mobility spectrometry (LN-IMS).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seongho; Oberreit, Derek R; Van Schooneveld, Gary; Hogan, Christopher J

    2016-02-21

    We apply liquid nebulization (LN) in series with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS, using a differential mobility analyzer coupled to a condensation particle counter) to measure the size distribution functions (the number concentration per unit log diameter) of gold nanospheres in the 5-30 nm range, 70 nm × 11.7 nm gold nanorods, and albumin proteins originally in aqueous suspensions. In prior studies, IMS measurements have only been carried out for colloidal nanoparticles in this size range using electrosprays for aerosolization, as traditional nebulizers produce supermicrometer droplets which leave residue particles from non-volatile species. Residue particles mask the size distribution of the particles of interest. Uniquely, the LN employed in this study uses both online dilution (with dilution factors of up to 10(4)) with ultra-high purity water and a ball-impactor to remove droplets larger than 500 nm in diameter. This combination enables hydrosol-to-aerosol conversion preserving the size and morphology of particles, and also enables higher non-volatile residue tolerance than electrospray based aerosolization. Through LN-IMS measurements we show that the size distribution functions of narrowly distributed but similarly sized particles can be distinguished from one another, which is not possible with Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis in the sub-30 nm size range. Through comparison to electron microscopy measurements, we find that the size distribution functions inferred via LN-IMS measurements correspond to the particle sizes coated by surfactants, i.e. as they persist in colloidal suspensions. Finally, we show that the gas phase particle concentrations inferred from IMS size distribution functions are functions of only of the liquid phase particle concentration, and are independent of particle size, shape, and chemical composition. Therefore LN-IMS enables characterization of the size, yield, and polydispersity of sub-30 nm particles.

  16. Datamart use for complex data retrieval in an ArcIMS application

    SciTech Connect

    Scherma, S.; Bolivar, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the use of datamarts and data warehousing concepts to expedite retrieval and display of complex attribute data from multi-million record databases. Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed an Internet application (SMART) using ArcIMS that relies on datamarts to quickly retrieve attribute data, associated with, but not contained within GIS layers. The volume of data and the complex relationships within the transactional database made data display within ArcIMS impractical without the use of datamarts. The technical issues and solutions involved in the development are discussed.

  17. Power-efficient method for IM-DD optical transmission of multiple OFDM signals.

    PubMed

    Effenberger, Frank; Liu, Xiang

    2015-05-18

    We propose a power-efficient method for transmitting multiple frequency-division multiplexed (FDM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) optical systems. This method is based on quadratic soft clipping in combination with odd-only channel mapping. We show, both analytically and experimentally, that the proposed approach is capable of improving the power efficiency by about 3 dB as compared to conventional FDM OFDM signals under practical bias conditions, making it a viable solution in applications such as optical fiber-wireless integrated systems where both IM-DD optical transmission and OFDM signaling are important.

  18. Application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in forensic chemistry and toxicology with focus on biological matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Werner; Keller, Thomas; Regenscheit, Priska

    1995-01-01

    The IMS (Ion Mobility Spectroscopy) instrument 'Ionscan' takes advantage of the fact that trace quantities of illicit drugs are adsorbed on dust particles on clothes, in cars and on other items of evidence. The dust particles are collected on a membrane filter by a special attachment on a vacuum cleaner. The sample is then directly inserted into the spectrometer and can be analyzed immediately. We show casework applications of a forensic chemistry and toxicology laboratory. One new application of IMS in forensic chemistry is the detection of psilocybin in dried mushrooms without any further sample preparation.

  19. Toxicity and Intraocular Properties of a Novel Long-Acting Anti-Proliferative and Anti-Angiogenic Compound IMS2186

    PubMed Central

    Falkenstein, Iryna A.; Cheng, Lingyun; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Tammewar, Ajay M.; Barron, Erin C.; Silva, Gabriel A.; Li, Qi-Xiang; Yu, Dehua; Hysell, Michelle; Liu, Guohong; Ke, Ning; Macdonald, James E.; Freeman, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the intraocular properties and toxicity of IMS2186, a small molecule developed as an anti-choroidal neovascularization (anti-CNV) drug. Materials and Methods Cellular toxicity and mechanism of action was tested on cell lines in vitro. Intraocular studies used rabbits for drug dissolution as well as toxicity and rats for the treatment study as well as the toxicity confirmation study. Rabbits' eyes were injected with 2.5 mg of IMS2186 and observed for 36 weeks. Laser-induced CNV in rats was treated with IMS2186, Kenalog, or phosphate-buffered saline (pBS). Fluorescein angiography (FA) and immunohistochemical processing of the globes was performed. Results The anti-proliferative IC50 of IMS2186 for human fibroblast cells was 1.0–3.0 μM and 0.3–3.0 μM for human cancer cells; the IC50 of IMS2186 to inhibit endothelial tube formation was 0.1–0.3 μM. The IC50 of IMS2186 for inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was 0.3–1 μM. The IC50 of IMS2186 for inhibiting macrophage migration was 1 μM. These biological properties were not species specific. IMS2186 can be formulated as a suspension for long-lasting release and when delivered intraocularly, no intraocular toxicity was observed by slit lamp exam, fundus exam, intraocular pressure measurements, or by electroretinography. FA showed a reduction in the leakage in eyes treated with IMS2186 and triamcinolone acetonide; DAPI staining also showed significantly less cellularity in IMS2186-treated lesions as compared to PBS (p = 0.0025). Conclusion IMS2186 may be a safe intraocular therapeutic agent for intraocular proliferation and angiogenesis. PMID:18600493

  20. Evolution of tRNAPhe:imG2 methyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of wyosine derivatives in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Urbonavičius, Jaunius; Rutkienė, Rasa; Lopato, Anželika; Tauraitė, Daiva; Stankevičiūtė, Jonita; Aučynaitė, Agota; Kaliniene, Laura; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Meškys, Rolandas

    2016-01-01

    Tricyclic wyosine derivatives are found at position 37 of eukaryotic and archaeal tRNAPhe. In Archaea, the intermediate imG-14 is targeted by three different enzymes that catalyze the formation of yW-86, imG, and imG2. We have suggested previously that a peculiar methyltransferase (aTrm5a/Taw22) likely catalyzes two distinct reactions: N1-methylation of guanosine to yield m1G; and C7-methylation of imG-14 to yield imG2. Here we show that the recombinant aTrm5a/Taw22-like enzymes from both Pyrococcus abyssi and Nanoarchaeum equitans indeed possess such dual specificity. We also show that substitutions of individual conservative amino acids of P. abyssi Taw22 (P260N, E173A, and R174A) have a differential effect on the formation of m1G/imG2, while replacement of R134, F165, E213, and P262 with alanine abolishes the formation of both derivatives of G37. We further demonstrate that aTrm5a-type enzyme SSO2439 from Sulfolobus solfataricus, which has no N1-methyltransferase activity, exhibits C7-methyltransferase activity, thereby producing imG2 from imG-14. We thus suggest renaming such aTrm5a methyltransferases as Taw21 to distinguish between monofunctional and bifunctional aTrm5a enzymes. PMID:27852927

  1. Usability of a Runtime Environment for the Use of IMS Learning Design in Mixed Mode Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebl, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the first public draft of IMS Learning Design in November 2002, a research project at the Catholic University Eichstaett-Ingolstadt in Germany was dedicated to the conceptual examination and empirical review of IMS Learning Design Level A. A prototypical runtime environment called "lab005" was developed. It was built based…

  2. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  4. Development of the IM147: an alternative inspection/maintenance mass-emission transient test to address vehicle preconditioning concerns.

    PubMed

    Joy, Richard W; Heirigs, Philip L; Torgerson, Garrett D; St Denis, Michael; Austin, Thomas C; Gordon, Jay; Tefft, Bob; Lindner, Jim

    2004-03-01

    A series of studies was performed to develop an alternative to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's gold standard IM240 mass-based emission test. The new IM147 test was based on the second phase of the IM240 that consists of 147 sec of transient vehicle operation. Paired IM240/IM147 tests were conducted on vehicles ranging from 1981 to 1996 to determine IM147 cutpoints and excess emissions were identified. Additionally, an optimized test procedure was developed that combined possible triplicate IM147s with improved drive trace quality control, fast-pass, and retest methods. The optimized procedure was found to provide improved vehicle preconditioning with a relatively minor decrease in excess emissions identification. Resulting identification rates ranged from 96 to 100% for hydrocarbons (HC), 93-100% for CO, and 93-100% for NOx, depending on cutpoint selection, while false failures caused by lack of vehicle preconditioning were reduced to essentially zero. Significant vehicle throughput improvements were achieved through the development of software algorithms involving modal fast-pass and retest procedures. Modal drive trace variation limits also were developed to improve test accuracy. The combination of the algorithms reduced average IM147 test times by nearly 60%.

  5. 76 FR 63659 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is... and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), INS Global Learning Consortium, Inc... remains open, and IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. intends to file additional written...

  6. 76 FR 18797 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on March 3, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a...''), IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney... research project remains open, and IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. intends to file additional...

  7. 78 FR 37571 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on May 30, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a...''), IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. (``IMS Global'') has ] filed written notifications simultaneously...., New York, NY; and LearningMate Solutions, Inc., New York, NY, have been added as parties to...

  8. 76 FR 79217 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on November 28, 2011, pursuant to section 6... Act''), IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. has filed written notifications simultaneously with the... research project. Membership in this group research project remains open, and IMS Global...

  9. 76 FR 34252 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on May 9, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of...''), IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney... remains open, and IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. intends to file additional written...

  10. 75 FR 51114 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on July 13, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a...''), IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney.... Membership in this group research project remains open, and IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. intends...

  11. 77 FR 12881 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on February 6, 2012, pursuant to Section 6... Act''), IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. has filed written notifications simultaneously with the... research project. Membership in this group research project remains open, and IMS Global...

  12. Determination of chlorophenols in water by headspace solid phase microextraction ion mobility spectrometry (HS-SPME-IMS).

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Sanna; Luukkonen, Ville; Nousiainen, Marjaana; Sillanpää, Mika

    2013-09-30

    Chlorophenols (CPs) as persistent toxic compounds are of worldwide environmental concern. Usage of chlorinated phenols, especially pentachlorophenol (PCP), has been restricted or widely banned in many countries due to their possible adverse health effects even at low concentrations. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has received increasing interest in environmental applications due to its unique characteristics, such as portability and speed of analysis. A range of sample introduction methods combined with IMS enable analysis from different environmental matrices. This study utilised headspace solid phase microextraction IMS (HS-SPME-IMS) in the determination of CPs from water samples. The extraction conditions were examined and the method was applied to real water samples. The developed method is suitable to detect CPs at milligram per liter level in water. Based on the results, SPME-IMS setup is feasible as an early warning system for water monitoring of pollutants present in drinking or surface water in case of environmental accidents or leakages.

  13. The (Im)Materiality of Literacy: The Significance of Subjectivity to New Literacies Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Cathy; Merchant, Guy; Pahl, Kate; Rowsell, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article deconstructs the online and offline experience to show its complexities and idiosyncratic nature. It proposes a theoretical framework designed to conceptualise aspects of meaning-making across on- and offline contexts. In arguing for the "(im)materiality" of literacy, it makes four propositions which highlight the complex…

  14. I'm a Scientist, Get Me out of Here! (Australia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Science, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The May event of I'm a Scientist, Get Me Out of Here! harnessed fifteen scientists in three general zones, engaging almost 800 students from twenty two schools across the country, generating 624 answered questions, 406 comments and fifty three live-chat sessions. (Contains 4 photos.)

  15. I'm Sorry "About That": Apologies, Indexicals, and (Unnamed) Offenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margutti, Piera; Traverso, Véronique; Pugliese, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    We investigate an apology format, "I'm sorry about it/that," where indexical terms (pronouns) refer to the offense rather than naming it. We identified two subsets in our collection of indexical apologies. In one, indexicals are subsequent either to the offense formulation or to an apology-relevant event; in the second, indexicals are…

  16. Out-Life Characteristics of IM7/977-3 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Sutter, James K.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Martin, Richard E.; Maryanski, Michael; Schlea, Michelle; Gardner, John M.; Schiferl, Zack R.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to manufacture large structures leads to weight savings and reduced risk relative to joining smaller components. However, manufacture of increasingly large composite components is pushing the out-time limits of epoxy/ carbon fiber prepreg. IM7/977-3 is an autoclave processable prepreg material, commonly used in aerospace structures. The out-time limit is reported as 30 days by the manufacturer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the material processability and composite properties of 977-3 resin and IM7/977-3 prepreg that had been aged at room temperature for up to 60 days. The effects of room temperature aging on the thermal and visco-elastic properties of the materials were investigated. Neat resin was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry to characterize thermal properties and change in activation energy of cure. Neat resin was also evaluated by rheometry to characterize its processability in composite fabrication. IM7/977-3 prepreg was evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis to characterize the curing behavior. Prepreg tack was also evaluated over 60 days. The overall test results suggested that IM7/977-3 was a robust material that offered quality laminates throughout this aging process when processed by autoclave.

  17. "I'm Sorry + Naming the Offense": A Format for Apologizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Letizia; Colón de Carvajal, Isabel; Ticca, Anna Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The present article focuses on "I'm sorry + naming the offense"-formatted apologies occurring in phone calls in English. Apologies of this kind "emerge" and are oriented to as relevant actions when addressing an apologizable that is not the main business in ongoing talk. The sequential analysis of apologies and responses to…

  18. "Chemie im Kontext": A Symbiotic Implementation of a Context-Based Teaching and Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parchmann, Ilka; Grasel, Cornelia; Baer, Anja; Nentwig, Peter; Demuth, Reinhard; Ralle, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    "Chemie im Kontext" (ChiK) is a project that aims at the improvement of chemistry teaching at secondary school in Germany. Based on a framework that was derived from theories and empirical data on the teaching and learning of science, science education researchers and teachers work together on learning communities to transform this…

  19. Generic Service Integration in Adaptive Learning Experiences Using IMS Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de-la-Fuente-Valentin, Luis; Pardo, Abelardo; Kloos, Carlos Delgado

    2011-01-01

    IMS Learning Design is a specification to capture the orchestration taking place in a learning scenario. This paper presents an extension called Generic Service Integration. This paradigm allows a bidirectional communication between the course engine in charge of the orchestration and conventional Web 2.0 tools. This communication allows the…

  20. Investigating Perfect Timesharing: The Relationship between IM-Compatible Tasks and Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorson, Kimberly M.; Ebner, Herschel; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Why are dual-task costs reduced with ideomotor (IM) compatible tasks (Greenwald & Shulman, 1973; Lien, Proctor & Allen, 2002)? In the present experiments, we first examine three different measures of single-task performance (pure single-task blocks, mixed blocks, and long stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] trials in dual-task blocks) and two…

  1. A Service Oriented Web Application for Learner Knowledge Representation, Management and Sharing Conforming to IMS LIP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarinis, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    iLM is a Web based application for representation, management and sharing of IMS LIP conformant user profiles. The tool is developed using a service oriented architecture with emphasis on the easy data sharing. Data elicitation from user profiles is based on the utilization of XQuery scripts and sharing with other applications is achieved through…

  2. The Aries Program with emphasis on the International Magnetospherics Studies /IMS/-Porcupine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honecker, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    This paper will discuss the present state of the development of the Aries Sounding Rocket System with particular emphasis on the configuration and subsystems required to support the IMS Program. A brief history of the development program will be presented. The results of the first five flights, three successes and two failures, will be presented and the observed performance compared to theoretical performance.

  3. InstanceCollage: A Tool for the Particularization of Collaborative IMS-LD Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villasclaras-Fernandez, Eloy D.; Hernandez-Gonzalo, Julio A.; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia; Asensio-Perez, Juan I.; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Martinez-Mones, Alejandra

    2009-01-01

    Current research work in e-learning and more specifically in the field of CSCL (Computer Supported Collaborative Learning) deals with design of collaborative activities, according to computer-interpretable specifications, such as IMS Learning Design, and their posterior enactment using LMSs (Learning Management Systems). A script that describes…

  4. W8...b4 IM, how did u rite??! Digital Writing in the Composition Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partridge, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    From word processing computers, to mobile telephones, to the advent of the Internet, and finally to online communication venues like Instant Messenger (IM), the past four decades have brought an increasing prevalence of technology into our culture that is altering the English language. While decried by parents and lamented by teachers, these…

  5. imDEV: a graphical user interface to R multivariate analysis tools in Microsoft Excel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interactive modules for data exploration and visualization (imDEV) is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet embedded application providing an integrated environment for the analysis of omics data sets with a user-friendly interface. Individual modules were designed to provide toolsets to enable interactive ...

  6. No More "I'm Done!": Fostering Independent Writers in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Yes! Primary students can grow into being independent writers! Disregarding the false notion that writing instruction in the primary grades needs to be mostly teacher directed, Jennifer Jacobson shows teachers how to develop a primary writing workshop that helps nurture independent, engaged writers. "No More I'm Done!" demonstrates how to create a…

  7. I'm "Only" Bleeding: Education as the Practice of Violence against Children. Counterpoints Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Alan A.

    This book explores the construction of the idea of the child as a product of adult needs and school as a place where children may be confined until they are considered socially useful. Drawing parallels with folk singer Bob Dylan's song, "It's All Right, Ma, I'm Only Bleeding," the book argues that the United States' educational system practices a…

  8. Knowledge Base for Automatic Generation of Online IMS LD Compliant Course Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacurar, Ecaterina Giacomini; Trigano, Philippe; Alupoaie, Sorin

    2006-01-01

    Our article presents a pedagogical scenarios-based web application that allows the automatic generation and development of pedagogical websites. These pedagogical scenarios are represented in the IMS Learning Design standard. Our application is a web portal helping teachers to dynamically generate web course structures, to edit pedagogical content…

  9. 40 CFR 51.351 - Enhanced I/M performance standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall include on-road testing (including out-of-cycle repairs in the case of confirmed failures) of at... nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section... the IM240 driving cycle, two-speed testing (as described in appendix B of this subpart S) of...

  10. An LC-IMS-MS Platform Providing Increased Dynamic Range for High-Throughput Proteomic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Erin Shammel; Livesay, Eric A.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Danielson, William F.; Prior, David C.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Belov, Mikhail E.

    2010-02-05

    A high-throughput approach and platform using 15 minute reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography (RPLC) separations in conjunction with ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) measurements was evaluated for the rapid analysis of complex proteomics samples. To test the separation quality of the short LC gradient, a sample was prepared by spiking twenty reference peptides at varying concentrations from 1 ng/mL to 10 µg/mL into a tryptic digest of mouse blood plasma and analyzed with both a LC-Linear Ion Trap Fourier Transform (FT) MS and LC-IMS-TOF MS. The LC-FT MS detected thirteen out of the twenty spiked peptides that had concentrations ≥100 ng/mL. In contrast, the drift time selected mass spectra from the LC-IMS-TOF MS analyses yielded identifications for nineteen of the twenty peptides with all spiking level present. The greater dynamic range of the LC-IMS-TOF MS system could be attributed to two factors. First, the LC-IMS-TOF MS system enabled drift time separation of the low concentration spiked peptides from the high concentration mouse peptide matrix components, reducing signal interference and background, and allowing species to be resolved that would otherwise be obscured by other components. Second, the automatic gain control (AGC) in the linear ion trap of the hybrid FT MS instrument limits the number of ions that are accumulated to reduce space charge effects, but in turn limits the achievable dynamic range compared to the TOF detector.

  11. VLBI for Gravity Probe B. V. Proper Motion and Parallax of the Guide Star, IM Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratner, M. I.; Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Lebach, D. E.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Ransom, R. R.; Shapiro, I. I.

    2012-07-01

    We present the principal astrometric results of the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program undertaken in support of the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) relativity mission. VLBI observations of the GP-B guide star, the RS CVn binary IM Pegasi (HR 8703), yielded positions at 35 epochs between 1997 and 2005. We discuss the statistical assumptions behind these results and our methods for estimating the systematic errors. We find the proper motion of IM Peg in an extragalactic reference frame closely related to the International Celestial Reference Frame 2 (ICRF2) to be -20.83 ± 0.03 ± 0.09 mas yr-1 in right ascension and -27.27 ± 0.03 ± 0.09 mas yr-1 in declination. For each component, the first uncertainty is the statistical standard error and the second is the total standard error (SE) including plausible systematic errors. We also obtain a parallax of 10.37 ± 0.07 mas (distance: 96.4 ± 0.7 pc), for which there is no evidence of any significant contribution of systematic error. Our parameter estimates for the ~25 day period orbital motion of the stellar radio emission have SEs corresponding to ~0.10 mas on the sky in each coordinate. The total SE of our estimate of IM Peg's proper motion is ~30% smaller than the accuracy goal set by the GP-B project before launch: 0.14 mas yr-1 for each coordinate of IM Peg's proper motion. Our results ensure that the uncertainty in IM Peg's proper motion makes only a very small contribution to the uncertainty of the GP-B relativity tests.

  12. Automation of PCXMC and ImPACT for NASA Astronaut Medical Imaging Dose and Risk Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, Amir; Picco, Charles; Flores-McLaughlin, John; Shavers, Mark; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To automate astronaut organ and effective dose calculations from occupational X-ray and computed tomography (CT) examinations incorporating PCXMC and ImPACT tools and to estimate the associated lifetime cancer risk per the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) using MATLAB(R). Methods: NASA follows guidance from the NCRP on its operational radiation safety program for astronauts. NCRP Report 142 recommends that astronauts be informed of the cancer risks from reported exposures to ionizing radiation from medical imaging. MATLAB(R) code was written to retrieve exam parameters for medical imaging procedures from a NASA database, calculate associated dose and risk, and return results to the database, using the Microsoft .NET Framework. This code interfaces with the PCXMC executable and emulates the ImPACT Excel spreadsheet to calculate organ doses from X-rays and CTs, respectively, eliminating the need to utilize the PCXMC graphical user interface (except for a few special cases) and the ImPACT spreadsheet. Results: Using MATLAB(R) code to interface with PCXMC and replicate ImPACT dose calculation allowed for rapid evaluation of multiple medical imaging exams. The user inputs the exam parameter data into the database and runs the code. Based on the imaging modality and input parameters, the organ doses are calculated. Output files are created for record, and organ doses, effective dose, and cancer risks associated with each exam are written to the database. Annual and post-flight exposure reports, which are used by the flight surgeon to brief the astronaut, are generated from the database. Conclusions: Automating PCXMC and ImPACT for evaluation of NASA astronaut medical imaging radiation procedures allowed for a traceable and rapid method for tracking projected cancer risks associated with over 12,000 exposures. This code will be used to evaluate future medical radiation exposures, and can easily be modified to accommodate changes to the risk

  13. Detection capability of the IMS seismic network based on ambient seismic noise measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaebler, Peter J.; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    All nuclear explosions - on the Earth's surface, underground, underwater or in the atmosphere - are banned by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As part of this treaty, a verification regime was put into place to detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosion testings at any time, by anyone and everywhere on the Earth. The International Monitoring System (IMS) plays a key role in the verification regime of the CTBT. Out of the different monitoring techniques used in the IMS, the seismic waveform approach is the most effective technology for monitoring nuclear underground testing and to identify and characterize potential nuclear events. This study introduces a method of seismic threshold monitoring to assess an upper magnitude limit of a potential seismic event in a certain given geographical region. The method is based on ambient seismic background noise measurements at the individual IMS seismic stations as well as on global distance correction terms for body wave magnitudes, which are calculated using the seismic reflectivity method. From our investigations we conclude that a global detection threshold of around mb 4.0 can be achieved using only stations from the primary seismic network, a clear latitudinal dependence for the detection threshold can be observed between northern and southern hemisphere. Including the seismic stations being part of the auxiliary seismic IMS network results in a slight improvement of global detection capability. However, including wave arrivals from distances greater than 120 degrees, mainly PKP-wave arrivals, leads to a significant improvement in average global detection capability. In special this leads to an improvement of the detection threshold on the southern hemisphere. We further investigate the dependence of the detection capability on spatial (latitude and longitude) and temporal (time) parameters, as well as on parameters such as source type and percentage of operational IMS stations.

  14. UTILIZATION OF ImPACT TESTING TO MEASURE INJURY RISK IN ALPINE SKI AND SNOWBOARD ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Huntimer, Brittney; Kernozek, Thomas; Cole, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background While studies that have examined the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in alpine skiing and snowboarding exist, there has been no discussion of how neurocognitive deficits may influence such injuries. Recent authors have identified a possible link between Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) testing results and the prevalence of musculoskeletal injury in athletic populations. However, no study has specifically examined this in the alpine skiing and snowboard athletes who sustain injury and those that do not. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose was to review injury data and ImPACT test results within the local ski/snowboard population to determine if there was a difference in components of ImPACT test scores between injured and non-injured athletes. It was hypothesized that differences would exist in component scores on ImPACT testing between injured and non-injured athletes. Study design Retrospective cohort study Methods Injury records and baseline ImPACT testing scores for 93 athletes aged 14-17 participating in a local ski and snowboard club during the 2009-2012 seasons were gathered retrospectively. Injuries documented for the lower and upper extremity included ligament sprains, muscle strains, contusions, dislocation/subluxation, fractures and concussions. Athletes who sustained any of these listed injuries were categorized within the injured athlete group. Each component of ImPACT test scores was compared between gender and for injury status within skiing and snowboarding disciplines using a series of two-way analysis of variance tests. Results There was no difference between non-injured and injured females as well as non-injured and injured males in reaction time and visual motor speed (VMS), however there was an interaction between gender and injury status on composite reaction time and visual motor speed, or VMS. The composite reaction time for females was 4.7% faster with injury while males without injury

  15. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa, Ganymede, and the Jovian Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Hartle, R.; Paterson ,W.; Christian, E.; Mahaffy, P.; Paschalidis, N.; Lipatov, A.; Sarantos, M.; Coplan, M.; Cassidy, T.; Wurz, P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and ESA are now planning a reduced version of the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), potentially including a radically descoped Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) but still with magnetometer and plasma instruments. Similar field and plasma instrumentation would also reside on ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO), which conceivably could carry out multiple flybys of Europa before entering orbit at Ganymede. We are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) designed to measure both major and minor ion species within the high radiation environment of Jupiter s magnetosphere and the icy Galilean moons. The IMS covers the energy range from 10 eV to 30 keV, wide field-ofview (FOV) capability and 10-60 sec time resolution for major ions. This instrument has two main goals: 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter s magnetosphere and 2) infer the global surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels; these goals are also applicable for in-situ measurements at Ganymede and Callisto, and remotely everywhere via the iogenic plasma for Io. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second goal gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, e.g. mainly from Io to the other moons, and further allows detection of oceanic materials emergent to the moon surfaces from subsurface layers putatively including salt water oceans. Outgassed exospheric materials are probed by the IMS by measuring pickup ions accelerated up to spacecraft altitudes of approximately 100-200 km in electric fields extending through the local magnetospheric environment and moon exosphere to the surface. Our 3D hybrid kinetic model of the moon-magnetosphere interaction is used to construct a global model of electric and magnetic fields for tracing of pickup ion trajectories back to the sources at approximate surface resolution of 100 km. We

  16. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa, Ganymede, and the Jovian System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Paterson, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Lipatov, A. S.; Mahaffy, P R.; Paschalidis, N.; Sarantos, M.; Coplan, M. A.; Cassidy, T. A.; Wurz, P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and ESA are now planning a reduced version of the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), potentially including a radically descoped Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) but still with magnetometer and plasma instruments. Similar field and plasma instrumentation would also reside on ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO), which conceivably could carry out multiple flybys of Europa before entering orbit at Ganymede. We are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) designed to measure both major and minor ion species within the high radiation environment of Jupiter's magnetosphere and the icy Galilean moons. The IMS covers the energy range from 10 eV to 30 keY, wide field-of-view (FOV) capability and 10-60 sec time resolution for major ions. This instrument has two main goals: 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the global surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels; these goals are also applicable for in-situ measurements at Ganymede and Callisto, and remotely everywhere via the iogenic plasma for 10. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second goal gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, e.g. mainly from 10 to the other moons, and further allows detection of oceanic materials emergent to the moon surfaces from subsurface layers putatively including salt water oceans. Outgassed exospheric materials are probed by the IMS by measuring pickup ions accelerated up to spacecraft altitudes of approximately 100-200 km in electric fields extending through the local magnetospheric environment and moon exosphere to the surface. Our 3D hybrid kinetic model of the moon-magnetosphere interaction is used to construct a global model of electric and magnetic fields for tracing of pickup ion trajectories back to the sources at approximate surface resolution of 100 km. We

  17. Cd(ii)-MOF-IM: post-synthesis functionalization of a Cd(ii)-MOF as a triphase transfer catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Cheng; Ma, Jian-Ping; Liu, Qi-Kui; Hu, Yu-Hong; Dong, Yu-Bin

    2016-05-19

    A robust and porous Cd(ii)-MOF based on a bent imidazole-bridged ligand was synthesized and post-synthetically functionalized with linear alkyl chains to afford imidazolium salt (IM)-type triphase transfer catalysts for organic transformations. The imidazolium salt decorated Cd(ii)-MOF-IM exhibits typical solid phase transfer catalytic behavior for the azidation and thiolation of bromoalkane between aqueous/organic phases. Moreover, they can be easily recovered and reused under the PTC conditions. Cd(ii)-MOF-IM herein created a versatile family of solid phase transfer catalysts for promoting a broad scope of reactions carried out in a biphasic mixture of two immiscible solvents.

  18. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder. Detecting Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography, Ion Mobility, and Mass Spectrometry Features in Complex Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, Kevin L.; Slysz, Gordon W.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Lamarche, Brian L.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Payne, Samuel H.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-09-05

    We introduce a command line software application LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder that searches for molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass, charge state, LC elution time, and ion mobility drift time values. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting and quantifying co-eluting chemical species, including species that exist in multiple conformations that may have been separated in the IMS dimension.

  19. Two-year Test–Retest Reliability of ImPACT in High School Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Tsushima, William T.; Siu, Andrea M.; Pearce, Annina M.; Zhang, Guangxiang; Oshiro, Ross S.

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated the 2-year test–retest reliability of the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neuropsychological battery, and clarified the need for biennial updated baseline testing of high school athletes. This study compared the baseline test scores of 212 non-concussed athletes that were obtained in Grade 9 and again 2 years later when they were in Grade 11. Regression-based methods indicated that 4 of the 5 ImPACT scores were stable over 2 years, as they fell within the 80% and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The results suggested that updating baseline testing for high school athletes after 2 years is not necessary. Further research into the consistency of computerized neuropsychological tests over 2 years with high school athletes is recommended. PMID:26572159

  20. Evaluation of SDS depletion using an affinity spin column and IMS-MS detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hengel, Shawna M.; Floyd, Erica A.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Zhao, Rui; Wu, Si; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-11-01

    While the use of detergents is necessary for a variety of protein isolation preparation protocols, often prior to mass spectral (MS) analysis, they are not compatible with MS analysis due to ion suppression and adduct formation. This manuscript describes optimization of detergent removal, using commercially available SDS depletion spin columns containing an affinity resin, providing for both increased protein recovery and thorough SDS removal. Ion mobility spectrometry coupled with mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) allowed for a concurrent analysis of both analyte and detergent. In the case of both proteins and peptides, higher detergent concentrations than previously reported provided an increase of sample recovery; however there was a limit as SDS was detected by IMS-MS at higher levels of SDS indicating incomplete detergent depletion. The results also suggest optimal conditions for SDS removal are dependent on the sample concentration. Overall, this study provides a useful guide for proteomic studies where SDS is required for efficient sample preparation.

  1. Hot plasma and energetic particles in the earth's outer magnetosphere: new understandings during the IMS

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.N.; Fritz, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper we review the major accomplishments made during the IMS period in clarifying magnetospheric particle variations in the region from roughly geostationary orbit altitudes into the deep magnetotail. We divide our review into three topic areas: (1) acceleration processes; (2) transport processes; and (3) loss processes. Many of the changes in hot plasmas and energetic particle populations are often found to be related intimately to geomagnetic storm and magnetospheric substorm effects and, therefore, substantial emphasis is given to these aspects of particle variations in this review. The IMS data, taken as a body, allow a reasonably unified view as one traces magnetospheric particles from their acceleration source through the plasma sheet and outer trapping regions and, finally, to their loss via ionospheric precipitation and ring current formation processes. It is this underlying, unifying theme which is pursued here. 52 references, 19 figures.

  2. IM3SHAPE: a maximum likelihood galaxy shear measurement code for cosmic gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuntz, Joe; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Voigt, Lisa; Hirsch, Michael; Rowe, Barnaby; Bridle, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    We present and describe IM3SHAPE, a new publicly available galaxy shape measurement code for weak gravitational lensing shear. IM3SHAPE performs a maximum likelihood fit of a bulge-plus-disc galaxy model to noisy images, incorporating an applied point spread function. We detail challenges faced and choices made in its design and implementation, and then discuss various limitations that affect this and other maximum likelihood methods. We assess the bias arising from fitting an incorrect galaxy model using simple noise-free images and find that it should not be a concern for current cosmic shear surveys. We test IM3SHAPE on the Gravitational Lensing Accuracy Testing 2008 (GREAT08) challenge image simulations, and meet the requirements for upcoming cosmic shear surveys in the case that the simulations are encompassed by the fitted model, using a simple correction for image noise bias. For the fiducial branch of GREAT08 we obtain a negligible additive shear bias and sub-two per cent level multiplicative bias, which is suitable for analysis of current surveys. We fall short of the sub-per cent level requirement for upcoming surveys, which we attribute to a combination of noise bias and the mismatch between our galaxy model and the model used in the GREAT08 simulations. We meet the requirements for current surveys across all branches of GREAT08, except those with small or high noise galaxies, which we would cut from our analysis. Using the GREAT08 metric we we obtain a score of Q = 717 for the usable branches, relative to the goal of Q = 1000 for future experiments. The code is freely available from https://bitbucket.org/joezuntz/im3shape

  3. [Analysis on effect of inspection and maintenance (I/M) program for vehicle emission reduction].

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Fu, L; Hao, J; Zhou, Z; Wang, X

    2001-01-01

    An Inspection and maintenance(I/M) programme aims to ensure that motor vehicle emission control systems are functioning properly throughout the two stage idle test. Based on three factors including data from inspection, standard for inspection and failure rate, the effectiveness of the current I/M program was studied through the cumulative distributions. The disadvantages of the cutpoints, institution settings, management, and supervision was also analyzed. The fundamental law of emission limits was proposed.

  4. Evaluation of Preproduction Hardware Components for IMS Station Upgrades to Reduce Manufacturers Development Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Darren; Pearce, Nathan; Starovoit, Yuri; Guralp, Cansun

    2014-05-01

    Since the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty was opened for signature in 1996, nearly 80% of the network has been certified as operational, and those stations are sending data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna. Several International Monitoring System (IMS) monitoring facilities have been in operation for close to 15 years, and several certified stations are facing equipment obsolescence issues. The search for engineering solutions to replace obsolete hardware components is guided by two primary goals: 1) be compliant with IMS minimum technical requirements and 2) be able to be integrated with the existing system. To reduce the development and verification time necessary to address obsolescence in equipment, the PTS has requested the preproduction testing of the recently revised Guralp CMG-DM24AM digitizer. Performing preproduction testing has helped in identifying issues, which Guralp Systems has resolved. In our poster, we will review the reasons for the digitizer updates, present results of the preproduction testing of the Guralp digitizer, and comment on the value this process has provided to the IMS operation.

  5. Correlation of I/M240 and FTP emissions for Alternative Motor Fuels Act test vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K.J.

    1994-10-01

    The National Remewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is managing a series of light duty vehicle chasis dynamometer chasis tests on alternative fuel vehicles for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This testing program is part of a larger demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles that was mandated by the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 (AMFA). In Phase I of the AMFA emissions test program (AMFA I) 18 vehicles were tested by three laboratories. All the vehicles tested were 1991 model year. In Phase II of the program (AMFA II), the number of vehicles was increased to nearly 300, including M85 Dodge Spirits, E85 Chevrolet Luminas, and compressed natural gas Dodge passenger vans. Phase II testing includes a Federal Test Procedure (FTP) test, followed by two of the EPA`s Inspection/Maintenance (I/M240) tests. It is concluded that the I/M240 test is not an appropriate comparison to the FTP. Further the I/M 240 test is not as reliable as the FTP in estimating the `real world` emissions of these relatively low emission vehicles. 7 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. A two-factor theory for concussion assessment using ImPACT: memory and speed.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Philip; Maerlender, Arthur

    2013-12-01

    We present the initial validation of a two-factor structure of Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) using ImPACT composite scores and document the reliability and validity of this factor structure. Factor analyses were conducted for baseline (N = 21,537) and post-concussion (N = 560) data, yielding "Memory" (Verbal and Visual) and "Speed" (Visual Motor Speed and Reaction Time) Factors; inclusion of Total Symptom Scores resulted in a third discrete factor. Speed and Memory z-scores were calculated, and test-retest reliability (using intra-class correlation coefficients) at 1 month (0.88/0.81), 1 year (0.85/0.75), and 2 years (0.76/0.74) were higher than published data using Composite scores. Speed and Memory scores yielded 89% sensitivity and 70% specificity, which was higher than composites (80%/62%) and comparable with subscales (91%/69%). This emergent two-factor structure has improved test-retest reliability with no loss of sensitivity/specificity and may improve understanding and interpretability of ImPACT test results.

  7. EVALUATION OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMS DISSOCIATION PROCEDURE FOR USE WITH METHOD 1622: DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA Method 1623 is used to detect and quantify Cruptosporidum spp. oocysts in ater. The protocol consists of filtration, immunomagnetic separation (IMS), staining with a fluorescent antibody, and microscopic analysis. Microscopic analysis includes detection by fluorescent ...

  8. EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYST RECOVERY IN WATER BY EPA METHOD 1623 WITH A MODIFIED IMS DISSOCIATION PROCEDURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Methods 1622 and 1623 are the benchmarks for detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in water. 5-7 These methods consist of filtration, elution, purification by immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and microscopic analysis after staining with a fluorescein isothiocyanate conju...

  9. 75 FR 35088 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Correction The document appearing on June 4, 2010, 75 FR 31816, should read as follows: The title INS Global Consortium, Inc. should read as IMS Global Learning...

  10. Vehicle Emission Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Provision in the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a memorandum regarding Vehicle Emission Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Provision in Fixing America's Surface Transportation (FAST) Act, which provides long-term funding certainty for surface transportation infrastructure planning

  11. Use of ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) to map polyoxometalate Keplerate clusters and their supramolecular assemblies.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Philip J; Surman, Andrew J; Thiel, Johannes; Long, De-Liang; Cronin, Leroy

    2013-03-07

    We present the high-resolution (HRES-MS) and ion-mobility (IMS-MS) mass spectrometry studies of icosahedral nanoscale polyoxometalate-based {L(30)}{(Mo)Mo(5)} Keplerate clusters, and demonstrate the use of IMS-MS to resolve and map intact nanoclusters, and its potential for the discovery of new structures, in this case the first gas phase observation of 'proto-clustering' of higher order Keplerate supramolecular aggregates.

  12. Ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) for on- and offline analysis of atmospheric gas and aerosol species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krechmer, Jordan E.; Groessl, Michael; Zhang, Xuan; Junninen, Heikki; Massoli, Paola; Lambe, Andrew T.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Cubison, Michael J.; Graf, Stephan; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Budisulistiorini, Sri H.; Zhang, Haofei; Surratt, Jason D.; Knochenmuss, Richard; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Canagaratna, Manjula R.

    2016-07-01

    Measurement techniques that provide molecular-level information are needed to elucidate the multiphase processes that produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) species in the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate the application of ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) to the simultaneous characterization of the elemental composition and molecular structures of organic species in the gas and particulate phases. Molecular ions of gas-phase organic species are measured online with IMS-MS after ionization with a custom-built nitrate chemical ionization (CI) source. This CI-IMS-MS technique is used to obtain time-resolved measurements (5 min) of highly oxidized organic molecules during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) ambient field campaign in the forested SE US. The ambient IMS-MS signals are consistent with laboratory IMS-MS spectra obtained from single-component carboxylic acids and multicomponent mixtures of isoprene and monoterpene oxidation products. Mass-mobility correlations in the 2-D IMS-MS space provide a means of identifying ions with similar molecular structures within complex mass spectra and are used to separate and identify monoterpene oxidation products in the ambient data that are produced from different chemical pathways. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) constituents of fine aerosol particles that are not resolvable with standard analytical separation methods, such as liquid chromatography (LC), are shown to be separable with IMS-MS coupled to an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The capability to use ion mobility to differentiate between isomers is demonstrated for organosulfates derived from the reactive uptake of isomers of isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) onto wet acidic sulfate aerosol. Controlled fragmentation of precursor ions by collisionally induced dissociation (CID) in the transfer region between the IMS and the MS is used to validate MS peak assignments, elucidate structures of oligomers, and confirm the

  13. A study of volcanic eruption characteristics using infrasound data recorded on the global IMS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowa, Amy; Green, David; Phillips, Jeremy; Rust, Alison

    2010-05-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions have the capability to generate sound waves with infrasonic frequencies (<20Hz). As such waves can propagate over distances of thousands of kilometres within the atmosphere, they present an opportunity to remotely monitor volcanic eruptions and potentially constrain eruptive characteristics. Though most volcanoes in sensitive areas of the world are monitored individually, many volcanoes in remote locations are not monitored directly but can still pose a threat, especially to aviation. The growing International Monitoring System (IMS) network of infrasound stations provides an opportunity to monitor these remote volcanoes. Currently comprising of 43 arrays, the network is designed to achieve global coverage for surface explosions equivalent to a few hundred tonnes of chemical explosive. In recent years work has been published on the detection of specific volcanic eruptions at IMS stations, primarily at regional ranges (< 1000 km from volcano to receiver). In contrast, work presented here looks to create a catalogue of volcanic eruptions that have been detected at IMS stations, with the aim of assessing the capability of the IMS network for use in global volcano monitoring. At this time 40 eruptive events at 19 volcanoes have been investigated from the period 2004 - 2009; however the work is on-going and it is planned to extend this catalogue. In total we document 61 individual detections that have been made on the IMS network. These range from Strombolian activity at Mount Erebus (Antarctica) recorded at a range of 25 km distance, to the Plinian eruption of Manam Volcano (Papua New Guinea) recorded at ranges of over 10,000 km distance. The observed signal frequencies for different eruptions range from less than 0.01 Hz to greater than 5 Hz, and in general, lower frequencies are generated by the larger eruptions. We provide examples of analyses for eruptions recorded at multiple stations (e.g., Manam, October 2004; Kasatochi, August 2008

  14. ImSET 3.1: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies Model Description and User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Livingston, Olga V.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2009-05-22

    This 3.1 version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the next generation of the previously-built ImSET model (ImSET 2.0) that was developed in 2005 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. In particular, a special-purpose version of the Benchmark National Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)–developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version features the use of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis 2002 national input-output table and the central processing code has been moved from the FORTRAN legacy operating environment to a modern C++ code. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act. While it does not include the ability to model certain dynamic features of markets for labor and other factors of production featured in the more complex models, for most purposes these excluded features are not critical. The analysis is credible as long as the assumption is made that relative prices in the economy would not be substantially affected by energy efficiency investments. In most cases, the expected scale of these investments is small enough that neither labor markets nor production cost relationships should seriously affect national prices as the investments are made. The exact timing of impacts on gross product, employment, and national wage income from energy efficiency investments is not well-enough understood that much special insight can be gained from the additional dynamic sophistication of a macroeconomic simulation model. Thus, we believe that this version of ImSET is a cost-effective solution to estimating the economic

  15. Developing integrated TOF-SIMS/MALDI IMS system in studying biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ligang

    Using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) techniques (including TOF-SIMS and MALDI IMS) to study biological systems is a relatively new concept and quickly gained popularity in recent years. Imaging mass spectrometry is a discovery technology that utilizes a focused ion beam or laser beam to desorb ions from sample surface. By detecting the desorbed ions, the chemical distributions and biological changes of a sample surface can be analyzed. These techniques offer a new analytical imaging approach to investigate biological processes at the cellular and tissue level. In this research, a novel integrated TOF-SIMS/MALDI IMS system as well as IMS based biological-sample-preparation techniques and data-reduction methods are developed. We then demonstrate the power of these techniques in studying different biological systems, including monosaccharides isomers, human breast cancer cell lines, mouse embryo tissues and mouse kidney sections. Using TOF-SIMS and statistical analysis methods, seven monosaccharide isomers are fully differentiated by analyzing their characteristic spectral pattern. In addition, a deep understanding of the fragmentation pathway of these isomers under ion bombardment is gained. In an application of TOF-SIMS to the differentiation of three human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231, we show that principal component analysis (PCA) data reduction of TOF-SIMS spectra can differentiate cellular compartments (cytosol, nuclear and particulate) within the cell types, as well as homogenates from among the three cell lines. In a tissue-specific application, we extend the analytical capabilities of TOF-SIMS and PCA by imaging and differentiating Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) mouse embryo tissues. We demonstrate reproducible differentiation of six tissue types based on the remaining small molecules after paraffin-embedding and the fragments of the cellular proteins. In a unique study of fresh frozen mouse kidney tissues, both TOF

  16. Mammalian pre-mRNA 3′ End Processing Factor CF Im68 Functions in mRNA Export

    PubMed Central

    Ruepp, Marc-David; Aringhieri, Chiara; Vivarelli, Silvia; Cardinale, Stefano; Paro, Simona; Schümperli, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Export of mRNA from the nucleus is linked to proper processing and packaging into ribonucleoprotein complexes. Although several observations indicate a coupling between mRNA 3′ end formation and export, it is not known how these two processes are mechanistically connected. Here, we show that a subunit of the mammalian pre-mRNA 3′ end processing complex, CF Im68, stimulates mRNA export. CF Im68 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in a transcription-dependent manner and interacts with the mRNA export receptor NXF1/TAP. Consistent with the idea that CF Im68 may act as a novel adaptor for NXF1/TAP, we show that CF Im68 promotes the export of a reporter mRNA as well as of endogenous mRNAs, whereas silencing by RNAi results in the accumulation of mRNAs in the nucleus. Moreover, CF Im68 associates with 80S ribosomes but not polysomes, suggesting that it is part of the mRNP that is remodeled in the cytoplasm during the initial stages of translation. These results reveal a novel function for the pre-mRNA 3′ end processing factor CF Im68 in mRNA export. PMID:19864460

  17. Low Noise Results From IMS Site Surveys: A Preliminary New High-Frequency Low Noise Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, C.; Astiz, L.; Starovoit, Y.; Tavener, N.; Perez, G.; Given, H. K.; Barrientos, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Hfaiedh, M.; Stewart, R.; Estabrook, C.

