Science.gov

Sample records for image storage devices

  1. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical image storage device. 892.2010 Section 892.2010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2010 Medical image storage device....

  2. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical image storage device. 892.2010 Section 892.2010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2010 Medical image storage device....

  3. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image storage device. 892.2010 Section 892.2010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2010 Medical image storage device....

  4. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical image storage device. 892.2010 Section 892.2010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2010 Medical image storage device....

  5. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical image storage device. 892.2010 Section 892.2010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2010 Medical image storage device....

  6. Real-Time, Holographic, Dynamic Image-Storage Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Lafleur, Sharon S.

    1995-01-01

    Solid-state device developed for high-speed acquisition, dynamic storage, and amplification of three-dimensional holographic images. Holograms generated via four-wave mixing in two or more photorefractive crystals (or subelements of single crystal) to create single-crystal or multicrystal oscillator. Apparatus provides dynamic storage of holographic image of object after electronic shutter closed to turn off object beam. Provides capability to store, amplify, process, and transmit time-varying, two-dimensional, spatial information. Developments include sensors, actuators, and optical computers operating at speeds on order of speed of light. Potential in applications in which need for high-speed acquisition and storage of three-dimensional holographic images.

  7. Real-time dynamic holographic image storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafleur, Sharon S. (Inventor); Montgomery, Raymond C. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A real-time dynamic holographic image storage device uses four-wave mixing in a pair of photorefractive crystals. An oscillation is produced between the crystals which can be maintained indefinitely after the initial object beam is discontinued. The object beam produces an interference pattern in a first crystal to produce phase-conjugated object beam which is directed towards the second crystal. In the second crystal another interference pattern is created which produces a reconstructed object beam. The reconstructed object beam is directed back towards the first crystal. The interference patterns are produced by interaction of the object and phase-conjugated object beam with a read and write beam in each of the crystals. By manipulation of the ratio of the read and write beam intensities in at least one of the crystals, the phase-conjugate or reconstructed object beam output therefrom can be amplified to maintain stable oscillation between the two crystals.

  8. Optical storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S.

    1991-01-01

    A new holographic image storage device which uses four-wave mixing in two photorefractive crystals is described. Photorefractive crystals promise information storage densities on the order of 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 12) bits per cubic centimeter at real-time rates. Several studies in recent years have investigated the use of photorefractive crystals for storing holographic image information. However, all of the previous studies have focused on techniques for storing information in a single crystal. The disadvantage of using a single crystal is that the read process is destructive. Researchers have developed techniques for fixing the information in a crystal so that it may be read many times. However, when fixed, the information cannot be readily erased and overwritten with new information. It two photorefractive crystals are used, holographic image information may be stored dynamically. That is, the stored image information may be read out more than once, and it may be easily erased and overwritten with new image information.

  9. Cathodochromic storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosomworth, D. R.; Moles, W. H.

    1969-01-01

    A memory and display device has been developed by combing a fast phosphor layer with a cathodochromic layer in a cathode ray tube. Images are stored as patterns of electron beam induced optical density in the cathodo-chromic material. The stored information is recovered by exciting the backing, fast phosphor layer with a constant current electron beam and detecting the emitted radiation which is modulated by absorption in the cathodochromic layer. The storage can be accomplished in one or more TV frames (1/30 sec each). More than 500 TV line resolution and close to 2:1 contrast ratio are possible. The information storage time in a dark environment is approximately 24 hours. A reconstituted (readout) electronic video signal can be generated continuously for times in excess of 10 minutes or periodically for several hours.

  10. Differential imaging using charge-coupled device (CCD) imagers with on-chip charge storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    A CCD technique is described which allows long integration periods between readouts together with moderate chopping rates. During each phase of a differential chopping cycle, one set of charge images is shifted to the center of the chip, which is light sensitive. At the same time, the other set of charge images is shifted under one of two masked areas which serve as charge-storage sites. Since the vertical shifting between phases can be accomplished in much less time than the typical exposure per phase, there is negligible image smearing. For a given light level and chopping rate the performance of this technique is limited primarily by the readout noise and the vertical charge transfer inefficiency. If many transfer cycles are required between readouts, the charge transfer inefficiency will diffuse the accumulated charge images along the vertical columns. Laboratory and astronomical data obtained with this technique using a CCD camera and the 2.3 m telescope on Kitt Peak are presented.

  11. Inertial energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Kelly, James J.; Pollard, Roy E.

    1978-01-01

    The inertial energy storage device of the present invention comprises a composite ring formed of circumferentially wound resin-impregnated filament material, a flanged hollow metal hub concentrically disposed in the ring, and a plurality of discrete filament bandsets coupling the hub to the ring. Each bandset is formed of a pair of parallel bands affixed to the hub in a spaced apart relationship with the axis of rotation of the hub being disposed between the bands and with each band being in the configuration of a hoop extending about the ring along a chordal plane thereof. The bandsets are disposed in an angular relationship with one another so as to encircle the ring at spaced-apart circumferential locations while being disposed in an overlapping relationship on the flanges of the hub. The energy storage device of the present invention has the capability of substantial energy storage due to the relationship of the filament bands to the ring and the flanged hub.

  12. Digital image storage.

    PubMed

    Wallack, Seth

    2008-01-01

    Digital image archival requires less physical storage space, allows for rapid storage and retrieval and avoids loss in image quality over time or with image duplication compared with film storage. Because medical imaging data are critically important and, by law, must be stored in a safe, accessible manner, it is imperative not to have one computer error destroy all copies of the image data. Several options for image storage media are available including magnetic tape, optical media, spinning disks and solid state. Other considerations include on-site vs. off-site storage, redundancy, on-line vs. off-line storage, and removable storage media for disaster recovery. The different storage media can be used in different configurations to provide sufficient protection of digital data. Choose a storage system that will keep your data safe from unauthorized access, hardware failure, and clinic disasters.

  13. Lih thermal energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Olszewski, Mitchell; Morris, David G.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  14. Nonaqueous Electrical Storage Device

    DOEpatents

    McEwen, Alan B.; Evans, David A.; Blakley, Thomas J.; Goldman, Jay L.

    1999-10-26

    An electrochemical capacitor is disclosed that features two, separated, high surface area carbon cloth electrodes sandwiched between two current collectors fabricated of a conductive polymer having a flow temperature greater than 130.degree. C., the perimeter of the electrochemical capacitor being sealed with a high temperature gasket to form a single cell device. The gasket material is a thermoplastic stable at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C., preferably a polyester or a polyurethane, and having a reflow temperature above 130.degree. C. but below the softening temperature of the current collector material. The capacitor packaging has good mechanical integrity over a wide temperature range, contributes little to the device equivalent series resistance (ESR), and is stable at high potentials. In addition, the packaging is designed to be easily manufacturable by assembly line methods. The individual cells can be stacked in parallel or series configuration to reach the desired device voltage and capacitance.

  15. USB Mass Storage Device Manager

    SciTech Connect

    Rymer, Bernard; Cowart, Casey

    2004-06-17

    The USB probram is designed to give some level of control over the use of USB mass storage devices (MSDs). This program allows you to disable all USB MSDs from working on a machine or to configure specific devices for the machine as an administrator. For complete control over USB MSDs the user of the machine must belong to the 'User' group. If a MSD has already been configured on the machine it will continue to function after using the 'Activate Administrator Control' function. The only way to disable previously configured devices is to use the 'Block' feature to block all MSDs from being used on the machine.

  16. Room temperature optical image storage devices based on novel photo-responsive chiral azobenzene liquid crystal dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Si; Chen, Yining; Tong, Xiaoqian; Wu, Bozhen; Ma, Meng; Shi, Yanqin; Wang, Xu

    2016-11-01

    A room temperature optical image storage device based on a novel kind of chiral azobenzene liquid crystal compound (Azo-CC) dopant was reported in this paper, which could realize room temperature photocatalytic phase transition when doping in host liquid crystal E7. With a comparation of the referential achiral compound (Azo-ACC), the chemical structure, liquid crystalline and photoresponsive properties of the compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR, POM and UV-vis, respectively. The result showed that the compound with chiral group (Azo-CC) exhibited better photoresponsive properties than the referential achiral compound (Azo-ACC), indicating the introduction of chiral group is the key factor to provide E7 host room temperature photosensitive properties, which could not only made the liquid crystal molecular reoriented but also could change the whole nematic host liquid crystal to helical-twisted matrix. In addition, to understand the optical-switching behavior into detail, the photoisomerization dynamics of the systems o was also analyzed.

  17. Devices, systems, and methods for imaging

    DOEpatents

    Appleby, David; Fraser, Iain; Watson, Scott

    2008-04-15

    Certain exemplary embodiments comprise a system, which can comprise an imaging plate. The imaging plate can be exposable by an x-ray source. The imaging plate can be configured to be used in digital radiographic imaging. The imaging plate can comprise a phosphor-based image storage device configured to convert an image stored therein into light.

  18. PACS and image storage.

    PubMed

    Armbrust, Laura J

    2009-07-01

    Storage and retrieval of digital images is an integral component of any digital imaging system. A picture archiving and communication system (PACS) includes hardware and software that allows for display, storage, retrieval, and communication functions. PACS software allows for manipulation of the images to enhance interpretation by way of changes in contrast, brightness, magnification, and measurements, among others. Digital images for medical imaging should be in the digital imaging communications in medicine file format. This specified format allows for interconnectivity between imaging systems from different vendors and is important to ensure appropriate security. A hospital information system or radiology information system can be used to tie the patient record with the digital images in a paperless medical record system.

  19. Handheld ultrasound array imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Juin-Jet; Quistgaard, Jens

    1999-06-01

    A handheld ultrasound imaging device, one that weighs less than five pounds, has been developed for diagnosing trauma in the combat battlefield as well as a variety of commercial mobile diagnostic applications. This handheld device consists of four component ASICs, each is designed using the state of the art microelectronics technologies. These ASICs are integrated with a convex array transducer to allow high quality imaging of soft tissues and blood flow in real time. The device is designed to be battery driven or ac powered with built-in image storage and cineloop playback capability. Design methodologies of a handheld device are fundamentally different to those of a cart-based system. As system architecture, signal and image processing algorithm as well as image control circuit and software in this device is deigned suitably for large-scale integration, the image performance of this device is designed to be adequate to the intent applications. To elongate the battery life, low power design rules and power management circuits are incorporated in the design of each component ASIC. The performance of the prototype device is currently being evaluated for various applications such as a primary image screening tool, fetal imaging in Obstetrics, foreign object detection and wound assessment for emergency care, etc.

  20. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    DOEpatents

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  1. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, H.; Ledjeff, K.

    1984-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive the discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  2. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, Helmut; Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1985-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive he discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  3. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    SciTech Connect

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei

    2016-04-12

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  4. Improved solid state electron-charge-storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuper, A. B.

    1970-01-01

    Storage device is applicable in memory systems and in high-resolution arrays for light-responsive image sensing. The device offers high yield in multiple arrays and allows charge release with light striking only the edge of a metal electrode.

  5. Photoferroelectric Image Storage in PLZT Ceramics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    photographic images can be stored in transparent PLZT ceramics by exposure to near-UV light with photon energies equal to or greater than the hand gap...ion-implantation enhancement of the photosensitivity. Since the photon energy is greater than the handgap energy, the light will generate charge...type-nondestructive readout of images stored in a ferroelectric- photoconductor device using PLZT 7/65/35 as the storage medium. Images wre read out as

  6. Mechanical energy storage device for hip disarticulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallotton, W. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An artificial leg including a trunk socket, a thigh section hingedly coupled to the trunk socket, a leg section hingedly coupled to the thigh section and a foot section hingedly coupled to the leg section is outlined. A mechanical energy storage device is operatively associated with the artificial leg for storage and release of energy during the normal walking stride of the user. Energy is stored in the mechanical energy storage device during a weight-bearing phase of the walking stride when the user's weight is on the artificial leg. Energy is released during a phase of the normal walking stride, when the user's weight is removed from the artificial leg. The stored energy is released from the energy storage device to pivot the thigh section forwardly about the hinged coupling to the trunk socket.

  7. LiH thermal energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Olszewski, M.; Morris, D.G.

    1994-06-28

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures. 5 figures.

  8. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  9. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F.

    1981-09-01

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  10. Multifunctional Energy Storage and Conversion Devices.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Zhu, Minshen; Huang, Yang; Pei, Zengxia; Li, Hongfei; Wang, Zifeng; Xue, Qi; Zhi, Chunyi

    2016-10-01

    Multifunctional energy storage and conversion devices that incorporate novel features and functions in intelligent and interactive modes, represent a radical advance in consumer products, such as wearable electronics, healthcare devices, artificial intelligence, electric vehicles, smart household, and space satellites, etc. Here, smart energy devices are defined to be energy devices that are responsive to changes in configurational integrity, voltage, mechanical deformation, light, and temperature, called self-healability, electrochromism, shape memory, photodetection, and thermal responsivity. Advisable materials, device designs, and performances are crucial for the development of energy electronics endowed with these smart functions. Integrating these smart functions in energy storage and conversion devices gives rise to great challenges from the viewpoint of both understanding the fundamental mechanisms and practical implementation. Current state-of-art examples of these smart multifunctional energy devices, pertinent to materials, fabrication strategies, and performances, are highlighted. In addition, current challenges and potential solutions from materials synthesis to device performances are discussed. Finally, some important directions in this fast developing field are considered to further expand their application.

  11. Engineered nanomembranes for smart energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Yu; Schmidt, Oliver G; Yan, Chenglin

    2016-03-07

    Engineered nanomembranes are of great interest not only for large-scale energy storage devices, but also for on-chip energy storage integrated microdevices (such as microbatteries, microsupercapacitors, on-chip capacitors, etc.) because of their large active surfaces for electrochemical reactions, shortened paths for fast ion diffusion, and easy engineering for microdevice applications. In addition, engineered nanomembranes provide a lab-on-chip electrochemical device platform for probing the correlations of electrode structure, electrical/ionic conductivity, and electrochemical kinetics with device performance. This review focuses on the recent progress in engineered nanomembranes including tubular nanomembranes and planar nanomembranes, with the aim to provide a systematic summary of their fabrication, modification, and energy storage applications in lithium-ion batteries, lithium-oxygen batteries, on-chip electrostatic capacitors and micro-supercapacitors. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between engineered nanomembranes and electrochemical properties of lithium ion storage with engineered single-tube microbatteries is given, and the flexibility and transparency of micro-supercapacitors is also discussed. Remarks on challenges and perspectives related to engineered nanomembranes for the further development of energy storage applications conclude this review.

  12. Stretchable energy storage and conversion devices.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chaoyi; Lee, Pooi See

    2014-09-10

    Stretchable electronics are a type of mechanically robust electronics which can be bended, folded, crumpled and stretched and represent the emerging direction towards next-generation wearable and implantable devices. Unlike existing electronics based on rigid Si technologies, stretchable devices can conform to the complex non-coplanar surfaces and provide unique functionalities which are unreachable with simple extension of conventional technologies. Stretchable energy storage and conversion devices are the key components for the fabrication of complete and independent stretchable systems. In this review, we present the recent progresses in the developments of stretchable power sources including supercapacitors, batteries and solar cells. Representative structural and material designs to impart stretchability to the originally rigid devices are discussed. Advantages and drawbacks associated with the fabrication methods are also analysed. Summaries of the research progresses along with future development directions for this exciting field are also presented.

  13. Blood storage device and method for oxygen removal

    DOEpatents

    Bitensky, Mark W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a storage device and method for the long-term storage of blood and, more particularly, to a blood storage device and method capable of removing oxygen from the stored blood and thereby prolonging the storage life of the deoxygenated blood.

  14. Development of nanocomposites for energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Md. Ashiqur Rahaman

    With the ever-increasing need in improving the performance and operation life of future mobile devices, developing higher power density energy storage devices has been receiving more attention. Lithium ion battery (LIB) and capacitor are two of the most widely used energy storage devices and have attracted increasing interest from both industrial and academic fields. Batteries have higher power density than capacitor but significantly longer charge/discharge rates. In order to further improve the performance of these energy storage devices, one of the approaches is to use high specific surface area nano-materials. Among all the nano-materials developed so far, one-dimensional nanowires are of special interests because of their high surface-to-volume ratio and aligned pathway for electron diffusion and conduction. Therefore, in this thesis work, zinc oxide nanowires are implemented as an anode along with carbon fiber/graphene to increase the performance of LIB while lead titanate nanowires are used to improve the energy density of capacitors. For batteries, zinc oxide nanowires are grown on carbon cloth by low temperature hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to analyze morphology and crystal structures of samples. The performances of LIB using zinc oxide nanowire coated carbon cloth and bare carbon cloth are compared to show the improvement induced by zinc oxide nanowires. For capacitors, lead titanate (PTO) nanowires are used with Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) to make nanocomposites of high dielectric constants. Lead titanate nanowires are synthesized by low temperature hydrothermal method. XRD and SEM are used to analyze as synthesized nanowires. Different volume fraction of PTO nanowires is used with PVDF to make dielectric for capacitor. Dielectric constant and breakdown voltage at variable frequency are determined to calculate energy density and specific energy density. The influence of temperature on

  15. Image readout device with electronically variable spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, H. A.

    1981-07-01

    An invention relating to the use of a standing acoustic wave charge storage device as an image readout device is described. A frequency f sub 1 was applied to the storage transfer device to create a traveling electric field in the device in one direction along a straight line. A second frequency f sub 2 was applied to the charge transfer device to create a traveling electric field opposite to the first traveling electric field. A standing wave was created. When an image was focused on the charge transfer device, light was stored in the wells of the standing wave. When the frequency f sub 2 is removed from the device, the standing wave tends to break up and the charges stored move to an electrode connected to an output terminal and to a utilization device where the received charges represent the image on the surface of the charge transfer device along a projection of said straight line.

  16. Cooling of superconducting devices by liquid storage and refrigeration unit

    DOEpatents

    Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Urbahn, John Arthur; Steinbach, Albert Eugene

    2013-08-20

    A system is disclosed for cooling superconducting devices. The system includes a cryogen cooling system configured to be coupled to the superconducting device and to supply cryogen to the device. The system also includes a cryogen storage system configured to supply cryogen to the device. The system further includes flow control valving configured to selectively isolate the cryogen cooling system from the device, thereby directing a flow of cryogen to the device from the cryogen storage system.

  17. Nonaqueous electrolyte for electrical storage devices

    DOEpatents

    McEwen, Alan B.; Yair, Ein-Eli

    1999-01-01

    Improved nonaqueous electrolytes for application in electrical storage devices such as electrochemical capacitors or batteries are disclosed. The electrolytes of the invention contain salts consisting of alkyl substituted, cyclic delocalized aromatic cations, and their perfluoro derivatives, and certain polyatomic anions having a van der Waals volume less than or equal to 100 .ANG..sup.3, preferably inorganic perfluoride anions and most preferably PF.sub.6.sup.-, the salts being dissolved in organic liquids, and preferably alkyl carbonate solvents, or liquid sulfur dioxide or combinations thereof, at a concentration of greater than 0.5M and preferably greater than 1.0M. Exemplary electrolytes comprise 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate dissolved in a cyclic or acylic alkyl carbonate, or methyl formate, or a combination therof. These improved electrolytes have useful characteristics such as higher conductivity, higher concentration, higher energy storage capabilities, and higher power characteristics compared to prior art electrolytes. Stacked capacitor cells using electrolytes of the invention permit high energy, high voltage storage.

  18. Intrauterine device (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... uses copper as the active contraceptive, others use progesterone in a plastic device. IUDs are very effective ... less than 2% chance per year for the progesterone IUD, less than 1% chance per year for ...

  19. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S.; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

    2016-04-26

    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  20. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

    2015-01-27

    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  1. Elastomeric member for energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.; Chute, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16), disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, transition end sections, and is attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). During manufacture, woven wire mesh sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle. Each sleeve (26, 28) contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween.

  2. Multidimensional materials and device architectures for future hybrid energy storage

    DOE PAGES

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Dunn, Bruce; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-07

    Electrical energy storage plays a vital role in daily life due to our dependence on numerous portable electronic devices. Moreover, with the continued miniaturization of electronics, integration of wireless devices into our homes and clothes and the widely anticipated ‘Internet of Things’, there are intensive efforts to develop miniature yet powerful electrical energy storage devices. Here, this review addresses the cutting edge of electrical energy storage technology, outlining approaches to overcome current limitations and providing future research directions towards the next generation of electrical energy storage devices whose characteristics represent a true hybridization of batteries and electrochemical capacitors.

  3. Multidimensional materials and device architectures for future hybrid energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Dunn, Bruce; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-01

    Electrical energy storage plays a vital role in daily life due to our dependence on numerous portable electronic devices. Moreover, with the continued miniaturization of electronics, integration of wireless devices into our homes and clothes and the widely anticipated `Internet of Things', there are intensive efforts to develop miniature yet powerful electrical energy storage devices. This review addresses the cutting edge of electrical energy storage technology, outlining approaches to overcome current limitations and providing future research directions towards the next generation of electrical energy storage devices whose characteristics represent a true hybridization of batteries and electrochemical capacitors.

  4. Efficient micromagnetics for magnetic storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar Acevedo, Marco Antonio

    Micromagnetics is an important component for advancing the magnetic nanostructures understanding and design. Numerous existing and prospective magnetic devices rely on micromagnetic analysis, these include hard disk drives, magnetic sensors, memories, microwave generators, and magnetic logic. The ability to examine, describe, and predict the magnetic behavior, and macroscopic properties of nanoscale magnetic systems is essential for improving the existing devices, for progressing in their understanding, and for enabling new technologies. This dissertation describes efficient micromagnetic methods as required for magnetic storage analysis. Their performance and accuracy is demonstrated by studying realistic, complex, and relevant micromagnetic system case studies. An efficient methodology for dynamic micromagnetics in large scale simulations is used to study the writing process in a full scale model of a magnetic write head. An efficient scheme, tailored for micromagnetics, to find the minimum energy state on a magnetic system is presented. This scheme can be used to calculate hysteresis loops. An efficient scheme, tailored for micromagnetics, to find the minimum energy path between two stable states on a magnetic system is presented. This minimum energy path is intimately related to the thermal stability.

  5. Multimode imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M

    2013-08-27

    Apparatus for detecting and locating a source of gamma rays of energies ranging from 10-20 keV to several MeV's includes plural gamma ray detectors arranged in a generally closed extended array so as to provide Compton scattering imaging and coded aperture imaging simultaneously. First detectors are arranged in a spaced manner about a surface defining the closed extended array which may be in the form a circle, a sphere, a square, a pentagon or higher order polygon. Some of the gamma rays are absorbed by the first detectors closest to the gamma source in Compton scattering, while the photons that go unabsorbed by passing through gaps disposed between adjacent first detectors are incident upon second detectors disposed on the side farthest from the gamma ray source, where the first spaced detectors form a coded aperture array for two or three dimensional gamma ray source detection.

  6. Influence of technology on magnetic tape storage device characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gniewek, John J.; Vogel, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    There are available today many data storage devices that serve the diverse application requirements of the consumer, professional entertainment, and computer data processing industries. Storage technologies include semiconductors, several varieties of optical disk, optical tape, magnetic disk, and many varieties of magnetic tape. In some cases, devices are developed with specific characteristics to meet specification requirements. In other cases, an existing storage device is modified and adapted to a different application. For magnetic tape storage devices, examples of the former case are 3480/3490 and QIC device types developed for the high end and low end segments of the data processing industry respectively, VHS, Beta, and 8 mm formats developed for consumer video applications, and D-1, D-2, D-3 formats developed for professional video applications. Examples of modified and adapted devices include 4 mm, 8 mm, 12.7 mm and 19 mm computer data storage devices derived from consumer and professional audio and video applications. With the conversion of the consumer and professional entertainment industries from analog to digital storage and signal processing, there have been increasing references to the 'convergence' of the computer data processing and entertainment industry technologies. There has yet to be seen, however, any evidence of convergence of data storage device types. There are several reasons for this. The diversity of application requirements results in varying degrees of importance for each of the tape storage characteristics.

  7. Metal sulfide electrodes and energy storage devices thereof

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Woodford, William Henry; Li, Zheng; Carter, W. Craig

    2017-02-28

    The present invention generally relates to energy storage devices, and to metal sulfide energy storage devices in particular. Some aspects of the invention relate to energy storage devices comprising at least one flowable electrode, wherein the flowable electrode comprises an electroactive metal sulfide material suspended and/or dissolved in a carrier fluid. In some embodiments, the flowable electrode further comprises a plurality of electronically conductive particles suspended and/or dissolved in the carrier fluid, wherein the electronically conductive particles form a percolating conductive network. An energy storage device comprising a flowable electrode comprising a metal sulfide electroactive material and a percolating conductive network may advantageously exhibit, upon reversible cycling, higher energy densities and specific capacities than conventional energy storage devices.

  8. Toward flexible polymer and paper-based energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, Leif; Nyström, Gustav; Mihranyan, Albert; Strømme, Maria

    2011-09-01

    All-polymer and paper-based energy storage devices have significant inherent advantages in comparison with many currently employed batteries and supercapacitors regarding environmental friendliness, flexibility, cost and versatility. The research within this field is currently undergoing an exciting development as new polymers, composites and paper-based devices are being developed. In this report, we review recent progress concerning the development of flexible energy storage devices based on electronically conducting polymers and cellulose containing composites with particular emphasis on paper-based batteries and supercapacitors. We discuss recent progress in the development of the most commonly used electronically conducting polymers used in flexible device prototypes, the advantages and disadvantages of this type of energy storage devices, as well as the two main approaches used in the manufacturing of paper-based charge storage devices.

  9. Intrauterine contraceptive devices: MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Mark, A S; Hricak, H

    1987-02-01

    To assess the safety of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in women who have an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) in place, in vitro and in vivo studies were performed at both 0.35 and 1.5 T. Two commonly used IUDs were tested, one all of plastic, the other with a coil of copper wire on it. Specifically, the study assessed possible motion of the IUD in the magnetic field, potential of the IUD to heat up during two spin-echo imaging sequences commonly used in MR imaging of the pelvis (2,000/30 and 60 [repetition time, msec/echo time, msec], and 500/30), and the appearance on MR images of the IUD devices. A retrospective review of MR images of the pelvis in six women who had an IUD in place was also performed. Results show that an IUD does not move under the influence of the magnetic field, does not heat during spin-echo sequences commonly used for pelvic imaging, and does not produce artifacts in vitro or in vivo. Patients with either type of IUD can be safely imaged with MR, and MR images of the pelvis are not degraded by the presence of an IUD.

  10. Radiation-tolerant imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Colella, N.J.; Kimbrough, J.R.

    1996-11-19

    A barrier at a uniform depth for an entire wafer is used to produce imaging devices less susceptible to noise pulses produced by the passage of ionizing radiation. The barrier prevents charge created in the bulk silicon of a CCD detector or a semiconductor logic or memory device from entering the collection volume of each pixel in the imaging device. The charge barrier is a physical barrier, a potential barrier, or a combination of both. The physical barrier is formed by an SiO{sub 2} insulator. The potential barrier is formed by increasing the concentration of majority carriers (holes) to combine with the electron`s generated by the ionizing radiation. A manufacturer of CCD imaging devices can produce radiation-tolerant devices by merely changing the wafer type fed into his process stream from a standard wafer to one possessing a barrier beneath its surface, thus introducing a very small added cost to his production cost. An effective barrier type is an SiO{sub 2} layer. 7 figs.

  11. Radiation-tolerant imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Colella, Nicholas J.; Kimbrough, Joseph R.

    1996-01-01

    A barrier at a uniform depth for an entire wafer is used to produce imaging devices less susceptible to noise pulses produced by the passage of ionizing radiation. The barrier prevents charge created in the bulk silicon of a CCD detector or a semiconductor logic or memory device from entering the collection volume of each pixel in the imaging device. The charge barrier is a physical barrier, a potential barrier, or a combination of both. The physical barrier is formed by an SiO.sub.2 insulator. The potential barrier is formed by increasing the concentration of majority carriers (holes) to combine with the electron's generated by the ionizing radiation. A manufacturer of CCD imaging devices can produce radiation-tolerant devices by merely changing the wafer type fed into his process stream from a standard wafer to one possessing a barrier beneath its surface, thus introducing a very small added cost to his production cost. An effective barrier type is an SiO.sub.2 layer.

  12. Exhaust system with emissions storage device and plasma reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hoard, John W.

    1998-01-01

    An exhaust system for a combustion system, comprising a storage device for collecting NO.sub.x, hydrocarbon, or particulate emissions, or mixture of these emissions, and a plasma reactor for destroying the collected emissions is described. After the emission is collected in by the storage device for a period of time, the emission is then destroyed in a non-thermal plasma generated by the plasma reactor. With respect to the direction of flow of the exhaust stream, the storage device must be located before the terminus of the plasma reactor, and it may be located wholly before, overlap with, or be contained within the plasma reactor.

  13. Device for wavelength-selective imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V.

    2010-09-14

    An imaging device captures both a visible light image and a diagnostic image, the diagnostic image corresponding to emissions from an imaging medium within the object. The visible light image (which may be color or grayscale) and the diagnostic image may be superimposed to display regions of diagnostic significance within a visible light image. A number of imaging media may be used according to an intended application for the imaging device, and an imaging medium may have wavelengths above, below, or within the visible light spectrum. The devices described herein may be advantageously packaged within a single integrated device or other solid state device, and/or employed in an integrated, single-camera medical imaging system, as well as many non-medical imaging systems that would benefit from simultaneous capture of visible-light wavelength images along with images at other wavelengths.

  14. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments... maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source... meters, radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment and...

  15. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments... maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source... meters, radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment and...

  16. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments... maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source... meters, radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment and...

  17. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments... maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source... meters, radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment and...

  18. Performance Modeling of Network-Attached Storage Device Based Hierarchical Mass Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menasce, Daniel A.; Pentakalos, Odysseas I.

    1995-01-01

    Network attached storage devices improve I/O performance by separating control and data paths and eliminating host intervention during the data transfer phase. Devices are attached to both a high speed network for data transfer and to a slower network for control messages. Hierarchical mass storage systems use disks to cache the most recently used files and a combination of robotic and manually mounted tapes to store the bulk of the files in the file system. This paper shows how queuing network models can be used to assess the performance of hierarchical mass storage systems that use network attached storage devices as opposed to host attached storage devices. Simulation was used to validate the model. The analytic model presented here can be used, among other things, to evaluate the protocols involved in 1/0 over network attached devices.

  19. Fabricating a hybrid imaging device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadsworth, Mark (Inventor); Atlas, Gene (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A hybrid detector or imager includes two substrates fabricated under incompatible processes. An array of detectors, such as charged-coupled devices, are formed on the first substrate using a CCD fabrication process, such as a buried channel or peristaltic process. One or more charge-converting amplifiers are formed on a second substrate using a CMOS fabrication process. The two substrates are then bonded together to form a hybrid detector.

  20. Crosstalk compensation in analysis of energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Christophersen, Jon P; Morrison, John L; Morrison, William H; Motloch, Chester G; Rose, David M

    2014-06-24

    Estimating impedance of energy storage devices includes generating input signals at various frequencies with a frequency step factor therebetween. An excitation time record (ETR) is generated to include a summation of the input signals and a deviation matrix of coefficients is generated relative to the excitation time record to determine crosstalk between the input signals. An energy storage device is stimulated with the ETR and simultaneously a response time record (RTR) is captured that is indicative of a response of the energy storage device to the ETR. The deviation matrix is applied to the RTR to determine an in-phase component and a quadrature component of an impedance of the energy storage device at each of the different frequencies with the crosstalk between the input signals substantially removed. This approach enables rapid impedance spectra measurements that can be completed within one period of the lowest frequency or less.

  1. How to Use Removable Mass Storage Memory Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Mass storage refers to the variety of ways to keep large amounts of information that are used on a computer. Over the years, the removable storage devices have grown smaller, increased in capacity, and transferred the information to the computer faster. The 8" floppy disk of the 1960s stored 100 kilobytes, or about 60 typewritten, double-spaced…

  2. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2016-10-25

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  3. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2016-11-22

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  4. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2015-11-24

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  5. The strain capacitor: A novel energy storage device

    SciTech Connect

    Deb Shuvra, Pranoy; McNamara, Shamus

    2014-12-15

    A novel electromechanical energy storage device is reported that has the potential to have high energy densities. It can efficiently store both mechanical strain energy and electrical energy in the form of an electric field between the electrodes of a strain-mismatched bilayer capacitor. When the charged device is discharged, both the electrical and mechanical energy are extracted in an electrical form. The charge-voltage profile of the device is suitable for energy storage applications since a larger portion of the stored energy can be extracted at higher voltage levels compared to a normal capacitor. Its unique features include the potential for long lifetime, safety, portability, wide operating temperature range, and environment friendliness. The device can be designed to operate over varied operating voltage ranges by selecting appropriate materials and by changing the dimensions of the device. In this paper a finite element model of the device is developed to verify and demonstrate the potential of the device as an energy storage element. This device has the potential to replace conventional energy storage devices.

  6. High bit rate mass data storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The HDDR-II mass data storage system consists of a Leach MTR 7114 recorder reproducer, a wire wrapped, integrated circuit flat plane and necessary power supplies for the flat plane. These units, with interconnecting cables and control panel are enclosed in a common housing mounted on casters. The electronics used in the HDDR-II double density decoding and encoding techniques are described.

  7. Flexible energy-storage devices: design consideration and recent progress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianfu; Lu, Xihong; Liu, Bin; Chen, Di; Tong, Yexiang; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-07-23

    Flexible energy-storage devices are attracting increasing attention as they show unique promising advantages, such as flexibility, shape diversity, light weight, and so on; these properties enable applications in portable, flexible, and even wearable electronic devices, including soft electronic products, roll-up displays, and wearable devices. Consequently, considerable effort has been made in recent years to fulfill the requirements of future flexible energy-storage devices, and much progress has been witnessed. This review describes the most recent advances in flexible energy-storage devices, including flexible lithium-ion batteries and flexible supercapacitors. The latest successful examples in flexible lithium-ion batteries and their technological innovations and challenges are reviewed first. This is followed by a detailed overview of the recent progress in flexible supercapacitors based on carbon materials and a number of composites and flexible micro-supercapacitors. Some of the latest achievements regarding interesting integrated energy-storage systems are also reviewed. Further research direction is also proposed to surpass existing technological bottle-necks and realize idealized flexible energy-storage devices.

  8. Data storage, image tube type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipoma, P. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Method and apparatus for the storage of digital or analog electrical signals are provided by a memory storage system employing a conventional vidicon tube. At the beginning of an operating cycle, the vidicon is conditioned to accept electrical data input by exposing its photosensitive target to a short, high intensity light flash. A first electron beam scan of the photosensitive surface then sets up a charge pattern on the photosensitive target. A second electron beam scan of the photosensitive surface by an unmodulated electron beam then develops an output signal across an output resistor by using capacitive currents. The conditioning and scanning steps are operated repetitively at high speed using conventional television camera scan, sync, and power supply circuitry to provide a low cost data storage system.

  9. A visual-display and storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosomworth, D. R.; Moles, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Memory and display device uses cathodochromic material to store visual information and fast phosphor to recall information for display and electronic processing. Cathodochromic material changes color when bombarded with electrons, and is restored to its original color when exposed to light of appropiate wavelength.

  10. Laser-actuated holographic storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.; Nagle, E. M.; Steinmetz, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Device permits automatic selection of one out of thousands of pages in holographic memory system by using laser beam. In typical operation for 2 to 3 C temperature interval, using dc power supply with no power regulation, holograms were successfully written and erased over 2- by 2-cm area, using 80-mW argon laser beam.

  11. Fluid sample collection and storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, D.; Stone, S. E.

    1969-01-01

    Fluid sampling device collects a sample from a low-pressure fluid system and stores it for an indefinite period, with little risk of contamination of either the sample or the surrounding environment. The collector /a plastic bladder/ is separated from the sampler after a sample is collected.

  12. Flexible energy storage devices based on nanocomposite paper.

    PubMed

    Pushparaj, Victor L; Shaijumon, Manikoth M; Kumar, Ashavani; Murugesan, Saravanababu; Ci, Lijie; Vajtai, Robert; Linhardt, Robert J; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2007-08-21

    There is strong recent interest in ultrathin, flexible, safe energy storage devices to meet the various design and power needs of modern gadgets. To build such fully flexible and robust electrochemical devices, multiple components with specific electrochemical and interfacial properties need to be integrated into single units. Here we show that these basic components, the electrode, separator, and electrolyte, can all be integrated into single contiguous nanocomposite units that can serve as building blocks for a variety of thin mechanically flexible energy storage devices. Nanoporous cellulose paper embedded with aligned carbon nanotube electrode and electrolyte constitutes the basic unit. The units are used to build various flexible supercapacitor, battery, hybrid, and dual-storage battery-in-supercapacitor devices. The thin freestanding nanocomposite paper devices offer complete mechanical flexibility during operation. The supercapacitors operate with electrolytes including aqueous solvents, room temperature ionic liquids, and bioelectrolytes and over record temperature ranges. These easy-to-assemble integrated nanocomposite energy-storage systems could provide unprecedented design ingenuity for a variety of devices operating over a wide range of temperature and environmental conditions.

  13. Charge-coupled device image sensor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design specifications and predicted performance characteristics of a Charge-Coupled Device Area Imager and a Charge-Coupled Device Linear Imager are presented. The Imagers recommended are intended for use in space-borne imaging systems and therefore would meet the requirements for the intended application. A unique overlapping metal electrode structure and a buried channel structure are described. Reasons for the particular imager designs are discussed.

  14. Pilot Project for Spaceborne Massive Optical Storage Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. J.

    1996-01-01

    A space bound storage device has many special requirements. In addition to large storage capacity, fas read/ write time, and high reliability, it also needs to have small volume, light weight, low power consumption, radiation hardening, ability to operate in extreme temperature ranges, etc. Holographic optical recording technology, which has been making major advancements in recent years, is an extremely promising candidate. The goal of this pilot project is to demonstrate a laboratory bench-top holographic optical recording storage system (HORSS) based on nonlinear polymer films 1 and/or other advanced photo-refractive materials. This system will be used as a research vehicle to study relevant optical properties of novel holographic optical materials, to explore massive optical storage technologies based on the photo-refractive effect and to evaluate the feasibility of developing a massive storage system, based on holographic optical recording technology, for a space bound experiment in the near future.

  15. Integrated devices to realize energy conversion and storage simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Zhibin; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-06-24

    Other forms of energy are generally converted to electric energy and then transported to electrochemical devices, where the energy is stored, by external electric wires. To further improve total energy conversion and storage efficiency, interest in simultaneously realize the energy conversion and storage in a single device has increased. This Concept describes recent progress in developing such novel integrated energy devices. Both planar and wire architectures are carefully illustrated with an emphasis on the "energy wire" which has been the focus of past developments due to its unique and promising applications, such as being woven into clothes or other complex structures by conventional textile technology. The current challenges and future directions of the integrated devices, particularly in the wire architecture, are summarized.

  16. Bypass apparatus and method for series connected energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik

    2000-01-01

    A bypass apparatus and method for series connected energy storage devices. Each of the energy storage devices coupled to a common series connection has an associated bypass unit connected thereto in parallel. A current bypass unit includes a sensor which is coupled in parallel with an associated energy storage device or cell and senses an energy parameter indicative of an energy state of the cell, such as cell voltage. A bypass switch is coupled in parallel with the energy storage cell and operable between a non-activated state and an activated state. The bypass switch, when in the non-activated state, is substantially non-conductive with respect to current passing through the energy storage cell and, when in the activated state, provides a bypass current path for passing current to the series connection so as to bypass the associated cell. A controller controls activation of the bypass switch in response to the voltage of the cell deviating from a pre-established voltage setpoint. The controller may be included within the bypass unit or be disposed on a control platform external to the bypass unit. The bypass switch may, when activated, establish a permanent or a temporary bypass current path.

  17. Calibration of imaging luminance measuring devices (ILMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liying; Zheng, Feng; Zhu, Lingxi; Li, Ye; Huan, Kewei; Shi, Xiaoguang

    2015-11-01

    A method of calibration of imaging luminance measuring devices has been studied. By the device-independent color space transformation, the color image by digital camera could be converted to the CIE's absolute color space lab. Then, the calibration model is fitted between ln(L/t) and luminance. At last, luminance image is obtained and the dynamic range of luminance image could be adjusted by shutter speed.

  18. Storage and retrieval of medical images from data warehouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikekar, Rahul V.; Fotouhi, Farshad A.; Ragan, Don P.

    1995-11-01

    As our applications continue to become more sophisticated, the demand for more storage continues to rise. Hence many businesses are looking toward data warehousing technology to satisfy their storage needs. A warehouse is different from a conventional database and hence deserves a different approach while storing data that might be retrieved at a later point in time. In this paper we look at the problem of storing and retrieving medical image data from a warehouse. We regard the warehouse as a pyramid with fast storage devices at the top and slower storage devices at the bottom. Our approach is to store the most needed information abstract at the top of the pyramid and more detailed and storage consuming data toward the end of the pyramid. This information is linked for browsing purposes. In a similar fashion, during the retrieval of data, the user is given a sample representation with browse option of the detailed data and, as required, more and more details are made available.

  19. Optical Imaging versus Paper Records Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldygo, Robert

    1999-01-01

    States that the maintenance and storage of paper documents has many inherent weaknesses, including hidden costs and attached risks. Asserts that document imaging is a viable, up-to-date technology that could eliminate many of these costs and risks. Describes the system benefits, scope, requirements, and costs and the legality of optically stored…

  20. Architectures and Devices for Millimeter Wave Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Architectures and Devices for Millimeter Wave Imaging by David A. Wikner , Joseph N. Mait, and Mark Mirotznik ARL-TR-4733 February 2009...4733 February 2009 Architectures and Devices for Millimeter Wave Imaging David A. Wikner and Joseph N. Mait Sensors and Electron Devices...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David A. Wikner , Joseph N. Mait, and Mark Mirotznik 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER

  1. Development of an innovative spacecraft thermal storage device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Scaringe, Robert P.; Pratt, David M.