    2002-12-01

    Since the establishment of the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Organization, a vigorous seismic site survey program has been carried out to identify locations as necessary for International Monitoring System (IMS) primary and auxiliary seismic stations listed in Annex 1 to the Protocol to the CTBT. The IMS Seismic Section maintains for this purpose a small pool of seismic equipment comprised of Guralp CMG-3T and CMG-3ESP and Streckeisen STS-2 broadband seismometers, and Reftek and Guralp acquisition systems. Seismic site surveys are carried out by conducting continuous measurements of ground motion at temporary installations for approximately five to seven days. Seismometer installation methods, which depend on instrument type and on local conditions, range from placement within small cement-floored subsurface vaults to near-surface burial. Data are sampled at 40 Hz. Seismic noise levels are evaluated through the analysis of power spectral density distributions. Eleven 10.5-minute-long representative de-trended and mean-removed segments each of daytime and night-time data are chosen randomly, but reviewed to avoid event contamination. Fast Fourier Transforms are calculated for the five windows in each of these segments generated using a 50% overlap for Hanning-tapered sections ~200 s long. Instrument responses are removed. To date, 20 site surveys for primary and auxiliary stations have been carried out by the IMS. The sites surveyed represent a variety of physical and geological environments on most continents. The lowest high frequency (>1.4 Hz) noise levels at five sites with igneous or metamorphic geologies were as much as 6 dB below the USGS New Low Noise Model (NLNM) developed by Peterson (1993). These sites were in Oman (local geology consisting of Ordovician metasediments), Egypt (Precambrian granite), Niger (early Proterozoic tonalite and granodiorite), Saudi Arabia (Precambian metasediments), and

  18. Solvation of Ucl (6)**2- Anionic Complex By Mebu (3) N+, Bume (2) Im+, And Bumeim+ Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Bosse, E.; Auwer, C.Den; Berthon, C.; Guilbaud, P.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Nikitenko, S.; Naour, C.Le; Cannes, C.; Moisy, P.

    2009-05-11

    The complexes [MeBu{sub 3}N]{sub 2}[UCl{sub 6}] and [BuMe{sub 2}Im]{sub 2}[UCl{sub 6}] were characterized in the solid state and in solution of [MeBu{sub 3}N][Tf{sub 2}N], [BuMe{sub 2}Im][Tf{sub 2}N], and [BuMeIm][Tf{sub 2}N] room-temperature ionic liquids using single-crystal XRD, EXAFS, electrochemistry, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and NMR. In the solid state and in solution, the existence of hydrogen bonding between the UCl{sub 6}{sup 2-} complex and the ionic liquid cations was revealed by these techniques. The MeBu{sub 3}N{sup +} cation interacts with UCl{sub 6}{sup 2-} via the protons on the {alpha}-carbon atoms of nitrogen. The protons of the imidazolium ring account for the interaction between the BuMe{sub 2}Im{sup +} cation and the UCl{sub 6}{sup 2-} anion. For the BuMeIm{sup +} cation the major interaction was confirmed between the most acidic proton on C(2) and the chlorides of UCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}. The experimental results also show that the intensity of the interaction between the UCl{sub 6}{sup 2-} anion and the cation varies with the ionic liquid cation in the following order: MeBu{sub 3}N{sup +} {approx} BuMe{sub 2}Im{sup +} << BuMeIm{sup +}.

  19. Alkaline earth imidazolate coordination polymers by solvent free melt synthesis as potential host lattices for rare earth photoluminescence: (x)(∞)[AE(Im)2(ImH)(2-3)], Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, x = 1-2.

    PubMed

    Zurawski, Alexander; Rybak, J-Christoph; Meyer, Larissa V; Matthes, Philipp R; Stepanenko, Vladimir; Dannenbauer, Nicole; Würthner, Frank; Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus

    2012-04-14

    The series of alkaline earth elements magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium yields single crystalline imidazolate coordination polymers by reactions of the metals with a melt of 1H-imidazole: (1)(∞)[Mg(Im)(2)(ImH)(3)] (1), (2)(∞)[AE(Im)(2)(ImH)(2)], AE = Ca (2), Sr (3), and (1)(∞)[Ba(Im)(2)(ImH)(2)] (4). No additional solvents were used for the reactions. Co-doping experiments by addition of the rare earth elements cerium, europium and terbium were carried out. They indicate (2)(∞)[Sr(Im)(2)(ImH)(2)] as a possible host lattice for cerium(III) photoluminescence showing a blue emission and thus a novel blue emitting hybrid material phosphor 3:Ce(3+). Co-doping with europium and terbium is also possible but resulted in formation of (3)(∞)[Sr(Im)(2)]:Ln, Ln = Eu and Tb (5), with both exhibiting green emission of either Eu(2+) or Tb(3+). The other alkaline earth elements do not show acceptance of the rare earth ions investigated and a different structural chemistry. For magnesium and barium one-dimensional strand structures are observed whereas calcium and strontium give two-dimensional network structures. Combined with an increase of the ionic radii of AE(2+) the coordinative demand is also increasing from Mg(2+) to Ba(2+), reflected by four different crystal structures for the four elements Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba in 1-4. Different linkages of the imidazolate ligands result in a change from complete σ-N coordination in 1 to additional η(5)-π coordination in 4. The success of co-doping with different lanthanide ions is based on a match in the chemical behaviour and cationic radii. The use of strontium for host lattices with imidazole is a rare example in coordination chemistry of co-doping with small amounts of luminescence centers and successfully reduces the amount of high price rare earth elements in hybrid materials while maintaining the properties. All compounds are examples of pure N-coordinated coordination polymers of the alkaline earth metals and were

  20. MALDI FTICR IMS of Intact Proteins: Using Mass Accuracy to Link Protein Images with Proteomics Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Rizzo, David G.; Moore, Jessica L.; Rose, Kristie L.; Hammer, Neal D.; Skaar, Eric P.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2015-06-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is a highly sensitive and selective tool used to visualize biomolecules in tissue. However, identification of detected proteins remains a difficult task. Indirect identification strategies have been limited by insufficient mass accuracy to confidently link ion images to proteomics data. Here, we demonstrate the capabilities of MALDI FTICR MS for imaging intact proteins. MALDI FTICR IMS provides an unprecedented combination of mass resolving power (~75,000 at m/z 5000) and accuracy (<5ppm) for proteins up to ~12kDa, enabling identification based on correlation with LC-MS/MS proteomics data. Analysis of rat brain tissue was performed as a proof-of-concept highlighting the capabilities of this approach by imaging and identifying a number of proteins including N-terminally acetylated thymosin β4 ( m/z 4,963.502, 0.6ppm) and ATP synthase subunit ɛ ( m/z 5,636.074, -2.3ppm). MALDI FTICR IMS was also used to differentiate a series of oxidation products of S100A8 ( m/z 10,164.03, -2.1ppm), a subunit of the heterodimer calprotectin, in kidney tissue from mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus. S100A8 - M37O/C42O3 ( m/z 10228.00, -2.6ppm) was found to co-localize with bacterial microcolonies at the center of infectious foci. The ability of MALDI FTICR IMS to distinguish S100A8 modifications is critical to understanding calprotectin's roll in nutritional immunity.

  1. MALDI FTICR IMS of intact proteins: Using mass accuracy to link protein images with proteomics data

    PubMed Central

    Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Rizzo, David G.; Moore, Jessica L.; Rose, Kristie L.; Hammer, Neal D.; Skaar, Eric P.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is a highly sensitive and selective tool used to visualize biomolecules in tissue. However, identification of detected proteins remains a difficult task. Indirect identifications strategies have been limited by insufficient mass accuracy to confidently link ion images to proteomics data. Here we demonstrate the capabilities of MALDI FTICR MS for imaging intact proteins. MALDI FTICR IMS provides an unprecedented combination of mass resolving power (∼75,000 at m/z 5,000) and accuracy (<5 ppm) for proteins up to ∼12 kDa enabling identification based on correlation with LC-MS/MS proteomics data. Analysis of rat brain tissue was performed as a proof-of-concept highlighting the capabilities of this approach by imaging and identifying a number of proteins including N-terminally acetylated Thymosin β4 (m/z 4,963.502, 0.6 ppm) and ATP Synthase subunit ε (m/z 5,636.074, −2.3 ppm). MALDI FTICR IMS was also used to differentiate a series of oxidation products of S100A8 (m/z 10,164.03, −2.1 ppm), a subunit of the heterodimer calprotectin, in kidney tissue from mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus. S100A8 – M37O/C42O3 (m/z 10228.00, −2.6 ppm) was found to co-localize with bactierial microcolonies at the center of infectious foci. The ability of MALDI FTICR IMS to distinguish S100A8 modifications is critical to understanding calprotectin’s roll in nutritional immunity. PMID:25904064

  2. Fatigue Behavior of P/M 7091 and I/M 7475 Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    properties, fatigue behavior , microstruc - ture, and fractograph. TENSILE PROPERTIES Tensile test results of P/M 7091-T7E69 and l/M 7475-T7351...REPORT NO. NADC-89090-60 •1! <-.< (_ FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF P/M 7091 AND l/M 7475 ALUMINUM ALLOYS A PA -221 79® ( Eun U. Lee . Air Vehicle and... Behavior of P/M 7091 and I/M 7475 Aluminum Alloys 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Eun U. Lee 13a. TYPE OF REPORT Phase 13b. TIME COVERED FROM TO 14. DATE

  3. Mitigation of timing offset effect in IM/DD based OFDMA-PON uplink multiple access.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sun-Young; Jung, Sang-Min; Park, Hyoung-Joon; Han, Sang-Kook

    2015-06-01

    In orthogonal frequency division multiple access based passive optical network (OFDMA-PON) uplink, synchronization between optical network units (ONUs) is very important to maintain orthogonality. The synchronization among uplink signals is considered as one of the main challenges in OFDMA-PON due to optical path difference. In this paper, the performance degradation according to timing offset between ONUs is experimentally analyzed. And we propose and demonstrate timing offset effect reduction in asynchronous multiple access by using CP extension and filter bank based multicarrier (FBMC) system in intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) based OFDMA-PON uplink transmission.

  4. Daily summary for IMS high-altitude satellites, days 1-181 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A description of the orbital positions is provided for a number of high altitude satellites capable of making magnetospheric measurements in the first half of 1977 as part of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). Six artificial satellites -- Vela 5B, IMP-H, IMP-J, Solrad 11A, Solrad 11B, and Hawkeye 1 -- have been chosen along with the moon. The daily position summary of the satellites includes data tables which provide the crossing times of the bow shock and magnetopause, as well as the entry and exit times from the cusp, the high latitude tail, the midlatitude tail, and the neutral sheet region.

  5. IMS/Satellite Situation Center report. Predicted orbit plots for Vela 5B, 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Predicted orbit plots for the Vela 5B satellite are presented for the time period January-December 1976. This satellite has been identified as an important possible contributor to the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) project. The predicted orbit plots are shown in three projections. The time period covered by each set of projections is 4 days 16 hours, corresponding approximately to the period of Vela 5B. The three coordinate systems used are the Geocentric Solar Ecliptic system (GSE), the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric system (GSM), and the Solar Magnetic system (SM).

  6. The effects of CO2 on the negative reactant ions of IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Glenn E.

    1995-01-01

    In the presence of CO2, the negative reactant ions of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) are ion clusters of CO4(-) and CO3(-). Methyl salicylate is ionized by the CO4(-)(H2O(n))(N2(m)) reactant ions, but not by the CO3(-)(H2O(n))(N2(m)) reactant ions. While the CO4(-) ions are formed by direct association, the CO3(-) ions require additional energy to be formed. The additional energy is provided by either excited neutral gas molecules in a metastable state or UV (ultraviolet) radiation.

  7. Alpha-conotoxin-ImI: a competitive antagonist at alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive neuronal nicotinic receptors in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E F; Alkondon, M; McIntosh, J M; Albuquerque, E X

    1996-09-01

    In the present study, the patch-clamp technique was applied to rat hippocampal neurons or myoballs in culture to study the actions of alpha-conotoxin-ImI on the native alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive, presumably alpha 7-bearing, neuronal nicotinic receptor and on other ligand-gated channels. Preexposure of the neurons for 5 min to alpha-conotoxin-ImI decreased the peak amplitude of alpha-BGT-sensitive currents (referred to as type IA currents) in a concentration-dependent fashion. Several lines of evidence revealed that the inhibitory effect of alpha-conotoxin-ImI was competitive with respect to the agonist (IC50 approximately 85 nM) and reversible by washing. At 300 nM, alpha-conotoxin-ImI decreased by only 15% the peak amplitude of ACh-evoked currents in rat myoballs, did not affect the activation of currents gated by gamma-aminobutyric acid, glycine, N-methyl-D-aspartate, kainate, or quisqualate in hippocampal neurons, but reduced to approximately 60% the peak amplitude and shortened the decay phase of curare-sensitive, serotonin-gated currents in these neurons. The competitive and reversible nature of the alpha-conotoxin-ImI-induced inhibition of native alpha 7-bearing neuronal nicotinic receptors makes this peptide a valuable new tool for the functional and structural characterization of these receptors in the central nervous system.

  8. Glycopeptide Site Heterogeneity and Structural Diversity Determined by Combined Lectin Affinity Chromatography/IMS/CID/MS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feifei; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Clemmer, David E.

    2015-07-01

    Glycopeptides from a tryptic digest of chicken ovomucoid were enriched using a simplified lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) platform, and characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) as well as ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)-MS. The LAC platform effectively enriched the glycoproteome, from which a total of 117 glycopeptides containing 27 glycan forms were identified for this protein. IMS-MS analysis revealed a high degree of glycopeptide site heterogeneity. Comparison of the IMS distributions of the glycopeptides from different charge states reveals that higher charge states allow more structures to be resolved. Presumably the repulsive interactions between charged sites lead to more open configurations, which are more readily separated compared with the more compact, lower charge state forms of the same groups of species. Combining IMS with collision induced dissociation (CID) made it possible to determine the presence of isomeric glycans and to reconstruct their IMS profiles. This study illustrates a workflow involving hybrid techniques for determining glycopeptide site heterogeneity and evaluating structural diversity of glycans and glycopeptides.

  9. An IMS-Based Middleware Solution for Energy-Efficient and Cost-Effective Mobile Multimedia Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellavista, Paolo; Corradi, Antonio; Foschini, Luca

    Mobile multimedia services have recently become of extreme industrial relevance due to the advances in both wireless client devices and multimedia communications. That has motivated important standardization efforts, such as the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) to support session control, mobility, and interoperability in all-IP next generation networks. Notwithstanding the central role of IMS in novel mobile multimedia, the potential of IMS-based service composition for the development of new classes of ready-to-use, energy-efficient, and cost-effective services is still widely unexplored. The paper proposes an original solution for the dynamic and standard-compliant redirection of incoming voice calls towards WiFi-equipped smart phones. The primary design guideline is to reduce energy consumption and service costs for the final user by automatically switching from the 3G to the WiFi infrastructure whenever possible. The proposal is fully compliant with the IMS standard and exploits the recently released IMS presence service to update device location and current communication opportunities. The reported experimental results point out that our solution, in a simple way and with full compliance with state-of-the-art industrially-accepted standards, can significantly increase battery lifetime without negative effects on call initiation delay.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, DNA-binding and cytotoxic properties of Ru(II) complexes: [Ru(MeIm)4L]2+ (MeIm = 1-methylimidazole, L = phen, ip and pip)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Leli; Xiao, Yue; Liu, Jing; Tan, Lifeng

    2012-07-01

    Three new ruthenium(II) complexes, [Ru(MeIm)4phen]2+ (1), [Ru(MeIm)4ip]2+ (2) and [Ru(MeIm)4pip]2+ (3), have been synthesized and characterized. The binding properties of the three complexes towards calf-thymus DNA were investigated by different spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements. In addition, the cytotoxicity of these complexes has been evaluated by MTT method and Giemsa staining experiment. The main results reveal that the plane area and hydrophobicity of intercalative ligands have a significant effect on the DNA-binding behaviors and the IC50 value of complex 2 against MCF-7 cells is close to that of cis-Pt(NH3)2Cl2.

  11. AQUAdexIM: highly efficient in-memory indexing and querying of astronomy time series images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zhi; Yu, Ce; Wang, Jie; Xiao, Jian; Cui, Chenzhou; Sun, Jizhou

    2016-12-01

    Astronomy has always been, and will continue to be, a data-based science, and astronomers nowadays are faced with increasingly massive datasets, one key problem of which is to efficiently retrieve the desired cup of data from the ocean. AQUAdexIM, an innovative spatial indexing and querying method, performs highly efficient on-the-fly queries under users' request to search for Time Series Images from existing observation data on the server side and only return the desired FITS images to users, so users no longer need to download entire datasets to their local machines, which will only become more and more impractical as the data size keeps increasing. Moreover, AQUAdexIM manages to keep a very low storage space overhead and its specially designed in-memory index structure enables it to search for Time Series Images of a given area of the sky 10 times faster than using Redis, a state-of-the-art in-memory database.

  12. Activity of a Py-Im polyamide targeted to the estrogen response element.

    PubMed

    Nickols, Nicholas G; Szablowski, Jerzy O; Hargrove, Amanda E; Li, Benjamin C; Raskatov, Jevgenij A; Dervan, Peter B

    2013-05-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides are a class of programmable DNA minor groove binders capable of modulating the activity of DNA-binding proteins and affecting changes in gene expression. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a ligand-activated hormone receptor that binds as a homodimer to estrogen response elements (ERE) and is a driving oncogene in a majority of breast cancers. We tested a selection of structurally similar Py-Im polyamides with differing DNA sequence specificity for activity against 17β-estadiol (E2)-induced transcription and cytotoxicity in ERα positive, E2-stimulated T47DKBluc cells, which express luciferase under ERα control. The most active polyamide targeted the sequence 5'-WGGWCW-3' (W = A or T), which is the canonical ERE half site. Whole transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq revealed that treatment of E2-stimulated breast cancer cells with this polyamide reduced the effects of E2 on the majority of those most strongly affected by E2 but had much less effect on the majority of E2-induced transcripts. In vivo, this polyamide circulated at detectable levels following subcutaneous injection and reduced levels of ER-driven luciferase expression in xenografted tumors in mice after subcutaneous compound administration without significant host toxicity.

  13. A Helium GC/IMS for the Analysis of Extraterrestrial Volatiles in Exobiology Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Humphry, Donald E.; Shao, Maxine; Takeuchi, Nori

    1995-01-01

    For exobiology experiments on board spacecraft or space probes, a wide range of chemical species often must be detected and identified. The limited amount of power and space available for flight instruments severely limits the number of instruments that can be flown on any given mission. It is important then, that these experiments utilize instrumentation with universal response, so that all species of interest can be analyzed. Instrumentation to fulfill the analytical requirements of exobiology experiments has been developed utilizing Gas Chromatography - Ion Mobility Spectrometry. The Gas Chromatograph (GC) combines columns developed specifically for the complex mixtures anticipated with highly sensitive Metastable Ionization Detectors (a type of Helium Ionization Detector). To satisfy the limitations placed on resources, the Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) uses the same ultra high purity helium as the GC. This GC-MS provides the analytical capability to fulfill a wide range of exobiology flight experiment applications and has been included on a proposed Discovery Mission and proposals for both Lander and Orbiter of the European Space Agency's Rosetta Comet Mission. A data base of helium IMS spectra is now being built for these future applications.

  14. Creating High-Resolution Maps of Leaf Water Isotopes Using IM-CRDS and IRMS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlein-Safdi, C.; Sinkler, C. J.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Since the development of isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS), the applications of water isotope analysis have been increasing. Here, we present a new protocol to create high-resolution maps of leaf water isotopes 18O and 2H. We use the Picarro induction module (IM-CRDS) combined with an isotope analyzer (L2130-i) to sample up to 25 locations in one half of each leaf. Each sampling location corresponds to four samples (6 mm outside diameter punched-holes) punched next to each other. In the induction module, an induction coil heats a metal holder containing the leaf sample. The sample will release water vapor that is then sent to the isotope analyzer. The IM-CRDS allows us to significantly reduce the sample size and therefore increase the sample density, compared to the traditional cryogenic extraction method. Using spatial analysis tools, we create high-resolution spatial maps of each isotope as well as d-excess maps. The water in the second half of the leaf is extracted by cryogenic extraction and analyzed using both IRIS and isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. The isotopic composition of the extracted water is compared to the average composition calculated from the maps and used for calibration. We present applications of this protocol to the analysis of the spatio-temporal evolution of foliar uptake in Colocasia esculenta under laboratory conditions.

  15. The mini-CIDEX GC/IMS: Analysis of cometary ice and dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Humphry, Donald E.; Shao, Maxine; Takeuchi, Nori

    1995-01-01

    Comets are recognized as among the most scientifically important objects in the solar system. They are presumed relics of the early primitive material in the solar nebula and are believed to have provided a general enrichment of volatiles to the inner solar system. The Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, a proposed Discovery-Class Mission, will analyze materials released into the coma, providing information leading to the understanding of the chemical composition and make-up of the cometary nucleus. As one of two scientific instruments in the C4 spacecraft, an advanced and streamlined version of the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX), a mini-CIDEX, will employ an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer to determine bulk elemental composition of cometary dust grains and a Gas Chromatograph/Ion Mobility Spectrometer (GC/IMS) for determination of the molecular composition of dust and ices following stepwise pyrolysis and combustion. A description of the mini-CIDEX IMS will be provided as well as data from analyses conducted using the mini-CIDEX breadboard instrument.

  16. The Development of Cockpit Display and Alerting Concepts for Interval Management (IM) in a Near-Term Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Shay, Richard F.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) Interval Management (IM) research team has conducted a wide spectrum of work in the recent past, ranging from development and testing of the concept, procedures, and algorithm. This document focuses on the research and evaluation of the IM pilot interfaces, cockpit displays, indications, and alerting concepts for conducting IM spacing operations. The research team incorporated knowledge of human factors research, industry standards for cockpit design, and cockpit design philosophies to develop innovative displays for conducting these spacing operations. The research team also conducted a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) experiments with commercial pilots and air traffic controllers, in as realistic a high-density arrival operation environment as could be simulated, to evaluate the spacing guidance display features and interface requirements needed to conduct spacing operations.

  17. [Rapid detection of residual cyclohexanone in disposable medical devices by ultraviolet photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (UV-IMS)].

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Han, Hai-yan; Niu, Wen-qi; Wang, Hong-mei; Huang, Chao-qun; Jiang, Hai-he; Chu, Yan-nan

    2012-01-01

    In the manufacture of disposable PVC medical devices, cyclohexanone is frequently used as an adhesive reagent, which can be released into the tube airspace or stored solution and thus may cause some adverse effects on patients in therapy. In this paper, an ultraviolet photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (UV-IMS) technique has been developed to detect cyclohexanone through monitoring the gas composition within a package of infusion sets. The concentrations of cyclohexanone were prepared by means of exponential dilution method, and the experiments show that the UV-IMS has a limit of detection at 15 ppb and its measurable linear dynamics range is over three orders of magnitude. The concentrations of cyclohexanone in three brands of infusion sets packages were determined to be 16.78, 17.59 and 46.69 ppm respectively. The UV-IMS is proposed as a tool for the quality control of medical devices to monitor illegal uses of chemical solvents like cyclohexanone.

  18. Luminescent Copper(I) Halide Butterfly Dimers Coordinated to [Au(CH3imCH2py)2]BF4 and [Au(CH3imCH2quin)2]BF4

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, V.; Moore, A; Shearer, J; Kim, J

    2009-01-01

    The coordination chemistry of copper(I) halides to the homoleptic, N-heterocyclic carbene Au(I) complexes [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} and [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}py){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} was explored. The reaction of CuX (X = Cl, Br, I) with either [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} or [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}py){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} produces trimetallic complexes containing Cu{sub 2}X{sub 2}-butterfly copper clusters coordinated to the two imine moieties. The triangular arrangement of the metals places the gold(I) center in close proximity ({approx}2.5-2.6 {angstrom}) to the centroid of the Cu-Cu vector. The Cu-Cu separations vary as a function of bridging halide with the shortest Cu-Cu separations of {approx}2.5 {angstrom} found in the iodo-complexes and the longest separations of 2.9 {angstrom} found in the bridging chloride complexes. In all six complexes the Au-Cu separations range from {approx}2.8 to 3.0 {angstrom}. In the absence of halides, the dimetallic complex [AuCu(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}py){sub 2}(NCCH{sub 3}){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, containing a long Au-Cu distance of {approx}4.72 {angstrom} is formed. Additionally, as the byproduct of the reaction of CuBr with [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} the deep-red, dimetallic compound, AuCuBr{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}, was isolated in very low yield. All of these complexes were studied by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and the copper containing species were additionally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In solution the copper centers dissociate from the gold complexes, but as shown by XANES and EXAFS spectroscopy, at low temperature the Cu-Cu linkage is broken, and the individual copper(I) halides reposition themselves to opposite sides of the gold complex while remaining coordinated to one imine moiety. In the solid state all of the complexes are photoluminescent, though the nature of the excited state was not determined.

  19. Molecular markers associated with the immature fiber (im) gene affecting the degree of fiber cell wall thickening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Moon, Hong S; Delhom, Christopher D; Zeng, Linghe; Fang, David D

    2013-01-01

    Cotton fiber fineness and maturity measured indirectly as micronaire (MIC) are important properties of determining fiber grades in the textile market. To understand the genetic control and molecular mechanisms of fiber fineness and maturity, we studied two near isogenic lines, Gossypium hirsutum, Texas Marker-1 wild type (TM-1) and immature fiber (im) mutant showing a significant difference in MIC values. The fibers from im mutant plants were finer and less mature with lower MIC values than those from the recurrent parent, TM-1. A comprehensive fiber property analysis of TM-1 and im mutant showed that the lower MIC of fibers in im mutant was due to the lower degree of fiber cell wall thickening as compared to the TM-1 fibers. Using an F(2) population comprising 366 progenies derived from a cross between TM-1 and im mutant, we confirmed that the immature fiber phenotype present in a mutant plant was controlled by one single recessive gene im. Furthermore, we identified 13 simple sequence repeat markers that were closely linked to the im gene located on chromosome 3. Molecular markers associated with the im gene will lay the foundation to further investigate genetic information required for improving cotton fiber fineness and maturity.

  20. Phase I Randomized Clinical Trial of VRC DNA and rAd5 HIV-1 Vaccine Delivery by Intramuscular (IM), Subcutaneous (SC) and Intradermal (ID) Administration (VRC 011)

    PubMed Central

    Enama, Mary E.; Ledgerwood, Julie E.; Novik, Laura; Nason, Martha C.; Gordon, Ingelise J.; Holman, LaSonji; Bailer, Robert T.; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard A.; Mascola, John R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Graham, Barney S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Phase 1 evaluation of the VRC HIV DNA and rAd5 vaccines delivered intramuscularly (IM) supported proceeding to a Phase 2 b efficacy study. Here we report comparison of the IM, subcutaneous (SC) and intradermal (ID) routes of administration. Methods Sixty subjects were randomized to 6 schedules to evaluate the IM, SC or ID route for prime injections. Three schedules included DNA primes (Wks 0,4,8) and 3 schedules included rAd5 prime (Wk0); all included rAd5 IM boost (Wk24). DNA vaccine dosage was 4 mg IM or SC, but 0.4 mg ID, while all rAd5 vaccinations were 1010 PU. All injections were administered by needle and syringe. Results Overall, 27/30 subjects completed 3 DNA primes; 30/30 subjects completed rAd5 primes. Mild local pruritus (itchiness), superficial skin lesions and injection site nodules were associated with ID and SC, but not IM injections. All routes induced T-cell and antibody immune responses after rAd5 boosting. Overall, >95% had Env antibody and >80% had Env T-cell responses. Conclusions The pattern of local reactogenicity following ID and SC injections differed from IM injections but all routes were well-tolerated. There was no evidence of an immunogenicity advantage following SC or ID delivery, supporting IM delivery as the preferred route of administration. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00321061 PMID:24621858

  1. 5 CFR 894.507 - After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false After I'm enrolled, may I change from one... OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and Changing Enrollment § 894.507 After I'm enrolled, may...

  2. 5 CFR 894.507 - After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false After I'm enrolled, may I change from one... OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and Changing Enrollment § 894.507 After I'm enrolled, may...

  3. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) A carrier may not transport a bulk packaging (e.g., portable tank, IM portable tank,...

  4. Characterization of developmental immature fiber (im) mutant and Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) cotton fibers by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immature fiber (im) mutant is one type of cotton fiber mutants with unique characteristics of non-fluffy cotton bolls. Compared to its near-isogenic wild type Texas Marker-1 (TM-1), im fiber has thin secondary cell wall and is less mature. In this work, we applied the previously proposed princip...

  5. Characterization of Developmental Immature Fiber ( im) Mutant and Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) Cotton Fibers Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongliang; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The immature fiber ( im) mutant is one type of cotton fiber mutant with unique characteristics of non-fluffy cotton bolls. Compared to its near-isogenic wild type Texas Marker-1 (TM-1), im fiber has a thin secondary cell wall and is less mature. In this work, we applied the previously proposed principal component analysis (PCA) and simple algorithms to analyze the attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectra of developmental im and TM-1 fibers. The results from these approaches could not effectively and consistently indicate the inherent difference between TM-1 and im fibers at the same developmental stage. The difference between TM-1 and corresponding im fibers was detected when comparing the normalized intensity variations of the 730 cm(-1) bands. The 730 cm(-1) band intensities in developmental im fibers are temporally lower than those in developmental TM-1 fibers although they became similar when the TM-1 and im fibers are fully mature. The observation might imply the likelihood of temporal reduction of amorphous regions in developmental im fibers rather than in developmental TM-1 fibers.

  6. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank...

  7. ODE/IM correspondence for modified B2(1) affine Toda field equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Katsushi; Shu, Hongfei

    2017-03-01

    We study the massive ODE/IM correspondence for modified B2(1) affine Toda field equation. Based on the ψ-system for the solutions of the associated linear problem, we obtain the Bethe ansatz equations. We also discuss the T-Q relations, the T-system and the Y-system, which are shown to be related to those of the A3 /Z2 integrable system. We consider the case that the solution of the linear problem has a monodromy around the origin, which imposes nontrivial boundary conditions for the T-/Y-system. The high-temperature limit of the T- and Y-system and their monodromy dependence are studied numerically.

  8. Useful ion yields for Cameca IMS 3f and 6f SIMS: Limits on quantitative analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hervig, R.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Williams, Pat; Guan, Y.; Huss, G.R.; Leshin, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The useful yields (ions detected/atom sputtered) of major and trace elements in NIST 610 glass were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) using Cameca IMS 3f and 6f instruments. Useful yields of positive ions at maximum transmission range from 10-4 to 0.2 and are negatively correlated with ionization potential. We quantified the decrease in useful yields when applying energy filtering or high mass resolution techniques to remove molecular interferences. The useful yields of selected negative ions (O, S, Au) in magnetite and pyrite were also determined. These data allow the analyst to determine if a particular analysis (trace element contents or isotopic ratio) can be achieved, given the amount of sample available and the conditions of the analysis. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Regenerative Energieträger im Aufwind: Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Harald

    2006-05-01

    2005 kam 4,6 % des deutschen Primär-Energieverbrauchs aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen, bei der Stromproduktion lag ihr Anteil bei 10,2 %. Wesentliche Ursache ist der Boom bei der Windkraft, die vor allem durch Offshore-Windparks auf See weiter ausbaubar ist. Die Wasserkraft lieferte in Deutschland traditionell einen großen Beitrag zur Stromerzeugung, doch ihr Ausbaupotenzial ist gering. Die Photovoltaik, die solar- und die geothermische Stromerzeugung spielen derzeit noch eine kleine Rolle. Den deutschen Bedarf an Wärmeenergie deckten 2004 die erneuerbaren Energien zu 5,4 %, vor allem aus Biomasse. Die solarthermische Wärmeerzeugung hat sich gegenüber 2000 mehr als verdoppelt. Im Straßenverkehr spielen biogene Kraftstoffe mit 5,4 % noch eine untergeordnete Rolle. Bis 2050 könnte in Deutschland der Anteil regenerativer Energien am Primär-Energieverbrauch die Fünfzigprozentmarke überschreiten.

  10. Miniature GC: Minicell ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for astrobiology planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Holland, Paul M.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.; Takeuchi, Norishige

    2006-01-01

    Astrobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of volatile chemical species and minerals present in the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and asteroids. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The use of land rovers and balloon aero-rovers place additional emphasis on miniaturization of the analytical instrumentation. In addition, smaller instruments, using tiny amounts of consumables, allow the use of more instrumentation and/or longer mission life for stationary landers/laboratories. We describe here the development of a miniature GC - Minicell Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) under development through NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development (ASTID) Program and NASA's Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program.

  11. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of IM7/977-3 with Micro-Sized Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. G.; Jegley, D. C.; Siochi, E. J.; Wells, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based hypervelocity imapct testing was conducted on IM7/977-3 quasi-isotropic flat panels at normal incidence using micron-sized particles (i.e. less than or equal to 100 microns) of soda lime glass and olivine. Testing was performed at room temperature (RT) and 175 C with results from the 175 C test compared to those obtained at RT. Between 10 and 30 particles with velocities ranging from 5 to 13 km/s impacted each panel surface for each test temperature. Panels were ultrasonically scanned prior to and after impact testing to assess internal damage. Post-impact analysis included microscopic examination of the surface, determination of particle speed and location, and photomicroscopy for microcrack assessment. Internal damage was observed by ultrasonic inspection on panels impacted at 175 C, whereas damage for the RT impacted panels was confined to surface divets/craters as determined by microscopic analysis.

  12. a Study of 954-2A/IM7 Composite Laminates Containing a Central Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyungwon

    Predicting microcracking properties of the composite laminates in nonuniform stress conditions was the subject in this paper. The uniform stress field meant the stresses were independent of the width direction. The material was the 954-2A/IM7 laminates containing a central hole. Microcracks initiated at the edge of the hole and propagated into the laminate. Because the tensile stress concentration decreased with distance, the microcracks were arrested before the edge of the laminate. Because carbon fiber composites were opaque, a x-ray method was used to detect the length of the propagating microcracks. The microcracking at the near edge of the hole could be reasonably predicted by considering the local laminate stresses and the microcracking toughness measured in unnotched laminates. However, the data away from the hole did not agree with the predictions. The local microcrack density was always much higher than that predicted by the local laminate stress.

  13. Cometary ion flow variations at Comet P/Halley as observed by the Giotto IMS experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kettmann, G.; Ip, W.-H.; Balsiger, H.; Meier, A.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1990-01-01

    The moments of the cometary-ion distributions are determined through a three-dimensional analysis of the Giotto IMS high-intensity spectrometer (HIS) data. The spectrometer is described, with emphasis on its angle analyzer and mass analyzer. The method of data analysis is outlined, with ion-flow vectors and temperatures being addressed. The results of the water group ion-flow profile are presented, and it is noted that, after crossing the cometopause region, the ions become gradually colder. At cometocentric distances larger than 130,000 km, the cometary-ion temperature is found to be in the area of 100 eV or higher, and derivations of the flow parameters are uncertain. The ion temperature and the flow speed become lower by about 50 eV after crossing the magnetic pile-up boundary. It is concluded that the observed velocity and temperature profiles can be explained on the basis of charge exchange processes.

  14. GSE for Balloon-Borne I.M.S.: Decommutator and D/A Units,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    UNLSSFEhEEEEE8-09 F968-hh I FG /6 EhhhLINhmm 11111 I1111115~ 111WERE~ AFGL-TR-83-0095 GSE FOR BALLOON-BORNE I.M.S.: S DECOMMUTATOR AND D/A UNITS Raimundas Sukys ...R. Sukys J.S. Rochefort F19628-81-C-0162 9. PCRFO mr,,C OmG&Nkz&TIO NAb4E AND ADDR.S 0. P33IA. (L.1 E NT. V’,-o3= l. TASK No rtheaste rn Unive rs... Sukys , Steven Goldberq, Contrl,- Cir-cjits for Pocket Pa.l ac Neutra ization EprriiTlent and C’ther -, .ics , Scientific Report 1o. trw n Frtract E1 62

  15. Advancing IM-CW Lidar Modulation Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Harrison, F. W.; Chen, S.; Obland, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements through the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) decadal survey recommended space mission are critical for improving our understanding of CO2 sources and sinks. IM-CW (Intensity Modulated Continuous Wave) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS science requirements. In previous laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used linear swept frequency modulation to discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate clouds, which is a requirement for the inversion of the CO2 column mixing ratio from the instrument optical depth measurements, has been demonstrated with the linear swept frequency modulation technique. We are concurrently investigating advanced techniques to help improve the auto-correlation properties of the transmitted waveform implemented through physical hardware to make cloud rejection more robust in special restricted scenarios. Several different modulation techniques are compared including orthogonal linear swept, orthogonal non-linear swept, time shifted PN, sine wave modulated PN, and sine wave pulsed PN. Different PN code techniques are presented that are appropriate for different types of lidar hardware, including our current ASCENDS IM-CW concept space hardware. These techniques have excellent auto-correlation properties without sidelobes while possessing a finite bandwidth (by way of a new cyclic digital filter), which will reduce bias error in the presence of multiple scatterers. Our analyses show that the studied modulation techniques can increase the accuracy of CO2 column measurements from space.

  16. Regional and Global Atmospheric CO2 Measurements Using 1.57 Micron IM-CW Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Obland, Michael; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Harrison, F. Wallace; Dobler, Jeremy; Campbell, Joel; Kooi, Susan; Meadows, Byron; Fan, Tai-Fang; Liu, Zhaoyan

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is a critical forcing for the Earth's climate, and knowledge of its distribution and variations influences predictions of the Earth's future climate. Accurate observations of atmospheric CO2 are also crucial to improving our understanding of CO2 sources, sinks and transports. To meet these science needs, NASA is developing technologies for the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission, which is aimed at global CO2 observations. Meanwhile an airborne investigation of atmospheric CO2 distributions as part of the NASA Suborbital Atmospheric Carbon and Transport â€" America (ACT-America) mission will be conducted with lidar and in situ instrumentation over the central and eastern United States during all four seasons and under a wide range of meteorological conditions. In preparing for the ASCENDS mission, NASA Langley Research Center and Exelis Inc./Harris Corp. have jointly developed and demonstrated the capability of atmospheric CO2 column measurements with an intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) lidar. Since 2005, a total of 14 flight campaigns have been conducted. A measurement precision of approx.0.3 ppmv for a 10-s average over desert and vegetated surfaces has been achieved, and the lidar CO2 measurements also agree well with in-situ observations. Significant atmospheric CO2 variations on various spatiotemporal scales have been observed during these campaigns. For example, around 10-ppm CO2 changes were found within free troposphere in a region of about 200A-300 sq km over Iowa during a summer 2014 flight. Results from recent flight campaigns are presented in this paper. The ability to achieve the science objectives of the ASCENDS mission with an IM-CW lidar is also discussed in this paper, along with the plans for the ACT-America aircraft investigation that begins in the winter of 2016.

  17. Solubility of alkali metal halides in the ionic liquid [C4C1im][OTf].

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, O; Bordes, E; Schmauck, J; Hunt, P A; Hallett, J P; Welton, T

    2016-06-28

    The solubilities of the metal halides LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KF, KCl, KBr, KI, RbCl, CsCl, CsI, were measured at temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 378.15 K in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([C4C1im][OTf]). Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) salts with anions matching the ionic liquid have also been investigated to determine how well these cations dissolve in [C4C1im][OTf]. This study compares the influence of metal cation and halide anion on the solubility of salts within this ionic liquid. The highest solubility found was for iodide salts, and the lowest solubility for the three fluoride salts. There is no outstanding difference in the solubility of salts with matching anions in comparison to halide salts. The experimental data were correlated employing several phase equilibria models, including ideal mixtures, van't Hoff, the λh (Buchowski) equation, the modified Apelblat equation, and the non-random two-liquid model (NRTL). It was found that the van't Hoff model gave the best correlation results. On the basis of the experimental data the thermodynamic dissolution parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG) were determined for the studied systems together with computed gas phase metathesis parameters. Dissolution depends on the energy difference between enthalpies of fusion and dissolution of the solute salt. This demonstrates that overcoming the lattice energy of the solid matrix is the key to the solubility of inorganic salts in ionic liquids.

  18. On the fingerprint of ssw events in infrasound recordings at IMS stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceranna, L.; Le Pichon, A.; Pilger, C.; Ross, O.

    2013-12-01

    It has been recently shown that sudden stratospheric warming (ssw) events have an impact on the detection of coherent infrasonic waves at dedicated arrays (e.g., Evers & Siegmund, 2009). During ssw events the polar vortex of prevailing stratospheric westerly winds in a winter hemisphere abruptly slows down or even reverses its direction along with an increase of stratospheric temperatures up to several tens of °C. Since infrasound arrays are mostly recording signals ducted in stratospheric wave-guides, such antennas are sensitive to changes in effective sound speed profiles - temperature plus wind speed in direction of propagation. Considering continuous infrasonic waves emitted by ocean swell (microbaroms), volcanoes or even anthropogenic sources as flares, a gap or a change in the back-azimuth of these detected signals can be observed at arrays. For the compliances with the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty a global network of 60 infrasound stations is under construction as a part of the International Monitoring System (IMS); whereas 45 have already been installed. Analysis of waveform data recorded at these stations has demonstrated the capability of infrasound as a supplementary tool for remote sensing of the atmosphere. In our study we compare the re-analysis, using PMCC, of more than five years of continuous data at all available sites (see Matoza et al., 2013) with atmospheric descriptions provided by the EMCWF. We present a synoptic view of the fingerprint of ssw events in detection of coherent signals at IMS infrasound stations both on northern and southern hemisphere, covering the full latitude range from Antarctica to Greenland.

  19. On the fingerprint of ssw events in infrasound recordings at IMS stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph; Ross, Ole; Le Pichon, Alexis

    2013-04-01

    It has been recently shown that sudden stratospheric warming (ssw) events have an impact on the detection of coherent infrasonic waves at dedicated arrays (e.g., Evers & Siegmund, 2009). During ssw events the polar vortex of prevailing stratospheric westerly winds in a winter hemisphere abruptly slows down or even reverses its direction along with an increase of stratospheric temperatures up to several tens of °C. Since infrasound arrays are mostly recording signals ducted in stratospheric wave-guides, such antennas are sensitive to changes in effective sound speed profiles - temperature plus wind speed in direction of propagation. Considering continuous infrasonic waves emitted by ocean swell (microbaroms), volcanoes or even anthropogenic sources as flares, a gap or a change in the back-azimuth of these detected signals can be observed at arrays. For the compliances with the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty a global network of 60 infrasound stations is under construction as a part of the International Monitoring System (IMS); whereas 45 have already been installed. Analysis of waveform data recorded at these stations has demonstrated the capability of infrasound as a supplementary tool for remote sensing of the atmosphere. In our study we compare the re-analysis, using PMCC, of more than five years of continuous data at all available sites (see Matoza et al., 2013) with atmospheric descriptions provided by the EMCWF. We present a synoptic view of the fingerprint of ssw events in detection of coherent signals at IMS infrasound stations both on northern and southern hemisphere, covering the full latitude range from Antarctica to Greenland.

  20. Incorporating numerical modelling into estimates of the detection capability of the IMS infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.

    2011-12-01

    To monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a dedicated International Monitoring System (IMS) is being deployed. Recent global scale observations recorded by this network confirm that its detection capability is highly variable in space and time. Previous studies estimated the radiated source energy from remote observations using empirical yield-scaling relations which account for the along-path stratospheric winds. Although the empirical wind correction reduces the variance in the explosive energy versus pressure relationship, strong variability remains in the yield estimate. Today, numerical modelling techniques provide a basis to better understand the role of different factors describing the source and the atmosphere that influence propagation predictions. In this study, the effects of the source frequency and the stratospheric wind speed are simulated. In order to characterize fine-scale atmospheric structures which are excluded from the current atmospheric specifications, model predictions are further enhanced by the addition of perturbation terms. Thus, a theoretical attenuation relation is developed from massive numerical simulations using the Parabolic Equation method. Compared with previous studies, our approach provides a more realistic physical description of infrasound propagation. We obtain a new relation combining a near-field and far-field term which account for the effects of both geometrical spreading and dissipation on the pressure wave attenuation. By incorporating real ambient infrasound noise at the receivers which significantly limits the ability to detect and identify signals of interest, the minimum detectable source amplitude can be derived in a broad frequency range. Empirical relations between the source spectrum and the yield of explosions are used to infer detection thresholds in tons of TNT equivalent. In the context of the future verification of the CTBT, the obtained attenuation relation quantifies

  1. Incorporating numerical modeling into estimates of the detection capability of the IMS infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Vergoz, J.

    2012-03-01

    To monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test ban Treaty (CTBT), a dedicated International Monitoring System (IMS) is being deployed. Recent global scale observations recorded by this network confirm that its detection capability is highly variable in space and time. Previous studies estimated the radiated source energy from remote observations using empirical yield-scaling relations which account for the along-path stratospheric winds. Although the empirical wind correction reduces the variance in the explosive energy versus pressure relationship, strong variability remains in the yield estimate. Today, numerical modeling techniques provide a basis to better understand the role of different factors describing the source and the atmosphere that influence propagation predictions. In this study, the effects of the source frequency and the stratospheric wind speed are simulated. In order to characterize fine-scale atmospheric structures which are excluded from the current atmospheric specifications, model predictions are further enhanced by the addition of perturbation terms. A theoretical attenuation relation is thus developed from massive numerical simulations using the Parabolic Equation method. Compared with previous studies, our approach provides a more realistic physical description of long-range infrasound propagation. We obtain a new relation combining a near-field and a far-field term, which account for the effects of both geometrical spreading and absorption. In the context of the future verification of the CTBT, the derived attenuation relation quantifies the spatial and temporal variability of the IMS infrasound network performance in higher resolution, and will be helpful for the design and prioritizing maintenance of any arbitrary infrasound monitoring network.

  2. Influence of Language of Administration on ImPACT Performance by Bilingual Spanish-English College Students.

    PubMed

    Lehman Blake, Margaret; Ott, Summer; Villanyi, Elizabeth; Kazhuro, Katia; Schatz, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that there are performance differences on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery related to language of administration, such that scores are higher with the English than the Spanish version of the battery. This study extended those findings in a within-subjects design, evaluating neurocognitive performance of 58 bilingual English-Spanish-speaking individuals who completed ImPACT in both languages. Results revealed a significant multivariate effect of language of test administration, p < .01; partial η(2) = 0.23, with significantly better English language performance on Verbal Memory and Visual Motor Speed composite scores, but not Visual Memory, Reaction Time, or Total Symptom score. Results are discussed in relation to potential linguistic biases of the ImPACT and functional language dominance that may contribute to the lower scores. These results extend previous findings and suggest a need for separate normative data for Spanish-speaking individuals completing the ImPACT battery if baseline data are not present.