    Several adsorbent-refrigerant pairs have been examined which demonstrate that the innovative heat-pump-adsorption storage device (HPASD) presented can provide significant thermal storage in a vapor-compressor heat pump. The thermal storage capacity of HPASD systems with methanol on calcium chloride as the adsorbent pair was 54.8 kJ/kg with a radiator area of 17 sq m for a 50-kW peak thermal load. Values for a pumped loop were 15 kJ/kg with a 202-sq m radiator area. Heat pumps with methanol as the working fluid have a storage capacity of 24 kJ/kg and a radiator area of 70 sq m. Phase change materials have values in the range of 12.6 kJ/kg (n-octadecane with a 30 deg delta T) to 37 kJ/kg (gallium with a 10 deg delta T). The radiator areas for these phase change systems range from 225 to 43 sq m, respectively. Data collected to date indicate that the HPASD device has superior thermal storage characteristics when compared with other systems under typical use conditions.

  2. Use of mobile devices for medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Hirschorn, David S; Choudhri, Asim F; Shih, George; Kim, Woojin

    2014-12-01

    Mobile devices have fundamentally changed personal computing, with many people forgoing the desktop and even laptop computer altogether in favor of a smaller, lighter, and cheaper device with a touch screen. Doctors and patients are beginning to expect medical images to be available on these devices for consultative viewing, if not actual diagnosis. However, this raises serious concerns with regard to the ability of existing mobile devices and networks to quickly and securely move these images. Medical images often come in large sets, which can bog down a network if not conveyed in an intelligent manner, and downloaded data on a mobile device are highly vulnerable to a breach of patient confidentiality should that device become lost or stolen. Some degree of regulation is needed to ensure that the software used to view these images allows all relevant medical information to be visible and manipulated in a clinically acceptable manner. There also needs to be a quality control mechanism to ensure that a device's display accurately conveys the image content without loss of contrast detail. Furthermore, not all mobile displays are appropriate for all types of images. The smaller displays of smart phones, for example, are not well suited for viewing entire chest radiographs, no matter how small and numerous the pixels of the display may be. All of these factors should be taken into account when deciding where, when, and how to use mobile devices for the display of medical images.

  3. Symmetric Electrodes for Electrochemical Energy-Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Dou, Shi Xue; Liu, Hua Kun; Huang, Yunhui; Hu, Xianluo

    2016-12-01

    Increasing environmental problems and energy challenges have so far attracted urgent demand for developing green and efficient energy-storage systems. Among various energy-storage technologies, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and especially the already commercialized lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are playing very important roles in the portable electronic devices or the next-generation electric vehicles. Therefore, the research for finding new electrode materials with reduced cost, improved safety, and high-energy density in these energy storage systems has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands. Symmetric electrodes have recently become a research focus because they employ the same active materials as both the cathode and anode in the same energy-storage system, leading to the reduced manufacturing cost and simplified fabrication process. Most importantly, this feature also endows the symmetric energy-storage system with improved safety, longer lifetime, and ability of charging in both directions. In this Progress Report, we provide the comprehensive summary and comment on different symmetric electrodes and focus on the research about the applications of symmetric electrodes in different energy-storage systems, such as the above mentioned SIBs, ECs and LIBs. Further considerations on the possibility of mass production have also been presented.

  4. Symmetric Electrodes for Electrochemical Energy‐Storage Devices

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Dou, Shi Xue; Huang, Yunhui

    2016-01-01

    Increasing environmental problems and energy challenges have so far attracted urgent demand for developing green and efficient energy‐storage systems. Among various energy‐storage technologies, sodium‐ion batteries (SIBs), electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and especially the already commercialized lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs) are playing very important roles in the portable electronic devices or the next‐generation electric vehicles. Therefore, the research for finding new electrode materials with reduced cost, improved safety, and high‐energy density in these energy storage systems has been an important way to satisfy the ever‐growing demands. Symmetric electrodes have recently become a research focus because they employ the same active materials as both the cathode and anode in the same energy‐storage system, leading to the reduced manufacturing cost and simplified fabrication process. Most importantly, this feature also endows the symmetric energy‐storage system with improved safety, longer lifetime, and ability of charging in both directions. In this Progress Report, we provide the comprehensive summary and comment on different symmetric electrodes and focus on the research about the applications of symmetric electrodes in different energy‐storage systems, such as the above mentioned SIBs, ECs and LIBs. Further considerations on the possibility of mass production have also been presented. PMID:27981003

  5. Monitoring of Detection Probability in QNDE Devices for Storage Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlin, Y. H.

    2005-04-01

    Tightness-testing devices for underground storage tanks have to be monitored for their probability of detection, and that of a false alarm, during exploitation. The monitoring methods used in Israel is presented, and data on the distributions of the leakage measurement results and of fuel temperatures — and on the rates of change of the latter in the course of the measurements, in terms of their effect on accuracy. Other factors are also discussed.

  6. Sequential Evaluation of QNDE Devices for Underground Storage Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlin, Y. H.

    2003-03-01

    Data showing that QNDE devices for tightness testing of storage tanks require periodic precision checks under maximum reproduction of the field conditions. The measurement error was larger than the accuracy prescribed by standards, and much larger than that claimed by the manufacturer. In the paper, the algorithm based on the sequential approach for such tests, and the probability distributions of the number of measurements up to a positive/negative serviceability decision -are substantiated.

  7. PCM/ graphite foam composite for thermal energy storage device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, C. X.; Ma, X. L.; Yang, L.

    2015-07-01

    Numerical studies are proposed to predict and investigate the thermal characteristics of a thermal storage device consists of graphite foam matrix saturated with phase change material, PCM. The composite (graphite foam matrix saturated with PCM) is prepared by impregnation method under vacuum condition, and then is introduced into a cylindrical shell and tube device while it experiences its heat from an inner tube fluid. The two-dimensional numerical simulation is performed using the volume averaging technique; while the phases change process is modelled using the enthalpy porosity method. A series of numerical calculations have been done in order to analyze the influence of fluid operating conditions on the melting process of the paraffin/graphite foam. The results are given in terms of temperature or liquid fraction time history in paraffin/graphite foam composite, which show that the heat transfer rate of the device is effectively improved due to the high thermal conductivity of graphite foams. Therefore, paraffin/graphite foam composite can be considered as suitable candidates for latent heat thermal energy storage device.

  8. 10 CFR 34.73 - Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey... Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and...

  9. 10 CFR 34.73 - Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey... Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and...

  10. 10 CFR 34.73 - Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey... Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and...

  11. 10 CFR 34.73 - Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey... Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and...

  12. Scaling device for photographic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Jorge E. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Cox, Robert B. (Inventor); Haskell, William D. (Inventor); Stevenson, Charles G. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A scaling device projects a known optical pattern into the field of view of a camera, which can be employed as a reference scale in a resulting photograph of a remote object, for example. The device comprises an optical beam projector that projects two or more spaced, parallel optical beams onto a surface of a remotely located object to be photographed. The resulting beam spots or lines on the object are spaced from one another by a known, predetermined distance. As a result, the size of other objects or features in the photograph can be determined through comparison of their size to the known distance between the beam spots. Preferably, the device is a small, battery-powered device that can be attached to a camera and employs one or more laser light sources and associated optics to generate the parallel light beams. In a first embodiment of the invention, a single laser light source is employed, but multiple parallel beams are generated thereby through use of beam splitting optics. In another embodiment, multiple individual laser light sources are employed that are mounted in the device parallel to one another to generate the multiple parallel beams.

  13. Image display device in digital TV

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Seung Jong

    2006-07-18

    Disclosed is an image display device in a digital TV that is capable of carrying out the conversion into various kinds of resolution by using single bit map data in the digital TV. The image display device includes: a data processing part for executing bit map conversion, compression, restoration and format-conversion for text data; a memory for storing the bit map data obtained according to the bit map conversion and compression in the data processing part and image data inputted from an arbitrary receiving part, the receiving part receiving one of digital image data and analog image data; an image outputting part for reading the image data from the memory; and a display processing part for mixing the image data read from the image outputting part and the bit map data converted in format from the a data processing part. Therefore, the image display device according to the present invention can convert text data in such a manner as to correspond with various resolution, carry out the compression for bit map data, thereby reducing the memory space, and support text data of an HTML format, thereby providing the image with the text data of various shapes.

  14. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Rogers, Jan R.; Schramm, Harry F.; Fabisinski, Leo L.; Lowenthal, Mark; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between NthDegree Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications. Device development involves three projects that relate to energy generation and consumption: (1) a low-mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; (2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and (3) a new approach to building super-capacitors. These three technologies, energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting), represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies, appropriately replacing lighting with lightweight power generation, will be useful for enabling inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and to facilitate surface operations during lunar and planetary surface missions. The PV device model is a two sphere, light trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. For lighting applications, all three technology components are printable in-line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the three-dimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. One primary contribution to this work in the near term by the MSFC is to test the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh environments that prevail in space and on the lunar surface. It is anticipated that this composite device, of which the lighting component has passed off-gassing testing, will function

  15. Materials and structures for stretchable energy storage and conversion devices.

    PubMed

    Xie, Keyu; Wei, Bingqing

    2014-06-11

    Stretchable energy storage and conversion devices (ESCDs) are attracting intensive attention due to their promising and potential applications in realistic consumer products, ranging from portable electronics, bio-integrated devices, space satellites, and electric vehicles to buildings with arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Material synthesis and structural design are core in the development of highly stretchable supercapacitors, batteries, and solar cells for practical applications. This review provides a brief summary of research development on the stretchable ESCDs in the past decade, from structural design strategies to novel materials synthesis. The focuses are on the fundamental insights of mechanical characteristics of materials and structures on the performance of the stretchable ESCDs, as well as challenges for their practical applications. Finally, some of the important directions in the areas of material synthesis and structural design facing the stretchable ESCDs are discussed.

  16. 2D materials for renewable energy storage devices: Outlook and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Ramkrishna; Pal, Anjali; Pal, Tarasankar

    2016-11-15

    Scientists are looking for cost-effective, clean and durable alternative energy devices. Superior charge storage devices can easily meet the demands of our daily needs. In this respect, a material with suitable dimensions for charge storage devices has been considered to be very important. Improved performance of charge storage devices has been derived from whole-body participation and the best are from 2D materials, which provide a viable and acceptable solution.

  17. Storage and retrieval of large digital images

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, Jonathan N.

    1998-01-01

    Image compression and viewing are implemented with (1) a method for performing DWT-based compression on a large digital image with a computer system possessing a two-level system of memory and (2) a method for selectively viewing areas of the image from its compressed representation at multiple resolutions and, if desired, in a client-server environment. The compression of a large digital image I(x,y) is accomplished by first defining a plurality of discrete tile image data subsets T.sub.ij (x,y) that, upon superposition, form the complete set of image data I(x,y). A seamless wavelet-based compression process is effected on I(x,y) that is comprised of successively inputting the tiles T.sub.ij (x,y) in a selected sequence to a DWT routine, and storing the resulting DWT coefficients in a first primary memory. These coefficients are periodically compressed and transferred to a secondary memory to maintain sufficient memory in the primary memory for data processing. The sequence of DWT operations on the tiles T.sub.ij (x,y) effectively calculates a seamless DWT of I(x,y). Data retrieval consists of specifying a resolution and a region of I(x,y) for display. The subset of stored DWT coefficients corresponding to each requested scene is determined and then decompressed for input to an inverse DWT, the output of which forms the image display. The repeated process whereby image views are specified may take the form an interaction with a computer pointing device on an image display from a previous retrieval.

  18. Storage and retrieval of large digital images

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.N.

    1998-01-20

    Image compression and viewing are implemented with (1) a method for performing DWT-based compression on a large digital image with a computer system possessing a two-level system of memory and (2) a method for selectively viewing areas of the image from its compressed representation at multiple resolutions and, if desired, in a client-server environment. The compression of a large digital image I(x,y) is accomplished by first defining a plurality of discrete tile image data subsets T{sub ij}(x,y) that, upon superposition, form the complete set of image data I(x,y). A seamless wavelet-based compression process is effected on I(x,y) that is comprised of successively inputting the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) in a selected sequence to a DWT routine, and storing the resulting DWT coefficients in a first primary memory. These coefficients are periodically compressed and transferred to a secondary memory to maintain sufficient memory in the primary memory for data processing. The sequence of DWT operations on the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) effectively calculates a seamless DWT of I(x,y). Data retrieval consists of specifying a resolution and a region of I(x,y) for display. The subset of stored DWT coefficients corresponding to each requested scene is determined and then decompressed for input to an inverse DWT, the output of which forms the image display. The repeated process whereby image views are specified may take the form an interaction with a computer pointing device on an image display from a previous retrieval. 6 figs.

  19. Graphene-Based Integrated Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting/Storage Device.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chih-Tao; Hiralal, Pritesh; Wang, Di-Yan; Huang, I-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Chun; Chen, Chun-Wei; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2015-06-24

    Energy scavenging has become a fundamental part of ubiquitous sensor networks. Of all the scavenging technologies, solar has the highest power density available. However, the energy source is erratic. Integrating energy conversion and storage devices is a viable route to obtain self-powered electronic systems which have long-term maintenance-free operation. In this work, we demonstrate an integrated-power-sheet, consisting of a string of series connected organic photovoltaic cells (OPCs) and graphene supercapacitors on a single substrate, using graphene as a common platform. This results in lighter and more flexible power packs. Graphene is used in different forms and qualities for different functions. Chemical vapor deposition grown high quality graphene is used as a transparent conductor, while solution exfoliated graphene pastes are used as supercapacitor electrodes. Solution-based coating techniques are used to deposit the separate components onto a single substrate, making the process compatible with roll-to-roll manufacture. Eight series connected OPCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60 BM) bulk-heterojunction cells with aluminum electrodes, resulting in a ≈5 V open-circuit voltage, provide the energy harvesting capability. Supercapacitors based on graphene ink with ≈2.5 mF cm(-2) capacitance provide the energy storage capability. The integrated-power-sheet with photovoltaic (PV) energy harvesting and storage functions had a mass of 0.35 g plus the substrate.

  20. Characterization and Evaluation of a Mass Efficient Heat Storage Device.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splinter, Scott C.; Blosser, Max L.; Gifford, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    The heat sponge is a device for mass-efficient storage of heat. It was developed to be incorporated in the substructure of a reentry or hypersonic vehicle to reduce thermal protection system requirements. The heat sponge consists of a liquid-vapor mixture contained within a number of miniature pressure vessels that can be embedded within a variety of different types of structures. As temperature is increased, pressure in the miniature pressure vessels also increases so that heat absorbed through vaporization of the liquid is spread over a relatively large temperature range. Using water as a working fluid, the heat storage capacity of the liquid-vapor mixture is many times higher than that of typical structural materials and is well above that of common phase change materials over the temperature range of 660oR to 1160oR. Prototype heat sponges were fabricated and characterized. These heat sponges consisted of 1.0 inch diameter hollow stainless steel spheres with a wall thickness of 0.020 inches which had varying percentages of their interior volumes filled with water. An apparatus to measure the heat stored in these prototype heat sponges was designed, fabricated, and verified. The heat storage capacity calculated from measured temperature histories is compared to numerical predictions.

  1. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.S.

    1993-08-31

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a Cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the Cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the Cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a Cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  2. Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    1993-01-01

    A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.

  3. 10 CFR 34.23 - Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage containers and source changers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage... § 34.23 Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage containers and source changers. (a) Each radiographic exposure device must have a lock or outer locked container designed to prevent unauthorized...

  4. 10 CFR 34.23 - Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage containers and source changers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage... § 34.23 Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage containers and source changers. (a) Each radiographic exposure device must have a lock or outer locked container designed to prevent unauthorized...

  5. 10 CFR 34.23 - Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage containers and source changers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage... § 34.23 Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage containers and source changers. (a) Each radiographic exposure device must have a lock or outer locked container designed to prevent unauthorized...

  6. 10 CFR 34.23 - Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage containers and source changers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage... § 34.23 Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage containers and source changers. (a) Each radiographic exposure device must have a lock or outer locked container designed to prevent unauthorized...

  7. 10 CFR 34.23 - Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage containers and source changers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage... § 34.23 Locking of radiographic exposure devices, storage containers and source changers. (a) Each radiographic exposure device must have a lock or outer locked container designed to prevent unauthorized...

  8. Energy Storage Devices For The Lunar And Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Yoshitsugu

    2011-10-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been developing energy storage devices for the lunar and planetary missions. Lithium-ion secondary cells were first used for the interplanetary spacecraft, HAYABUSA. For the future long-term operations on the moon and interplanetary orbit, in-orbit performance ofthe lithium-ion battery demonstrated by HAYABUSA has been examined. Applicability of the lithium-ion secondary cells to the lunar missions was also tested. Furthermore, the regenerative fuel cell system is one of the most important candidates to the future lunar and planetary missions where the higher energy density is required. We prepared the unitized regenerative fuel cell, and tested its performance to realize the system for the closed environment.

  9. Regenerative braking device with rotationally mounted energy storage means

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1982-03-16

    A regenerative braking device for an automotive vehicle includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (30) and an output shaft (32), clutches (50, 56) and brakes (52, 58) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. In a second embodiment the clutches and brakes are dispensed with and the variable ratio transmission is connected directly across the input and output shafts. In both embodiments the rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft rotates faster or relative to the output shaft and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft rotates faster or relative to the input shaft.

  10. Rim for rotary inertial energy storage device and method

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Pollard, Roy E.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved rim or a high-performance rotary inertial energy storage device (flywheel). The improved rim is fabricated from resin impregnated filamentary material which is circumferentially wound in a side-by-side relationship to form a plurality of discretely and sequentially formed concentric layers of filamentary material that are bound together in a resin matrix. The improved rim is provided by prestressing the filamentary material in each successive layer to a prescribed tension loading in accordance with a predetermined schedule during the winding thereof and then curing the resin in each layer prior to forming the next layer for providing a prestress distribution within the rim to effect a self-equilibrating compressive prestress within the windings which counterbalances the transverse or radial tensile stresses generated during rotation of the rim for inhibiting deleterious delamination problems.

  11. Theory of Electron Imaging in Small Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, Eric J.

    2015-05-21

    The research in this program involved theoretical investigations of the transport of charge in graphene and small heterostructure devices. There is an important trend toward imaging electronic systems in real space, with the goal of understanding the specifics of individual samples rather than settling for ensemble and statistical descriptions. For example one of our goals has been the understanding of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) imaging of systems in which the motion of the carriers is restricted to two degrees of freedom, such as in grapheme and the two dimensional electron (and hole) gas (2DEGs and 2DHGs) in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, or when the motion is restricted to one degree of freedom as in nanowires. SPM imaging uses the tip of a movable charged probe to alter the electrons locally, depleting or alternatively increasing the amount of charges in the electron gas just below the tip results in a change to the flow pattern of the charge. The focus of this research was on understanding how the tunable tip affects functional aspects of the device that can be used to understand electronic and transport properties. For instance, scanning over the device while measuring the conductance results in conductance maps, an imaging of the charge transport. This imaging is often semi-direct and requires theory and interpretation to extract all that can be deduced about the underlying physical quantities.

  12. Multiplexed image storage by electromagnetically induced transparency in a solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, G.; Rentzsch, N.; Halfmann, T.

    2012-11-01

    We report on frequency- and angle-multiplexed image storage by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. Frequency multiplexing by EIT relies on simultaneous storage of light pulses in atomic coherences, driven in different frequency ensembles of the inhomogeneously broadened solid medium. Angular multiplexing by EIT relies on phase matching of the driving laser beams, which permits simultaneous storage of light pulses propagating under different angles into the crystal. We apply the multiplexing techniques to increase the storage capacity of the EIT-driven optical memory, in particular to implement multiplexed storage of larger two-dimensional amounts of data (images). We demonstrate selective storage and readout of images by frequency-multiplexed EIT and angular-multiplexed EIT, as well as the potential to combine both multiplexing approaches towards further enhanced storage capacities.

  13. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a collective microgrid

    DOEpatents

    Robinett, III, Rush D.; Wilson, David G.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2016-02-16

    An electric power storage device is described herein, wherein the electric power storage device is included in a microgrid. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for a collective microgrid. The collective microgrid includes at least two connected microgrids. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the at least two connected microgrids and specified load parameters in the at least two connected microgrids.

  14. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section 892.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device....

  15. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section 892.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device....

  16. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section 892.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device....

  17. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section 892.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device....

  18. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section 892.2040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device....

  19. 3D Printed Graphene Based Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Foster, Christopher W; Down, Michael P; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Smith, Graham C; Kelly, Peter J; Banks, Craig E

    2017-03-03

    3D printing technology provides a unique platform for rapid prototyping of numerous applications due to its ability to produce low cost 3D printed platforms. Herein, a graphene-based polylactic acid filament (graphene/PLA) has been 3D printed to fabricate a range of 3D disc electrode (3DE) configurations using a conventional RepRap fused deposition moulding (FDM) 3D printer, which requires no further modification/ex-situ curing step. To provide proof-of-concept, these 3D printed electrode architectures are characterised both electrochemically and physicochemically and are advantageously applied as freestanding anodes within Li-ion batteries and as solid-state supercapacitors. These freestanding anodes neglect the requirement for a current collector, thus offering a simplistic and cheaper alternative to traditional Li-ion based setups. Additionally, the ability of these devices' to electrochemically produce hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as an alternative to currently utilised platinum based electrodes (with in electrolysers) is also performed. The 3DE demonstrates an unexpectedly high catalytic activity towards the HER (-0.46 V vs. SCE) upon the 1000th cycle, such potential is the closest observed to the desired value of platinum at (-0.25 V vs. SCE). We subsequently suggest that 3D printing of graphene-based conductive filaments allows for the simple fabrication of energy storage devices with bespoke and conceptual designs to be realised.

  20. A new system for digital image acquisition, storage and presentation in an accident and emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, G; Roebuck, S; Steedman, D

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To develop a computer based storage system for clinical images—radiographs, photographs, ECGs, text—for use in teaching, training, reference and research within an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Exploration of methods to access and utilise the data stored in the archive. Methods—Implementation of a digital image archive using flatbed scanner and digital camera as capture devices. A sophisticated coding system based on ICD 10. Storage via an "intelligent" custom interface. Results—A practical solution to the problems of clinical image storage for teaching purposes. Conclusions—We have successfully developed a digital image capture and storage system, which provides an excellent teaching facility for a busy A&E department. We have revolutionised the practice of the "hand-over meeting". PMID:11435357

  1. Optical imaging device of retinal function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardon, Randy H.; Kwon, Young; Truitt, Paul; Nemeth, Sheila C.; T'so, Dan; Soliz, Peter

    2002-06-01

    An optical imaging device of retina function (OID-RF) has been constructed to record changes in reflected 700-nm light from the fundus caused by retinal activation in response to a visual 535-nm stimulus. The resulting images reveal areas of the retina activated by visual stimulation. This device is a modified fundus camera designed to provide a patterned, moving visual stimulus over a 45-degree field of view to the subject in the green wavelength portion of the visual spectrum while simultaneously imaging the fundus in another, longer wavelength range. Data was collected from 3 normal subjects and recorded for 13 seconds at 4 Hz; 3 seconds were recorded during pre-stimulus baseline, 5 seconds during the stimulus, and 5 seconds post-stimulus. This procedure was repeated several times and, after image registration, the images were averaged to improve signal to noise. The change in reflected intensity from the retina due to the stimulus was then calculated by comparison to the pre-stimulus state. Reflected intensity from areas of stimulated retina began to increase steadily within 1 second after stimulus onset and decayed after stimulus offset. These results indicated that a functional optical signal can be recorded from the human eye.

  2. 3D Printed Graphene Based Energy Storage Devices

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Christopher W.; Down, Michael P.; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Smith, Graham C.; Kelly, Peter J.; Banks, Craig E.

    2017-01-01

    3D printing technology provides a unique platform for rapid prototyping of numerous applications due to its ability to produce low cost 3D printed platforms. Herein, a graphene-based polylactic acid filament (graphene/PLA) has been 3D printed to fabricate a range of 3D disc electrode (3DE) configurations using a conventional RepRap fused deposition moulding (FDM) 3D printer, which requires no further modification/ex-situ curing step. To provide proof-of-concept, these 3D printed electrode architectures are characterised both electrochemically and physicochemically and are advantageously applied as freestanding anodes within Li-ion batteries and as solid-state supercapacitors. These freestanding anodes neglect the requirement for a current collector, thus offering a simplistic and cheaper alternative to traditional Li-ion based setups. Additionally, the ability of these devices’ to electrochemically produce hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as an alternative to currently utilised platinum based electrodes (with in electrolysers) is also performed. The 3DE demonstrates an unexpectedly high catalytic activity towards the HER (−0.46 V vs. SCE) upon the 1000th cycle, such potential is the closest observed to the desired value of platinum at (−0.25 V vs. SCE). We subsequently suggest that 3D printing of graphene-based conductive filaments allows for the simple fabrication of energy storage devices with bespoke and conceptual designs to be realised. PMID:28256602

  3. 3D Printed Graphene Based Energy Storage Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Christopher W.; Down, Michael P.; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo; Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Smith, Graham C.; Kelly, Peter J.; Banks, Craig E.

    2017-03-01

    3D printing technology provides a unique platform for rapid prototyping of numerous applications due to its ability to produce low cost 3D printed platforms. Herein, a graphene-based polylactic acid filament (graphene/PLA) has been 3D printed to fabricate a range of 3D disc electrode (3DE) configurations using a conventional RepRap fused deposition moulding (FDM) 3D printer, which requires no further modification/ex-situ curing step. To provide proof-of-concept, these 3D printed electrode architectures are characterised both electrochemically and physicochemically and are advantageously applied as freestanding anodes within Li-ion batteries and as solid-state supercapacitors. These freestanding anodes neglect the requirement for a current collector, thus offering a simplistic and cheaper alternative to traditional Li-ion based setups. Additionally, the ability of these devices’ to electrochemically produce hydrogen via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as an alternative to currently utilised platinum based electrodes (with in electrolysers) is also performed. The 3DE demonstrates an unexpectedly high catalytic activity towards the HER (‑0.46 V vs. SCE) upon the 1000th cycle, such potential is the closest observed to the desired value of platinum at (‑0.25 V vs. SCE). We subsequently suggest that 3D printing of graphene-based conductive filaments allows for the simple fabrication of energy storage devices with bespoke and conceptual designs to be realised.

  4. Device for imaging scenes with very large ranges of intensity

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance Albert

    2011-11-15

    A device for imaging scenes with a very large range of intensity having a pair of polarizers, a primary lens, an attenuating mask, and an imaging device optically connected along an optical axis. Preferably, a secondary lens, positioned between the attenuating mask and the imaging device is used to focus light on the imaging device. The angle between the first polarization direction and the second polarization direction is adjustable.

  5. 21 CFR 892.2020 - Medical image communications device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical image communications device. 892.2020 Section 892.2020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2020 Medical image...

  6. 21 CFR 892.2020 - Medical image communications device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical image communications device. 892.2020 Section 892.2020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2020 Medical image...

  7. 21 CFR 892.2020 - Medical image communications device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical image communications device. 892.2020 Section 892.2020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2020 Medical image...

  8. 21 CFR 892.2020 - Medical image communications device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image communications device. 892.2020 Section 892.2020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2020 Medical image...

  9. 21 CFR 892.2020 - Medical image communications device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical image communications device. 892.2020 Section 892.2020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2020 Medical image...

  10. Digital imaging technology assessment: Digital document storage project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An ongoing technical assessment and requirements definition project is examining the potential role of digital imaging technology at NASA's STI facility. The focus is on the basic components of imaging technology in today's marketplace as well as the components anticipated in the near future. Presented is a requirement specification for a prototype project, an initial examination of current image processing at the STI facility, and an initial summary of image processing projects at other sites. Operational imaging systems incorporate scanners, optical storage, high resolution monitors, processing nodes, magnetic storage, jukeboxes, specialized boards, optical character recognition gear, pixel addressable printers, communications, and complex software processes.

  11. Microwave impedance imaging on semiconductor memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Lai, Keji; Yang, Yongliang; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2011-03-01

    Microwave impedance microscopy (MIM) maps out the real and imaginary components of the tip-sample impedance, from which the local conductivity and dielectric constant distribution can be derived. The stray field contribution is minimized in our shielded cantilever design, enabling quantitative analysis of nano-materials and device structures. We demonstrate here that the MIM can spatially resolve the conductivity variation in a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) sample. With DC or low-frequency AC bias applied to the tip, contrast between n-doped and p-doped regions in the dC/dV images is observed, and p-n junctions are highlighted in the dR/dV images. The results can be directly compared with data taken by scanning capacitance microscope (SCM), which uses unshielded cantilevers and resonant electronics, and the MIM reveals more information of the local dopant concentration than SCM.

  12. 77 FR 35718 - Certain Universal Serial Bus (“USB”) Portable Storage Devices, Including USB Flash Drives and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Universal Serial Bus (``USB'') Portable Storage Devices, Including USB Flash Drives and... importation of certain universal serial bus (``USB'') portable storage devices, including USB flash drives...

  13. Self-Protection of Electrochemical Storage Devices via a Thermal Reversible Sol-Gel Transition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Zhiyuan; Chandran, Bevita K; Deng, Jiyang; Yu, Jiancan; Qi, Dianpeng; Li, Wenlong; Tang, Yuxin; Zhang, Chenguang; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-10-07

    Thermal self-protected intelligent electrochemical storage devices are fabricated using a reversible sol-gel transition of the electrolyte, which can decrease the specific capacitance and increase and enable temperature-dependent charging and discharging rates in the device. This work represents proof of a simple and useful concept, which shows tremendous promise for the safe and controlled power delivery in electrochemical devices.

  14. Elastomeric actuator devices for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubowsky, Steven (Inventor); Hafez, Moustapha (Inventor); Jolesz, Ferenc A. (Inventor); Kacher, Daniel F. (Inventor); Lichter, Matthew (Inventor); Weiss, Peter (Inventor); Wingert, Andreas (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention is directed to devices and systems used in magnetic imaging environments that include an actuator device having an elastomeric dielectric film with at least two electrodes, and a frame attached to the actuator device. The frame can have a plurality of configurations including, such as, for example, at least two members that can be, but not limited to, curved beams, rods, plates, or parallel beams. These rigid members can be coupled to flexible members such as, for example, links wherein the frame provides an elastic restoring force. The frame preferably provides a linear actuation force characteristic over a displacement range. The linear actuation force characteristic is defined as .+-.20% and preferably 10% over a displacement range. The actuator further includes a passive element disposed between the flexible members to tune a stiffness characteristic of the actuator. The passive element can be a bi-stable element. The preferred embodiment actuator includes one or more layers of the elastomeric film integrated into the frame. The elastomeric film can be made of many elastomeric materials such as, for example, but not limited to, acrylic, silicone and latex.

  15. Modeling and Imaging Flexural Plate Wave Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.R.; Butler, M.A.; Chu, A.S.; Schubert, W.K.

    1999-07-09

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a new form of flexural plate wave device (FPW) for sensor applications. In this device, Lorentz forces cause out of plane vibrations in a silicon nitride membrane. Current induced in transducer lines on the membrane provides information about the amplitude and phase of these surface vibrations. By tracking the large amplitude vibrations that occur at resonant frequencies, it is possible to infer information about loading on the membrane. In fabricating FPWs, it is important to understand the impact that minor defects can have on operation. Through modeling and testing, they are developing resilient designs that provide large amplitude signals with a high tolerance to defects. A finite element model has been developed to perform design trade-off studies, and results from the model are being verified with a unique measurement system that can image Angstrom scale displacements at vibrational frequencies up to 800 kHz. Results from FPW modeling and imaging efforts are presented in this paper.

  16. Design and development of integral heat pipe/thermal energy storage devices. [used with spacecraft cryocoolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahefkey, E. T.; Richter, R.

    1981-01-01

    The major design and performance test subtasks in the development of small (200 to 1,000 whr) integral heat pipe/thermal energy storage devices for use with thermally driven spacecraft cryo-coolers are described. The design of the integral heat pipe/thermal energy storage device was based on a quasi steady resistance heat transfer, lumped capacitance model. Design considerations for the heat pipe and thermal storage annuli are presented. The thermomechanical stress and insulation system design for the device are reviewed. Experimental correlations are described, as are the plans for the further development of the concept.

  17. Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Flexible Electrochemical Energy Storage: from Materials to Devices.

    PubMed

    Wen, Lei; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Flexible electrochemical energy storage (FEES) devices have received great attention as a promising power source for the emerging field of flexible and wearable electronic devices. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have many excellent properties that make them ideally suited for use in FEES devices. A brief definition of FEES devices is provided, followed by a detailed overview of various structural models for achieving different FEES devices. The latest research developments on the use of CNTs and graphene in FEES devices are summarized. Finally, future prospects and important research directions in the areas of CNT- and graphene-based flexible electrode synthesis and device integration are discussed.

  18. Flexible Graphene-based Energy Storage Devices for Space Application Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2014-01-01

    Develop prototype graphene-based reversible energy storage devices that are flexible, thin, lightweight, durable, and that can be easily attached to spacesuits, rovers, landers, and equipment used in space.

  19. VIEW OF THE ORBITER WHEEL STORAGE DEVICES, ROOM 1M8, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE ORBITER WHEEL STORAGE DEVICES, ROOM 1M8, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. Method of testing active latent-heat storage devices based on thermal performance. (ASHRAE standard)

    SciTech Connect

    1985-01-26

    The purpose of this standard is to provide a standard procedure for determining the thermal performance of latent heat thermal energy storage devices used in heating, air-conditioning, and service hot water systems.

  1. Scalable fault tolerant image communication and storage grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slik, David; Seiler, Oliver; Altman, Tym; Montour, Mike; Kermani, Mohammad; Proseilo, Walter; Terry, David; Kawahara, Midori; Leckie, Chris; Muir, Dale

    2003-05-01

    Increasing production and use of digital medical imagery are driving new approaches to information storage and management. Traditional, centralized approaches to image communication, storage and archiving are becoming increasingly expensive to scale and operate with high levels of reliability. Multi-site, geographically-distributed deployments connected by limited-bandwidth networks present further scalability, reliability, and availability challenges. A grid storage architecture built from a distributed network of low cost, off-the-shelf servers (nodes) provides scalable data and metadata storage, processing, and communication without single points of failure. Imaging studies are stored, replicated, cached, managed, and retrieved based on defined rules, and nodes within the grid can acquire studies and respond to queries. Grid nodes transparently load-balance queries, storage/retrieval requests, and replicate data for automated backup and disaster recovery. This approach reduces latency, increases availability, provides near-linear scalability and allows the creation of a geographically distributed medical imaging network infrastructure. This paper presents some key concepts in grid storage and discusses the results of a clinical deployment of a multi-site storage grid for cancer care in the province of British Columbia.

  2. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F.

    1985-06-18

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls, Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  3. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F.

    1986-04-08

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls. Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  4. Tiny Devices Project Sharp, Colorful Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Displaytech Inc., based in Longmont, Colorado and recently acquired by Micron Technology Inc. of Boise, Idaho, first received a Small Business Innovation Research contract in 1993 from Johnson Space Center to develop tiny, electronic, color displays, called microdisplays. Displaytech has since sold over 20 million microdisplays and was ranked one of the fastest growing technology companies by Deloitte and Touche in 2005. Customers currently incorporate the microdisplays in tiny pico-projectors, which weigh only a few ounces and attach to media players, cell phones, and other devices. The projectors can convert a digital image from the typical postage stamp size into a bright, clear, four-foot projection. The company believes sales of this type of pico-projector may exceed $1.1 billion within 5 years.

  5. HemaSpot, a Novel Blood Storage Device for HIV-1 Drug Resistance Testing.

    PubMed

    Brooks, K; DeLong, A; Balamane, M; Schreier, L; Orido, M; Chepkenja, M; Kemboi, E; D'Antuono, M; Chan, P A; Emonyi, W; Diero, L; Coetzer, M; Kantor, R

    2016-01-01

    HemaSpot, a novel dried-blood storage filter device, was used for HIV-1 pol resistance testing in 30 fresh United States blood samples and 54 previously frozen Kenyan blood samples. Genotyping succeeded in 79% and 58% of samples, respectively, improved with shorter storage and higher viral load, and had good (86%) resistance mutation concordance to plasma.

  6. Research and design of high speed mass image storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-feng; Xue, Rong-kun; Liang, Fei

    2009-07-01

    The design of the high mass image storage system is introduced using DSP, FPGA and Flash structure. Texas Instruments Corporation DSP chip (TMS320VC5509APEG) is used as the main controller, Samsung's Flash chips (K9F2G08U0M) used as the main storage medium, and the Xilinx Corporation FPGA chip (XCV600E) used as logic control modules. In this system, Storage module consists of 32 Flash memory chips, which are divided into 8 groups that correspond to 8-level pipeline. The 4-Flash memory chip forms a basic 32-bit memory module. The entire system storage space is 64 G bit. Through simulation and verification, the storage speed is up to 352Mbps and readout speed is up to 290Mbps, it can meet the demand to the high-speed access, and which has strong environmental adaptability.

  7. Biologically derived melanin electrodes in aqueous sodium-ion energy storage devices

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jo; Wu, Wei; Chun, Sang-Eun; Whitacre, Jay F.; Bettinger, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable electronics represents an attractive and emerging paradigm in medical devices by harnessing simultaneous advantages afforded by electronically active systems and obviating issues with chronic implants. Integrating practical energy sources that are compatible with the envisioned operation of transient devices is an unmet challenge for biodegradable electronics. Although high-performance energy storage systems offer a feasible solution, toxic materials and electrolytes present regulatory hurdles for use in temporary medical devices. Aqueous sodium-ion charge storage devices combined with biocompatible electrodes are ideal components to power next-generation biodegradable electronics. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of melanin pigments for use in energy storage devices. Melanins of natural (derived from Sepia officinalis) and synthetic origin are evaluated as anode materials in aqueous sodium-ion storage devices. Na+-loaded melanin anodes exhibit specific capacities of 30.4 ± 1.6 mAhg−1. Full cells composed of natural melanin anodes and λ-MnO2 cathodes exhibit an initial potential of 1.03 ± 0.06 V with a maximum specific capacity of 16.1 ± 0.8 mAhg−1. Natural melanin anodes exhibit higher specific capacities compared with synthetic melanins due to a combination of beneficial chemical, electrical, and physical properties exhibited by the former. Taken together, these results suggest that melanin pigments may serve as a naturally occurring biologically derived charge storage material to power certain types of medical devices. PMID:24324163

  8. Biologically derived melanin electrodes in aqueous sodium-ion energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jo; Wu, Wei; Chun, Sang-Eun; Whitacre, Jay F; Bettinger, Christopher J

    2013-12-24

    Biodegradable electronics represents an attractive and emerging paradigm in medical devices by harnessing simultaneous advantages afforded by electronically active systems and obviating issues with chronic implants. Integrating practical energy sources that are compatible with the envisioned operation of transient devices is an unmet challenge for biodegradable electronics. Although high-performance energy storage systems offer a feasible solution, toxic materials and electrolytes present regulatory hurdles for use in temporary medical devices. Aqueous sodium-ion charge storage devices combined with biocompatible electrodes are ideal components to power next-generation biodegradable electronics. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of melanin pigments for use in energy storage devices. Melanins of natural (derived from Sepia officinalis) and synthetic origin are evaluated as anode materials in aqueous sodium-ion storage devices. Na(+)-loaded melanin anodes exhibit specific capacities of 30.4 ± 1.6 mAhg(-1). Full cells composed of natural melanin anodes and λ-MnO2 cathodes exhibit an initial potential of 1.03 ± 0.06 V with a maximum specific capacity of 16.1 ± 0.8 mAhg(-1). Natural melanin anodes exhibit higher specific capacities compared with synthetic melanins due to a combination of beneficial chemical, electrical, and physical properties exhibited by the former. Taken together, these results suggest that melanin pigments may serve as a naturally occurring biologically derived charge storage material to power certain types of medical devices.

  9. Electron-beam-induced information storage in hydrogenated amorphous silicon devices

    DOEpatents

    Yacobi, B.G.

    1985-03-18

    A method for recording and storing information in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon device, comprising: depositing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate to form a charge collection device; and generating defects in the hydrogenated amorphous silicon device, wherein the defects act as recombination centers that reduce the lifetime of carriers, thereby reducing charge collection efficiency and thus in the charge collection mode of scanning probe instruments, regions of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon device that contain the defects appear darker in comparison to regions of the device that do not contain the defects, leading to a contrast formation for pattern recognition and information storage.

  10. Research Update: Ionotronics for long-term data storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unutulmazsoy, Y.; Merkle, R.; Rastegar, I.; Maier, J.; Mannhart, J.

    2017-04-01

    Data storage materials suffer from limited lifetime. Thus, there is a necessity for new data storage systems for archiving purposes. Systems based on chemical reactions such as the oxidation of corrosion-resistant metals are attractive candidates because they offer in principle very long-term stability. We have therefore investigated oxidation kinetics of Cr, Al, Ti, V, Zn, Ni, and Co. Here we present the results and discuss in detail fundamental issues of thin film oxidation, the limits of diffusion controlled oxidation, and possible ways to increase the oxidation rate constants. Co showed the highest oxidation rate constant (kp = 2.5 × 10-9 cm2/s at 540 °C) and is therefore considered as a promising candidate for data archiving.

  11. Mesoporous materials for energy conversion and storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2016-06-01

    To meet the growing energy demands in a low-carbon economy, the development of new materials that improve the efficiency of energy conversion and storage systems is essential. Mesoporous materials offer opportunities in energy conversion and storage applications owing to their extraordinarily high surface areas and large pore volumes. These properties may improve the performance of materials in terms of energy and power density, lifetime and stability. In this Review, we summarize the primary methods for preparing mesoporous materials and discuss their applications as electrodes and/or catalysts in solar cells, solar fuel production, rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells. Finally, we outline the research and development challenges of mesoporous materials that need to be overcome to increase their contribution in renewable energy applications.

  12. Spectral characterization of storage phosphor imaging plates

    SciTech Connect

    Deresch, A.; Jechow, M.; Gollwitzer, C.

    2014-02-18

    This work presents attenuation and sensitivity measurements of radiographic imaging plates (IPs) with quasimonoenergetic X-rays in the 8–60 kiloelectronvolt range. The measurements are used to validate theoretical predictions. A short overview of the theoretical model is given. The model can be used to describe the sensitivity of different detector types to a wide range of X-ray energies.

  13. 76 FR 29006 - In the Matter of Certain Motion-Sensitive Sound Effects Devices and Image Display Devices and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Inv. No. 337-TA-773 In the Matter of Certain Motion-Sensitive Sound Effects Devices and Image... of certain motion-sensitive sound effects devices and image display devices and components and... importation of certain motion- sensitive sound effects devices and image display devices and components...

  14. ACCU Core Sampling/Storage Device for VOC Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Mark M. Sanderson

    2007-04-30

    The Accu Core sampler system consists of alternating cylindrical clear acrylic sections and one-inch cylindrical stainless steel sections arranged in clear shrink wrap. The set of alternating acrylic and stainless steel sections in the shrink wrap are designed to fit in a Geoprobe dual-tube penetrometer for collection of continuous soil cores. The clear acrylic sections can have 1/2-inch access holes for easy soil headspace screening without violating the integrity of the adjacent stainless steel sections. The Accu Core sampler system can be used to store a soil sample collected in the stainless steel section by capping the ends of the section so it becomes a sample storage container. The sampler system can also be used to collect a subsurface soil sample in one of the sections that can be directly extruded from the section into a container for storage during shipment to the laboratory. In addition, the soil in a sampler section can be quickly sub-sampled using a coring tool and extruded into a storage container so the integrity of the soil is not disrupted and the potential for VOC loss during sub-sampling is greatly reduced. A field validation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the Accu Core sampler to store VOC soil samples during transportation to the laboratory for analysis and to compare the performance of the Accu Core with current sampling and storage techniques, all of which require sub-sampling when the soil sample is brought to the surface. During some of the validation testing, the acrylic sections having access holes for headspace screening were included in the Accu Core sampler configuration and soil in these sections was screened to show the usefulness of the sample screening capability provided by the Accu Core system. This report presents the results of the field validation study as well as recommendations for the Accu Core sampler system.

  15. Integrated Solar-Energy-Harvesting and -Storage Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    whitacre, Jay; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Mojarradi, Mohammed; Johnson, Travis; Ryan, Margaret Amy; Bugga, Ratnakumar; West, William; Surampudi, Subbarao; Blosiu, Julian

    2004-01-01

    A modular, integrated, completely solid-state system designed to harvest and store solar energy is under development. Called the power tile, the hybrid device consists of a photovoltaic cell, a battery, a thermoelectric device, and a charge-control circuit that are heterogeneously integrated to maximize specific energy capacity and efficiency. Power tiles could be used in a variety of space and terrestrial environments and would be designed to function with maximum efficiency in the presence of anticipated temperatures, temperature gradients, and cycles of sunlight and shadow. Because they are modular in nature, one could use a single power tile or could construct an array of as many tiles as needed. If multiple tiles are used in an array, the distributed and redundant nature of the charge control and distribution hardware provides an extremely fault-tolerant system. The figure presents a schematic view of the device.

  16. Passive safety device and internal short tested method for energy storage cells and systems

    DOEpatents

    Keyser, Matthew; Darcy, Eric; Long, Dirk; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-22

    A passive safety device for an energy storage cell for positioning between two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage cell. The safety device also comprising a separator and a non-conductive layer. A first electrically conductive material is provided on the non-conductive layer. A first opening is formed through the separator between the first electrically conductive material and one of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. A second electrically conductive material is provided adjacent the first electrically conductive material on the non-conductive layer, wherein a space is formed on the non-conductive layer between the first and second electrically conductive materials. A second opening is formed through the non-conductive layer between the second electrically conductive material and another of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. The first and second electrically conductive materials combine and exit at least partially through the first and second openings to connect the two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device at a predetermined temperature.

  17. Small Form Factor Information Storage Devices for Mobile Applications in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young-Pil; Park, No-Cheol; Kim, Chul-Jin

    Recently, the ubiquitous environment in which anybody can reach a lot of information data without any limitations on the place and time has become an important social issue. There are two basic requirements in the field of information storage devices which have to be satisfied; the first is the demand for the improvement of memory capacity to manage the increased data capacity in personal and official purposes. The second is the demand for new development of information storage devices small enough to be applied to mobile multimedia digital electronics, including digital camera, PDA and mobile phones. To summarize, for the sake of mobile applications, it is necessary to develop information storage devices which have simultaneously a large capacity and a small size. Korea possesses the necessary infrastructure for developing such small sized information storage devices. It has a good digital market, major digital companies, and various research institutes. Nowadays, many companies and research institutes including university cooperate together in the research on small sized information storage devices. Thus, it is expected that small form factor optical disk drives will be commercialized in the very near future in Korea.

  18. Image storage in radiation oncology: What did we learn from diagnostic radiology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, Kurt; Luick, Marc; Colonias, Athanasios; Gayou, Olivier; Karlovits, Stephen; Werts, E. Day

    2009-02-01

    The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard was developed by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) for medical image archiving and retrieval. An extension to this implemented a standard named DICOM-RT for use in Radiation Oncology. There are currently seven radiotherapy-specific DICOM objects which include: RT Structure Set, RT Plan, RT Dose, RT Image, RT Beams Treatment Record, RT Brachy Treatment Record, and RT Treatment Summary Record. The type of data associated with DICOM-RT includes (1) Radiation treatment planning datasets (CT, MRI, PET) with radiation treatment plans showing beam arrangements, isodose distributions, and dose volume histograms of targets/normal tissues and (2) Image-guided radiation modalities such as Siemens MVision mega-voltage cone beam CT (MV-CBCT). With the advent of such advancing technologies, there has been an exponential increase in image data collected for each patient, and the need for reliable and accessible image storage has become critical. A potential solution is a Radiation Oncology specific picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) that would allow data storage from multiple vendor devices and support the storage and retrieval needs not only of a single site but of a large, multi-facility network of radiation oncology clinics. This PACS system must be reliable, expandable, and cost-effective to operate while protecting sensitive patient image information in a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant environment. This paper emphasizes the expanding DICOM-RT storage requirements across our network of 8 radiation oncology clinics and the initiatives we undertook to address the increased volume of data by using the ImageGrid (CANDELiS Inc, Irvine CA) server and the IGViewer license (CANDELiS Inc, Irvine CA) to create a DICOM-RT compatible PACS system.

  19. Low-cost medical image storage and manipulation using optical disk subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, William V., Jr.; Marx, Peter S.

    1990-08-01

    Traditionally, medical imaging has required large capital investments into workstations and storage subsystems. Many vendors have chosen to offer proprietary systems which are expensive to develop and costly to the institutions which purchase them. Our experience has been that this is unnecessary; most traditional imaging functions in the digital modalities of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MM) can be performed using off-the-shelf hardware with relatisely inexpensive software. In order to reduce the cost of medical imaging, our approach has been to choose computers and storage subsystems that are efficient, inexpensive, and easy-to-use (after all, the users are interested in practicing medicine, not computer science.) With these goals in mind, we chose to use a general purpose computer (the Apple Macintosh Ilci) with two types of high-capacity optical storage devices (both magneto-optical and write once, read multiple (WORM) disc subsystems.) We have developed a powerful, yet user-friendly medical imaging workstation oriented towards radiologists, orthopadic surgeons, neurosurgeons, and other users of medical images. In addition to providing inexpensive storage, the workstation is capable of multiplanar reformatting (MPR), 3D MM angiography, and other image processing functions. The resulting images may be annotated, windowed, and filmed on to 14x17" radiology film for presentation to the referring physicians and their patients. This system can be considered to be a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) for private physicians and small clinics; further, it is small enough for desktop environments and inexpensive enough for clinicians to purchase.

  20. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Morrison, Robert L.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1994-01-01

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located therebetween. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery.

  1. Doping of carbon foams for use in energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Morrison, R.L.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1994-10-25

    A polymeric foam precursor, wetted with phosphoric acid, is pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to produce an open-cell doped carbon foam, which is utilized as a lithium intercalation anode in a secondary, organic electrolyte battery. Tests were conducted in a cell containing an organic electrolyte and using lithium metal counter and reference electrodes, with the anode located there between. Results after charge and discharge cycling, for a total of 6 cycles, indicated a substantial increase in the energy storage capability of the phosphorus doped carbon foam relative to the undoped carbon foam, when used as a rechargeable lithium ion battery. 3 figs.

  2. CEDIMS: cloud ethical DICOM image Mojette storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guédon, Jeanpierre; Evenou, Pierre; Tervé, Pierre; David, Sylvain; Béranger, Jérome

    2012-02-01

    Dicom images of patients will necessarily been stored in Clouds. However, ethical constraints must apply. In this paper, a method which provides the two following conditions is presented: 1) the medical information is not readable by the cloud owner since it is distributed along several clouds 2) the medical information can be retrieved from any sufficient subset of clouds In order to obtain this result in a real time processing, the Mojette transform is used. This paper reviews the interesting features of the Mojette transform in terms of information theory. Since only portions of the original Dicom files are stored into each cloud, their contents are not reachable. For instance, we use 4 different public clouds to save 4 different projections of each file, with the additional condition that any 3 over 4 projections are enough to reconstruct the original file. Thus, even if a cloud is unavailable when the user wants to load a Dicom file, the other 3 are giving enough information for real time reconstruction. The paper presents an implementation on 3 actual clouds. For ethical reasons, we use a Dicom image spreaded over 3 public clouds to show the obtained confidentiality and possible real time recovery.

  3. Grid regulation services for energy storage devices based on grid frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Richard M; Hammerstrom, Donald J; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C.W.; Tuffner, Francis K

    2014-04-15

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for charging and discharging an energy storage device connected to an electrical power distribution system. In one exemplary embodiment, a controller monitors electrical characteristics of an electrical power distribution system and provides an output to a bi-directional charger causing the charger to charge or discharge an energy storage device (e.g., a battery in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)). The controller can help stabilize the electrical power distribution system by increasing the charging rate when there is excess power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid exceeds an average value), or by discharging power from the energy storage device to stabilize the grid when there is a shortage of power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid is below an average value).

  4. Grid regulation services for energy storage devices based on grid frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Richard M; Hammerstrom, Donald J; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C.W.; Tuffner, Francis K

    2013-07-02

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for charging and discharging an energy storage device connected to an electrical power distribution system. In one exemplary embodiment, a controller monitors electrical characteristics of an electrical power distribution system and provides an output to a bi-directional charger causing the charger to charge or discharge an energy storage device (e.g., a battery in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)). The controller can help stabilize the electrical power distribution system by increasing the charging rate when there is excess power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid exceeds an average value), or by discharging power from the energy storage device to stabilize the grid when there is a shortage of power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid is below an average value).

  5. Safe storage and multi-modal search for medical images.

    PubMed

    Kommeri, Jukka; Niinimäki, Marko; Müller, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Modern hospitals produce enormous amounts of data in all departments, from images, to lab results, medication use, and release letters. Since several years these data are most often produced in digital form, making them accessible for researchers to optimize the outcome of care process and analyze all available data across patients. The Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) are no exception with its daily radiology department's output of over 140'000 images in 2010, with a majority of them being tomographic slices. In this paper we introduce tools for uploading and accessing DICOM images and associated metadata in a secure Grid storage. These data are made available for authorized persons using a Grid security framework, as security is a main problem in secondary use of image data, where images are to be stored outside of the clinical image archive. Our tool combines the security and metadata access of a Grid middleware with the visual search that uses GIFT.

  6. Chemically Integrated Inorganic-Graphene Two-Dimensional Hybrid Materials for Flexible Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Li, Hongsen; Yu, Guihua

    2016-12-01

    State-of-the-art energy storage devices are capable of delivering reasonably high energy density (lithium ion batteries) or high power density (supercapacitors). There is an increasing need for these power sources with not only superior electrochemical performance, but also exceptional flexibility. Graphene has come on to the scene and advancements are being made in integration of various electrochemically active compounds onto graphene or its derivatives so as to utilize their flexibility. Many innovative synthesis techniques have led to novel graphene-based hybrid two-dimensional nanostructures. Here, the chemically integrated inorganic-graphene hybrid two-dimensional materials and their applications for energy storage devices are examined. First, the synthesis and characterization of different kinds of inorganic-graphene hybrid nanostructures are summarized, and then the most relevant applications of inorganic-graphene hybrid materials in flexible energy storage devices are reviewed. The general design rules of using graphene-based hybrid 2D materials for energy storage devices and their current limitations and future potential to advance energy storage technologies are also discussed.

  7. Chemical Expansion: Implications for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, S. R.; Marrocchelli, D.; Chatzichristodoulou, C.; Perry, N. H.; Mogensen, M. B.; Tuller, H. L.; Wachsman, E. D.

    2014-07-01

    Many energy-related materials rely on the uptake and release of large quantities of ions, for example, Li+ in batteries, H+ in hydrogen storage materials, and O2- in solid-oxide fuel cell and related materials. These compositional changes often result in large volumetric dilation of the material, commonly referred to as chemical expansion. This article reviews the current knowledge of chemical expansion and aspires to facilitate and promote future research in this field by providing a taxonomy for its sources, along with recent atomistic insights of its origin, aided by recent computational modeling and an overview of factors impacting chemical expansion. We discuss the implications of chemical expansion for mechanical stability and functionality in the energy applications above, as well as in other oxide-based systems. The use of chemical expansion as a new means to probe other materials properties, as well as its contribution to recently investigated electromechanical coupling, is also highlighted.

  8. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.

    2013-11-01

    Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

  9. Response improvement of a mover device using hydrogen storage alloy powder by addition of catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Akira; Akazawa, Kaoru; Ogasawara, Takashi; Uchida, Haru-Hisa; Nishi, Yoshitake

    2007-01-01

    Recently we proposed a mechanical mover device in a unimorph structure with powder hydrogen storage alloy dispersed. A silicone rubber sheet with the alloy was piled up on another pure silicone rubber sheet, then mechanical movement was generated by hydrogen gas absorption and desorption. Because the response of the movement was slow, therefore, in this research we tested the additive effect of catalyst of Pd-Al IIO 3 powder into the hydrogen storage alloy powder before mixing with rubber. The mover device with the catalyst indicated drastically modified responses, such as higher initial moving rate and also larger displacement. The results suggested the possibility of the device for medical purpose such as catheter because of a powerful but tender characteristic of the device.

  10. Fast neutron imaging device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Vladimir; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Musatov, Igor V.

    2014-02-11

    A fast neutron imaging apparatus and method of constructing fast neutron radiography images, the apparatus including a neutron source and a detector that provides event-by-event acquisition of position and energy deposition, and optionally timing and pulse shape for each individual neutron event detected by the detector. The method for constructing fast neutron radiography images utilizes the apparatus of the invention.

  11. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  12. Body-Attachable and Stretchable Multisensors Integrated with Wirelessly Rechargeable Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daeil; Kim, Doyeon; Lee, Hyunkyu; Jeong, Yu Ra; Lee, Seung-Jung; Yang, Gwangseok; Kim, Hyoungjun; Lee, Geumbee; Jeon, Sanggeun; Zi, Goangseup; Kim, Jihyun; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-01-27

    A stretchable multisensor system is successfully demonstrated with an integrated energy-storage device, an array of microsupercapacitors that can be repeatedly charged via a wireless radio-frequency power receiver on the same stretchable polymer substrate. The integrated devices are interconnected by a liquid-metal interconnection and operate stably without noticeable performance degradation under strain due to the skin attachment, and a uniaxial strain up to 50%.

  13. Electrodeposition for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaigan, Nima

    Electrodeposition of metals, alloys, metal oxides, conductive polymers, and their composites plays a pivotal role in fabrication processes of some recently developed electrochemical energy devices, most particularly fuel cells, supercapacitors, and batteries. Unique nanoscale architectures of electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells, including proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), can only be obtained through electrodeposition processes. Promising, cost-effective conductive/protective coatings for stainless steel interconnects used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been achieved employing a variety of electrodeposition techniques. In supercapacitors, anodic deposition of metal oxides, conductive polymers, and their composites is a versatile technique for fabrication of electrodes with distinctive morphology and exceptional specific capacitance. Electrodeposition is also very recently employed for preparation of Sn-based anodes for lithium ion batteries.

  14. An interactive computer program for sizing spacecraft momentum storage devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, F. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An interactive computer program was developed which computes the sizing requirements for nongimbled reaction wheels, control moment gyros (CMG), and dual momentum control devices (DMCD) used in Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The program accepts as inputs the spacecraft's environmental disturbance torques, rotational inertias, maneuver rates, and orbital data. From these inputs, wheel weights are calculated for a range of radii and rotational speeds. The shape of the momentum wheel may be chosen to be either a hoop, solid cylinder, or annular cylinder. The program provides graphic output illustrating the trade-off potential between the weight, radius, and wheel speed. A number of the intermediate calculations such as the X-, Y-, and Z-axis total momentum, the momentum absorption requirements for reaction wheels, CMG's, DMCD's, and basic orbit analysis information are also provided as program output.

  15. Electron-beam-induced information storage in hydrogenated amorphous silicon device

    DOEpatents

    Yacobi, Ben G.

    1986-01-01

    A method for recording and storing information in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon device, comprising: depositing hydrogenated amorphous silicon on a substrate to form a charge-collection device; and generating defects in the hydrogenated amorphous silicon device, wherein the defects act as recombination centers that reduce the lifetime of carriers, thereby reducing charge-collection efficiency; and thus in the charge-collection mode of scanning probe instruments, regions of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon device that contain the defects appear darker in comparison to regions of the device that do not contain the defects, leading to a contrast formation for pattern recognition and information storage, in the device, which darkened areas can be restored to their original charge-collection efficiency by heating the hydrogenated amorphous silicon to a temperature of about 100.degree. C. to 250.degree. C. for a sufficient period of time to provide for such restoration.

  16. Interactive display system having a digital micromirror imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard; Kaull, Lisa; Brewster, Calvin

    2006-04-11

    A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. A projector cooperates with a digital imaging device, e.g. a digital micromirror imaging device, for projecting an image through the panel for display on the outlet face. The imaging device includes an array of mirrors tiltable between opposite display and divert positions. The display positions reflect an image light beam from the projector through the panel for display on the outlet face. The divert positions divert the image light beam away from the panel, and are additionally used for reflecting a probe light beam through the panel toward the outlet face. Covering a spot on the panel, e.g. with a finger, reflects the probe light beam back through the panel toward the inlet face for detection thereat and providing interactive capability.

  17. A device-independent interface for interactive image display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, D. C.; Szczur, M. R.; Owings, J.; Contractor, S.

    1984-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed a Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) for use in implementing portable applications software that can be shared by different research projects. Since many of the supported disciplines require the interactive display and manipulation of remotely sensed images, a device independent Display Management Subsystem (DMS) was written as a TAE extension. The DMS attempts to abstract and standardize the device dependent functions that are used in the display and manipulation of image data on image analysis terminals. This paper explores the concept of DMS and the interface routines that are available to the applications programmer for use in developing a set of portable image display utility programs.

  18. A device-dependent interface for interactive image display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, D. C.; Szczur, M. R.; Owings, J.; Jamros, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The structure of the device independent Display Management Subsystem (DMS) and the interface routines that are available to the applications programmer for use in developing a set of portable image display utility programs are described.

  19. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments. 34.31 Section 34.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND... changers, and survey instruments. (a) The licensee shall perform visual and operability checks on...

  20. A servomechanism for a micro-electro-mechanical-system-based scanning-probe data storage device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazi, A.; Lantz, M. A.; Cherubini, G.; Pozidis, H.; Eleftheriou, E.

    2004-10-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS)-based scanning-probe data storage devices are emerging as potential ultra-high-density, low-access-time, and low-power alternatives to conventional data storage. One implementation of probe-based storage uses thermomechanical means to store and retrieve information in thin polymer films. One of the challenges in building such devices is the extreme accuracy and the short latency required in the navigation of the probes over the polymer medium. This paper focuses on the design and characterization of a servomechanism to achieve such accurate positioning in a probe-based storage prototype. In our device, the polymer medium is positioned on a MEMS scanner with x/y-motion capabilities of about 100 µm. The device also includes thermal position sensors that provide x/y-position information to the servo controller. Based on a discrete state-space model of the scanner dynamics, a controller is designed using the linear quadratic Gaussian approach with state estimation. The random seek performance of this approach is evaluated and compared with that of the conventional proportional, integrator, and derivative (PID) approach. The results demonstrate the superiority of the state-space approach, which achieves seek times of about 4 ms in a ± 50 µm range. Finally, the experimental results show that closed-loop track following using the thermal position-sensor signals is feasible and yields a position-error standard deviation of approximately 2 nm.

  1. Non-volatile transistor memory devices using charge storage cross-linked core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chen-Tsyr; Watanabe, Yu; Oya, Hiroshi; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiro; Mori, Hideharu; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2016-06-07

    Solution processable cross-linked core-shell poly[poly(ethylene glycol)methylether methacrylate]-block-poly(2,5-dibromo-3-vinylthiophene) (poly(PEGMA)m-b-poly(DB3VT)n) nanoparticles are firstly explored as charge storage materials for transistor-type memory devices owing to their efficient and controllable ability in electric charge transfer and trapping.

  2. Development of Proposed Standards for Testing Solar Collectors and Thermal Storage Devices. NBS Technical Note 899.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, James E.; And Others

    A study has been made at the National Bureau of Standards of the different techniques that are or could be used for testing solar collectors and thermal storage devices that are used in solar heating and cooling systems. This report reviews the various testing methods and outlines a recommended test procedure, including apparatus and…

  3. Sodium titanate nanotube/graphite, an electric energy storage device using Na+-based organic electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liping; Qi, Li; Wang, Hongyu

    2013-11-01

    Sodium titanate nanotube (Na-TNT) sample has been prepared by a hydrothermal method using TiO2 and NaOH as starting materials and then calcined at 400 °C in air. X-ray diffraction and N2 adsorption-desorption tests have been employed to characterize its crystal and pore structure. The Na-TNT can be used as the negative electrode for electric energy storage devices using Na+-based organic electrolytes. The charge storage mechanism at the Na-TNT negative electrode has been investigated by electrochemical tests (galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry, etc.), ex-situ XRD and HRTEM measurements. The electric energy storage devices of Na-TNT/graphite have been constructed and the influence of graphite/Na-TNT mass ratio on their performance has been studied.

  4. Lightweight carbon nanotube-based structural-energy storage devices for micro unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Monica; Cole, Daniel P.; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Reddy, Arava L. M.; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Karna, Shashi P.; Bundy, Mark L.

    2012-06-01

    There is a strong need for small, lightweight energy storage devices that can satisfy the ever increasing power and energy demands of micro unmanned systems. Currently, most commercial and developmental micro unmanned systems utilize commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) lithium polymer batteries for their energy storage needs. While COTS lithium polymer batteries are the industry norm, the weight of these batteries can account for up to 60% of the overall system mass and the capacity of these batteries can limit mission durations to the order of only a few minutes. One method to increase vehicle endurance without adding mass or sacrificing payload capabilities is to incorporate multiple system functions into a single material or structure. For example, the body or chassis of a micro vehicle could be replaced with a multifunctional material that would serve as both the vehicle structure and the on-board energy storage device. In this paper we present recent progress towards the development of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based structural-energy storage devices for micro unmanned systems. Randomly oriented and vertically aligned CNT-polymer composite electrodes with varying degrees of flexibility are used as the primary building blocks for lightweight structural-supercapacitors. For the purpose of this study, the mechanical properties of the CNT-based electrodes and the charge-discharge behavior of the supercapacitor devices are examined. Because incorporating multifunctionality into a single component often degrades the properties or performance of individual structures, the performance and property tradeoffs of the CNT-based structural-energy storage devices will also be discussed.

  5. Measurement of Device Parameters Using Image Recovery Techniques in Large-Scale IC Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, Leif; Edmonds, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Devices that respond to radiation on a cell level will produce histograms showing the relative frequency of cell damage as a function of damage. The measured distribution is the convolution of distributions from radiation responses, measurement noise, and manufacturing parameters. A method of extracting device characteristics and parameters from measured distributions via mathematical and image subtraction techniques is described.

  6. Speech generating devices and modality of short-term word storage.

    PubMed

    Dukhovny, Elena; Soto, Gloria

    2013-09-01

    Persons with severe speech impairments frequently communicate via non-speech means, such as speech-generating devices (SGDs). In studies of people without disabilities, use of non-speech responses has activated non-phonological modalities for short-term word storage. In the current study, short-term word storage was evaluated in 23 pre-trained adult speakers without disabilities and in four individuals who use SGDs for communication. Results indicated that participants without disabilities stored lists of words phonologically when using SGDs. Individuals who used SGDs were most successful in recall of high- frequency words, with preliminary evidence of phonological encoding for short-term storage in preparation for non-speech responses. Further research is needed to describe possible concurrent storage modalities.

  7. Electrochemical energy storage device based on carbon dioxide as electroactive species

    DOEpatents

    Nemeth, Karoly; van Veenendaal, Michel Antonius; Srajer, George

    2013-03-05

    An electrochemical energy storage device comprising a primary positive electrode, a negative electrode, and one or more ionic conductors. The ionic conductors ionically connect the primary positive electrode with the negative electrode. The primary positive electrode comprises carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and a means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2. This means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2 comprises a conductive primary current collector, contacting the CO.sub.2, whereby the CO.sub.2 is reduced upon the primary current collector during discharge. The primary current collector comprises a material to which CO.sub.2 and the ionic conductors are essentially non-corrosive. The electrochemical energy storage device uses CO.sub.2 as an electroactive species in that the CO.sub.2 is electrochemically reduced during discharge to enable the release of electrical energy from the device.

  8. 76 FR 42730 - In the Matter of Certain Univeral Serial Bus (“USB”) Portable Storage Devices, Including USB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Flash Drives and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of... certain universal serial bus (``USB'') portable storage devices, including USB flash drives and components...'') portable storage devices, including USB flash drives and components thereof that infringe one or more...

  9. Globus MEDICUS - federation of DICOM medical imaging devices into healthcare Grids.

    PubMed

    Erberich, Stephan G; Silverstein, Jonathan C; Chervenak, Ann; Schuler, Robert; Nelson, Marvin D; Kesselman, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard defines Radiology medical device interoperability and image data exchange between modalities, image databases - Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) - and image review end-points. However the scope of DICOM and PACS technology is currently limited to the trusted and static environment of the hospital. In order to meet the demand for ad-hoc tele-radiology and image guided medical procedures within the global healthcare enterprise, a new technology must provide mobility, security, flexible scale of operations, and rapid responsiveness for DICOM medical devices and subsequently medical image data. Grid technology, an informatics approach to securely federate independently operated computing, storage, and data management resources at the global scale over public networks, meets these core requirements. Here we present an approach to federate DICOM and PACS devices for large-scale medical image workflows within a global healthcare enterprise. The Globus MEDICUS (Medical Imaging and Computing for Unified Information Sharing) project uses the standards-based Globus Toolkit Grid infrastructure to vertically integrate a new service for DICOM devices - the DICOM Grid Interface Service (DGIS). This new service translates between DICOM and Grid operations and thus transparently extends DICOM to Globus based Grid infrastructure. This Grid image workflow paradigm has been designed to provide not only solutions for global image communication, but fault-tolerance and disaster recovery using Grid data replication technology. Actual use-case of 40 MEDICUS Grid connected international hospitals of the Childerns Oncology Group and the Neuroblastoma Cancer Foundation and further clinical applications are discussed. The open-source Globus MEDICU http://dev.globus.org/wiki/Incubator/MEDICUS.

  10. Faster imaging with a portable unilateral NMR device.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Asaf; Bergman, Elad; Sarda, Yifat; Nevo, Uri

    2013-06-01

    Unilateral NMR devices are important tools in various applications such as non-destructive testing and well logging, but are not applied routinely for imaging, primarily because B0 inhomogeneity in these scanners leads to a relatively low signal and requires use of the slow single point imaging scan scheme. Enabling high quality, fast imaging could make this affordable and portable technology practical for various imaging applications as well as for new applications that are not yet feasible with MRI technology. The goal of this work was to improve imaging times in a portable unilateral NMR scanner. Both Compressed Sensing and Fast Spin Echo were modified and applied to fit the unique characteristics of a unilateral device. Two printed phantoms, allowing high resolution images, were scanned with both methods and compared to a standard scan and to a low pass scan to evaluate performance. Both methods were found to be feasible with a unilateral device, proving ways to accelerate single point imaging in such scanners. This outcome encourages us to explore how to further accelerate imaging times in unilateral NMR devices so that this technology might become clinically applicable in the future.

  11. Spatially resolved spectral-imaging device

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Joshua Simon; Tyson, John Anthony

    2016-02-09

    A spatially resolved spectral device comprising a dispersive array to receive an incident light comprising a principal ray. The dispersive array comprising a plurality of dichroic layers, each of the plurality of dichroic layers disposed in a path of a direction of the principal ray. Each of the plurality of dichroic layers configured to at least one of reflect or transmit a different wavelength range of the incident light. The device further comprising a detection array operatively coupled with the dispersive array. The detection array comprising a photosensitive component including a plurality of detection pixels, each of the plurality of detection pixels having a light-receiving surface disposed parallel to the direction of the principal ray to detect a respective one of the different wavelength ranges of incident light reflected from a corresponding one of the plurality of dichroic layers.

  12. Automated hybridization/imaging device for fluorescent multiplex DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Robert B.; Kimball, Alvin W.; Gesteland, Raymond F.; Ferguson, F. Mark; Dunn, Diane M.; Di Sera, Leonard J.; Cherry, Joshua L.

    1995-01-01

    A method is disclosed for automated multiplex sequencing of DNA with an integrated automated imaging hybridization chamber system. This system comprises an hybridization chamber device for mounting a membrane containing size-fractionated multiplex sequencing reaction products, apparatus for fluid delivery to the chamber device, imaging apparatus for light delivery to the membrane and image recording of fluorescence emanating from the membrane while in the chamber device, and programmable controller apparatus for controlling operation of the system. The multiplex reaction products are hybridized with a probe, then an enzyme (such as alkaline phosphatase) is bound to a binding moiety on the probe, and a fluorogenic substrate (such as a benzothiazole derivative) is introduced into the chamber device by the fluid delivery apparatus. The enzyme converts the fluorogenic substrate into a fluorescent product which, when illuminated in the chamber device with a beam of light from the imaging apparatus, excites fluorescence of the fluorescent product to produce a pattern of hybridization. The pattern of hybridization is imaged by a CCD camera component of the imaging apparatus to obtain a series of digital signals. These signals are converted by the controller apparatus into a string of nucleotides corresponding to the nucleotide sequence an automated sequence reader. The method and apparatus are also applicable to other membrane-based applications such as colony and plaque hybridization and Southern, Northern, and Western blots.

  13. Automated hybridization/imaging device for fluorescent multiplex DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, R.B.; Kimball, A.W.; Gesteland, R.F.; Ferguson, F.M.; Dunn, D.M.; Di Sera, L.J.; Cherry, J.L.

    1995-11-28

    A method is disclosed for automated multiplex sequencing of DNA with an integrated automated imaging hybridization chamber system. This system comprises an hybridization chamber device for mounting a membrane containing size-fractionated multiplex sequencing reaction products, apparatus for fluid delivery to the chamber device, imaging apparatus for light delivery to the membrane and image recording of fluorescence emanating from the membrane while in the chamber device, and programmable controller apparatus for controlling operation of the system. The multiplex reaction products are hybridized with a probe, the enzyme (such as alkaline phosphatase) is bound to a binding moiety on the probe, and a fluorogenic substrate (such as a benzothiazole derivative) is introduced into the chamber device by the fluid delivery apparatus. The enzyme converts the fluorogenic substrate into a fluorescent product which, when illuminated in the chamber device with a beam of light from the imaging apparatus, excites fluorescence of the fluorescent product to produce a pattern of hybridization. The pattern of hybridization is imaged by a CCD camera component of the imaging apparatus to obtain a series of digital signals. These signals are converted by the controller apparatus into a string of nucleotides corresponding to the nucleotide sequence an automated sequence reader. The method and apparatus are also applicable to other membrane-based applications such as colony and plaque hybridization and Southern, Northern, and Western blots. 9 figs.

  14. Robust Light Filters Support Powerful Imaging Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Infrared (IR) light filters developed by Lake Shore Cryotronics Inc. of Westerville, Ohio -- using SBIR funding from NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Langley Research Center -- employ porous silicon and metal mesh technology to provide optical filtration even at the ultra-low temperatures required by many IR sensors. With applications in the astronomy community, Lake Shore s SBIR-developed filters are also promising tools for use in terahertz imaging, the next wave of technology for applications like medical imaging, the study of fragile artworks, and airport security.

  15. Residual images in charged-coupled device detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rest, Armin; Mündermann, Lars; Widenhorn, Ralf; Bodegom, Erik; McGlinn, T. C.

    2002-05-01

    We present results of a systematic study of persistent, or residual, images that occur in charged-coupled device (CCD) detectors. A phenomenological model for these residual images, also known as "ghosting," is introduced. This model relates the excess dark current in a CCD after exposure to the number of filled impurity sites which is tested for various temperatures and exposure times. We experimentally derive values for the cross section, density, and characteristic energy of the impurity sites responsible for the residual images.

  16. Elimination of artifacts in interline charge-coupled device imagers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turko, B. T.; Yates, G. J.

    1991-10-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) of interline transfer design are especially useful in imaging at high frame rates. However, their sensitivity to ionization radiation and the reduced effective opacity for vertical charge transfer registers cause undesired image artifacts. Random white spots from the radiation and "ghost" images (or smear) generated in the registers may severely impair the image quality. An electronic method of eliminating these artificats is described. Special sequences of pulses clock the CCD, quickly dumping the unwanted charge. The fast readout of images, cleared of artifacts, follows immediately.

  17. Emerging electronic devices for THz sensing and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, P.; Xie, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Jiang, Z.; Rahman, S.; Xing, H.; Sensale-Rodriguez, B.; Liu, L.

    2014-09-01

    Continuing advances in scaling of conventional semiconductor devices are enabling mainstream electronics to operate in the millimeter-wave through THz regime. At the same time, however, novel devices and device concepts are also emerging to address the key challenges for systems in this frequency range, and may offer performance and functional advantages for future systems. In addition to new devices, advances in integration technology and novel system concepts also promise to provide substantial system-level performance and functionality enhancements. Several emerging devices and device concepts, as well as circuit-level concepts to take advantage of them, are discussed. Based on unconventional semiconductor device structures and operational principles, these devices offer the potential for significantly improved system sensitivity and frequency coverage. When combined in arrays, features such as polarimetric detection and frequency tunability for imaging can be achieved. As examples of emerging devices for millimeter-wave through THz sensing and imaging, heterostructure backward diodes in the InAs/AlSb/GaSb material system and GaN-based plasma-wave high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) will be discussed. Based on interband tunneling, heterostructure backward diodes offer significantly increased sensitivity and extremely low noise for direct detection applications, and have been demonstrated with cutoff frequencies exceeding 8 THz. The plasma-wave HEMT is an emerging device concept that, by leveraging plasma-wave resonances in the two-dimensional electron gas within the channel of the HEMT, offers the prospect for both tunable narrowband detection as well as low-noise amplification at frequencies well into the THz. These emerging devices are both amenable to direct integration within compact planar radiating structures such as annular slot antennas for realization of polarimetric detection and frequency tuning for spectroscopy and imaging.

  18. NaOH-based high temperature heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. M.; Rice, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A material called Thermkeep, developed as a low-cost method for the storage of thermal energy for solar electric power generating systems is discussed. The storage device consists of an insulated cylinder containing Thermkeep in which coiled tubular heat exchangers are immersed. A one-tenth scale model of the design contains 25 heat-exchanger tubes and 1500 kg of Thermkeep. Its instrumentation includes thermocouples to measure internal Thermkeep temperatures, vessel surface, heated shroud surface, and pressure gauges to indicate heat-exchanger pressure drops. The test-circuit design is presented and experimental results are discussed.

  19. Rotor position and vibration control for aerospace flywheel energy storage devices and other vibration based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, B. X. S.

    Flywheel energy storage has distinct advantages over conventional energy storage methods such as electrochemical batteries. Because the energy density of a flywheel rotor increases quadratically with its speed, the foremost goal in flywheel design is to achieve sustainable high speeds of the rotor. Many issues exist with the flywheel rotor operation at high and varying speeds. A prominent problem is synchronous rotor vibration, which can drastically limit the sustainable rotor speed. In a set of projects, the novel Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) is applied to various problems of flywheel rotor operation. These applications include rotor levitation, steady state rotation at high speeds and accelerating operation. Several models such as the lumped mass model and distributed three-mass models have been analyzed. In each of these applications, the ADRC has been extended to cope with disturbance, noise, and control effort optimization; it also has been compared to various industry-standard controllers such as PID and PD/observer, and is proven to be superior. The control performance of the PID controller and the PD/observer currently used at NASA Glenn has been improved by as much as an order of magnitude. Due to the universality of the second order system, the results obtained in the rotor vibration problem can be straightforwardly extended to other vibrational systems, particularly, the MEMS gyroscope. Potential uses of a new nonlinear controller, which inherits the ease of use of the traditional PID, are also discussed.

  20. [Study on the image file conformance to DICOM standard about medical imaging device].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Minghui

    2013-09-01

    The format of medical image file conformance to DICOM standard have important influence on users of the PACS. This paper summarized the results of the writer's study on the image file conformance to DICOM standard about medical imaging device for many years. The questions of medical image file no conformance to DICOM standard are pointed in detail and the questions resulted from the troubled image files are analyzed. Finally, the methods of avoiding image file no conformance to DICOM standard are presented.

  1. [Digital thoracic radiology: devices, image processing, limits].

    PubMed

    Frija, J; de Géry, S; Lallouet, F; Guermazi, A; Zagdanski, A M; De Kerviler, E

    2001-09-01

    In a first part, the different techniques of digital thoracic radiography are described. Since computed radiography with phosphore plates are the most commercialized it is more emphasized. But the other detectors are also described, as the drum coated with selenium and the direct digital radiography with selenium detectors. The other detectors are also studied in particular indirect flat panels detectors and the system with four high resolution CCD cameras. In a second step the most important image processing are discussed: the gradation curves, the unsharp mask processing, the system MUSICA, the dynamic range compression or reduction, the soustraction with dual energy. In the last part the advantages and the drawbacks of computed thoracic radiography are emphasized. The most important are the almost constant good quality of the pictures and the possibilities of image processing.

  2. Image Segmentation for Improvised Explosive Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    zj, αj) measuring the similarity between adjacent pixels zi and zj . The function V (zi, αi, zj, αj) results 22 in large values when similar pixels... value distribution. The second and the third rows show the histogram for the object and the background after they were segmented...Images B and C show the directly assembled gray- value histograms for the background (B) and the object (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Figure

  3. Comparison of FecalSwab and ESwab Devices for Storage and Transportation of Diarrheagenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku

    2014-01-01

    Using a collection (n = 12) of ATCC and known stock isolates, as well as 328 clinical stool specimens, we evaluated the ESwab and the new FecalSwab liquid-based microbiology (LBM) devices for storing and transporting diarrheagenic bacteria. The stock isolates were stored in these swab devices up to 48 h at refrigeration (4°C) or room (∼25°C) temperature and up to 3 months at −20°C or −70°C. With the clinical stool specimens, the performances of the ESwab and FecalSwab were compared to those of routinely used transport systems (Amies gel swabs and dry containers). At a refrigeration temperature, all isolates survived in FecalSwab up to 48 h, while in ESwab, only 10 isolates (83.3%) out of 12 survived. At −70°C, all isolates in FecalSwab were recovered after 3 months of storage, whereas in ESwab, none of the isolates were recovered. At −20°C, neither of the swab devices preserved the viability of stock isolates after 2 weeks of storage, and at room temperature, 7 (58.3%) of the stock isolates were recovered in both transport devices after 48 h. Of the 328 fecal specimens, 44 (13.4%) were positive for one of the common diarrheagenic bacterial species with all transport systems used. Thus, the suitability of the ESwab and FecalSwab devices for culturing fresh stools was at least equal to those of the Amies gel swabs and dry containers. Although the ESwab was shown to be an option for collecting and transporting fecal specimens, the FecalSwab device had clearly better preserving properties under different storage conditions. PMID:24740083

  4. Comparison of FecalSwab and ESwab devices for storage and transportation of Diarrheagenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Jari J; Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku

    2014-07-01

    Using a collection (n = 12) of ATCC and known stock isolates, as well as 328 clinical stool specimens, we evaluated the ESwab and the new FecalSwab liquid-based microbiology (LBM) devices for storing and transporting diarrheagenic bacteria. The stock isolates were stored in these swab devices up to 48 h at refrigeration (4°C) or room (∼25°C) temperature and up to 3 months at -20°C or -70°C. With the clinical stool specimens, the performances of the ESwab and FecalSwab were compared to those of routinely used transport systems (Amies gel swabs and dry containers). At a refrigeration temperature, all isolates survived in FecalSwab up to 48 h, while in ESwab, only 10 isolates (83.3%) out of 12 survived. At -70°C, all isolates in FecalSwab were recovered after 3 months of storage, whereas in ESwab, none of the isolates were recovered. At -20°C, neither of the swab devices preserved the viability of stock isolates after 2 weeks of storage, and at room temperature, 7 (58.3%) of the stock isolates were recovered in both transport devices after 48 h. Of the 328 fecal specimens, 44 (13.4%) were positive for one of the common diarrheagenic bacterial species with all transport systems used. Thus, the suitability of the ESwab and FecalSwab devices for culturing fresh stools was at least equal to those of the Amies gel swabs and dry containers. Although the ESwab was shown to be an option for collecting and transporting fecal specimens, the FecalSwab device had clearly better preserving properties under different storage conditions.