  3. EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYST RECOVERY IN WATER BY EPA METHOD 1623 WITH A MODIFIED IMS DISSOCIATION PROCEDURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S.EPA Methods 1622 and 1623 are used for the detection of waterborne Cryptosporium. These methods consist of filtration, elution, purificaiton by immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and microscopic analysis for oocysts stained by a fluorescent monoclonal antibody and counter stai...

  4. 78 FR 79498 - Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on November 22, 2013, pursuant to Section...

  5. Die Tabellen von Ulugh Beg. Die Sternkataloge des Ptolemäus, Ulugh Beg und Tycho Brahe im Vergleich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, Heiner

    2002-09-01

    Im 15. Jahrhundert schuf Ulugh Beg, der Herrscher von Samarkand (1394 - 1449), ein wichtiges Tabellenwerk. Das Kernstück dieses Werks (Zij Ulugh Beg, "Tabellen Ulugh Begs") ist ein Katalog mit 1018 Sternen, ihren Helligkeiten und Positionen. In diesem Bericht werden die Zij Ulugh Beg mit den großen Katalogen von Ptolemäus und Tycho Brahe verglichen.

  6. 77 FR 34069 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... withdrawn as parties to this venture. In addition, Sungard Higher Education has changed its name to Ellucian... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on May 2, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a)...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection..., 1999, the State of Utah submitted an evaluation of the Utah County inspection and maintenance...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection..., 1999, the State of Utah submitted an evaluation of the Utah County inspection and maintenance...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection..., 1999, the State of Utah submitted an evaluation of the Utah County inspection and maintenance...

  10. 76 FR 4723 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Correction In notice document 2011-78 appearing on page 1460 the issue... Global Learning Consortium, Inc.'' should read ``IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc.''. 3. On the same page, in the third column, in the 15th and 16th lines, ``INS Global Learning Consortium,...

  11. 75 FR 14191 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on February 16, 2010, pursuant to section 6... Act''), IMS Global Learning Consortium Inc. has filed written notifications simultaneously with the..., CA have been added as parties to this venture. Also, LearnGauge, LLC, Okemos, MI; Inigral, Inc.,...

  12. 75 FR 66791 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on September 30, 2010, pursuant to Section... Act''), IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. has filed written notifications simultaneously with the... KOREA; eChalk, New York, NY; Miami-Dade College--Virtual College, Miami, FL; National Labor...

  13. 5 CFR 894.304 - Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation? 894.304 Section 894.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  14. 5 CFR 894.304 - Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation? 894.304 Section 894.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  15. 5 CFR 894.304 - Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation? 894.304 Section 894.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  16. 5 CFR 894.304 - Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation? 894.304 Section 894.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  17. 5 CFR 894.304 - Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Am I eligible to enroll if I'm retired or receiving workers' compensation? 894.304 Section 894.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  18. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Tumorimpfstoffe auf der Basis des Plasmid-Vektors pCI, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) und MVA-infizierten dendritischen Zellen entwickelt und durch Sequenzierung, Western blotting und durchflußzytometrische Analyse überprüft. Die in vivo Wirksamkeit der Vakzinen wurde in verschiedenen Tumormodellen in C57BL/6 Mäusen verglichen. Die auf dem eukaryotischen Expressionsvektor pCI basierende DNA-Vakzinierung induzierte einen sehr wirksamen, antigenspezifischen und langfristigen Schutz vor Muzin, CEA oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Eine MVA-Vakzinierung bietet in den in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Tumormodellen keinen signifikanten Schutz vor Muzin oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Sowohl humane, als auch murine in vitro generierte dendritische Zellen lassen sich mit MVA – im Vergleich zu anderen viralen Vektoren – sehr gut infizieren. Die Expressionsrate der eingefügten Gene ist aber gering im Vergleich zur Expression in permissiven Wirtszellen des Virus (embryonale Hühnerfibroblasten). Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß eine MVA-Infektion dendritischer Zellen ähnliche Auswirkungen auf den Reifezustand humaner und muriner dendritischer Zellen hat, wie eine Infektion mit replikationskompetenten Vakzinia-Stämmen, und außerdem die Hochregulation von CD40 während der terminalen Reifung von murinen dendritischen Zellen inhibiert wird. Die während der langfristigen in vitro Kultur auf CEF-Zellen entstandenen Deletionen im MVA Genom führten zu einer starken Attenuierung und dem Verlust einiger Gene, die immunmodulatorische Proteine kodieren, jedoch nicht zu einer Verminderung des zytopathischen Effekts in dendritischen Zellen. Die geringe Expressionsrate und die beobachtete Inhibition der Expression kostimulatorischer Moleküle auf dendritischen Zellen kann für eine wenig effektive Induktion einer Immunantwort in MVA vakzinierten Tieren durch cross priming oder die direkte Infektion

  19. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and the Other Galilean Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward; Cooper, John; Hartle, Richard; Lipatov, Alexander; Mahaffy, Paul; Paterson, William; Pachalidis, Nick; Coplan, Mike; Cassidy, Tim

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA are planning the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) to the Jupiter system with specific emphasis to Europa and Ganymede, respectively. The Japanese Space Agency is also planning an orbiter mission to explore Jupiter's magnetosphere and the Galilean satellites. For NASA's Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) we are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) with two main goals which can also be applied to the other Galilean moons, 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the 4 pi surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, and between the moon surfaces and subsurface layers putatively including oceans. The measurement of the interactions for all the Galilean moons can be used to trace the in situ ion measurements of pickup ions back to either Europa's or Ganymede's surface from the respectively orbiting spacecraft. The IMS instrument, being developed under NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development Program, would maximally achieve plasma measurement requirements for JEO and EJSM while moving forward our knowledge of Jupiter system composition and source processes to far higher levels than previously envisaged. The composition of the global surfaces of Europa and Ganymede can be inferred from the measurement of ejected neutrals and pick-up ions using at minimum an in situ payload including MAG and IMS also fully capable of meeting Level 1 mission requirements for ocean detection and survey. Elemental and isotopic analysis of potentially extruded oceanic materials at the moon surfaces would further support the ocean objectives. These measurements should be made from a polar orbiting spacecraft about Europa or Ganymede at height 100 km. The ejecta produced by

  20. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and the Other Galilean Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, Edward; Cooper, John; Hartle, Richard; Lipatov, Alexander; Mahaffy, Paul; Paterson, William; Pachalidis, Nick; Coplan, Mike; Cassidy, Tim

    2010-05-01

    NASA and ESA are planning the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) to the Jupiter system with specific emphasis to Europa and Ganymede, respectively. The Japanese Space Agency is also planning an orbiter mission to explore Jupiter's magnetosphere and the Galilean satellites. For NASA's Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) we are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) with two main goals which can also be applied to the other Galilean moons, 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the 4? surface composition to trace elemental [1] and significant isotopic levels. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, and between the moon surfaces and subsurface layers putatively including oceans. The measurement of the interactions for all the Galilean moons can be used to trace the in situ ion measurements of pickup ions back to either Europa's or Ganymede's surface from the respectively orbiting spacecraft. The IMS instrument, being developed under NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development Program, would maximally achieve plasma measurement requirements for JEO and EJSM while moving forward our knowledge of Jupiter system composition and source processes to far higher levels than previously envisaged. The composition of the global surfaces of Europa and Ganymede can be inferred from the measurement of ejected neutrals and pick-up ions using at minimum an in situ payload including MAG and IMS also fully capable of meeting Level 1 mission requirements for ocean detection and survey. Elemental and isotopic analysis of potentially extruded oceanic materials at the moon surfaces would further support the ocean objectives. These measurements should be made from a polar orbiting spacecraft about Europa or Ganymede at height ~ 100 km. The ejecta produced by

  1. Specific interaction of IM30/Vipp1 with cyanobacterial and chloroplast membranes results in membrane remodeling and eventually in membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, Jennifer; Thurotte, Adrien; Schneider, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The photosynthetic light reaction takes place within the thylakoid membrane system in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. Besides its global importance, the biogenesis, maintenance and dynamics of this membrane system are still a mystery. In the last two decades, strong evidence supported the idea that these processes involve IM30, the inner membrane-associated protein of 30kDa, a protein also known as the vesicle-inducing protein in plastids 1 (Vipp1). Even though we just only begin to understand the precise physiological function of this protein, it is clear that interaction of IM30 with membranes is crucial for biogenesis of thylakoid membranes. Here we summarize and discuss forces guiding IM30-membrane interactions, as the membrane properties as well as the oligomeric state of IM30 appear to affect proper interaction of IM30 with membrane surfaces. Interaction of IM30 with membranes results in an altered membrane structure and can finally trigger fusion of adjacent membranes, when Mg(2+) is present. Based on recent results, we finally present a model summarizing individual steps involved in IM30-mediated membrane fusion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid order/lipid defects and lipid-control of protein activity edited by Dirk Schneider.

  2. Biosynthesis of wyosine derivatives in tRNA(Phe) of Archaea: role of a remarkable bifunctional tRNA(Phe):m1G/imG2 methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Urbonavičius, Jaunius; Meškys, Rolandas; Grosjean, Henri

    2014-06-01

    The presence of tricyclic wyosine derivatives 3'-adjacent to anticodon is a hallmark of tRNA(Phe) in eukaryotes and archaea. In yeast, formation of wybutosine (yW) results from five enzymes acting in a strict sequential order. In archaea, the intermediate compound imG-14 (4-demethylwyosine) is a target of three different enzymes, leading to the formation of distinct wyosine derivatives (yW-86, imG, and imG2). We focus here on a peculiar methyltransferase (aTrm5a) that catalyzes two distinct reactions: N(1)-methylation of guanosine and C(7)-methylation of imG-14, whose function is to allow the production of isowyosine (imG2), an intermediate of the 7-methylwyosine (mimG) biosynthetic pathway. Based on the formation of mesomeric forms of imG-14, a rationale for such dual enzymatic activities is proposed. This bifunctional tRNA:m(1)G/imG2 methyltransferase, acting on two chemically distinct guanosine derivatives located at the same position of tRNA(Phe), is unique to certain archaea and has no homologs in eukaryotes. This enzyme here referred to as Taw22, probably played an important role in the emergence of the multistep biosynthetic pathway of wyosine derivatives in archaea and eukaryotes.

  3. Study of seismicity in the NW Himalaya and adjoining regions using IMS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sherif M.; Shanker, D.

    2016-08-01

    The Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Center (IDC) has been used in order to investigate the seismicity of the Northwest Himalaya and its neighboring region for the time period June 1999 to March 2015 within the geographical coordinates 25-40° N latitude and 65-85° E longitude. We have used a very precisely located earthquake dataset recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS) Network containing 7,583 events with body wave magnitudes from 2.5 to 6.3. The study area has been subdivided into six regions based on the Flinn-Engdahl (F-E) seismic and geographical regionalization scheme, which was used as the region classifications of the International Data Center catalog. The examined region includes NW India, Pakistan, Nepal, Xizang, Kashmir, and Hindukush. For each region, Magnitudes of completeness (Mc) and Gutenberg-Richter (GR) recurrence parameters (a and b values) have been estimated. The Gutenberg-Richter analysis is preceded by an overview of the seismotectonics of the study area. The obtained Mc values vary from 3.5 to 3.9. The lower value of Mc was found mainly in Xizang region whereas the higher Mc threshold is evident in Pakistan region. However, the b values vary from 1.19 to 1.48. The lowest b value is recorded in Xizang region, which is mostly related to the Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) fault, whereas the highest b values are recorded in NW India and Kashmir regions, which are mostly related to the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) fault. The REB for the selected period has been compared to the most renowned bulletin of global seismicity, namely that issued by the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). A study of 4,821 events recorded by USGS in the study region indicates that about 36 % of seismic events were missed and the catalog is considered as complete for events with magnitudes ≥4.0. However, both a and b values are obviously higher than those of IMS catalog. The a

  4. The Characterization of Laser Ablation Patterns and a New Definition of Resolution in Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-IMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, Matthew B.; Raymond, Benjamin B. A.; Padula, Matthew P.

    2017-03-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) is a technique that has seen a sharp rise in both use and development. Despite this rapid adoption, there have been few thorough investigations into the actual physical mechanisms that underlie the acquisition of IMS images. We therefore set out to characterize the effect of IMS laser ablation patterns on the surface of a sample. We also concluded that the governing factors that control spatial resolution have not been correctly defined and therefore propose a new definition of resolution.

  5. Automated Fiber Placement of PEEK/IM7 Composites with Film Interleaf Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulcher, A. Bruce; Banks, William I., III; Pipes, R. Byron; Tiwari, Surendra N.; Cano, Roberto J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Clinton, R. G., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The incorporation of thin discrete layers of resin between plies (interleafing) has been shown to improve fatigue and impact properties of structural composite materials. Furthermore, interleafing could be used to increase the barrier properties of composites used as structural materials for cryogenic propellant storage. In this work, robotic heated-head tape placement of PEEK/IM7 composites containing a PEEK polymer film interleaf was investigated. These experiments were carried out at the NASA Langley Research Center automated fiber placement facility. Using the robotic equipment, an optimal fabrication process was developed for the composite without the interleaf. Preliminary interleaf processing trials indicated that a two-stage process was necessary; the film had to be tacked to the partially-placed laminate then fully melted in a separate operation. Screening experiments determined the relative influence of the various robotic process variables on the peel strength of the film-composite interface. Optimization studies were performed in which peel specimens were fabricated at various compaction loads and roller temperatures at each of three film melt processing rates. The resulting data were fitted with quadratic response surfaces. Additional specimens were fabricated at placement parameters predicted by the response surface models to yield high peel strength in an attempt to gage the accuracy of the predicted response and assess the repeatability of the process. The overall results indicate that quality PEEK/lM7 laminates having film interleaves can be successfully and repeatability fabricated by heated head automated fiber placement.

  6. The Hummingbird GC-IMS: In Situ Analysis of a Cometary Nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Cohen, Martin J.; Wernlund, Roger F.; Stimac, Robert M.; Takeuchi, Norishige; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Comets are of enormous scientific interest for many reasons. They are primitive bodies that date back to the earliest stages of solar system formation and, because of their small size and because they have been stored in the outer reaches of the solar system, their pristine nature has been preserved better than for any other class of body. They are extremely rich in highly volatile elements, many in the form of ices, and are richer in organic matter than any other known solar system body. It is strongly suspected that in addition to their content of primordial solar nebular material, they also incorporate unprocessed matter from the interstellar medium. Impacts by comets occur onto all the planets and satellites, often with major consequences (e.g., the dinosaur extinction event at the KIT boundary), or sometimes just providing a spectacular cosmic event (e.g., the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter). A mission to analyze a cometary nucleus must be capable of detecting and identifying over 30 molecular species among several different chemical groups. The Hummingbird Mission will rendezvous with, orbit, characterize, and make multiple descents to the nucleus of a comet. Hummingbird will employ a Gas Chromatograph - Ion Mobility Spectrometer (GC-IMS) as part-of a suite of sophisticated instruments for a comprehensive in situ elemental, molecular, and isotopic analysis of the comet.

  7. High strain rate mechanical properties of IM7/8551-7 graphite epoxy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, B.M.; Vinson, J.R.; Hall, I.W.

    1995-12-31

    Polymer matrix composites offer excellent mechanical properties such as high specific strength and stiffness which make them attractive for many naval, aerospace and automotive structural components. Although they are candidate materials for many applications where high strain rate loading is probable, little is known of the material responses to shock loading for most composite materials. Because mechanical properties vary significantly with strain rate, the use of static properties in the analysis and design of structures which undergo dynamic loadings can on one hand lead to a very conservative overweight design, or on the other hand can lead to designs which fail prematurely and unexpectedly. The use of dynamic material properties will ensure the design of composite structures which are weight efficient and structurally sound when they are subjected to dynamic loads. In this study, a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar is used to obtain compressive mechanical properties of a unidirectional IM7/8551-7 graphite epoxy composite. For each of the three principal directions, the yield stress, yield strain, ultimate stress, ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity, elastic strain energy function and the total strain energy to failure are presented for strain rates varying from 49 sec{sup {minus}1} to 1430 sec{sup {minus}1}. The data from 72 tests are statistically analyzed, represented by equations, and discussed in some detail.

  8. Evaluating the CLimate and Air Quality ImPacts of Short-livEd Pollutants (ECLIPSE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The ECLIPSE (Evaluating the CLimate and Air Quality ImPacts of Short-livEd Pollutants) EU project studied the influence of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs, e.g., aerosols, methane, ozone) on past, current and future climate and has finished in March 2015. ECLIPSE has created a consistent emission data set for short- and long-lived climate forcers for the recent past and future scenarios. This inventory also includes new source categories (e.g., gas flaring emissions) and is already in use by many groups worldwide. A small ensemble of models was used to quantify radiative forcing of SLCFs by region and sector. Existing and new metrics for quantifying climate impacts were studied and Global Temperature Change Potential on a 20-year time horizon (GTP20) was selected to rank potential emission mitigation measures. The 20 most effective measures with a non-negative impact on air quality were then used to define a mitigation scenario. For the first time, a small ensemble of coupled climate models performed transient model simulations of the control and the mitigation scenario, to quantify the impact of the SLCF mitigation measures on global and regional temperature and precipitation. This presentation will summarize the main findings of ECLIPSE and extract the policy-relevant recommendations from the project. Findings will also be discussed in the light of a detailed evaluation of the models against measurements in Europe, the Arctic and Asia.

  9. Double DCO+ Rings Reveal CO Ice Desorption in the Outer Disk Around IM Lup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, Karin I.; Furuya, Kenji; Loomis, Ryan; Aikawa, Yuri; Andrews, Sean M.; Qi, Chunhua; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Wilner, David J.

    2015-09-01

    In a protoplanetary disk, a combination of thermal and non-thermal desorption processes regulate where volatiles are liberated from icy grain mantles into the gas phase. Non-thermal desorption should result in volatile-enriched gas in disk-regions where complete freeze-out is otherwise expected. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of the disk around the young star IM Lup in 1.4 mm continuum, C18O 2-1, H13CO+ 3-2 and DCO+ 3-2 emission at ˜0.″5 resolution. The images of these dust and gas tracers are clearly resolved. The DCO+ line exhibits a striking pair of concentric rings of emission that peak at radii of ˜0.″6 and 2″ (˜90 and 300 AU, respectively). Based on disk chemistry model comparison, the inner DCO+ ring is associated with the balance of CO freeze-out and thermal desorption due to a radial decrease in disk temperature. The outer DCO+ ring is explained by non-thermal desorption of CO ice in the low-column-density outer disk, repopulating the disk midplane with cold CO gas. The CO gas then reacts with abundant H2D+ to form the observed DCO+ outer ring. These observations demonstrate that spatially resolved DCO+ emission can be used to trace otherwise hidden cold gas reservoirs in the outmost disk regions, opening a new window onto their chemistry and kinematics.

  10. Synthesis of structured lipids by transesterification of trilinolein catalyzed by Lipozyme IM60.

    PubMed

    Sellappan, S; Akoh, C C

    2001-04-01

    Structured lipids (SL) containing caprylic, stearic, and linoleic acids were synthesized by enzymatic transesterification using Lipozyme IM60. Pure trilinolein and free fatty acids were used as substrates. Incorporation of stearic acid was higher than that of caprylic acid in all parameters. Highest incorporations of both acids were achieved at 32 h, mole ratio of 1:4:4 (trilinolein/caprylic/stearic acids), water content of 1% (wt %), temperature of 55 degrees C, and 10% (wt %) enzyme load. The maximal incorporations of caprylic and stearic acids were 23.73 and 62.46 mol %, respectively. Reaction time, water content, and enzyme load had major influences on the reaction, whereas substrate mole ratio and temperature showed less influence. Lipozyme showed good stability over six reuses. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis of SL gave a melting profile with a very low melting peak of 0-3.3 degrees C and a solid fat content of 25.21% at 0 degrees C. The melting profile and solid fat content of SL were compared with those of fats extracted from commercially available solid and liquid margarine products. The data suggest that enzymatically produced SL could be used in liquid margarine products.

  11. The primary transcriptome of the marine diazotroph Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfreundt, Ulrike; Kopf, Matthias; Belkin, Natalia; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Hess, Wolfgang R.

    2014-08-01

    Blooms of the dinitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium considerably contribute to new nitrogen inputs into tropical oceans. Intriguingly, only 60% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 genome sequence codes for protein, compared with ~85% in other sequenced cyanobacterial genomes. The extensive non-coding genome fraction suggests space for an unusually high number of unidentified, potentially regulatory non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). To identify the transcribed fraction of the genome, here we present a genome-wide map of transcriptional start sites (TSS) at single nucleotide resolution, revealing the activity of 6,080 promoters. We demonstrate that T. erythraeum has the highest number of actively splicing group II introns and the highest percentage of TSS yielding ncRNAs of any bacterium examined to date. We identified a highly transcribed retroelement that serves as template repeat for the targeted mutation of at least 12 different genes by mutagenic homing. Our findings explain the non-coding portion of the T. erythraeum genome by the transcription of an unusually high number of non-coding transcripts in addition to the known high incidence of transposable elements. We conclude that riboregulation and RNA maturation-dependent processes constitute a major part of the Trichodesmium regulatory apparatus.

  12. Disposition of oxytetracycline in pigs after i.m. administration of two long-acting formulations.

    PubMed

    El Korchi, G; Prats, C; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2001-08-01

    Two commercially available long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC) formulations were administered by the intramuscular (i.m.) route to six healthy pigs at the recommended dose of 30 mg/kg. After 2 h the mean maximum concentration (C(max)) reached values of 8.1 +/- 2.2 and 15.4 +/- 11.1 microg/mL, respectively. These concentrations remained higher than 0.5 microg/mL for more than 5 days after drug administration. The area under the concentration time curve (AUC09 days) of each formulation was 255 +/- 76.5 and 399.2 +/- 123 microg. h/mL, respectively, and the mean residence time (MRT) was around 3 days for both formulations. No significant differences were observed between the pharmacokinetic parameters of the two formulations, showing the bioequivalence of the two formulations studied according to the criteria established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products (CVMP).

  13. Performance analysis of passive optical network systems based on the IM/DD OFDM modulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wchir, Besma; Ben Abdallah, Abderrazek; Mhatli, Sofien; Jarajreh, Mutsam; Yang, Sigang; Attia, Rabah

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by the robust immunity to interference as well as the higher spectrum efficiency, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has been widely considered as one of the strongest contenders for high-speed Next- Generation Passive Optical Networks (NG-PONs), which satisfies the huge surge in demand for high-speed broadband services. In the other hand, OFDM systems suffer from a high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) at the transmitted signal resulting in signal degradation. The simplest method to deal with the PAPR problem consists in applying deliberate clipping to the transmitted signal which significantly reduces the requirement of the received optical power. In this paper, an analytical evaluation for the performance of an IM/DD optical OFDM system is shown, this is while accounting for clipping distortion and quantification noise caused by the limited bit resolution of DAC converter. Moreover, the paper demonstrates that applying digital signal restoration at the system receiver enables further improvements in the system performances in terms of enhanced effective Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and reduced optical power that is required to achieve specified Bit-Error-Rate (BER).

  14. The slow decline of the Galactic recurrent novae T Pyxidis, IM Normae, and CI Aquilae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleo, Andrea; Shore, Steven N.

    2015-05-01

    A distinguishing trait of the three known Galactic recurrent novae with the shortest orbital periods, T Pyx, IM Nor, and CI Aql, is that their optical decline time-scales are significantly longer than those of the other recurrent systems. On the other hand, some estimates of the mass of the ejecta, the velocity of the ejecta, and the duration of the soft X-rays emission of these systems are of the order of those of the other recurrent systems and the fast classical novae. We put forth a tentative explanation of this phenomenon. We propose that in these systems part of the material transferred from the companion during the first few days of the eruption remains within the Roche lobe of the white dwarf, preventing the radiation from ionizing the ejecta of the system and increasing the optical decline time-scale. We explain why this phenomenon is more likely in systems with a high mass transfer rate and a short orbital period. Finally, we present a schematic model that shows that the material transferred from the companion is sufficient to absorb the radiation from the white dwarf in these systems, ultimately supporting this scenario as quantitatively realistic.

  15. Analytical formulation of directly modulated OOFDM signals transmitted over an IM/DD dispersive link.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C; Ortega, B; Wei, J L; Tang, J; Capmany, J

    2013-03-25

    We provide an analytical study on the propagation effects of a directly modulated OOFDM signal through a dispersive fiber and subsequent photo-detection. The analysis includes the effects of the laser operation point and the interplay between chromatic dispersion and laser chirp. The final expression allows to understand the physics behind the transmission of a multi-carrier signal in the presence of residual frequency modulation and the description of the induced intermodulation distortion gives us a detailed insight into the diferent intermodulation products which impair the recovered signal at the receiver-end side. Numerical comparisons between transmission simulations results and those provided by evaluating the expression obtained are carried out for different laser operation points. Results obtained by changing the fiber length, laser parameters and using single mode fiber with negative and positive dispersion are calculated in order to demonstrate the validity and versatility of the theory provided in this paper. Therefore, a novel analytical formulation is presented as a versatile tool for the description and study of IM/DD OOFDM systems with variable design parameters.

  16. Radial Distribution of Molecules and Ions in the Protoplanetary Disk Around IM Lup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, Brian E.; Oberg, K. I.

    2011-01-01

    We present spatially and spectroscopically resolved Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of 12CO J=2-1, 13CO J=2-1, DCO+ J=3-2, N2H+ J=3-2, and H2CO J=4(14)-3(13) line emission from the IM Lup protoplanetary disk. We use Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations to compare the SMA visibilities with tapered disk models, and use the results to constrain the outer radii of the emission regions. N2H+ and H2CO are proposed to trace dust grains at temperatures below 20 K, and DCO+ is proposed to trace gas temperatures below 40 K. The inferred outer radii for N2H+ and H2CO are both 600 AU, and 300-600 AU for DCO+. These values are consistent with thermally decoupled gas and dust in the outer disk. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 0754568 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  17. Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn als Biomarker in 1-Hydroxymethylpyren-exponierten Ratten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lan

    2002-01-01

    1-Methylpyren (MP) ist hepatokanzerogen in neugeborenen männlichen Mäusen. Durch Hydroxylierung an der benzylischen Stelle und anschließende Sulfonierung wird MP zu DNA-reaktivem 1-Sulfooxymethylpyren (SMP) aktiviert. In der Ratte führt die Exposition des benzylischen Alkohols, 1-Hydroxymethylpyren (HMP), zur DNA-Adduktbildung in verschiedenen Geweben. Eventuelle Konsequenz der Toxifizierung ist die Ausscheidung entsprechender Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn, welche aufgrund ihrer Herkunft als Biomarker eignen könnten. In dieser Arbeit wird die Ausscheidung der Mercaptursäure und des N2-Desoxyguanosinadduktes in HMP-exponierten Ratten untersucht. Nach der Applikation von HMP bzw. MP wurden weniger als 1 % der Dosis als MPMA über Urin und Faeces ausgeschieden (0 - 48 h). Die Ausscheidung erfolgt hauptsächlich in den ersten 24 h nach der Applikation. MPdG konnte weder in Urin noch in Faeces der HMP-behandelten Tieren identifiziert werden. Nach direkter SMP-Applikation wurde MPdG nur in sehr geringe Menge (weniger als 0,9 ppm in 12 h) im Urin gefunden. Aufgrund der geringen Menge eignet sich MPdG nicht als Biomarker. MPMA dagegen, lässt sich analytisch gut erfassen. Es sollte daher untersucht werden, ob MPMA die Toxifizierung des HMP wiederspiegelt. Die Voraussetzung dafür ist die Kenntnisse über das Metabolismusmuster von HMP. Es wurde daher umfassende Untersuchungen zum Metabolismus des HMP durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass mehr als 80 % der Metaboiten in ihrer oxidierten Form (PCS, deren Glucuronsäure-Konjugate sowie phenolische Sulfatester der PCS) ausgeschieden wurden. Demnach spielt die Oxidation des HMP zu PCS eine sehr wichtige Rolle bei der Detoxifizierung und Ausscheidung von HMP. Ferne konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Enzyme Alkohol- und Aldehyd-Dehydrogenase an der Oxidation von HMP beteiligt waren. Die Inhibitoren Disulfiram und Ethanol der o. g. Enzyme wurde daher zur Modulation der Detoxifizierung in vivo eingesetzt

  18. Proposed IMS infrastructure improvement project, Seward, Alaska. Final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) examines a proposal for improvements at the existing University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Marine Science (IMS), Seward Marine Center. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) Trustee Council is proposing to improve the existing research infrastructure to enhance the EVOS Trustee Council`s capabilities to study and rehabilitate marine mammals, marine birds, and the ecosystem injured by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The analysis in this document focuses on the effects associated with construction and operation of the proposed project and its proposed alternatives. The EIS gives a detailed description of all major elements of the proposed project and its alternatives; identifies resources of major concern that were raised during the scoping process; describes the environmental background conditions of those resources; defines and analyzes the potential effects of the proposed project and its alternatives on these conditions; and identifies mitigating measures that are part of the project design as well as those proposed to minimize or reduce the adverse effects. Included in the EIS are written and oral comments received during the public comment period.

  19. IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® 25 years on.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Giudicelli, Véronique; Duroux, Patrice; Jabado-Michaloud, Joumana; Folch, Géraldine; Aouinti, Safa; Carillon, Emilie; Duvergey, Hugo; Houles, Amélie; Paysan-Lafosse, Typhaine; Hadi-Saljoqi, Saida; Sasorith, Souphatta; Lefranc, Gérard; Kossida, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    IMGT(®), the international ImMunoGeneTics information system(®)(http://www.imgt.org) is the global reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. By its creation in 1989 by Marie-Paule Lefranc (Université de Montpellier and CNRS), IMGT(®) marked the advent of immunoinformatics, which emerged at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. IMGT(®) is specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies, T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility (MH) and proteins of the IgSF and MhSF superfamilies. IMGT(®) is built on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts, which bridged the gap between genes, sequences and 3D structures. The concepts include the IMGT(®) standardized keywords (identification), IMGT(®) standardized labels (description), IMGT(®) standardized nomenclature (classification), IMGT unique numbering and IMGT Colliers de Perles (numerotation). IMGT(®) comprises 7 databases, 17 online tools and 15,000 pages of web resources, and provides a high-quality and integrated system for analysis of the genomic and expressed IG and TR repertoire of the adaptive immune responses, including NGS high-throughput data. Tools and databases are used in basic, veterinary and medical research, in clinical applications (mutation analysis in leukemia and lymphoma) and in antibody engineering and humanization. The IMGT/mAb-DB interface was developed for therapeutic antibodies and fusion proteins for immunological applications (FPIA). IMGT(®) is freely available at http://www.imgt.org.

  20. Mechanical characterization of IM7/8551-7 carbon/epoxy under biaxial stress: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, G.E. Jr.; Swanson, S.R.

    1987-11-13

    This is the final report on an investigation to evaluate the mechanical response of Hercules IM7/8551-7 carbon/epoxy, which is a high strength, high elongation fiber and a high toughness resin system used in a prepreg form. The material characterization involved testing both laminate and lamina forms under a wide range of biaxial stress states. Tubular specimens were employed that have been designed to eliminate undesirable end effects, permitting uniform stress states to be achieved. Quasi-isotropic (90/+-45/0)/sub ns/laminates and (90)/sub 16T/ lamina specimens were loaded under combinations of internal pressure, axial load, and torsion. Both stiffness and strength data were obtained under these multiaxial stress conditions. The measured laminate stiffnesses correlated well using classical laminated plate theory, and that laminate failure occurred in the two separate modes of matrix cracking and fiber failure. Like the previously examined carbon/epoxy systems, laminate failure could be predicted by using a fiber failure criterion to identify the critical plies and critical load levels. It was found that either maximum fiber stress or fiber direction strain could be used as a failure criterion on a ply level. 16 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Discrimination of epimeric glycans and glycopeptides using IM-MS and its potential for carbohydrate sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Both, P.; Green, A. P.; Gray, C. J.; Šardzík, R.; Voglmeir, J.; Fontana, C.; Austeri, M.; Rejzek, M.; Richardson, D.; Field, R. A.; Widmalm, G.; Flitsch, S. L.; Eyers, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is the primary analytical technique used to characterize the complex oligosaccharides that decorate cell surfaces. Monosaccharide building blocks are often simple epimers, which when combined produce diastereomeric glycoconjugates indistinguishable by mass spectrometry. Structure elucidation frequently relies on assumptions that biosynthetic pathways are highly conserved. Here, we show that biosynthetic enzymes can display unexpected promiscuity, with human glycosyltransferase pp-α-GanT2 able to utilize both uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine and uridine diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine, leading to the synthesis of epimeric glycopeptides in vitro. Ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) was used to separate these structures and, significantly, enabled characterization of the attached glycan based on the drift times of the monosaccharide product ions generated following collision-induced dissociation. Finally, ion-mobility mass spectrometry following fragmentation was used to determine the nature of both the reducing and non-reducing glycans of a series of epimeric disaccharides and the branched pentasaccharide Man3 glycan, demonstrating that this technique may prove useful for the sequencing of complex oligosaccharides.

  2. Giotto IMS measurements of the production rate of hydrogen cyanide in the coma of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ip, W.-H.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Kettmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    The ion composition measurements in the ionosphere of Comet Halley by the ion mass spectrometer (IMS) experiment on the Giotto spacecraft are used to estimate the relative abundance of HCN. From a comparison of the normalized number density of ions with mass-to-charge (M/q) ratio of 28 AMU/e with steady-state photochemical models, it can be determined that the production rate of HCN directly from the central nucleus is Q(HCN) is less than about 0.0002 Q(H2O) at the time of Giotto encounter. The related photochemical- model calculations also indicate that Q(NH3)/Q(H2O) at the time of Giotto encounter. The related photo-chemical model calculations also indicate that Q(HN3)/Q(H2O) equals about 0.005, in agreement with recent determination from ground-based observations. The estimated value of Q(HCN) is lower than the relative abundance of Q(HCN)/Q(H2O) of about 0.001, as derived from radio observations of the 88.6 GHz emission of the J = 1 - 0 transition of HCN. The difference may be the result of time variations of the coma composition and dynamics, as well as other model-dependent effects.

  3. Physical aging effects on the compressive linear viscoelastic creep of IM7/K3B composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.; Gates, Thomas S.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to establish the viscoelastic behavior of 1M7/K3B composite in compression at elevated temperature. Creep compliance, strain recovery and the effects of physical aging on the time dependent response was measured for uniaxial loading at several isothermal conditions below the glass transition temperature (T(g)). The IM7/K3B composite is a graphite reinforced thermoplastic polyimide with a T(g) of approximately 240 C. In a composite, the two matrix dominated compliance terms associated with time dependent behavior occur in the transverse and shear directions. Linear viscoelasticity was used to characterize the creep/recovery behavior and superposition techniques were used to establish the physical aging related material constants. Creep strain was converted to compliance and measured as a function of test time and aging time. Results included creep compliance master curves, physical aging shift factors and shift rates. The description of the unique experimental techniques required for compressive testing is also given.

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of novel benzimidazole derivative [Bz-Im] and its radio/biological studies.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Anjani K; Mishra, Anil K; Bajpai, Aruna; Mishra, Pushpa; Singh, Sweta; Sinha, Deepa; Singh, V K

    2007-05-15

    Two different benzimidazole analogues act as multimodal agent, first one as novel non-peptidic CCK-B receptor antagonist and similarly as potent anti-fungal agent, designated as [Bz-Im]. These compounds were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, NMR, EI-MS and also evaluated for specific radiopharmaceuticals. Preliminary radiolabeling results with (99m)Tc and biological evaluation studies showed promising results for further evaluation in vivo. The efficiency of labeling was more than 97% and complex was stable for about 12h at 30 degrees C in the presence of serum. Both ligands showed binding to most of the organs, known to express CCK receptors in biodistribution studies. Cholecystokinin (CCK(1) andCCK(2)) receptor binding affinities of these analogues are, IC(50), 0.942+/-0.107 for compound C and 0.665+/-0.211 for compound D in rat pancreatic acini. The anti-fungal activity has shown inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. These studies have provided a new template for further development of non-peptidic ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes of diseases related with CCK receptors as well as anti-microbes.

  5. Reisen im freien Fall - Teil 2: Das Zwillingsparadoxon aus dem Blickwinkel der ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, Bernd; Weiß, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Nachdem wir uns mit den Prinzipien der ART und einigen Beispielen vertraut gemacht haben, kommen wir nun zur Berechnung des Zwillingsparadoxons aus Sicht des reisenden Zwillings. Dabei spielt das Äquivalenzprinzip eine große Rolle. Deshalb wird die Bewegungssituation noch einmal erläutert, diesmal aus Sicht von Katrin. Sie befindet sich in ihrem System S'in Ruhe. In ihrem System läuft die Zeit t'ab. Nach dem Start fühlt Katrin jedoch eine Kraft, die sie als Gravitationskraft interpretieren kann. Sie merkt es daran, dass sie in den Sitz gedrückt wird. Nach einiger Zeit werden die Triebwerke abgeschaltet, und das Raumschiff fliegt mit konstanter Geschwindigkeit weiter, Phase 2. Anschließend wird der Schub der Triebwerke solange umgekehrt, bis das Raumschiff irgendwo mit der Geschwindigkeit null am Umkehrpunkt U landet, Phase 3 (Abb. 15.1). Die Erde, auf der sich Michael befindet, bewegt sich mit x'(t') aus Sicht von Katrin im freien Fall von ihr weg, s. das Experiment mit dem steigenden Fahrstuhl in Abschn. 13.2.1.

  6. The Na[FSA]-[C2C1im][FSA] (C2C1im+:1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium and FSA-:bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide) ionic liquid electrolytes for sodium secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Rika; Fukunaga, Atsushi; Numata, Koma; Itani, Eiko; Sakai, Shoichiro; Nitta, Koji; Inazawa, Shinji

    2014-11-01

    Physical and electrochemical properties of the Na[FSA]-[C2C1im][FSA] (C2C1im+:1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium and FSA-:bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide) ionic liquids have been investigated in view of their application as electrolytes for sodium secondary batteries operating in a wide temperature range. The Na[FSA]-[C2C1im][FSA] ionic liquids in the range of 0.0 ≤ x(Na[FSA]) ≤ 0.5 are in the liquid state at room temperature, where x(Na[FSA]) is the mole fraction of Na[FSA]. In the case of x(Na[FSA]) = 0.3, the ionic conductivity, viscosity, and electrochemical window at 298 K are 5.4 mS cm-1, 78 mPa s, and 5.1 V, respectively. Sodium metal deposition/dissolution test in the ionic liquid at x(Na[FSA]) = 0.3 resulted in average cycle efficiencies of 69% and 96% at 298 K and 363 K, respectively, at a current density of 1.0 mA cm-2.

  7. Mechanisms of Corrosion Fatigue in High Strength I/M (Ingot Metallurgy) and P/M (Powder Metallurgy) Aluminum Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    second year effort was devoted to the study of 7075 -T651 (I/Il) alloy, and X7091-T7E69 and X7091-T7E70 (P/M) alloys. The kinetics of fatigue crack...Qualification and Microstructural Characterization 6 3.2 Kinetics of Fatigue Crack Growth 7 3.2.1 7075 -T651 (I/M) Aluminum Alloy 8 3.2.2 X7091-T7E69...and X7091-T7E70 (P/M) Aluminum Alloys 10 3.2.3 Comparison between I/M and P/M Alloys and Discussions 12 3.3 Fractographic Analysis 14 3.3.1 7075 -T651

  8. Indirectly Estimating International Net Migration Flows by Age and Gender: The Community Demographic Model International Migration (CDM-IM) Dataset.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Jiang, Leiwen

    Although data for the total number of international migrant flows is now available, no global dataset concerning demographic characteristics, such as the age and gender composition of migrant flows exists. This paper reports on the methods used to generate the CDM-IM dataset of age and gender specific profiles of bilateral net (not gross) migrant flows. We employ raw data from the United Nations Global Migration Database and estimate net migrant flows by age and gender between two time points around the year 2000, accounting for various demographic processes (fertility, mortality). The dataset contains information on 3,713 net migrant flows. Validation analyses against existing data sets and the historical, geopolitical context demonstrate that the CDM-IM dataset is of reasonably high quality.

  9. Indirectly Estimating International Net Migration Flows by Age and Gender: The Community Demographic Model International Migration (CDM-IM) Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Jiang, Leiwen

    2015-01-01

    Although data for the total number of international migrant flows is now available, no global dataset concerning demographic characteristics, such as the age and gender composition of migrant flows exists. This paper reports on the methods used to generate the CDM-IM dataset of age and gender specific profiles of bilateral net (not gross) migrant flows. We employ raw data from the United Nations Global Migration Database and estimate net migrant flows by age and gender between two time points around the year 2000, accounting for various demographic processes (fertility, mortality). The dataset contains information on 3,713 net migrant flows. Validation analyses against existing data sets and the historical, geopolitical context demonstrate that the CDM-IM dataset is of reasonably high quality. PMID:26692590

  10. A critical review of the effectiveness of I/M programs for monitoring PM emissions from heavy duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Van Houtte, Jeroen; Niemeier, Deb

    2008-11-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) are estimated to contribute up to 36% of particulate matter (PM) emissions in urban areas. In response, many agencies have established HDV inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs designed to target and repair vehicles with excess emissions. In this review, we conduct an international comparison of legislative context and HDV I/M program characteristics across Europe, North America, and Australia. The results of this analysis show that HDV-I/M programs vary greatly in terms of the ways in which testing is organized, for example, roadside versus periodic testing, whether the fleet is self-tested, and how nonfleet and age exemptions are handled. We also show how the I/M test criteria have changed little in the last 15 years while regulations for new heavy-duty diesel engine emissions have become increasingly stringent. In the U.S., HDV engine PM emissions limits were reduced by a factor of 26 between 1997 and 2007. Most I/M programs have continued to test according to EPA (and often with state legislative confirmation) guidance procedures having cut-points established in 1992. An analysis of data from Washington State show that only a minority of post-1997 vehicles actually exceeds the detection levels of the free-acceleration smoke-opacity test procedures, with the result that malfunctions of these vehicles may not actually be detected. From our review, it is clear that even with the potential adoption of new technologies and a more systematic and efficient framework for HDV-I/M, more research must be conducted in the efficacies of periodic versus roadside testing (and location selection), the use of evaluation methods like fail rates and opacity distributions, and finally, in development of better methods for identifying excess emissions with sensors and duty cycles.

  11. Quantitative detection of benzene in toluene- and xylene-rich atmospheres using high-kinetic-energy ion mobility spectrometry (IMS).

    PubMed

    Langejuergen, Jens; Allers, Maria; Oermann, Jens; Kirk, Ansgar; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2014-12-02

    One major drawback of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is the dependence of the response to a certain analyte on the concentration of water or the presence of other compounds in the sample gas. Especially for low proton affine analytes, e.g., benzene, which often exists in mixtures with other volatile organic compounds, such as toluene and xylene (BTX), a time-consuming preseparation is necessary. In this work, we investigate BTX mixtures using a compact IMS operated at decreased pressure (20 mbar) and high kinetic ion energies (HiKE-IMS). The reduced electric field in both the reaction tube and the drift tube can be independently increased up to 120 Td. Under these conditions, the water cluster distribution of reactant ions is shifted toward smaller clusters independent of the water content in the sample gas. Thus, benzene can be ionized via proton transfer from H3O(+) reactant ions. Also, a formation of benzene ions via charge transfer from NO(+) is possible. Furthermore, the time for interaction between ions and neutrals of different analytes is limited to such an extent that a simultaneous quantification of benzene, toluene, and xylene is possible from low ppbv up to several ppmv concentrations. The mobility resolution of the presented HiKE-IMS varies from R = 65 at high field (90 Td) to R = 73 at lower field (40 Td) in the drift tube, which is sufficient to separate the analyzed compounds. The detection limit for benzene is 29 ppbv (2 s of averaging) with 3700 ppmv water, 12.4 ppmv toluene, and 9 ppmv xylene present in the sample gas. Furthermore, a less-moisture-dependent benzene measurement with a detection limit of 32 ppbv with ca. 21 000 ppmv (90% relative humidity (RH) at 20 °C) water present in the sample gas is possible evaluating the signal from benzene ions formed via charge transfer.

  12. Singular vector based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goris, N.; Elbern, H.

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of the large dimensional chemical state of the atmosphere provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their typically insufficient temporal and spatial density. In order to optimize the measurement configurations despite those limitations, the present work describes the identification of sensitive states of the chemical system as optimal target areas for adaptive observations. For this purpose, the technique of singular vector analysis (SVA), which has been proved effective for targeted observations in numerical weather predication, is implemented into the chemical transport model EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) yielding the EURAD-IM-SVA. Besides initial values, emissions are investigated as critical simulation controlling targeting variables. For both variants, singular vectors are applied to determine the optimal placement for observations and moreover to quantify which chemical compounds have to be observed with preference. Based on measurements of the airship based ZEPTER-2 campaign, the EURAD-IM-SVA has been evaluated by conducting a comprehensive set of model runs involving different initial states and simulation lengths. Since the considered cases are restricted in terms of considered chemical compounds and selected areas, they allow for a retracing of the results and a confirmation of their correctness. Our analysis shows that the optimal placement for observations of chemical species is not entirely determined by mere transport and mixing processes. Rather, a combination of initial chemical concentrations, chemical conversions, and meteorological processes determine the influence of chemical compounds and regions. We furthermore demonstrate that the optimal placement of observations of emission strengths is highly dependent on the location of emission sources and that the benefit of including emissions as target variables outperforms the value of initial value optimisation with growing

  13. Study of Out-Time on the Processing and Properties of IM7/977-3 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Sutter, James K.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Maryanski, Michael; Schlea, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The capability to manufacture large structures leads to weight savings and reduced risk relative to joining smaller components. However, manufacture of increasingly large composite components is pushing the out-life limits of epoxy/ carbon fiber prepreg. IM7/977-3 is an autoclave processable prepreg material, commonly used in aerospace structures. The out-life limit is reported as 30 days by the manufacturer. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the material processability and composite properties of 977-3 resin and IM7/977-3 prepreg that had been aged at room temperature for up to 60 days. The neat resin was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, to characterize cure behavior of the aged material, as well as any change in activation energy. The rise in the modulus of the uncured prepreg was monitored throughout the 60 days by dynamic mechanical analysis, DMA. Composite panels made of the fresh and aged prepreg material were also characterized by DMA. The overall test results suggested that IM7/977-3 was a robust material that offered quality laminates throughout this aging process when processed by autoclave.