  5. Informatics in radiology: Efficiency metrics for imaging device productivity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mengqi; Pavlicek, William; Liu, Patrick T; Zhang, Muhong; Langer, Steve G; Wang, Shanshan; Place, Vicki; Miranda, Rafael; Wu, Teresa Tong

    2011-01-01

    Acute awareness of the costs associated with medical imaging equipment is an ever-present aspect of the current healthcare debate. However, the monitoring of productivity associated with expensive imaging devices is likely to be labor intensive, relies on summary statistics, and lacks accepted and standardized benchmarks of efficiency. In the context of the general Six Sigma DMAIC (design, measure, analyze, improve, and control) process, a World Wide Web-based productivity tool called the Imaging Exam Time Monitor was developed to accurately and remotely monitor imaging efficiency with use of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) combined with a picture archiving and communication system. Five device efficiency metrics-examination duration, table utilization, interpatient time, appointment interval time, and interseries time-were derived from DICOM values. These metrics allow the standardized measurement of productivity, to facilitate the comparative evaluation of imaging equipment use and ongoing efforts to improve efficiency. A relational database was constructed to store patient imaging data, along with device- and examination-related data. The database provides full access to ad hoc queries and can automatically generate detailed reports for administrative and business use, thereby allowing staff to monitor data for trends and to better identify possible changes that could lead to improved productivity and reduced costs in association with imaging services. © RSNA, 2011.

  6. Porous graphene materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices.

    PubMed

    Han, Sheng; Wu, Dongqing; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2014-02-12

    Combining the advantages from both porous materials and graphene, porous graphene materials have attracted vast interests due to their large surface areas, unique porous structures, diversified compositions and excellent electronic conductivity. These unordinary features enable porous graphene materials to serve as key components in high-performance electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells. This progress report summarizes the typical fabrication methods for porous graphene materials with micro-, meso-, and macro-porous structures. The structure-property relationships of these materials and their application in advanced electrochemical devices are also discussed.

  7. Self-compliance multilevel storage characteristic in HfO2-based device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiao-Ping; Fu, Li-Ping; Chen, Chuan-Bing; Yuan, Peng; Li, Ying-Tao

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the self-compliance bipolar resistive switching characteristic of an HfO2-based memory device with Ag/HfO2/Au structure for multilevel storage is investigated. By applying a positive voltage, the dual-step set processes corresponding to three stable resistance states are observed in the device. The multilevel switching characteristics can still be observed after 48 hours. In addition, the resistance values of all the three states show negligible degradation over 104 s, which may be useful for the applications in nonvolatile multilevel storage. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61664001, 61574070, and 61306148) and the Application Research and Development Plan of Gansu Academy of Sciences, China (Grant Nos. 2015JK-11 and 2015JK-01).

  8. Bio-nanotextured high aspect ratio micropillar arrays for high surface area energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, S.; Gerasopoulos, K.; Ghodssi, R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents fabrication and characterization of bio-nanotextured hierarchical nickel oxide (NiO) supercapacitor electrodes. The hierarchical electrode structure is created through self-assembly of Tobacco mosaic viruses (TMVs) on high aspect-ratio micropillar arrays. Enhanced assembly of the bio-nanoparticles was achieved by increasing TMV solution accessibility into the deep microcavities of the pillar arrays. Electrochemical characterization of the hierarchical NiO supercapacitor electrodes revealed a 25-fold increase in charge capacity compared to a planar NiO, and demonstrated excellent cycle stability over 1500 charge/discharge cycles at 2 mA/cm2. This study leverages the unique bio-nanoscaffolds for small scale energy storage devices through further optimization of the hierarchical structures and wetting techniques for significant improvements in micro/nano scale energy storage devices.

  9. Compact intraoperative imaging device for sentinel lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Bauer, Adam Q.; Akers, Walter; Sudlow, Gail; Liang, Kexian; Shen, Duanwen; Berezin, Mikhail; Culver, Joseph P.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2011-03-01

    We have developed a novel real-time intraoperative fluorescence imaging device that can detect near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and map sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). In contrast to conventional imaging systems, this device is compact, portable, and battery-operated. It is also wearable and thus allows hands-free operation of clinicians. The system directly displays the fluorescence in its goggle eyepiece, eliminating the need for a remote monitor. Using this device in murine lymphatic mapping, the SLNs stained with indocyanine green (ICG) can be readily detected. Fluorescence-guided SLN resection under the new device was performed with ease. Ex vivo examination of resected tissues also revealed high fluorescence level in the SLNs. Histology further confirmed the lymphatic nature of the resected SLNs.

  10. Image-Capture Devices Extend Medicine's Reach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Johnson Space Center, Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, and Houston-based Wyle Laboratories collaborated on NASA's Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) experiment, which developed revolutionary medical ultrasound diagnostic techniques for long-distance use. Mediphan, a Canadian company with U.S. operations in Springfield, New Jersey drew on NASA expertise to create frame-grabber and data archiving technology that enables ultrasound users with minimal training to send diagnostic-quality ultrasound images and video to medical professionals via the Internet in near real time allowing patients as varied as professional athletes, Olympians, and mountain climbers to receive medical attention as soon as it is needed.

  11. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  12. A twisted wire-shaped dual-function energy device for photoelectric conversion and electrochemical storage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; You, Xiao; Deng, Jue; Chen, Xuli; Yang, Zhibin; Chen, Peining; Fang, Xin; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-06-23

    A wire-shaped energy device that can perform photoelectric conversion and electrochemical storage was developed through a simple but effective twisting process. The energy wire exhibited a high energy conversion efficiency of 6.58 % and specific capacitance of 85.03 μF cm(-1) or 2.13 mF cm(-2), and the two functions were alternately realized without sacrificing either performance.

  13. Thermoplastic Elastomer-Enabled Smart Electrolyte for Thermoresponsive Self-Protection of Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ye; Ha, Heonjoo; Al-Sudani, Atheer; Ellison, Christopher J; Yu, Guihua

    2016-09-01

    Thermoresponsive smart electrolytes based on Pluronic solution are developed for active control and thermal self-protection of electrochemical energy-storage devices. Mechanistic studies reveal that the highly effective and reversible self-protection behavior is attributed to the sol-gel transition of the Pluronic solution upon temperature change. The transition temperature and the degree of performance suppression can be tuned over a wide range.

  14. Dynamical aspects on FEL interaction in single passage and storage ring devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dattoli, G.; Renieri, A.

    1995-12-31

    The dynamical behaviour of the free-electron lasers is investigated using appropriate scaling relations valid for devices operating in the low and high gain regimes, including saturation. The analysis is applied to both single passage and storage ring configurations. In the latter case the interplay between the interaction of the electron bean with the laser field and with the accelerator environment is investigated. In particular we discuss the effect of FEL interaction on the microwave instability.

  15. OC ToGo: bed site image integration into OpenClinica with mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haak, Daniel; Gehlen, Johan; Jonas, Stephan; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2014-03-01

    Imaging and image-based measurements nowadays play an essential role in controlled clinical trials, but electronic data capture (EDC) systems insufficiently support integration of captured images by mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). The web application OpenClinica has established as one of the world's leading EDC systems and is used to collect, manage and store data of clinical trials in electronic case report forms (eCRFs). In this paper, we present a mobile application for instantaneous integration of images into OpenClinica directly during examination on patient's bed site. The communication between the Android application and OpenClinica is based on the simple object access protocol (SOAP) and representational state transfer (REST) web services for metadata, and secure file transfer protocol (SFTP) for image transfer, respectively. OpenClinica's web services are used to query context information (e.g. existing studies, events and subjects) and to import data into the eCRF, as well as export of eCRF metadata and structural information. A stable image transfer is ensured and progress information (e.g. remaining time) visualized to the user. The workflow is demonstrated for a European multi-center registry, where patients with calciphylaxis disease are included. Our approach improves the EDC workflow, saves time, and reduces costs. Furthermore, data privacy is enhanced, since storage of private health data on the imaging devices becomes obsolete.

  16. Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Safety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, You Mi; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Minsu; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-Joon; Kim, You-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conditional cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) have become recently available, non-MRI conditional devices and the presence of epicardial and abandoned leads remain a contraindication for MRIs. Subjects and Methods This was a single center retrospective study, evaluating the clinical outcomes and device parameter changes in patients with CIEDs who underwent an MRI from June 1992 to March 2015. Clinical and device related information was acquired by a thorough chart review. Results A total of 40 patients, 38 with a pacemaker (including epicardially located pacemaker leads) and 2 with implantable cardioverter defibrillators, underwent 50 MRI examinations. Among the patients, 11 had MRI conditional CIEDs, while the remaining had non-MRI conditional devices. Among these patients, 23 patients had traditional contraindications for an MRI: (1) nonfunctional leads (n=1, 2.5%), (2) epicardially located leads (n=9, 22.5%), (3) scanning area in proximity to a device (n=9, 22.5%), (4) devices implanted within 6 weeks (n=2, 5%), and (5) MRI field strength at 3.0 Tesla (n=6, 15%). All patients underwent a satisfactory MRI examination with no adverse events during or after the procedure. There were no significant changes in parameters or malfunctioning devices in any patients with CIEDs. Conclusion Under careful monitoring, MRI is safe to perform on patients with non-MRI conditional CIEDs, remnant leads, and epicardially located leads, as well as MRI-conditional devices. PMID:27826339

  17. Preliminary study of the reliability of imaging charge coupled devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, J. R.; Borenstein, M. D.; Homan, R. A.; Johnson, D. L.; Wilson, D. D.; Young, V. F.

    1978-01-01

    Imaging CCDs are capable of low light level response and high signal-to-noise ratios. In space applications they offer the user the ability to achieve extremely high resolution imaging with minimum circuitry in the photo sensor array. This work relates the CCD121H Fairchild device to the fundamentals of CCDs and the representative technologies. Several failure modes are described, construction is analyzed and test results are reported. In addition, the relationship of the device reliability to packaging principles is analyzed and test data presented. Finally, a test program is defined for more general reliability evaluation of CCDs.

  18. A novel, high energy-density electrical storage device for electric weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Jon M.

    1992-08-01

    Three different energy storage variants were developed and tested during Phase 1. Each was based on the close-coupled, thermopile storage principle. First, direct current was stored in a thermopile ring, which was open-switched into a dummy load to measure the energy release. In the second variant, alternating magnetic energy was stored in a split ring. Energy storage was caused by pumping alternating current in the thermopile circuit, connected as an LC oscillator. Both methods were found to store energy and each delivered pulse power, resulting in a twenty-to-one pulse-power advantage between energy released from the store and energy available from the power supply at the input. Power was drawn from these systems in a millisecond, making use of a specially developed, sequentially opening switch that takes full advantage of the MOSFET's nanosecond hyper-operating speed, the intermediate switching speed of a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), and a slower speed electro-mechanical switch. Further work with modifications of these two storage methods led then to the development of an inductor-to-inductor (L(sup 2)) electromagnetic storage system. This new type storage device seems to out perform the first two methods by roughly two orders of magnitude in storage capacity. During flux pump experiments, we also found that the L(sup 2) prototype system could be tuned to operate efficiently at certain particular frequencies depending on the value of capacitor chosen, placed across the two conductors, to tune in steps between 50 Hz and 50 MHz, possibly operating efficiently in the GHz range.

  19. Intrinsic signal imaging of brain function using a small implantable CMOS imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruta, Makito; Sunaga, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Takehara, Hironari; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2015-04-01

    A brain functional imaging technique over a long period is important to understand brain functions related to animal behavior. We have developed a small implantable CMOS imaging device for measuring brain activity in freely moving animals. This device is composed of a CMOS image sensor chip and LEDs for illumination. In this study, we demonstrated intrinsic signal imaging of blood flow using the device with a green LED light source at a peak wavelength of 535 nm, which corresponds to one of the absorption spectral peaks of blood cells. Brain activity increases regional blood flow. The device light weight of about 0.02 g makes it possible to stably measure brain activity through blood flow over a long period. The device has successfully measured the intrinsic signal related to sensory stimulation on the primary somatosensory cortex.

  20. Solar Thermal Energy Storage Device: Hybrid Nanostructures for High-Energy-Density Solar Thermal Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-09

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a thermal energy storage device that captures energy from the sun; this energy can be stored and released at a later time when it is needed most. Within the device, the absorption of sunlight causes the solar thermal fuel’s photoactive molecules to change shape, which allows energy to be stored within their chemical bonds. A trigger is applied to release the stored energy as heat, where it can be converted into electricity or used directly as heat. The molecules would then revert to their original shape, and can be recharged using sunlight to begin the process anew. MIT’s technology would be 100% renewable, rechargeable like a battery, and emissions-free. Devices using these solar thermal fuels—called Hybrisol—can also be used without a grid infrastructure for applications such as de-icing, heating, cooking, and water purification.

  1. Flexible Multistate Data Storage Devices Fabricated Using Natural Lignin at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngjun; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2017-02-22

    The growing interest in bioinspired and sustainable electronics has induced research on biocompatible and biodegradable materials. However, conventional electronic devices have been restricted due to their nonbiodegradable and sometimes harmful and toxic materials, which can even cause environmental issues. Here, we report a resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) device based on lignin, which is a biodegradable waste product of the paper industry. The active layer of the device can be easily formed using a simple solution process on a plastic substrate. The memory devices show stable bipolar resistive switching behavior with good endurance and retention. Appropriate control of the maximum reset voltage and compliance current can yield multibit data storage capability with at least four resistance states, which can be exploited to realize a high-density memory device. The resistive switching mechanism may be a result of formation and rupture of carbon-rich filaments. These results suggest that lignin is a promising candidate material for an inexpensive and environmentally benign ReRAM device. We believe that this study can initiate a new route toward development of biocompatible and flexible electronics.

  2. Metal-organic molecular device for non-volatile memory storage

    SciTech Connect

    Radha, B. E-mail: kulkarni@jncasr.ac.in; Sagade, Abhay A.; Kulkarni, G. U. E-mail: kulkarni@jncasr.ac.in

    2014-08-25

    Non-volatile memory devices have been of immense research interest for their use in active memory storage in powered off-state of electronic chips. In literature, various molecules and metal compounds have been investigated in this regard. Molecular memory devices are particularly attractive as they offer the ease of storing multiple memory states in a unique way and also represent ubiquitous choice for miniaturized devices. However, molecules are fragile and thus the device breakdown at nominal voltages during repeated cycles hinders their practical applicability. Here, in this report, a synergetic combination of an organic molecule and an inorganic metal, i.e., a metal-organic complex, namely, palladium hexadecylthiolate is investigated for memory device characteristics. Palladium hexadecylthiolate following partial thermolysis is converted to a molecular nanocomposite of Pd(II), Pd(0), and long chain hydrocarbons, which is shown to exhibit non-volatile memory characteristics with exceptional stability and retention. The devices are all solution-processed and the memory action stems from filament formation across the pre-formed cracks in the nanocomposite film.

  3. 77 FR 38829 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Institution of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade... Commission institute an investigation and, after the investigation, issue an exclusion order and cease and... accessing its Internet server at http://www.usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may...

  4. Endoscopic device for functional imaging of the retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, Simon; Lohani, Sweyta; Martell, Bret; Soliz, Peter; Ts'o, Dan

    2011-03-01

    Non-invasive imaging of retinal function based on the recording of spatially distributed reflectance changes evoked by visual stimuli has to-date been performed primarily using modified commercial fundus cameras. We have constructed a prototype retinal functional imager, using a commercial endoscope (Storz) for the frontend optics, and a low-cost back-end that includes the needed dichroic beam splitter to separate the stimulus path from the imaging path. This device has been tested to demonstrate its performance for the delivery of adequate near infrared (NIR) illumination, intensity of the visual stimulus and reflectance return in the imaging path. The current device was found to be capable of imaging reflectance changes of 0.1%, similar to that observable using the modified commercial fundus camera approach. The visual stimulus (a 505nm spot of 0.5secs) was used with an interrogation illumination of 780nm, and a sequence of imaged captured. At each pixel, the imaged signal was subtracted and normalized by the baseline reflectance, so that the measurement was ΔR/R. The typical retinal activity signal observed had a ΔR/R of 0.3-1.0%. The noise levels were measured when no stimulus was applied and found to vary between +/- 0.05%. Functional imaging has been suggested as a means to provide objective information on retina function that may be a preclinical indicator of ocular diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. The endoscopic approach promises to yield a significantly more economical retinal functional imaging device that would be clinically important.

  5. Neutron detection with imaging plates Part I. Image storage and readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, M.; Myles, D.; Wilkinson, C.

    1999-11-01

    The detection of neutrons with imaging plates is based on a sequence of physical processes, which are happening during the neutron exposure and the readout of the image information. These processes are investigated in detail starting with the neutron absorption and conversion to secondary radiation by various neutron converter materials and ending with the detection of the photostimulated luminescence, which is emitted during the readout. It is shown that these processes can be quantified by several key parameters, such as i.e. the neutron absorption cross section, the emitted secondary energy and the conversion efficiency of released secondary energy to storage centers in the storage phosphor. The resulting detector characteristics are described in the second part, namely, Neutron detection with imaging plates - part II: detector characteristics [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 424 (1999) 34-39].

  6. NEW SOIL VOC SAMPLERS: EN CORE AND ACCU CORE SAMPLING/STORAGE DEVICES FOR VOC ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr

    2006-06-01

    Soil sampling and storage practices for volatile organic analysis must be designed to minimize loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from samples. The En Core{reg_sign} sampler is designed to collect and store soil samples in a manner that minimizes loss of contaminants due to volatilization and/or biodegradation. An ASTM International (ASTM) standard practice, D 6418, Standard Practice for Using the Disposable En Core Sampler for Sampling and Storing Soil for Volatile Organic Analysis, describes use of the En Core sampler to collect and store a soil sample of approximately 5 grams or 25 grams for volatile organic analysis and specifies sample storage in the En Core sampler at 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours; -7 to -21 C for up to 14 days; or 4 {+-} 2 C for up to 48 hours followed by storage at -7 to -21 C for up to five days. This report discusses activities performed during the past year to promote and continue acceptance of the En Core samplers based on their performance to store soil samples for VOC analysis. The En Core sampler is designed to collect soil samples for VOC analysis at the soil surface. To date, a sampling tool for collecting and storing subsurface soil samples for VOC analysis is not available. Development of a subsurface VOC sampling/storage device was initiated in 1999. This device, which is called the Accu Core{trademark} sampler, is designed so that a soil sample can be collected below the surface using a dual-tube penetrometer and transported to the laboratory for analysis in the same container. Laboratory testing of the current Accu Core design shows that the device holds low-level concentrations of VOCs in soil samples during 48-hour storage at 4 {+-} 2 C and that the device is ready for field evaluation to generate additional performance data. This report discusses a field validation exercise that was attempted in Pennsylvania in 2004 and activities being performed to plan and conduct a field validation study in 2006. A draft ASTM

  7. Structural design of graphene for use in electrochemical energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunfeng; Song, Shuyan; Liu, Fei; Xue, Dongfeng

    2015-10-07

    There are many practical challenges in the use of graphene materials as active components in electrochemical energy storage devices. Graphene has a much lower capacitance than the theoretical capacitance of 550 F g(-1) for supercapacitors and 744 mA h g(-1) for lithium ion batteries. The macroporous nature of graphene limits its volumetric energy density and the low packing density of graphene-based electrodes prevents its use in commercial applications. Increases in the capacity, energy density and power density of electroactive graphene materials are strongly dependent on their microstructural properties, such as the number of defects, stacking, the use of composite materials, conductivity, the specific surface area and the packing density. The structural design of graphene electrode materials is achieved via six main strategies: the design of non-stacking and three-dimensional graphene; the synthesis of highly packed graphene; the production of graphene with a high specific surface area and high conductivity; the control of defects; functionalization with O, N, B or P heteroatoms; and the formation of graphene composites. These methodologies of structural design are needed for fast electrical charge storage/transfer and the transport of electrolyte ions (Li(+), H(+), K(+), Na(+)) in graphene electrodes. We critically review state-of-the-art progress in the optimization of the electrochemical performance of graphene-based electrode materials. The structure of graphene needs to be designed to develop novel electrochemical energy storage devices that approach the theoretical charge limit of graphene and to deliver electrical energy rapidly and efficiently.

  8. Enabling customer self service through image processing on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliche, Ingmar; Hellmann, Sascha; Kreutel, Jörn

    2013-03-01

    Our paper will outline the results of a research project that employs image processing for the automatic diagnosis of technical devices whose internal state is communicated through visual displays. In particular, we developed a method for detecting exceptional states of retail wireless routers, analysing the state and blinking behaviour of the LEDs that make up most routers' user interface. The method was made configurable by means of abstracting away from a particular device's display properties, thus being able to analyse a whole range of different devices whose displays are covered by our abstraction. The method of analysis and its configuration mechanism were implemented as a native mobile application for the Android Platform. It employs the local camera of mobile devices for capturing a router's state, and uses overlaid visual hints for guiding the user toward that perspective from where an analysis is possible.

  9. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between -Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications, and is an example of industry and government cooperation that leads to novel inventions. Device development involves three energy generation and consumption projects: 1) a low mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; 2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and 3) a new approach to building supercapacitors. These three technologies - energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting) - represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies will be useful for lightweight power generation that enables inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and facilitates surface operations. The PV device model is a two-sphere, light-trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. All three components may be printed in line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the threedimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. MSFC is testing the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh space and lunar surface environments, and available results will be reported. Unlike many traditional light sources, this device does not contain toxic compounds, and the LED component has passed stringent off-gassing tests required for potential manifesting on spacecraft such as the International Space

  10. Real-time computer treatment of THz passive device images with the high image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate real-time computer code improving significantly the quality of images captured by the passive THz imaging system. The code is not only designed for a THz passive device: it can be applied to any kind of such devices and active THz imaging systems as well. We applied our code for computer processing of images captured by four passive THz imaging devices manufactured by different companies. It should be stressed that computer processing of images produced by different companies requires using the different spatial filters usually. The performance of current version of the computer code is greater than one image per second for a THz image having more than 5000 pixels and 24 bit number representation. Processing of THz single image produces about 20 images simultaneously corresponding to various spatial filters. The computer code allows increasing the number of pixels for processed images without noticeable reduction of image quality. The performance of the computer code can be increased many times using parallel algorithms for processing the image. We develop original spatial filters which allow one to see objects with sizes less than 2 cm. The imagery is produced by passive THz imaging devices which captured the images of objects hidden under opaque clothes. For images with high noise we develop an approach which results in suppression of the noise after using the computer processing and we obtain the good quality image. With the aim of illustrating the efficiency of the developed approach we demonstrate the detection of the liquid explosive, ordinary explosive, knife, pistol, metal plate, CD, ceramics, chocolate and other objects hidden under opaque clothes. The results demonstrate the high efficiency of our approach for the detection of hidden objects and they are a very promising solution for the security problem.

  11. Charge injection on insulators via scanning probe microscopy techniques: towards data storage devices.

    PubMed

    Silva-Pinto, E; Neves, B R A

    2010-07-01

    The idea of contact electrification aiming the development of nano-scale data storage devices has been explored through a careful investigation of charge injection on insulating films (SiO2 and PMMA) via scanning probe microscopy techniques. A complete route for data storage, showing simple and effective ways to write (inject the charge with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip), to read (detect the charge with electric force microscopy), to store (keep sample charge by changing ambient and surface conditions) and to erase the information (make the discharge process faster) is proposed and discussed. A detailed study of the influence of several parameters like AFM mode, bias voltage, relative humidity and surface hydrophobicity is also presented to optimize both charge injection and discharge processes. Results show that monitoring parameters such as ambient relative humidity and surface hydrophobic/hydrophilic character enable the control of pattern size, lateral dispersion, and storage time. The charge polarity is also dependent on the surface hydrophobicity and either positive or negative charges can become more appropriate for storage depending on the surface hydrophobic/hydrophilic character.

  12. Study report on laser storage and retrieval of image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical foundation is presented for a system of real-time nonphotographic and nonmagnetic digital laser storage and retrieval of image data. The system utilizes diffraction-limited laser focusing upon thin metal films, melting elementary holes in the metal films in laser focus. The metal films are encapsulated in rotating flexible mylar discs which act as the permanent storage carries. Equal sized holes encompass two dimensional digital ensembles of information bits which are time-sequentially (bit by bit) stored and retrieved. The bits possess the smallest possible size, defined by the Rayleigh criterion of coherent physical optics. Space and time invariant reflective read-out of laser discs with a small laser, provides access to the stored digital information. By eliminating photographic and magnetic data processing, which characterize the previous state of the art, photographic grain, diffusion, and gamma-distortion do not exist. Similarly, magnetic domain structures, magnetic gaps, and magnetic read-out are absent with a digital laser disc system.

  13. Inspection of commercial optical devices for data storage using a three Gaussian beam microscope interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, J. Mauricio; Cywiak, Moises; Servin, Manuel; Juarez P, Lorenzo

    2008-09-20

    Recently, an interferometric profilometer based on the heterodyning of three Gaussian beams has been reported. This microscope interferometer, called a three Gaussian beam interferometer, has been used to profile high quality optical surfaces that exhibit constant reflectivity with high vertical resolution and lateral resolution near {lambda}. We report the use of this interferometer to measure the profiles of two commercially available optical surfaces for data storage, namely, the compact disk (CD-R) and the digital versatile disk (DVD-R). We include experimental results from a one-dimensional radial scan of these devices without data marks. The measurements are taken by placing the devices with the polycarbonate surface facing the probe beam of the interferometer. This microscope interferometer is unique when compared with other optical measuring instruments because it uses narrowband detection, filters out undesirable noisy signals, and because the amplitude of the output voltage signal is basically proportional to the local vertical height of the surface under test, thus detecting with high sensitivity. We show that the resulting profiles, measured with this interferometer across the polycarbonate layer, provide valuable information about the track profiles, making this interferometer a suitable tool for quality control of surface storage devices.

  14. Inspection of commercial optical devices for data storage using a three Gaussian beam microscope interferometer.

    PubMed

    Flores, J Mauricio; Cywiak, Moisés; Servín, Manuel; Juárez, Lorenzo

    2008-09-20

    Recently, an interferometric profilometer based on the heterodyning of three Gaussian beams has been reported. This microscope interferometer, called a three Gaussian beam interferometer, has been used to profile high quality optical surfaces that exhibit constant reflectivity with high vertical resolution and lateral resolution near lambda. We report the use of this interferometer to measure the profiles of two commercially available optical surfaces for data storage, namely, the compact disk (CD-R) and the digital versatile disk (DVD-R). We include experimental results from a one-dimensional radial scan of these devices without data marks. The measurements are taken by placing the devices with the polycarbonate surface facing the probe beam of the interferometer. This microscope interferometer is unique when compared with other optical measuring instruments because it uses narrowband detection, filters out undesirable noisy signals, and because the amplitude of the output voltage signal is basically proportional to the local vertical height of the surface under test, thus detecting with high sensitivity. We show that the resulting profiles, measured with this interferometer across the polycarbonate layer, provide valuable information about the track profiles, making this interferometer a suitable tool for quality control of surface storage devices.

  15. Implantable imaging device for brain functional imaging system using flavoprotein fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunaga, Yoshinori; Yamaura, Hiroshi; Haruta, Makito; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Motoyama, Mayumi; Ohta, Yasumi; Takehara, Hiroaki; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yumiko; Ohta, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The autofluorescence of mitochondrial flavoprotein is very useful for functional brain imaging because the fluorescence intensity of flavoprotein changes as per neural activities. In this study, we developed an implantable imaging device for green fluorescence imaging and detected fluorescence changes of flavoprotein associated with visual stimulation using the device. We examined the device performance using anesthetized mice. We set the device on the visual cortex and measured fluorescence changes of flavoprotein in response to visual stimulation. A full-field sinusoidal grating with a vertical orientation was used for applying to activate the visual cortex. We successfully observed visually evoked fluorescence changes in the mouse visual cortex using our implantable device. This result suggests that we can observe the fluorescence changes of flavoprotein associated with visual stimulation in a freely moving mouse by using this technology.

  16. Regenerative Fuel Cells: Renewable Energy Storage Devices Based on Neutral Water Input

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Proton Energy Systems is developing an energy storage device that converts water to hydrogen fuel when excess electricity is available, and then uses hydrogen to generate electricity when energy is needed. The system includes an electrolyzer, which generates and separates hydrogen and oxygen for storage, and a fuel cell which converts the hydrogen and oxygen back to electricity. Traditional systems use acidic membranes, and require expensive materials including platinum and titanium for key parts of the system. In contrast, Proton Energy Systems’ new system will use an inexpensive alkaline membrane and will contain only inexpensive metals such as nickel and stainless steel. If successful, Proton Energy Systems’ system will have similar performance to today’s regenerative fuel cell systems at a fraction of the cost, and can be used to store electricity on the electric grid.

  17. Metal-Phenolic Carbon Nanocomposites for Robust and Flexible Energy-Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jun Young; Jung, Yeonsu; Cho, Young Shik; Choi, Jaeyoo; Youk, Ji Ho; Fechler, Nina; Yang, Seung Jae; Park, Chong Rae

    2017-01-05

    Future electronics applications such as wearable electronics depend on the successful construction of energy-storage devices with superior flexibility and high electrochemical performance. However, these prerequisites are challenging to combine: External forces often cause performance degradation, whereas the trade-off between the required nanostructures for strength and electrochemical performance only results in diminished energy storage. Herein, a flexible supercapacitor based on tannic acid (TA) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a unique nanostructure is presented. TA was self-assembled on the surface of the CNTs by metal-phenolic coordination bonds, which provides the hybrid film with both high strength and high pseudocapacitance. Besides 17-fold increased mechanical strength of the final composite, the hybrid film simultaneously exhibits excellent flexibility and volumetric capacitance.

  18. Oxidation of graphene 'bow tie' nanofuses for permanent, write-once-read-many data storage devices.

    PubMed

    Pearson, A C; Jamieson, S; Linford, M R; Lunt, B M; Davis, R C

    2013-04-05

    We have fabricated nanoscale fuses from CVD graphene sheets with a 'bow tie' geometry for write-once-read-many data storage applications. The fuses are programmed using thermal oxidation driven by Joule heating. Fuses that were 250 nm wide with 2.5 μm between contact pads were programmed with average voltages and powers of 4.9 V and 2.1 mW, respectively. The required voltages and powers decrease with decreasing fuse sizes. Graphene shows extreme chemical and electronic stability; fuses require temperatures of about 400 °C for oxidation, indicating that they are excellent candidates for permanent data storage. To further demonstrate this stability, fuses were subjected to applied biases in excess of typical read voltages; stable currents were observed when a voltage of 10 V was applied to the devices in the off state and 1 V in the on state for 90 h each.

  19. Energy storage devices having anodes containing Mg and electrolytes utilized therein

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-18

    For a metal anode in a battery, the capacity fade is a significant consideration. In energy storage devices having an anode that includes Mg, the cycling stability can be improved by an electrolyte having a first salt, a second salt, and an organic solvent. Examples of the organic solvent include diglyme, triglyme, tetraglyme, or a combination thereof. The first salt can have a magnesium cation and be substantially soluble in the organic solvent. The second salt can enhance the solubility of the first salt and can have a magnesium cation or a lithium cation. The first salt, the second salt, or both have a BH.sub.4 anion.

  20. Effects of nuclear radiation and elevated temperature storage on electroexplosive devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menichelli, V. J.

    1976-01-01

    Aerospace type electroexplosive devices (EEDs) were subjected to nuclear radiation. Components and chemicals used in the EEDs were also included. The kind of radiation and total dosage administered were those which may be experienced in a space flight of 10 years duration, based on information available at this time. After irradiation, the items were stored in elevated constant-temperature ovens to accelerate early effects of the exposure to radiation. Periodically, samples were withdrawn for visual observation and testing. Significant changes occurred which were attributed to elevated-temperature storage and not radiation.

  1. Nonvolatile multilevel data storage memory device from controlled ambipolar charge trapping mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Sonar, Prashant; Roy, V A L

    2013-01-01

    The capability of storing multi-bit information is one of the most important challenges in memory technologies. An ambipolar polymer which intrinsically has the ability to transport electrons and holes as a semiconducting layer provides an opportunity for the charge trapping layer to trap both electrons and holes efficiently. Here, we achieved large memory window and distinct multilevel data storage by utilizing the phenomena of ambipolar charge trapping mechanism. As fabricated flexible memory devices display five well-defined data levels with good endurance and retention properties showing potential application in printed electronics.

  2. Method for forming a cell separator for use in bipolar-stack energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Feikert, J.H.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

    1994-08-09

    An improved multi-cell electrochemical energy storage device, such as a battery, fuel cell, or double layer capacitor using a cell separator which allows cells to be stacked and interconnected with low electrical resistance and high reliability while maximizing packaging efficiency. By adding repeating cells, higher voltages can be obtained. The cell separator is formed by applying an organic adhesive on opposing surfaces of adjacent carbon electrodes or surfaces of aerogel electrodes of a pair of adjacent cells prior to or after pyrolysis thereof to form carbon aerogel electrodes. The cell separator is electronically conductive, but ionically isolating, preventing an electrolytic conduction path between adjacent cells in the stack. 2 figs.

  3. Method for forming a cell separator for use in bipolar-stack energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T.; Feikert, John H.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    An improved multi-cell electrochemical energy storage device, such as a battery, fuel cell, or double layer capacitor using a cell separator which allows cells to be stacked and interconnected with low electrical resistance and high reliability while maximizing packaging efficiency. By adding repeating cells, higher voltages can be obtained. The cell separator is formed by applying an organic adhesive on opposing surfaces of adjacent carbon electrodes or surfaces of aerogel electrodes of a pair of adjacent cells prior to or after pyrolysis thereof to form carbon aerogel electrodes. The cell separator is electronically conductive, but ionically isolating, preventing an electrolytic conduction path between adjacent cells in the stack.

  4. Cell separator for use in bipolar-stack energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T.; Feikert, John H.; Kachmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    An improved multi-cell electrochemical energy storage device, such as a battery, fuel cell, or double layer capacitor using a cell separator which allows cells to be stacked and interconnected with low electrical resistance and high reliability while maximizing packaging efficiency. By adding repeating cells, higher voltages can be obtained. The cell separator is formed by applying an organic adhesive on opposing surfaces of adjacent carbon electrodes or surfaces of aerogel electrodes of a pair of adjacent cells prior to or after pyrolysis thereof to form carbon aerogel electrodes. The cell separator is electronically conductive, but ionically isolating, preventing an electrolytic conduction path between adjacent cells in the stack.

  5. Stereotaxic Device for Optical Imaging of Mice Hind Feet

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Richard; Hoffman, Timothy; Smith, Jason; Herron, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Imaging of in vivo model systems, especially mouse models, has revolutionized our understanding of normal and pathological developments. However, mice present several challenges for imaging. They are living and therefore breathing organisms with a fast heart rate (>500 beat/min), which necessitates the need for restraints and positioning controls that do not compromise their normal physiology. We present here a device that immobilizes the rear legs of a mouse while retaining the ability to position both the hind feet and legs for reproducible imaging deep below the skin's surface. The device is highly adjustable to accommodate mice, 5 weeks of age and older. The function of this device is demonstrated by imaging the vasculature ∼250 μm beneath the skin in the hind leg. Whereas the overall dimensions are for a motorized stage (Märzhäuser Wetzlar GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany), minor modifications would allow it to be customized for use with most commercially available stages that accept an insert. PMID:23997660

  6. Raster image adaptation for mobile devices using profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, René; Hamann, Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Focusing on digital imagery, this paper introduces a strategy to handle heterogeneous hardware in mobile environments. Constrained system resources of most mobile viewing devices require contents that are tailored to the requirements of the user and the capabilities of the device. Appropriate image adaptation is still an unsolved research question. Due to the complexity of the problem, available solutions are either too resource-intensive or inflexible to be more generally applicable. The proposed approach is based on scalable image compression and progressive refinement as well as data and user profiles. A scalable image is created once and used multiple times for different kinds of devices and user requirements. Profiles available on the server side allow for an image representation that is adapted to the most important resources in mobile computing: screen space, computing power, and the volume of the transmitted data. Options for progressively refining content thereby allow for a fluent viewing experience during adaptation. Due to its flexibility and low complexity, the proposed solution is much more general compared to related approaches. To document the advantages of our approach we provide empirical results obtained in experiments with an implementation of the method.

  7. PVA/AA photopolymers and PA-LCoS devices combined for holographic data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, Andrés.; Martínez, Francisco J.; Fernández, Roberto; Gallego, Sergi; Álvarez, Mariela L.; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a polyvinil alcohol/acrylamide (PVA/AA) photopolymer compound in a holographic memory testing platform to provide experimental results for storage and retrieval of information. We also investigate different codification schemes for the data pages addressed onto the parallel-addressed liquid crystal on silicon (PA-LCoS) device, used as the data pager, such as binary intensity modulation (BIM), and hybrid-ternary modulation (HTM), and we will see that an actual approximation for HTM can be obtained with a PA-LCoS device. We will also evaluate the effect of the time fluctuations in the PA-LCoS microdisplays onto the BIM and HTM regimes. Good results in terms of signal-tonoise ratio and bit-error ratio are provided with the experimental system and using the PVA/AA photopolymer produced in our lab, thus showing its potential and interest for future research focused on this material with highly tunable properties.

  8. Role of salt concentration in blend polymer for energy storage conversion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, Anil; Sadiq, M.; Sharma, A. L.

    2016-05-01

    Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPE) are materials of considerable interest worldwide, which serves dual purpose of electrolyte and separator between electrode compartments in renewable energy conversion/storage devices such as; high energy density batteries, electrochromic display devices, and supercapacitors. Polymer blend electrolytes are prepared for various concentration of salt (Ö/Li) with the constant ratio (0.5 gm) of each PEO and PAN polymers (blend polymer) using solution casting technique. Solid polymeric ionic conductor as a separator is the ultimate substitute to eliminate the drawback related to liquid and gel polymer ionic conductors. In the present work, solid polymer electrolyte film consisting of PEO, PAN and LiPF6 are examined for various concentration of lithium salt by keeping PEO/PAN blend ratio as a constant with a view to optimize the dominant salt concentration which could give the maximum conductivity at ambient temperature.

  9. Multifeature image and video content-based storage and retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardizzone, Edoardo; La Cascia, Marco

    1996-11-01

    In this paper we present most recent evolution of JACOB, a system we developed for image and video content-based storage and retrieval. The system is based on two separate archives: a 'features DB' and a 'raw-data DB'. When a user puts a query, a search is done in the 'features DB'; the selected items are taken form the 'raw-data DB' and shown to the user. Two kinds of sessions are allowed: 'database population' and 'database querying'. During a 'database population' session the user inserts new data into the archive. The input data can consist of digital images or videos. Videos are split into shots and for each shot one or more representative frames are automatically extracted. Shots and r-frames are then characterized, either in automatic or semi-automatic way, and stored in the archives. Automatic features' extraction consist of computing some low-level global features. Semi-automatic features' extraction is done by using annotation tools that perform operations that aren't currently possible with fully automatic methods. To this aim semi-automatic motion based segmentation and labeling tools have been developed. During a 'database querying' session, queries direct or by example are allowed. Queries may be iterated and variously combined to satisfy the query in the smallest number steps. Multifeature querying is based on statistical analysis of the feature space.

  10. A Bamboo-Inspired Nanostructure Design for Flexible, Foldable, and Twistable Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongming; Sills, Ryan B; Hu, Xianluo; Seh, Zhi Wei; Xiao, Xu; Xu, Henghui; Luo, Wei; Jin, Huanyu; Xin, Ying; Li, Tianqi; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Zhou, Jun; Cai, Wei; Huang, Yunhui; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-10

    Flexible energy storage devices are critical components for emerging flexible electronics. Electrode design is key in the development of all-solid-state supercapacitors with superior electrochemical performances and mechanical durability. Herein, we propose a bamboo-like graphitic carbon nanofiber with a well-balanced macro-, meso-, and microporosity, enabling excellent mechanical flexibility, foldability, and electrochemical performances. Our design is inspired by the structure of bamboos, where a periodic distribution of interior holes along the length and graded pore structure at the cross section not only enhance their stability under different mechanical deformation conditions but also provide a high surface area accessible to the electrolyte and low ion-transport resistance. The prepared nanofiber network electrode recovers its initial state easily after 3-folded manipulation. The mechanically robust membrane is explored as a free-standing electrode for a flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor. Without the need for extra support, the volumetric energy and power densities based on the whole device are greatly improved compared to the state-of-the-art devices. Even under continuous dynamic operations of forceful bending (90°) and twisting (180°), the as-designed device still exhibits stable electrochemical performances with 100% capacitance retention. Such a unique supercapacitor holds great promise for high-performance flexible electronics.

  11. A bamboo-inspired nanostructure design for flexible foldable and twistable energy storage devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yongming; Sills, Ryan B; Hu, Xianluo; Wei Seh, Zhi; Xiao, Xu; Xu, Henghui; Luo, Wei; Jin, Huanyu; Xin, Ying; Li, Tianqi; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Zhou, Jun; Cai, Wei; Huang, Yunhui; Cui, Yi

    2015-05-26

    Flexible energy storage devices are critical components for emerging flexible electronics. Electrode design is key in the development of all-solid-state supercapacitors with superior electrochemical performances and mechanical durability. We propose a bamboo-like graphitic carbon nanofiber with a well-balanced macro-, meso-, and microporosity, enabling excellent mechanical flexibility, foldability, and electrochemical performances. Our design is inspired by the structure of bamboos, where a periodic distribution of interior holes along the length and graded pore structure at the cross section not only enhance their stability under different mechanical deformation conditions but also provide a high surface area accessible to the electrolyte and low ion-transport resistance. The prepared nanofiber network electrode recovers its initial state easily after 3-folded manipulation. The mechanically robust membrane is explored as a free-standing electrode for a flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor. Without the need for extra support, the volumetric energy and power densities based on the whole device are greatly improved compared to the state-of-the-art devices. Furthermore, even under continuous dynamic operations of forceful bending (90°) and twisting (180°), the as-designed device still exhibits stable electrochemical performances with 100% capacitance retention. As a result, such a unique supercapacitor holds great promise for high-performance flexible electronics.