  14. IM-16: A new microporous germanosilicate with a novel framework topology containing d4r and mtw composite building units

    SciTech Connect

    Lorgouilloux, Yannick; Dodin, Mathias; Paillaud, Jean-Louis Caullet, Philippe; Michelin, Laure; Josien, Ludovic; Ersen, Ovidiu; Bats, Nicolas

    2009-03-15

    The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicate with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. The structure of calcined and partially rehydrated IM-16 of chemical formula |(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.16}|[Si{sub 3.47}Ge{sub 2.53}O{sub 12}] was solved from powder XRD data in space group Cmcm with a=15.0861(2) A, b=17.7719(3) A, c=19.9764(3) A, V=5355.84(12) A{sup 3} (Z=16). This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicate with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units.

  15. PM-10 exhaust samples collected during IM-240 dyanamometer tests of in-service vehicles in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Sagebiel, J.C.; Zielinska, B.; Walsh, P.A.; Chow, J.C.; Cadle, S.H.; Mulawa, P.A.; Knapp, K.T.; Zweidinger, R.B.; Snow, R.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-three vehicles that were recruited by remote sensing and roadside inspection and maintenance (I/M) checks during the 1994 Clark and Washoe Remote Sensing Study (CAWRSS) were tested on the IM240 cycle using a transportable dynamometer. Six of these vehicles emitted visible smoke. Total gas-phase hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) exhaust concentrations were continuously measured in the diluted exhaust stream from the constant volume sampler (CVS) during IM240 testing. Two isokinetic PM-10 samples were collected simultaneously using cyclones and filter holders connected to a dilution tube. Teflon filters were collected for total mass and then extracted for chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions. Quartz filters were analyzed by the thermal/optical reflectance method for organic and elemental carbon. The quartz filters and backup vapor traps were then extracted and analyzed by GC/MS for 28 separate polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Mass emission rates of PM-10 per vehicle ranged from 5.6 to over 1300 mg/mi, with most of the mass attributable to carbon. Except for one vehicle with high sulfate emissions, the ion emissions were relatively low. Total PAH emissions were in the range of 10-200 mg/mi. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Neurocognitive performance and symptom profiles of Spanish-speaking Hispanic athletes on the ImPACT test.

    PubMed

    Ott, Summer; Schatz, Philip; Solomon, Gary; Ryan, Joseph J

    2014-03-01

    This study documented baseline neurocognitive performance of 23,815 athletes on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test. Specifically, 9,733 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the ImPACT test in English and 2,087 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the test in Spanish were compared with 11,955 English-speaking athletes who completed the test in English. Athletes were assigned to age groups (13-15, 16-18). Results revealed a significant effect of language group (p < .001; partial η(2) = 0.06) and age (p < .001; partial η(2) = 0.01) on test performance. Younger athletes performed more poorly than older athletes, and Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in Spanish scored more poorly than Spanish-speaking and English-speaking athletes completing the test in English, on all Composite scores and Total Symptom scores. Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in English also performed more poorly than English-speaking athletes completing the test in English on three Composite scores. These differences in performance and reported symptoms highlight the need for caution in interpreting ImPACT test data for Hispanic Americans.

  17. Die Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs Ein Beispiel für erfolgreiche „Track-II-Diplomacy“ der Naturwissenschaftler im Kalten Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuneck, Götz

    "Kein Zeitalter der Geschichte ist stärker von den Naturwissenschaften durchdrungen und abhängiger von ihnen als das 20. Jahrhundert" schreibt Eric Hobsbawn im Kapitel "Zauberer und Lehrlinge: Die Naturwissenschaften" seines Buches "Zeitalter der Extreme".

  18. Development of a human-specific B. thetaiotaomicron IMS/ATP assay for measuring viable human contamination in surface waters in Baja California, Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) assays utilize paramagnetic beads and target-specific antibodies to isolate target organisms. Following isolation, adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) is extracted from the target population and quantified. An inversely-couple...

  19. Enhancing Biological Analyses with Three Dimensional Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility, Low Field Drift Time Ion Mobility and Mass Spectrometry (µFAIMS/IMS-MS) Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2015-06-30

    We report the first evaluation of a platform coupling a high speed field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry microchip (µFAIMS) with drift tube ion mobility and mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The µFAIMS/IMS-MS platform was used to analyze biological samples and simultaneously acquire multidimensional information of detected features from the measured FAIMS compensation fields and IMS drift times, while also obtaining accurate ion masses. These separations thereby increase the overall separation power, resulting increased information content, and provide more complete characterization of more complex samples. The separation conditions were optimized for sensitivity and resolving power by the selection of gas compositions and pressures in the FAIMS and IMS separation stages. The resulting performance provided three dimensional separations, benefitting both broad complex mixture studies and targeted analyses by e.g. improving isomeric separations and allowing detection of species obscured by “chemical noise” and other interfering peaks.

  20. Enhancing Biological Analyses with Three Dimensional Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility, Low Field Drift Tube Ion Mobility and Mass Spectrometry (μFAIMS/IMS-MS) Separations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Erin S.

    2015-01-01

    Multidimensional high throughput separations are ideal for analyzing distinct ion characteristics simultaneously in one analysis. We report on the first evaluation of a platform coupling a high speed field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry microchip (μFAIMS) with drift tube ion mobility and mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The μFAIMS/IMS-MS platform was used to analyze biological samples and simultaneously acquire multidimensional FAIMS compensation fields, IMS drift times, and accurate ion masses for the detected features. These separations thereby increased the overall measurement separation power, resulting in greater information content and more complete characterization of the complex samples. The separation conditions were optimized for sensitivity and resolving power by the selection of gas compositions and pressures in the FAIMS and IMS separation stages. The resulting performance provided three dimensional separations, benefitting both broad complex mixture studies and targeted analyses by improving isomeric separations and allowing detection of species obscured by interfering peaks. PMID:26140287

  1. Recent im/migration to Canada linked to unmet health needs among sex workers in Vancouver, Canada: Findings of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sou, Julie; Goldenberg, Shira M; Duff, Putu; Nguyen, Paul; Shoveller, Jean; Shannon, Kate

    2017-03-16

    Despite universal health care in Canada, sex workers (SWs) and im/migrants experience suboptimal health care access. In this analysis, we examined the correlates of unmet health needs among SWs in Metro Vancouver over time. Data from a longitudinal cohort of women SWs (An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access [AESHA]) were used. Of 742 SWs, 25.5% reported unmet health needs at least once over the 4-year study period. In multivariable logistic regression using generalized estimating equations, recent im/migration had the strongest impact on unmet health needs; long-term im/migration, policing, and trauma were also important determinants. Legal and social supports to promote im/migrant SWs' access to health care are recommended.

  2. Effects of anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody IM7 carried with chitosan polylactic acid-coated nano-particles on the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yizhuo; Zhao, Xinghui; Li, Xiuli; Yan, Zhifeng; Liu, Zhongyu; Li, Yali

    2017-01-01

    Failure in early diagnosis and ineffective treatment are the major causes of ovarian cancer mortality. Hyaluronan and its receptor, cluster of differentiation (CD)44, have been considered to be valid targets for treating cancer. The anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody IM7 is effective in treating ovarian cancer; however, its toxicity should not be ignored. The present study has developed a new drug carrier system composed of chitosan nano-particles coated with polylactic acid (PLA) to improve the treatment efficacy and reduce toxicity. An ionic crosslinking method and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide were used to prepare the IM7 antibody, which was loaded with chitosan nano-particles. The surfaces of the nano-particles were coated with PLA to generate PLA-chitosan-IM7. Subsequently, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the size and zeta potential of the nano-particles. In addition, a spectrophotometer was used to calculate the loading rate and release rate of the nano-particles in acidic and neutral environments. MTT assay was used to evaluate the anti-proliferative effect of PLA-chitosan-IM7 on the human ovarian cancer cell line HO-8910PM. In addition, an in vivo imaging system was used to further investigate the effect of PLA-chitosan-IM7 on the treatment of mice with ovarian cancer. A total of 35 days subsequent to PLA-chitosan-IM7 treatment, all animals were sacrificed by CO2, and the tumors were removed and weighted. The PLA-chitosan-IM7 nano-particles were successfully prepared, since TEM revealed that their size was 300-400 nm and their zeta potential was +25 mV. According to the spectrophotometry results, the loading rate was 52%, and PLA-chitosan-IM7 exhibited good resistance to acids. MTT assay demonstrated that PLA-chitosan-IM7 could suppress the proliferation of HO-8910PM cells in vitro. The in vivo imaging system revealed that PLA-chitosan-IM7 was effective in controlling the development

  3. Effects of anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody IM7 carried with chitosan polylactic acid-coated nano-particles on the treatment of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yizhuo; Zhao, Xinghui; Li, Xiuli; Yan, Zhifeng; Liu, Zhongyu; Li, Yali

    2017-01-01

    Failure in early diagnosis and ineffective treatment are the major causes of ovarian cancer mortality. Hyaluronan and its receptor, cluster of differentiation (CD)44, have been considered to be valid targets for treating cancer. The anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody IM7 is effective in treating ovarian cancer; however, its toxicity should not be ignored. The present study has developed a new drug carrier system composed of chitosan nano-particles coated with polylactic acid (PLA) to improve the treatment efficacy and reduce toxicity. An ionic crosslinking method and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide were used to prepare the IM7 antibody, which was loaded with chitosan nano-particles. The surfaces of the nano-particles were coated with PLA to generate PLA-chitosan-IM7. Subsequently, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the size and zeta potential of the nano-particles. In addition, a spectrophotometer was used to calculate the loading rate and release rate of the nano-particles in acidic and neutral environments. MTT assay was used to evaluate the anti-proliferative effect of PLA-chitosan-IM7 on the human ovarian cancer cell line HO-8910PM. In addition, an in vivo imaging system was used to further investigate the effect of PLA-chitosan-IM7 on the treatment of mice with ovarian cancer. A total of 35 days subsequent to PLA-chitosan-IM7 treatment, all animals were sacrificed by CO2, and the tumors were removed and weighted. The PLA-chitosan-IM7 nano-particles were successfully prepared, since TEM revealed that their size was 300–400 nm and their zeta potential was +25 mV. According to the spectrophotometry results, the loading rate was 52%, and PLA-chitosan-IM7 exhibited good resistance to acids. MTT assay demonstrated that PLA-chitosan-IM7 could suppress the proliferation of HO-8910PM cells in vitro. The in vivo imaging system revealed that PLA-chitosan-IM7 was effective in controlling the

  4. Using IMS hydrophone data for detecting submarine volcanic activity: Insights from Monowai, 26°S Kermadec Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Dirk; Watts, Anthony B.; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Rodgers, Mel; Paulatto, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Only little is known on active volcanism in the ocean. As eruptions are attenuated by seawater and fallout does not regularly reach the sea surface, eruption rates and mechanisms are poorly understood. Estimations on the number of active volcanoes across the modern seas range from hundreds to thousands, but only very few active sites are known. Monowai is a submarine volcanic centre in the northern Kermadec Arc, Southwest Pacific Ocean. During May 2011, it erupted over a period of five days, with explosive activity directly linked to the generation of seismoacoustic tertiary waves ('T-phases'), recorded at three broadband seismic stations in the region. We show, using windowed cross-correlation and time-difference-of-arrival techniques, that T-phases associated with this eruption are detected as far as Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean, where two bottom-moored hydrophone arrays are operated as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). We observe a high incidence of T-phase arrivals during the time of the eruption, with the angle of arrival stabilizing at the geodesic azimuth between the IMS arrays and Monowai. T-phases from the volcanic centre must therefore have propagated through the Sound Fixing And Ranging (SOFAR) channel in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans and over a total geodesic range of approximately 15,800 km, one of the longest source-receiver distances of any naturally occurring underwater signal ever observed. Our findings, which are consistent with observations at regional broadband stations and two dimensional, long-range, parabolic equation modelling, highlight the exceptional capabilities of the hydroacoustic waveform component of the IMS for remotely detecting episodes of submarine volcanic activity. Using Monowai and the hydrophone arrays at Ascension Island as a natural laboratory, we investigate the long-term eruptive record of a submarine volcano from

  5. Thermal Effects on the Compressive Behavior of IM7/PET15 Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Sandra Polesky

    2003-01-01

    The effect of changing operating temperature on the compressive response of IM7/PETI5 composite laminates is investigated within this paper. The three temperatures evaluated for this study were 129 C, 21 C, and 177 C, a spectrum from cryogenic to an elevated operating temperature. Laminate compressive strength property testing was conducted using the Wyoming Combined Load Compression fixture to generate strength data at the three operating temperatures of interest for several lay-ups. A three-dimensional finite element analysis model of a [90/0]8s composite laminate subject to compressive loading is developed. The model is used to study the key attributes of the laminate that significantly influence the state of stress in the laminate. Both the resin rich layer located between lamina and the thermal residual stresses present in the laminate due to curing are included in the analysis model. For the laminate modeled, the effect of modeling temperature dependent material properties was determined to be insignificant for the operating temperatures studied. Simply using the material properties measured at the operating temperature of interest was sufficient for predicting stresses accurately in a linear analysis for the current problem. The three-dimensional analysis results revealed that the application of an applied compressive axial load in the 0-degree direction decreased the interlaminar stresses present in the laminate initially due to curing. Therefore, failure was concluded not be attributable to the interlaminar stresses in the composite laminate being studied when a compressive load is applied. The magnitude of the measured laminate compressive strength change with a change in temperature is concluded to be dominated by the change in the lamina compressive axial strength with a change in temperature.

  6. The Coupled Physical Structure of Gas and Dust in the IM Lup Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Öberg, Karin I.; Wilner, David J.; Huang, Jane; Loomis, Ryan A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Czekala, Ian

    2016-12-01

    The spatial distribution of gas and solids in protoplanetary disks determines the composition and formation efficiency of planetary systems. A number of disks show starkly different distributions for the gas and small grains compared to millimeter-centimeter-sized dust. We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of the dust continuum, CO, 13CO, and C18O in the IM Lup protoplanetary disk, one of the first systems where this dust-gas dichotomy was clearly seen. The 12CO is detected out to a radius of 970 au, while the millimeter continuum emission is truncated at just 313 au. Based upon these data, we have built a comprehensive physical and chemical model for the disk structure, which takes into account the complex, coupled nature of the gas and dust and the interplay between the local and external environment. We constrain the distributions of gas and dust, the gas temperatures, the CO abundances, the CO optical depths, and the incident external radiation field. We find that the reduction/removal of dust from the outer disk exposes this region to higher stellar and external radiation and decreases the rate of freeze-out, allowing CO to remain in the gas out to large radial distances. We estimate a gas-phase CO abundance of 5% of the interstellar medium value and a low external radiation field (G 0 ≲ 4). The latter is consistent with that expected from the local stellar population. We additionally find tentative evidence for ring-like continuum substructure, suggestions of isotope-selective photodissociation, and a diffuse gas halo.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of human chorionic gonadotropin after i.m. administration in goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Saleh, M; Shahin, M; Wuttke, W; Gauly, M; Holtz, W

    2012-07-01

    The present investigation addresses the pharmacokinetics of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), intramuscularly (i.m.) administered to goats. Nine pluriparous does of the Boer goat breed, 2-6 years of age and weighing 45-60 kg, were administered 500 IU hCG (2 ml Chorulon) deep into the thigh musculature 18 h after superovulatory FSH treatment. Blood samples were drawn from the jugular vein at 2  h intervals for the first 24h, at 6 h intervals until 42 h, and at 12 h intervals until 114 h after administration. After centrifugation, plasma hCG concentrations were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Pharmacokinetical parameters were as follows: lag time, 0.4 (s.e.m. 0.1) h; absorption rate constant, 0.34 (s.e.m. 0.002) h; absorption half-life, 2.7 (s.e.m. 0.5) h; elimination rate constant, 0.02 (s.e.m. 0.002) h; biological half-life, 39.4 (s.e.m. 5.1) h; and apparent volume of distribution, 16.9 (s.e.m. 4.3) l. The plasma hCG profile was characterized by an absorption phase of 11.6 (s.e.m. 1.8) h and an elimination phase of 70.0 (s.e.m. 9.8) h, with considerable individual variation in bioavailability and pharmacokinetical parameters. Biological half-life was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with peak concentration (r=-0.76), absorption rate constant (r=-0.78), and elimination rate constant (r=-0.87). The results indicate that after rapid absorption, hCG remains in the circulation for an extended period. This has to be taken into account when assessing the stimulatory response to hCG treatment on an ovarian level.

  8. DOUBLE DCO{sup +} RINGS REVEAL CO ICE DESORPTION IN THE OUTER DISK AROUND IM LUP

    SciTech Connect

    Öberg, Karin I.; Loomis, Ryan; Andrews, Sean M.; Qi, Chunhua; Wilner, David J.; Furuya, Kenji; Dishoeck, Ewine F. van; Aikawa, Yuri

    2015-09-10

    In a protoplanetary disk, a combination of thermal and non-thermal desorption processes regulate where volatiles are liberated from icy grain mantles into the gas phase. Non-thermal desorption should result in volatile-enriched gas in disk-regions where complete freeze-out is otherwise expected. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of the disk around the young star IM Lup in 1.4 mm continuum, C{sup 18}O 2–1, H{sup 13}CO{sup +} 3–2 and DCO{sup +} 3–2 emission at ∼0.″5 resolution. The images of these dust and gas tracers are clearly resolved. The DCO{sup +} line exhibits a striking pair of concentric rings of emission that peak at radii of ∼0.″6 and 2″ (∼90 and 300 AU, respectively). Based on disk chemistry model comparison, the inner DCO{sup +} ring is associated with the balance of CO freeze-out and thermal desorption due to a radial decrease in disk temperature. The outer DCO{sup +} ring is explained by non-thermal desorption of CO ice in the low-column-density outer disk, repopulating the disk midplane with cold CO gas. The CO gas then reacts with abundant H{sub 2}D{sup +} to form the observed DCO{sup +} outer ring. These observations demonstrate that spatially resolved DCO{sup +} emission can be used to trace otherwise hidden cold gas reservoirs in the outmost disk regions, opening a new window onto their chemistry and kinematics.

  9. Ansätze zur Ordnungsreduktion von nichtlinearen Oszillatormodellen zur Anwendung im Schaltungsentwurf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reit, M.; Bremer, J.-K.; Mathis, W.; Stoop, R.

    2010-10-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird ein Konzept zur Ordnungsreduktion von höherdimensionalen nichtlinearen Oszillatormodellen vorgestellt. Hierbei werden zwei wesentliche Ziele verfolgt. Zum einen wird eine höherdimensionale Modellierung der Oszillatorschaltung verwendet. Hierdurch lassen sich die Einflüsse parasitärer Effekte sowie struktureller Erweiterungen auf das dynamische Verhalten des Systems berücksichtigen. Zum anderen wird durch eine anschließende Ordnungsreduktion über die Methode der Zentrumsmannigfaltigkeit eine zweidimensionale Systembeschreibung erzeugt, deren wesentliche Dynamik derjenigen des höherdimensionalen Systems entspricht. Durch diese, in der Ordnung reduzierte, nichtlineare und parameterabhängige Systembeschreibung wird die Anwendbarkeit nichtlinearer Analysemethoden ermöglicht bzw. vereinfacht. Mit der Anwendung der Andronov-Hopf-Bifurkationsanalyse auf das reduzierte System lässt sich eine Stabilitätsuntersuchung durchführen sowie die Amplitude und Frequenz aller Zustandsgrößen approximieren. Das vorgestellte Konzept wird anhand des Beispielsystems eines LC-Tank-VCOs durchgeführt. In this paper, an order reduction technique for higher-dimensional nonlinear oscillator models, based on a center manifold approach, is presented. By modeling the oscillator circuit in the higher-dimensional state space, influences of parasitic elements and of structural extensions of the oscillator architecture on the dynamical system behavior can be examined. Using the proposed order reduction technique, a generalized second order model will be derived, which includes selected design parameters of the higher order model. By using an Andronov-Hopf bifurcation analysis, the reduced system can be studied with respect to stability as well as the amplitude and frequency of the individual state variables. The concept is applied to the design of LC-tank VCOs.

  10. imFASP: An integrated approach combining in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment with microwave-assisted protein digestion for fast and efficient proteome sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Fang, Fei; Wu, Ci; Wu, Qi; Liang, Yu; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-03-17

    An integrated sample preparation method, termed "imFASP", which combined in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment and microwave-assisted trypsin digestion, was developed for preparation of microgram and even nanogram amounts of complex protein samples with high efficiency in 1 h. For imFASP method, proteins dissolved in 8 M urea were loaded onto a filter device with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) as 10 kDa, followed by in-situ protein preconcentration, denaturation, reduction, alkylation, and microwave-assisted tryptic digestion. Compared with traditional in-solution sample preparation method, imFASP method generated more protein and peptide identifications (IDs) from preparation of 45 μg Escherichia coli protein sample due to the higher efficiency, and the sample preparation throughput was significantly improved by 14 times (1 h vs. 15 h). More importantly, when the starting amounts of E. coli cell lysate decreased to nanogram level (50-500 ng), the protein and peptide identified by imFASP method were improved at least 30% and 44%, compared with traditional in-solution preparation method, suggesting dramatically higher peptide recovery of imFASP method for trace amounts of complex proteome samples. All these results demonstrate that the imFASP method developed here is of high potential for high efficient and high throughput preparation of trace amounts of complex proteome samples.

  11. Organization into Higher Ordered Ring Structures Counteracts Membrane Binding of IM30, a Protein Associated with Inner Membranes in Chloroplasts and Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, Jennifer; Wulf, Verena; Hennig, Raoul; Saur, Michael; Markl, Jürgen; Sönnichsen, Carsten; Schneider, Dirk

    2016-07-15

    The IM30 (inner membrane-associated protein of 30 kDa), also known as the Vipp1 (vesicle-inducing protein in plastids 1), has a crucial role in thylakoid membrane biogenesis and maintenance. Recent results suggest that the protein binds peripherally to membranes containing negatively charged lipids. However, although IM30 monomers interact and assemble into large oligomeric ring complexes with different numbers of monomers, it is still an open question whether ring formation is crucial for membrane interaction. Here we show that binding of IM30 rings to negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol membrane surfaces results in a higher ordered membrane state, both in the head group and in the inner core region of the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, by using gold nanorods covered with phosphatidylglycerol layers and single particle spectroscopy, we show that not only IM30 rings but also lower oligomeric IM30 structures interact with membranes, although with higher affinity. Thus, ring formation is not crucial for, and even counteracts, membrane interaction of IM30.

  12. Re-establishment of the IMS Hydroacoustic Station HA03, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralabus, Georgios; Stanley, Jerry; Zampolli, Mario; Pautet, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Water column hydrophone stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS) comprise typically two triplets of moored hydrophones deployed on both sides of an island. Triplet distances vary approximately between 50 - 200 km from the island, with each triplet connected to the receiving shore equipment by fibre-optic submarine data cables. Once deployed, the systems relay underwater acoustic waveforms in the band 1 - 100 Hz in real time to Vienna via a shore based satellite link. The design life of hydroacoustic (HA) stations is at least 20 years, without need for any maintenance of the underwater system (UWS). The re-establishment of hydrophone station HA03 at Robinson Crusoe Island (670 km West of the Chilean mainland) is presented here. The station was destroyed in February 2010 by a Tsunami induced by an 8.8 magnitude earthquake. After a major engineering and logistical undertaking HA03 is now back in operation since April 2014. The main phases of the project are presented: (i) the installation of a shore facility for the reception of the hydrophone data from the UWS, which also relays the data back to the CTBTO International Data Center (IDC) in Vienna via a real-time satellite connection, (ii) the manufacturing and testing of the system to meet the stringent requirements of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, and (iii) the installation of the UWS with a state-of-the-art cable ship. Examples of data acquired by HA03 are also presented. These include hydroacoustic signals from the 1 April 2014 magnitude 8.2 earthquake in Northern Chile, bursting underwater bubbles from a submarine volcano near the Mariana Islands (15,000 Km away from the station), and vocalizations from the numerous marine mammals which transit in the vicinity of HA03. The use of CTBTO data for scientific purposes is possible via the virtual Data Exploitation Centre (vDEC), which is a platform that enables registered researchers to access

  13. Could the IMS Infrasound Stations Support a Global Network of Small Aperture Seismic Arrays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J, Gibbons, Steven; Kværna, Tormod; Mykkeltveit, Svein

    2015-04-01

    The infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System are arrays consisting of up to 15 sites and with apertures of up to 3 km. The arrays are distributed remarkably uniformly over the globe and provide excellent coverage of South America, Africa, and Antarctica. This is to say that there are many infrasound arrays in regions many thousands of kilometers from the closest seismic array. Several infrasound arrays are in the immediate vicinity of existing 3-component seismic stations and these provide us with examples of how typical seismic signals look at these locations. We can make idealized estimates of the predicted performance of seismic arrays, consisting of seismometers at each site of the infrasound arrays, by duplicating the signals from the 3-C stations at all sites of the array. However, the true performance of seismic arrays at these sites will depend both upon Signal-to-Noise Ratios of seismic signals and the coherence of both signal and noise between sensors. These properties can only be determined experimentally. Recording seismic data of sufficient quality at many of these arrays may require borehole deployments since the microbarometers in the infrasound arrays are often situated in vaults placed in soft sediments. The geometries of all the current IMS infrasound arrays are examined and compared and we demonstrate that, from a purely geometrical perspective, essentially all the array configurations would provide seismic arrays with acceptable slowness resolution for both regional and teleseismic phase arrivals. Seismic arrays co-located with the infrasound arrays in many regions would likely enhance significantly the seismic monitoring capability in parts of the world where only 3-component stations are currently available. Co-locating seismic and infrasound sensors would facilitate the development of seismic arrays that share the infrastructure of the infrasound arrays, reducing the development and operational costs. Hosting countries might

  14. Stable and unstable accretion in the classical T Tauri stars IM Lup and RU Lup as observed by MOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwak, Michal; Ogloza, Waldemar; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Cameron, Chris; Guenther, David B.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Rowe, Jason F.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.

    2016-03-01

    Results of the time variability monitoring of the two classical T Tauri stars, RU Lup and IM Lup, are presented. Three photometric data sets were utilized: (1) simultaneous (same field) MOST satellite observations over four weeks in each of the years 2012 and 2013, (2) multicolour observations at the South African Astronomical Observatory in April-May of 2013, (3) archival V-filter All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) data for nine seasons, 2001-2009. They were augmented by an analysis of high-resolution, public-domain VLT-UT2 Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph spectra from the years 2000 to 2012. From the MOST observations, we infer that irregular light variations of RU Lup are caused by stochastic variability of hotspots induced by unstable accretion. In contrast, the MOST light curves of IM Lup are fairly regular and modulated with a period of about 7.19-7.58 d, which is in accord with ASAS observations showing a well-defined 7.247 ± 0.026 d periodicity. We propose that this is the rotational period of IM Lup and is due to the changing visibility of two antipodal hotspots created near the stellar magnetic poles during the stable process of accretion. Re-analysis of RU Lup high-resolution spectra with the broadening function approach reveals signs of a large polar coldspot, which is fairly stable over 13 years. As the star rotates, the spot-induced depression of intensity in the broadening function profiles changes cyclically with period 3.710 58 d, which was previously found by the spectral cross-correlation method.

  15. Evaluation of Interval Times from Onset to Reperfusion in Patients Undergoing Endovascular Therapy in the IMS III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Mayank; Almekhlafi, Mohammed A; Fan, Liqiong; Menon, Bijoy K; Demchuk, Andrew M; Yeatts, Sharon D; Hill, Michael D; Tomsick, Thomas; Khatri, Pooja; Zaidat, Osama O; Jauch, Edward C; Eesa, Muneer; Jovin, Tudor G; Broderick, Joseph P

    2014-01-01

    Background Meaningful delays occurred in the IMS III trial. Analysis of the workflow will identify factors contributing to the in-hospital delays. Methods and Results In the endovascular arm of the IMS III trial, these time intervals were calculated: stroke onset to ED arrival; ED to CT; CT to IV tPA start; IV tPA start to randomization; randomization to groin puncture; groin puncture to thrombus identification; thrombus identification to start of endovascular therapy; start of endovascular therapy to reperfusion. The effects of enrollment time, CTA use, inter-hospital transfers, and intubation on workflow were evaluated. Delays notably occurred in the time intervals from IV tPA initiation to groin puncture (median 84 minutes) and start of endovascular therapy to reperfusion (median 85 minutes). The CT to groin puncture time was significantly shorter during working hours than after. Times from ED to reperfusion and groin puncture to reperfusion decreased over the trial period. Patients with CTA had shorter ED to reperfusion and onset to reperfusion times. Transfer of patients resulted in a longer onset to reperfusion time compared to those treated in the same center. Age, sex, NIHSS, and intubation did not impact delays. Conclusions Important delays were identified prior to reperfusion in the IMS III trial. Delays decreased as the trial progressed. Use of CTA and endovascular treatment in the same center were associated with time savings. These data may help in optimizing workflow in current and future endovascular trials. Clinical Trial Registration Information http://clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00359424. PMID:24815501

  16. [Pages from the history of the Department of Forensic Medicine, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University].

    PubMed

    Leonova, E N; Romanenko, G Kh; Sidorovich, Iu V

    2012-01-01

    The history of the Department of Forensic Medicine of I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University is highlighted based on the results of the studies of the relevant literature data and archival materials. The authors lay special emphasis on the organization of the teaching process and research at different stages of the development of the Department, scientific and forensic medical activities of its leading specialists, materials obtained in the course of research, and the contribution to the development of forensic medicine made by outstanding scientists.

  17. The Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM): A Frame to Set Up an Organizational Learning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Michel

    In this paper, we introduce the "Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM)" implemented to deploy Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge-based Systems within a large industrial company. This model illustrates what could be two of the operating elements of the Model for General Knowledge Management within the Enterprise (MGKME) that are essential to set up the organizational learning process that leads people to appropriate and use concepts, methods and tools of an innovative technology: the "Ad hoc Infrastructures" element, and the "Organizational Learning Processes" element.

  18. Angular Velocity's Neural Network Observer of the Electric Drive of TVR - IM Type Implemented in Software Environment LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, L.; Bolovin, E.; Payuk, L.

    2016-06-01

    One of the common ways to manage a smooth starting and stopping of asynchronous motors are soft-start system. For this provision is necessary to use a closed speed asynchronous electric drive of tiristor voltage regulator - induction motor (TVR-IM) type. Using real sensors significantly increases the cost of installation and also introduces a number of inconveniences in the operation of the actuator. Observer has clear advantages that are created on artificial neural network. Creating a neural network observer in program graphic programming LabVIEW will allow to evaluate the speed of rotation of the asynchronous electric.

  19. Brief Communication: 2014 velocity and flux for five major Greenland outlet glaciers using ImGRAFT and Landsat-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerli, A.; Karlsson, N. B.; Grinsted, A.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents average velocity fields, mass flux estimates and central flowline profiles for five major Greenland outlet glaciers; Jakobshavn Isbræ, Nioghalvfjerdsbræ, Kangerdlugssuaq, Helheim and Petermann glaciers, spanning the period (August) 2013-(September) 2014. The results are produced by the feature tracking toolbox, ImGRAFT using Landsat-8, panchromatic data. The resulting velocity fields agree with the findings of existing studies. Furthermore, our results show an unprecedented speed of over 50 m day-1 at Jakobshavn Isbræ as it continues to retreat. All the processed data will be freely available for download at http://imgraft.glaciology.net.

  20. Initial Wave-Type Identification with Neural Networks and its Contribution to Automated Processing in IMS Version 3.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-10

    0Z *~-- - - - a-I~~~ EnI*!- CS~t~ N ____N _ ___ CU 0 CSCC 00 0690co N N N NCD .7 L 0 IM’ Ivo zo c so 0 0o 9L0 -d i 0 C- 0 In01 ______ 0 0__ _ ItI 0 0 c...Kuzmin, Extensions of the northern Europe regional array network - New small-aperture arrays in Apatity, Russia, and on the Arctic island of Spitsbergen...TASC, Inc. ATTN: Dr. R. Comer 55 Walkers Brook Drive Reading, MA 01867 I6 m NON-US RECIPIENTS Blacknest Seismological Center I ATTN: Dr. P. Marshall UK

  1. Mechanical properties of dense zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs): a high-pressure X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and computational study of the zinc framework Zn(Im)2, and its lithium-boron analogue, LiB(Im)4.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Thomas D; Tan, Jin-Chong; Moggach, Stephen A; Galvelis, Raimondas; Mellot-Draznieks, Caroline; Reisner, Barbara A; Thirumurugan, A; Allan, David R; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2010-09-17

    The dense, anhydrous zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs), Zn(Im)(2) (1) and LiB(Im)(4) (2), adopt the same zni topology and differ only in terms of the inorganic species present in their structures. Their mechanical properties (specifically the Young's and bulk moduli, along with the hardness) have been elucidated by using high pressure, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, density functional calculations and nanoindentation studies. Under hydrostatic pressure, framework 2 undergoes a phase transition at 1.69 GPa, which is somewhat higher than the transition previously reported in 1. The Young's modulus (E) and hardness (H) of 1 (E≈8.5, H≈1 GPa) is substantially higher than that of 2 (E≈3, H≈0.1 GPa), whilst its bulk modulus is relatively lower (≈14 GPa cf. ≈16.6 GPa). The heavier, zinc-containing material was also found to be significantly harder than its light analogue. The differential behaviour of the two materials is discussed in terms of the smaller pore volume of 2 and the greater flexibility of the LiN(4) tetrathedron compared with the ZnN(4) and BN(4) units.

  2. Cloning and characterization of the gene (farA) encoding the receptor for an extracellular regulatory factor (IM-2) from Streptomyces sp. strain FRI-5.

    PubMed Central

    Waki, M; Nihira, T; Yamada, Y

    1997-01-01

    IM-2 is a butyrolactone autoregulator that controls production of blue pigment and nucleoside antibiotics in Streptomyces sp. strain FRI-5. An IM-2-specific receptor gene, farA, was cloned from strain FRI-5, and nucleotide sequencing revealed that the farA gene consists of 666 bp encoding a 221-amino-acid protein of 24.3 kDa with an NH2-terminal amino acid sequence identical to that of purified native receptor. Another gene, farX, encoding a homolog of AfsA of Streptomyces griseus, was present upstream of farA. The monocistronic nature of the farA transcript was shown by Northern blot hybridization, and the transcript level increased upon addition of IM-2. Recombinant FarA expressed in and purified from E. coli showed clear ligand specificity toward IM-2, with a dissociation constant (Kd) for [3H]IM-2-C5 of 18.2 nM. FarA showed high overall homology to BarA (virginiae butanolide receptor from S. virginiae) and ArpA (A-factor receptor from S. griseus). Sequence alignment of the three receptor proteins revealed that the NH2-terminal region containing a helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif was highly conserved. The DNA binding motif is common in procaryotic repressors of the TetR family, suggesting that all the Streptomyces autoregulator receptors may act as transcriptional repressors. PMID:9260956

  3. SPE-IMS-MS: An automated platform for sub-sixty second surveillance of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics in biofluids

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xing; Romm, Michelle; Zheng, Xueyun; ...

    2016-12-29

    Characterization of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics is essential to deconvoluting the genetic and environmental causes of disease. However, surveillance of chemical exposure and disease-related changes in large cohorts requires an analytical platform that offers rapid measurement, high sensitivity, efficient separation, broad dynamic range, and application to an expansive chemical space. Here in this article, we present a novel platform for small molecule analyses that addresses these requirements by combining solid-phase extraction with ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry (SPE-IMS-MS). This platform is capable of performing both targeted and global measurements of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics in human biofluids with highmore » reproducibility (CV ≤ 3%), sensitivity (LODs in the pM range in biofluids) and throughput (10-s sample-to-sample duty cycle). We report application of this platform to the analysis of human urine from patients with and without type 1 diabetes, where we observed statistically significant variations in the concentration of disaccharides and previously unreported chemical isomers. Lastly, this SPE-IMS-MS platform overcomes many of the current challenges of large-scale metabolomic and exposomic analyses and offers a viable option for population and patient cohort screening in an effort to gain insights into disease processes and human environmental chemical exposure.« less

  4. SPE-IMS-MS: An automated platform for sub-sixty second surveillance of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics in biofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Romm, Michelle; Zheng, Xueyun; Zink, Erika M.; Kim, Young-Mo; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Orton, Daniel J.; Apffel, Alex; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Jordan N.; Ma, Jian; Renslow, Ryan S.; Thomas, Dennis G.; Blackwell, Anne E.; Swinford, Glenn; Sausen, John; Kurulugama, Ruwan T.; Eno, Nathan; Darland, Ed; Stafford, George; Fjeldsted, John; Metz, Thomas O.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Erin S.

    2016-12-29

    Characterization of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics is essential to deconvoluting the genetic and environmental causes of disease. However, surveillance of chemical exposure and disease-related changes in large cohorts requires an analytical platform that offers rapid measurement, high sensitivity, efficient separation, broad dynamic range, and application to an expansive chemical space. Here in this article, we present a novel platform for small molecule analyses that addresses these requirements by combining solid-phase extraction with ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry (SPE-IMS-MS). This platform is capable of performing both targeted and global measurements of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics in human biofluids with high reproducibility (CV ≤ 3%), sensitivity (LODs in the pM range in biofluids) and throughput (10-s sample-to-sample duty cycle). We report application of this platform to the analysis of human urine from patients with and without type 1 diabetes, where we observed statistically significant variations in the concentration of disaccharides and previously unreported chemical isomers. Lastly, this SPE-IMS-MS platform overcomes many of the current challenges of large-scale metabolomic and exposomic analyses and offers a viable option for population and patient cohort screening in an effort to gain insights into disease processes and human environmental chemical exposure.

  5. Identification of structurally closely related monosaccharide and disaccharide isomers by PMP labeling in conjunction with IM-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongmei; Shi, Lei; Zhuang, Xiaoyu; Su, Rui; Wan, Debin; Song, Fengrui; Li, Jinying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    It remains particularly difficult for gaining unambiguous information on anomer, linkage, and position isomers of oligosaccharides using conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods. In our laboratory, an ion mobility (IM) shift strategy was employed to improve confidence in the identification of structurally closely related disaccharide and monosaccharide isomers using IMMS. Higher separation between structural isomers was achieved using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization in comparison with phenylhydrazine (PHN) derivatization. Furthermore, the combination of pre-IM fragmentation of PMP derivatives provided sufficient resolution to separate the isomers not resolved in the IMMS. To chart the structural variation observed in IMMS, the collision cross sections (CCSs) for the corresponding ions were measured. We analyzed nine disaccharide and three monosaccharide isomers that differ in composition, linkages, or configuration. Our data show that coexisting carbohydrate isomers can be identified by the PMP labeling technique in conjunction with ion-mobility separation and tandem mass spectrometry. The practical application of this rapid and effective method that requires only small amounts of sample is demonstrated by the successful analysis of water-soluble ginseng extract. This demonstrated the potential of this method to measure a variety of heterogeneous sample mixtures, which may have an important impact on the field of glycomics. PMID:27306514

  6. Electronic Structure of I-M8Ga16Sn30 (M = Ba, Sr, Yb) by First-Principles Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-song; Liu, Hong-xia; Deng, Shuping; Li, De-cong; Shen, Lan-xian; Cheng, Feng; Deng, Shu-kang

    2016-10-01

    Sn-based clathrates possess excellent thermoelectric properties ascribed to their higher Seebeck coefficient and lower thermal conductivity. Guest atoms significantly modulate the thermoelectric properties of Sn-based calculates because of their diverse atomic radius and interactions with framework atoms. Thus, we explored the electronic structure of I-M8Ga16Sn30 (M = Ba, Sr, Yb) by first-principles calculation. Results revealed significant differences between Yb8Ga16Sn30 and M8Ga16Sn30 (M = Ba, Sr,). In particular, the Yb-filled compound substitution possesses lowest formation energy and the off-center distance of the Yb atom is the largest compared with the other structures. I-M8Ga16Sn30 (M = Ba, Sr, Yb) is an indirect band gap semiconductor, and the enhanced hybridization effect between the guest and framework atoms' orbits exists because the Yb f orbit results in a decrease in band gap. Ba- and Sr-filled clathrates have similar valence bands but slightly different conduction bands; however, Yb8Ga16Sn30 possess the spiculate density of states near the Fermi level that reveals excellent thermoelectric properties.

  7. Second- and Third-Order Elastic Constants of Filaments of HexTow® IM7 Carbon Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L.; Hitchcock, D.; Behlow, H.; Podila, R.; Skove, M. J.; Serkiz, S. M.; Rao, A. M.

    2014-03-01

    Single filaments of HexTow® IM7-12K carbon fiber were subjected to tensile measurements on a device which applies a known stress σ, and measures the resulting strain ɛ, and the change in resistivity Δρ. Young's modulus E, the resistivity ρ, the piezoresistivity Δρ/ρɛ, and the nonlinearity in the stress-strain relation δ, were determined to be 264.1 ± 16.0 GPa, 1.5 ± 0.1 × 10-3 Ω cm, 1.3 ± 0.1, and -4.96 ± 0.23, respectively. The values obtained for Young's modulus and the resistivity of the fiber are in reasonable agreement with the values reported by the manufacturer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a measurement of a third-order elastic constant of a single filament of HexTow® IM7-12K. Given the high elastic strains attainable in these fibers and the negative value of δ, the usual calculation of E from a linear fit to the stress-strain data leads to an incorrect higher value of E. According to the accepted thermodynamic definition of the elastic constants, one must use the initial slope of the stress-strain curve to evaluate E. We also observed that the glue used to secure the fiber has an influence on the apparent modulus of the fiber.

  8. Trace explosive detection in aqueous samples by solid-phase extraction ion mobility spectrometry (SPE-IMS).

    PubMed

    Buxton, Tricia L; Harrington, Peter de B

    2003-02-01

    Law enforcement agencies use ion mobility spectrometers for the detection of explosives, drugs of abuse, and chemical warfare agents. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has the advantages of short analysis times, detections in the parts per billion concentrations, and high sensitivity. On-site environmental analysis of explosives or explosive residues in water is possible with ion mobility spectrometers. Unfortunately, the direct analysis of low levels of explosives in water is difficult. Extraction provides a method for pre-concentrating the analytes and removing interferents. Coupling solid-phase extraction (SPE) with IMS is useful for the identification of trace amounts of explosives in water. Commercially available SPE disks were used. After extraction, the sample disk is inserted into the ion mobility spectrometer, where the analytes are thermally desorbed from the disk. Concentrations as low as one part per trillion were detected with a Barringer Ionscan 350. An external computer and acquisition software (LabVIEW, National Instruments) were used to collect data. SIMPLISMA (SIMPLe-to-use-Interactive Self-modeling Mixture Analysis) was applied to the data to resolve features that vary with respect to time.

  9. Insulin-induced myosin light-chain phosphorylation during receptor capping in IM-9 human B-lymphoblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Majercik, M H; Bourguignon, L Y

    1988-01-01

    We have examined further the interaction between insulin surface receptors and the cytoskeleton of IM-9 human lymphoblasts. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we determined that actin, myosin, calmodulin and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) are all accumulated directly underneath insulin-receptor caps. In addition, we have now established that the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ (as measured by fura-2 fluorescence) increases just before insulin-induced receptor capping. Most importantly, we found that the binding of insulin to its receptor induces phosphorylation of myosin light chain in vivo. Furthermore, a number of drugs known to abolish the activation properties of calmodulin, such as trifluoperazine (TFP) or W-7, strongly inhibit insulin-receptor capping and myosin light-chain phosphorylation. These data imply that an actomyosin cytoskeletal contraction, regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin and MLCK, is involved in insulin-receptor capping. Biochemical analysis in vitro has revealed that IM-9 insulin receptors are physically associated with actin and myosin; and most interestingly, the binding of insulin-receptor/cytoskeletal complex significantly enhances the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chain. This insulin-induced phosphorylation is inhibited by calmodulin antagonists (e.g. TFP and W-7), suggesting that the phosphorylation is catalysed by MLCK. Together, these results strongly suggest that MLCK-mediated myosin light-chain phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating the membrane-associated actomyosin contraction required for the collection of insulin receptors into caps. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:3048249

  10. Demonstration of 2.97-Gb/s video signal transmissions in DML-based IM-DDO-OFDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; He, Jing; Deng, Rui; Chen, Qinghui; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To further investigate the feasibility of the digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms (e.g., symbol timing synchronization, channel estimation and equalization, and sampling clock frequency offset (SCFO) estimation and compensation) for real-time optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system, 2.97-Gb/s real-time high-definition video signal parallel transmission is experimentally demonstrated in OFDM-based short-reach intensity-modulated direct-detection (IM-DD) systems. The experimental results show that, in the presence of ∼12 ppm SCFO between transmitter and receiver, the adaptively modulated OFDM signal transmission over 20 km standard single-mode fiber with an error bit rate less than 1 × 10-9 can be achieved by using only DSP-based small SCFO estimation and compensation method without utilizing forward error correction technique. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we successfully demonstrate that the video signal at a bit rate in excess of 1-Gb/s transmission in a simple real-valued inverse fast Fourier transform and fast Fourier transform based IM-DD optical OFDM system employing a directly modulated laser.

  11. Perturbing the folding energy landscape of the bacterial immunity protein Im7 by site-specific N-linked glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mark M.; Bartlett, Alice I.; Nerenberg, Paul S.; Friel, Claire T.; Hackenberger, Christian P. R.; Stultz, Collin M.; Radford, Sheena E.; Imperiali, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    N-linked glycosylation modulates protein folding and stability through a variety of mechanisms. As such there is considerable interest in the development of general rules to predict the structural consequences of site-specific glycosylation and to understand how these effects can be exploited in the design and development of modified proteins with advantageous properties. In this study, expressed protein ligation is used to create site-specifically glycosylated variants of the bacterial immunity protein Im7 modified with the chitobiose disaccharide (GlcNAc-GlcNAc). Glycans were introduced at seven solvent exposed sites within the Im7 sequence and the kinetic and thermodynamic consequences of N-linked glycosylation analyzed. The values for glycan incorporation were found to range from +5.2 to -3.8 kJ·mol-1. In several cases, glycosylation influences folding by modulating the local conformational preferences of the glycosylated sequence. These locally mediated effects are most prominent in the center of α-helices where glycosylation negatively effects folding and in compact turn motifs between segments of ordered secondary structure where glycosylation promotes folding and enhances the overall stability of the native protein. The studies also provide insight into why glycosylation is commonly identified at the transition between different types of secondary structure and when glycosylation may be used to elaborate protein structure to protect disordered sequences from proteolysis or immune system recognition. PMID:21148421

  12. Determination of Interlaminar Toughness of IM7/977-2 Composites at Temperature Extremes and Different Thicknesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Pavlick, M. M.; Oliver, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    Composite materials are being used in the aerospace industry as a means of reducing vehicle weight. In particular, polymer matrix composites (PMC) are good candidates due to their high strength-to-weight and high stiffness-to-weight ratios. Future reusable space launch vehicles and space exploration structures will need advanced light weight composites in order to minimize vehicle weight while demonstrating robustness and durability, guaranteeing high factors of safety. In particular, the implementation of composite cryogenic propellant fuel tanks (cryotanks) for future reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) could greatly reduce the vehicle's weight versus identically sized cryotanks constructed of metallic materials. One candidate composite material for future cryotank designs is IM7/977-2, which is a graphite/epoxy system. A successful candidate must demonstrate reasonable structural properties over a wide range of temperatures. Since the matrix material is normally the weak link in the composite, tests that emphasize matrix-dominated behavior need to be conducted. Therefore, the objective of this work is to determine the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of "unidirectional" 8-ply and 16-ply IM7/977-2 through experimental testing. Tests were performed at -196 degrees Celsius (-320 degrees Fahrenheit), 22 degrees Celsius (72 degrees Fahrenheit), 93 degrees Celsius (200 degrees Fahrenheit) and 160 degrees C (320 degrees Fahrenheit). Low temperature testing was completed while the specimen was submerged in a liquid nitrogen bath. High temperature testing was completed in a temperature-controlled oven.

  13. Processing and Properties of Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Matrix Composites. Part 2; Processing Robustness of IM7/PETI Polyimide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung

    1996-01-01

    The processability of a phenylethynyl terminated imide (PETI) resin matrix composite was investigated. Unidirectional prepregs were made by coating an N-methylpyrrolidone solution of the amide acid oligomer onto unsized IM7. Two batches of prepregs were used: one was made by NASA in-house, and the other was from an industrial source. The composite processing robustness was investigated with respect to the effect of B-staging conditions, the prepreg shelf life, and the optimal processing window. Rheological measurements indicated that PETI's processability was only slightly affected over a wide range of B-staging temperatures (from 250 C to 300 C). The open hole compression (OHC) strength values were statistically indistinguishable among specimens consolidated using various B-staging conditions. Prepreg rheology and OHC strengths were also found not to be affected by prolonged (i.e., up to 60 days) ambient storage. An optimal processing window was established using response surface methodology. It was found that IM7/PETI composite is more sensitive to the consolidation temperature than to the consolidation pressure. A good consolidation was achievable at 371 C/100 Psi, which yielded an OHC strength of 62 Ksi at room temperature. However, processability declined dramatically at temperatures below 350 C.

  14. The Applicability of Incoherent Array Processing to IMS Seismic Array Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    nuclear tests but, due to signal incoherence, failed to contribute to the automatic event detections. It is demonstrated that the smoothed incoherent slowness estimates for the MJAR Pn phases for both tests indicate unambiguously the correct type of phase and a backazimuth estimate within 5 degrees of the great-circle backazimuth. The detection part of the algorithm is applicable to all IMS arrays, and spectrogram-based processing may offer a reduction in the false alarm rate for high frequency signals. Significantly, the local maxima of the scalar functions derived from the transformed spectrogram beams provide good estimates of the signal onset time. High frequency energy is of greater significance for lower event magnitudes and in, for example, the cavity decoupling detection evasion scenario. There is a need to characterize propagation paths with low attenuation of high frequency energy and situations in which parameter estimation on array stations fails.

  15. Reproducible Synthesis and High Porosity of mer-Zn(Im)2 (ZIF-10): Exploitation of an Apparent Double-Eight Ring Template.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Joseph R; Yang, Haiyang; Kane, Christopher M; Ley, Amanda N; Holman, K Travis

    2016-09-21

    Reproducible synthesis of the elusive merlinoite (mer) topology of zinc imidazolate (mer-Zn(Im)2, or ZIF-10) has been achieved by employing a simple macrocyclic solute-MeMeCH2-as a kinetic template. The corresponding phase-pure material, mer-MeMeCH2@Zn16(Im)32, is confirmed to be porous and exhibits one of the highest experimental surface areas (1893 m(2)/g, BET) yet reported for any ZIF. The X-ray single crystal structure of mer-MeMeCH2@Zn16(Im)32·xsolvent reveals the role of the macrocyle as an 8-fold hydrogen bond acceptor in templating the requisite double-eight rings (d8r) of the mer framework.

  16. Direct infusion electrospray ionization-ion mobility high resolution mass spectrometry (DIESI-IM-HRMS) for rapid characterization of potential bioprocess streams.

    PubMed

    Munisamy, Sharon M; Chambliss, C Kevin; Becker, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    Direct infusion electrospray ionization - ion mobility - high resolution mass spectrometry (DIESI-IM-HRMS) has been utilized as a rapid technique for the characterization of total molecular composition in "whole-sample" biomass hydrolysates and extracts. IM-HRMS data reveal a broad molecular weight distribution of sample components (up to 1100 m/z) and provide trendline isolation of feedstock components from those introduced "in process." Chemical formulas were obtained from HRMS exact mass measurements (with typical mass error less than 5 ppm) and were consistent with structural carbohydrates and other lignocellulosic degradation products. Analyte assignments are supported via IM-MS collision-cross-section measurements and trendline analysis (e.g., all carbohydrate oligomers identified in a corn stover hydrolysate were found to fall within 6% of an average trendline). These data represent the first report of collision cross sections for several negatively charged carbohydrates and other acidic species occurring natively in biomass hydrolysates.

  17. Structural Determinants of Health among Im/Migrants in the Indoor Sex Industry: Experiences of Workers and Managers/Owners in Metropolitan Vancouver

    PubMed Central

    Krüsi, Andrea; Zhang, Emma; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, im/migrant women are overrepresented in the sex industry and experience disproportionate health inequities. Despite evidence that the health impacts of migration may vary according to the timing and stage of migration (e.g., early arrival vs. long-term migration), limited evidence exists regarding social and structural determinants of health across different stages of migration, especially among im/migrants engaged in sex work. Our aim was to describe and analyze the evolving social and structural determinants of health and safety across the arrival and settlement process for im/migrants in the indoor sex industry. Methods We analyzed qualitative interviews conducted with 44 im/migrant sex workers and managers/owners working in indoor sex establishments (e.g., massage parlours, micro-brothels) in Metropolitan Vancouver, Canada in 2011; quantitative data from AESHA, a larger community-based cohort, were used to describe socio-demographic and social and structural characteristics of im/migrant sex workers. Results Based on quantitative data among 198 im/migrant workers in AESHA, 78.3% were Chinese-born, the median duration in Canada was 6 years, and most (86.4%) serviced clients in formal indoor establishments. Qualitative narratives revealed diverse pathways into sex work upon arrival to Canada, including language barriers to conventional labour markets and the higher pay and relative flexibility of sex work. Once engaged in sex work, fear associated with police raids (e.g., immigration concerns, sex work disclosure) and language barriers to sexual negotiation and health, social and legal supports posed pervasive challenges to health, safety and human rights during long-term settlement in Canada. Conclusions Findings highlight the critical influences of criminalization, language barriers, and stigma and discrimination related to sex work and im/migrant status in shaping occupational health and safety for im/migrants engaged in sex work

  18. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets in star forming regions. Lessons learned from a false positive around IM Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawet, D.; Absil, O.; Montagnier, G.; Riaud, P.; Surdej, J.; Ducourant, C.; Augereau, J.-C.; Röttinger, S.; Girard, J.; Krist, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Most exoplanet imagers consist of ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphic cameras which are currently limited in contrast, sensitivity and astrometric precision, but advantageously observe in the near-infrared window (1-5 μm). Because of these practical limitations, our current observational aim at detecting and characterizing planets puts heavy constraints on target selection, observing strategies, data reduction, and follow-up. Most surveys so far have thus targeted young systems (1-100 Myr) to catch the putative remnant thermal radiation of giant planets, which peaks in the near-infrared. They also favor systems in the solar neighborhood (d < 80 pc), which eases angular resolution requirements but also ensures a good knowledge of the distance and proper motion, which are critical to secure the planet status, and enable subsequent characterization. Aims: Because of their youth, it is very tempting to target the nearby star forming regions, which are typically twice as far as the bulk of objects usually combed for planets by direct imaging. Probing these interesting reservoirs sets additional constraints that we review in this paper by presenting the planet search that we initiated in 2008 around the disk-bearing T Tauri star IM Lup, which is part of the Lupus star forming region (140-190 pc). Methods: We show and discuss why age determination, the choice of evolutionary model for both the central star and the planet, precise knowledge of the host star proper motion, relative or absolute (between different instruments) astrometric accuracy (including plate scale calibration), and patience are the key ingredients for exoplanet searches around more distant young stars. Results: Unfortunately, most of the time, precision and perseverance are not paying off: we discovered a candidate companion around IM Lup in 2008, which we report here to be an unbound background object. We nevertheless review in details the lessons learned from our endeavor, and

  19. 'Do you mean I'm not whole?': Exploring the role of support in women's experiences of mastectomy without reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Archer, Stephanie; Holland, Fiona G; Montague, Jane

    2016-09-05

    This study explores the role of others in supporting younger women who opt not to reconstruct their breast post-mastectomy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six women diagnosed with breast cancer in their 30s/40s. The women lived in England, had been diagnosed a minimum of 5 years previously and had undergone unilateral mastectomy. An interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed three themes: Assuring the self: 'I'll love you whatever', Challenging the self: 'Do you mean I'm not whole?' and Accepting the self: 'I've come out the other side'. The women's experiences of positive support and challenges to their sense of self are discussed.

  20. The effects of physical aging at elevated temperatures on the viscoelastic creep on IM7/K3B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Feldman, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Physical aging at elevated temperature of the advanced composite IM7/K3B was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short term isothermal, creep/recovery with the creep segments performed at constant load. The matrix dominated transverse tensile and in-plane shear behavior were measured at temperatures ranging from 200 to 230 C. Through the use of time based shifting procedures, the aging shift factors, shift rates and momentary master curve parameters were found at each temperature. These material parameters were used as input to a predictive methodology, which was based upon effective time theory and linear viscoelasticity combined with classical lamination theory. Long term creep compliance test data was compared to predictions to verify the method. The model was then used to predict the long term creep behavior for several general laminates.

  1. Experimental Verification of a Progressive Damage Model for IM7/5260 Laminates Subjected to Tension-Tension Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Timothy W.; Harris, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    The durability and damage tolerance of laminated composites are critical design considerations for airframe composite structures. Therefore, the ability to model damage initiation and growth and predict the life of laminated composites is necessary to achieve structurally efficient and economical designs. The purpose of this research is to experimentally verify the application of a continuum damage model to predict progressive damage development in a toughened material system. Damage due to monotonic and tension-tension fatigue was documented for IM7/5260 graphite/bismaleimide laminates. Crack density and delamination surface area were used to calculate matrix cracking and delamination internal state variables to predict stiffness loss in unnotched laminates. A damage dependent finite element code predicted the stiffness loss for notched laminates with good agreement to experimental data. It was concluded that the continuum damage model can adequately predict matrix damage progression in notched and unnotched laminates as a function of loading history and laminate stacking sequence.

  2. Initial efficacy of project ImPACT: a parent-mediated social communication intervention for young children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Wainer, Allison

    2013-12-01

    Project ImPACT is a parent-mediated social communication intervention for young children with ASD that was developed in community settings to encourage dissemination. A single-subject, multiple-baseline design was conducted across 8 preschoolers with ASD and their mothers to examine the efficacy of the model for improving parent intervention fidelity and child spontaneous language. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the relationship between parent fidelity and child language within session. All parents increased their use of the intervention techniques. Improvements in spontaneous use of language targets were observed for 6 of the 8 children. There was a significant association between parents' use of the intervention strategies and their child's spontaneous language use.

  3. Design and performance investigation of LDPC-coded upstream transmission systems in IM/DD OFDM-PONs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiaoxue; Guo, Lei; Wu, Jingjing; Ning, Zhaolong

    2016-12-01

    In Intensity-Modulation Direct-Detection (IM/DD) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Networks (OFDM-PONs), aside from Subcarrier-to-Subcarrier Intermixing Interferences (SSII) induced by square-law detection, the same laser frequency for data sending from Optical Network Units (ONUs) results in ONU-to-ONU Beating Interferences (OOBI) at the receiver. To mitigate those interferences, we design a Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC)-coded and spectrum-efficient upstream transmission system. A theoretical channel model is also derived, in order to analyze the detrimental factors influencing system performances. Simulation results demonstrate that the receiver sensitivity is improved 3.4 dB and 2.5 dB under QPSK and 8QAM, respectively, after 100 km Standard Single-Mode Fiber (SSMF) transmission. Furthermore, the spectrum efficiency can be improved by about 50%.

  4. OFDM and PAM comparison using a high baudrate low resolution IM/DD interface for 400G Ethernet access.

    PubMed

    André, Nuno Sequeira; Louchet, Hadrien; Filsinger, Volker; Hansen, Erik; Richter, André

    2016-05-30

    We compare OFDM and PAM for 400G Ethernet based on a 3-bit high baudrate IM/DD interface at 1550nm. We demonstrate 27Gb/s and 32Gb/s transmission over 10km SSMF using OFDM and PAM respectively. We show that capacity can be improved through adaptation/equalization to achieve 42Gb/s and 64Gb/s for OFDM and PAM respectively. Experimental results are used to create realistic simulations to extrapolate the performance of both modulation formats under varied conditions. For the considered interface we found that PAM has the best performance, OFDM is impaired by quantization noise. When the resolution limitation is relaxed, OFDM shows better performance.

  5. Errores fotométricos debido al uso del filtro anular de mediana en imágenes CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada, M.; Noel, N.

    El filtro anular de mediana tiene la importante propiedad de tener una escala claramente definida, lo que permite remover de una imagen CCD todos los objetos con tamaños menores a esta escala, independientemente de su morfología particular, y reemplazarlos por el correspondiente ``background" local. Este filtro es de gran utilidad para remover gradientes de fondo, ``fringing" y halos de objetos extendidos mediante el simple procedimiento de restar a la imagen original una imagen filtrada, repitiendo el proceso las veces que sea necesario. En este trabajo se presentan resultados sobre los errores que introduce este filtro en la fotometría de objetos con diferente relación S/N y su aplicación a imágenes con gradientes de fondo y ``fringing".

  6. Ultrasound intensification suppresses the need of methanol excess during the biodiesel production with Lipozyme TL-IM.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Botelho, Claudia; Ribeiro, Artur; Castro, Rita; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Gogate, Parag R; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of biodiesel from sunflower oil and methanol based on transesterification using the immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL-IM) has been investigated under silent conditions and under an ultrasound field. Ultrasound assisted process led to reduced processing time and requirement of lower enzyme dosage. We found for the first time that oil to methanol ratio of 1:3 was favored for the ultrasound assisted enzymatic process which is lower than that observed for the case of conventional stirring based approach (ratio of 1.4). Our results indicate that intensification provided by ultrasound suppresses the need of the excess of the methanol reactant during the enzymatic biodiesel production. Ultrasound assisted enzymatic biodiesel production is therefore a faster and a cleaner processes.

  7. A break in the gas and dust surface density of the disc around the T Tauri star IM Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panić, O.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Wilner, D.; Qi, C.

    2009-07-01

    Aims: We study the distribution and physical properties of molecular gas in the disc around the T Tauri star IM Lup on scales close to 200 AU. We investigate how well the gas and dust distributions compare and work towards a unified disc model that can explain both gas and dust emission. Methods: 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J=2-1 line emission, as well as the dust continuum at 1.3 mm, is observed at 1.8 arcsec resolution towards IM Lup using the Submillimeter Array. A detailed disc model based on the dust emission is tested against these observations with the aid of a molecular excitation and radiative transfer code. Apparent discrepancies between the gas and dust distribution are investigated by adopting simple modifications to the existing model. Results: The disc is seen at an inclination of 54° ± 3° and is in Keplerian rotation around a 0.8-1.6 M_⊙ star. The outer disc radius traced by molecular gas emission is 900 AU, while the dust continuum emission and scattered light images limit the amount of dust present beyond 400 AU and are consistent with the existing model that assumes a 400 AU radius. Our observations require a drastic density decrease close to 400 AU with the vertical gas column density at 900 AU in the range of 5× 1020-1022 cm-2. We derive a gas-to-dust mass ratio of 100 or higher in disc regions beyond 400 AU. Within 400 AU from the star our observations are consistent with a gas-to-dust ratio of 100 but other values are not ruled out.

  8. Analysis of Signals from an Unique Ground-Truth Infrasound Source Observed at IMS Station IS26 in Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Quantitative modeling of infrasound signals and development and verification of the corresponding atmospheric propagation models requires the use of well-calibrated sources. Numerous sources have been detected by the currently installed network of about 40 of the final 60 IMS infrasound stations. Besides non-nuclear explosions such as mining and quarry blasts and atmospheric phenomena like auroras, these sources include meteorites, volcanic eruptions and supersonic aircraft including re-entering spacecraft and rocket launches. All these sources of infrasound have one feature in common, in that their source parameters are not precisely known and the quantitative interpretation of the corresponding signals is therefore somewhat ambiguous. A source considered well-calibrated has been identified producing repeated infrasound signals at the IMS infrasound station IS26 in the Bavarian forest. The source results from propulsion tests of the ARIANE-5 rocket's main engine at a testing facility near Heilbronn, southern Germany. The test facility is at a range of 320 km and a backazimuth of ~280° from IS26. Ground-truth information was obtained for nearly 100 tests conducted in a 5-year period. Review of the available data for IS26 revealed that at least 28 of these tests show signals above the background noise level. These signals are verified based on the consistency of various signal parameters, e.g., arrival times, durations, and estimates of propagation characteristics (backazimuth, apparent velocity). Signal levels observed are a factor of 2-8 above the noise and reach values of up to 250 mPa for peak amplitudes, and a factor of 2-3 less for RMS measurements. Furthermore, only tests conducted during the months from October to April produce observable signals, indicating a significant change in infrasound propagation conditions between summer and winter months.

  9. Rapid and Accurate Detection of Urinary Pathogens by Mobile IMS-Based Electronic Nose: A Proof-of-Principle Study

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Antti; Saviauk, Taavi; Kumpulainen, Pekka; Karjalainen, Markus; Tuokko, Antti; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Lekkala, Jukka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Tammela, Teuvo L.; Oksala, Niku K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common disease with significant morbidity and economic burden, accounting for a significant part of the workload in clinical microbiology laboratories. Current clinical chemisty point-of-care diagnostics rely on imperfect dipstick analysis which only provides indirect and insensitive evidence of urinary bacterial pathogens. An electronic nose (eNose) is a handheld device mimicking mammalian olfaction that potentially offers affordable and rapid analysis of samples without preparation at athmospheric pressure. In this study we demonstrate the applicability of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) –based eNose to discriminate the most common UTI pathogens from gaseous headspace of culture plates rapidly and without sample preparation. We gathered a total of 101 culture samples containing four most common UTI bacteries: E. coli, S. saprophyticus, E. faecalis, Klebsiella spp and sterile culture plates. The samples were analyzed using ChemPro 100i device, consisting of IMS cell and six semiconductor sensors. Data analysis was conducted by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression (LR). The results were validated by leave-one-out and 5-fold cross validation analysis. In discrimination of sterile and bacterial samples sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97% were achieved. The bacterial species were identified with sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 96% using eNose as compared to urine bacterial cultures. In conclusion: These findings strongly demonstrate the ability of our eNose to discriminate bacterial cultures and provides a proof of principle to use this method in urinanalysis of UTI. PMID:25526592

  10. Montanide IMS 1312 VG adjuvant enhances the efficacy of immersion vaccine of inactivated viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Kim, Yu Jin; Jung, Sung-Hee; Park, Myoung-Ae; Son, Maeng-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination by immersion is suitable for mass vaccination of small size fish. However, no viral vaccine has been developed for immersion applications, because of low efficacy. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of immersion vaccine against viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) containing Montanide IMS 1312 VG adjuvant in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Healthy fish were vaccinated by an immersion method with a heat-inactivated FP-VHS2010-1 strain of VHS virus (VHSV) in combination with Montanide IMS 1312 VG for 5 min at 20 ± 2 °C. The control group was vaccinated with sterile PBS. No toxicity of immersion vaccine with Montanide IMS 1312 VG adjuvant was observed by hematological and histopathological analysis. Immersion vaccine with adjuvant enhanced gene expression of immune-associated genes, i.e., genes encoding interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3. Relative percent survival (RPS) of fish was measured on weeks 4 and 8 post vaccination. In fish vaccinated with adjuvant, RPS was significantly higher than that of fish vaccinated without adjuvant. The results of the present study provide evidence that the VHSV immersion vaccine with Montanide IMS 1312 VG induces protective immunity in olive flounder against VHS.

  11. Less Words, More Action: Using On-the-Fly Videos and Screenshots in Your Library's IM/Chat and Email Reference Transactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekyere, Kwabena

    2010-01-01

    Email and chat/IM reference services have become a convenient and easily accessible option for the online community and libraries, particularly with increasing amounts of library resources now available electronically. This article gives an overview of Jing, which can be used to produce videos and screenshots on-the-fly, and demonstrates how to…

  12. Organizing for Change: Latinx Im/migrant Parents, School Decision-Making, and the Racial Politics of Parent Leadership in School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vélez, Verónica N.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on a multi-year, participatory action case study of ALIANZA, a Califonia-based Latinx im/migrant parent group. Grounded in Latina/o Critical Theory (LatCrit), this article focuses specifically on the development of political agency among ALIANZA members, highlighting organizational strategies aimed at school reform while…

  13. A Preliminary Report on a New Measure: Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and Its Psychological Correlates among Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Burrola, Kimberly S.; Steger, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation is a preliminary report on a new measure of internalization of the model minority myth. In 3 studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 15-item Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4), with 2 subscales. The Model Minority Myth of Achievement Orientation referred to the myth of Asian Americans'…

  14. Evaluation of organ doses and effective dose according to the ICRP Publication 110 reference male/female phantom and the modified ImPACT CT patient dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Matsubara, Kosuke; Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Katada, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Hiroshi; Koshida, Kichiro; Suzuki, Shouichi

    2014-09-07

    We modified the Imaging Performance Assessment of CT scanners (ImPACT) to evaluate the organ doses and the effective dose based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 110 reference male/female phantom with the Aquilion ONE ViSION Edition scanner. To select the new CT scanner, the measurement results of the CTDI100,c and CTDI100,p for the 160 (head) and the 320 (body) mm polymethylmethacrylate phantoms, respectively, were entered on the Excel worksheet. To compute the organ doses and effective dose of the ICRP reference male/female phantom, the conversion factors obtained by comparison between the organ doses of different types of phantom were applied. The organ doses and the effective dose were almost identical for the ICRP reference male/female and modified ImPACT. The results of this study showed that, with the dose assessment of the ImPACT, the difference in sex influences only testes and ovaries. Because the MIRD-5 phantom represents a partially hermaphrodite adult, the phantom has the dimensions of the male reference man including testes, ovaries, and uterus but no female breasts, whereas the ICRP male/female phantom includes whole-body male and female anatomies based on high-resolution anatomical datasets. The conversion factors can be used to estimate the doses of a male and a female accurately, and efficient dose assessment can be performed with the modified ImPACT.

  15. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  16. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  17. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car..., Large Packaging, cargo tank, or multi-unit tank car tank) containing a hazardous material in...

  18. 5 CFR 894.507 - After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dental or vision plan or plan option to another? 894.507 Section 894.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and Changing Enrollment § 894.507 After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another? (a) You may change from one dental...

  19. 5 CFR 894.507 - After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dental or vision plan or plan option to another? 894.507 Section 894.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and Changing Enrollment § 894.507 After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another? (a) You may change from one dental...

  20. 5 CFR 894.507 - After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... dental or vision plan or plan option to another? 894.507 Section 894.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and Changing Enrollment § 894.507 After I'm enrolled, may I change from one dental or vision plan or plan option to another? (a) You may change from one dental...

  1. Dead-end ultrafiltration concentration and IMS/ATP-bioluminescence detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in recreational water and produce wash.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Dawn M; Leskinen, Stephaney D; Magaña, Sonia; Schlemmer, Sarah M; Lim, Daniel V

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a detection method for viable E. coli O157:H7 in fresh produce and recreational water. The method was evaluated using eight samples of produce wash and recreational water with or without spiked E. coli O157:H7 at ≤10(2) CFU·ml(-1) and concentrated using dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) to produce primary and secondary retentates. Fifty-four matrix replicates of undiluted secondary retentates or dilutions (1:2 or 1:10 in buffer) were evaluated using an IMS/ATP bioluminescence assay (IMS/ATP). Combining primary and secondary DEUF yielded a 2-4 log(10) increase in E. coli O157:H7 concentrations in spiked samples and resulted in signal-to-noise ratios 2-219 fold higher than controls, depending on the sample type. DEUF increased the concentration of E. coli O157:H7 to within the detectable limits of IMS/ATP. The combined assay provided detection of viable E. coli O157:H7 in produce and recreational water. Accurate detection of microbial pathogens using DEUF and IMS/ATP could reduce disease outbreaks from contaminated water sources and food products.

  2. Mission I'm Possible: Effects of a Community-Based Project on the Basic Literacy Skills of At-Risk Kindergarteners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Wan Har; Moore, Dennis W.; Nonis, Karen P.; Tang, Hui Nee; Koh, Patricia; Wee, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This study used a nonequivalent group design to evaluate the impact of an emergent literacy intervention on preschool children identified with early reading difficulties. Thirty-five children were compared with 39 typically developing classroom peers on various reading measures in a community-based project--"Mission I'm Possible" (MIP),…

  3. From Ions to Bits - Developing the IT infrastructure around the CAMECA IMS 1280-HR SIMS lab at GFZ Potsdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, A.; Klump, J.; Wiedenbeck, M.

    2012-04-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometers (SIMS) is an highly sensitive technique for analyzing the surfaces of solids and thin film samples, but has the major drawback that such instruments are both rare and expensive. The Virtual SIMS project aims to design, develop and operate the IT infrastructure around the CAMECA IMS 1280-HR SIMS at GFZ Potsdam. The system will cover the whole spectrum of the procedures in the lab - from the online application for measurement time, to the remote access to the instrument and finally the maintenance of the data for publishing and future re-use. A virtual lab infrastructure around the IMS 1280 will enable remote access to the instrument and make measurement time available to the broadest possible user community. Envisioned is that the IT infrastructure would consist of the following: web portal, data repository, sample repository, project management software, communication arrangements between the lab staff and distant researcher and remote access to the instruments. The web portal will handle online applications for the measurement time. The data from the experiments, the monitoring sensor logs and the lab logbook entries are to be stored and archived. Researchers will be able to access their data remotely in real time, thus imposing a user rights management strucuture. Also planned is that all samples and the standards will be assigned a unique International GeoSample Number (IGSN) and that the images of the samples will be stored and made accessible in addition to any additional documents which might be uploaded by the researcher. The project management application will schedule the application process, the measurements times, notifications and alerts. A video conference capability is forseen for communication between the Potsdam staff and the remote researcher. The remote access to the instruments requires a sophisticated client-server solution. This highly sensitive instrument has to be controlled in real-time with latencies

  4. Implementation of a Fiber Raman Amplifier for CW-IM Measurements of Atmospheric Oxygen at 1.26 Microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobler, J. T.; Nagel, J.; Temyanko, V.; Zaccheo, S.; Browell, E. V.; Kooi, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Starting in February 2009 ITT, along with our partners at TIPD, AER and NASA LaRC, has been working to develop a fiber Raman amplifier at a wavelength near 1.26 microns, and evaluate its performance for measuring atmospheric O2 remotely. Two prototype amplifiers have been built and integrated into an existing continuous wave (CW) intensity modulated (IM) engineering development unit (EDU), developed at ITT for the measurement of CO2, in order to demonstrate the CW-IM measurement of atmospheric O2. The CO2 and O2 measurements are being evaluated for application to the active sensing of CO2 emissions over nights days and seasons (ASCENDS) mission described in the 2007 National Research Council's Decadal Survey. The O2 measurement takes advantage of the fact that O2 is a well mixed gas to allow the determination of the CO2 dry air mixing ratio, which is the required product for the ASCENDS mission. The Raman amplifier development has been focused on optimizing fiber designs to limit stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), which is a nonlinear process typically limiting this type of amplifier from generating high power narrow linewidth outputs. This work has centered around two approaches, varying the fiber core diameter to broaden the Brillouin gain curve and designing transverse fiber doping profiles which serve to separate the acoustic and optical wave overlap responsible for SBS. The most recent amplifier is producing 1.5 Watts of average power while maintaining the narrow linewidth of the seed laser (~3 MHz). The latest amplifier has been integrated with the CO2 EDU and initial ground testing was performed at the ITT ground test facility in New Haven, Indiana. The transmitter has subsequently been integrated into a NASA DC-8 rack and is currently being flown on the NASA DC-8. We discuss results from these ground and flight measurements in addition to the discussion of the amplifier design and our plans for scaling the design to space. This document is not subject

  5. GT0 Explosion Sources for IMS Infrasound Calibration: Charge Design and Yield Estimation from Near-source Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.; Hofstetter, R.

    2014-03-01

    Three large-scale on-surface explosions were conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII) at the Sayarim Military Range, Negev desert, Israel: about 82 tons of strong high explosives in August 2009, and two explosions of about 10 and 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources, monitored by extensive observations, for calibration of International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. In all shots, the explosives were assembled like a pyramid/hemisphere on dry desert alluvium, with a complicated explosion design, different from the ideal homogenous hemisphere used in similar experiments in the past. Strong boosters and an upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide more energy radiated to the atmosphere. Under these conditions the evaluation of the actual explosion yield, an important source parameter, is crucial for the GT0 calibration experiment. Audio-visual, air-shock and acoustic records were utilized for interpretation of observed unique blast effects, and for determination of blast wave parameters suited for yield estimation and the associated relationships. High-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. The yield estimators, based on empirical scaled relations for well-known basic air-blast parameters—the peak pressure, impulse and positive phase duration, as well as on the crater dimensions and seismic magnitudes, were analyzed. A novel empirical scaled relationship for the little-known secondary shock delay was developed, consistent for broad ranges of ANFO charges and distances, which facilitates using this stable and reliable air-blast parameter as a new potential

  6. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the IM Province of the Columbia Basin, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielgus, Robert; Shipley, Lisa; Myers, Woodrow

    2003-09-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the sub basins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated 'press' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM sub basins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates of deer

  7. Atp23 biogenesis reveals a chaperone-like folding activity of Mia40 in the IMS of mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Weckbecker, Daniel; Longen, Sebastian; Riemer, Jan; Herrmann, Johannes M

    2012-01-01

    Mia40 is a recently identified oxidoreductase in the intermembrane space (IMS) of mitochondria that mediates protein import in an oxidation-dependent reaction. Substrates of Mia40 that were identified so far are of simple structure and receive one or two disulphide bonds. Here we identified the protease Atp23 as a novel substrate of Mia40. Atp23 contains ten cysteine residues which are oxidized during several rounds of interaction with Mia40. In contrast to other Mia40 substrates, oxidation of Atp23 is not essential for its import; an Atp23 variant in which all ten cysteine residues were replaced by serine residues still accumulates in mitochondria in a Mia40-dependent manner. In vitro Mia40 can mediate the folding of wild-type Atp23 and prevents its aggregation. In these reactions, the hydrophobic substrate-binding pocket of Mia40 was found to be essential for its chaperone-like activity. Thus, Mia40 plays a much broader role in import and folding of polypeptides than previously expected and can serve as folding factor for proteins with complex disulphide patterns as well as for cysteine-free polypeptides. PMID:22990235

  8. Joint CO2 state and flux estimation with the 4D-Var system EURAD-IM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimpt, Johannes; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric CO2 inversion studies seek to improve CO2 surface-atmosphere fluxes with the usage of adjoint transport models and CO2 concentration measurements. Terrestrial CO2 fluxes -anthropogenic emissions, photosynthesis, and respiration- bear large spatial and temporal variability and are highly uncertain. Additionally to the high uncertainty of the three CO2 fluxes itself, regional inversion studies suffer from uncertainty of the boundary layer height and atmospheric transport especially during night, leading to uncertainty of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios during sunrise. This study assesses the potential of the 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) method to estimate CO2 fluxes and atmospheric CO2 concentrations jointly at each grid cell on a regional scale. Identical twin experiments are executed with the nested EURopean Air pollution Dispersion-Inverse Model (EURAD-IM) with 5 km resolution in Central Europe with synthetic half hourly measurements from eleven concentration towers. The assimilation window is chosen to start from sunrise for 12 hours. We find that joint estimation of CO2 fluxes and initial states requires a more careful balance of the background error covariance matrices but enables a more detailed analysis of atmospheric CO2 and the surface-atmosphere fluxes.

  9. Effects of Aging-Time Reference on the Long Term Behavior of the IM7/K3B Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.; Gates, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the time-based shift reference on the long term behavior of the graphite reinforced thermoplastic polyimide composite IM7/K3B at elevated temperature. Creep compliance and the effects of physical aging on the time dependent response was measured for uniaxial loading at several isothermal conditions below the glass transition temperature (T(sub g). Two matrix dominated loading modes, shear and transverse, were investigated in tension and compression. The momentary sequenced creep/aging curves were collapsed through a horizontal (time) shift using the shortest, middle and longest aging time curve as the reference curve. Linear viscoelasticity was used to characterize the creep/recovery behavior and superposition techniques were used to establish the physical aging related material constants. The use of effective time expressions in a laminated plate model allowed for the prediction of long term creep compliance. The effect of using different reference curves with time/aging-time superposition was most sensitive to the physical aging shift rate at lower test temperatures. Depending on the loading mode, the reference curve used can result in a more accurate long term prediction, especially at lower test temperatures.

  10. Comparison of Intralaminar and Interlaminar Mode-I Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional IM7/8552 Graphite/Epoxy Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czabaj, Michael W.; Ratcliffe, James

    2012-01-01

    The intralaminar and interlaminar mode-I fracture-toughness of a unidirectional IM7/8552 graphite/epoxy composite were measured using compact tension (CT) and double cantilever beam (DCB) test specimens, respectively. Two starter crack geometries were considered for both the CT and DCB specimen configurations. In the first case, starter cracks were produced by 12.5 micron thick, Teflon film inserts. In the second case, considerably sharper starter cracks were produced by fatigue precracking. For each specimen configuration, use of the Teflon film starter cracks resulted in initially unstable crack growth and artificially high initiation fracture-toughness values. Conversely, specimens with fatigue precracks exhibited stable growth onset and lower initiation fracture toughness. For CT and DCB specimens with fatigue precracks, the intralaminar and interlaminar initiation fracture toughnesses were approximately equal. However, during propagation, the CT specimens exhibited more extensive fiber bridging, and rapidly increasing R-curve behavior as compared to the DCB specimens. Observations of initiation and propagation of intralaminar and interlaminar fracture, and the measurements of fracture toughness, were supported by fractographic analysis using scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Testing the interactive computer method (IM) for producing K indices with the data of the Hurbanovo and Budkov magnetic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valach, Fridrich; Hejda, Pavel; Revallo, Miloš; Bochníček, Josef; Váczyová, Magdaléna

    2016-09-01

    It is generally accepted that the geomagnetic K indices derived by experienced observers are of great value. The interactive method (IM) based on the traditional hand-scaling methodology is tested in this study. The tests are performed utilising the data from the Hurbanovo and Budkov magnetic observatories. These data include both digital records of the geomagnetic field and hand-scaled K indices that had been derived by experienced observers. The authentic K indices from Hurbanovo cover the year 1997 and the same kind of data from Budkov covers the years 1994-1999. In addition to these data, hand-scaled K indices are used which were derived by the experienced observer from printed digital magnetograms for both of the observatories for the years 2000-2003. The results of this study indicate that for high values of K indices (the values being at least 5) the tested method follows the traditional hand-scaling better than the widely used computer methods FMI and AS. On the other hand, for the K indices less than 5 the tested method turns out to be the worst when compared with the FMI and AS methods. For very low geomagnetic activity (K-index values equal to 0) the performance of the tested method is comparable to the two computer methods.

  12. Kopplung eines auf der Momentenmethode basierenden Computerprogramms mit einem FEM-Algorithmus zur Berechnung von elektromagnetischen Streuproblemen im medizinischen Bereich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, M.; Landstorfer, F. M.

    2004-05-01

    Am Beispiel der Verkopplung von medizinischen Geräten über den menschlichen Körper werden elektromagnetische Störphänomene im Klinikbereich betrachtet. Für die Berechnung dieser komplexen Szenarien wird zum einen die Momentenmethode (MoM) verwendet, die sich in besonderem Maße für die Berücksichtigung metallischer Strukturen und offener Streuprobleme eignet, und zum anderen die Methode der Finiten Elemente (FEM), mit der die Eigenschaften des menschlichen Körpers besser berücksichtigt werden können. Mit Hilfe des Äquivalenzprinzips lässt sich das Gesamtproblem in zwei Teile zerlegen, in ein inneres und in ein äußeres. Der Außenraum wird dabei mit der MoM behandelt und das Innere, d.h. der Körper mit der FEM. Die Kopplung der beiden Methoden erfolgt an der Körperoberfläche über äquivalente Oberflächenströme. Durch Lösen des resultierenden linearen Gleichungssystems für das gesamte Problem lassen sich dann die Oberflächenströme und die über die Kontinuitätsgleichung miteinander verknüpften elektromagnetischen Felder bestimmen.

  13. A novel power-efficient scheme asymmetrically and symmetrically clipping optical (ASCO)-OFDM for IM/DD optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nan; Bar-Ness, Yeheskel

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for intensity modulation direct detection (IM/DD) optical systems. By using this novel scheme of an OFDM optical system, not only odd subcarriers but also even subcarriers can be modulated to transmit a clipping optical signal. A conventional asymmetrically clipping optical (ACO)-OFDM is applied to modulate odd subcarriers while even subcarriers are modulated by a novel technique called a symmetrically clipping optical (SCO)-OFDM. Although both the asymmetrically clipping noise caused by ACO-OFDM and the symmetrically clipping noise caused by SCO-OFDM fall onto the even subcarriers, the former interference can be estimated and removed at the receiver. Thus, SCO-OFDM symbols carried on the even subcarriers can be recovered by subtracting the estimated ACO-OFDM clipping noise from the received signal. Then the SCO-OFDM clipping noise can be removed by subtraction due to its special transmission format. Note that no DC bias added on all subcarriers makes this novel scheme achieve better performance in terms of both power efficiency and symbol error rate (SER).

  14. Level of education and multiple sclerosis risk after adjustment for known risk factors: The EnvIMS study

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnevik, Kjetil; Riise, Trond; Cortese, Marianna; Holmøy, Trygve; Kampman, Margitta T; Magalhaes, Sandra; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Wolfson, Christina; Pugliatti, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several recent studies have found a higher risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) among people with a low level of education. This has been suggested to reflect an effect of smoking and lower vitamin D status in the social class associated with lower levels of education. Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the association between level of education and MS risk adjusting for the known risk factors smoking, infectious mononucleosis, indicators of vitamin D levels and body size. Methods: Within the case-control study on Environmental Factors In MS (EnvIMS), 953 MS patients and 1717 healthy controls from Norway reported educational level and history of exposure to putative environmental risk factors. Results: Higher level of education were associated with decreased MS risk (p trend = 0.001) with an OR of 0.53 (95% CI 0.41–0.68) when comparing those with the highest and lowest level of education. This association was only moderately reduced after adjusting for known risk factors (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.44–0.83). The estimates remained similar when cases with disease onset before age 28 were excluded. Conclusion: These findings suggest that factors related to lower socioeconomic status other than established risk factors are associated with MS risk. PMID:26014605

  15. The Dependence of the Change in the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Graphite Fiber Reinforced Polyimide IM7-K3B on Microcracking due to Thermal Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Melissa C.

    1995-01-01

    Composite IM7-K3B was subjected to a simulated high speed aircraft thermal environment to determine the effects of microcracking on the change in CTE. IM7-K3B is a graphite fiber reinforced polyimide laminate, manufactured by Dupont. The lay-up for the material was (0.90((Sub 3)(Sub s))). The specimens were placed in a laser-interferometric dilatometer to obtain thermal expansion measurements and were then repeatedly cycled between -65 F and 350 F up to 1000 cycles. After cycling they were scanned for microcracks at a magnification of 400x. The material was expected not to crack and to have a near zero CTE. Some microcracking did occur in all specimens and extensive microcracking occurred in one specimen. Further testing is required to determine how closely the CTE and microcracking are related.

  16. Recent Research and Progress in Food, Feed and Nutrition with Advanced Synchrotron-based SR-IMS and DRIFT Molecular Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Ultraspatially resolved synchrotron radiation based infrared microspectroscopy is able to detect the structure features of a food or feed tissue at cellular and molecular levels. However, to date, this advanced synchrotron-based technique is almost unknown to food and feed scientists. The objective of this article was to introduce this novel analytical technology, ultra-spatially resolved synchrotron radiation based infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) to food, feed, conventional nutrition, and molecular nutrition scientists. The emphasis of this review focused on the following areas: (1) Principles of molecular spectroscopy for food and feed structure research, such as protein molecular structure, carbohydrate conformation, heating induced protein structure changes, and effect of gene-transformation on food and feed structure; (2) Molecular spectral analysis methodology; (3) Biological applications of synchrotron SR-IMS and DRIFT spectroscopy; and (4) Recent progress in food, feed and nutrition research program. The information described in this article gives better insight in food structure research progress and update.

  17. Increasing conclusiveness of clinical breath analysis by improved baseline correction of multi capillary column - ion mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS) data.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Ewa; Tinnevelt, Gerjen H; Brodrick, Emma; Williams, Mark; Davies, Antony N; van Manen, Henk-Jan; Buydens, Lutgarde M C

    2016-08-05

    Current challenges of clinical breath analysis include large data size and non-clinically relevant variations observed in exhaled breath measurements, which should be urgently addressed with competent scientific data tools. In this study, three different baseline correction methods are evaluated within a previously developed data size reduction strategy for multi capillary column - ion mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS) datasets. Introduced for the first time in breath data analysis, the Top-hat method is presented as the optimum baseline correction method. A refined data size reduction strategy is employed in the analysis of a large breathomic dataset on a healthy and respiratory disease population. New insights into MCC-IMS spectra differences associated with respiratory diseases are provided, demonstrating the additional value of the refined data analysis strategy in clinical breath analysis.

  18. Establishing a Dynamic Database of Blue and Fin Whale Locations from Recordings at the IMS CTBTO hydro-acoustic network. The Baleakanta Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bras, R. J.; Kuzma, H.

    2013-12-01

    Falling as they do into the frequency range of continuously recording hydrophones (15-100Hz), blue and fin whale songs are a significant source of noise on the hydro-acoustic monitoring array of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). One researcher's noise, however, can be a very interesting signal in another field of study. The aim of the Baleakanta Project (www.baleakanta.org) is to flag and catalogue these songs, using the azimuth and slowness of the signal measured at multiple hydrophones to solve for the approximate location of singing whales. Applying techniques borrowed from human speaker identification, it may even be possible to recognize the songs of particular individuals. The result will be a dynamic database of whale locations and songs with known individuals noted. This database will be of great value to marine biologists studying cetaceans, as there is no existing dataset which spans the globe over many years (more than 15 years of data have been collected by the IMS). Current whale song datasets from other sources are limited to detections made on small, temporary listening devices. The IMS song catalogue will make it possible to study at least some aspects of the global migration patterns of whales, changes in their songs over time, and the habits of individuals. It is believed that about 10 blue whale 'cultures' exist with distinct vocal patterns; the IMS song catalogue will test that number. Results and a subset of the database (delayed in time to mitigate worries over whaling and harassment of the animals) will be released over the web. A traveling museum exhibit is planned which will not only educate the public about whale songs, but will also make the CTBTO and its achievements more widely known. As a testament to the public's enduring fascination with whales, initial funding for this project has been crowd-sourced through an internet campaign.

  19. Analysis of recordings from underwater controlled sources in the Pacific Ocean received by the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Tomoaki; Zampolli, Mario; Haralabus, Georgios; Heaney, Kevin; Prior, Mark; Isse, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    Controlled impulsive scientific underwater sound sources in the Northwestern Pacific were observed at two IMS hydroacoustic stations in the Pacific Ocean. Although these experiments were conducted with the aim of studying the physical properties of the plate boundaries inside the Earth, they are also suitable for the investigation of long range underwater acoustic detections. In spite of the fact that the energy of these controlled impulsive scientific sources is significantly smaller than that of nuclear explosions, the signals were obtained by IMS hydrophone stations thousands of kilometres away and also by distant ocean bottom instruments operated by various Institutes, such as the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo. These experiments provide calibrated (yield, time, location) long-range acoustic transmissions, which enable one to examine the physics of long-range acoustic propagation and to verify the capabilities of the CTBTO IMS network to detect even small explosions.The two IMS stations used are H03 (Juan Fernandez Island, Chile) off the coast of Chile in the Southeastern Pacific and H11 (Wake Island, USA) in the Western Pacific. Both stations consist of two triplets of hydrophones in the SOFAR channel, which monitor the oceans for signs of nuclear explosions. H03 detected low-yield explosions above flat terrain at distances of 15,000 km across the Pacific as well as explosions above the landward slope off the coast of Japan at distances above 16,000 km across the Pacific. These records showed that source signatures, such as short duration and bubble pulses, were preserved over the long propagation distances. It was found that the observed maximum amplitudes from each source exhibit order of magnitude variations even when the yield and detonation depth are the same. The experimental data and transmission loss simulations suggest that bathymetric features around the sources and between the sources and the receivers are the main causes for

  20. Optical wireless transmission of 405 nm, 1.45 Gbit/s optical IM/DD-OFDM signals through a 4.8 m underwater channel.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Mizukoshi, Izumi; Hanawa, Masanori

    2015-01-26

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate wireless transmission of optical intensity modulation/direct detection-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (IM/DD-OFDM) signals in an underwater channel using a field programmable gate array based real-time transmitter. The real-time transmission of a 405 nm 1.45 Gbit/s optical OFDM signal through a 4.8 m underwater channel with an error vector magnitude of approximately 10% was successfully achieved.

  1. Endocytosis of receptor-bound insulin-like growth factor II is enhanced by mannose-6-phosphate in IM9 cells.

    PubMed

    Polychronakos, C; Piscina, R

    1988-10-01

    The insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), and glycoproteins containing mannose 6-phosphate (M6P), bind to two different sites of the same receptor molecule (Morgan et al, Nature 329:301, 1987). To study the interactions between the two ligands on their common receptor in intact cells, we examined the effect of free M6P on IGF-II binding and endocytosis in the IM9 human lymphoblastoid cell line. M6P, up to a 3 mM concentration, had no effect on the binding of IGF-II to the cell surface receptor of intact IM9 cells at 4 degrees C. By contrast, when IM9 cells were incubated with 125I-IGF-II at 37 degrees C, 1mM M6P increased cell-associated radioactivity by twofold. The increase was resistant to acid wash at 4 degrees C, and therefore assumed to represent endocytosed IGF-II. Acid-washable radioactivity was no different, confirming that, in intact cells, M6P does not affect IGF-II surface binding. In addition, preincubation of cells with M6P at 37 degrees C for up to 3 hours did not change the abundance of receptor on the cell surface, as measured by a subsequent 4 degrees C binding assay. We conclude that M6P causes a shift of IGF-II-occupied receptors form the cell surface to intracellular locations without affecting surface binding of this ligand in IM9 cells. The effect could be produced by the binding of M6P itself, or by the displacement of endogenous phosphomannosylated ligands.