  12. A bamboo-inspired nanostructure design for flexible foldable and twistable energy storage devices

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Yongming; Sills, Ryan B; Hu, Xianluo; ...

    2015-05-26

    Flexible energy storage devices are critical components for emerging flexible electronics. Electrode design is key in the development of all-solid-state supercapacitors with superior electrochemical performances and mechanical durability. We propose a bamboo-like graphitic carbon nanofiber with a well-balanced macro-, meso-, and microporosity, enabling excellent mechanical flexibility, foldability, and electrochemical performances. Our design is inspired by the structure of bamboos, where a periodic distribution of interior holes along the length and graded pore structure at the cross section not only enhance their stability under different mechanical deformation conditions but also provide a high surface area accessible to the electrolyte and lowmore » ion-transport resistance. The prepared nanofiber network electrode recovers its initial state easily after 3-folded manipulation. The mechanically robust membrane is explored as a free-standing electrode for a flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor. Without the need for extra support, the volumetric energy and power densities based on the whole device are greatly improved compared to the state-of-the-art devices. Furthermore, even under continuous dynamic operations of forceful bending (90°) and twisting (180°), the as-designed device still exhibits stable electrochemical performances with 100% capacitance retention. As a result, such a unique supercapacitor holds great promise for high-performance flexible electronics.« less

  13. Aqueous manganese dioxide ink for paper-based capacitive energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jiasheng; Jin, Huanyu; Chen, Bolei; Lin, Mei; Lu, Wei; Tang, Wing Man; Xiong, Wei; Chan, Lai Wa Helen; Lau, Shu Ping; Yuan, Jikang

    2015-06-01

    We report a simple approach based on a chemical reduction method to synthesize aqueous inorganic ink comprised of hexagonal MnO2 nanosheets. The MnO2 ink exhibits long-term stability and continuous thin films can be formed on various substrates without using any binder. To obtain a flexible electrode for capacitive energy storage, the MnO2 ink was printed onto commercially available A4 paper pretreated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The electrode exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 1035 F g(-1) (91.7 mF cm(-2)). Paper-based symmetric and asymmetric capacitors were assembled, which gave a maximum specific energy density of 25.3 Wh kg(-1) and a power density of 81 kW kg(-1). The device could maintain a 98.9% capacitance retention over 10 000 cycles at 4 A g(-1). The MnO2 ink could be a versatile candidate for large-scale production of flexible and printable electronic devices for energy storage and conversion.

  14. Damping improvement and terminal voltage regulation for a synchronous machine using an energy storage device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seok-Kyoon; Song, Hwachang; Yoon, Tae-Woong

    2015-04-01

    On the basis of the non-linear third-order generator model, this article proposes a dual control scheme for a single synchronous machine equipped with an energy storage device to regulate the terminal voltage while enhancing the damping. Based on the input-output feedback linearisation method, the exciter controller is designed such that the terminal voltage robustly converges to its predetermined reference in the presence of a model uncertainty. In addition, the control input of the energy storage device feedbacks only the relative speed. It is shown that this controller can effectively increase the damping of the synchronous machine and that there is a set of initial conditions such that all trajectories started from this set go to the equilibrium point, satisfying input constraints. Moreover, it is also verified that all generator variables are bounded except for the power angle. The simulation results show that the closed-loop performance is satisfactory despite a transmission line fault and a model uncertainty in which the non-linear fourth-order generator model (two-axis) is used.

  15. Use of electronic portal imaging devices for electron treatment verification.

    PubMed

    Kairn, T; Aland, T; Crowe, S B; Trapp, J V

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to help broaden the use of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for pre-treatment patient positioning verification, from photon-beam radiotherapy to photon- and electron-beam radiotherapy, by proposing and testing a method for acquiring clinically-useful EPID images of patient anatomy using electron beams, with a view to enabling and encouraging further research in this area. EPID images used in this study were acquired using all available beams from a linac configured to deliver electron beams with nominal energies of 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV, as well as photon beams with nominal energies of 6 and 10 MV. A widely-available heterogeneous, approximately-humanoid, thorax phantom was used, to provide an indication of the contrast and noise produced when imaging different types of tissue with comparatively realistic thicknesses. The acquired images were automatically calibrated, corrected for the effects of variations in the sensitivity of individual photodiodes, using a flood field image. For electron beam imaging, flood field EPID calibration images were acquired with and without the placement of blocks of water-equivalent plastic (with thicknesses approximately equal to the practical range of electrons in the plastic) placed upstream of the EPID, to filter out the primary electron beam, leaving only the bremsstrahlung photon signal. While the electron beam images acquired using a standard (unfiltered) flood field calibration were observed to be noisy and difficult to interpret, the electron beam images acquired using the filtered flood field calibration showed tissues and bony anatomy with levels of contrast and noise that were similar to the contrast and noise levels seen in the clinically acceptable photon beam EPID images. The best electron beam imaging results (highest contrast, signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios) were achieved when the images were acquired using the higher energy electron beams (16 and 20 MeV) when the EPID was

  16. Reversible transient hydrogen storage in a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device.

    PubMed

    Unda, Jesus E Zerpa; Roduner, Emil

    2012-03-21

    A new concept is investigated for hydrogen storage in a supercapacitor based on large-surface-area carbon material (Black Pearls 2000). Protons and electrons of hydrogen are separated on a fuel cell-type electrode and then stored separately in the electrical double layer, the electrons on the carbon and the protons in the aqueous electrolyte of the supercapacitor electrode. The merit of this concept is that it works spontaneously and reversibly near ambient pressure and temperature. This is in pronounced contrast to what has been known as electrochemical hydrogen storage, which does not involve hydrogen gas and where electrical work has to be spent in the loading process. With the present hybrid device, a H(2) storage capacity of 0.13 wt% was obtained, one order of magnitude more than what can be stored by conventional physisorption on large-surface-area carbons at the same pressure and temperature. Raising the pressure from 1.5 to 3.5 bar increased the capacity by less than 20%, indicating saturation. A capacitance of 11 μF cm(-2), comparable with that of a commercial double layer supercapacitor, was found using H(2)SO(4) as electrolyte. The chemical energy of the stored H(2) is almost a factor of 3 larger than the electrical energy stored in the supercapacitor. Further developments of this concept relate to a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a proton exchange membrane fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. This serial setup takes advantage of the suggested novel concept of hydrogen storage. It is fundamentally different from previous ways of operating a conventional supercapacitor hooked up in parallel to a fuel cell.

  17. Super resolution imaging and nanoscale magnetic detection in microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kangmook

    Nanoscale sensing and imaging tools are the most emerging techniques in fields of nanoscience research and engineering. To demonstrate nanoscale sensing and imaging tools, it is required to achieve high sensitivity and spatial resolution simultaneously. By fulfilling the requirements, this thesis describes mainly two different scanning applications employing quantum probes and nanoparticle positioning technique using fluid flow control. First, we develop a method that can systematically probe the distortion of an emitter's diffraction spot near a nanoparticle in a microfluidic device. The results provide a better fundamental understanding of near-field coupling between emitters and nanophotonic structures. We demonstrate that by monitoring the distortion of the diffraction spot we can perform highly accurate imaging of the nanoparticle with 8 nm spatial precision. Next, we develop a method to perform localized magnetometry in a microfluidic device with a 48 nm spatial precision. We map out the local field distribution of a magnetic nanoparticle by manipulating it in the vicinity of an immobilized single NV center and optically detecting the induced Zeeman shift with a magnetic field sensitivity of 17.5 muT Hz-1/2. Finally, we introduce a scanning magnetic field technique that employs multiple NV centers in diamond nanocrystals suspended in microfluidic channels. This technique has advantages of short acquisition time over wide-field with nanoscale spatial resolution. The advantages make our technique attractive to a wide range of magnetic imaging applications in fluidic environments and biophysical systems.

  18. Digital micromirror devices: principles and applications in imaging.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Vivek; Saggau, Peter

    2013-05-01

    A digital micromirror device (DMD) is an array of individually switchable mirrors that can be used in many advanced optical systems as a rapid spatial light modulator. With a DMD, several implementations of confocal microscopy, hyperspectral imaging, and fluorescence lifetime imaging can be realized. The DMD can also be used as a real-time optical processor for applications such as the programmable array microscope and compressive sensing. Advantages and disadvantages of the DMD for these applications as well as methods to overcome some of the limitations will be discussed in this article. Practical considerations when designing with the DMD and sample optical layouts of a completely DMD-based imaging system and one in which acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) are used in the illumination pathway are also provided.

  19. Spectral imaging and biomedicine: new devices, new approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, Richard M.; Cronin, P. J.; Harvey, N. R.

    2002-01-01

    The advent of molecular medicine and new demands on pathologists to deliver prognostic and therapy-shaping analyses has created a need for enhanced imaging tools. Spectral imaging coupled wilh microscopy is a relatively novel and largely unexplored technology that holds out promise of satisfying, at least in part, such a need. New optical methods for spectral discrimination are being combined with powerful software approaches, often originally developed in diffbrent fields, to explore and exploit a wealth of informaticm beyond the capabilities of conventional color-based imaging approaches. Some of the new devices and software tools are described and illustrated here. While the results are indeed promising, it must be stressed that this field is in its infancy, and the optimal uses of this technology in the clinical arena still await definition.

  20. 76 FR 42136 - In the Matter of Certain Motion-Sensitive Sound Effects Devices and Image Display Devices and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Motion-Sensitive Sound Effects Devices and Image Display Devices and... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain motion-sensitive sound effects... sale within the United States after importation of certain motion- sensitive sound effects devices...

  1. Medical devices; obstetrical and gynecological devices; classification of the assisted reproduction embryo image assessment system. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-02-26

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Assisted Reproduction Embryo Image Assessment System into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order, and will be part of the codified language for the Assisted Reproduction Embryo Image Assessment System classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  2. Evaluation of laser prostatectomy devices by thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molenaar, David G.; van Vliet, Remco J.; van Swol, Christiaan F. P.; Boon, Tom A.; Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.

    1994-12-01

    The treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using Nd:YAG laser light has become an accepted alternative to TURP. However, there is no consensus to the dosimetry using the various laser devices. In our study, we evaluate the optical and thermal characteristics of 7 commercially available side firing laser probes. For the thermal analysis, an optical method was used based on `Schlieren' techniques producing color images of the temperature distribution around the laser probe in water. Absolute temperatures were obtained after calibration measurements with thermocouples. Laser probes using metal mirrors for beam deflection heated up entirely. The local temperature rose up to 100 degrees centigrade, thus inducing vapor bubble formation that interfered with the emitted beam. Laser devices, using total internal reflection for deflection, showed far less heating primarily at the exit window, though Fresnel reflections and secondary beams indirectly heated up the (metal) housing of the tip. After clinical application, the absorption at the probe surface and hence temperature increased due to probe deterioration. Color Schlieren imaging is a powerful method for the thermal evaluation of laser devices. The thermal behavior of laser probes can be used as a guidance for the method of application and as an indication of the lifetime of the probes.

  3. Development of InSb charge-coupled infrared imaging devices: Linear imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The following results were accomplished in the development of charge coupled infrared imaging devices: (1) a four-phase overlapping gate with 9 transfers (2-bits) and 1.0-mil gate lengths was successfully operated, (2) the measured transfer efficiency of 0.975 for this device is in excellent agreement with predictions for the reduced gate length device, (3) mask revisions of the channel stop metal on the 8582 mask have been carried out with the result being a large increase in the dc yield of the tested devices, (4) partial optical sensitivity to chopped blackbody radiation was observed for an 8582 9-bit imager, (5) analytical consideration of the modulation transfer function degradation caused by transfer inefficiency in the CCD registers was presented, and (6) for larger array lengths or for the insertion of isolated bits between sensors, improvements in InSb fabrication technology with corresponding decrease in the interface state density are required.

  4. Microtesla magnetic resonance imaging with a superconducting quantum interference device

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Robert; Lee, SeungKyun; ten Haken, Bennie; Trabesinger, Andreas H.; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John

    2004-03-15

    We have constructed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner based on a dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) configured as a second-derivative gradiometer. The magnetic field sensitivity of the detector is independent of frequency; it is therefore possible to obtain high-resolution images by prepolarizing the nuclear spins in a field of 300 mT and detecting the signal at 132 fYT, corresponding to a proton Larmor frequency of 5.6 kHz. The reduction in the measurement field by a factor of 10,000 compared with conventional scanners eliminates inhomogeneous broadening of the nuclear magnetic resonance lines, even in fields with relatively poor homogeneity. The narrow linewidths result in enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution for a fixed strength of the magnetic field gradients used to encode the image. We present two-dimensional images of phantoms and pepper slices, obtained in typical magnetic field gradients of 100 fYT/m, with a spatial resolution of about 1mm. We further demonstrate a slice-selected image of an intact pepper. By varying the time delay between removal of the polarizing field and initiation of the spin echo sequence we acquire T1-weighted contrast images of water phantoms, some of which are doped with a paramagnetic salt; here, T1 is the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time. The techniques presented here could readily be adapted to existing multichannel SQUID systems used for magnetic source imaging of brain signals. Further potential applications include low-cost systems for tumor screening and imaging peripheral regions of the body.

  5. Solution processed integrated pixel element for an imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swathi, K.; Narayan, K. S.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the implementation of a solid state circuit/structure comprising of a high performing polymer field effect transistor (PFET) utilizing an oxide layer in conjunction with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as the dielectric and a bulk-heterostructure based organic photodiode as a CMOS-like pixel element for an imaging sensor. Practical usage of functional organic photon detectors requires on chip components for image capture and signal transfer as in the CMOS/CCD architecture rather than simple photodiode arrays in order to increase speed and sensitivity of the sensor. The availability of high performing PFETs with low operating voltage and photodiodes with high sensitivity provides the necessary prerequisite to implement a CMOS type image sensing device structure based on organic electronic devices. Solution processing routes in organic electronics offers relatively facile procedures to integrate these components, combined with unique features of large-area, form factor and multiple optical attributes. We utilize the inherent property of a binary mixture in a blend to phase-separate vertically and create a graded junction for effective photocurrent response. The implemented design enables photocharge generation along with on chip charge to voltage conversion with performance parameters comparable to traditional counterparts. Charge integration analysis for the passive pixel element using 2D TCAD simulations is also presented to evaluate the different processes that take place in the monolithic structure.

  6. Fabrication of fine imaging devices using an external proton microbeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, T.; Yasuda, R.; Iikura, H.; Nojima, T.; Koka, M.; Satoh, T.; Ishii, Y.; Oshima, A.

    2014-08-01

    We have successfully fabricated novel microscopic imaging devices made from UV/EB curable resin using an external scanning proton microbeam. The devices are micro-structured fluorescent plates that consist of an array of micro-pillars that align periodically. The base material used in the pillars is UV/EB curable resin and each pillar contains phosphor grains. The pattern exposures were performed using a proton beam writing technique. The height of the pillars depends on the range of the proton beam. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the samples. The results show that the fabricated fluorescent plates are expected to be compatible with both spatial resolution and detection efficiency.

  7. Imaging photorefractive optical vibration measurement method and device

    DOEpatents

    Telschow, Kenneth L.; Deason, Vance A.; Hale, Thomas C.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for characterizing a vibrating image of an object of interest. The method includes providing a sensing media having a detection resolution within a limited bandwidth and providing an object of interest having a vibrating medium. Two or more wavefronts are provided, with at least one of the wavefronts being modulated by interacting the one wavefront with the vibrating medium of the object of interest. The another wavefront is modulated such that the difference frequency between the one wavefront and the another wavefront is within a response range of the sensing media. The modulated one wavefront and another wavefront are combined in association with the sensing media to interfere and produce simultaneous vibration measurements that are distributed over the object so as to provide an image of the vibrating medium. The image has an output intensity that is substantially linear with small physical variations within the vibrating medium. Furthermore, the method includes detecting the image. In one implementation, the apparatus comprises a vibration spectrum analyzer having an emitter, a modulator, sensing media and a detector configured so as to realize such method. According to another implementation, the apparatus comprises a vibration imaging device.

  8. Terahertz imaging system using high-Tc superconducting oscillation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, M.; Minami, H.; Delfanazari, K.; Sawamura, M.; Nakayama, R.; Kitamura, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Kashiwagi, T.; Hattori, T.; Kadowaki, K.

    2012-06-01

    Microwatt power oscillation devices at sub-terahertz frequency region between 0.3 and 1.0 terahertz (THz) were fabricated from high-Tc superconducting single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ and used as a source of the transmission terahertz imaging system. As test examples, terahertz images of coins and a razor blade placed inside the brownish paper envelopes with the spatial resolution of 1 mm are presented. The signal-to-noise ratio exceeds 130 in these images. Using a simple wedge-shaped interferometer and analysing the interference fringe pattern, the wavelength of the terahertz wave is calibrated within 0.1% accuracy. This interferometer also provides a simple method to measure the absorption coefficient of the liquid sample. Two test measurements for distilled water and ethanol are demonstrated and their absorption coefficients are obtained with 99.2% accuracy. This suggests that our terahertz imaging system can be applied to many practical applications, such as biological and biomedical imaging, environmental monitoring, microanalysis of impurities, structure and dynamical analyses of large molecules and ions in solution.

  9. An Efficient Image Compressor for Charge Coupled Devices Camera

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the discrete wavelet transforms- (DWT-) based compressor, such as JPEG2000 and CCSDS-IDC, is widely seen as the state of the art compression scheme for charge coupled devices (CCD) camera. However, CCD images project on the DWT basis to produce a large number of large amplitude high-frequency coefficients because these images have a large number of complex texture and contour information, which are disadvantage for the later coding. In this paper, we proposed a low-complexity posttransform coupled with compressing sensing (PT-CS) compression approach for remote sensing image. First, the DWT is applied to the remote sensing image. Then, a pair base posttransform is applied to the DWT coefficients. The pair base are DCT base and Hadamard base, which can be used on the high and low bit-rate, respectively. The best posttransform is selected by the lp-norm-based approach. The posttransform is considered as the sparse representation stage of CS. The posttransform coefficients are resampled by sensing measurement matrix. Experimental results on on-board CCD camera images show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the CCSDS-IDC-based coder, and its performance is comparable to that of the JPEG2000 at low bit rate and it does not have the high excessive implementation complexity of JPEG2000. PMID:25114977

  10. Micropolarizing device for long wavelength infrared polarization imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Carter, Tony Ray; Samora, Sally; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Alford, Charles Fred; Boye, Robert R.; Smith, Jody Lynn

    2006-11-01

    The goal of this project is to fabricate a four-state pixelated subwavelength optical device that enables mid-wave infrared (MWIR) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) snapshot polarimetric imaging. The polarization information can help to classify imaged materials and identify objects of interest for numerous remote sensing and military applications. While traditional, sequential polarimetric imaging produces scenes with polarization information through a series of assembled images, snapshot polarimetric imaging collects the spatial distribution of all four Stokes parameters simultaneously. In this way any noise due to scene movement from one frame to the next is eliminated. We fabricated several arrays of subwavelength components for MWIR polarization imaging applications. Each pixel unit of the array consists of four elements. These elements are micropolarizers with three or four different polarizing axis orientations. The fourth element sometimes has a micro birefringent waveplate on the top of one of the micropolarizers. The linear micropolarizers were fabricated by patterning nano-scale metallic grids on a transparent substrate. A large area birefringent waveplate was fabricated by deeply etching a subwavelength structure into a dielectric substrate. The principle of making linear micropolarizers for long wavelengths is based upon strong anisotropic absorption of light in the nano-metallic grid structures. The nano-metallic grid structures are patterned with different orientations; therefore, the micropolarizers have different polarization axes. The birefringent waveplate is a deeply etched dielectric one-dimensional subwavelength grating; therefore two orthogonally polarized waves have different phase delays. Finally, in this project, we investigated the near field and diffractive effects of the subwavelength element apertures upon detection. The fabricated pixelated polarizers had a measured extinction ratios larger than 100:1 for pixel sizes in the order of 15

  11. Weighty data: importance information influences estimated weight of digital information storage devices.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Iris K; Parzuchowski, Michal; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L

    2014-01-01

    Previous work suggests that perceived importance of an object influences estimates of its weight. Specifically, important books were estimated to be heavier than non-important books. However, the experimental set-up of these studies may have suffered from a potential confound and findings may be confined to books only. Addressing this, we investigate the effect of importance on weight estimates by examining whether the importance of information stored on a data storage device (USB-stick or portable hard drive) can alter weight estimates. Results show that people thinking a USB-stick holds important tax information (vs. expired tax information vs. no information) estimate it to be heavier (Experiment 1) compared to people who do not. Similarly, people who are told a portable hard drive holds personally relevant information (vs. irrelevant), also estimate the drive to be heavier (Experiments 2A,B).

  12. Cell separator for use in bipolar-stack energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Feikert, J.H.; Kachmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

    1995-02-28

    An improved multi-cell electrochemical energy storage device is described, such as a battery, fuel cell, or double layer capacitor using a cell separator which allows cells to be stacked and interconnected with low electrical resistance and high reliability while maximizing packaging efficiency. By adding repeating cells, higher voltages can be obtained. The cell separator is formed by applying an organic adhesive on opposing surfaces of adjacent carbon electrodes or surfaces of aerogel electrodes of a pair of adjacent cells prior to or after pyrolysis thereof to form carbon aerogel electrodes. The cell separator is electronically conductive, but ionically isolating, preventing an electrolytic conduction path between adjacent cells in the stack. 2 figs.

  13. Weighty data: importance information influences estimated weight of digital information storage devices

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Iris K.; Parzuchowski, Michal; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that perceived importance of an object influences estimates of its weight. Specifically, important books were estimated to be heavier than non-important books. However, the experimental set-up of these studies may have suffered from a potential confound and findings may be confined to books only. Addressing this, we investigate the effect of importance on weight estimates by examining whether the importance of information stored on a data storage device (USB-stick or portable hard drive) can alter weight estimates. Results show that people thinking a USB-stick holds important tax information (vs. expired tax information vs. no information) estimate it to be heavier (Experiment 1) compared to people who do not. Similarly, people who are told a portable hard drive holds personally relevant information (vs. irrelevant), also estimate the drive to be heavier (Experiments 2A,B). PMID:25620942

  14. A Study of NetCDF as an Approach for High Performance Medical Image Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnus, Marcone; Coelho Prado, Thiago; von Wangenhein, Aldo; de Macedo, Douglas D. J.; Dantas, M. A. R.

    2012-02-01

    The spread of telemedicine systems increases every day. The systems and PACS based on DICOM images has become common. This rise reflects the need to develop new storage systems, more efficient and with lower computational costs. With this in mind, this article discusses a study for application in NetCDF data format as the basic platform for storage of DICOM images. The study case comparison adopts an ordinary database, the HDF5 and the NetCDF to storage the medical images. Empirical results, using a real set of images, indicate that the time to retrieve images from the NetCDF for large scale images has a higher latency compared to the other two methods. In addition, the latency is proportional to the file size, which represents a drawback to a telemedicine system that is characterized by a large amount of large image files.

  15. An analysis of image storage systems for scalable training of deep neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Seung-Hwan; Young, Steven R; Patton, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a principled empirical evaluation of image storage systems for training deep neural networks. We employ the Caffe deep learning framework to train neural network models for three different data sets, MNIST, CIFAR-10, and ImageNet. While training the models, we evaluate five different options to retrieve training image data: (1) PNG-formatted image files on local file system; (2) pushing pixel arrays from image files into a single HDF5 file on local file system; (3) in-memory arrays to hold the pixel arrays in Python and C++; (4) loading the training data into LevelDB, a log-structured merge tree based key-value storage; and (5) loading the training data into LMDB, a B+tree based key-value storage. The experimental results quantitatively highlight the disadvantage of using normal image files on local file systems to train deep neural networks and demonstrate reliable performance with key-value storage based storage systems. When training a model on the ImageNet dataset, the image file option was more than 17 times slower than the key-value storage option. Along with measurements on training time, this study provides in-depth analysis on the cause of performance advantages/disadvantages of each back-end to train deep neural networks. We envision the provided measurements and analysis will shed light on the optimal way to architect systems for training neural networks in a scalable manner.

  16. Do-It-Yourself device for recovery of cryopreserved samples accidentally dropped into cryogenic storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rohini; Baranova, Ancha; Birerdinc, Aybike

    2012-05-11

    Liquid nitrogen is colorless, odorless, extremely cold (-196 °C) liquid kept under pressure. It is commonly used as a cryogenic fluid for long term storage of biological materials such as blood, cells and tissues (1,2). The cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen, while ideal for sample preservation, can cause rapid freezing of live tissues on contact - known as 'cryogenic burn' (2), which may lead to severe frostbite in persons closely involved in storage and retrieval of samples from Dewars. Additionally, as liquid nitrogen evaporates it reduces the oxygen concentration in the air and might cause asphyxia, especially in confined spaces (2). In laboratories, biological samples are often stored in cryovials or cryoboxes stacked in stainless steel racks within the Dewar tanks (1). These storage racks are provided with a long shaft to prevent boxes from slipping out from the racks and into the bottom of Dewars during routine handling. All too often, however, boxes or vials with precious samples slip out and sink to the bottom of liquid nitrogen filled tank. In such cases, samples could be tediously retrieved after transferring the liquid nitrogen into a spare container or discarding it. The boxes and vials can then be relatively safely recovered from emptied Dewar. However, the cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen and its expansion rate makes sunken sample retrieval hazardous. It is commonly recommended by Safety Offices that sample retrieval be never carried out by a single person. Another alternative is to use commercially available cool grabbers or tongs to pull out the vials (3). However, limited visibility within the dark liquid filled Dewars poses a major limitation in their use. In this article, we describe the construction of a Cryotolerant DIY retrieval device, which makes sample retrieval from Dewar containing cryogenic fluids both safe and easy.

  17. Tailorable and Wearable Textile Devices for Solar Energy Harvesting and Simultaneous Storage.

    PubMed

    Chai, Zhisheng; Zhang, Nannan; Sun, Peng; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Chuanxi; Fan, Hong Jin; Fan, Xing; Mai, Wenjie

    2016-10-05

    The pursuit of harmonic combination of technology and fashion intrinsically points to the development of smart garments. Herein, we present an all-solid tailorable energy textile possessing integrated function of simultaneous solar energy harvesting and storage, and we call it tailorable textile device. Our technique makes it possible to tailor the multifunctional textile into any designed shape without impairing its performance and produce stylish smart energy garments for wearable self-powering system with enhanced user experience and more room for fashion design. The "threads" (fiber electrodes) featuring tailorability and knittability can be large-scale fabricated and then woven into energy textiles. The fiber supercapacitor with merits of tailorability, ultrafast charging capability, and ultrahigh bending-resistance is used as the energy storage module, while an all-solid dye-sensitized solar cell textile is used as the solar energy harvesting module. Our textile sample can be fully charged to 1.2 V in 17 s by self-harvesting solar energy and fully discharged in 78 s at a discharge current density of 0.1 mA.

  18. Self-Assembled, Redox-Active Graphene Electrodes for High-Performance Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianyuan; Kavian, Reza; Kim, Inkyu; Lee, Seung Woo

    2014-12-18

    Graphene-based materials have been utilized as a promising approach in designing high-performance electrodes for energy storage devices. In line with this approach, functionalized graphene electrodes have been self-assembled from the dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) in water at a low temperature of 80 °C using tetrahydroxyl-1,4-benzoquinone (THQ) as both the reducing and redox-active functionalization agent. We correlated the electrochemical performance of the electrode with surface oxygen chemistry, confirming the role of THQ for the reduction and redox-active functionalization process. The assembled graphene electrodes have a 3D hierarchical porous structure, which can facilitate electronic and ionic transport to support fast charge storage reactions. Utilizing the surface redox reactions introduced by THQ, the functionalized graphene electrodes exhibit high gravimetric capacities of ∼165 mA h/g in Li cells and ∼120 mA h/g in Na cells with high redox potentials over ∼3 V versus Li or Na, proposing promising positive electrodes for both Li and Na ion batteries.

  19. The Application of Graphene and Its Derivatives to Energy Conversion, Storage, and Environmental and Biosensing Devices.

    PubMed

    Ali Tahir, Asif; Ullah, Habib; Sudhagar, Pitchaimuthu; Asri Mat Teridi, Mohd; Devadoss, Anitha; Sundaram, Senthilarasu

    2016-06-01

    Graphene (GR) and its derivatives are promising materials on the horizon of nanotechnology and material science and have attracted a tremendous amount of research interest in recent years. The unique atom-thick 2D structure with sp(2) hybridization and large specific surface area, high thermal conductivity, superior electron mobility, and chemical stability have made GR and its derivatives extremely attractive components for composite materials for solar energy conversion, energy storage, environmental purification, and biosensor applications. This review gives a brief introduction of GR's unique structure, band structure engineering, physical and chemical properties, and recent energy-related progress of GR-based materials in the fields of energy conversion (e.g., photocatalysis, photoelectrochemical water splitting, CO2 reduction, dye-sensitized and organic solar cells, and photosensitizers in photovoltaic devices) and energy storage (batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors). The vast coverage of advancements in environmental applications of GR-based materials for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, gas sensing, and removal of heavy-metal ions is presented. Additionally, the use of graphene composites in the biosensing field is discussed. We conclude the review with remarks on the challenges, prospects, and further development of GR-based materials in the exciting fields of energy, environment, and bioscience.

  20. Large-scale automated image analysis for computational profiling of brain tissue surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices using Python

    PubMed Central

    Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Somasundar, Vinay; Megjhani, Murad; Xu, Yan; Lu, Yanbin; Padmanabhan, Raghav; Trett, Kristen; Shain, William; Roysam, Badri

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe the use of Python for large-scale automated server-based bio-image analysis in FARSIGHT, a free and open-source toolkit of image analysis methods for quantitative studies of complex and dynamic tissue microenvironments imaged by modern optical microscopes, including confocal, multi-spectral, multi-photon, and time-lapse systems. The core FARSIGHT modules for image segmentation, feature extraction, tracking, and machine learning are written in C++, leveraging widely used libraries including ITK, VTK, Boost, and Qt. For solving complex image analysis tasks, these modules must be combined into scripts using Python. As a concrete example, we consider the problem of analyzing 3-D multi-spectral images of brain tissue surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices, acquired using high-throughput multi-spectral spinning disk step-and-repeat confocal microscopy. The resulting images typically contain 5 fluorescent channels. Each channel consists of 6000 × 10,000 × 500 voxels with 16 bits/voxel, implying image sizes exceeding 250 GB. These images must be mosaicked, pre-processed to overcome imaging artifacts, and segmented to enable cellular-scale feature extraction. The features are used to identify cell types, and perform large-scale analysis for identifying spatial distributions of specific cell types relative to the device. Python was used to build a server-based script (Dell 910 PowerEdge servers with 4 sockets/server with 10 cores each, 2 threads per core and 1TB of RAM running on Red Hat Enterprise Linux linked to a RAID 5 SAN) capable of routinely handling image datasets at this scale and performing all these processing steps in a collaborative multi-user multi-platform environment. Our Python script enables efficient data storage and movement between computers and storage servers, logs all the processing steps, and performs full multi-threaded execution of all codes, including open and closed-source third party libraries. PMID:24808857

  1. Large-scale automated image analysis for computational profiling of brain tissue surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices using Python.

    PubMed

    Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Somasundar, Vinay; Megjhani, Murad; Xu, Yan; Lu, Yanbin; Padmanabhan, Raghav; Trett, Kristen; Shain, William; Roysam, Badri

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe the use of Python for large-scale automated server-based bio-image analysis in FARSIGHT, a free and open-source toolkit of image analysis methods for quantitative studies of complex and dynamic tissue microenvironments imaged by modern optical microscopes, including confocal, multi-spectral, multi-photon, and time-lapse systems. The core FARSIGHT modules for image segmentation, feature extraction, tracking, and machine learning are written in C++, leveraging widely used libraries including ITK, VTK, Boost, and Qt. For solving complex image analysis tasks, these modules must be combined into scripts using Python. As a concrete example, we consider the problem of analyzing 3-D multi-spectral images of brain tissue surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices, acquired using high-throughput multi-spectral spinning disk step-and-repeat confocal microscopy. The resulting images typically contain 5 fluorescent channels. Each channel consists of 6000 × 10,000 × 500 voxels with 16 bits/voxel, implying image sizes exceeding 250 GB. These images must be mosaicked, pre-processed to overcome imaging artifacts, and segmented to enable cellular-scale feature extraction. The features are used to identify cell types, and perform large-scale analysis for identifying spatial distributions of specific cell types relative to the device. Python was used to build a server-based script (Dell 910 PowerEdge servers with 4 sockets/server with 10 cores each, 2 threads per core and 1TB of RAM running on Red Hat Enterprise Linux linked to a RAID 5 SAN) capable of routinely handling image datasets at this scale and performing all these processing steps in a collaborative multi-user multi-platform environment. Our Python script enables efficient data storage and movement between computers and storage servers, logs all the processing steps, and performs full multi-threaded execution of all codes, including open and closed-source third party libraries.

  2. 75 FR 875 - Guidance for Industry on New Contrast Imaging Indication Considerations for Devices and Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on New Contrast Imaging Indication... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``New Contrast Imaging Indication Considerations for Devices..., FDA agreed to publish guidance for medical imaging devices for use with imaging contrast agents...

  3. Micro and nano devices in passive millimetre wave imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, R.

    2013-06-01

    The impact of micro and nano technology on millimetre wave imaging from the post war years to the present day is reviewed. In the 1950s whisker contacted diodes in mixers and vacuum tubes were used to realise both radiometers and radars but required considerable skill to realise the performance needed. Development of planar semiconductor devices such as Gunn and Schottky diodes revolutionised mixer performance and provided considerable improvement. The next major breakthrough was high frequency transistors based on gallium arsenide which were initially used at intermediate frequencies but later after further development at millimeter wave frequencies. More recently Monolithic Microwave Integrated circuits(MMICs) offer exceptional performance and the opportunity for innovative design in passive imaging systems. In the future the use of micro and nano technology will continue to drive system performance and we can expect to see integration of antennae, millimetre wave and sub millimetre wave circuits and signal processing.

  4. First-in-Human Clinical Trials of Imaging Devices: An Example from Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Clough, Barbara L.; Troyan, Susan L.; Frangioni, John V.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical translation of scientific discoveries is often the long-term goal of academic medical research. However, this goal is not always realized due to the complicated path between bench research and clinical use. In this review, we outline the fundamental steps required for first-in-human testing of a new imaging device, and use the FLARE™ (Fluorescence-Assisted Resection and Exploration) near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging platform as an example. PMID:19964033

  5. First-in-human clinical trials of imaging devices: an example from optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L; Rosenberg, Mireille; Clough, Barbara L; Troyan, Susan L; Frangioni, John V

    2009-01-01

    Clinical translation of scientific discoveries is often the long-term goal of academic medical research. However, this goal is not always realized due to the complicated path between bench research and clinical use. In this review, we outline the fundamental steps required for first-in-human testing of a new imaging device, and use the FLARE() (Fluorescence-Assisted Resection and Exploration) near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging platform as an example.

  6. Statistical analysis of cross-talk noise and storage capacity in volume holographic memory: image plane holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xianmin; Campbell, Scott; Yeh, Pochi; Gu, Claire

    1995-04-01

    We investigate the cross-talk noise in optical storage based on angle-multiplexed image plane volume holograms. Simple expressions for the signal-to-noise ratio and the storage density are obtained. The cross-talk noise is found to limit the size of the pixels and the number of recorded holograms. The cross-talk-limited storage density of image plane holographic storage is found to be close to that of Fourier plane holographic storage.

  7. [Visualization of the chilling storage time for turbot flesh based on hyperspectral imaging technique].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng-Le; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Shao, Yong-Ni; He, Yong

    2014-07-01

    This study proposed a new method using visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) hyperspectral imaging for the detection and visualization of the chilling storage time for turbot flesh rapid and nondestructively. A total of 160 fish samples with 8 different storage days were collected for hyperspectral image scanning, and mean spectra were extracted from the region of interest (ROD inside each image. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied as calibration method to correlate the spectral data and storage time for the 120 samples in calibration set. Then the PLSR model was used to predict the storage time for the 40 prediction samples, which achieved accurate results with determination coefficient (R2) of 0.966 2 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.679 9 d. Finally, the storage time of each pixel in the hyperspectral images for all prediction samples was predicted and displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the aid of an IDL program. The results indicated that hyperspectral imaging technique combined with chemometrics and image processing allows the determination and visualization of the chilling storage time for fish, displaying fish freshness status and distribution vividly and laying a foundation for the automatic processing of aquatic products.

  8. AN ADVANCED CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR COMPLEX IMPEDANCE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS OF ADVANCED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES

    SciTech Connect

    William H. Morrison; Jon P. Christophersen; Patrick Bald; John L. Morrison

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and the explosion in popularity of mobile and portable electronic devices such as laptops, cell phones, e-readers, tablet computers and the like, reliance on portable energy storage devices such as batteries has likewise increased. The concern for the availability of critical systems in turn drives the availability of battery systems and thus the need for accurate battery health monitoring has become paramount. Over the past decade the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Montana Tech of the University of Montana (Tech), and Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) have been developing the Smart Battery Status Monitor (SBSM), an integrated battery management system designed to monitor battery health, performance and degradation and use this knowledge for effective battery management and increased battery life. Key to the success of the SBSM is an in-situ impedance measurement system called the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB). One of the challenges encountered has been development of an accurate, simple, robust calibration process. This paper discusses the successful realization of this process.

  9. Nanostructured metal chalcogenides: synthesis, modification, and applications in energy conversion and storage devices.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min-Rui; Xu, Yun-Fei; Jiang, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2013-04-07

    Advanced energy conversion and storage (ECS) devices (including fuel cells, photoelectrochemical water splitting cells, solar cells, Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors) are expected to play a major role in the development of sustainable technologies that alleviate the energy and environmental challenges we are currently facing. The successful utilization of ECS devices depends critically on synthesizing new nanomaterials with merits of low cost, high efficiency, and outstanding properties. Recent progress has demonstrated that nanostructured metal chalcogenides (MCs) are very promising candidates for efficient ECS systems based on their unique physical and chemical properties, such as conductivity, mechanical and thermal stability and cyclability. In this review, we aim to provide a summary on the liquid-phase synthesis, modifications, and energy-related applications of nanostructured metal chalcogenide (MC) materials. The liquid-phase syntheses of various MC nanomaterials are primarily categorized with the preparation method (mainly 15 kinds of methods). To obtain optimized, enhanced or even new properties, the nanostructured MC materials can be modified by other functional nanomaterials such as carbon-based materials, noble metals, metal oxides, or MCs themselves. Thus, this review will then be focused on the recent strategies used to realize the modifications of MC nanomaterials. After that, the ECS applications of the MC/modified-MC nanomaterials have been systematically summarized based on a great number of successful cases. Moreover, remarks on the challenges and perspectives for future MC research are proposed (403 references).

  10. A Stretching Device for High Resolution Live-Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lawrence; Mathieu, Pattie S.; Helmke, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    Several custom-built and commercially available devices are available to investigate cellular responses to substrate strain. However, analysis of structural dynamics by microscopy in living cells during stretch is not readily feasible. We describe a novel stretch device optimized for high-resolution live-cell imaging. The unit assembles onto standard inverted microscopes and applies constant magnitude or cyclic stretch at physiological magnitudes to cultured cells on elastic membranes. Interchangeable modular indenters enable delivery of equibiaxial and uniaxial stretch profiles. Strain analysis performed by tracking fluorescent microspheres adhered onto the substrate demonstrated reproducible application of stretch profiles. In endothelial cells transiently expressing EGFP-vimentin and paxillin-DsRed2 and subjected to constant magnitude equibiaxial stretch, the 2-D strain tensor demonstrated efficient transmission through the extracellular matrix and focal adhesions. Decreased transmission to the intermediate filament network was measured, and a heterogeneous spatial distribution of maximum stretch magnitude revealed discrete sites of strain focusing. Spatial correlation of vimentin and paxillin displacement vectors provided an estimate of the extent of mechanical coupling between the structures. Interestingly, switching the spatial profile of substrate strain reveals that actin-mediated edge ruffling is not desensitized to repeated mechano-stimulation. These initial observations show that the stretch device is compatible with live-cell microscopy and is a novel tool for measuring dynamic structural remodeling under mechanical strain. PMID:20195762

  11. Monitoring biofilm attachment on medical devices surfaces using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Hanh N. D.; Hitchins, Victoria M.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Kim, Do-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Microbial biofilm is a colony of single bacteria cells (planktonic) that attached to surfaces, attract other microorganisms to attach and grow, and together they build an extracellular matrix composed of polysaccharides, protein, and DNA. Eventually, some cells will detach and spread to other surface. Biofilm on medical devices can cause severe infection to all age ranges from infant to adult. Therefore, it is important to detect biofilm in a fast and efficient manner. Hyperspectral imaging was utilized for distinguishing wide area of biofilm coverage on various materials and on different textures of stainless steeltest coupons. Not only is the coverage of biofilm important, but also the shear stress of biofilm on the attached surfaces is significant. This study investigates the effects of shear stress on the adhesion of biofilms on common medical device surfaces such as glass, polycarbonate, polytetrafluoroethylene, and stainless steel with different textures. Biofilm was grown using Ps. aeruginosa and growth was monitored after 24 and 48 hours at 37° C. The coupons covered with biofilm were tilted at 45 degrees and 90 degrees for 30 seconds to induce shear stress and Hyperspectral images were taken. We hypothesize that stronger attachment on rough surface would be able to withstand greater shear stress compared to smooth surface.