  2. Endocytosis of receptor-bound insulin-like growth factor II is enhanced by mannose-6-phosphate in IM9 cells.

    PubMed

    Polychronakos, C; Piscina, R

    1988-12-01

    The insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), and glycoproteins containing mannose 6-phosphate (M6P), bind to two different sites of the same receptor molecule (Morgan et al, Nature 329:301, 1987). To study the interactions between the two ligands on their common receptor in intact cells, we examined the effect of free M6P on IGF-II binding and endocytosis in the IM9 human lymphoblastoid cell line. M6P, up to a 3 mM concentration, had no effect on the binding of IGF-II to the cell surface receptor of intact IM9 cells at 4 degrees C. By contrast, when IM9 cells were incubated with 125I-IGF-II at 37 degrees C, 1 mM M6P increased cell-associated radioactivity by twofold. The increase was resistant to acid wash at 4 degrees C, and therefore assumed to represent endocytosed IGF-II. Acid-washable radioactivity was no different, confirming that, in intact cells, M6P does not affect IGF-II surface binding. In addition, preincubation of cells with M6P at 37 degrees C for up to 3 hours did not change the abundance of receptor on the cell surface, as measured by a subsequent 4 degrees C binding assay. We conclude that M6P causes a shift of IGF-II-occupied receptors form the cell surface to intracellular locations without affecting surface binding of this ligand in IM9 cells. The effect could be produced by the binding of M6P itself, or by the displacement of endogenous phosphomannosylated ligands.

  3. IM3D: A parallel Monte Carlo code for efficient simulations of primary radiation displacements and damage in 3D geometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong Gang; Yang, Yang; Short, Michael P.; Ding, Ze Jun; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Ju

    2015-01-01

    SRIM-like codes have limitations in describing general 3D geometries, for modeling radiation displacements and damage in nanostructured materials. A universal, computationally efficient and massively parallel 3D Monte Carlo code, IM3D, has been developed with excellent parallel scaling performance. IM3D is based on fast indexing of scattering integrals and the SRIM stopping power database, and allows the user a choice of Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) or Finite Element Triangle Mesh (FETM) method for constructing 3D shapes and microstructures. For 2D films and multilayers, IM3D perfectly reproduces SRIM results, and can be ∼102 times faster in serial execution and > 104 times faster using parallel computation. For 3D problems, it provides a fast approach for analyzing the spatial distributions of primary displacements and defect generation under ion irradiation. Herein we also provide a detailed discussion of our open-source collision cascade physics engine, revealing the true meaning and limitations of the “Quick Kinchin-Pease” and “Full Cascades” options. The issues of femtosecond to picosecond timescales in defining displacement versus damage, the limitation of the displacements per atom (DPA) unit in quantifying radiation damage (such as inadequacy in quantifying degree of chemical mixing), are discussed. PMID:26658477

  4. Efficacy of low intensity, therapist-implemented Project ImPACT for increasing social communication skills in young children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Brooke R; Wainer, Allison L; Berger, Natalie I; Walton, Katherine M

    2017-02-02

    Project ImPACT is a Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Intervention (NDBI) for young children with ASD. Preliminary research supports its feasibility and efficacy as a parent-mediated intervention; however, its efficacy as a low-intensity, therapist-implemented intervention is unclear. A single-case, multiple-baseline design evaluated the effect of 2 h per week of therapist-implemented Project ImPACT on social engagement, language, and play in nine children with ASD. Language and play skills were targeted separately for five children and together for four children. Children increased their rates of social engagement and language when language or play was the sole target and when language and play were targeted together; however, gains in play skills were evident only when they were targeted separately. This study provides support for the efficacy of the Project ImPACT when implemented by therapists at a low intensity and suggests the way in which skills are targeted can affect child learning.

  5. Early protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle using an inactivated vaccine formulated with Montanide ESSAI IMS D 12802 VG PR adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Quattrocchi, V; Pappalardo, J S; Langellotti, C; Smitsaart, E; Fondevila, N; Zamorano, P

    2014-04-17

    Foot and mouth disease is an acute disease of cattle with a broad distribution around the world. Due to the fast spread of FMDV infections, control measures must be applied immediately after an outbreak, such as the use of vaccines that induce fast protection. Previously, it was shown that mice vaccinated with FMD inactivated virus (iFMDV) formulated with Montanide™ ESSAI IMS D 12802 VG PR adjuvant (802-iFMDV) were protected when they were challenged 4 and 7 days post-vaccination (dpv) with homologous virus. In this work, we describe the successful use of this formulation in cattle. In addition, adjuvant Montanide™ IMS 1313 VG NPR was also tested. 802-iFMDV vaccine was able to confer 100% protection against viral challenge at 4 and 7 dpv, while eliciting low antibody levels, at 7 dpv. 1313-iFMDV vaccine induced protection in 60% of cattle. At 4 dpv, 1313-iFMDV vaccinated animals presented increased levels of IFNγ but not of macrophages. At 4 and 7 dpv, macrophages, IFNγ, nasal IgA and IgG1 antibodies against FMDV, and opsonophagocytosis were increased in animals vaccinated with 802-iFMDV indicating that these phenomena could be involved in protection.It is the first time that total protection against FMDV at early stages post-vaccination is reported using a single dose of the formulation iFMDV plus Montanide™ ESSAI D IMS 12802 VG PR adjuvant.

  6. Mixed-Isotope Labeling with LC-IMS-MS for Characterization of Protein-Protein Interactions by Chemical Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    Merkley, Eric D.; Baker, Erin S.; Crowell, Kevin L.; Orton, Daniel J.; Taverner, Thomas; Ansong, Charles; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Burnet, Meagan C.; Cort, John R.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking of proteins followed by proteolysis and mass spectrometric analysis of the resulting cross-linked peptides provides powerful insight into the quaternary structure of protein complexes. Mixed-isotope cross-linking (a method for distinguishing intermolecular cross-links) was coupled with liquid chromatography and ion mobility separations and mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) to provide an additional separation dimension to the traditional cross-linking approach. This method produced multiplet m/z peaks that are aligned in the IMS drift time dimension and serve as signatures of intermolecular cross-linked peptides. We developed an informatics tool to use the amino acid sequence information inherent in the multiplet spacing for accurate identification of the cross-linked peptides. Because of the separation of peptides and cross-linked peptides in drift time, our LC-IMS-MS approach was able to confidently detect more intermolecular cross-linked peptides than LC-MS alone. PMID:23423792

  7. Fragenkatalog zur Begrundung und Beurteilung von Einfuhrungskurskonzeptionen im Rahmen der Germanistik (Question-Catalog on the Establishment and Evaluation of Introductory-Course-Conceptions in the Area of Germanic Studies)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linguistik und Didaktik, 1973

    1973-01-01

    From a session of the Arbeitskreis fur Hochschuldidaktik im Germanistenverband (Workshop for College Teaching in German Departments), Loccum, West Germany, July 3-6, 1972; compiled by the Initiativgruppe Studienreform Hamburg (Proposals Committee for Curriculum Reform in Hamburg). (DD)

  8. Cytoprotection of human endothelial cells against oxidative stress by 1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im): application of systems biology to understand the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyu; Bynum, James A; Stavchansky, Solomon; Bowman, Phillip D

    2014-07-05

    Cellular damage from oxidative stress, in particular following ischemic injury, occurs during heart attack, stroke, or traumatic injury, and is potentially reducible with appropriate drug treatment. We previously reported that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a plant-derived polyphenolic compound, protected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from menadione-induced oxidative stress and that this cytoprotective effect was correlated with the capacity to induce heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) and its protein product, a phase II cytoprotective enzyme. To further improve this cytoprotective effect, we studied a synthetic triterpenoid, 1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im), which is known as a potent phase II enzyme inducer with antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities, and compared it to CAPE. CDDO-Im at 200nM provided more protection to HUVEC against oxidative stress than 20μM CAPE. We explored the mechanism of CDDO-Im cytoprotection with gene expression profiling and pathway analysis and compared to that of CAPE. In addition to potent up-regulation of HMOX1, heat shock proteins (HSP) were also found to be highly induced by CDDO-Im in HUVEC. Pathway analysis results showed that transcription factor Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response was among the top canonical pathways commonly activated by both CDDO-Im and CAPE. Compared to CAPE, CDDO-Im up-regulated more HSP and some of them to a much higher extent. In addition, CDDO-Im treatment affected Nrf2 pathway more significantly. These findings may provide an explanation why CDDO-Im is a more potent cytoprotectant than CAPE against oxidative stress in HUVEC.

  9. The Guiding Light: Vri/uvby & Tio Photometry Of The Chromospherically Active & Spotted Binary System Im Peg - The Guide-star For The Gravity Probe-b Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellem, Robert; Guinan, E.; Messina, S.; Wasatonic, R.; McCook, G.

    2007-12-01

    We report on the starspot and chromospheric properties of IM Pegasi - the guide star of the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite. GP-B's mission is to measure two predicted consequences of General Relativity - frame-dragging and geodetic effects, via its extremely precise onboard gyroscopes. IM Peg was selected as the mission's guide star as it is not only bright enough to be seen with GP-B's onboard optical telescope but it is also a bright radio source. Thus, ground-based radio telescope observations can easily and accurately correct for IM Peg's motions in space. However, IM Peg is a chomospherically active binary system with a luminous K2 III primary star showing rotationally modulated (Prot 24.5 days) light variations from starspots. The starspots can cause problems as GP-B can erroneously interpret a change in starspot coverage (and corresponding shifts in the light center) as the star's movement. This apparent shift can also be exacerbated by possible changes in the light-center of the binary system arising from changes in the light balance with the fainter dK component. Since 2000 we have carried out multi-band high-precision photoelectric photometry of IM Peg to determine its activity and starspot coverage. Our photometry uses Strömgren uvby filters, VRCIC filters and TiO (719/755 nm ) narrow-band filter sets. Measurements were made relative to neaby comparsion & check stars using a robotic 0.8-m telescope (located in AZ) and 0.25-m telescope (located in PA). The TiO- and multi-band continuum photometry constrains the starspot areas, temperatures and distributions. The photometry is being modeled to determine the effects of changing starspot areas and distributions on the light center of the binary. The results of our analysis and possible impacts on the GP-B Mission will be discussed. This research is supported by NSF/RUI Grants AST- 0507536 and AST- 0507542 which we gratefully acknowledge.

  10. Reaktive Tracer zur Bestimmung der sedimentären Aquifer-Oxidationskapazität im Labor- und Feldversuch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefsen, Frank; Bliss, Fabian; Wachter, Thorsten; Dahmke, Andreas

    Kurzfassung Mikrobiell reduzierbares Eisen(III) im Aquifer kann als Elektronenakzeptor von großer Bedeutung für Natural Attenuation (NA) von aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen sein und bildet den Hauptbestandteil der sedimentären Oxidationskapazität (OXC) des Aquifers. Untersuchungsgegenstand war der Vergleich traditioneller, nasschemischer Methoden mit neuentwickelten, reaktiven Tracerverfahren zur Bestimmung der sedimentären OXC. Die innovativen Tracermethoden haben gegenüber nasschemischen Extraktionsverfahren den prinzipiellen Vorteil, dass sie einen integralen Ansatz zur Bestimmung der sedimentären OXC bilden, weil geochemische und hydraulische Heterogenitäten des Aquifers berücksichtigt werden. Daher wurden am RETZINA-Standort Zeitz einerseits herkömmliche Säure-Extraktionsmethoden (bestimmter Eisen(III)-Gehalt: 0,43 +/- 0,07 mg/g Aquifermaterial) und andererseits reaktive Tracertests mit Phosphat-(Eisen(III): 1,0 mg/g) und Sulfidtracern (Eisen(III): 0,31 +/- 0,02 mg/g) in Laborversuchen sowie Bioabbauversuche mit Toluol als Kohlenstoffquelle undGeobacter metallireducensals Eisen(III)-Reduzierer (Eisen(III): 1,0 mg/g) durchgeführt. Sulfid als reaktiver Tracer wurde in Form eines 〝Push-Pull-Tests`` im Feldversuch eingesetzt (Eisen(III): 1,1 mg/g). Zudem bedeutet die Anwendung des Feld-Tracerverfahrens deutlich weniger Zeitaufwand in der Durchführung als die Anwendung traditioneller Extraktionsmethoden. Microbially reducible iron(III) is important as a terminal electron acceptor for the Natural Attenuation (NA) of aromatic hydrocarbons and forms the balance of the aquifer's sedimentary oxidation capacity (OXC). It was the aim of this investigation to compare traditional acid extraction methods to reactive tracer methods in quantifying the sedimentary OXC. The sedimentary OXC at the RETZINA test site in Zeitz was therefore determined through traditional acid extraction methods (determined Iron(III)-content: 0.43 +/- 0.07 mg/g aquifer material) and

  11. A Comparison of IM-CW Lidar Modulation Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Joel; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin; Harrison, Fenton; Obland, Michael; Ismail, Syed

    2014-05-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements through the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) Decadal Survey recommended space mission are critical for improving our understanding of CO2 sources and sinks. IM-CW (Intensity Modulated Continuous Wave) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS science requirements. In previous laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used linear swept frequency modulation to discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate clouds, which is a requirement for the inversion of the CO2 column-mixing ratio from the instrument optical depth measurements, has been demonstrated with the linear swept frequency modulation technique. We are concurrently investigating advanced techniques to help improve the auto-correlation properties of the transmitted waveform implemented through physical hardware to make cloud rejection more robust in special restricted scenarios. Several different carrier based modulation techniques are compared including orthogonal linear swept, orthogonal non-linear swept, and Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). Techniques are investigated that reduce or eliminate sidelobes. These techniques have excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth (by way of a new cyclic digital filter), which will reduce bias error in the presence of multiple scatterers. Our analyses show that the studied modulation techniques can increase the accuracy of CO2 column measurements from space. A comparison of various properties such as signal to noise ratio (SNR) and time-bandwidth product are discussed.

  12. IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system: a standardized approach for immunogenetics and immunoinformatics.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2005-09-20

    IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system http://imgt.cines.fr, was created in 1989 by the Laboratoire d'ImmunoGénétique Moléculaire (LIGM) (Université Montpellier II and CNRS) at Montpellier, France. IMGT is a high quality integrated knowledge resource specialized in immunoglobulins (IG), T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of human and other vertebrates, and related proteins of the immune system (RPI) of any species which belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) and to the MHC superfamily (MhcSF). IMGT consists of five databases, ten on-line tools and more than 8,000 HTML pages of Web resources. IMGT provides a common access to standardized data from genome, genetics, proteome and three-dimensional structures. The accuracy and the consistency of IMGT data are based on IMGT-ONTOLOGY, a semantic specification of terms to be used in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. IMGT-ONTOLOGY comprises six main concepts: IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION, DESCRIPTION, NUMEROTATION, ORIENTATION and OBTENTION. Based on these concepts, the controlled vocabulary and the annotation rules necessary for the immunogenetics data identification, classification, description and numbering and for the management of IMGT knowledge are defined in the IMGT Scientific chart. IMGT is the international reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics for medical research (repertoire analysis of the IG antibody sites and of the TR recognition sites in autoimmune and infectious diseases, AIDS, leukemias, lymphomas, myelomas), veterinary research (IG and TR repertoires in farm and wild life species), genome diversity and genome evolution studies of the adaptive immune responses, biotechnology related to antibody engineering (single chain Fragment variable (scFv), phage displays, combinatorial libraries, chimeric, humanized and human antibodies), diagnostics (detection and follow up of residual diseases) and therapeutical approaches (grafts

  13. Using intervention mapping (IM) to develop a self-management programme for employees with a chronic disease in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Employees with a chronic disease often encounter problems at work because of their chronic disease. The current paper describes the development of a self-management programme based on the Chronic Disease Self-Management programme (CDSMP) of Stanford University to help employees with a chronic somatic disease cope with these problems at work. The objective of this article is to present the systematic development and content of this programme. Methods The method of intervention mapping (Bartholomew 2006) was used to tailor the original CDSMP for employees with a chronic somatic disease. This paper describes the process of adjusting the CDSMP for this target group. A needs assessment has been carried out by a literature review and qualitative focus groups with employees with a chronic disease and involved health professionals. On the basis of the needs assessment, the relevant determinants of self-management behaviour at work have been identified for the target population and the objectives of the training have been formulated. Furthermore, techniques have been chosen to influence self-management and the determinants of behaviour and a programme plan has been developed. Results The intervention was designed to address general personal factors such as lifestyle, disease-related factors (for example coping with the disease) and work-related personal factors (such as self-efficacy at work). The course consists of six sessions of each two and a half hour and intents to increase the self management and empowerment of employees with a chronic somatic disease. Conclusion Intervention mapping has been found to be a useful tool for tailoring in a systematic way the original CDSMP for employees with a chronic somatic disease. It might be valuable to use IM for the development or adjusting of interventions in occupational health care. PMID:20565925

  14. A Comparison of Potential IM-CW Lidar Modulation Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Ismail, Syed

    2014-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements through the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) Decadal Survey recommended space mission are critical for improving our understanding of CO2 sources and sinks. IM-CW (Intensity Modulated Continuous Wave) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS science requirements. In previous laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used linear swept frequency modulation to discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate clouds, which is a requirement for the inversion of the CO2 column-mixing ratio from the instrument optical depth measurements, has been demonstrated with the linear swept frequency modulation technique. We are concurrently investigating advanced techniques to help improve the auto-correlation properties of the transmitted waveform implemented through physical hardware to make cloud rejection more robust in special restricted scenarios. Several different carrier based modulation techniques are compared including orthogonal linear swept, orthogonal non-linear swept, and Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). Techniques are investigated that reduce or eliminate sidelobes. These techniques have excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth (by way of a new cyclic digital filter), which will reduce bias error in the presence of multiple scatterers. Our analyses show that the studied modulation techniques can increase the accuracy of CO2 column measurements from space. A comparison of various properties such as signal to noise ratio (SNR) and time-bandwidth product are discussed.

  15. Hello IM, Goodbye TTY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Lori; Peters, Tom

    2006-01-01

    According to the National Association of the Deaf, there are approximately 28 million deaf and hearing-impaired people in the U.S.--roughly 10 percent of the total population. This hearing-impaired population may be even more isolated than the visually impaired community. Although technology is making it easier for libraries to provide effective…

  16. Registrierung im Fokus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papenberg, Nils; Modersitzki, Jan; Fischer, Bernd

    In vielen praktischen Problemstellungen ist der Anwender nur in wenigen ausgezeichneten Bildbereichen an einer hochgenauen Registrierung interessiert. Dieser Umstand wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit konsequent umgesetzt. Es wird eine Multiresolutionsstrategie vorgestellt, die es dem Anwender erstmalig erlaubt, auf ausgewählte Bildbereiche zu fokussieren. Das Verfahren ist in einen variationellen Kontext eingebettet und bietet einen deutlichen Geschwindigkeitsvorteil gegenüber herkömmlichen Methoden. Neben der Herleitung wird die Wirkungsweise des Verfahrens beispielhaft illustriert und die Qualität der Ergebnisse diskutiert. Es zeigt sich, dass dieser neue Ansatz den problemangepassten Einsatz variationeller Methoden in zeitkritischen Anwendungen erlaubt.

  17. IMS Meridian Chain Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamide, Y.

    Earth environment, encompassing the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and solar wind, is filled with dynamically varying plasma through which electric currents are continually flowing. Changes in the state of this system result in changes in its electrical current that can be monitored remotely through the magnetic perturbations they produce. For this reason it is common practice to use geomagnetic data obtained at the earth's surface to diagnose processes occurring in our plasma environment.In the first half of this century the pioneering work of K. Birkeland, soon followed by S. Chapman and H. Alfvén, attempted to estimate the electric current system responsible for ground magnetic disturbances. Studies of ground-based magnetic records have been vital in understanding the processes occurring in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system, especially the growth and decay of the three-dimensional current distribution, which consists of ionospheric currents and field-aligned currents. In the past, studies on this subject were primarily based on the statistically obtained, so-called ‘equivalent’ current systems, which can be determined by assuming all currents flow in a spherical shell (i.e., the ionosphere) concentric with the earth. Owing to the significant improvement of the ground magnetic networks, as well as recent direct measurements of the field-aligned currents and electric field by satellites and radars, it is now possible to infer the three-dimensional current system over the polar region during individual magnetospheric substorms with a sufficient time resolution. Meanwhile, various numerical techniques have been developed to analyze global magnetometer data for the purpose of facilitating this inference. It has taken more than half a century to quantify these pioneering concepts of Birkeland, Chapman, and Alfvén, although much improvement is still needed for better accuracy.

  18. Biogeochemistry of Ni and Pb in a periodically flooded arable soil: Fractionation and redox-induced (im)mobilization.

    PubMed

    Antić-Mladenović, Svetlana; Frohne, Tina; Kresović, Mirjana; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Tomić, Zorica; Ličina, Vlado; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-01-15

    The redox-induced (im)mobilization of nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) under pre-definite redox conditions and their binding forms were studied in a periodically flooded, slightly acidic arable soil enriched with serpentine minerals at the Velika Morava River valley, Serbia. The total contents of Ni and Pb were 152 and 109 mg kg(-1), respectively. Geochemical fractionation of Ni, combined with mineralogical analysis, confirmed its geogenic origin in the soil. Potentially mobile fractions were the dominating binding forms of Pb; thus, indicating anthropogenic sources as prevailing. Risk assessment indicated a low risk of Ni and Pb transfer from soil to other environmental constituents. However, the results imply that geogenic metals might pose higher environmental risk than those from anthropogenic origin, in dependence of their total concentrations and contents in the specific solid-phase fractions. Flooding of the soil was simulated in an automated biogeochemical microcosm system, which allows a control and a continuous measurements of redox potential (EH) and pH. Subsequently, the EH was increased in steps of approximately 100 mV from anoxic to oxic conditions. Concurrently, the concentrations of soluble Ni, Pb, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and sulfates were measured. The EH was brought from low to high values (-220 to 520 mV) and correlated negative with soluble Ni, Pb, Fe, Mn and DOC. Soluble Ni ranged from 125 to 228 μg l(-1) while Pb ranged from 3.0 to 21.4 μg l(-1). Concentrations of both metals in solution were high at low EH and decreased with increasing EH. Nickel immobilization may be attributed to sorption to or co-precipitation with re-oxidized Fe-Mn (hydr)oxides, whereas Pb, in addition, might be immobilized via precipitation with inorganic ligands, such as carbonates and phosphates. The results imply that Ni and Pb solubility might also be related to the formation of metal-DOC complexes. The detected dynamic and

  19. Detección automática de NEOs en imágenes CCD utilizando la transformada de Hough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruétalo, M.; Tancredi, G.

    El interés y la dedicación por los objetos que se acercan a la órbita de la Tierra (NEOs) ha aumentado considerablemente en los últimos años, tanto que se han iniciado varias campañas de búsqueda sistemática para aumentar la población identificada de éstos. El uso de placas fotográficas e identificación visual está siendo sustituído, progresivamente, por el uso de cámaras CCD y paquetes de detección automática de los objetos en las imágenes digitales. Una parte muy importante para la implementación exitosa de un programa automatizado de detección de este tipo es el desarrollo de algoritmos capaces de identificar objetos de baja relación señal-ruido y con requerimientos computacionales no elevados. En el presente trabajo proponemos la utilización de la transformada de Hough (utilizada en algunas áreas de visión artificial) para detectar automáticamente trazas, aproximadamente rectilíneas y de baja relación señal-ruido, en imágenes CCD. Desarrollamos una primera implementación de un algoritmo basado en ésta y lo probamos con una serie de imágenes reales conteniendo trazas con picos de señales de entre ~1 σ y ~3 σ por encima del nivel del ruido de fondo. El algoritmo detecta, sin inconvenientes, la mayoría de los casos y en tiempos razonablemente adecuados.

  20. Aqueous phase oligomerization of α,β-unsaturated carbonyls and acids investigated using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to mass spectrometry (IMS-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Pascal; Tlili, Sabrine; Ravier, Sylvain; Quivet, Etienne; Monod, Anne

    2016-04-01

    One of the current essential issues to unravel our ability to forecast future climate change and air quality, implies a better understanding of natural processes leading to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, and in particular the formation and fate of oligomers. The difficulty in characterizing macromolecules is to discern between large oxygenated molecules from series of oligomers containing repeated small monomers of diverse structures. In the present study, taking advantage from previously established radical vinyl oligomerization of methyl vinylketone (MVK) in the aqueous phase, where relatively simple oligomers containing up to 14 monomers were observed, we have investigated the same reactivity on several other unsaturated water soluble organic compounds (UWSOCs) and on a few mixtures of these precursor compounds. The technique used to characterize the formed oligomers was a traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a hybrid quadrupole - time of flight mass spectrometer (IMS-MS) fitted with an electrospray source and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The technique allows for an additional separation, especially for large ions, containing long carbon chains. We have shown the efficiency of the IMS-mass spectrometry technique to detect oligomers derived from MVK photooxidation in the aqueous phase. The results were then compared to other oligomers, derived from ten other individual biogenic UWSOCs. The technique allowed distinguishing between different oligomers arising from different precursors. It also clearly showed that compounds bearing a non-conjugated unsaturation did not provide oligomerization. Finally, it was shown that the IMS-mass spectrometry technique, applied to mixtures of unsaturated conjugated precursors, exhibited the ability of these precursors to co-oligomerize, i.e. forming only one complex oligomer system bearing monomers of different structures. The results are discussed in terms of atmospheric

  1. Integrated annotation and analysis of in situ hybridization images using the ImAnno system: application to the ear and sensory organs of the fetal mouse.

    PubMed

    Romand, Raymond; Ripp, Raymond; Poidevin, Laetitia; Boeglin, Marcel; Geffers, Lars; Dollé, Pascal; Poch, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    An in situ hybridization (ISH) study was performed on 2000 murine genes representing around 10% of the protein-coding genes present in the mouse genome using data generated by the EURExpress consortium. This study was carried out in 25 tissues of late gestation embryos (E14.5), with a special emphasis on the developing ear and on five distinct developing sensory organs, including the cochlea, the vestibular receptors, the sensory retina, the olfactory organ, and the vibrissae follicles. The results obtained from an analysis of more than 11,000 micrographs have been integrated in a newly developed knowledgebase, called ImAnno. In addition to managing the multilevel micrograph annotations performed by human experts, ImAnno provides public access to various integrated databases and tools. Thus, it facilitates the analysis of complex ISH gene expression patterns, as well as functional annotation and interaction of gene sets. It also provides direct links to human pathways and diseases. Hierarchical clustering of expression patterns in the 25 tissues revealed three main branches corresponding to tissues with common functions and/or embryonic origins. To illustrate the integrative power of ImAnno, we explored the expression, function and disease traits of the sensory epithelia of the five presumptive sensory organs. The study identified 623 genes (out of 2000) concomitantly expressed in the five embryonic epithelia, among which many (∼12%) were involved in human disorders. Finally, various multilevel interaction networks were characterized, highlighting differential functional enrichments of directly or indirectly interacting genes. These analyses exemplify an under-represention of "sensory" functions in the sensory gene set suggests that E14.5 is a pivotal stage between the developmental stage and the functional phase that will be fully reached only after birth.

  2. Integrated Annotation and Analysis of In Situ Hybridization Images Using the ImAnno System: Application to the Ear and Sensory Organs of the Fetal Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Romand, Raymond; Ripp, Raymond; Poidevin, Laetitia; Boeglin, Marcel; Geffers, Lars; Dollé, Pascal; Poch, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    An in situ hybridization (ISH) study was performed on 2000 murine genes representing around 10% of the protein-coding genes present in the mouse genome using data generated by the EURExpress consortium. This study was carried out in 25 tissues of late gestation embryos (E14.5), with a special emphasis on the developing ear and on five distinct developing sensory organs, including the cochlea, the vestibular receptors, the sensory retina, the olfactory organ, and the vibrissae follicles. The results obtained from an analysis of more than 11,000 micrographs have been integrated in a newly developed knowledgebase, called ImAnno. In addition to managing the multilevel micrograph annotations performed by human experts, ImAnno provides public access to various integrated databases and tools. Thus, it facilitates the analysis of complex ISH gene expression patterns, as well as functional annotation and interaction of gene sets. It also provides direct links to human pathways and diseases. Hierarchical clustering of expression patterns in the 25 tissues revealed three main branches corresponding to tissues with common functions and/or embryonic origins. To illustrate the integrative power of ImAnno, we explored the expression, function and disease traits of the sensory epithelia of the five presumptive sensory organs. The study identified 623 genes (out of 2000) concomitantly expressed in the five embryonic epithelia, among which many (∼12%) were involved in human disorders. Finally, various multilevel interaction networks were characterized, highlighting differential functional enrichments of directly or indirectly interacting genes. These analyses exemplify an under-represention of "sensory" functions in the sensory gene set suggests that E14.5 is a pivotal stage between the developmental stage and the functional phase that will be fully reached only after birth. PMID:25706271

  3. Surface effects on the structure and mobility of the ionic liquid C6C1ImTFSI in silica gels.

    PubMed

    Nayeri, Moheb; Aronson, Matthew T; Bernin, Diana; Chmelka, Bradley F; Martinelli, Anna

    2014-08-14

    We report on how the dynamical and structural properties of the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (C6C1ImTFSI) change upon different degrees of confinement in silica gels. The apparent diffusion coefficients of the individual ions are measured by (1)H and (19)F pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) spectroscopy, while the intermolecular interactions in the ionogels are elucidated by Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the local structure of the ionic liquid at the silica interface is probed by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Importantly, we extend this study to a wider range of ionic liquid-to-silica molar ratios (x) than has been investigated previously, from very low (high degree of confinement) to very high (liquid-like gels) ionic liquid contents. Diffusion NMR measurements indicate that a solvation shell, with a significantly lower mobility than the bulk ionic liquid, forms at the silica interface. Additionally, the diffusion of the C6C1Im(+) and TFSI(-) ions decreases more rapidly below an observed molar ratio threshold (x < 1), with the intrinsic difference in the self-diffusion coefficient between the cation and anion becoming less pronounced. For ionic liquid molar ratio of x < 1, Raman spectroscopy reveals a different conformational equilibrium for the TFSI(-) anions compared to the bulk ionic liquid, with an increased population of the cisoid isomers with respect to the transoid. Concomitantly, at these high degrees of confinement the TFSI(-) anion experiences stronger ion-ion interactions as indicated by the evolution of the TFSI(-) characteristic vibrational mode at ∼740 cm(-1). Furthermore, solid-state 2D (29)Si{(1)H} HETCOR NMR measurements establish the interactions of the ionic liquid species with the silica surface, where the presence of adsorbed water results in weaker interactions between (29)Si surface moieties and the hydrophobic alkyl protons of the cationic C6C1Im(+) molecules.

  4. A comparative study of APLI and APCI in IMS at atmospheric pressure to reveal and explain peak broadening effects by the use of APLI.

    PubMed

    Ihlenborg, Marvin; Raupers, Björn; Gunzer, Frank; Grotemeyer, Jürgen

    2015-11-21

    The details of the ionization mechanism in atmospheric pressure are still not completely known. In order to obtain further insight into the occurring processes in atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) a comparative study of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and APLI is presented in this paper. This study is carried out using similar experimental condition at atmospheric pressure employing a commercial ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). Two different peak broadening mechanisms can then be assigned, one related to a range of different species generated and detected, and furthermore for the first time a power broadening effect on the signals can be identified.

  5. Singular vector-based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goris, N.; Elbern, H.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of the large-dimensional chemical state of the atmosphere provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their typically insufficient temporal and spatial density. In order to optimize the measurement configurations despite those limitations, the present work describes the identification of sensitive states of the chemical system as optimal target areas for adaptive observations. For this purpose, the technique of singular vector analysis (SVA), which has proven effective for targeted observations in numerical weather prediction, is implemented in the EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) chemical transport model, yielding the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0. Besides initial values, emissions are investigated as critical simulation controlling targeting variables. For both variants, singular vectors are applied to determine the optimal placement for observations and moreover to quantify which chemical compounds have to be observed with preference. Based on measurements of the airship based ZEPTER-2 campaign, the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0 has been evaluated by conducting a comprehensive set of model runs involving different initial states and simulation lengths. For the sake of brevity, we concentrate our attention on the following chemical compounds, O3, NO, NO2, HCHO, CO, HONO, and OH, and focus on their influence on selected O3 profiles. Our analysis shows that the optimal placement for observations of chemical species is not entirely determined by mere transport and mixing processes. Rather, a combination of initial chemical concentrations, chemical conversions, and meteorological processes determines the influence of chemical compounds and regions. We furthermore demonstrate that the optimal placement of observations of emission strengths is highly dependent on the location of emission sources and that the benefit of including emissions as target variables outperforms the value of initial value optimization with growing

  6. Performance investigation on clipping and RIN induced degradation for a single- and two-tone IM-DD SCM optical link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazi, Gausia; Sharma, Ajay K.; Shah (Smieee), H. Najeeb-Ud-Din; Uddin, Moin

    2014-05-01

    Subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) is preferred multiplexing approach for its simplicity and cost effectiveness in optical broadband transmission. In this work four basic SCM based intensity modulation direct detection (IM-DD) systems models have been devised to investigate laser source induced noise mechanisms. These system models reveal unique spectral behavioural characteristics associated to harmonic distortion (HD), inter-modulation distortion (IMD), clipping and random intensity noise (RIN) mechanisms. Response of clipping and RIN mechanisms to changes in system operational and laser design parameters show a direct dependence of clipping spillover on modulation current and an insensitivity of the RIN spectrum to changes in carrier amplitude. High bias currents are shown to reduce negative influence of clipping and RIN peak power while shifting RIN peak above subcarrier operating range of frequencies but increases RIN spectrum width. Low laser quantum efficiency is observed to favor clipping and RIN induced distortion while RIN peak position is insensitive to laser quantum efficiency. With active layer volume there will exists a tradeoff between clipping spillover and RIN peak power on one hand and RIN peak position and RIN spectral width on the other hand. High laser carrier lifetime will favor clipping spillover reduction. All the results so obtained can be exploited for identifying a suitable laser design in a suitable system model for achieving better system performance for the SCM based IM-DD systems.

  7. SDS-PAGE analysis of Aβ oligomers is disserving research into Alzheimer´s disease: appealing for ESI-IM-MS

    PubMed Central

    Pujol-Pina, Rosa; Vilaprinyó-Pascual, Sílvia; Mazzucato, Roberta; Arcella, Annalisa; Vilaseca, Marta; Orozco, Modesto; Carulla, Natàlia

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) oligomer forms and structures is crucial to the advancement in the field of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Here we report a critical evaluation of two methods used for this purpose, namely sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), extensively used in the field, and ion mobility coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-IM-MS), an emerging technique with great potential for oligomer characterization. To evaluate their performance, we first obtained pure cross-linked Aβ40 and Aβ42 oligomers of well-defined order. Analysis of these samples by SDS-PAGE revealed that SDS affects the oligomerization state of Aβ42 oligomers, thus providing flawed information on their order and distribution. In contrast, ESI-IM-MS provided accurate information, while also reported on the chemical nature and on the structure of the oligomers. Our findings have important implications as they challenge scientific paradigms in the AD field built upon SDS-PAGE characterization of Aβ oligomer samples. PMID:26450154

  8. 1D μ-glycine-briged copper (II) chain in complex [Cu(μ-Gly)Im(ClO4)]n and ferromagnetic interactions among copper (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lu; Lv, Xue-Chuan; Luo, Guan-Hua; Gao, Xiao-Han; Tan, Zhi-Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Complex [Cu(μ-Gly)Im(ClO4)]n(Im = imidazole, and Gly = glycine) with μ-glycine-briged copper (II) chain, containing six-coordination distorted elongated octahedron, was synthesized and characterized. The complex belongs to space group P 21/c measured by X-ray single crystal diffraction. In the cluster, each Cu2+ ion are six-coordination by one nitrogen atom and two oxygen atoms of glycine, one nitrogen atoms of imidazole, and two of oxygen atoms of two perchlorate. Each Cu2+ ion has an N2O4 donor set, which forms the distorted elongated octahedron due to the Jahn-Teller (JT) effect. The magnetic and thermodynamic properties were researched. Magnetic susceptibilities of the complex showed that ferromagnetic interactions occurred between the Cu (II) atoms. The Curie-Weiss constant C = 0.565 cm3 K·mol-1 and the Weiss constant θ = 1.0585 K were given by the Curie-Weiss law The ferromagnetic nature of the interaction could be deduced as the exchange pathway of Cusbnd Osbnd Csbnd Osbnd Cu, which involved an equatorial position at one copper (II) ion and an axial position of the nearest copper (II). The complex decomposed from 511 to 538 K as two steps.

  9. Detectability of vehicle exhaust hydrocarbons: the Wisconsin inspection/maintentance (I/M) analyzer and the remote vehicle emissions sensing (RVES) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cors, Rebecca; Rendahl, Craig S.

    1995-05-01

    The Wisconsin Departments of Transportation and Natural Resources evaluated the hydrocarbon (HC) detection capability of the Remote Vehicle Emissions Sensing (RVES) system, which employs remote sensing technology, and Wisconsin's I/M analyzers, which use BAR90 specifications. Both analyzers employ non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) technology. Other recent research has quantified HC measurement inaccuracies for vehicle emissions analyzers that use NDIR technology or have BAR90 specifications. This research shows that BAR90 analyzers undermeasure some water- soluble HCs and NDIR analyzers undermeasure olefinic and aromatic HCs. This evaluation was based on both field measurements and calculations that simulate these inaccuracies. These calculations give a measurement accuracy value, which estimates the fraction of the total HCs in a vehicle exhaust sample that each analyzer measures. Other calculations quantify the ozone forming potential of this measured fraction by considering the reactivity of measured HCs. Our field measurements and calculations show Wisconsin I/M analyzer HC measurements are on average 7 percent and 1 percent less than RVES, respectively. Calculations estimate that both analyzers measure at most 43 to 71 percent (an average 61 percent) of the total HCs in an emissions sample. Additional calculations estimate that the HCs measured by both analyzers have 49 to 71 percent (an average 62 percent) of the ozone forming potential of the total HCs in an emissions sample.

  10. Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy

    2015-04-01

    There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes.

  11. SDS-PAGE analysis of Aβ oligomers is disserving research into Alzheimer´s disease: appealing for ESI-IM-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol-Pina, Rosa; Vilaprinyó-Pascual, Sílvia; Mazzucato, Roberta; Arcella, Annalisa; Vilaseca, Marta; Orozco, Modesto; Carulla, Natàlia

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) oligomer forms and structures is crucial to the advancement in the field of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Here we report a critical evaluation of two methods used for this purpose, namely sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), extensively used in the field, and ion mobility coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-IM-MS), an emerging technique with great potential for oligomer characterization. To evaluate their performance, we first obtained pure cross-linked Aβ40 and Aβ42 oligomers of well-defined order. Analysis of these samples by SDS-PAGE revealed that SDS affects the oligomerization state of Aβ42 oligomers, thus providing flawed information on their order and distribution. In contrast, ESI-IM-MS provided accurate information, while also reported on the chemical nature and on the structure of the oligomers. Our findings have important implications as they challenge scientific paradigms in the AD field built upon SDS-PAGE characterization of Aβ oligomer samples.

  12. Identification of oxidized organic atmospheric species during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) using a novel Ion Mobility Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (IMS-ToF-CIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krechmer, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Kimmel, J.; Junninen, H.; Knochenmuss, R.; Cubison, M.; Massoli, P.; Stark, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Surratt, J. D.; Jimenez, J. L.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from the field deployment of a novel Ion Mobility Time-of-flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CI-IMS-TOF) during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). IMS-TOF is a 2-dimensional analysis method, which separates gas-phase ions by mobility prior to determination of mass-to-charge ratio by mass spectrometry. Ion mobility is a unique physical property that is determined by the collisional cross section of an ion. Because mobility depends on size and shape, the IMS measurement is able to resolve isomers and isobaric compounds. Additionally, trends in IMS-TOF data space can be used to identify relationships between ions, such as common functionality or polymeric series. During SOAS we interfaced the IMS-TOF to a nitrate ion (NO3-) chemical ionization source that enables the selective ionization of highly oxidized gas phase species (those having a high O:C ratio) through clustering with the reagent ion. Highly oxidized products of terpenes and isoprene are important secondary organic aerosol precursors (SOA) that play an uncertain but important role in particle-phase chemistry. We present several case studies of atmospheric events during SOAS that exhibited elevated concentrations of sulfuric acid and/or organics. These events exhibited a rise in particle number and provide an opportunity to examine the role that organic species may have in local atmospheric new particle formation events. We also present the results from the field deployment and subsequent laboratory studies utilizing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor as the inlet for the CI-IMS-TOF. The reactor draws in ambient air and exposes it to high concentrations of the OH radical, created by photolysis O3 in the presence of water. The highly oxidized products are then sampled directly by the CI-IMS-TOF. We performed several experiments including placing pine and deciduous plants directly in front of the reactor opening and observed large increases in the number and

  13. Comparison of in vivo activation of triamcinolone acetonide- and RU 38486-receptor complexes in the CEM-C7 and IM-9 human leukemic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T J

    1989-08-15

    RU 38486 functions as a pure antiglucocorticoid in the human leukemic cell lines CEM-C7 and IM-9. Despite the fact that RU 38486 has been reported to promote considerable in vitro receptor activation to a DNA-binding form, this steroid may be relatively incapable of promoting this physiologically relevant conformational change in vivo. In the experiments reported here the potential ability of RU 38486 to promote in vivo activation has been compared with that of a potent agonist, triamcinolone acetonide. In vivo activation was evaluated by DEAE-cellulose chromatographic analyses of cytosolic extracts prepared from lysed cells which had previously been labeled with either 30 nM [3H]triamcinolone acetonide or [3H]RU 38486 and subsequently incubated at 37 degrees C. Using this anion-exchange procedure, in vivo activation of the agonist-receptor complexes was shown to occur in both a time- and temperature-dependent fashion in both cell lines. This in vivo activation was reflected by progressive decreases in the bound [3H]triamcinolone acetonide associated with the unactivated (high salt-eluting) peaks eluted from DEAE-cellulose, small yet detectable increases in the bound radioactivity eluted in the activated (low-salt eluting) peaks, and a significant increase in the ability of the cytoplasmic [3H]triamcinolone acetonide-receptor complexes to bind to DNA-cellulose. Additional experiments employing DEAE-cellulose chromatography demonstrated that after incubation at 37 degrees C for 1 h, at least some in vivo activation of cytosolic [3H]RU 38486-receptor complexes could be detected in CEM-C7 cells, although the antagonist was less effective than the agonist in facilitating this conformational change. In IM-9 lymphocytes essentially no in vivo activation could be detected using this same protocol. Nuclear translocation assays were also independently performed to evaluate in vivo receptor activation. Incubation of intact cells with 30 nM [3H]triamcinolone acetonide or [3H

  14. Prescription data mining, medical privacy and the First Amendment: the U.S. Supreme Court in Sorrell v. IMS health Inc.

    PubMed

    Boumil, Marcia M; Dunn, Kaitlyn; Ryan, Nancy; Clearwater, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the United States Supreme Court in Sorrell v. IMS Health Inc. struck down a Vermont law that would restrict the ability of pharmaceutical companies to purchase certain physician-identifiable prescription data without the consent of the prescriber. The law's stated purpose was threefold: to protect the privacy of medical information, to protect the public health and to contain healthcare costs by promoting Vermont's preference in having physicians prescribe more generic drugs. The issue before the Supreme Court was whether the Vermont law represented a legitimate, common sense regulatory program or a bold attempt to suppress commercial speech when the "message" is disfavored by the state. Striking down the law, the Supreme Court applied a heightened level of First Amendment scrutiny to this commercial transaction and held that the Vermont law was not narrowly tailored to protect legitimate privacy interests.

  15. Preliminary Effectiveness of Project ImPACT: A Parent-Mediated Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Delivered in a Community Program

    PubMed Central

    Stadnick, Nicole A.; Stahmer, Aubyn; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This is a pilot study of the effectiveness of Project ImPACT, a parent-mediated intervention for ASD delivered in a community program. The primary aim was to compare child and parent outcomes between the intervention group and a community comparison for 30 young children with ASD at baseline and 12 weeks. The secondary aim was to identify parent factors associated with changes in child outcomes. Results indicated significant improvement in child communication skills and a strong trend for parent intervention adherence for the intervention group from baseline to 12 weeks. Higher baseline parenting stress was negatively related to child social gains from baseline to 12 weeks. Findings provide further support for delivering parent-mediated interventions in community settings to children with ASD. PMID:25633920

  16. Do "illegal" im/migrants have a right to health? Engaging ethical theory as social practice at a Tel Aviv open clinic.

    PubMed

    Willen, Sarah S

    2011-09-01

    As the notion of a "right to health" gains influence, it is increasingly deployed in ways that are diverse, contextually variable, and at times logically inconsistent. Drawing on extended fieldwork at an Israeli human rights organization that advocates for "illegal" migrants and other vulnerable groups, this article contends that medical anthropologists cannot simply rally behind this right. Instead, we must take it as an object of ethnographic analysis and explore bow it is invoked, debated, and resisted in specific contexts. Critical ethnographies of right to health discourse and practice can enlighten us, and help us enlighten scholars in other fields, to the complexity, messiness, and "mushiness" (Sen 2009) of this right, especially in the context of advocacy on unauthorized im/migrants' behalf. It can also deepen understanding of the complicated and sometimes tense relationships among human rights, humanitarianism, and other contemporary idioms of social justice mobilization, especially in the health domain.

  17. Prospects for the use of security air flow to prevent ion-molecule reactions in the ionization and drift zone in classical IMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, A. V.; Makarova, N. V.; Poturuy, A. A.; Beliakov, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    The effective transfer of sample problem is relevant in modern analytical equipment. The paper considered a problem in detection trace concentrations of explosives by Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS). The investigation deals with sample adsorption on the walls of transport tubes, the ion drift chamber and the chamber of the ion source in ion mobility spectrometer. The sample losses on inlet channel surface and diffusion through penetrable gas channels are comparable with the quantity of sample itself at the sensitivity level of 10-14 g / cm3. The trinitrotoluene (TNT) sorption in different channel materials depending on their sorption properties is analyzed. A new approach preventing sorption of the substance on the chamber walls by security airflow is presented. The study includes gas flow simulation and experiments of protective gas flow setup.