  12. Optimizing Cloud Based Image Storage, Dissemination and Processing Through Use of Mrf and Lerc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter; Plesea, Lucian; Maurer, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The volume and numbers of geospatial images being collected continue to increase exponentially with the ever increasing number of airborne and satellite imaging platforms, and the increasing rate of data collection. As a result, the cost of fast storage required to provide access to the imagery is a major cost factor in enterprise image management solutions to handle, process and disseminate the imagery and information extracted from the imagery. Cloud based object storage offers to provide significantly lower cost and elastic storage for this imagery, but also adds some disadvantages in terms of greater latency for data access and lack of traditional file access. Although traditional file formats geoTIF, JPEG2000 and NITF can be downloaded from such object storage, their structure and available compression are not optimum and access performance is curtailed. This paper provides details on a solution by utilizing a new open image formats for storage and access to geospatial imagery optimized for cloud storage and processing. MRF (Meta Raster Format) is optimized for large collections of scenes such as those acquired from optical sensors. The format enables optimized data access from cloud storage, along with the use of new compression options which cannot easily be added to existing formats. The paper also provides an overview of LERC a new image compression that can be used with MRF that provides very good lossless and controlled lossy compression.

  13. InSb charge coupled infrared imaging device: The 20 element linear imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, R. D.; Koch, T. L.; Parrish, W. J.; Langan, J. D.; Chase, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    The design and fabrication of the 8585 InSb charge coupled infrared imaging device (CCIRID) chip are reported. The InSb material characteristics are described along with mask and process modifications. Test results for the 2- and 20-element CCIRID's are discussed, including gate oxide characteristics, charge transfer efficiency, optical mode of operation, and development of the surface potential diagram.

  14. Pocket-size solid-state iPOD and flash drives for gigabyte storage, display and transfer of digital medical images: Review and work initiated.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, A

    2009-07-01

    A locally assembled image viewer system with pocket-size iPOD (80 GB) and flash (2 GB) drives for gigabyte storage, display and transfer of digital medical images, oriented towards training purposes, is described. Both the iPOD and flash drive enable storage of thousands of images from diverse medical-imaging equipments. The iPOD, in addition, can display with sufficient resolution any of these images and serves as a transportable preview device. Through the use of a computer, these devices can access/ store/ display the images/ photos from a CD, digital camera or the internet. A TV image viewing unit is also provided. The operational features and the advantages of these devices are discussed in detail. The quality assurance (QA) of the displays has been successfully carried out with standard test patterns. The image quality has been tested with dynamic and static medical images. The system will be highly useful for storage and remote display of multitude of images from several modalities in the hospital, as well as other images, from the point of view of education and training. It has good potential for use in clinical diagnosis as well. Other recent advancements using iPHONE and improved but expensive computers, integrated with picture archiving and communication system (PACS) as well as radiology and hospital information system (RHIS) for versatile applications in modern radiology, are also highlighted.This system, assembled with indigenous equipments, is much less expensive and specially suited for teaching radiologists, physicists and technologists, particularly in developing countries.

  15. Pre-clinical and Clinical Evaluation of High Resolution, Mobile Gamma Camera and Positron Imaging Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    04-1-0594 TITLE: Pre-clinical and Clinical Evaluation of High Resolution, Mobile Gamma Camera and Positron Imaging Devices PRINCIPAL...2004 - 20 SEP 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pre-clinical and clinical evaluation of high resolution, mobile gamma camera and positron imaging devices...a compact and mobile gamma and positron imaging camera . This imaging device has several advantages over conventional systems: (1) greater

  16. A portable swappable method scientific CMOS image data storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-long; Pi, Hai-feng; Hu, Bing-liang; Gao, Jia-rui

    2015-11-01

    In the field of deep space exploration, the detector needs high-speed data real-time transmission and large capacity storage. SATA(Serial advanced technology attachment) as a new generation of interface protocols, SATA interface hard disk has the advantages of with large storage capacity, high transmission rate, the cheap price, data is not lost when power supply drop, so it is suitable for used in high speed large capacity data storage system. This paper by using Kintex-7 XCE7K325T XILINK series FPGA, the data of scientific CMOS CIS2521F through the SATA controller is stored in the hard disk. If the hard disk storage is full, it will automatically switch to the next hard disk.

  17. The capacitive division image readout: a novel imaging device for microchannel plate detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, J. S.; Conneely, T. M.; Leach, S. A.; Moore, L.

    2013-09-01

    The Capacitive Division Image Readout (C-DIR) is a simple and novel image readout for photon counting detectors offering major performance advantages. C-DIR is a charge centroiding device comprising three elements; (i) a resistive anode providing event charge localization, event current return path and electrical isolation from detector high voltage, (ii) a dielectric substrate which capacitively couples the event transient signal to the third element, (iii) the readout device; an array of capacitively coupled electrodes which divides the signal among the readout charge measurement nodes. The resistive anode and dielectric substrate constitute the rear interface of the detector and capacitively couple the signal to the external C-DIR readout device. The C-DIR device is a passive, multilayer printed circuit board type device comprising a matrix of isolated electrodes whose geometries define the capacitive network. C-DIR is manufactured using conventional PCB geometries and is straightforward and economical to construct. C-DIR's robustness and simplicity belie its performance advantages. Its capacitive nature avoids partition noise, the Poisson noise associated with collection of discrete charges. The dominant noise limiting position resolution is electronic noise. However C-DIR also presents a low input capacitance to the readout electronics, minimising this noise component thus maximising spatial resolution. Optimisation of the C-DIR pattern-edge geometry can provide ~90% linear dynamic range. We present data showing image resolution and linearity of the C-DIR device in a microchannel plate detector and describe various electronic charge measurement scheme designed to exploit the full performance potential of the C-DIR device.

  18. Integrated Colony Imaging, Analysis, and Selection Device for Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kwee, Edward; Herderick, Edward E; Adams, Thomas; Dunn, James; Germanowski, Robert; Krakosh, Frank; Boehm, Cynthia; Monnich, James; Powell, Kimerly; Muschler, George

    2017-04-01

    Stem and progenitor cells derived from human tissues are being developed as cell sources for cell-based assays and therapies. However, tissue-derived stem and progenitor cells are heterogeneous. Differences in observed clones of stem cells likely reflect important aspects of the underlying state of the source cells, as well as future potency for cell therapies. This paper describes a colony analysis and picking device that provides quantitative analysis of heterogeneous cell populations and precise tools for cell picking for research or biomanufacturing applications. We describe an integrated robotic system that enables image acquisition and automated image analysis to be coupled with rapid automated selection of individual colonies in adherent cell cultures. Other automated systems have demonstrated feasibility with picking from semisolid media or off feeder layers. We demonstrate the capability to pick adherent bone-derived stem cells from tissue culture plastic. Cells are efficiently picked from a target site and transferred to a recipient well plate. Cells demonstrate viability and adherence and maintain biologic potential for surface markers CD73 and CD90 based on phase contrast and fluorescence imaging 6 days after transfer. Methods developed here can be applied to the study of other stem cell types and automated culture of cells.

  19. Super-Resolution Imaging of Bacteria in a Microfluidics Device

    PubMed Central

    Valeri, Alessandro; Mignot, Tâm; Nöllmann, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved complex, highly-coordinated, multi-component cellular engines to achieve high degrees of efficiency, accuracy, adaptability, and redundancy. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy methods are ideally suited to investigate the internal composition, architecture, and dynamics of molecular machines and large cellular complexes. These techniques require the long-term stability of samples, high signal-to-noise-ratios, low chromatic aberrations and surface flatness, conditions difficult to meet with traditional immobilization methods. We present a method in which cells are functionalized to a microfluidics device and fluorophores are injected and imaged sequentially. This method has several advantages, as it permits the long-term immobilization of cells and proper correction of drift, avoids chromatic aberrations caused by the use of different filter sets, and allows for the flat immobilization of cells on the surface. In addition, we show that different surface chemistries can be used to image bacteria at different time-scales, and we introduce an automated cell detection and image analysis procedure that can be used to obtain cell-to-cell, single-molecule localization and dynamic heterogeneity as well as average properties at the super-resolution level. PMID:24146850

  20. Image quality and stability of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) devices: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Markus; Pasler, Marlies; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Homolka, Peter; Poetter, Richard; Georg, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to implement standards for quality assurance of IGRT devices used in our department and to compare their performances with that of a CT simulator. Materials and methods We investigated image quality parameters for three devices over a period of 16 months. A multislice CT was used as a benchmark and results related to noise, spatial resolution, low contrast visibility (LCV) and uniformity were compared with a cone beam CT (CBCT) at a linac and simulator. Results All devices performed well in terms of LCV and, in fact, exceeded vendor specifications. MTF was comparable between CT and linac CBCT. Integral nonuniformity was, on average, 0.002 for the CT and 0.006 for the linac CBCT. Uniformity, LCV and MTF varied depending on the protocols used for the linac CBCT. Contrast-to-noise ratio was an average of 51% higher for the CT than for the linac and simulator CBCT. No significant time trend was observed and tolerance limits were implemented. Discussion Reasonable differences in image quality between CT and CBCT were observed. Further research and development are necessary to increase image quality of commercially available CBCT devices in order for them to serve the needs for adaptive and/or online planning. PMID:19695725

  1. Assessment of image quality in x-ray radiography imaging using a small plasma focus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanani, A.; Shirani, B.; Jabbari, I.; Mokhtari, J.

    2014-08-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive investigation of image quality parameters for a small plasma focus as a pulsed hard x-ray source for radiography applications. A set of images were captured from some metal objects and electronic circuits using a low energy plasma focus at different voltages of capacitor bank and different pressures of argon gas. The x-ray source focal spot of this device was obtained to be about 0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF). Results showed that the contrast changes by variations in gas pressure. The best contrast was obtained at a pressure of 0.5 mbar and 3.75 kJ stored energy. The results of x-ray dose from the device showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. The measurements of LSF and MTF parameters were carried out by means of a thin stainless steel wire 0.8 mm in diameter and the cut-off frequency was obtained to be about 1.5 cycles/mm.

  2. Image pixel device using integrated organic electronic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swathi, K.; Narayan, K. S.

    2016-11-01

    We report a solution processed, monolithically integrated device similar to an imaging pixel element used in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based cameras. This integrated pixel essentially consists of a pair of organic photodiode (OPD) and organic field effect transistor (OFET). The signal generated by the light responsive OPD drives the OFET to different output states to quantify the light intensity. The prerequisite of a low operating voltage OFET (<2 V) was achieved using a bottom-gate, top-contact OFET consisting of a high mobility polymer semiconductor and a self-assembled hybrid dielectric layer. A bulk heterojunction blend was used as the photo-active layer in the OPD along with suitable buffer layers for charge extraction. The material parameters were optimized to realize a suitable structure which clearly demonstrated the interplay of the OPD and OFET operations, thereby forming a roadmap for all-organic CMOS arrays.

  3. Analysis of holographic data storage using a PA-LCoS device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Francisco J.; Márquez, Andrés.; Gallego, Sergi; Fenoll, Sandra; Ortuño, Manuel; Francés, Jorge; Bleda, Sergio; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2016-04-01

    Holographic data storage systems (HDSS) have been a promising and very appealing technology since the first laser developments in the sixties. Impact of ongoing advances in the various components needs to be explored in its specific application to HDSS. In this sense, continuous progress is being produced in spatial light modulator (SLM) technology where parallel-addressed liquid crystal on silicon (PA-LCoS) microdisplays have replaced previous liquid-crystal displays (LCD) in most of optics and photonics applications. PA-LCoS microdisplays are well adapted to display phaseonly elements without coupled amplitude. In this paper, we analyse how PA-LCoS devices can also be used to display the widely applied binary intensity modulated (BIM) data pages. We also investigate hybrid-ternary modulated (HTM) data pages, which are very much demanding on the phase and amplitude modulation properties of an SLM. HTM data pages combine the ease of detection of BIM data pages, together with a large reduction of the DC term of the Fourier Transform of the data page. This reduction is necessary to avoid saturation of the recording material dynamic range. Simulated results show the magnitude of the expected DC term in the Fourier plane. We have verified the good performance of PA-LCoS to display BIM data pages. We have also obtained that pure HTM data pages cannot be produced with PA-LCoS devices, however, a rather close performance is obtained when implementing the pseudo-HTM data pages. In this work a more complete study of pseudo-HTM modulation is offered.

  4. Safety of intrauterine contraceptive devices during MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Hess, T; Stepanow, B; Knopp, M V

    1996-01-01

    Three intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUD) were examined in an experimental in vitro setup to test their MR compatibility: Multiload CU375. Nova T (containing copper and silver), and Gyne T. The devices were fixed in a polyacrylamide gel and exposed to the magnetic field and the radiofrequency (RF) of standard MR sequences (spin-echo, turbo-spin-echo, turboFLASH, and magnetization transfer prepared FLASH). The RF power of a turbo-spin-echo sequence was increased by a factor of 5. Temperatures of the IUDs and the gel were measured during the MR examination. No deflection of the IUDs exposed to the magnetic field of 1.5 Tesla was detected. Under normal imaging conditions no temperature increase could be observed. Using an increased RF power, a maximal temperature rise of 0.4 degree C per examination was seen. No differences between the gel and the IUDs were observed, indicating that there is no specific heating of the tested IUDs.

  5. Liquid Acquisition Device Hydrogen Outflow Testing on the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Engineering Design Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Greg; Statham, Geoff; Garces, Rachel; Cartagena, Will

    2015-01-01

    As part of the NASA Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Engineering Design Unit (EDU) testing with liquid hydrogen, screen-channel liquid acquisition devices (LADs) were tested during liquid hydrogen outflow from the EDU tank. A stainless steel screen mesh (325x2300 Dutch T will weave) was welded to a rectangular cross-section channel to form the basic LAD channel. Three LAD channels were tested, each having unique variations in the basic design. The LADs fed a common outflow sump at the aft end of the 151 cu. ft. volume aluminum tank, and included a curved section along the aft end and a straight section along the barrel section of the tank. Wet-dry sensors were mounted inside the LAD channels to detect when vapor was ingested into the LADs during outflow. The use of warm helium pressurant during liquid hydrogen outflow, supplied through a diffuser at the top of the tank, always led to early breakdown of the liquid column. When the tank was pressurized through an aft diffuser, resulting in cold helium in the ullage, LAD column hold-times as long as 60 minutes were achieved, which was the longest duration tested. The highest liquid column height at breakdown was 58 cm, which is 23 less than the isothermal bubble-point model value of 75 cm. This paper discusses details of the design, construction, operation and analysis of LAD test data from the CPST EDU liquid hydrogen test.

  6. A rapid multi-device wireless power transfer scheme using an intermediate energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, C. S.; Nam, S. S.; Cho, S. H.

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a new time-division multiplex wireless power transfer (TDM-WPT) scheme for charging multiple devices with a single transmitter. More specifically, our proposed scheme adopts the intermediate energy storage (IES) circuit which enables storing the received energy from the source temporarily and then supplying it to the load. Thus, by adopting the IES, the receiver can charge the battery with the stored energy in the IES even while the receiver is not performing the direct charging process (from the transmitter). This allows charging multiple receivers simultaneously in a virtual manner, and it eventually leads to the reduction of overall charging time. For the theoretical verification, we analyse the performance of our proposed scheme based on the identical environment and in some selected results. We show that with our proposed scheme the required total charging time can be reduced compared to the conventional TDM-WPT. We also consider practical load (battery charger) requirements which change continuously. We present the simple guidelines for some key design parameters such as the optimal capacity of the IES and the proper number of receivers. Note that we additionally present the sample IES circuit and the related circuit simulation to show the detailed operation and the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  7. Rapid Impedance Spectrum Measurements for State-of-Health Assessment of Energy Storage Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; John L. Morrison; Chester G. Motloch; William H. Morrison

    2012-04-01

    Harmonic compensated synchronous detection (HCSD) is a technique that can be used to measure wideband impedance spectra within seconds based on an input sum-of-sines signal having a frequency spread separated by harmonics. The battery (or other energy storage device) is excited with a sum-of-sines current signal that has a duration of at least one period of the lowest frequency. The voltage response is then captured and synchronously detected at each frequency of interest to determine the impedance spectra. This technique was successfully simulated using a simplified battery model and then verified with commercially available Sanyo lithium-ion cells. Simulations revealed the presence of a start-up transient effect when only one period of the lowest frequency is included in the excitation signal. This transient effect appears to only influence the low-frequency impedance measurements and can be reduced when a longer input signal is used. Furthermore, lithium-ion cell testing has indicated that the transient effect does not seem to impact the charge transfer resistance in the mid-frequency region. The degradation rates for the charge transfer resistance measured from the HCSD technique were very similar to the changes observed from standardized impedance spectroscopy methods. Results from these studies, therefore, indicate that HCSD is a viable, rapid alternative approach to acquiring impedance spectra.

  8. Applications of nano and smart materials in renewable energy production and storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents development of renewable energy production and storage devices employing nanomaterials and smart materials. The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanosheets (GNS) to improve the performance and durability of wind turbine and wave rotor blades will be explained. While GNS are primary used for the performance enhancement of the resin system called Nanoresin, CNT Nanoforests and Nanofilms are used to improve the performance of fiber systems in high-performance Nanocomposites. In addition, the use of CNTs and piezo-nanofibers will be explained as the health monitoring and smart systems within the composites. A self-healing mechanism will also be explained within the composites using these materials. Next the use of CNTs as gas diffusion layers and CNTs combined with in-situ generated platinum nanoparticles as catalyst layers will be explained to improve the performance, efficiency, and durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells while reducing their costs, weight, and size. In addition, the use of CNTs and GNSs to improve the efficiency and performance of polymer solar cells will be explained. Finally, the use of CNTs and GNSs to enhance the performance, efficiency, and durability of batteries and supercapacitors while reducing their costs, weight, and size will be discussed.

  9. Smart nanopaper based on cellulose nanofibers with hybrid PEDOT:PSS/polypyrrole for energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Lay, Makara; Pèlach, M Àngels; Pellicer, Neus; Tarrés, Joaquim A; Bun, Kim Ngun; Vilaseca, Fabiola

    2017-06-01

    In the current work, flexible, lightweight, and strong conductive nanopapers based on cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and/or polypyrrole (PPy) were prepared by following a mixing and in situ chemical polymerization method. A successful homogeneous coating of PEDOT:PSS on cellulose nanofibers occurred by means hydrogen-bonding interactions between the hydroxyl functionalized CNF and the electronically charged PEDOT:PSS, as shown by FTIR spectra. The electrical conductivity and the specific capacitance of CNF-PEDOT:PSS nanopapers were 2.58Scm(-1) and 6.21Fg(-1), respectively. Further coating of PPy produced a substantial improvement on the electrical conductivity (10.55Scm(-1)) and the specific capacitance (315.5Fg(-1)) of the resulting CNF-PEDOT:PSS-PPy nanopaper. A synergistic phenomenon between both conductive polymers supported the high electrical conductivity and specific capacitance of the ternary formulation. Moreover, CNF-PEDOT:PSS-PPy nanopaper showed higher mechanical properties and it was more flexible than the nanopaper containing only polypyrrole conducting polymer (CNF-PPy). It is concluded that the good mechanical, electrical and electrochemical properties of the ternary formulation can apply for smart nanopaper in flexible electronics and energy storage devices.

  10. Real-Time Control of Biological Motor Activity using Graphene-polymer Hybrid Bioenergy Storage Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong; Byun, Kyung-Eun; Choi, Dong; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Daesan; Seo, David; Yang, Heejun; Seo, Sunae; Hong, Seunghun; Hybrid Nanodevice Lab Team; Samsung Research Park Team

    2013-03-01

    Biological motors have been drawing an attention as a key component for highly efficient nanomechanical systems. For such applications, many researchers have tried to control the activity of motor proteins through various methods such as microfluidics or UV-active compounds. However, these methods have some limitations such as the incapability of controlling local biomotor activity and a slow response rate. Herein, we developed a graphene-polymer hybrid nanostructure-based bioenergy storage device which enables the real-time control of biomotor activity. In this strategy, graphene layers functionalized with amine groups were utilized as a transparent electrode supporting the motility of biomotors. And conducting polymer patterns doped with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were electrically deposited on the graphene and utilized for the fast release of ATP by electrical stimuli through the graphene. Such controlled release of ATP allowed us to control the motility of actin filaments propelled by myosin biomotors in real time. This strategy should enable integrated nanodevices for the real-time control of biological motors to the nanodevices, which can be a significant stepping stone toward hybrid nanomechanical systems based on motor proteins.

  11. Improved electrochemical performance of the Cr doped cathode materials for energy storage/conversion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeeta, Agnihotri, Shruti; Arya, Anil; Sharma, A. L.

    2016-05-01

    Successful synthesis of a nanostructured Cr-doped LiFePO4 cathode material has been prepared by a sol-gel technique followed by a single step thermal treatment at 750° C for 12 hours. As olivine type LiFePO4 has already gained much attention due to its advantages over other cathode materials, doping of metal ion is done in the paper to improve its drawback of lower conductivity. FESEM couples with EDX were done to characterize the morphology and particle size of the materials. LiFe(1-x)CrxPO4 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3) materials have average particle size of 30 to 50 nm. EDX analysis confirmed the precursor used and also confirmed the presence of carbon which is in good agreement with chemical analysis result. Electrical conductivity of the prepared cathode materials is estimated of the order of 10-5 Scm-1 by AC impedance analysis. The energy density and power density of the cathode materials is improved drastically after addition of Cr as dopant. The estimated parameters appear at desirable value for use of materials as cathode in energy storage/conversion devices.

  12. Halbach array type focusing actuator for small and thin optical data storage device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Q.; Park, Kang-Ho; Paek, Mun Chul

    2004-09-01

    The small form factor optical data storage devices are developing rapidly nowadays. Since it is designed for portable and compatibility with flesh memory, its components such as disk, head, focusing actuator, and spindle motor should be assembled within 5 mm. The thickness of focusing actuator is within 2 mm and the total working range is +/-100um, with the resolution of less than 1μm. Since the thickness is limited tightly, it is hard to place the yoke that closes the magnetic circuit and hard to make strong flux density without yoke. Therefore, Halbach array is adopted to increase the magnetic flux of one side without yoke. The proposed Halbach array type focusing actuator has the advantage of thin actuation structure with sacrificing less flex density than conventional magnetic array. The optical head unit is moved on the swing arm type tracking actuator. Focusing coil is attached to swing arm, and Halbach magnet array is positioned at the bottom of deck along the tracking line, and focusing actuator exerts force by the Fleming's left hand rule. The dynamics, working range, control resolution of focusing actuator are analyzed and performed.

  13. Application of Ionic Liquids to Energy Storage and Conversion Materials and Devices.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masayoshi; Thomas, Morgan L; Zhang, Shiguo; Ueno, Kazuhide; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Dokko, Kaoru

    2017-01-13

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are liquids consisting entirely of ions and can be further defined as molten salts having melting points lower than 100 °C. One of the most important research areas for IL utilization is undoubtedly their energy application, especially for energy storage and conversion materials and devices, because there is a continuously increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. In this article, various application of ILs are reviewed by focusing on their use as electrolyte materials for Li/Na ion batteries, Li-sulfur batteries, Li-oxygen batteries, and nonhumidified fuel cells and as carbon precursors for electrode catalysts of fuel cells and electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors. Due to their characteristic properties such as nonvolatility, high thermal stability, and high ionic conductivity, ILs appear to meet the rigorous demands/criteria of these various applications. However, for further development, specific applications for which these characteristic properties become unique (i.e., not easily achieved by other materials) must be explored. Thus, through strong demands for research and consideration of ILs unique properties, we will be able to identify indispensable applications for ILs.

  14. Spray-painted binder-free SnSe electrodes for high-performance energy-storage devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianfu; Liu, Bin; Xiang, Qingyi; Wang, Qiufan; Hou, Xiaojuan; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-01-01

    SnSe nanocrystal electrodes on three-dimensional (3D) carbon fabric and Au-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) wafer have been prepared by a simple spray-painting process and were further investigated as binder-free active-electrodes for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and flexible stacked all-solid-state supercapacitors. The as-painted SnSe nanocrystals/carbon fabric electrodes exhibit an outstanding capacity of 676 mAh g(-1) after 80 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g(-1) and a considerable high-rate capability in lithium storage because of the excellent ion transport from the electrolyte to the active materials and the efficient charge transport between current collector and electrode materials. The binder-free electrodes also provide a larger electrochemical active surface compared with electrodes containing binders, which leads to the enhanced capacities of energy-storage devices. A flexible stacked all-solid-state supercapacitor based on the SnSe nanocrystals on Au-coated PET wafers shows high capacitance reversibility with little performance degradation at different current densities after 2200 charge-discharge cycles and even when bent. This allows for many potential applications in facile, cost-effective, spray-paintable, and flexible energy-storage devices. The results indicate that the fabrication of binder-free electrodes by a spray painting process is an interesting direction for the preparation of high-performance energy-storage devices.

  15. Methods and devices for determining quality of services of storage systems

    DOEpatents

    Seelam, Seetharami R [Yorktown Heights, NY; Teller, Patricia J [Las Cruces, NM

    2012-01-17

    Methods and systems for allowing access to computer storage systems. Multiple requests from multiple applications can be received and processed efficiently to allow traffic from multiple customers to access the storage system concurrently.

  16. Holographic Storage as a Solution to Space Imaging Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, Milton

    1998-01-01

    The data growth experienced in the recent past has been of staggering proportions. Over the past 10 years, tape data storage density (with the same form factor) has increased according to Moore's law, doubling every 18 months. However, during the same period, data transfer speeds have only increased at a rate of about 1.3 times every 18 months, and thus have fallen behind data density growth rates by a factor of at least 3. Coupled with data media density growth, data storage requirements have gone up significantly. According to a recent Computer Technology Review article (March 1998) the total storage at a typical Fortune 1000 site is projected to escalate from just 10 TB in 1997 to 1 PB by the year 2000. In the next 5 years, a typical large database system for U.S. government agencies is expected to accept 5 TB per day, maintain 300 TB on-line (within 15 seconds to 1 minute access time), and archive from 15 to 100 PB. Additionally, data intensive programs such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS) and the intelligence data archival systems at the Rome Air Development Center, and scientific laboratories such as Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility will have enormously large scientific databases with very large storage requirements.

  17. Comprehensive model for predicting perceptual image quality of smart mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Gong, Rui; Xu, Haisong; Luo, M R; Li, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    An image quality model for smart mobile devices was proposed based on visual assessments of several image quality attributes. A series of psychophysical experiments were carried out on two kinds of smart mobile devices, i.e., smart phones and tablet computers, in which naturalness, colorfulness, brightness, contrast, sharpness, clearness, and overall image quality were visually evaluated under three lighting environments via categorical judgment method for various application types of test images. On the basis of Pearson correlation coefficients and factor analysis, the overall image quality could first be predicted by its two constituent attributes with multiple linear regression functions for different types of images, respectively, and then the mathematical expressions were built to link the constituent image quality attributes with the physical parameters of smart mobile devices and image appearance factors. The procedure and algorithms were applicable to various smart mobile devices, different lighting conditions, and multiple types of images, and performance was verified by the visual data.

  18. Edge passivated charge-coupled device image sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosonocky, Walter F. (Inventor); Elabd, Hammam (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor includes in a substrate of single crystalline silicon of one conductivity type an array of a plurality of spaced, parallel channel regions of the opposite conductivity type extending along one major surface of the substrate. A plurality of parallel conductive gates are over the one major surface of the substrate and extend transversely across the channel regions. The outermost channel regions of the array are positioned adjacent edges of the substrate so that a plurality of the image sensors can be mounted in edge-to-edge relation with the channel regions of the various sensors being close together. The sensor includes passivating means between each outermost channel region and the adjacent edge to prevent charge carriers generated by the edge from being injected into the outermost channel region. The passivating means includes a highly conductive drain region of a conductivity type opposite to that of the substrate within the substrate and extending along the one major surface between the outermost channel region and the edge. Also, a highly conductive region of the same conductivity type as the substrate is on the substrate and extends along the one major surface directly at the edge.

  19. A Compton imaging device for radioactive material detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, A. S.; Baird, W.; Kippen, R. Marc; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Sullivan, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    The most serious terrorist threat we face today may come from radiological dispersion devices and unsecured nuclear weapons. It is imperative for national security that we develop and implement radiation detection technology capable of locating and tracking nuclear material moving across and within our borders. Many radionuclides emit gamma rays in the 0.2-3 MeV range. Unfortunately, current gamma ray detection technology is inadequate for providing precise and efficient measurements of localized radioactive sources. Common detectors available today suffer from large background rates and have only minimal ability to localize the position of the source without the use of mechanical collimators, which reduces efficiency. Imaging detectors using the Compton scattering process have the potential to provide greatly improved sensitivity through their ability to reject off-source background. We are developing a prototype device to demonstrate the Compton imaging technology. The detector consists of several layers of pixelated silicon detectors followed by an array of CsI crystals coupled to photodiodes. Here we present the concept of our detector design and results from Monte Carlo simulations of our prototype detector. Development of technologies for detecting and characterizing radiation from various nuclear materials is important for many fields, including homeland security, astrophysics, and medical imaging. Unfortunately, in many cases we now largely use detection technologies that were developed in the 1960s. While sufficient for some purposes, these technologies have proved inadequate for remote sensing of radioactive nuclear materials - a crucial capability required for enhanced homeland security. Passive gamma ray detection is the most direct means of providing this capability, but current detectors are severely limited in sensitivity and detection range due to confusion from off-source backgrounds, and they cannot precisely localize sources when they are

  20. A soft, wearable microfluidic device for the capture, storage, and colorimetric sensing of sweat.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ahyeon; Kang, Daeshik; Xue, Yeguang; Lee, Seungmin; Pielak, Rafal M; Kim, Jeonghyun; Hwang, Taehwan; Min, Seunghwan; Banks, Anthony; Bastien, Philippe; Manco, Megan C; Wang, Liang; Ammann, Kaitlyn R; Jang, Kyung-In; Won, Phillip; Han, Seungyong; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Paik, Ungyu; Slepian, Marvin J; Balooch, Guive; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2016-11-23

    Capabilities in health monitoring enabled by capture and quantitative chemical analysis of sweat could complement, or potentially obviate the need for, approaches based on sporadic assessment of blood samples. Established sweat monitoring technologies use simple fabric swatches and are limited to basic analysis in controlled laboratory or hospital settings. We present a collection of materials and device designs for soft, flexible, and stretchable microfluidic systems, including embodiments that integrate wireless communication electronics, which can intimately and robustly bond to the surface of the skin without chemical and mechanical irritation. This integration defines access points for a small set of sweat glands such that perspiration spontaneously initiates routing of sweat through a microfluidic network and set of reservoirs. Embedded chemical analyses respond in colorimetric fashion to markers such as chloride and hydronium ions, glucose, and lactate. Wireless interfaces to digital image capture hardware serve as a means for quantitation. Human studies demonstrated the functionality of this microfluidic device during fitness cycling in a controlled environment and during long-distance bicycle racing in arid, outdoor conditions. The results include quantitative values for sweat rate, total sweat loss, pH, and concentration of chloride and lactate.

  1. The digital radiographic and computed tomography imaging of two types of explosive devices.

    PubMed

    Galiano Riveros, Eduardo

    2002-12-01

    Two well-established medical imaging methods, digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT), were employed to obtain images of two types of explosive devices, model rocket engines and shotgun shells. The images were evaluated from an airport security perspective. In terms of geometrical shape, the detection probability of the explosive devices appears to be higher with DR imaging, but in terms of the actual explosive compounds in the devices, CT appears to offer a higher detection probability. DR imaging offers a low detection probability for the explosive powder in the shotgun shells, but a rather significant detection probability for the explosive propellant in the model rocket engines.

  2. Applications of Storage Phosphor Technology to High-Energy Portal Imaging in Radiation Therapy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiser, John Conrad

    1990-01-01

    This investigation is a study of the application of a storage phosphor based digital image acquisition and processing system to portal imaging. Laser printed storage phosphor film is compared to conventional film, and digitized conventional film is compared to storage phosphor images using CRT displays. The reader's impression of image quality, general perception of anatomical detail, accuracy of interpretation, and ability to detect low contrast objects are used as comparison criteria. In addition unsharp masking, analog contrast stretching, and digital windowing and leveling are evaluated as image processing options. A new technique for obtaining electron treatment verification images is developed and used to investigate the precision of high energy electron treatment delivery. The results indicate that the quality of unprocessed laser printed storage phosphor images is perceived to be at least as good as that of conventional film, with a notable increase in perceived quality of head, neck, and chest images as compared to images of the abdomen and pelvis. Application of an analog contrast enhancement technique to storage phosphor images of the abdomen and pelvis does not result in a statistically significant improvement over conventional film, but the combination of contrast and edge enhancement by unsharp masking does result in a significant improvement in perception of anatomical landmarks. Digitized conventional film is perceived to be as good as storage phosphor images when similarly processed by an unsharp masking routine and displayed on a workstation with window and level control. The reader's perception of anatomical detail and accuracy of interpretation show the most promise as comparison criteria for evaluation of the various modalities available for portal imaging. The development of a scoring system based on perception of specific anatomical landmarks for the various treatment fields would provide a more objective method of assessing alternative

  3. Applications of large-area nanopatterning to energy generation and storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Eric N.

    This dissertation encompasses the creation and testing of nanostructured, electrochemically-active energy generation and storage devices, and development of the associated fabrication techniques. The fabricated devices include nanopatterned, plasmonically-active, TiO2+Au thin films for Photocatalytic Water Splitting (PCW), TiO2-based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) incorporating nanopatterned, plasmonically-active metallic front electrodes, and Si nanopillar anodes for Li-ion batteries. Techniques were also developed for encapsulation and removal of wet-etched Si nanowires from their mother substrates. TiO2 was the first material to be widely used for PCW. Its use is hampered by its large bandgap (~3.2eV), and poor recombination lifetimes. Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been previously used to improve recombination lifetimes in TiO2 by separating photogenerated carriers near the NP edges, and to increase photocurrents by injecting plasmonically-excited hot electrons into the TiO2 conduction band. Using nanostructured TiO 2+Au electrodes, we aim to increase the PCW efficiency of TiO2 -based electrodes. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employ visible-absorbing dyes anchored to a high-surface-area semiconducting scaffold. The front transparent conducting electrode (TCE) is typically ITO, a scarce and expensive material. We aim to increase the efficiency of thin-film DSSCs and eliminate the use of ITO by using a metallic subwavelength array (MESH) of nanoholes as the front TCE. Silicon holds promise as a high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, as it can store ~10x the Li of graphite, the current leading anode material (3569 vs. 372 mAh/g). However, Si undergoes dramatic (>300%) volume expansion upon "lithiation", pulverizing any structure with non-nanoscopic dimensions (>250nm). We created large-area arrays of "nanopillars" with sub-100nm diameters, using roll-to-roll-compatible flexible-mold NIL on commercially-available metal substrates. Ordered

  4. Optimal maneuvering and fine pointing control of large space telescope with a new magnetically suspended, single gimballed momentum storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadkarni, A. A.; Joshi, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    This paper considers the application of an Annular Momentum Control Device (AMCD) to both fine pointing and large-angle maneuvering of a large space telescope (LST). The AMCD, which consists principally of a spinning rim suspended in noncontacting electromagnetic bearings, represents a new development in momentum storage devices. A nonlinear mathematical model of the AMCD/LST system is derived. An optimal stochastic fine-pointing controller is designed via LQG theory and the minimum-energy maneuvering problem is solved via a gradient technique. Number of state variable and control variable constraints, as well as all trigonometric nonlinearities, are considered in the latter part.

  5. Thin and flexible Ni-P based current collectors developed by electroless deposition for energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haoran; Susanto, Amelia; Lian, Keryn

    2017-02-01

    A PET film metalized by electroless nickel deposition was demonstrated as thin and flexible current collector for energy storage devices. The resultant nickel-on-PET film (Ni-PET) can be used both as current collector for electrochemical capacitors and as electrode for thin film batteries. The composition of Ni-PET was characterized by EDX and XPS. The electrochemical performance of the Ni-PET current collector was similar to Ni foil but with less hydrogen evolution at low potential. The Ni-PET film exhibited better flexibility than a metallic Ni foil. Carbon nanotubes were coated on a Ni-PET substrate to form an electrochemical capacitor electrode which exhibited high chemical stability in both liquid and solid electrolytes, showing strong promise for solid energy storage devices.

  6. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Characterization of Electrochemical Processes in Renewable Energy Storage and Conversion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Farmand, Maryam

    2013-05-19

    The development of better energy conversion and storage devices, such as fuel cells and batteries, is crucial for reduction of our global carbon footprint and improving the quality of the air we breathe. However, both of these technologies face important challenges. The development of lower cost and better electrode materials, which are more durable and allow more control over the electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface, is perhaps most important for meeting these challenges. Hence, full characterization of the electrochemical processes that occur at the electrodes is vital for intelligent design of more energy efficient electrodes. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a short-range order, element specific technique that can be utilized to probe the processes occurring at operating electrode surfaces, as well for studying the amorphous materials and nano-particles making up the electrodes. It has been increasingly used in recent years to study fuel cell catalysts through application of the and #916; and mgr; XANES technique, in combination with the more traditional X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) techniques. The and #916; and mgr; XANES data analysis technique, previously developed and applied to heterogeneous catalysts and fuel cell electrocatalysts by the GWU group, was extended in this work to provide for the first time space resolved adsorbate coverages on both electrodes of a direct methanol fuel cell. Even more importantly, the and #916; and mgr; technique was applied for the first time to battery relevant materials, where bulk properties such as the oxidation state and local geometry of a cathode are followed.

  7. Electrochemical investigations of advanced materials for microelectronic and energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goonetilleke, Pubudu Chaminda

    A broad range of electrochemical techniques are employed in this work to study a selected set of advanced materials for applications in microelectronics and energy storage devices. The primary motivation of this study has been to explore the capabilities of certain modern electrochemical techniques in a number of emerging areas of material processing and characterization. The work includes both aqueous and non-aqueous systems, with applications in two rather general areas of technology, namely microelectronics and energy storage. The sub-systems selected for investigation are: (i) Electrochemical mechanical and chemical mechanical planarization (ECMP and CMP, respectively), (ii) Carbon nanotubes in combination with room temperature ionic liquids (ILs), and (iii) Cathode materials for high-performance Li ion batteries. The first group of systems represents an important building block in the fabrication of microelectronic devices. The second and third groups of systems are relevant for new energy storage technologies, and have generated immense interests in recent years. A common feature of these different systems is that they all are associated with complex surface reactions that dictate the performance of the devices based on them. Fundamental understanding of these reactions is crucial to further development and expansion of their associated technologies. It is the complex mechanistic details of these surface reactions that we address using a judicious combination of a number of state of the art electrochemical techniques. The main electrochemical techniques used in this work include: (i) Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and slow scan cyclic voltammetry (SSCV, a special case of CV); (ii) Galvanostatic (or current-controlled) measurements; (iii) Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), based on two different methodologies, namely, Fourier transform EIS (FT-EIS, capable of studying fast reaction kinetics in a time-resolved mode), and EIS using frequency response

  8. Implantable CMOS imaging device with absorption filters for green fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunaga, Yoshinori; Haruta, Makito; Takehara, Hironari; Ohta, Yasumi; Motoyama, Mayumi; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Green fluorescent materials such as Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) and fluorescein are often used for observing neural activities. Thus, it is important to observe the fluorescence in a freely moving state in order to understand neural activities corresponding to behaviors. In this work, we developed an implantable CMOS imaging device for in-vivo green fluorescence imaging with efficient excitation light rejection using a combination of absorption filters. An interference filter is usually used for a fluorescence microscope in order to achieve high fluorescence imaging sensitivity. However, in the case of the implantable device, interference filters are not suitable because their transmission spectra depend on incident angle. To solve this problem we used two kinds of absorption filters that do not have angle dependence. An absorption filter consisting of yellow dye (VARYFAST YELLOW 3150) was coated on the pixel array of an image sensor. The rejection ratio of ideal excitation light (490 nm) against green fluorescence (510 nm) was 99.66%. However, the blue LED as an excitation light source has a broad emission spectrum and its intensity at 510 nm is 2.2 x 10-2 times the emission peak intensity. By coating LEDs with the emission absorption filters, the intensity of the unwanted component of the excitation light was reduced to 1.4 x 10-4. Using the combination of absorption filters, we achieved excitation light transmittance of 10-5 onto the image sensor. It is expected that high-sensitivity green fluorescence imaging of neural activities in a freely moving mouse will be possible by using this technology.

  9. The impact of tunnel oxide nitridation to reliability performance of charge storage non-volatile memory devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng Chuan; Wong, Hin Yong

    2014-02-01

    This paper is written to review the development of critical research on the overall impact of tunnel oxide nitridation (TON) with the aim to mitigate reliability issues due to incessant technology scaling of charge storage NVM devices. For more than 30 years, charge storage non-volatile memory (NVM) has been critical in the evolution of intelligent electronic devices and continuous development of integrated technologies. Technology scaling is the primary strategy implemented throughout the semiconductor industry to increase NVM density and drive down average cost per bit. In this paper, critical reliability challenges and key innovative technical mitigation methods are reviewed. TON is one of the major candidates to replace conventional oxide layer for its superior quality and reliability performance. Major advantages and caveats of key TON process techniques are discussed. The impact of TON on quality and reliability performance of charge storage NVM devices is carefully reviewed with emphasis on major advantages and drawbacks of top and bottom nitridation. Physical mechanisms attributed to charge retention and V(t) instability phenomenon are also reviewed in this paper.

  10. A proton imaging device: Design and status of realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipala, V.; Bruzzi, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Candiano, G.; Capineri, L.; P. Cirrone, G. A.; Civinini, C.; Cuttone, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Marrazzo, L.; Mazzaglia, E.; Menichelli, D.; Randazzo, N.; Talamonti, C.; Valentini, S.

    2010-01-01

    Proton radiation therapy is a precise form of cancer therapy, which requires verification of the patient position and the accurate knowledge of the dose delivered to the patient. At present in the proton treatment centre, patients are positioned with X-ray radiography and dose calculations rely on the patient's morphology and electron densities obtained by X-ray computed tomography [U. Schneider, E. Pedroni, Med. Phys. 22 (1995) 353]. A proton imaging device can improve the accuracy of proton radiation therapy treatment planning and the alignment of the patient with the proton beam. Our collaboration has developed a pCR prototype consisting of a silicon microstrip tracker and a calorimeter to detect the residual energy [R. Shulte, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51 (2004) 866-872]. In this contribution we will show some results obtained testing the front-end board of the tracker and measurements performed at LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud) and in LLUMC (Loma Linda University Medical Centre) using 60 and 200 MeV proton beams to test the calorimeter.

  11. The electrostatic storage tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, R. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An electrostatic camera system is discussed which is based on the electrostatic storage tube. The development of the system was begun following a series of experiments which indicated that the device offers signficantly improved performance over currently available devices. The approach used in developing the high performance camera involves: converting the input image to an electron image at low loss, applying a low noise gain process, and storing the resulting charge pattern in a low-loss target. The basic processes and elements of the electrostatic storage tube are illustrated and discussed. Graphs that depict the camera performance characteristics are included.

  12. Development of hybrid materials based on sponge supported reduced graphene oxide and transition metal hydroxides for hybrid energy storage devices

    PubMed Central

    Dubal, Deepak P.; Holze, Rudolf; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Earnest efforts have been taken to design hybrid energy storage devices using hybrid electrodes based on capacitive (rGO) and pseudocapacitive (Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2) materials deposited on the skeleton of 3D macroporous (indicate sponge material) sponge support. Conducting framework was formed by coating rGO on macroporous sponge on which subsequent deposition of Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 was carried out. The synergetic combination of rGO and Ni(OH)2 or Co(OH)2) provides dual charge-storing mechanisms whereas 3D framework of sponge allows excellent accessibility of electrolyte to hybrid electrodes. Moreover, to further increase the energy density, hybrid devices have been fabricated with SP@rGO@Ni or SP@rGO@Co and SP@rGO as positive and negative electrodes, respectively. These hybrid devices operate with extended operating voltage windows and achieve remarkable electrochemical supercapacitive properties which make them truly promising energy storage devices for commercial production. PMID:25483007

  13. Development of hybrid materials based on sponge supported reduced graphene oxide and transition metal hydroxides for hybrid energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Dubal, Deepak P; Holze, Rudolf; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2014-12-08

    Earnest efforts have been taken to design hybrid energy storage devices using hybrid electrodes based on capacitive (rGO) and pseudocapacitive (Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2) materials deposited on the skeleton of 3D macroporous (indicate sponge material) sponge support. Conducting framework was formed by coating rGO on macroporous sponge on which subsequent deposition of Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 was carried out. The synergetic combination of rGO and Ni(OH)2 or Co(OH)2) provides dual charge-storing mechanisms whereas 3D framework of sponge allows excellent accessibility of electrolyte to hybrid electrodes. Moreover, to further increase the energy density, hybrid devices have been fabricated with SP@rGO@Ni or SP@rGO@Co and SP@rGO as positive and negative electrodes, respectively. These hybrid devices operate with extended operating voltage windows and achieve remarkable electrochemical supercapacitive properties which make them truly promising energy storage devices for commercial production.

  14. Long-term dry storage of an enzyme-based reagent system for ELISA in point-of-care devices.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Sujatha; Fu, Elain; Lutz, Barry; Yager, Paul

    2014-03-21

    Lateral flow devices are commonly used for many point-of-care (POC) applications in low-resource settings. However, they lack the sensitivity needed for many analytes relevant in the diagnosis of diseases. One approach to achieve higher sensitivity is signal amplification, which is commonly used in laboratory assays, but uses reagents that require refrigeration and inherently requires multiple assay steps not normally compatible with POC settings. Enzyme-based signal amplification, such as the one used in ELISA, could greatly improve the limit of detection if it were translated to a format compatible with POC requirements. A signal-amplified POC device not only requires the reagents to be stored in a stable form, but also requires automation of the multiple sequential steps of signal amplification protocols. Here, we describe a method for the long-term dry storage of ELISA reagents: horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated antibody label and its colorimetric substrate diaminobenzidine (DAB). The HRP conjugate retained ∼80% enzymatic activity after dry storage at 45 °C for over 5 months. The DAB substrate was also stable at 45 °C and exhibited no detectable loss of activity over 3 months. These reagents were incorporated into a two-dimensional paper network (2DPN) device that automated the steps of ELISA for the detection of a malarial biomarker. These results demonstrate the potential of enzyme-based signal amplification for enhanced sensitivity in POC devices for low resource settings.

  15. Determinants Of Acceptability Of Radiographic Images For Archival Digital Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markivee, C. R.; Nalesnik, W. J.; Chiang, M. C.; Tio, J. R.; Hall, E. L.

    1983-05-01

    The parameter, quality of radiographic film exposure, was evaluated by computer and 15 human observers for the purpose of determining the feasibility of automatic computer eval-uation of radiographs prior to archival storage. Histograms of digitized knee radiographs were parameterized according to the Pearson technique and the computer was used to grade exposure quality relative to a set of training radiographs evaluated by the readers. There was a significant variation in the assessment of film exposure quality among the different observers. The computer scored 73% for the AP films and 53% for the laterals relative to the general consensus. The discrepancies were explained in terms of differences in anatomy and radiographic technique. The significance of this work is that it demonstrates that a computer can grade films according to a predetermined standard set by the radiologist.

  16. Storage phosphor radiography of wrist fractures: a subjective comparison of image quality at varying exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Peer, Regina; Lanser, Anton; Giacomuzzi, Salvatore M; Pechlaner, Sigurd; Künzel, Heinz; Bodner, Gerd; Gaber, O; Jaschke, Werner; Peer, Siegfried

    2002-06-01

    Image quality of storage phosphor radiographs acquired at different exposure levels was compared to define the minimal radiation dose needed to achieve images which allow for reliable detection of wrist fractures. In a study on 33 fractured anatomical wrist specimens image quality of storage phosphor radiographs was assessed on a diagnostic PACS workstation by three observers. Images were acquired at exposure levels corresponding to a speed classes 100, 200, 400 and 800. Cortical bone surface, trabecular bone, soft tissues and fracture delineation were judged on a subjective basis. Image quality was rated according to a standard protocol and statistical evaluation was performed based on an analysis of variance (ANOVA). Images at a dose reduction of 37% were rated sufficient quality without loss in diagnostic accuracy. Sufficient trabecular and cortical bone presentation was still achieved at a dose reduction of 62%. The latter images, however, were considered unacceptable for fracture detection. To achieve high-quality storage phosphor radiographs, which allow for a reliable evaluation of wrist fractures, a minimum exposure dose equivalent to a speed class of 200 is needed. For general-purpose skeletal radiography, however, a dose reduction of up to 62% can be achieved. A choice of exposure settings according to the clinical situation (ALARA principle) is recommended to achieve possible dose reductions.

  17. Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Highly Efficient Energy Generation and Storage Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-24

    Nanotubes, graphene, functionalization, aligned arrays, energy-related devices 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...4 1.3 Soluble P3HT-Grafted CNTs for Efficient Bilayer-heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices.............. 6 1.4 Highly-Efficient Metal...heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

  18. D38-cholesterol as a Raman active probe for imaging intracellular cholesterol storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso-García, Alba; Pfisterer, Simon G.; Riezman, Howard; Ikonen, Elina; Potma, Eric O.

    2016-06-01

    We generated a highly deuterated cholesterol analog (D38-cholesterol) and demonstrated its use for selective vibrational imaging of cholesterol storage in mammalian cells. D38-cholesterol produces detectable signals in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging, is rapidly taken up by cells, and is efficiently metabolized by acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase to form cholesteryl esters. Using hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol, we visualized cholesterol storage in lipid droplets. We found that some lipid droplets accumulated preferentially unesterified D38-cholesterol, whereas others stored D38-cholesteryl esters. In steroidogenic cells, D38-cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols were partitioned into distinct sets of lipid droplets. Thus, hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol demonstrates a heterogeneous incorporation of neutral lipid species, i.e., free cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and triacylglycerols, between individual lipid droplets in a cell.

  19. D38-cholesterol as a Raman active probe for imaging intracellular cholesterol storage

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-García, Alba; Pfisterer, Simon G.; Riezman, Howard; Ikonen, Elina; Potma, Eric O.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We generated a highly deuterated cholesterol analog (D38-cholesterol) and demonstrated its use for selective vibrational imaging of cholesterol storage in mammalian cells. D38-cholesterol produces detectable signals in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging, is rapidly taken up by cells, and is efficiently metabolized by acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase to form cholesteryl esters. Using hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol, we visualized cholesterol storage in lipid droplets. We found that some lipid droplets accumulated preferentially unesterified D38-cholesterol, whereas others stored D38-cholesteryl esters. In steroidogenic cells, D38-cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols were partitioned into distinct sets of lipid droplets. Thus, hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol demonstrates a heterogeneous incorporation of neutral lipid species, i.e., free cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and triacylglycerols, between individual lipid droplets in a cell. PMID:26719944

  20. Room temperature synthesis of cobalt-manganese-nickel oxalates micropolyhedrons for high-performance flexible electrochemical energy storage device

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Zhou; Zhao, Junhong; Xia, Jing; Wang, Lulu; Lai, Wen-Yong; Pang, Huan; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-manganese-nickel oxalates micropolyhedrons were successfully fabricated by a room temperature chemical co-precipitation method. Interestingly, the Co0.5Mn0.4Ni0.1C2O4*nH2O micropolyhedrons and graphene nanosheets have been successfully applied as the positive and negative electrode materials (a battery type Faradaic electrode and a capacitive electrode, respectively) for flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. More importantly, the as-assembled device achieved a maximum energy density of 0.46 mWh·cm−3, a decent result among devices with similar structures. The as-assembled device showed good flexibility, functioning well under both normal and bent conditions (0°–180°). The resulting device showed little performance decay even after 6000 cycles, which rendered the Co0.5Mn0.4Ni0.1C2O4*nH2O//Graphene device configuration a promising candidate for high-performance flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors in the field of high-energy-density energy storage devices. PMID:25705048

  1. The data storage grid: the next generation of fault-tolerant storage for backup and disaster recovery of clinical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Nelson E.; Liu, Brent; Zhou, Zheng; Documet, Jorge; Huang, H. K.

    2005-04-01

    Grid Computing represents the latest and most exciting technology to evolve from the familiar realm of parallel, peer-to-peer and client-server models that can address the problem of fault-tolerant storage for backup and recovery of clinical images. We have researched and developed a novel Data Grid testbed involving several federated PAC systems based on grid architecture. By integrating a grid computing architecture to the DICOM environment, a failed PACS archive can recover its image data from others in the federation in a timely and seamless fashion. The design reflects the five-layer architecture of grid computing: Fabric, Resource, Connectivity, Collective, and Application Layers. The testbed Data Grid architecture representing three federated PAC systems, the Fault-Tolerant PACS archive server at the Image Processing and Informatics Laboratory, Marina del Rey, the clinical PACS at Saint John's Health Center, Santa Monica, and the clinical PACS at the Healthcare Consultation Center II, USC Health Science Campus, will be presented. The successful demonstration of the Data Grid in the testbed will provide an understanding of the Data Grid concept in clinical image data backup as well as establishment of benchmarks for performance from future grid technology improvements and serve as a road map for expanded research into large enterprise and federation level data grids to guarantee 99.999 % up time.

  2. Image selection system. [computerized data storage and retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knutson, M. A.; Hurd, D.; Hubble, L.; Kroeck, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    An image selection (ISS) was developed for the NASA-Ames Research Center Earth Resources Aircraft Project. The ISS is an interactive, graphics oriented, computer retrieval system for aerial imagery. An analysis of user coverage requests and retrieval strategies is presented, followed by a complete system description. Data base structure, retrieval processors, command language, interactive display options, file structures, and the system's capability to manage sets of selected imagery are described. A detailed example of an area coverage request is graphically presented.

  3. The Emergence of Photo CD As a Preferred Method for Image Capture and Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Michael; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines Photo CD as a possible standard storage medium. Functionality within the system is explored, including future-proofing implications and application hints for practitioners; two case studies illustrate typical applications, one at the University of Aberdeen (Scotland) and one at a commercial image archive laboratory. (Author/LRW)

  4. Distributed Storage Algorithm for Geospatial Image Data Based on Data Access Patterns.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shaoming; Li, Yongkai; Xu, Zhengquan; Chong, Yanwen

    2015-01-01

    Declustering techniques are widely used in distributed environments to reduce query response time through parallel I/O by splitting large files into several small blocks and then distributing those blocks among multiple storage nodes. Unfortunately, however, many small geospatial image data files cannot be further split for distributed storage. In this paper, we propose a complete theoretical system for the distributed storage of small geospatial image data files based on mining the access patterns of geospatial image data using their historical access log information. First, an algorithm is developed to construct an access correlation matrix based on the analysis of the log information, which reveals the patterns of access to the geospatial image data. Then, a practical heuristic algorithm is developed to determine a reasonable solution based on the access correlation matrix. Finally, a number of comparative experiments are presented, demonstrating that our algorithm displays a higher total parallel access probability than those of other algorithms by approximately 10-15% and that the performance can be further improved by more than 20% by simultaneously applying a copy storage strategy. These experiments show that the algorithm can be applied in distributed environments to help realize parallel I/O and thereby improve system performance.

  5. Hierarchically built gold nanoparticle supercluster arrays as charge storage centers for enhancing the performance of flash memory devices.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Vignesh; Kusuma, Damar Yoga; Lee, Pooi See; Yap, Fung Ling; Srinivasan, M P; Krishnamoorthy, Sivashankar

    2015-01-14

    Flash memory devices with high-performance levels exhibiting high charge storage capacity, good charge retention, and high write/erase speeds with lower operating voltages are widely in demand. In this direction, we demonstrate hierarchical self-assembly of gold nanoparticles based on block copolymer templates as a promising route to engineer nanoparticle assemblies with high nanoparticle densities for application in nanocrystal flash memories. The hierarchical self-assembly process allows systematic multiplication of nanoparticle densities with minimal increase in footprint, thereby increasing the charge storage density without an increase in operating voltage. The protocol involves creation of a parent template composed of gold nanoclusters that guides the self-assembly of diblock copolymer reverse micelles which in turn directs electrostatic assembly of gold nanoparticles resulting in a three-level hierarchical system. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of the hierarchical nanopatterns with a metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor configuration reveal promising enhancement in memory window as compared to nonhierarchical nanoparticle controls. Capacitance-time (C-t) measurements show that over half the stored charges were retained when extrapolated to 10 years. The fabrication route can be readily extended to programmed density multiplication of features made of other potential charge storage materials such as platinum, palladium, or hybrid metal/metal oxides for next generation, solution-processable flash memory devices.

  6. Capacitance of Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposites in an aqueous hybrid electrochemical storage device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiński, Krzysztof; Walkowiak, Mariusz; Półrolniczak, Paulina; Lota, Grzegorz

    2015-10-01

    Hybrid electrochemical storage devices comprising a capacitor-type positive electrode and a battery-type negative electrode are regarded as a promising concept combining high power density with high energy density. In this work Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite has been synthesized and applied as negative electrode in an electrochemical energy storage device being a serial internal hybrid of an alkaline battery and an electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC). Beneficial effect of graphene on the performance of magnetite electrode has been evidenced by means of cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Unlike in a vast majority of reports, magnetite capacitances have been determined in real electrochemical devices, against activated carbon as positive electrode. In three-electrode cells with activated carbon as the positive electrode magnetite has been found to exhibit from 65 to 83 F g-1 for the rGO content from 9.7 to 27.8 %. The maximum voltage of a capacitor with Fe3O4/rGO negative electrode has been established as 1.0 V, which is higher than typical value of 0.8 V known for the symmetrical carbon-based capacitors.

  7. Enhancing charge-storage capacity of non-volatile memory devices using template-directed assembly of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Raju Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Sivashankar; Kusuma, Damar Yoga; Lee, Pooi See; Srinivasan, M P

    2012-04-07

    We demonstrate the controlled fabrication of aggregates of gold nanoparticles as a means of enhancing the charge-storage capacity of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices by up to 300% at a low biasing voltage of ±4 V. Aggregates of citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles were obtained by directed electrostatic self-assembly onto an underlying nanopattern of positively charged centers. The underlying nanopatterns consist of amine functionalized gold nanoparticle arrays formed using amphiphilic diblock copolymer reverse micelles as templates. The hierarchical self-organization leads to a twelve-fold increase in the number density of the gold nanoparticles and therefore significantly increases the charge storage centers for the MIS device. The MIS structure showed counterclockwise C-V hysteresis curves indicating a good memory effect. A memory window of 1 V was obtained at a low biasing voltage of ±4 V. Furthermore, C-t measurements conducted after applying a charging bias of 4 V showed that the charge was retained beyond 20,000 s. The proposed strategy can be readily adapted for fabricating next generation solution processible non-volatile memory devices.

  8. Encapsulated, High-Performance, Stretchable Array of Stacked Planar Micro-Supercapacitors as Waterproof Wearable Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoungjun; Yoon, Jangyeol; Lee, Geumbee; Paik, Seung-Ho; Choi, Gukgwon; Kim, Daeil; Kim, Beop-Min; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-06-29

    We report the fabrication of an encapsulated, high-performance, stretchable array of stacked planar micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) as a wearable energy storage device for waterproof applications. A pair of planar all-solid-state MSCs with spray-coated multiwalled carbon nanotube electrodes and a drop-cast UV-patternable ion-gel electrolyte was fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate film using serial connection to increase the operation voltage of the MSC. Additionally, multiple MSCs could be vertically stacked with parallel connections to increase both the total capacitance and the areal capacitance owing to the use of a solid-state patterned electrolyte. The overall device of five parallel-connected stacked MSCs, a microlight-emitting diode (μ-LED), and a switch was encapsulated in thin Ecoflex film so that the capacitance remained at 82% of its initial value even after 4 d in water; the μ-LED was lit without noticeable decrease in brightness under deformation including bending and stretching. Furthermore, an Ecoflex encapsulated oximeter wound around a finger was operated using the stored energy of the MSC array attached to the hand (even in water) to give information on arterial pulse rate and oxygen saturation in the blood. This study suggests potential applications of our encapsulated MSC array in wearable energy storage devices especially in water.

  9. Floating volumetric image formation using a dihedral corner reflector array device.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Hirano, Noboru; Maeda, Yuki; Yamamoto, Siori; Mukai, Takaaki; Maekawa, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    A volumetric display system using an optical imaging device consisting of numerous dihedral corner reflectors placed perpendicular to the surface of a metal plate is proposed. Image formation by the dihedral corner reflector array (DCRA) is free from distortion and focal length. In the proposed volumetric display system, a two-dimensional real image is moved by a mirror scanner to scan a three-dimensional (3D) space. Cross-sectional images of a 3D object are displayed in accordance with the position of the image plane. A volumetric image is observed as a stack of the cross-sectional images. The use of the DCRA brings compact system configuration and volumetric real image generation with very low distortion. An experimental volumetric display system including a DCRA, a galvanometer mirror, and a digital micro-mirror device was constructed to verify the proposed method. A volumetric image consisting of 1024×768×400 voxels was formed by the experimental system.

  10. Integral Images: Efficient Algorithms for Their Computation and Storage in Resource-Constrained Embedded Vision Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ehsan, Shoaib; Clark, Adrian F.; ur Rehman, Naveed; McDonald-Maier, Klaus D.

    2015-01-01

    The integral image, an intermediate image representation, has found extensive use in multi-scale local feature detection algorithms, such as Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF), allowing fast computation of rectangular features at constant speed, independent of filter size. For resource-constrained real-time embedded vision systems, computation and storage of integral image presents several design challenges due to strict timing and hardware limitations. Although calculation of the integral image only consists of simple addition operations, the total number of operations is large owing to the generally large size of image data. Recursive equations allow substantial decrease in the number of operations but require calculation in a serial fashion. This paper presents two new hardware algorithms that are based on the decomposition of these recursive equations, allowing calculation of up to four integral image values in a row-parallel way without significantly increasing the number of operations. An efficient design strategy is also proposed for a parallel integral image computation unit to reduce the size of the required internal memory (nearly 35% for common HD video). Addressing the storage problem of integral image in embedded vision systems, the paper presents two algorithms which allow substantial decrease (at least 44.44%) in the memory requirements. Finally, the paper provides a case study that highlights the utility of the proposed architectures in embedded vision systems. PMID:26184211

  11. Integral Images: Efficient Algorithms for Their Computation and Storage in Resource-Constrained Embedded Vision Systems.

    PubMed

    Ehsan, Shoaib; Clark, Adrian F; Naveed ur Rehman; McDonald-Maier, Klaus D

    2015-07-10

    The integral image, an intermediate image representation, has found extensive use in multi-scale local feature detection algorithms, such as Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF), allowing fast computation of rectangular features at constant speed, independent of filter size. For resource-constrained real-time embedded vision systems, computation and storage of integral image presents several design challenges due to strict timing and hardware limitations. Although calculation of the integral image only consists of simple addition operations, the total number of operations is large owing to the generally large size of image data. Recursive equations allow substantial decrease in the number of operations but require calculation in a serial fashion. This paper presents two new hardware algorithms that are based on the decomposition of these recursive equations, allowing calculation of up to four integral image values in a row-parallel way without significantly increasing the number of operations. An efficient design strategy is also proposed for a parallel integral image computation unit to reduce the size of the required internal memory (nearly 35% for common HD video). Addressing the storage problem of integral image in embedded vision systems, the paper presents two algorithms which allow substantial decrease (at least 44.44%) in the memory requirements. Finally, the paper provides a case study that highlights the utility of the proposed architectures in embedded vision systems.

  12. Nanocomposites for ultra high density information storage, devices including the same, and methods of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

    2014-04-01

    A nanocomposite article that includes a single-crystal or single-crystal-like substrate and heteroepitaxial, phase-separated layer supported by a surface of the substrate and a method of making the same are described. The heteroepitaxial layer can include a continuous, non-magnetic, crystalline, matrix phase, and an ordered, magnetic magnetic phase disposed within the matrix phase. The ordered magnetic phase can include a plurality of self-assembled crystalline nanostructures of a magnetic material. The phase-separated layer and the single crystal substrate can be separated by a buffer layer. An electronic storage device that includes a read-write head and a nanocomposite article with a data storage density of 0.75 Tb/in.sup.2 is also described.

  13. Oxidation of graphene ‘bow tie’ nanofuses for permanent, write-once-read-many data storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, A. C.; Jamieson, S.; Linford, M. R.; Lunt, B. M.; Davis, R. C.

    2013-04-01

    We have fabricated nanoscale fuses from CVD graphene sheets with a ‘bow tie’ geometry for write-once-read-many data storage applications. The fuses are programmed using thermal oxidation driven by Joule heating. Fuses that were 250 nm wide with 2.5 μm between contact pads were programmed with average voltages and powers of 4.9 V and 2.1 mW, respectively. The required voltages and powers decrease with decreasing fuse sizes. Graphene shows extreme chemical and electronic stability; fuses require temperatures of about 400 °C for oxidation, indicating that they are excellent candidates for permanent data storage. To further demonstrate this stability, fuses were subjected to applied biases in excess of typical read voltages; stable currents were observed when a voltage of 10 V was applied to the devices in the off state and 1 V in the on state for 90 h each.

  14. Processing Satellite Images on Tertiary Storage: A Study of the Impact of Tile Size on Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, JieBing; DeWitt, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Before raw data from a satellite can be used by an Earth scientist, it must first undergo a number of processing steps including basic processing, cleansing, and geo-registration. Processing actually expands the volume of data collected by a factor of 2 or 3 and the original data is never deleted. Thus processing and storage requirements can exceed 2 terrabytes/day. Once processed data is ready for analysis, a series of algorithms (typically developed by the Earth scientists) is applied to a large number of images in a data set. The focus of this paper is how best to handle such images stored on tape using the following assumptions: (1) all images of interest to a scientist are stored on a single tape, (2) images are accessed and processed in the order that they are stored on tape, and (3) the analysis requires access to only a portion of each image and not the entire image.

  15. Positron emission imaging device and method of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Philip R.; Mullens, James Allen

    2013-01-15

    An imaging system and method of imaging are disclosed. The imaging system can include an external radiation source producing pairs of substantially simultaneous radiation emissions of a picturization emission and a verification emissions at an emission angle. The imaging system can also include a plurality of picturization sensors and at least one verification sensor for detecting the picturization and verification emissions, respectively. The imaging system also includes an object stage is arranged such that a picturization emission can pass through an object supported on said object stage before being detected by one of said plurality of picturization sensors. A coincidence system and a reconstruction system can also be included. The coincidence can receive information from the picturization and verification sensors and determine whether a detected picturization emission is direct radiation or scattered radiation. The reconstruction system can produce a multi-dimensional representation of an object imaged with the imaging system.

  16. PCIE interface design for high-speed image storage system based on SSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiming

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes and implements a standard interface of miniaturized high-speed image storage system, which combines PowerPC with FPGA and utilizes PCIE bus as the high speed switching channel. Attached to the PowerPC, mSATA interface SSD(Solid State Drive) realizes RAID3 array storage. At the same time, a high-speed real-time image compression patent IP core also can be embedded in FPGA, which is in the leading domestic level with compression rate and image quality, making that the system can record higher image data rate or achieve longer recording time. The notebook memory card buckle type design is used in the mSATA interface SSD, which make it possible to complete the replacement in 5 seconds just using single hand, thus the total length of repeated recordings is increased. MSI (Message Signaled Interrupts) interruption guarantees the stability and reliability of continuous DMA transmission. Furthermore, only through the gigabit network, the remote display, control and upload to backup function can be realized. According to an optional 25 frame/s or 30 frame/s, upload speeds can be up to more than 84 MB/s. Compared with the existing FLASH array high-speed memory systems, it has higher degree of modularity, better stability and higher efficiency on development, maintenance and upgrading. Its data access rate is up to 300MB/s, realizing the high speed image storage system miniaturization, standardization and modularization, thus it is fit for image acquisition, storage and real-time transmission to server on mobile equipment.

  17. Using multileaf collimator interleaf leakage to extract absolute spatial information from electronic portal imaging device images.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhanrong; Szanto, Janos; Gerig, Lee

    2005-12-15

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are potentially valuable tools for linear accelerator quality assurance and for measuring and analyzing geometric variations in radiation treatment delivery. Geometric analysis is more robust if referenced against an absolute position such as the isocenter (collimator axis of rotation), allowing the observer to discriminate between various setup errors and jaw or multileaf collimator (MLC) calibration errors. Unfortunately, mechanical instabilities in EPIDs make such analysis difficult. In the present work, we describe how MLC interleaf radiation leakage, hidden in the background of portal images, can be extracted and analyzed to find the field isocenter perpendicular to leaf travel direction. The signal from the interleaf radiation leakage is extracted to provide a precise and accurate determination of the isocenter location in the direction perpendicular to MLC leaf travel. In the direction of leaf travel, the minimization of residuals between planned and measured leaf positions is used to determine the isocenter. This method assumes that leaf positioning errors are randomly distributed. The validity of the method for determining the angular deviation between EPID image grid lines and collimator angle and for determining the known isocenter position is experimentally established.

  18. A novel concept for long-term pre-storage and release of liquids for pressure-driven lab-on-a-chip devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czurratis, D.; Beyl, Y.; Zinober, S.; Lärmer, F.; Zengerle, R.

    2015-04-01

    On-chip storage of liquids is one of the major challenges of polymer-based lab-on-a-chip (LoC) devices. To ensure long-term storage of even highly volatile reagents in polymer disposal LoC cartridges, robust reagent storage concepts are necessary. Tubular bags, so-called stick packs, are widely used in the packaging industry. They offer sufficient vapor barrier properties for liquid storage. Here we present a polymer multilayer LoC-stack with integrated stick packs for the long-term storage of liquid reagents required for diagnostic applications. The storage concept fulfils two main requirements: firstly, the long-term storage of reagents in stick packs without significant losses or interaction with the surroundings and secondly, the on-demand release of liquids, which is realized by the delamination of a stick pack’s peel seam through pneumatic pressure. Furthermore, effects on the opening behavior of stick packs through accelerated aging were investigated after different storage conditions to proof repeatability. This concept enables on-chip storage of liquid reagents at room temperature and allows the implementation in different pressure driven LoC devices or similar applications. Since liquid storage in stick packs is well-established, emerging fields such as lab-on-a-chip combined with novel reagent release mechanisms should be of great interest for the commercialization of life science products.

  19. The impact of image storage organization on the effectiveness of PACS.

    PubMed

    Hindel, R

    1990-11-01

    Picture archiving communication system (PACS) requires efficient handling of large amounts of data. Mass storage systems are cost effective but slow, while very fast systems, like frame buffers and parallel transfer disks, are expensive. The image traffic can be divided into inbound traffic generated by diagnostic modalities and outbound traffic into workstations. At the contact points with medical professionals, the responses must be fast. Archiving, on the other hand, can employ slower but less expensive storage systems, provided that the primary activities are not impeded. This article illustrates a segmentation architecture meeting these requirements based on a clearly defined PACS concept.

  20. Cosmic Ray Muon Imaging of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J. Matthew; Guardincerri, Elena; Morris, Christopher L.; Poulson, Daniel; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Chichester, David; Fabritius, Joseph; Fellows, Shelby; Plaud-Ramos, Kenie Omar; Morley, Deborah Jean; Winston, Philip

    2016-04-29

    In this paper, cosmic ray muon radiography has been used to identify the absence of spent nuclear fuel bundles inside a sealed dry storage cask. The large amounts of shielding that dry storage casks use to contain radiation from the highly radioactive contents impedes typical imaging methods, but the penetrating nature of cosmic ray muons allows them to be used as an effective radiographic probe. This technique was able to successfully identify missing fuel bundles inside a sealed Westinghouse MC-10 cask. This method of fuel cask verification may prove useful for international nuclear safeguards inspectors. Finally, muon radiography may find other safety and security or safeguards applications, such as arms control verification.

  1. Storage of an electric field for photocurrent generation in ferroelectric-functionalized organic devices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Laigui; Dalgleish, Simon; Matsushita, Michio M; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Awaga, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    Organic optoelectronic devices are usually driven by the electric field generated from an electrode potential difference or bias voltage. Although poled ferroelectric domains may produce oriented stray fields, few efforts have been made to utilize them for photocurrent generation in organic devices. Here we show that large net fields caused by incomplete screening during ferroelectric polarization, and which can be 'restored' by short voltage pulses, can facilitate exciton dissociation in organic semiconductors. The oriented fields, comparable with that produced by an electrode potential difference (1~10 MV m(-1)), here are found to be responsible for the photocurrent in our devices. A prototype for an organic photodetector driven by such stray fields is demonstrated. The photoresponsivity, without any optimization, can achieve ~0.1 mA W(-1). This study provides a different operation principle for the generation of photocurrent in organic optoelectronic devices. Furthermore, the polarity-tunable photoresponse may lead to new photoresponsive memory devices.

  2. A comparison of the conductor requirements for energy storage devices made with ideal coil geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Hassenzahl, W.

    1988-08-01

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) plants have been proposed in both solenoidal and toroidal geometries. The former is efficient in terms of the quantity of superconductor required per unit of stored energy. For applications where a fringe field could be a problem, the toroidal geometry, which requires at least a factor of two more material, has been proposed. In addition to the solenoid and toroid, other geometries are possible, such as linear multipoles and spherical coils. These geometries have been considered for use in applications other than energy storage. In this report, the effectiveness (quantity of superconductor/stored energy) is calculated for various coil geometries. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Signal Normalization Reduces Image Appearance Disparity Among Multiple Optical Coherence Tomography Devices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A.; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of the previously reported optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal normalization method on reducing the discrepancies in image appearance among spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) devices. Methods Healthy eyes and eyes with various retinal pathologies were scanned at the macular region using similar volumetric scan patterns with at least two out of three SD-OCT devices at the same visit (Cirrus HD-OCT, Zeiss, Dublin, CA; RTVue, Optovue, Fremont, CA; and Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). All the images were processed with the signal normalization. A set of images formed a questionnaire with 24 pairs of cross-sectional images from each eye with any combination of the three SD-OCT devices either both pre- or postsignal normalization. Observers were asked to evaluate the similarity of the two displayed images based on the image appearance. The effects on reducing the differences in image appearance before and after processing were analyzed. Results Twenty-nine researchers familiar with OCT images participated in the survey. Image similarity was significantly improved after signal normalization for all three combinations (P ≤ 0.009) as Cirrus and RTVue combination became the most similar pair, followed by Cirrus and Spectralis, and RTVue and Spectralis. Conclusions The signal normalization successfully minimized the disparities in the image appearance among multiple SD-OCT devices, allowing clinical interpretation and comparison of OCT images regardless of the device differences. Translational Relevance The signal normalization would enable direct OCT images comparisons without concerning about device differences and broaden OCT usage by enabling long-term follow-ups and data sharing. PMID:28275528

  4. Scalable processes for fabricating non-volatile memory devices using self-assembled 2D arrays of gold nanoparticles as charge storage nodes.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Girish; Bhat, Navakanta; Santhanam, Venugopal

    2011-11-01

    We propose robust and scalable processes for the fabrication of floating gate devices using ordered arrays of 7 nm size gold nanoparticles as charge storage nodes. The proposed strategy can be readily adapted for fabricating next generation (sub-20 nm node) non-volatile memory devices.

  5. Novel planar-structure electrochemical devices for highly flexible semitransparent power generation/storage sources.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Wei; Dong, Hui; Xu, Dongsheng; Zou, Guijin; Duan, Huiling; Yu, Dapeng

    2013-03-13

    Flexible and transparent power sources are highly desirable in realizing next-generation all-in-one bendable, implantable, and wearable electronic systems. The developed power sources are either flexible but opaque or semitransparent but lack of flexibility. Therefore, there is increasing recognition of the need for a new concept of electrochemical device structure design that allows both high flexibility and transparency. In this paper, we present a new concept for electrochemical device design--a two-dimensional planar comb-teeth architecture on PET substrate--to achieve both high mechanical flexibility and light transparency. Two types of prototypes--dye-sensitized solar cells and supercapacitors--have been fabricated as planar devices and demonstrated excellent device performance, such as good light transparency, excellent flexibility, outstanding multiple large bending tolerance, light weight, effective prevention of short circuits during bending, and high device integration with up-date microelectronics, compared to conventional sandwich structure devices. Our planar design provides an attractive strategy toward the development of flexible, semitransparent electrochemical devices for fully all-in-one elegant and wearable energy management.

  6. Raman Imaging in Semiconductor Physics: Applications to Microelectronic Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberj, Antoine; Camassel, Jean

    The unique versatility of micro-Raman spectroscopy (\\upmu RS) in semiconductor physics remains in Raman imaging. Numerous applications cover the whole development of modern electronic and optoelectronic devices: from semiconductor growth to advanced device inspection tools. In this chapter, a wide variety of semiconductors (SiC, graphene, GaN, GaAs, SiGe, strained Si, sSOI, SGOI) and devices (FETs, lasers, MEMS) are addressed. First, it will be shown how Raman mapping enables to check the crystalline quality, the composition, the doping, and the uniformity of as-grown semiconductors. Then, we will focus on the most popular application in microelectronics: strain measurements either at the device or at the full wafer scale. Finally, we will show how \\upmu RS imaging can be used for final device inspection through the temperature mapping of operating devices (FETs, lasers, actuators).

  7. 75 FR 38118 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Associated Software; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution... processing systems, components thereof, and associated software by reason of infringement of certain claims... certain electronic devices with image processing systems, components thereof, and associated software...

  8. 76 FR 73677 - Investigations: Terminations, Modifications and Rulings: Certain Electronic Devices With Image...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Investigations: Terminations, Modifications and Rulings: Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and Associated Software AGENCY: U.S. International Trade...

  9. Rewritable multicolor fluorescent patterns for multistate memory devices with high data storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhisong; Liu, Yingshuai; Hu, Weihua; Lou, Xiong Wen David; Li, Chang Ming

    2011-09-14

    We report a branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI)-quantum dot (QD) based rewritable fluorescent system with a multicolor recording mode, in which BPEI is both QD-multicolor patterning "writer" and data erasing "remover". This method could write distinct colors from size-tailored QDs to represent large numbers of logic states for high data storage capacity.

  10. Formate: an Energy Storage and Transport Bridge between Carbon Dioxide and a Formate Fuel Cell in a Single Device.

    PubMed

    Vo, Tracy; Purohit, Krutarth; Nguyen, Christopher; Biggs, Brenna; Mayoral, Salvador; Haan, John L

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the first device to our knowledge that uses a solar panel to power the electrochemical reduction of dissolved carbon dioxide (carbonate) into formate that is then used in the same device to operate a direct formate fuel cell (DFFC). The electrochemical reduction of carbonate is carried out on a Sn electrode in a reservoir that maintains a constant carbon balance between carbonate and formate. The electron-rich formate species is converted by the DFFC into electrical energy through electron release. The product of DFFC operation is the electron-deficient carbonate species that diffuses back to the reservoir bulk. It is possible to continuously charge the device using alternative energy (e.g., solar) to convert carbonate to formate for on-demand use in the DFFC; the intermittent nature of alternative energy makes this an attractive design. In this work, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept device that performs reduction of carbonate, storage of formate, and operation of a DFFC.

  11. Method and apparatus for in-situ characterization of energy storage and energy conversion devices

    DOEpatents

    Christophersen, Jon P [Idaho Falls, ID; Motloch, Chester G [Idaho Falls, ID; Morrison, John L [Butte, MT; Albrecht, Weston [Layton, UT

    2010-03-09

    Disclosed are methods and apparatuses for determining an impedance of an energy-output device using a random noise stimulus applied to the energy-output device. A random noise signal is generated and converted to a random noise stimulus as a current source correlated to the random noise signal. A bias-reduced response of the energy-output device to the random noise stimulus is generated by comparing a voltage at the energy-output device terminal to an average voltage signal. The random noise stimulus and bias-reduced response may be periodically sampled to generate a time-varying current stimulus and a time-varying voltage response, which may be correlated to generate an autocorrelated stimulus, an autocorrelated response, and a cross-correlated response. Finally, the autocorrelated stimulus, the autocorrelated response, and the cross-correlated response may be combined to determine at least one of impedance amplitude, impedance phase, and complex impedance.

  12. Automatic image cracks detection and removal on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, V.; Marchuk, V.; Sizyakin, R.; Gapon, N.; Pismenskova, M.; Tokareva, S.

    2016-05-01

    Some of old photographs are damaged due to improper archiving (e.g. affected by direct sunlight, humidity, insects, etc.) or have a physical damage resulting on appearance of cracks, scratches on photographs, non-necessary signs, spots, dust, and so on. This paper focuses on detection and removal of cracks from digital images. The proposed method consists of the following steps: pre-processing, crack detection and image reconstruction. A pre-processing step is used to suppress a noise and small defects in images. For a crack identification we use modified local binary patterns to form a feature vectors, and a non-linear SVM for a crack recognition. The combined inpainting method using structure and texture restoration is applied at the image reconstruction step. Image inpainting is the process of restoring the lost or damaged regions or modifying the image contents imperceptibly. This technique detects and removes the horizontal, vertical, diagonal cracks and other defects on complex scenes of image. We implemented proposed method on some mobile platforms for automatic image enhancement. Presented examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm in cracks detection and removal.

  13. Evaluation of Night Vision Devices for Image Fusion Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    of the different NVDs. A new method using MATLAB programming to objectively analyze digitized images for characterization of II based NVDs is... MATLAB programming to objectively analyze digitized images for characterization of II based NVDs is proposed. This test method can also be extended to...75 APPENDIX A: ASTROSCOPE 9350 ANALYSIS RESULTS.......................... 77 APPENDIX B: MATLAB CODES

  14. [The imaging principles and the structure of the low-dose digital radiographic device].

    PubMed

    Kang, Q Z; Yu, H L; Zhang, H; Zhang, D S; Cao, H D

    2001-03-01

    This article introduced A new type of X-ray radiographic device, which uses MWPC as the low-dose detector with the machinery and computer to reconstruct the X-ray digital images. In this paper, the advantages and the disadvantages of the device are analysed, thus much improvement has been made to make it better and more efficient.

  15. Development of fluorescence based handheld imaging devices for food safety inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoyoung; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chan, Diane E.

    2013-05-01

    For sanitation inspection in food processing environment, fluorescence imaging can be a very useful method because many organic materials reveal unique fluorescence emissions when excited by UV or violet radiation. Although some fluorescence-based automated inspection instrumentation has been developed for food products, there remains a need for devices that can assist on-site inspectors performing visual sanitation inspection of the surfaces of food processing/handling equipment. This paper reports the development of an inexpensive handheld imaging device designed to visualize fluorescence emissions and intended to help detect the presence of fecal contaminants, organic residues, and bacterial biofilms at multispectral fluorescence emission bands. The device consists of a miniature camera, multispectral (interference) filters, and high power LED illumination. With WiFi communication, live inspection images from the device can be displayed on smartphone or tablet devices. This imaging device could be a useful tool for assessing the effectiveness of sanitation procedures and for helping processors to minimize food safety risks or determine potential problem areas. This paper presents the design and development including evaluation and optimization of the hardware components of the imaging devices.

  16. Nanohole-array-based device for 2D snapshot multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Vasefi, Fartash; Kaminska, Bozena; Carson, Jeffrey J L

    2013-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional (2D) snapshot multispectral imager that utilizes the optical transmission characteristics of nanohole arrays (NHAs) in a gold film to resolve a mixture of input colors into multiple spectral bands. The multispectral device consists of blocks of NHAs, wherein each NHA has a unique periodicity that results in transmission resonances and minima in the visible and near-infrared regions. The multispectral device was illuminated over a wide spectral range, and the transmission was spectrally unmixed using a least-squares estimation algorithm. A NHA-based multispectral imaging system was built and tested in both reflection and transmission modes. The NHA-based multispectral imager was capable of extracting 2D multispectral images representative of four independent bands within the spectral range of 662 nm to 832 nm for a variety of targets. The multispectral device can potentially be integrated into a variety of imaging sensor systems.