  18. Study of Barley Grain Molecular Structure for Ruminants Using DRIFT, FTIR-ATR and Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy (SR-IMS): A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2012-05-01

    Barley inherent structures are highly associated with nutrient utilization and availability in both humans and animals. Barley has different degradation kinetics compared with other cereal grains. It has a relatively higher degradation rate and extent, which often cause digestive disorder in the rumen. Therefore understanding barley inherent structure at cellular and molecular levels and processing-induced structure changes is important, because we can manipulate barley inherent structures and digestive behaviors. Several molecular spectroscopy techniques can be used to detect barley inherent structures at cellular and molecular levels. This article reviews several applications of the IR molecular spectral bioanalytical techniques - DRIFT, FT/IR-ATR and SR-IMS for barley chemistry, molecular structure and molecular nutrition research

  19. Average BER analysis of SCM-based free-space optical systems by considering the effect of IM3 with OSSB signals under turbulence channels.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wansu; Cho, Tae-Sik; Yun, Changho; Kim, Kiseon

    2009-11-09

    In this paper, we derive the average bit error rate (BER) of subcarrier multiplexing (SCM)-based free space optics (FSO) systems using a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM) for optical single-sideband (OSSB) signals under atmospheric turbulence channels. In particular, we consider the third-order intermodulation (IM3), a significant performance degradation factor, in the case of high input signal power systems. The derived average BER, as a function of the input signal power and the scintillation index, is employed to determine the optimum number of SCM users upon the designing FSO systems. For instance, when the user number doubles, the input signal power decreases by almost 2 dBm under the log-normal and exponential turbulence channels at a given average BER.

  20. A Key Marine Diazotroph in a Changing Ocean: The Interacting Effects of Temperature, CO2 and Light on the Growth of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Tracy; Geider, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Trichodesmium is a globally important marine diazotroph that accounts for approximately 60 − 80% of marine biological N2 fixation and as such plays a key role in marine N and C cycles. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of how the growth rate of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 was directly affected by the combined interactions of temperature, pCO2 and light intensity. Our key findings were: low pCO2 affected the lower temperature tolerance limit (Tmin) but had no effect on the optimum temperature (Topt) at which growth was maximal or the maximum temperature tolerance limit (Tmax); low pCO2 had a greater effect on the thermal niche width than low-light; the effect of pCO2 on growth rate was more pronounced at suboptimal temperatures than at supraoptimal temperatures; temperature and light had a stronger effect on the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) than did CO2; and at Topt, the maximum growth rate increased with increasing CO2, but the initial slope of the growth-irradiance curve was not affected by CO2. In the context of environmental change, our results suggest that the (i) nutrient replete growth rate of Trichodesmium IMS101 would have been severely limited by low pCO2 at the last glacial maximum (LGM), (ii) future increases in pCO2 will increase growth rates in areas where temperature ranges between Tmin to Topt, but will have negligible effect at temperatures between Topt and Tmax, (iii) areal increase of warm surface waters (> 18°C) has allowed the geographic range to increase significantly from the LGM to present and that the range will continue to expand to higher latitudes with continued warming, but (iv) continued global warming may exclude Trichodesmium spp. from some tropical regions by 2100 where temperature exceeds Topt. PMID:28081236

  1. Effects of cocaine, chlordiazepoxide, and chlorpromazine on responding of squirrel monkeys under second-order schedules of IM cocaine injection or food presentation.

    PubMed

    Valentine, J O; Katz, J L; Kandel, D A; Barrett, J E

    1983-01-01

    Lever pressing by squirrel monkeys was maintained under second-order schedules of either food presentation or IM cocaine injection. Under one second-order schedule, every tenth response produced a brief (1-s) visual stimulus and the first brief stimulus presented after 30 min had elapsed was followed either by ten 300 mg food pellets or by a 3.0 mg IM injection of cocaine. Under another second-order schedule, the first response after 3 min produced the brief stimulus and the tenth brief stimulus was followed either by food or by cocaine. The two types of second-order schedules generated distinctly different patterns of responding. Furthermore, the temporal distribution of responding maintained by food presentation or cocaine injection sometimes differed slightly under the same schedule. Food presentation or cocaine injection occurred only at the end of each daily session, thereby allowing assessment of the effects of presession administration of cocaine, chlorpromazine (CPZ), and chlordiazepoxide (CDP) on responding at times when the direct effects of consequent cocaine injections were minimal or absent. Presession treatment with suitable doses of cocaine increased low rates of food- or cocaine-maintained responding under both types of second-order schedules, whereas CPZ only decreased responding. CDP increased responding in some monkeys, whereas in other monkeys it had little or no effect. Individual differences in the effects of CDP were not related to the schedule of reinforcement, the maintaining event, or the control rate of responding. Thus, the behavioral effects of cocaine, CDP, and CPZ were largely independent of whether responding was maintained by food or by cocaine.

  2. Neurotoxins from Snake Venoms and α-Conotoxin ImI Inhibit Functionally Active Ionotropic γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Kudryavtsev, Denis S.; Shelukhina, Irina V.; Son, Lina V.; Ojomoko, Lucy O.; Kryukova, Elena V.; Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N.; Zhmak, Maxim N.; Dolgikh, Dmitry A.; Ivanov, Igor A.; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Starkov, Vladislav G.; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Sieghart, Werner; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Utkin, Yuri N.

    2015-01-01

    Ionotropic receptors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAAR) regulate neuronal inhibition and are targeted by benzodiazepines and general anesthetics. We show that a fluorescent derivative of α-cobratoxin (α-Ctx), belonging to the family of three-finger toxins from snake venoms, specifically stained the α1β3γ2 receptor; and at 10 μm α-Ctx completely blocked GABA-induced currents in this receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes (IC50 = 236 nm) and less potently inhibited α1β2γ2 ≈ α2β2γ2 > α5β2γ2 > α2β3γ2 and α1β3δ GABAARs. The α1β3γ2 receptor was also inhibited by some other three-finger toxins, long α-neurotoxin Ls III and nonconventional toxin WTX. α-Conotoxin ImI displayed inhibitory activity as well. Electrophysiology experiments showed mixed competitive and noncompetitive α-Ctx action. Fluorescent α-Ctx, however, could be displaced by muscimol indicating that most of the α-Ctx-binding sites overlap with the orthosteric sites at the β/α subunit interface. Modeling and molecular dynamic studies indicated that α-Ctx or α-bungarotoxin seem to interact with GABAAR in a way similar to their interaction with the acetylcholine-binding protein or the ligand-binding domain of nicotinic receptors. This was supported by mutagenesis studies and experiments with α-conotoxin ImI and a chimeric Naja oxiana α-neurotoxin indicating that the major role in α-Ctx binding to GABAAR is played by the tip of its central loop II accommodating under loop C of the receptors. PMID:26221036

  3. Probing the interplay between electrostatic and dispersion interactions in the solvation of nonpolar nonaromatic solute molecules in ionic liquids: An OKE spectroscopic study of CS2/[CnC1im][NTf2] mixtures (n = 1-4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lianjie; Tamas, George; Gurung, Eshan; Quitevis, Edward L.

    2014-04-01

    The intermolecular dynamics of dilute solutions of CS2 in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]amide ([CnC1im][NTf2] for n = 1-4) were studied at 295 K using femtosecond optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectroscopy. The OKE spectra of the CS2/ionic liquid (IL) mixtures were analyzed using an additivity model to obtain the CS2 contribution to the OKE spectrum from which information about the intermolecular modes of CS2 in these mixtures was gleaned. The intermolecular spectrum of CS2 in these mixtures is lower in frequency and narrower than that of neat CS2, as found previously for CS2 in [C5C1im][NTf2]. Moreover, a dependence of the spectra on alkyl chain length is observed that is attributed to the interplay between electrostatic and dispersion interactions. The surprising result in this study is the solubility of CS2 in [C1C1im][NTf2], which involves the interaction of a nonpolar nonaromatic molecular solute and only the charged groups of the IL. We propose that the solubility of CS2 in [C1C1im][NTf2] is determined by three favorable factors - (1) large polarizability of the solute molecule; (2) small size of the solute molecule; and (3) low cohesive energy in the high-charge density regions of the IL.

  4. Amplituden der Kernphasen im Bereich der Kaustik B und Untersuchung der Struktur der Übergangszone zum inneren Erdkern mit spektralen Amplituden der diffraktierten Phase PKP(BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Michael D. C.

    2002-04-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die Strukturen im äueren Erdkern zu untersuchen und Rückschlüsse auf die sich daraus ergebenden Konsequenzen für geodynamische Modellvorstellungen zu ziehen. Die Untersuchung der Kernphasenkaustik B mit Hilfe einer kumulierten Amplituden-Entfernungskurve ist Gegenstand des ersten Teils. Dazu werden die absoluten Amplituden der PKP-Phasen im Entfernungsbereich von 142 ° bis 147 ° bestimmt und mit den Amplituden synthetischer Seismogramme verglichen. Als Datenmaterial dienen die Breitbandregistrierungen des Deutschen Seismologischen Re-gionalnetzes (GRSN 1 ) und des Arrays Gräfenberg (GRF). Die verwendeten Wellen-formen werden im WWSSN-SP-Frequenzbereich gefiltert. Als Datenbasis dienen vier Tiefherdbeben der Subduktionszone der Neuen Hebriden (Vanuatu Island) und vier Nuklearexplosionen, die auf dem Mururoa und Fangataufa Atoll im Südpazifik stattgefunden haben. Beide Regionen befinden sich vom Regionalnetz aus gesehen in einer Epizentraldistanz von ungefähr 145 °. Die Verwendung eines homogen instrumentierten Netzes von Detektoren und die Anwendung von Stations- und Magnitudenkorrekturen verringern den Hauptteil der Streuung bei den Amplitudenwerten. Dies gilt auch im Vergleich zu Untersuchungen von langperiodischen Amplituden im Bereich der Kernphasenkaustik (Häge, 1981). Ein weiterer Grund für die geringe Streuung ist die ausschlieliche Verwendung von Ereignissen mit kurzer impulsiver Herdzeitfunktion. Erst die geringe Streuung der Amplitudenwerte ermöglicht eine Interpretation der Daten. Die theoretischen Amplitudenkurven der untersuchten Erdmodelle zeigen im Bereich der Kaustik B einen gleichartigen Kurvenverlauf. Bei allen Berechnungen wird ein einheitliches Modell für die Güte der P- und S-Wellen verwendet, das sich aus den Q-Werten der Modelle CIT112 und PREM 2 zusammensetzt. Die mit diesem Q-Modell berechneten Amplituden liegen in geringem Mae oberhalb der gemessenen Amplituden. Dies braucht nicht ber

  5. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration Phase 1 (ATD) Interval Management for Near-Term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibler, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The Interval Management for Near-term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in support of the NASA Airspace Systems Program's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). ATD-1 is intended to showcase an integrated set of technologies that provide an efficient arrival solution for managing aircraft using Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) surveillance, navigation, procedures, and automation for both airborne and ground-based systems. The goal of the IMNOVA experiment was to assess if procedures outlined by the ATD-1 Concept of Operations were acceptable to and feasible for use by flight crews in a voice communications environment when used with a minimum set of Flight Deck-based Interval Management (FIM) equipment and a prototype crew interface. To investigate an integrated arrival solution using ground-based air traffic control tools and aircraft Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) tools, the LaRC FIM system and the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering and Controller Managed Spacing tools developed at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) were integrated into LaRC's Air Traffic Operations Laboratory (ATOL). Data were collected from 10 crews of current 757/767 pilots asked to fly a high-fidelity, fixed-based simulator during scenarios conducted within an airspace environment modeled on the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Terminal Radar Approach Control area. The aircraft simulator was equipped with the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Area Routes (ASTAR) algorithm and a FIM crew interface consisting of electronic flight bags and ADS-B guidance displays. Researchers used "pseudo-pilot" stations to control 24 simulated aircraft that provided multiple air traffic flows into the DFW International Airport, and recently retired DFW air traffic controllers served as confederate Center, Feeder, Final

  6. Blockade of Neuronal α7-nAChR by α-Conotoxin ImI Explained by Computational Scanning and Energy Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rilei; Craik, David J.; Kaas, Quentin

    2011-01-01

    α-Conotoxins potently inhibit isoforms of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are essential for neuronal and neuromuscular transmission. They are also used as neurochemical tools to study nAChR physiology and are being evaluated as drug leads to treat various neuronal disorders. A number of experimental studies have been performed to investigate the structure-activity relationships of conotoxin/nAChR complexes. However, the structural determinants of their binding interactions are still ambiguous in the absence of experimental structures of conotoxin-receptor complexes. In this study, the binding modes of α-conotoxin ImI to the α7-nAChR, currently the best-studied system experimentally, were investigated using comparative modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. The structures of more than 30 single point mutants of either the conotoxin or the receptor were modeled and analyzed. The models were used to explain qualitatively the change of affinities measured experimentally, including some nAChR positions located outside the binding site. Mutational energies were calculated using different methods that combine a conformational refinement procedure (minimization with a distance dependent dielectric constant or explicit water, or molecular dynamics using five restraint strategies) and a binding energy function (MM-GB/SA or MM-PB/SA). The protocol using explicit water energy minimization and MM-GB/SA gave the best correlations with experimental binding affinities, with an R2 value of 0.74. The van der Waals and non-polar desolvation components were found to be the main driving force for binding of the conotoxin to the nAChR. The electrostatic component was responsible for the selectivity of the various ImI mutants. Overall, this study provides novel insights into the binding mechanism of α-conotoxins to nAChRs and the methodological developments reported here open avenues for computational scanning studies of a rapidly expanding range of wild

  7. Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis of Cinnamomum camphora seed oil with oleic acid to produce human milk fat substitutes enriched in medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xian-Guo; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhao, Man-Li; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Li, Hong-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Rong; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2014-10-29

    In the present study, a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) enriched in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction from Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) with oleic acid in a solvent-free system. A commercial immobilized lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, from Rhizomucor miehei, was facilitated as a biocatalyst. Effects of different reaction conditions, including substrate molar ratio, enzyme concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the optimal oleic acid incorporation. After optimization, results showed that the maximal incorporation of oleic acid into HMFS was 59.68%. Compared with CCSO, medium-chain fatty acids at the sn-2 position of HMFS accounted for >70%, whereas oleic acid was occupied predominantly at the sn-1,3 position (78.69%). Meanwhile, triacylglycerol (TAG) components of OCO (23.93%), CCO (14.94%), LaCO (13.58%), OLaO (12.66%), and OOO (11.13%) were determined as the major TAG species in HMFS. The final optimal reaction conditions were carried out as follows: substrate molar ratio (oleic acid/CCSO), 5:1; enzyme concentration, 12.5% (w/w total reactants); reaction temperature, 60 °C; and reaction time, 28 h. The reusability of Lipozyme RM IM in the acidolysis reaction was also evaluated, and it was found that it could be reused up to 9 times without significant loss of activities. Urea inclusion method was used to separate and purify the synthetic product. As the ratio of HMFS/urea increased to 1:2, the acid value lowered to the minimum. In a scale-up experiment, the contents of TAG and total tocopherols in HMFS (modified CCSO) were 77.28% and 12.27 mg/100 g, respectively. All of the physicochemical indices of purified product were within food standards. Therefore, such a MCFA-enriched HMFS produced by using the acidolysis method might have potential application in the infant formula industry.

  8. "A different kind of beauty": scientific and architectural style in I.M. Pei's Mesa Laboratory and Louis Kahn's Salk Institute.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Stuart W

    2008-01-01

    I.M. Pei's Mesa Laboratory for the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, and Louis Kahn's Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, are rare examples of laboratories as celebrated for their architecture as for their scientific contributions. Completed in the mid-1960s, these signature buildings still express the scientific style of their founding directors, Walter Roberts and Jonas Salk. yet in commissioning their laboratories, Roberts and Salk had to work with architects as strong-willed as themselves. A close reading of the two laboratories reveals the ongoing negotiations and tensions in collaborations between visionary scientist and visionary architect. Moreover, Roberts and Salk also had to become architects of atmospheric and biomedical sciences. For laboratory architecture, however flexible in theory, necessarily stabilizes scientific practice, since a philosophy of research is embedded in the very structure of the building and persists far longer than the initial vision and mission that gave it life. Roberts and Salk's experiences suggest that even the most carefully designed laboratories must successfully adapt to new disciplinary configurations, funding opportunities, and research priorities, or risk becoming mere architectural icons.

  9. High altitude chemical release systems for project BIME (Brazilian Ionospheric Modification Experiments) project IMS (Ionospheric Modification Studies) project PIIE (Polar Ionospheric Irregularities Experiment) project polar arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Charles S.; Murphy, William J.

    1987-07-01

    Project BIME, a Spread F observation program involved the launching of two Nike-Black Brant rockets each containing a payload of Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil (ANFO). The rockets were launched from Barriera Do Inferno Launch Site in Natal, Brazil in August of 1982. Project IMS, an F-layer modification experiment involved three launch vehicles, a Nike-Tomahawk and two Sonda III rockets. The Nike-Tomahawk carried a sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) payload. One of the Sonda III rockets carried a payload that consisted of an SF6 canister and a samarium/strontium thermite canister. The remaining Sonda III carried a trifluorobromo methane (CF3Br) canister and a samarium thermite canister. The rockets were launched from Wallops Island Launch Facility, Virginia in November of 1984. Project PIIE and Polar Arcs, a program to investigate polar ionospheric irregularities, involved a Nike-Black Brant rocket carrying one samarium thermite canister and six barium canisters. An attempted launch failed when launch criteria could not be met. The rocket was launched successfully from Sondrestrom Air Base, Greenland in March 1987.

  10. Characteristics and Feasibility of Trans-Free Plastic Fats through Lipozyme TL IM-Catalyzed Interesterification of Palm Stearin and Akebia trifoliata Variety Australis Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shi-Qiang; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Bai, Chun-Qing; Peng, Hai-Long; Xiong, Hua; Hu, Ju-Wu; Zhao, Qiang

    2014-03-31

    Akebia trifoliata var. australis seed oil (ASO) was used as an edible oil in China. However, in-depth research studies on ASO have yet to be conducted for production of plastic fats in food industry. In this work, an immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL IM) was employed to catalyze palm stearin (PS) with different ratios of ASO in a laboratory-scale operation at 60 °C. The physical properties [e.g., fatty acid profile, slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), polymorphic form, and microstructure] of physical blends (PBs) were analyzed and compared with those of the interesterified products (IPs). Results showed that SMPs of IPs (33.20-37.60 °C) decreased compared with those of PBs (48.03-49.30 °C). Meanwhile, IPs showed a good SFC range from 16.11% to 28.29% at 25 °C with mostly β' polymorphic forms determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. It should be mentioned that no trans fatty acids (TFAs) were detected in any products, suggesting much more health-benefits of IPs. Texture tests showed that PBs (3318.19 ± 86.67 g) were markedly harder than IPs (557.02 ± 12.75 g). Conclusively, our study demonstrated that ASO can be utilized to produce trans-free plastic fats with good qualities through lipase-catalyzed interesterification.

  11. From binary presumptive assays to probabilistic assessments: Differentiation of shooters from non-shooters using IMS, OGSR, neural networks, and likelihood ratios.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne; Seitzinger, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Screening tests are used in forensic science for field testing and directing laboratory analysis of physical evidence. These tests are often binary in that the data produced is interpreted as yes/no or present/absent. The utility of screening assays can be improved by evaluating a relevant background population and incorporating prior knowledge to refine the decision boundary. This paper describes the results of using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and hand swab samples collected from 73 individuals to differentiate shooters from non-shooters by targeting organic constituents of firearms discharge residues. Each individual completed a questionnaire helpful in analyzing positive results when they did occur. Pattern matching was undertaken using neural networks, and decision thresholds were established using likelihood ratios derived from the population study. This approach significantly reduced the background positive rates compared to an arbitrary decision threshold technique. This methodology could be extended to other pattern-recognition algorithms used with instrumental data. This paper also reports the largest population study to date focused on the organic residues of firearms discharge. The proportion of positives found in the population sample were less than 5%; when a likelihood ratio of 10:1 (shooter/not shooter) was used, the frequency of positives fell below 2%. The results suggest that background levels of organic gunshot residue will not be a significant analytic concern for assay development.

  12. Molecular Basis for Structural Heterogeneity of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein Bound to a Partner by Combined ESI-IM-MS and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urzo, Annalisa; Konijnenberg, Albert; Rossetti, Giulia; Habchi, Johnny; Li, Jinyu; Carloni, Paolo; Sobott, Frank; Longhi, Sonia; Grandori, Rita

    2015-03-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) form biologically active complexes that can retain a high degree of conformational disorder, escaping structural characterization by conventional approaches. An example is offered by the complex between the intrinsically disordered NTAIL domain and the phosphoprotein X domain (PXD) from measles virus (MeV). Here, distinct conformers of the complex are detected by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and ion mobility (IM) techniques yielding estimates for the solvent-accessible surface area (SASA) in solution and the average collision cross-section (CCS) in the gas phase. Computational modeling of the complex in solution, based on experimental constraints, provides atomic-resolution structural models featuring different levels of compactness. The resulting models indicate high structural heterogeneity. The intermolecular interactions are predominantly hydrophobic, not only in the ordered core of the complex, but also in the dynamic, disordered regions. Electrostatic interactions become involved in the more compact states. This system represents an illustrative example of a hydrophobic complex that could be directly detected in the gas phase by native mass spectrometry. This work represents the first attempt to modeling the entire NTAIL domain bound to PXD at atomic resolution.

  13. Metal-organic framework luminescence in the yellow gap by codoping of the homoleptic imidazolate ∞(3)[Ba(Im)2] with divalent europium.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Jens-Christoph; Hailmann, Michael; Matthes, Philipp R; Zurawski, Alexander; Nitsch, Jörn; Steffen, Andreas; Heck, Joachim G; Feldmann, Claus; Götzendörfer, Stefan; Meinhardt, Jürgen; Sextl, Gerhard; Kohlmann, Holger; Sedlmaier, Stefan J; Schnick, Wolfgang; Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus

    2013-05-08

    The rare case of a metal-triggered broad-band yellow emitter among inorganic-organic hybrid materials was achieved by in situ codoping of the novel imidazolate metal-organic framework ∞(3)[Ba(Im)2] with divalent europium. The emission maximum of this dense framework is in the center of the yellow gap of primary light-emitting diode phosphors. Up to 20% Eu2+ can be added to replace Ba2+ as connectivity centers without causing observable phase segregation. High-resolution energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that incorporation of even 30% Eu2+ is possible on an atomic level, with 2-10% Eu2+ giving the peak quantum efficiency (QE = 0.32). The yellow emission can be triggered by two processes: direct excitation of Eu2+ and an antenna effect of the imidazolate linkers. The emission is fully europium-centered, involving 5d → 4f transitions, and depends on the imidazolate surroundings of the metal ions. The framework can be obtained by a solvent-free in situ approach starting from barium metal, europium metal, and a melt of imidazole in a redox reaction. Better homogeneity for the distribution of the luminescence centers was achieved by utilizing the hydrides BaH2 and EuH2 instead of the metals.

  14. 1 λ × 1.44 Tb/s free-space IM-DD transmission employing OAM multiplexing and PDM.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yixiao; Zou, Kaiheng; Zheng, Zhennan; Zhang, Fan

    2016-02-22

    We report the experimental demonstration of single wavelength terabit free-space intensity modulation direct detection (IM-DD) system employing both orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing and polarization division multiplexing (PDM). In our experiment, 12 OAM modes with two orthogonal polarization states are used to generate 24 channels for transmission. Each channel carries 30 Gbaud Nyquist PAM-4 signal. Therefore an aggregate gross capacity record of 1.44 Tb/s (12 × 2 × 30 × 2 Gb/s) is acheived with a modulation efficiency of 48 bits/symbol. After 0.8m free-space transmission, the bit error rates (BERs) of all the channels are below the 20% hard-decision forward error correction (HD-FEC) threshold of 1.5 × 10(-2). After applying the decision directed recursive least square (DD-RLS) based filter and post filter, the BERs of two polarizations can be reduced from 5.3 × 10(-3) and 7.3 × 10(-3) to 2.2 × 10(-3) and 3.4 × 10(-3), respectively.

  15. Non-covalent interactions in 2-methylimidazolium copper(II) complex (MeImH)2[Cu(pfbz)4]: Synthesis, characterization, single crystal X-ray structure and packing analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Raj Pal; Saini, Anju; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Jitendra; Sathishkumar, Ranganathan; Venugopalan, Paloth

    2017-01-01

    A new anionic copper(II) complex, (MeImH)2 [Cu(pfbz)4] (1) where, MeImH = 2-methylimidazolium and pfbz = pentafluorobenzoate has been isolated by reacting copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, pentafluorobenzoic acid and 2-methylimidazole in ethanol: water mixture in 1:2:2 molar ratio. This complex 1 has been characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis, FT-IR) and conductance measurements. The complex salt crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system with space group C2/c. Single crystal X-ray structure determination revealed the presence of discrete ions: [Cu(pfbz)4]2- anion and two 2-methylimidazolium cation (C4H7N2)+. The crystal lattice is stabilized by strong hydrogen bonding and F⋯F interactions between cationic-anionic and the anionic-anionic moieties respectively, besides π-π interactions.

  16. Estimating peak skin and eye lens dose from neuroperfusion examinations: Use of Monte Carlo based simulations and comparisons to CTDIvol, AAPM Report No. 111, and ImPACT dosimetry tool values

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Di; Cagnon, Chris H.; Villablanca, J. Pablo; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Cody, Dianna D.; Zankl, Maria; Demarco, John J.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: CT neuroperfusion examinations are capable of delivering high radiation dose to the skin or lens of the eyes of a patient and can possibly cause deterministic radiation injury. The purpose of this study is to: (a) estimate peak skin dose and eye lens dose from CT neuroperfusion examinations based on several voxelized adult patient models of different head size and (b) investigate how well those doses can be approximated by some commonly used CT dose metrics or tools, such as CTDIvol, American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Report No. 111 style peak dose measurements, and the ImPACT organ dose calculator spreadsheet. Methods: Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to estimate peak skin and eye lens dose on voxelized patient models, including GSF's Irene, Frank, Donna, and Golem, on four scanners from the major manufacturers at the widest collimation under all available tube potentials. Doses were reported on a per 100 mAs basis. CTDIvol measurements for a 16 cm CTDI phantom, AAPM Report No. 111 style peak dose measurements, and ImPACT calculations were performed for available scanners at all tube potentials. These were then compared with results from Monte Carlo simulations. Results: The dose variations across the different voxelized patient models were small. Dependent on the tube potential and scanner and patient model, CTDIvol values overestimated peak skin dose by 26%–65%, and overestimated eye lens dose by 33%–106%, when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. AAPM Report No. 111 style measurements were much closer to peak skin estimates ranging from a 14% underestimate to a 33% overestimate, and with eye lens dose estimates ranging from a 9% underestimate to a 66% overestimate. The ImPACT spreadsheet overestimated eye lens dose by 2%–82% relative to voxelized model simulations. Conclusions: CTDIvol consistently overestimates dose to eye lens and skin. The ImPACT tool also overestimated dose to eye lenses. As such they are still

  17. Assessments of Immunomodulatory and Inflammatory effects against Induction of Entamoeba histolytica (HM1 IMS strain) crude extract Antigen in Complete Freund's Adjuvant Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis Female Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Bagde, Swati; Singh, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Today it is well known about mechanisms of cell communication, how the cells that mediate immune response and tissue injury accumulate in tissues but the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is still unknown. This study was to evaluate immunomodulatory effects of crude Entamoeba histolytica (HM1 IMS strain) antigen in complete freund's adjuvant female wistar rats by studying the alterations in humoral and cell mediated immune responses and also the inflammatory effects by evaluating the changes in body weight, paw thickness, biochemical, serological, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and histopathology activities. Animals were randomly divided into six groups (n=6). CFA was induced in arthritic, drug and AA+CFA group whereas, 0.5ml amoebic antigen was induced subplantal in AA group while 0.5ml dose of amoebic antigen was given orally to AA+CFA group for 7-28th days. Indomethacin was used as a standard drug. Effects of amoebic antigen were associated with increased paw thickness and decreased body weight when compared to healthy control showed a significant difference. Oral administration of amoebic antigen has showed increased severe symptoms of arthritis in AA+CFA on comparison to healthy control rats. Significant increase in serum level of IL-6 and α TNF were found in AA group followed by AA+CFA group whereas, decrease in concentration of IL-10 was appear in AA+CFA group on comparison to arthritic and healthy control group (P<0.05). Histopathology of AA group showed severe signs of necrotic and degenerative changes on comparison to healthy control group. Thus the results demonstrated that E. histolytica alone or in combination with CFA increased bone damage, with alterations in antioxidant level in liver and kidney tissue homogenates as well as showed immunomodulatory arthritogenic properties which may contribute and raise joint inflammation.

  18. Levels of Daily Light Doses Under Changed Day-Night Cycles Regulate Temporal Segregation of Photosynthesis and N2 Fixation in the Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiaoni; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-01-01

    While the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is known to display inverse diurnal performances of photosynthesis and N2 fixation, such a phenomenon has not been well documented under different day-night (L-D) cycles and different levels of light dose exposed to the cells. Here, we show differences in growth, N2 fixation and photosynthetic carbon fixation as well as photochemical performances of Trichodesmium IMS101 grown under 12L:12D, 8L:16D and 16L:8D L-D cycles at 70 μmol photons m-2 s-1 PAR (LL) and 350 μmol photons m-2 s-1 PAR (HL). The specific growth rate was the highest under LL and the lowest under HL under 16L:8D, and it increased under LL and decreased under HL with increased levels of daytime light doses exposed under the different light regimes, respectively. N2 fixation and photosynthetic carbon fixation were affected differentially by changes in the day-night regimes, with the former increasing directly under LL with increased daytime light doses and decreased under HL over growth-saturating light levels. Temporal segregation of N2 fixation from photosynthetic carbon fixation was evidenced under all day-night regimes, showing a time lag between the peak in N2 fixation and dip in carbon fixation. Elongation of light period led to higher N2 fixation rate under LL than under HL, while shortening the light exposure to 8 h delayed the N2 fixation peaking time (at the end of light period) and extended it to night period. Photosynthetic carbon fixation rates and transfer of light photons were always higher under HL than LL, regardless of the day-night cycles. Conclusively, diel performance of N2 fixation possesses functional plasticity, which was regulated by levels of light energy supplies either via changing light levels or length of light exposure. PMID:26258473

  19. Therapeutic immunization with radio-attenuated Leishmania parasites through i.m. route revealed protection against the experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sanchita; Manna, Madhumita; Khanra, Supriya; Ghosh, Moumita; Bhar, Radhaballav; Chakraborty, Anindita; Roy, Syamal

    2012-07-01

    After our promising results from prophylactic and therapeutic study (i.p. route) with the radio-attenuated Leishmania donovani parasites against experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis, we prompted to check their therapeutic efficacy through i.m route. BALB/c mice were infected with highly virulent L. donovani parasites. After 75 days, mice were treated with gamma (γ)-irradiated parasites. A second therapeutic immunization was given after 15 days of first immunization. The protection against kala-azar was estimated with the reduction of Leishman-Donovan unit from spleen and liver that scored up to 80% and 93%, respectively, while a twofold increase in nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) productions has been observed in the immunized groups of animals. These groups of mice also showed disease regression by skewing Th2 cytokines (IL-10) towards Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ) bias along with the increased generation of NO and ROS, while the infected control group of mice without such treatment surrendered to the disease. Establishment of Th1 ambience in the treated groups has also been supported from the measured antileishmanial antibody IgG subsets (IgG2a and IgG1) with higher anti-soluble Leishmania antigen-specific IgG2a titer. As seen in our previous studies, doses of attenuation by γ-radiation should be taken into serious consideration. Attenuation of parasites at 50 Gy of absorbed dose of gamma rays has not worked well. Thus, therapeutic use of L. donovani parasites radio-attenuated at particular doses can be exploited as a promising vaccine agent. Absence of any adjuvant may increase its acceptability as vaccine candidate further.

  20. An Experimental Investigation of Transverse Tension Fatigue Characterization of IM6/3501-6 Composite Materials Using a Three-Point Bend Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Ann W.

    1998-01-01

    As composites are introduced into more complex structures with out-of-plane loadings, a better understanding is needed of the out-of-plane, matrix-dominated failure mechanisms. This work investigates the transverse tension fatigue characteristics of IM6/3501 composite materials. To test the 90 degree laminae, a three-point bend test was chosen, potentially minimizing handling and gripping issues associated with tension tests. A finite element analysis was performed of a particular specimen configuration to investigate the influence of specimen size on the stress distribution for a three-point bend test. Static testing of 50 specimens of 9 different sized configurations produced a mean transverse tensile strength of 61.3 Mpa (8.0 ksi). The smallest configuration (10.2 mm wide, Span-to-thickness ratio of 3) consistently exhibited transverse tensile failures. A volume scale effect was difficult to discern due to the large scatter of the data. Static testing of 10 different specimens taken from a second panel produced a mean transverse tensile strength of 82.7 Mpa (12.0 ksi). Weibull parameterization of the data was possible, but due to variability in raw material and/or manufacturing, more replicates are needed for greater confidence. Three-point flex fatigue testing of the smallest configuration was performed on 59 specimens at various levels of the mean static transverse tensile strength using an R ratio of 0.1 and a frequency of 20 Hz. A great deal of scatter was seen in the data. The majority of specimens failed near the center loading roller. To determine whether the scatter in the fatigue data is due to variability in raw material and/or the manufacturing process, additional testing should be performed on panels manufactured from different sources.

  1. Philosophieren als Unterrichtsprinzip im Mathematikunterricht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerwaldt, Diana

    Philosophieren und Mathematik scheinen zunächst gegensätzliche Bereiche zu sein, die sich kaum vereinbaren lassen. Dies trifft für eine Auffassung zu, die Philosophieren als "Gerede" disqualifiziert und Mathematik als eine reine "Formelwissenschaft" begreift. Beide Auffassungen werden den Gegenständen nicht gerecht.

  2. "I'm Your Millstone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Gary A.

    2008-01-01

    In spousal hires, university administrators too often fail to make the important distinction between partners who most likely would not have been hired under normal circumstances and, thus, could be a burden on an institution, and those who would be an attractive hire under any circumstances. One is a "trailing" spouse in need of "an…

  3. I'm like ... Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyburz, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    "Given that my film is exploring a punk ethos that attends DIY filmmaking, I decided that the rough nature of the video created appropriate content... these are the sorts of details that reveal the complex, cinema verite nature of the DIY experience."

  4. Giving an IM (intramuscular) injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and children older than 7 months. Have the person lie on the side. Put the heel of your hand where the thigh meets the buttocks. Your thumb should point to the person's groin and your fingers point to the person's ...

  5. Zeit im Wandel der Zeit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichelburg, P. C.

    Contents: Einleitung(P. C. Aichelburg). 1. Über Zeit, Bewegung und Veränderung (Aristoteles). 2. Ewigkeit und Zeit (Plotin). 3. Was ist die Zeit? (Augustinus). 4. Von der Zeit (Immanuel Kant). 5. Newtons Ansichten über Zeit, Raum und Bewegung (Ernst Mach). 6. Über die mechanische Erklärung irreversibler Vorgänge (Ludwig Boltzmann). 7. Das Maß der Zeit (Henri Poincaré). 8. Dauer und Intuition (Henri Bergson). 9. Die Geschichte des Unendlichkeitsproblems (Bertrand Russell). 10. Raum und Zeit (Hermann Minkowski). 11. Der Unterschied von Zeit und Raum (Hans Reichenbach). 12. Newtonscher und Bergsonscher Zeitbegriff (Norbert Wiener). 13. Die Bildung des Zeitbegriffs beim Kinde (JeanPiaget).14. Eine Bemerkung über die Beziehungen zwischen Relativitätstheorie und der idealistischen Philosophie (Kurt Gödel). 15. Der zweite Hauptsatz und der Unterschied von Vergangenheit und Zukunft (Carl Friedrich v. Weizsäcker). 16. Zeit als physikalischer Begriff (Friedrich Hund). 17. Zeitmessung und Zeitbegriff in der Astronomie (Otto Heckmann). 18. Kann die Zeit rückwärts gehen? (Martin Gardner). 19. Zeit und Zeiten (Ilya Prigogine, Isabelle Stengers). 20. Zeit als dynamische Größe in der Relativitätstheorie (P. C. Aichelburg).

  6. High resolution mesurements of 18O/16O ratios of present and fossil herbivores dental enamel using the ims 1270 ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisapia, C.; Bentaleb, I.; Rollion-Bard, C.; Tafforeau, P.; Fontugne, M.; France-Lanord, C.

    2003-04-01

    The isotopic composition of dental enamel is used for palaeoenvironmental issues. Enamel has a striated structure. Growth striations represent daily formation of enamel and precipitate as apatite cristals in equilibrium with the body water of the animal which mainly reflects the water ingested. The isotopic composition of meteoric water is well-correlated with environmental temperature. Enamel is the most mineralised biomaterial in comparison with dentine or bone and the isotopic signal is more easily preserved during fossilization. The knowledge of δ18O of enamel authorizes reconstruction of palaeotemperatures. The aim of this project is to develop the methodology for the analysis of the isotopic composition in oxygen (δ18O) of great herbivores enamel using the ims 1270 ion microprobe. This probe enables analyses at great resolution (spots diameter : 1-10μm) more than those obtained classically (eg. 50μm maximum with micromill sampling) for such studies. As a consequence, each analysis represents a smaller period of time and authorizes a precise description of past climates. Data obtained represent the bulk isotopic oxygen composition of bioapatite (PO_43-, CO_32- and OH groups). Instrumental deviation is corrected using mesurements of sedimentary hydroxyapatite and carbonate standards of known isotopic composition and calculating the relative proportion of these groups in the enamel analyzed: δinst = %carbonates^*δinst for carbonates + %hydroxyapatite ^*δinst for hydroxyapatite. Analyses were made on molars of present (Camelus dromedarius - Capra hircus: Pakistan, Ovis aries - Bos taurus: France) and fossil (Mammuthus primigenius: Siberia, Gaindatherium: Thailand) herbivores. First results on present or sub-present teeth showed coherent data (δ18O from 3.80 ppm for the Siberian mammoth to 27.77 ppm for the pakistanian goat) and seasonal variations of the signals are visible. Comparisons between bulk composition measured with ion microprobe and carbonates

  7. The M694I/M694I genotype: A genetic risk factor of AA-amyloidosis in a group of Algerian patients with familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Ait-Idir, Djouher; Djerdjouri, Bahia; Bouldjennet, Faiza; Taha, Rowaida Z; El-Shanti, Hatem; Sari-Hamidou, Rawda; Khellaf, Ghalia; Benmansour, Mustapha; Benabadji, Mohamed; Haddoum, Farid

    2017-03-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF, OMIM 249100) is the most common hereditary fever, resulting from mutations in MEFV. FMF is characterized by episodic febrile attacks and polyserositis. Renal AA-amyloidosis is a major complication, which often leads to end-stage renal disease in untreated patients. The data about the renal AA-amyloidosis secondary to FMF are scarce in North African countries and non-existent in Algeria. We aimed to investigate the MEFV mutations associated with this complication in an Algerian patient cohort. Molecular analysis included 28 unrelated Algerian FMF patients with ascertained amyloidosis, 23 of them were symptomatic and 5 were asymptomatic. For this study, a group of 20 FMF patients without renal amyloidosis were selected as controls according to their age, disease onset and disease duration. The mutations were detected by sequencing exon 10 of MEFV. A total of 87.5% (49/56) mutant alleles were identified in 27/28 analyzed patients; p.M694I was predominant and appeared with an allele frequency of 62.5%, followed by p.M694V (17.85%), p.M680I (5.35%) and p.I692Del (1.78%). Remarkably, only p.M694I mutation was observed among the asymptomatic patients. The M694I/M694I genotype, identified in 14/27 (52%) patients, was significantly associated with the development of amyloidosis compared to group of controls (p = 0.022). This study did not link the M694V/M694V genotype to the renal complication despite the fact that it has been observed only in the patients with amyloidosis (3/27; 11%) (p = 0.349). The association of other identified genotypes to this complication was statistically insignificant. The progression of amyloidosis led to end-stage renal disease in 14 patients with 6 deaths. This study shows that p.M694I homozygosity is a potential genetic risk factor for the development of renal AA-amyloidosis in Algerian FMF patients.

  8. InSAR Time Series Analysis and Geophysical Modeling of City Uplift Associated with Geothermal Drillings in Staufen im Breisgau, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motagh, M.; Lubitz, C.

    2014-12-01

    Geothermal energy is of increasing importance as alternative, environmentally friendly technology for heat management. Direct interaction with the subsurface requires careful implementation, in particular in geological complex regions. The historical city Staufen im Breisgau, SW Germany, has attracted national attention as a case of implementation failure with severe consequences, causing debates on the applicability and security of this sustainable technique. Located at the eastern transition zone of the Upper Rhine Graben and the Schwarzwald massif, the geothermal potential is high at Staufen due to strong temperature gradients. In September 2007, seven boreholes for geothermal probes were drilled up to a depth of 140 m to provide a new heat management for the city hall. Within five years an uplift phenomenon has been observed in Staufen reaching more than 40 cm in places and 269 buildings were damaged. Hydro-chemical driven anhydrite-gypsum transformation in the subsurface was identified as the cause leading to volume increase that is observable as surface uplift. This process is associated with the geothermal drilling activities that have crossed several groundwater levels. In this work, we summarize and present the findings of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) analysis of the uplift in Staufen over the last five years from July 2008 through July 2013. By applying the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) method, we find a localized elliptical-shaped deformation field in NE-SW orientation. Area of maximum uplift is located 50 m NNE of the drilling zone. At this location, we observe a cumulative uplift of approx. 13.7 cm ± 0.34 cm (mean value within an area of 30 m by 30 m) from July 2008 to July 2009, which reduced to cumulative uplift of 3 cm ± 0.25 cm from July 2012 to July 2013. The deceleration can be related to applied countermeasures as borehole sealing and groundwater pumping. The observed ground surface response was compared to

  9. The use of waveform cross correlation for creation of an accurate catalogue of mining explosions within the Russian platform using joint capabilities of seismic array Miknevo and IMS arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, M.; Kitov, I.; Sanina, I.

    2014-12-01

    For seismic monitoring, the task of finding and indentifying the sources of various seismic events is getting more and more difficult when the size (magnitude, yield, energy) of these events decreases. Firstly, the number of seismic events dramatically increases with falling magnitude - approximately by an order of magnitude per unit of seismic magnitude. Secondly, mining explosions become detectable and represent one of the biggest challenges for monitoring for magnitudes below 3.5 to 4.0. In the current study of mining activity within the Russian platform, we use the advantages of location and historical bulletins/catalogues of mining explosions recorded by small-aperture seismic array Mikhnevo (MHVAR) and extensive data from several IMS arrays at regional and far regional distances from the studied area. The Institute of Geosphere Dynamics (IDG) of the Russian Academy of Sciences runs seismic array MHVAR (54.950 N; 37.767 E) since 2004. Approximately 50 areas with different levels of mining activity have been identified by MHVAR and reported in the IDG catalogue as mining events. Signals from select mining events detected by MHVAR are sought at IMS arrays. Continuous data from MHVAR and IMS arrays (e.g. AKASG) are processed jointly using waveform cross correlation technique. This technique allows reducing the detection threshold of repeated events by an order of magnitude as well as accurately locating and identifying mining explosions. To achieve the highest performance of cross correlation, we have selected the best sets of waveform templates recorded from a carefully tested set of master events for each of the studied mines. We also test the possibility to use the Principal and Independent Component Analysis to produce sets of synthetic templates, which best fit the whole set of master events for a given mine.

  10. Rapid screening of 35 new psychoactive substances by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS).

    PubMed

    Gwak, Seongshin; Almirall, Jose R

    2015-10-01

    The recent propagation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has led to the development of new techniques for the rapid characterization of controlled substances in this category. A commercial bench-top ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with a (63) Ni ionization source and a direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) were used for the rapid characterization of 35 NPS. The advantages of these techniques are fast response, ease of operation, and minimal sample preparation. The characteristic reduced mobilities of each substance are reported as are the mass spectra of the 35 compounds. The acquired product ion scan mass spectra were also compared to a library database constructed by QTOF with a electrospray ionization (ESI) source and showed a consistent relative abundance for each peak over time. A total of four seized drug samples provided by the local forensic laboratory were analyzed in order to demonstrate the utility of this approach. The results of this study suggest that both IMS and DART-QTOF are promising alternatives for the rapid screening and characterization of these new psychoactive substances.

  11. Selective ethanolysis of sunflower oil with Lipozyme RM IM, an immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase, to obtain a biodiesel-like biofuel, which avoids glycerol production through the monoglyceride formation.

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan; Verdugo, Cristóbal; Luna, Diego; Sancho, Enrique D; Luna, Carlos; Posadillo, Alejandro; Bautista, Felipa M; Romero, Antonio A

    2014-12-25

    The obtaining of Ecodiesel, a biofuel applicable to diesel engines which keeps the glycerin as monoglyceride (MG), was achieved through a selective ethanolysis process of sunflower oil, by application of Lipozyme RM IM, a Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilized on macroporous anion exchange resins. This biocatalyst that was already described in the synthesis of conventional biodiesel has also shown its efficiency in the present selective enzymatic process, after optimization of the influence of various reaction parameters. Thus, an adequate activity is obtained that is maintained throughout five successive reuses. Quantitative conversions of triglycerides (TG) with high yields to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were obtained under mild reaction conditions that correspond to the transformation of TG in a mixture of two moles of FAEE and a mole of MG, thus avoiding the glycerol production. Thus, the selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with absolute ethanol can be carried out under standard conditions with oil/ethanol volume ratio 12/3.5 (mL), at constant pH obtained by the addition of 50 μl of aqueous solution of 10 N NaOH, reaction temperature of 40 °C and 40 mg of Lipozyme RM IM. Under these experimental conditions six successive reactions can be efficiently carried out.

  12. Mn-Cr relative sensitivity factor in ferromagnesian olivines defined for SIMS measurements with a Cameca ims-1280 ion microprobe: Implications for dating secondary fayalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Patricia M.; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R.; Krot, Alexander N.

    2016-02-01

    The short-lived radionuclide 53Mn, which decays to 53Cr with a half-life of ∼3.7 Myr, is useful for sequencing objects that formed within the first 20 Myr of Solar System evolution. 53Mn-53Cr relative chronology enables aqueously formed secondary minerals such as fayalite and various carbonates in ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites to be dated, thereby providing chronological constraints on aqueous alteration processes. In situ measurements of Mn-Cr isotope systematics in fayalite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) require consideration of the relative sensitivities of the 55Mn+ and 52Cr+ ions, for which a relative sensitivity factor [RSF = (55Mn+/52Cr+)SIMS/(55Mn/52Cr)true] is defined using appropriate standards. In the past, San Carlos olivine (Fa∼10) was commonly used for this purpose, but a growing body of evidence suggests that it is an unsuitable standard for meteoritic fayalite (Fa>90). Natural fayalite also cannot be used as a standard because it contains only trace amounts of chromium, which makes determining a true 55Mn/52Cr ratio and its degree of heterogeneity very difficult. To investigate the dependence of the Mn-Cr RSF on ferromagnesian olivine compositions, we synthesized a suite of compositionally homogeneous Mn,Cr-bearing liquidus-phase ferromagnesian olivines (Fa31-99). Manganese-chromium isotopic measurements of San Carlos olivine and synthesized ferromagnesian olivines using the University of Hawai'i Cameca ims-1280 SIMS show that the RSF for Fa10 is ∼0.9; it increases rapidly between Fa10 and Fa31 and reaches a plateau value of ∼1.5 ± 0.1 for Fa>34. The RSF is time-dependent: it increases during the measurements of olivines with fayalite content <30 and decreases during the measurements of olivines with fayalite content >50. The RSF measured on ferroan olivine (Fa>90) is influenced by pit shape, whereas the RSF measured on magnesian olivine (Fa10) is less sensitive to changes in pit shape. For these reasons, 53Mn-53Cr

  13. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  14. Interpretation of the ion mass spectra in the mass per charge range 25-35 amu/e obtained in the inner coma of Halley's comet by the HIS-sensor of the Giotto IMS experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.; Altwegg, K.; Anders, E.; Balsiger, H.; Meier, A.; Shelley, E. G.; Ip, W.-H.; Rosenbauer, H.; Neugebauer, M.

    1991-01-01

    The IMS-HIS double-focusing mass spectrometer that flew on the Giotto spacecraft covered the mass per charge range from 12 to 56 (amu/e). By comparing flight data, calibration data and results of model calculations of the ion population in the inner coma, the absolute mass scale is established, and ions in the mass range 25 to 35 are identified. Ions resulting from protonation of molecules with high proton affinity are relatively abundant, enabling us to estimate relative source strengths for H2CO, CH3OH, HCN, and H2S, providing for the first time a positive in situ measurement of methanol. Also, upper limits for NO and some hydrocarbons are derived.

  15. Interpretation of the ion mass spectra in the mass range 25-35 obtained in the inner coma of Halley's comet by the HIS-sensor of the Giotto IMS Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.; Altwegg, K.; Anders, E.; Balsiger, H.; Ip, W.-H.; Meier, A.; Neugebauer, M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Shelley, E. G.

    1991-01-01

    The IMS-HIS double-focussing mass spectrometer that flew on the Giotto spacecraft covered the mass per charge range from 12 to 56 (AMU/e). By comparing flight data, calibration data, and results of model calculations of the ion population in the inner coma, the absolute mass scale is established, and ions in the mass range 25 to 35 are identified. Ions resulting from protonation of molecules with high proton affinity are relatively abundant, enabling us to estimate relative source strengths for H2CO, CH3OH, HCN, and H2S, providing for the first time a positive in situ measurement of methanol. Also, upper limits for NO and some hydrocarbons are derived.

  16. Spatial anti-aliasing for T-phase directivity estimation using data from the International Monitoring System (IMS) hydroacoustic network of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Haralabus, Georgios; Zampolli, Mario; Yamada, Tomoaki; Prior, Mark

    2016-04-01

    IMS hydrophone stations are used to estimate the T-phase back-azimuth from a mega-thrust earthquake. Each IMS hydrophone station consists of two triplets (except for HA01 Cape Leeuwin, Australia, which has only one triplet). The hydrophones of each triplet are suspended in the water, at a depth near the SOFAR channel axis, and form an approximately equilateral triangle with each side 2 kilometers long. With such an arrangement, it is possible to process incoming waves by a technique similar to seismic array analysis. The frequency range applied in the array analysis is chosen to be 0.4 Hz, by assuming the target phase velocity to be 1.5 km/s for T phases. In the present study, data from the recent Chile earthquake on 16 September 2015 is analyzed. The waveforms were received at HA03 and HA11, which are located off Juan Fernández Island (Southeastern Pacific) and off Wake Island (Western Pacific), respectively. The signals from the T-phase originated at the seismic source show peaks in the frequency band up to a few Hz. However, spatial aliasing is observed in the frequency-wavenumber analysis (F-K analysis) if the entire 100 Hz bandwidth of the hydrophones is used, because the distance between hydrophones in the triplet becomes large in comparison to the ratio between phase velocity of T-phase and the frequency. To circumvent the spatial aliasing problem, a three-step processing is applied: (1) high-pass filtering above 1 Hz to retrieve the T-phase, followed by (2) extraction of the envelope to highlight the T-phase contribution, and finally (3) low-pass filtering below 0.4 Hz. The recordings processed in this manner show a good cross-correlation across the triplet. The F-K analysis provides useful back-azimuth and slowness estimations with spatial anti-aliasing. The resulting seismic beamforming both from the HA03 and HA11 sites points towards the earthquake epicenter.

  17. No slowing down of Jakobshavn Isbræ in 2014: Results from feature-tracking five Greenland outlet glaciers using Landsat-8 data and the ImGRAFT toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerli, Alexandra; Karlsson, Nanna B.; Grinsted, Aslak

    2015-04-01

    Data from the Landsat-8, panchromatic band, spanning the period (August) 2013 - (September) 2014 have been feature-tracked to construct ice velocities and flux estimates for five major Greenland outlet glaciers: Jakobshavn Isbræ, Nioghalvfjerdsbræ, Kangerdlugssuaq, Helheim and Petermann glaciers. The outlet glaciers are responsible for draining more than 20% of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and thus have a significant impact on its mass balance. The feature-tracking is performed with the newly developed ImGRAFT toolbox, a Matlab-based, freely available software (http://imgraft.glaciology.net). Overall, the resulting velocity fields and fluxes agree with the findings of existing studies. Notably, we find that Jakobshavn Isbræ has reached an unprecedented speed of over 50m/day, and exhibit large, seasonal fluctuations. In contrast, on the east coast of Greenland, Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq Glaciers have returned to pre-speed up velocities, following a peak in ice flux about a decade ago. Petermann and Nigohalvfjerdsbræ show little variability in speeds with typical flow speeds of less than 5m/day.

  18. Crystal structure and properties of complexes [Ln(Gly)4Im·(ClO4)4]n (Ln:Nd, Sm) constructed from eight-coordination containing square antiprism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lu; Gao, Xiao-han; Lv, Xue-chuan; Tan, Zhi-cheng; Cao, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Two eight-coordination containing square antiprism polyhedra, [Ln(Gly)4Im·(ClO4)4]n (Ln:Nd, Sm) were synthesized through the self-assembly of Ln3+ (Ln:Nd, Sm) ions, glycine and imidazole in aqueous solution and characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction. Both of the complexes crystallized in the C2/c space group. In the cluster, each Ln3+ ions was eight-coordination by eight oxygen atoms of the glycine. The coordination sphere of each Ln3+ ions could be described as a distorted square antiprism. Two central Ln3+ ions were connected by four bridging carboxyl groups from four glycine molecules. The Ln-O bond distances were related to the coordination geometries of the ligands. The complexes had two special solid-solid phase transitions at 224 K and 248 K, which were interpreted as a freezing-in phenomenon of the reorientational motion of perchlorate ions ClO4- and the orientational order/disorder process of ClO4- ions. The decomposition mechanism of the complexes was deduced to be three stages from 300 to 700 K. The fluorescent excitation and emission spectra showed that the complexes had strong fluorescent property.

  19. The structure of human cleavage factor I(m) hints at functions beyond UGUA-specific RNA binding: a role in alternative polyadenylation and a potential link to 5' capping and splicing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Gilmartin, Gregory M; Doublié, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    3'-end cleavage and subsequent polyadenylation are critical steps in mRNA maturation. The precise location where cleavage occurs (referred to as poly(A) site) is determined by a tripartite mechanism in which a A(A/U)UAAA hexamer, GU rich downstream element and UGUA upstream element are recognized by the cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPSF), cleavage stimulation factor (CstF) and cleavage factor I(m) (CFI(m)), respectively. CFI(m) is composed of a smaller 25 kDa subunit (CFI(m)25) and a larger 59, 68 or 72 kDa subunit. CFI(m)68 interacts with CFI(m)25 through its N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM). We recently solved the crystal structures of CFI(m)25 bound to RNA and of a complex of CFI(m)25, the RRM domain of CFI(m)68 and RNA. Our study illustrated the molecular basis for UGUA recognition by the CFI(m) complex, suggested a possible mechanism for CFI(m) mediated alternative polyadenylation, and revealed potential links between CFI(m) and other mRNA processing factors, such as the 20 kDa subunit of the cap binding protein (CBP20), and the splicing regulator U2AF65.

  20. Comparison of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis susceptibility upon single-dose i.m. depot versus long-acting i.v. triamcinolone acetonide therapy: a direct pharmacokinetic correlation.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Getu; Demiraj, Fioralba; Ungemach, Fritz Rupert

    2006-11-01

    The effects of single injections of glucocorticoid (GC) depot suspension and of long-acting GC were studied in conscious dogs. Both the depot suspension GC triamcinolone-16,17-alpha-acetonide (TAA) and the long-acting triamcinolone acetonide-21-dihydrogen phosphate (TAA-DHP) decreased basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol levels and in a specific time-dependent way. Before treatment, all dogs had normal basal and peak cortisol responses to ACTH challenge (13-15 and > 120 nmol/l at 1 h respectively). Intravenous TAA-DHP reduced cortisol levels for 12 h, i.m. TAA reduced cortisol levels as of 1.5 h and the effect lasted for at least 4 weeks. Both treatments blunted the peak response to ACTH. ACTH elevated cortisol levels to or above baseline values within 10 days following TAA-DHP treatment, but the TAA treatment suppressed an ACTH response for at least 4 weeks. Kinetic analysis of both the preparations demonstrated rapid absorption (tmax, 0.6-1.5 h) and low maximum plasma concentrations (peak Cmax, 2.99-5.51 nmol/l) of the steroids; indeed, the terminal half-life of TAA-DHP (13.9 +/- 1.3 h) was very much shorter than that of TAA (125.9 +/- 15.8 h). In addition, the mean residence time differed very much (11 vs 160 h for TAA-DHP and TAA respectively), in line with a delayed elimination of the depot compared with the long-acting formulation. Application of these TAA formulations needs careful evaluation for their surprisingly different effects on endocrine stress axis activity.

  1. Pinch Me - I'm Fusing!

    SciTech Connect

    DERZON,MARK S.

    2000-07-19

    The process of combining nuclei (the protons and neutrons inside an atomic nucleus) together with a release of kinetic energy is called fusion. This process powers the Sun, it contributes to the world stockpile of weapons of mass destruction and may one day generate safe, clean electrical power. Understanding the intricacies of fusion power, promised for 50 years, ,is sometimes difficult because there are a number of ways of doing it. There is hot fusion, cold fusion and con-fusion. Hot fusion is what powers suns through the conversion of mass energy to kinetic energy. Cold fusion generates con-fusion and nobody really knows what it is. Honestly - this is true. There does seem to be something going on here; I just don't know what. Apparently some experimenters get energy out of a process many call cold fission but no one seems to know what it is, or how to do it reliably. It is not getting much attention from the mainline physics community. Even so, no one is generating electrical power for you and me with either method. In this article 1 will point out some basic features of the mainstream approaches taken to hot fusion power, as well as describe why z pinches are worth pursuing as a driver for a power reactor and may one day generate electrical power for mankind.

  2. IM and SMS for the Circulation Desk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June L.

    2012-01-01

    It's been well documented in a number of articles regarding the contemporary library patron that with the rise in mobile computing and smart phone technology, patrons are looking for fast and easy service from whichever technological avenue they are using to access library services. Libraries are responding with increasing numbers of online…

  3. "Hey, I'm Learning This"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Leicha A.

    2006-01-01

    Mathematics games are often used in the classroom as a reward or warm-up activity before the "real" learning takes place. Many teachers have witnessed how useful games are for tuning-in students to the impending mathematics lesson. However, have teachers considered playing games as the central part of the lesson? This article explores…

  4. Now That I'm a Trustee...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantzreb, Arthur C.

    1981-01-01

    "Trusteemanship" is seen as a partnership with institutional officers to ensure current and future financial stability and security through management statesmanship. The role calls for an uncommon commitment of personal time, common sense, creativity, and sales management ingenuity. (MLW)

  5. "I'm Calling My Lawyer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasser, James

    2007-01-01

    By the very nature of their business, public education has become vulnerable to legal attacks. The fear of being sued has forced public school teachers and administrators across the country to re-evaluate what they do and modify traditional curricular activities and co-curricular programs. In this article, the author relates how his own school…

  6. Where I'm Coming From

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Frank

    1976-01-01

    Asserts that Asian American kids are looking for Asian American characters with a style that commands attention and respect in terms they can understand. Only in the works of Taro Yashima and Lawrence Yep are the literary sensibility, language and vision of Asian and Asian American culture. We need a body of Asian American myth to form and express…

  7. Using IMS Learning Design to Model Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tattersall, Colin; Janssen, Jose; van den Berg, Bert; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The traditional notion of the curriculum as a fixed list of topics to be studied sequentially is under strain as the pressure for flexibility in education increases. However, curriculum flexibility can lead to curriculum complexity, so that guidance systems are needed to assist learners in their study choices. This article proposes the use of the…

  8. Children's developing notions of (im)partiality

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Candice M.; Keil, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the development of children's understanding that people's judgments may be skewed by relationships, and that situational factors may make it difficult to be impartial. 171 adults and children between kindergarten and eighth grade heard stories about judges in contests with objective or subjective criteria for winning. In Experiment 1, by fourth grade, children rated a judge with no personal connection (the “neutral judge”) as being more likely to be objective than a judge with a personal connection (the “connected judge”). Younger children showed the opposite pattern. Experiment 2 replicated this finding for judges, and also found that children across development have similar ideas regarding the characteristics for being a good judge. Not until eighth grade, however, did children indicate that a connected judge was more problematic in subjective situations than in objective ones. PMID:18083156

  9. Sandsturm kontra Wassersturm: Physik im Alltag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Sandstürme ereignen sich oft, Wasserstürme hingegen so gut wie nie. Eine Abschätzung zeigt, dass man beim Herauslösen eines Wassertropfens beispielsweise aus dem Meer eine sehr große Kraft benötigt und sehr viel Arbeit verrichten muss. Das scheint die Erklärung zu sein. Führt man eine entsprechende Energiebetrachtung durch, so könnte es durchaus Wasserstürme geben. Diese Überlegung ist zwar mathematisch richtig, aber unvollständig.

  10. I'm in the "Thinking Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Teaching through inquiry doesn't come automatically--professors have to think of instruction in a different way. Instead of describing information that students should know, they must challenge students to think at a higher, critical-thinking level than they are accustomed to. After all, the most important aspect of a professors' job or "business"…

  11. Fly me, I'm tropical.

    PubMed

    May, A

    1994-03-24

    Leprosy, malaria and jigger fleas are all in a week's work for London's Hospital for Tropical Diseases. But some fear that the internal market could bring its 170-year history to a close, reports Annabelle May.

  12. Characterization and properties of monoammine nitroimidazole complexes of platinum (PtCl sub 2 (NH sub 3 )(NO sub 2 Im)). Crystal and molecular structure of cis-Amminedichloro(1-((((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)carbonyl)methyl)-2-nitroimidazole)platinum(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Rochon, F.D.; Pichang Kong; Melanson, R. ); Skov, K.A. ); Farrell, N. )

    1991-11-27

    The characterization of monoammine(nitroimidazole)platinum(II) complexes of structure (PtCl{sub 2}(NH{sub 3})(NO{sub 2}Im)) (NO{sub 2}Im = 1-((((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)carbonyl)methyl)-2-nitroimidazole, Etanidazole (I), 1-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-3-methoxy2-propanol, Misonidazole (II), and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, Metronidazole (III)) is reported. Both is cis and trans isomers may be isolated for II and III. The crystal structure of cis-amminedichloro(1-((((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)carbonyl)methyl)-2-nitroimidazole)platinum(II) has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The crystals are orthorhombic, space group Pnab with cell dimensions a = 14.867 (7) {angstrom}, b = 9.915 (5) {angstrom}, c = 19.015 (9) {angstrom}, and Z = 8. The structure was refined to R = 0.062 and R{sub w} = 0.052. Platinum has the expected square-planar coordination. The Pt-Cl bond trans to the nitroimidazole ligand is shorter (2.269 (3) {angstrom}) than normal. The dihedral angle between the platinum plane and the imidazole ring is 111{degree}, while the nitro group makes an angle of 31{degree} with the imidazole ring plane. Electrochemistry and {sup 195}Pt NMR data are also reported. The relevance of the chemical properties to their biological properties as radiosensitizers and hypoxic cytotoxins is discussed.

  13. "I'm 70 and I'm a Community Activist"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a project that turns residents of some of South Leeds' most deprived neighbourhoods into community researchers and is giving people an opportunity to make concrete, positive changes to their communities. Armed with homemade tools, some coloured pens, and masses of post-it notes, the "Community…

  14. "I'm Your Teacher, I'm Brazilian!" Authenticity and Authority in European "Capoeira"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Campos Rosario, Claudio; Stephens, Neil; Delamont, Sara

    2010-01-01

    "Capoeira," the Brazilian dance and martial art is now globalised and taught widely outside Brazil. Instruction is provided by Brazilians who are living in self-imposed exile from their homeland. The authentic "capoeira" that such teachers provide is a major attraction for non-Brazilian students. However, there is little…

  15. IM-CRDS for the analysis of matrix-bound water isotopes: a streamlined (and updated) tool for ecohydrologists to probe small-scale variability in plants Yasuhara, S. (syasuhara@picarro.com)1,Carter, J.A. (jcarter@picarro.com)1, Dennis, K.J. (kdennis@picarro.com)1 1Picarro Inc., 3105 Patrick Henry Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to measure the isotopic composition of matrix-bound water is valuable to many facets of earth and environmental sciences. For example, ecohydrologists use stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in plant and soil water, in combination with measurements of atmospheric water vapor, surface water and precipitation, to estimate budgets of evapotranspiration. Likewise, water isotopes of oceanic water, brines and other waters with high total dissolved solids (TDS, e.g., juices) are relevant to studying large-scale oceanic circulation, small-scale mixing, groundwater contamination, the balance of evaporation to precipitation, and the provenance of food. Conventionally matrix-bound water has been extracted using cryogenic distillation, whereby water is distilled from the material in question (e.g., a leaf sample) by heating under vacuum and collecting the resultant water vapor using liquid nitrogen. The water can then be analyzed for its stable isotopic composition by a variety of methods, including isotope ratio mass spectrometry and laser techniques, such as Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). Here we present recent improvements in an alternative, and stream-lined, solution for integrated sample extraction and isotopic measurement using a Picarro Induction Module (IM) coupled to commercially-available CRDS analyzer from Picarro. This technique is also valuable for waters with high TDS, which can have detrimental effects on flash vaporization process, typically used for the introduction of water to Picarro CRDS water isotope analyzers. The IM works by inductively heating a sample held within a metal sample holder in a glass vial flushed with dry air. Tested samples include leaves, stems, twigs, calibration water, juices, and salt water. The heating process evolves water vapor which is then swept through the system at approximately 150 standard cubic centimeters per minute. The evolved water vapor passes through an activated charcoal cartridge for removal of

  16. Assessment of the safety and immunogenicity of Rhodococcus equi-secreted proteins combined with either a liquid nanoparticle (IMS 3012) or a polymeric (PET GEL A) water-based adjuvant in adult horses and foals--identification of promising new candidate antigens.

    PubMed

    Cauchard, S; Bertrand, F; Barrier-Battut, I; Jacquet, S; Laurentie, M; Barbey, C; Laugier, C; Deville, S; Cauchard, J

    2014-02-15

    Rhodococcus equi is the most common infectious cause of mortality in foals between 1 and 6 months of age. Because of an increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant strains, the optimization of a prophylactic strategy is a key factor in the comprehensive management of R. equi pneumonia. The objectives of this study were to assess the safety and immunogenicity of R. equi-secreted proteins (ReSP) co-administered with either the nanoparticular adjuvant Montanide™ IMS 3012 VG, or a new polymeric adjuvant Montanide™ PET GEL A, and to further investigate the most immunogenic proteins for subsequent immunization/challenge experiments in the development of a vaccine against rhodoccocal pneumonia. The approach involved two phases. The first phase aimed to investigate the safety of vaccination in six adult horses. The second phase aimed to determine the safety and immunogenicity of vaccination in twelve 3-week-old foals. We set out to develop a method based on ultrasound measurements for safety assessment in adult horses in order to evaluate any in situ changes at the injection site, in the skin or the underlying muscle, with quantitative and qualitative data revealing that administration of ReSP combined with the Pet Gel A adjuvant led to an increase in local inflammation, associated with 4- to 7-fold higher levels of anti-R. equi IgGa, IgGb and IgGT, compared to administration of ReSP associated with IMS 3012 adjuvant, but without any impact on animal demeanor. Investigations were then performed in foals with serological and clinical follow-up until 6 months of age. Interestingly, we observed in foals a much lower incidence of adverse local tissue reactions at the injection site than in adult horses, with transient and moderate swelling for the group that received ReSP combined with Pet Gel A. Immunized foals with Pet Gel A adjuvant exhibited a similar response in both IgGa and IgGT levels, but a lower response in IgGb levels, compared to adult horses, with a

  17. Lost in Interaction in IMS Learning Design Runtime Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derntl, Michael; Neumann, Susanne; Oberhuemer, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Educators are exploiting the advantages of advanced web-based collaboration technologies and massive online interactions. Interactions between learners and human or nonhuman resources therefore play an increasingly important pedagogical role, and the way these interactions are expressed in the user interface of virtual learning environments is…

  18. Enhancing the IMS QTI to Better Support Computer Assisted Marking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Damien; Baillie-de Byl, Penny

    2007-01-01

    Computer aided assessment is a common approach used by educational institutions. The benefits range into the design of teaching, learning, and instructional materials. While some such systems implement fully automated marking for multiple choice questions and fill-in-the-blanks, they are insufficient when human critiquing is required. Current…

  19. (Im)precise nuclear forces: From experiment to model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro Perez, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear force is the most fundamental building block in nuclear science. It is the cornerstone of every nuclear application from nuclear reactors to the production of heavy elements in supernovae. Despite being rigorously derived from the Standard Model, the actual determination of the nuclear force requires adjusting a set of parameters to reproduce experimental data. This introduces uncertainties that need to be quantified and propagated into all nuclear applications. I'll review a series of works on the determination of the Nucleon-Nucleon interaction from a collection of over 8000 elastic scattering data. Statistical tools used on the selection of data and the propagation of statistical uncertainties will be presented. The implications for charge independence of the pion-nucleon coupling constant and the predictive power of chiral interactions will be discussed. Although this is not the final word on theoretical nuclear uncertainties, as other sources of errors should be explored, this series of works allow to set the foundations for a new era for uncertainty quantification in nuclear applications. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Funding was also provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Award DE-SC0008511 (NUCLEI SciDAC Collaboration)

  20. The (Im)possibility of Gay Teachers for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Those who teach, or intend to teach, young children undergo careful scrutiny as to their suitability for the role of teacher. In general, professional monitoring of teaching standards and teacher qualities are reasonable expectations. However, a set of related cultural practices embedded in such monitoring purposefully and unjustly impact men who…

  1. Collaborative Research: Calibration for IMS Stations in Eastern Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    12/1979 18:00:00.21 Kimberlite -4 GT1 A 09/06/1979 18:00:00.31 Kimberlite -3 GT1 A 10/04/1979 16:00:00.03 Kimberlite -1 GT1 B -1.2 s 07/30/1982 21:00...SMR99 Azgir, Russia 1 1979/08/12 18:00:00.21 61.803 122.430 0.982 4.9 PNE 0 CS SMR99 Kimberlite -4, Ru 1 1979/09/06 18:00:00.31 64.110 99.562 0.599...4.9 PNE 0 CS SMR99 Kimberlite -3, Ru I 1979/10/04 16:00:00.03 60.675 71.455 0.837 5.4 PNE 0 CS SMR99 Kimberlite -1, Ru 1 1979/10/24 05:59:59.00 47.850

  2. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... after you've been vaccinated, call your doctor right away. Pregnant women who catch the flu may need to take antiviral medicine to decrease the chances of developing complications. *Names have been changed to protect user privacy. ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...

  3. LC-IM-TOF Instrument Control & Data Visualization Software

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-12

    Liquid Chromatography-Ion Mobility-time of Flight Instrument Control and Data Visualization software is designed to control instrument voltages for the Ion Mobility drift tube. It collects and stores information collected from the Agilent TOF instrument and analyses/displays the ion intensity information acquired. The software interface can be split into 3 categories -- Instrument Settings/Controls, Data Acquisition, and Viewer. The Instrument Settings/Controls prepares the instrument for Data Acquisition. The Viewer contains common objects that are used by Instrument Settings/Controls and Data Acquisition. Intensity information is collected in 1 nanosec bins and separated by TOF pulses called scans. A collection of scans are stored side by side making up an accumulation. In order for the computer to keep up with the stream of data, 30-50 accumulations are commonly summed into a single frame. A collection of frames makes up an experiment. The Viewer software then takes the experiment and presents the data in several possible ways, each frame can be viewed in TOF bins or m/z (mass to charge ratio). The experiment can be viewed frame by frame, merging several frames, or by viewing the peak chromatogram. The user can zoom into the data, export data, and/or animate frames. Additional features include calibration of the data and even post-processing multiplexed data.

  4. I'm Not a Chili Pepper: Are You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franciosi, Rob

    2006-01-01

    RateMyProfessors.com helps students rank their professors using a five-point rating scale in three areas, namely, helpfulness, clarity, and easiness. A college professor finds himself addicted to the site, which is rather low on substance and rates professors with a smiley face to indicate "good quality" and a red hot chili pepper to indicate the…

  5. Introduction to Workforce Planning for IM/IT Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    and networks in an organization) and corporate capital (the intellectual property and processes of an organization) to create intellectual capital . An...organization’s intellectual capital enables a knowledge enterprise, deriving power through its people — what they know, how they bring their...knowledge together, and how they translate that knowledge into action. Knowledge management — the ability to harness the intellectual capital of an

  6. Challenges in Educational Modelling: Expressiveness of IMS Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caeiro-Rodriguez, Manuel; Anido-Rifon, Luis; Llamas-Nistal, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Educational Modelling Languages (EMLs) have been proposed to enable the authoring of models of "learning units" (e.g., courses, lessons, lab practices, seminars) covering the broad variety of pedagogical approaches. In addition, some EMLs have been proposed as computational languages that support the processing of learning unit models by…

  7. I'm OK, Are You Y2K OK?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Y2K problems include software programming issues involving chronology and microchips embedded in every conceivable piece of electronic equipment. Procrastination is not in schools' best interest. Administrators should initiate five conversion stages: awareness, assessment, renovation, validation, and implementation. A sample equipment checklist…

  8. (im)Balance of Forces in the Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, J.; Sylwester, B.

    Observed pattern of variability of solar atmosphere plasma structures, often accompanied by respective measured Doppler shifts, provides a direct evidence of imbalanced forces acting in this environment. Observed motions have been studied in various energy bands, extending from radio to hard X-rays using ground and space-borne instruments. Here, we present the results of a dedicated study of present observational databases in selected energy ranges with a special interest focused on TRACE movies. In our search we included also recently released wavelet-processed EIT and LASCO movies (from SOHO) as they provide additional support to the conclusions of this study. The main outcome of the work performed is our better understanding of a basic role played by plasma kernels in every ``layer'' of the solar atmosphere. These kernels appear to be present, and rapidly evolve at the locations of violent (intense) energy release locations. Subsequent formation of a more stable coronal magnetic structures seen in the form of ``spiders'' or ``scorpions'' is due to self-reorganization of plasma kernels. It comes out that the spider structure represents a basic, quasi-equilibrium building block of the solar atmosphere. When observed in a particular image, within a limited energy band, i.e. optical, EUV, soft or hard X-rays, only a part of this spider plasma structure can usually be seen, noticeably resembling a loop-like structure with a brighter top, or an arcade of loops connected along the ridge of summit kernels, or seemingly isolated oval source. This energy-dependent visibility effects caused a general confusion present in solar physics and led to proliferation of simple fluxtube scenarios. In our study presented herewith, we used the images obtained with the best available resolution, being enhanced numerically where possible. For the first time we enhanced the TRACE image data cube in a systematic way for a particular flare. Based on the results of analysis of a large number of images, we push forward a qualitative toy model of atmospheric connectivity pattern (Sylwester, J. and Sylwester, B., 2004). This hierarchic model is able to handle in a natural way observed complexity of atmospheric phenomena. Here, we discuss to some extent verifiable predictions of the hierarchical model outlining a number of new studies which might prove the concept. These predictions arise concurrently with the first data coming down from new missions being recently launched into orbit: the Hinode and the Stereo.

  9. GOES I/M image navigation and registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorello, J. L., Jr.; Oh, I. H.; Kelly, K. A.; Ranne, L.

    1989-01-01

    Image Navigation and Registration (INR) is the system that will be used on future Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) missions to locate and register radiometric imagery data. It consists of a semiclosed loop system with a ground-based segment that generates coefficients to perform image motion compensation (IMC). The IMC coefficients are uplinked to the satellite-based segment, where they are used to adjust the displacement of the imagery data due to movement of the imaging instrument line-of-sight. The flight dynamics aspects of the INR system is discussed in terms of the attitude and orbit determination, attitude pointing, and attitude and orbit control needed to perform INR. The modeling used in the determination of orbit and attitude is discussed, along with the method of on-orbit control used in the INR system, and various factors that affect stability. Also discussed are potential error sources inherent in the INR system and the operational methods of compensating for these errors.

  10. "I'm a Greek Kiwi": Constructing "Greekness" in Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angouri, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The article reports on the preliminary findings of a project on the constructions of "Greekness" in modern diasporas. The discussion draws on data from the self-identified Greek community of Wellington, New Zealand. Interview data, ethnographic diaries, and everyday real-life spoken interactions were collected. The analysis of the data…

  11. Help! I'm the Principal, Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goosev, Tanya

    2004-01-01

    When the author became the principal of Citrus Middle School in 1998, it was the lowest performing school in the district. Students from Citrus were viewed as largely under-prepared, often read below grade level, had high drop-out rates, and were responsible for a significant amount of the gang activity on the school campus. She was also told that…

  12. I'm Dreaming of a Blue Sunset (on Mars)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sunset Watched by Opportunity, November 2010. The sun descends to the Martian horizon and sets in this movie simulation using images from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Ro...

  13. Getting on Top of Idiomatic Verbs. Tausend Wendungen im Kontext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitkreuz, Hartmut; Bosewitz, Rene

    English idioms are catalogued for German speakers. The guide is designed to be used both as a reference and as a teaching tool. It is divided into sections, each listing and defining common idioms using a number of English verbs, then presenting them in the context of dialogues. Most sections contain idioms for six or seven more common verbs, then…

  14. You're OK, I'm OK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    The author looks through Albert Bandura's self-efficacy lens onto the effects it likely has on school principals' effectiveness. Self-efficacy should be viewed as a principal's belief in his or her capabilities to structure a particular course of action in order to produce desired outcomes. Principal self-efficacy has been linked with effective…

  15. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  16. Zur Wortbildung im Russischen (10) (On Russian Word Formation [10])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Wolf

    1974-01-01

    Tenth of a regular series on contemporary Russian word formation, this article gives examples of: 1) four types of standard formation, 2) rare cases where compounds are produced with no combining vowel, and 3) appositive noun compounds. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  17. Remember Me? I'm the Other Parent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweikert, Gigi

    1999-01-01

    Presents tips for meeting the needs of parents of children in child care settings who are unable to see their children's teachers on a regular basis. Focuses on the importance of providing accurate information, broadening the school-family communication approach to encompass the entire family, establishing a family relationship before the child…

  18. Oligomerization route to Py-Im polyamide macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, David M; Harki, Daniel A; Dervan, Peter B

    2009-08-20

    Cyclic eight-ring pyrrole-imidazole polyamides are sequence-specific DNA-binding small molecules that are cell permeable and can regulate endogenous gene expression. Syntheses of cyclic polyamides have been achieved by solid-phase and solution-phase methods. A rapid solution-phase oligomerization approach to eight-ring symmetrical cyclic polyamides yields 12- and 16-membered macrocycles as well. A preference for DNA binding by the 8- and 16-membered oligomers was observed over the 12-ring macrocycle, which we attributed to a conformational constraint not present in the smaller and larger systems.

  19. "Hello, I'm Carbon.": Writing about Elements and Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Roland P.

    2010-01-01

    General chemistry students are asked to assume the identity of an element and to write their own story. In the spirit of pedagogical approaches such as writing-to-learn and writing across the curriculum, this assignment has several objectives, most significantly to connect students to the discipline of chemistry in a robust way. Facilitating this…

  20. Definitions of Internal Medicine activities outside of the im department.

    PubMed

    Montero Ruiz, E; Monte Secades, R

    2015-04-01

    The inpatient profile is changing towards patients with multiple diseases, the elderly and those with high comorbidity. The growing complexity of their care, the progressive medical superspecialization and the organizational problems that often hinder daily patient follow-up by the same physician have contributed to a progressive increase in the participation of medical departments, especially Internal Medicine, in the care of patients hospitalized in other medical and surgical specialties. The hospital activities that the departments of internal medicine perform outside of their own department do not have well-established definitions and criteria at the organizational level; their assessment and accountability are different in each hospital. In this document, we establish the definitions for shared care, advisory medicine, perioperative medicine and interconsultation, as well as their types in terms of priority, formality, care setting, timeliness, relationship with surgery and other circumstances.

  1. Definition von Datenarten zur konsistenten Kommunikation im Unternehmen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Andrea; Gebauer, Marcus

    Probleme in der Informationsqualität (IQ) treten in den unterschiedlichsten Bereichen eines Unternehmens auf und werden durch die unterschiedlichsten Bereiche verursacht. Daher ist es um so wichtiger, diese Probleme klar und eindeutig kommunizieren zu können. Insbesondere wenn Kollegen fachübergreifend IQ-Probleme beheben wollen, kann dies schwierig sein. Erst wenn klar ist, worüber geredet wird, und häufig sind dies Datenfelder und ihr Inhalt, kann das Problem eindeutig beschrieben und gelöst werden.

  2. Definition von Datenarten zur konsistenten Kommunikation im Unternehmen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Andrea; Gebauer, Marcus

    Probleme in der Informationsqualität (IQ) treten in den unterschiedlichsten Bereichen eines Unternehmens auf und werden durch die unterschiedlichsten Bereiche verursacht. Daher ist es um so wichtiger, diese Probleme klar und eindeutig kommunizieren zu können. Insbesondere wenn Kollegen fachübergreifend IQProbleme beheben wollen, kann dies schwierig sein. Erst wenn klar ist, worüber geredet wird, und häufig sind dies Datenfelder und ihr Inhalt, kann das Problem eindeutig beschrieben und gelöst werden.

  3. Language and the (im)possibilities of articulating spirituality.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Anne; Sheilds, Laurene; Molzahn, Anita

    2011-03-01

    Despite growing interest in spiritual matters throughout society, definitions and descriptions of spirituality seem incomplete or otherwise unsatisfactory. In this article, the authors consider the possibility that such incompleteness is perhaps necessary and welcomed in addressing spirituality. In particular, they investigate the challenges of using metaphor and metonymic approaches to "languaging" spirituality. By exploring these figures of speech they hope to diversify how nurses articulate deeply personal and perhaps enigmatic human phenomena such as spirituality. Metaphoric language uses everyday structures to help make sense of complex, emotional, and abstract experience. Whereas metaphor creates substitutive relationships between things and provides insights into conceptualizing spirituality, metonymy and metonymic writing establish relationships of contiguity. Whereas metaphor functions to represent and facilitates understanding and feelings about spirituality, metonymy disrupts while opening possibilities of moving beyond binary thinking. Attending to language and its various ontological assumptions opens diverse and potentially more inclusive possibilities.

  4. I think I'm losing my hair.

    PubMed

    Cargnello, J

    1997-06-01

    As humans have evolved our hair has diminished to the point of being vestigial, yet it has assumed enormous psychological and social importance. For many, hair loss is synonymous with ageing, loss of attractiveness and desirability and has the potential to undermine self confidence and social interactions. Those affected are likely to seek out treatment, at any cost, both conventional and unconventional. The plethora of 'cures' for baldness and hair restoration clinics are testimony to the importance society places on a full head of hair and to the vulnerability of persons with hair loss.

  5. Mission (im)possible - mapping the brain becomes a reality.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Anna Lena; Selchow, Olaf; Thaler, Marlene; Zeidler, Dirk; Kirmse, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Charting and understanding the full wiring diagram of complex neuronal structures such as the central nervous system or the brain (Connectomics) is one of the big remaining challenges in life sciences. Although at first it appears nearly impossible to map out a full diagram of, e.g., a mouse brain with sufficient resolution to identify each and every connection between neurons, recent technological advances move such an ambitious undertaking into the realms of possibility without spending decades at a microscope. However there are still many challenges to address in order to pave the way for fast and systematic neurobiological understanding of whole networks. These challenges range from a more robust and reproducible sample preparation to automated image data acquisition, more efficient data storage strategies and powerful data analysis tools. Here we will review novel imaging techniques developed for the challenge of mapping out the full connectome of a nervous system, brain or eye to name just a few examples. The imaging techniques reviewed cover light sheet illumination methods, single and multi-beam scanning electron microscopy, and we will briefly mention the possible combination of both light and electron microscopy. In particular we will review 'clearing' and in vivo methods that can be performed with light sheet fluroescence microscopes such as the ZEISS Lightsheet Z.1. We will then focus on scanning electron microscopy with single and multi-beam instruments including methods such as serial blockface imaging and array tomography methods.

  6. Results of the SCATHA ion composition experiment during the IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, J. M.; Shelley, E. G.

    1984-01-01

    Hot plasma composition measurements of the near equatorial SCATHA spacecraft at geocentric distances of 5.3 to 7.8 RE, provided pitch angle distributions of ion composition in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit. Pronounced pitch angle and spectral differences between ion species, and temporal variations within each species, are indicative of many of the complex source, energization, transport, and loss mechanisms at play in the magnetosphere. Ion populations of interest include field aligned ions below several keV which are primarily ionospheric; more energetic ions peaked at 90 deg pitch angle; and intense equatorially trapped ions below a few hundred eV, primarily protons. Ionospheric plasma is observed to take part in the substorm injection process, and there is evidence of an enhanced ionospheric source at the inner edge of the injection region.

  7. Results of the SCATHA ion composition experiment during the IMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. M.; Shelley, E. G.

    1984-09-01

    Hot plasma composition measurements of the near equatorial SCATHA spacecraft at geocentric distances of 5.3 to 7.8 RE, provided pitch angle distributions of ion composition in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit. Pronounced pitch angle and spectral differences between ion species, and temporal variations within each species, are indicative of many of the complex source, energization, transport, and loss mechanisms at play in the magnetosphere. Ion populations of interest include field aligned ions below several keV which are primarily ionospheric; more energetic ions peaked at 90 deg pitch angle; and intense equatorially trapped ions below a few hundred eV, primarily protons. Ionospheric plasma is observed to take part in the substorm injection process, and there is evidence of an enhanced ionospheric source at the inner edge of the injection region.

  8. "Freie Arbeit" im Englischunterricht ("Free Activity" in English Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sester, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Tells of an experiment introducing the Montessori system (which is described), stressing individualized approach, in a junior high school. Good results were obtained with good and poor students. It is concluded that the system could be relevant for beginning English classes in other types of schools. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  9. Group analytic psychotherapy (im)possibilities to research

    PubMed Central

    Vlastelica, Mirela

    2011-01-01

    In the course of group analytic psychotherapy, where we discovered the power of the therapeutic effects, there occurred the need of group analytic psychotherapy researches. Psychotherapeutic work in general, and group psychotherapy in particular, are hard to measure and put into some objective frames. Researches, i. e. measuring of changes in psychotherapy is a complex task, and there are large disagreements. For a long time, the empirical-descriptive method was the only way of research in the field of group psychotherapy. Problems of researches in group psychotherapy in general, and particularly in group analytic psychotherapy can be reviewed as methodology problems at first, especially due to unrepeatability of the therapeutic process. The basic polemics about measuring of changes in psychotherapy is based on the question whether a change is to be measured by means of open measuring of behaviour or whether it should be evaluated more finely by monitoring inner psychological dimensions. Following the therapy results up, besides providing additional information on the patient's improvement, strengthens the psychotherapist's self-respect, as well as his respectability and credibility as a scientist. PMID:25478094

  10. They're Why I'm Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, William C.

    This tongue-in-cheek paper represents that ideal and fictitious being, "Joe Personnel", as envisioned by critics of regularly-organized student personnel services. They contend that, since people have, for centuries, handled their own problems, they should be capable of doing so today, and that any assistance needed can be provided by a single…

  11. Kontrolltechniken im Englischunterricht. (Evaluation Techniques in Teaching English).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrand, Heinrich

    1978-01-01

    Describes five techniques to be used in the evaluation of writing and as exercises in foreign language teaching: the so-called free response to problems presented, fill-in blanks, construction form, alternative form, and association form. (IFS/WGA)

  12. "I'm about Giving Power to Those without It"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2009-01-01

    John Hayes, Conservative Shadow Minister for Lifelong Learning, Further and Higher Education, is unstinting in his enthusiasm for what adult learning, in all its forms, can achieve. Adult learning has many virtues, he enthuses, not all of them economic. Learning for its own sake is "a noble purpose" while education can help build "a cohesive…

  13. Wiener Geologen im Spiegel des Geologenarchivs. Kober - Kieslinger - Ampferer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibold, I.; Seibold, E.

    2001-05-01

    The bulk of the correspondence in the Geologenarchiv comes in two major groups:a) letters relating mainly to professional matters and b) letters containing predominantly personal communication. This will be demonstrated by material relating to the three above mentioned Viennese Geologists: Leopold Kober's letter to Wilhelm Salomon-Calvi and the correspondence between Alois Kieslinger and Eugen Wegmann are mainly professional, whereas Otto Ampferer's letters to the Bavarian glaciologist Edith Ebers are a documentation of personal friendship.

  14. I'm Going Where Everyone Knows My Name

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slayton, Bonner; Meadows, Meleah

    2012-01-01

    In today's high-stakes educational environment, students need to see more than standards, bubble sheets, rules, and regulations. It is possible for teachers and schools to build positive, productive relationships with students while maintaining a culture of excellence. Students of all ages need to learn from someone who is not only an expert in…

  15. Grammatikarbeit im Sprachlabor (Grammar Work in the Language Laboratory)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buurman, Gisela

    1975-01-01

    Various taped exercises relating to selected chapters of the textbook "Salut" (Diesterweg, Frankfurt) are presented and discussed. The exercises were created because the drills in the textbook seemed too monotonous to the students. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  16. Ims: The Infrared Mapping Spectrometer of The Bepicolombo Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, S.

    The IR Spectrometer on board BepiColomboSs Planetary Orbiter aims at investigating the 0.8-2.8 micron range, where the absorption bands of major rock-forming miner- als are found. Spatial resolution values on the order of 100 m are needed for regolith mixing studies (~200U300 m mixing scale), while moderate spectral resolution only is required (~20-40 nm spectral sampling). Requirement for signal to noise ratio is * 100 in the whole spectral range. The baseline for the model payload is presented here. The optical system has a FOV of 256 mrad, and a focal length of 32 mm. The dis- persion system is a grating, feeding the radiation onto a 512x512 array. Line binning is performed by 4 in the spectral dimension to obtain 128 channels, with resulting IFOV of 0.5 mrad. The instrument works in pushbroom mode, with spectral disper- sion along the lines of the matrix, and spatial information along the other direction. A cryo-interface has to be provided to cool down the detector in the U153/-73C range. A complete low-resolution coverage of the planet is performed in 6 months, and repre- sents 30 Gbits with a data compression rate of 8 (lossy). A similar data rate is reserved for high-resolution observations from pericenter, so that the overall continuous trans- fer rate ranges from 4 to 12 kb/s, depending on compression rate. The main critical issues currently have to do with thermal control and marginally with data rates. A pos- sible approach is to set a cut-off at 2.8 micron to reduce the thermal load down to~0.29 W (external heat load on aperture). Filtering the visible range could also help reduce the thermal load on the detector by another factor of 2.

  17. Assessment of DEMN-based IM Formulations for Octol Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection information. Send...experimentally for performance in this study. The performance was first assessed numerically using the thermochemical equilibrium code Cheetah , v5.0...Fine Grain Octol (FGO). The Cheetah estimates suggest that the proposed formulations will have lower detonation pressure than Octol level performance

  18. Rethinking Institutional Secularization as an (Im)possible "Policy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez Caride, Ezequiel

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes through a genealogical discourse analysis how religion as a cultural practice escapes into the borders of state institutions. While most studies about secularization focus on institutional aspects, such approaches tend to link state secularist policies with cultural secularization. This essay argues that state promotion of…

  19. "I'm No Lady Astronaut": Nonsexist Language for Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vardell, Sylvia M.

    As a powerful tool for education, language informs, influences, discloses, and communicates. Research on the use of language has found that it also discriminates. Among the different manifestations of sexism in language are (1) the use of "he" as a generic pronoun; (2) the "generic" use of "man" as an exclusively male referent; (3) the use of "you…

  20. Reflexionseigenschaften von Windenergieanlagen im Funkfeld von Funknavigations- und Radarsystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandmann, S.; Divanbeigi, S.; Garbe, H.

    2015-11-01

    Die hier behandelte Untersuchung befasst sich mit den Störungen des elektrischen Feldes einer Doppler Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Radio Range Navigationsanlage (DVOR) in der Gegenwart von Windenergieanlagen (WEA). Hierfür wird die Feldstärke auf 25 konzentrischen Kreisbahnen, sog. Orbit Flights verschiedener Höhen und mit verschiedenen Radien rund um die DVOR-Anlage numerisch simuliert. Insbesondere werden die Einflüsse diverser Parameter der WEA wie deren Anzahl, Position, Rotorwinkel, Turmhöhe und Rotordurchmesser auf die Feldverteilung herausgestellt, sowie die Anwendbarkeit der Simulationsmethode Physical Optics (PO) durch Vergleich der Simulationsergebnisse mit denen der Multi Level Fast Multipol Method (MLFMM) untersucht.