  17. Using Object Storage Technology vs Vendor Neutral Archives for an Image Data Repository Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Bialecki, Brian; Park, James; Tilkin, Mike

    2016-08-01

    The intent of this project was to use object storage and its database, which has the ability to add custom extensible metadata to an imaging object being stored within the system, to harness the power of its search capabilities, and to close the technology gap that healthcare faces. This creates a non-disruptive tool that can be used natively by both legacy systems and the healthcare systems of today which leverage more advanced storage technologies. The base infrastructure can be populated alongside current workflows without any interruption to the delivery of services. In certain use cases, this technology can be seen as a true alternative to the VNA (Vendor Neutral Archive) systems implemented by healthcare today. The scalability, security, and ability to process complex objects makes this more than just storage for image data and a commodity to be consumed by PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) and workstations. Object storage is a smart technology that can be leveraged to create vendor independence, standards compliance, and a data repository that can be mined for truly relevant content by adding additional context to search capabilities. This functionality can lead to efficiencies in workflow and a wealth of minable data to improve outcomes into the future.

  18. Differential optical spectropolarimetric imaging system assisted by liquid crystal devices for skin imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharon, Ofir; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim; Arnon, Ofer; Rosenberg, Lior; Dyomin, Victor; Silberstein, Eldad

    2011-08-01

    Skin cancer diagnosis depends not only on histopathological examination but also on visual inspection before and after the excision of suspected lesion. Neoplasm is accompanied with changes in birefringence of collagen, pleomorphicity, and hyperchromatic state of epithelial nuclei. These phenomena can be measured by spectral and polarization changes of light backscattered by the examined tissue. A new differential spectropolarimetric system is proposed using liquid crystal devices, one as a tunable filter and the other as a polarization rotator, both operating at wide spectral ranges from the visible to the near-infrared. Since collagen's fibrils texture orientation depends on its location in the skin and since it is not well organized, our system scans the bipolarization states by continuously rotating the linearly polarized light incident on a skin lesion, and collecting differential contrasts between sequenced images when simultaneously averaging the statistical readout of a video camera. This noninvasive method emphasizes areas on skin where the neoplasm, or tumor, minimizes the statistical polarization change of the scattered light from the lesion. The module can be considered as an assistant tool for epiluminescence microscopy. Images of skin tumors were captured in vivo before the patients having their surgery and compared to histopathological results.

  19. Integrated system for image storage, retrieval, and transmission using wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Yawen; Mu, Ray Y.; Yang, Shi-Qiang

    1998-12-01

    Currently, much work has been done in the area of image storage and retrieval. However, the overall performance has been far from practical. A highly integrated wavelet-based image management system is proposed in this paper. By integrating wavelet-based solutions for image compression and decompression, content-based retrieval and progressive transmission, much higher performance can be achieved. The multiresolution nature of the wavelet transform has been proven to be a powerful tool to represent images. The wavelet transform decomposes the image into a set of subimages with different resolutions. From here three solutions for key aspects of image management are reached. The content-based image retrieval (CBIR) features of our system include the color, contour, texture, sample, keyword and topic information of images. The first four features can be naturally extracted from the wavelet transform coefficients. By scoring the similarity of users' requests with images in the database, those who have higher scores are noted and the user receives feedback. Image compression and decompression. Assuming that details at high resolution and diagonal directions are less visible to the human eye, a good compression ratio can be achieved. In each subimage, the wavelet coefficients are vector quantized (VQ), using the LGB algorithm, which is improved in our approach to accelerate the process. Higher compression ratio can be achieved with DPCM and entropy coding method applied together. With YIQ representation, color images can also be effectively compressed. There is a very low load on the network bandwidth by transmitting compressed image data across the network. Progressive transmission is possible by employment of the multiresolution nature of the wavelet, which makes the system respond faster and the user-interface more friendly. The system shows a high overall performance by exploring the excellent features of wavelet, and integrating key aspects of image management. An

  20. Ion-implanted PLZT ceramics - A new high-sensitivity image storage medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peercy, P. S.; Land, C. E.

    1981-06-01

    Studies of photoferroelectric (PFE) image storage in H, He, and Ar, and more recently, Ar + Ne implanted PLZT reveal that the photosensitivity can be significantly increased by ion implantation into the image storage surface. For example, the photosensitivity after coimplantation of Ar + Ne is increased by about four orders of magnitude over that of unimplanted PLZT. The increase in photosensitivity is controlled by implantation-produced disorder which results in marked decreases in dark conductivity and dielectric constant and changes in the effective photoconductivity of the implanted layer. In this paper the effects of Ar and Ar + Ne implantation are presented along with a phenomenological model which describes the photosensitivity enhancement obtained by ion implantation.

  1. Method and apparatus for imaging a sample on a device

    DOEpatents

    Trulson, Mark; Stern, David; Fiekowsky, Peter; Rava, Richard; Walton, Ian; Fodor, Stephen P. A.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and systems for detecting a labeled marker on a sample located on a support. The imaging system comprises a body for immobilizing the support, an excitation radiation source and excitation optics to generate and direct the excitation radiation at the sample. In response, labeled material on the sample emits radiation which has a wavelength that is different from the excitation wavelength, which radiation is collected by collection optics and imaged onto a detector which generates an image of the sample.

  2. The role of nanomaterials in redox-based supercapacitors for next generation energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Sánchez, Beatriz Mendoza; Dobson, Peter J; Grant, Patrick S

    2011-03-01

    The development of more efficient electrical storage is a pressing requirement to meet future societal and environmental needs. This demand for more sustainable, efficient energy storage has provoked a renewed scientific and commercial interest in advanced capacitor designs in which the suite of experimental techniques and ideas that comprise nanotechnology are playing a critical role. Capacitors can be charged and discharged quickly and are one of the primary building blocks of many types of electrical circuit, from microprocessors to large-sale power supplies, but usually have relatively low energy storage capability when compared with batteries. The application of nanostructured materials with bespoke morphologies and properties to electrochemical supercapacitors is being intensively studied in order to provide enhanced energy density without comprising their inherent high power density and excellent cyclability. In particular, electrode materials that exploit physical adsorption or redox reactions of electrolyte ions are foreseen to bridge the performance disparity between batteries with high energy density and capacitors with high power density. In this review, we present some of the novel nanomaterial systems applied for electrochemical supercapacitors and show how material morphology, chemistry and physical properties are being tailored to provide enhanced electrochemical supercapacitor performance.

  3. The role of nanomaterials in redox-based supercapacitors for next generation energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Sánchez, Beatriz Mendoza; Dobson, Peter J.; Grant, Patrick S.

    2011-03-01

    The development of more efficient electrical storage is a pressing requirement to meet future societal and environmental needs. This demand for more sustainable, efficient energy storage has provoked a renewed scientific and commercial interest in advanced capacitor designs in which the suite of experimental techniques and ideas that comprise nanotechnology are playing a critical role. Capacitors can be charged and discharged quickly and are one of the primary building blocks of many types of electrical circuit, from microprocessors to large-sale power supplies, but usually have relatively low energy storage capability when compared with batteries. The application of nanostructured materials with bespoke morphologies and properties to electrochemical supercapacitors is being intensively studied in order to provide enhanced energy density without comprising their inherent high power density and excellent cyclability. In particular, electrode materials that exploit physical adsorption or redox reactions of electrolyte ions are foreseen to bridge the performance disparity between batteries with high energy density and capacitors with high power density. In this review, we present some of the novel nanomaterial systems applied for electrochemical supercapacitors and show how material morphology, chemistry and physical properties are being tailored to provide enhanced electrochemical supercapacitor performance.

  4. Effect of long-term storage on sterile status of devices in surgical packs.

    PubMed

    Klapes, N A; Greene, V W; Langholz, A C; Hunstiger, C

    1987-07-01

    We investigated the effect of the following on the sterile integrity of surgical packs: four wrapping materials (two-ply reusable, nonbarrier wovens, both new and previously used; disposable, barrier nonwovens; and polypropylene peel pouches), dustcovers, two storage locations, and storage times ranging from 2 to 50 weeks. Two hundred sixty-three packs containing stainless steel coupons were prepared, wrapped, sterilized, and stored. Half of the packs were dustcovered prior to storage. At monthly intervals for a year, packs of each type were opened in a laminar flow hood, and the coupons inoculated into trypticase soy broth. The coupon contamination probabilities were 0.019 for reusable, woven packs; 0.017 for disposable, nonwoven packs; and 0.016 for peel pouches. These differences were not significant. The probability of finding a contaminated coupon in any pack after 50 weeks was 0.018. No trend toward increased probability of contamination over time was observed for any of the pack types studied.

  5. A design handbook for phase change thermal control and energy storage devices. [selected paraffins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.; Griggs, E. I.

    1977-01-01

    Comprehensive survey is given of the thermal aspects of phase change material devices. Fundamental mechanisms of heat transfer within the phase change device are discussed. Performance in zero-g and one-g fields are examined as it relates to such a device. Computer models for phase change materials, with metal fillers, undergoing conductive and convective processes are detailed. Using these models, extensive parametric data are presented for a hypothetical configuration with a rectangular phase change housing, using straight fins as the filler, and paraffin as the phase change material. These data are generated over a range of realistic sizes, material properties, and thermal boundary conditions. A number of illustrative examples are given to demonstrate use of the parametric data. Also, a complete listing of phase change material property data are reproduced herein as an aid to the reader.

  6. Verifying nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storages on a partial defect level: A software simulation tool for evaluating the capabilities of the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grape, Sophie; Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan; Lindberg, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is an instrument that records the Cherenkov light emitted from irradiated nuclear fuels in wet storages. The presence, intensity and pattern of the Cherenkov light can be used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors to verify that the fuel properties comply with declarations. The DCVD is since several years approved by the IAEA for gross defect verification, i.e. to control whether an item in a storage pool is a nuclear fuel assembly or a non-fuel item [1]. Recently, it has also been endorsed as a tool for partial defect verification, i.e. to identify if a fraction of the fuel rods in an assembly have been removed or replaced. The latter recognition was based on investigations of experimental studies on authentic fuel assemblies and of simulation studies on hypothetic cases of partial defects [2]. This paper describes the simulation methodology and software which was used in the partial defect capability evaluations. The developed simulation procedure uses three stand-alone software packages: the ORIGEN-ARP code [3] used to obtain the gamma-ray spectrum from the fission products in the fuel, the Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4 [4] for simulating the gamma-ray transport in and around the fuel and the emission of Cherenkov light, and the ray-tracing programme Zemax [5] used to model the light transport through the assembly geometry to the DCVD and to mimic the behaviour of its lens system. Furthermore, the software allows for detailed information from the plant operator on power and/or burnup distributions to be taken into account to enhance the authenticity of the simulated images. To demonstrate the results of the combined software packages, simulated and measured DCVD images are presented. A short discussion on the usefulness of the simulation tool is also included.

  7. Diffused Matrix Format: a new storage and processing format for airborne hyperspectral sensor images.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Pablo; Cristo, Alejandro; Koch, Magaly; Pérez, Rosa Ma; Schmid, Thomas; Hernández, Luz M

    2010-01-01

    At present, hyperspectral images are mainly obtained with airborne sensors that are subject to turbulences while the spectrometer is acquiring the data. Therefore, geometric corrections are required to produce spatially correct images for visual interpretation and change detection analysis. This paper analyzes the data acquisition process of airborne sensors. The main objective is to propose a new data format called Diffused Matrix Format (DMF) adapted to the sensor's characteristics including its spectral and spatial information. The second objective is to compare the accuracy of the quantitative maps derived by using the DMF data structure with those obtained from raster images based on traditional data structures. Results show that DMF processing is more accurate and straightforward than conventional image processing of remotely sensed data with the advantage that the DMF file structure requires less storage space than other data formats. In addition the data processing time does not increase when DMF is used.

  8. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes: A feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turpening, R.; Zhu, Z.; Caravana, C.; Matarese, J.; Turpening, W.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives for this underground storage tank (UST) imaging investigation are: (1) to assess the feasibility of using acoustic methods in UST wastes, if shown to be feasible, develop and assess imaging strategies; (2) to assess the validity of using chemical simulants for the development of acoustic methods and equipment. This investigation examined the velocity of surrogates, both salt cake and sludge surrogates. In addition collected seismic cross well data in a real tank (114-TX) on the Hanford Reservation. Lastly, drawing on the knowledge of the simulants and the estimates of the velocities of the waste in tank 114-TX the authors generated a hypothetical model of waste in a tank and showed that non-linear travel time tomographic imaging would faithfully image that stratigraphy.

  9. 77 FR 4059 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof; Receipt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... Images, and Components Thereof, DN 2869; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof; Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S....

  10. Compressive Optical Imaging Systems - Theory, Devices and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Pitsianis, J. R Guo, A. Portnoy, and M. Fiddy, "Compressive optical montage photography ," in SPIE: Photonic Devices and Algorithms for Computing VII, vol...Susstrunk, "Virtual sensor design," in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications V, vol. 5301, pp. 408...pp. 10-12, 1996. (57] D. Schroeder, Astronomical Optics. Academic Press, 1987. [58] S. S. Chen, D. L. Donoho, and M. A. Saunders, "Atomic

  11. Energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  12. The Effects of Towfish Motion on Sidescan Sonar Images: Extension to a Multiple-Beam Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    Towfish Motion on Sidescan Sonar Images: Extension to a Multiple -Beam Device Acceso NTIS CRA&I S.D. Anstee u; ,-, o* , J.* ttiicatorn By "By...THE EFFECTS OF TOWFISH MOTION ON SIDESCAN SONAR IMAGES: EXTENSION TO A MULTIPLE -BEAM DEVICE S, S.D. ANSTEE 6 2 9 Nm MRL-TN-660 FEBRUARY 1994 Al DTIC...previously used to estimate the geometrical effects oftowjish motion on single-beam sidescan sonar images is modified to simulate a multiple -beam

  13. Device for translating negative film image to a line scan

    DOEpatents

    Dutton, G.W.

    1998-05-19

    A negative film reader records high-resolution optical density changes across negative film radiographic images to allow precise image dimensions to be determined. A laser light source capable of high-resolution focusing is passed through an intensity control filter, focused by a lens, and reflected off a mirror to focus in the plane of the negative film. The light transmitted through the film is collected by a second lens and directed to a photo diode detector which senses the transmitted intensity. The output of the photo diode signal amplifier is sent to the Y-axis input of an X-Y recorder. The film sample is transported in a plane perpendicular to the beam axis by means of a slide. The film position is monitored, with the signal amplified and recorded as the X-axis on the X-Y recorder. The linear dimensions and positions of image components can be determined by direct measurement of the amplified recording.

  14. Method and apparatus for imaging a sample on a device

    DOEpatents

    Trulson, Mark; Stern, David; Fiekowsky, Peter; Rava, Richard; Walton, Ian; Fodor, Stephen P. A.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for imaging a sample are provided. An electromagnetic radiation source generates excitation radiation which is sized by excitation optics to a line. The line is directed at a sample resting on a support and excites a plurality of regions on the sample. Collection optics collect response radiation reflected from the sample I and image the reflected radiation. A detector senses the reflected radiation and is positioned to permit discrimination between radiation reflected from a certain focal plane in the sample and certain other planes within the sample.

  15. Highly absorbing gadolinium test device to characterize the performance of neutron imaging detector systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenzweig, C.; Frei, G.; Lehmann, E.; Kuehne, G.; David, C.

    2007-05-15

    We report on the fabrication and application of a novel neutron imaging test device made of gadolinium. It is designed for a real time evaluation of the spatial resolution, resolution direction, and distortions of a neutron imaging detector system. Measurements of the spatial resolution of {sup 6}LiF doped ZnS scintillator screens with different thicknesses and of imaging plates were performed. The obtained results are in good agreement with comparison measurements using the standard knife edge detection method.

  16. Raspberry Pi: a 35-dollar device for viewing DICOM images.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Omir Antunes; Moreira, Renata de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Raspberry Pi is a low-cost computer created with educational purposes. It uses Linux and, most of times, freeware applications, particularly a software for viewing DICOM images. With an external monitor, the supported resolution (1920 × 1200 pixels) allows for the set up of simple viewing workstations at a reduced cost.

  17. Optical Image Recognition Using Acoustooptic and Charge Coupled Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-05

    not the input image is sufficiently close to the stored reference . Recently much work has been done on the use of a Vander Lugt correlator to pattern ... classifiation 2]j3J. In this case, the correlator distinguishes whether the input is a member of one of two classes with each class being composed of

  18. Characterization of corrosion products on a copper-containing intrauterine device during storage at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Bastidas, J M; Simancas, J

    1997-02-01

    This paper studies the characterization of corrosion products formed on corroded and uncorroded copper-containing intrauterine devices stored at room temperature for a period of 30 months. The experimental techniques used were X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. The compounds found were cuprite (Cu2O) and tenorite (CuO). The latter was the main compound formed on corroded samples, forming thin tarnish films.

  19. Storage Reliability of Missile Materiel Program. Igniters and Safe and Arm Device Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    currenk is applied to the squibs which ignite the pyrogen motor. Hot gases from the pyrogen motor exhaust up the blast tube to the rocket motor...acts as a back- up in case of failure of the primary ignition spark plug. The hot gas igniter has a burn-time of 80 to 100 milliseconds. It consists of...Reliability The data collected todate indicates two separate character- istics effecting the reliability of igniters and safe and arm devices. The first

  20. PT-symmetric planar devices for field transformation and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valagiannopoulos, C. A.; Monticone, F.; Alù, A.

    2016-04-01

    The powerful tools of transformation optics (TO) allow an effective distortion of a region of space by carefully engineering the material inhomogeneity and anisotropy, and have been successfully applied in recent years to control electromagnetic fields in many different scenarios, e.g., to realize invisibility cloaks and planar lenses. For various field transformations, it is not necessary to use volumetric inhomogeneous materials, and suitably designed ultrathin metasurfaces with tailored spatial or spectral responses may be able to realize similar functionalities within smaller footprints and more robust mechanisms. Here, inspired by the concept of metamaterial TO lenses, we discuss field transformations enabled by parity-time (PT) symmetric metasurfaces, which can emulate negative refraction. We first analyze a simple realization based on homogeneous and local metasurfaces to achieve negative refraction and imaging, and we then extend our results to arbitrary PT-symmetric two-port networks to realize aberration-free planar imaging.

  1. Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) Imaging Device for Naval Special Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    247-4416 fax: (703) 528-4289 e-mail: blumeb@nichols.com Dayton Eden Intelligent Machine Technology ( IMT ) 2200 Regency Drive Irving, TX 75062...Station (CSS) while the second effort was conducted by Intelligent Machine Technology ( IMT ). The first effort was a feasibility assessment of PMMW sensors...approach to PMMW imaging. The second effort is being conducted by IMT because of their past experience in the sensor arena related to the development

  2. Characterization of low intensity X-ray imaging devices (Lixiscope)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    Radioisotopic sources were used to excite the LIXISCOPE in preliminary experimental attempts to evaluate the usefulness of this instrument for industrial and medical applications. The characteristics of the LIXISCOPE when excited by x-ray produced by conventional electrically powered x-ray generators were studied. The optimum x-ray spectrum was determined and the mode of operation of the generator, which yields satisfactory LIXISCOPE images of medical and industrial specimens was investigated.

  3. Graphene-polymer hybrid nanostructure-based bioenergy storage device for real-time control of biological motor activity.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyung-Eun; Choi, Dong Shin; Kim, Eunji; Seo, David H; Yang, Heejun; Seo, Sunae; Hong, Seunghun

    2011-11-22

    We report a graphene-polymer hybrid nanostructure-based bioenergy storage device to turn on and off biomotor activity in real-time. In this strategy, graphene was functionalized with amine groups and utilized as a transparent electrode supporting the motility of biomotors. Conducting polymer patterns doped with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were fabricated on the graphene and utilized for the fast release of ATP by electrical stimuli through the graphene. The controlled release of biomotor fuel, ATP, allowed us to control the actin filament transportation propelled by the biomotor in real-time. This strategy should enable the integrated nanodevices for the real-time control of biological motors, which can be a significant stepping stone toward hybrid nanomechanical systems based on motor proteins.

  4. Control design for robust tracking and smooth transition in power systems with battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hoeguk; Wang, Haifeng; Hu, Tingshu

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers some control design problems in a power system driven by battery/supercapacitor hybrid energy storage devices. The currents in the battery and the supercapacitor are actively controlled by two bidirectional buck-boost converters. Two control objectives are addressed in this paper: one is to achieve robust tracking of two reference variables, the battery current and the load voltage, the other is to achieve smooth transition of these variables during load switch. Based on the state-space averaged model we newly developed, the control design problems are converted into numerically efficient optimization problems with linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints. An experimental system is constructed to validate the control design methods.

  5. Functional and operational requirements document : building 1012, Battery and Energy Storage Device Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, William H.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides an overview of information, prior studies, and analyses relevant to the development of functional and operational requirements for electrochemical testing of batteries and energy storage devices carried out by Sandia Organization 2546, Advanced Power Sources R&D. Electrochemical operations for this group are scheduled to transition from Sandia Building 894 to a new Building located in Sandia TA-II referred to as Building 1012. This report also provides background on select design considerations and identifies the Safety Goals, Stakeholder Objectives, and Design Objectives required by the Sandia Design Team to develop the Performance Criteria necessary to the design of Building 1012. This document recognizes the Architecture-Engineering (A-E) Team as the primary design entity. Where safety considerations are identified, suggestions are provided to provide context for the corresponding operational requirement(s).

  6. Apparatus, Method and Program Storage Device for Determining High-Energy Neutron/Ion Transport to a Target of Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W. (Inventor); Tripathi, Ram K. (Inventor); Badavi, Francis F. (Inventor); Cucinotta, Francis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus, method and program storage device for determining high-energy neutron/ion transport to a target of interest. Boundaries are defined for calculation of a high-energy neutron/ion transport to a target of interest; the high-energy neutron/ion transport to the target of interest is calculated using numerical procedures selected to reduce local truncation error by including higher order terms and to allow absolute control of propagated error by ensuring truncation error is third order in step size, and using scaling procedures for flux coupling terms modified to improve computed results by adding a scaling factor to terms describing production of j-particles from collisions of k-particles; and the calculated high-energy neutron/ion transport is provided to modeling modules to control an effective radiation dose at the target of interest.

  7. Ohmsett tests of: The CAN FLEX `Sea Slug` temporary storage device and the doas flotation collar. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, M.; Custer, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes an initial series of tests of the CAN FLEX `Sea Slug` temporary storage device and the DESMI Offload Adapter System (DOAS). The tests were primarily of two types, (1) tests of the effectiveness of offloading techniques with the DOAS, and (2) tests of the time required for oil and water to separate within the `Sea Slug.` A third area of interest was determination of cleaning techniques for the `Sea Slug.` After the initial series of tests, it was concluded that an additional method of offloading should be investigated. This consisted of a pump lowered to the bottom mid-length along the `Sea Slug.` This report includes the results of these tests, as well.

  8. Electrospun-Technology-Derived High-Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mengjiao; Wang, Minxuan; Xu, Hao; Xue, Huaiguo; Pang, Huan

    2016-11-07

    Electrospinning, as a novel nontextile filament technology, is an important method to prepare continuous nanofibers and has shown its remarkable advantages, such as a broadly applicable material system, controllable fiber size and structure, and simple process. Electrospun nanofiber membranes prepared by electrospinning have shown promising applications in many fields, such as supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and sodium-ion batteries, owing to their large specific surface area and adjustable network pore structure. The principle of electrospinning and key points relevant to its usage in the preparation of high-performance electrochemical energy storage materials are reviewed herein based on recent publications, particularly focusing on research progress of relative materials. Also, this review describes a distinctive conclusion and perspective on the future challenges and opportunities in electrospun nanomaterials.

  9. Proposal for the design of a zero gravity tool storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckwisch, Sue; Carrion, Carlos A.; Phillips, Lee; Laughlin, Julia; Francois, Jason

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts frequently use a variety of hand tools during space missions, especially on repair missions. A toolbox is needed to allow storage and retrieval of tools with minimal difficulties. The toolbox must contain tools during launch, landing, and on-orbit operations. The toolbox will be used in the Shuttle Bay and therefore must withstand the hazardous space environment. The three main functions of the toolbox in space are: to protect the tools from the space environment and from damaging one another, to allow for quick, one-handed access to the tools; and to minimize the heat transfer between the astronaut's hand and the tools. This proposal explores the primary design issues associated with the design of the toolbox. Included are the customer and design specifications, global and refined function structures, possible solution principles, concept variants, and finally design recommendations.

  10. Functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes as template for water storage device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sanjib; Taraphder, Srabani

    2016-11-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes, endohedrally functionalized with a protonated/unprotonated carboxylic acid group, are examined as potential templates for water storage using classical molecular dynamics simulation studies. Following a spontaneous entry of water molecules into the core of model functionalized carbon nanotubes (FCNTs), a large fraction of water molecules are found to be trapped inside FCNTs of lengths 50 and 100 Å. Only water molecules near the two open ends of the nanotube are exchanged with the bulk solvent. The residence times of water molecules inside FCNTs are investigated by varying the length of the tube, the length of suspended functional group and the protonation state of the carboxylic acid group. Favorable energetic interactions between the functional group and water, assisted by a substantial gain in rotational entropy, are found to compensate for the entropy loss resulting from restricted translational diffusion of trapped water molecules.

  11. Rapid production of structural color images with optical data storage capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Mohamad; Jiang, Hao; Qarehbaghi, Reza; Naghshineh, Mohammad; Kaminska, Bozena

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present novel methods to produce structural color image for any given color picture using a pixelated generic stamp named nanosubstrate. The nanosubstrate is composed of prefabricated arrays of red, green and blue subpixels. Each subpixel has nano-gratings and/or sub-wavelength structures which give structural colors through light diffraction. Micro-patterning techniques were implemented to produce the color images from the nanosubstrate by selective activation of subpixels. The nano-grating structures can be nanohole arrays, which after replication are converted to nanopillar arrays or vice versa. It has been demonstrated that visible and invisible data can be easily stored using these fabrication methods and the information can be easily read. Therefore the techniques can be employed to produce personalized and customized color images for applications in optical document security and publicity, and can also be complemented by combined optical data storage capabilities.

  12. Synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of sodium nickel phosphate for energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Minakshi, Manickam; Mitchell, David; Jones, Rob; Alenazey, Feraih; Watcharatharapong, Teeraphat; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2016-06-07

    Electrochemical energy production and storage at large scale and low cost, is a critical bottleneck in renewable energy systems. Oxides and lithium transition metal phosphates have been researched for over two decades and many technologies based on them exist. Much less work has been done investigating the use of sodium phosphates for energy storage. In this work, the synthesis of sodium nickel phosphate at different temperatures is performed and its performance evaluated for supercapacitor applications. The electronic properties of polycrystalline NaNiPO4 polymorphs, triphylite and maricite, t- and m-NaNiPO4 are calculated by means of first-principle calculations based on spin-polarized Density Functional Theory (DFT). The structure and morphology of the polymorphs were characterized and validated experimentally and it is shown that the sodium nickel phosphate (NaNiPO4) exists in two different forms (triphylite and maricite), depending on the synthetic temperature (300-550 °C). The as-prepared and triphylite forms of NaNiPO4vs. activated carbon in 2 M NaOH exhibit the maximum specific capacitance of 125 F g(-1) and 85 F g(-1) respectively, at 1 A g(-1); both having excellent cycling stability with retention of 99% capacity up to 2000 cycles. The maricite form showed 70 F g(-1) with a significant drop in capacity after just 50 cycles. These results reveal that the synthesized triphylite showed a high performance energy density of 44 Wh kg(-1) which is attributed to the hierarchical structure of the porous NaNiPO4 nanosheets. At a higher temperature (>400 °C) the maricite form of NaNiPO4 possesses a nanoplate-like (coarse and blocky) structure with a large skewing at the intermediate frequency that is not tolerant of cycling. Computed results for the sodium nickel phosphate polymorphs and the electrochemical experimental results are in good agreement.

  13. A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 Si-PIN photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emirhan, E.; Bayrak, A.; Yücel, E. Barlas; Yücel, M.; Ozben, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 silicon PIN photodiode was designed and produced. X-rays were produced from a CEI OX/70-P dental tube using a custom made ±30 kV power supply. A charge sensitive preamplifier and a shaping amplifier were built for the amplification of small signals produced by photons in the depletion layer of Si-PIN photodiode. A two dimensional position control unit was used for moving the detector in small steps to measure the intensity of X-rays absorbed in the object to be imaged. An Aessent AES220B FPGA module was used for transferring the image data to a computer via USB. Images of various samples were obtained with acceptable image quality despite of the low cost of the device.

  14. Synthesis and Characterisation of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Bismuth Composite for Electrodes in Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiabin; Zhang, Han; Hunt, Michael R C; Charles, Alasdair; Tang, Jie; Bretcanu, Oana; Walker, David; Hassan, Khalil T; Sun, Yige; Šiller, Lidija

    2017-01-20

    A reduced graphene oxide/bismuth (rGO/Bi) composite was synthesized for the first time using a polyol process at a low reaction temperature and with a short reaction time (60 °C and 3 hours, respectively). The as-prepared sample is structured with 20-50 nm diameter bismuth particles distributed on the rGO sheets. The rGO/Bi composite displays a combination of capacitive and battery-like charge storage, achieving a specific capacity value of 773 C g(-1) at a current density of 0.2 A g(-1) when charged to 1 V. The material not only has good power density but also shows moderate stability in cycling tests with current densities as high as 5 A g(-1) . The relatively high abundance and low price of bismuth make this rGO/Bi material a promising candidate for use in electrode materials in future energy storage devices.

  15. Synthesis and Characterisation of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Bismuth Composite for Electrodes in Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiabin; Zhang, Han; Hunt, Michael R. C.; Charles, Alasdair; Tang, Jie; Bretcanu, Oana; Walker, David; Hassan, Khalil T.; Sun, Yige

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A reduced graphene oxide/bismuth (rGO/Bi) composite was synthesized for the first time using a polyol process at a low reaction temperature and with a short reaction time (60 °C and 3 hours, respectively). The as‐prepared sample is structured with 20–50 nm diameter bismuth particles distributed on the rGO sheets. The rGO/Bi composite displays a combination of capacitive and battery‐like charge storage, achieving a specific capacity value of 773 C g−1 at a current density of 0.2 A g−1 when charged to 1 V. The material not only has good power density but also shows moderate stability in cycling tests with current densities as high as 5 A g−1. The relatively high abundance and low price of bismuth make this rGO/Bi material a promising candidate for use in electrode materials in future energy storage devices. PMID:28098431

  16. Optofluidic devices and applications in photonics, sensing and imaging.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lin; Chen, H Matthew; Freeman, Lindsay M; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2012-10-07

    Optofluidics integrates the fields of photonics and microfluidics, providing new freedom to both fields and permitting the realization of optical and fluidic property manipulations at the chip scale. Optofluidics was formed only after many breakthroughs in microfluidics, as understanding of fluid behaviour at the micron level enabled researchers to combine the advantages of optics and fluids. This review describes the progress of optofluidics from a photonics perspective, highlighting various optofluidic aspects ranging from the device's property manipulation to an interactive integration between optics and fluids. First, we describe photonic elements based on the functionalities that enable fluid manipulation. We then discuss the applications of optofluidic biodetection with an emphasis on nanosensing. Next, we discuss the progress of optofluidic lenses with an emphasis on its various architectures, and finally we conceptualize on where the field may lead.

  17. Cosmic Ray Muon Imaging of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Dry Storage Casks

    DOE PAGES

    Durham, J. Matthew; Guardincerri, Elena; Morris, Christopher L.; ...

    2016-04-29

    In this paper, cosmic ray muon radiography has been used to identify the absence of spent nuclear fuel bundles inside a sealed dry storage cask. The large amounts of shielding that dry storage casks use to contain radiation from the highly radioactive contents impedes typical imaging methods, but the penetrating nature of cosmic ray muons allows them to be used as an effective radiographic probe. This technique was able to successfully identify missing fuel bundles inside a sealed Westinghouse MC-10 cask. This method of fuel cask verification may prove useful for international nuclear safeguards inspectors. Finally, muon radiography may findmore » other safety and security or safeguards applications, such as arms control verification.« less

  18. A Magnetic Resonance-Compatible Loading Device for Dynamically Imaging Shortening and Lengthening Muscle Contraction Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Silder, Amy; Westphal, Christopher J.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and test a magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible device to induce either shortening or lengthening muscle contractions for use during dynamic MR imaging. The proposed device guides the knee through cyclic flexion-extension, while either elastic or inertial loads are imposed on the hamstrings. Ten subjects were tested in a motion capture laboratory to evaluate the repeatability of limb motion and imposed loads. Image data were subsequently obtained for all ten subjects using cine phase contrast imaging. Subjects achieved ~30 deg of knee joint motion, with individual subjects remaining within ~1 deg of their average motion across 56 repeated cycles. The maximum hamstring activity and loading occurred when the knee was flexed for the elastic loading condition (shortening contraction), and extended for the inertial loading condition (lengthening contraction). Repeat MR image acquisitions of the same loading condition resulted in similar tissue velocities, while spatial variations in velocity data were clearly different between loading conditions. The proposed device can enable dynamic imaging of the muscle under different types of loads, which has the potential to improve our understanding of basic muscle mechanics, identify potential causes of muscle injury, and provide a basis for quantitatively assessing injury effects at the tissue level. Slight modifications to the device design and/or subject positioning could allow for imaging of the quadriceps or the knee. PMID:24353749

  19. A review of performance of near-infrared fluorescence imaging devices used in clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, B

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) molecular imaging holds great promise as a new “point-of-care” medical imaging modality that can potentially provide the sensitivity of nuclear medicine techniques, but without the radioactivity that can otherwise place limitations of usage. Recently, NIRF imaging devices of a variety of designs have emerged in the market and in investigational clinical studies using indocyanine green (ICG) as a non-targeting NIRF contrast agent to demark the blood and lymphatic vasculatures both non-invasively and intraoperatively. Approved in the USA since 1956 for intravenous administration, ICG has been more recently used off label in intradermal or subcutaneous administrations for fluorescence imaging of the lymphatic vasculature and lymph nodes. Herein, we summarize the devices of a variety of designs, summarize their performance in lymphatic imaging in a tabular format and comment on necessary efforts to develop standards for device performance to compare and use these emerging devices in future, NIRF molecular imaging studies. PMID:25410320

  20. A microfluidic device based on droplet storage for screening solubility diagrams.

    PubMed

    Laval, Philippe; Lisai, Nicolas; Salmon, Jean-Baptiste; Joanicot, Mathieu

    2007-07-01

    This work describes a new microfluidic device developed for the rapid screening of solubility diagrams. In several parallel channels, hundreds of nanolitre volume droplets of a given solution are first stored with a gradual variation in the solute concentration. Then, the application of a temperature gradient along these channels enables us to read directly and quantitatively phase diagrams, concentration vs. temperature. We show, using a solution of adipic acid, that we can measure ten points of the solubility curve in less than 1 hr and with only 250 microL of solution.

  1. Bottom-up synthesis of graphene/polyaniline nanocomposites for flexible and transparent energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Victor H. R.; Oliveira, Marcela M.; Zarbin, Aldo J. G.

    2017-04-01

    An innovative, single-pot synthesis for chemically producing graphene/polyaniline nanocomposites is presented. The method, which is based on chemical reactions at liquid-liquid interfaces, begins with benzene and aniline and ultimately yields nanocomposites as thin films of polyaniline mixed with graphene. These films self-assembled at the water-benzene interface are easily transferable to any kind of ordinary substrates, plastics included. Nanocomposites prepared with different polymer/graphene ratios show differentiated structures and morphologies, resulting in excellent pseudocapacitive behaviors (specific capacitance of 267.2 F cm-3). The construction of all-solid, transparent, and flexible supercapacitor device from this nanocomposite is also presented.

  2. RF Device for Acquiring Images of the Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd C.; McGrath, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A safe, non-invasive method for forming images through clothing of large groups of people, in order to search for concealed weapons either made of metal or not, has been developed. A millimeter wavelength scanner designed in a unique, ring-shaped configuration can obtain a full 360 image of the body with a resolution of less than a millimeter in only a few seconds. Millimeter waves readily penetrate normal clothing, but are highly reflected by the human body and concealed objects. Millimeter wave signals are nonionizing and are harmless to human tissues when used at low power levels. The imager (see figure) consists of a thin base that supports a small-diameter vertical post about 7 ft (=2.13 m) tall. Attached to the post is a square-shaped ring 2 in. (=5 cm) wide and 3 ft (=91 cm) on a side. The ring is oriented horizontally, and is supported halfway along one side by a connection to a linear bearing on the vertical post. A planar RF circuit board is mounted to the inside of each side of the ring. Each circuit board contains an array of 30 receivers, one transmitter, and digitization electronics. Each array element has a printed-circuit patch antenna coupled to a pair of mixers by a 90 coupler. The mixers receive a reference local oscillator signal to a subharmonic of the transmitter frequency. A single local oscillator line feeds all 30 receivers on the board. The resulting MHz IF signals are amplified and carried to the edge of the board where they are demodulated and digitized. The transmitted signal is derived from the local oscillator at a frequency offset determined by a crystal oscillator. One antenna centrally located on each side of the square ring provides the source illumination power. The total transmitted power is less than 100 mW, resulting in an exposure level that is completely safe to humans. The output signals from all four circuit boards are fed via serial connection to a data processing computer. The computer processes the approximately 1-MB

  3. Enhancing dielectric permittivity for energy-storage devices through tricritical phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jinghui; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yongbin; Hu, Xinghao; Ke, Xiaoqin; Zhong, Lisheng; He, Yuting; Ren, Xiaobing

    2017-01-01

    Although dielectric energy-storing devices are frequently used in high voltage level, the fast growing on the portable and wearable electronics have been increasing the demand on the energy-storing devices at finite electric field strength. This paper proposes an approach on enhancing energy density under low electric field through compositionally inducing tricriticality in Ba(Ti,Sn)O3 ferroelectric material system with enlarged dielectric response. The optimal dielectric permittivity at tricritical point can reach to εr = 5.4 × 104, and the associated energy density goes to around 30 mJ/cm3 at the electric field of 10 kV/cm, which exceeds most of the selected ferroelectric materials at the same field strength. The microstructure nature for such a tricritical behavior shows polarization inhomogeneity in nanometeric scale, which indicates a large polarizability under external electric field. Further phenomenological Landau modeling suggests that large dielectric permittivity and energy density can be ascribed to the vanishing of energy barrier for polarization altering caused by tricriticality. Our results may shed light on developing energy-storing dielectrics with large permittivity and energy density at low electric field. PMID:28098249

  4. Enhancing dielectric permittivity for energy-storage devices through tricritical phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinghui; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yongbin; Hu, Xinghao; Ke, Xiaoqin; Zhong, Lisheng; He, Yuting; Ren, Xiaobing

    2017-01-01

    Although dielectric energy-storing devices are frequently used in high voltage level, the fast growing on the portable and wearable electronics have been increasing the demand on the energy-storing devices at finite electric field strength. This paper proposes an approach on enhancing energy density under low electric field through compositionally inducing tricriticality in Ba(Ti,Sn)O3 ferroelectric material system with enlarged dielectric response. The optimal dielectric permittivity at tricritical point can reach to εr = 5.4 × 104, and the associated energy density goes to around 30 mJ/cm3 at the electric field of 10 kV/cm, which exceeds most of the selected ferroelectric materials at the same field strength. The microstructure nature for such a tricritical behavior shows polarization inhomogeneity in nanometeric scale, which indicates a large polarizability under external electric field. Further phenomenological Landau modeling suggests that large dielectric permittivity and energy density can be ascribed to the vanishing of energy barrier for polarization altering caused by tricriticality. Our results may shed light on developing energy-storing dielectrics with large permittivity and energy density at low electric field.

  5. Enhancing dielectric permittivity for energy-storage devices through tricritical phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinghui; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yongbin; Hu, Xinghao; Ke, Xiaoqin; Zhong, Lisheng; He, Yuting; Ren, Xiaobing

    2017-01-18

    Although dielectric energy-storing devices are frequently used in high voltage level, the fast growing on the portable and wearable electronics have been increasing the demand on the energy-storing devices at finite electric field strength. This paper proposes an approach on enhancing energy density under low electric field through compositionally inducing tricriticality in Ba(Ti,Sn)O3 ferroelectric material system with enlarged dielectric response. The optimal dielectric permittivity at tricritical point can reach to εr = 5.4 × 10(4), and the associated energy density goes to around 30 mJ/cm(3) at the electric field of 10 kV/cm, which exceeds most of the selected ferroelectric materials at the same field strength. The microstructure nature for such a tricritical behavior shows polarization inhomogeneity in nanometeric scale, which indicates a large polarizability under external electric field. Further phenomenological Landau modeling suggests that large dielectric permittivity and energy density can be ascribed to the vanishing of energy barrier for polarization altering caused by tricriticality. Our results may shed light on developing energy-storing dielectrics with large permittivity and energy density at low electric field.

  6. Image-based interactive device for effective communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, F.; Nielsen, J.; Questa, Paolo; Sandini, Giulio

    1996-12-01

    The main objective of IBIDEM is to develop a video phone useful for speech reading by hearing-impaired people based on a new generation of the space-variant sensor and using standard telephone lines. The space variant nature of the sensor will allow it to have high resolution in the area of interest, lips or fingers, while still maintaining a wide field of view in order to perceive, for example, the facial expression of the interlocutor, but reducing drastically the amount of data to be sent on the line. A second objective if IBIDEM is the use of the same equipment for remote monitoring of health status. The system can be used for obtaining information about the status of a client in the form of images and could be extended to include various physiological parameters like heart rate, blood pressure, etc. The IBIDEM project is constructing a video phone using a camera with the retina-like sensor, a motorized system for moving the point of view of the camera as well as a display for the transmitted images. This video phone will be a high- quality, low-cost aid for the hearing impaired as well as being useful for remote monitoring.

  7. The Italian project for a proton imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Candiano, G.; Cuttone, G.; Lo Nigro, S.; Lo Presti, D.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Russo, M.; Aiello, S.; Bruzzi, M.; Menichelli, D.; Scaringella, M.; Miglio, S.; Bucciolini, M.; Talamonti, C.; Pallotta, S.

    2007-06-01

    Proton Computed Tomography (or pCT) is a new imaging technique based on the use of high energy proton beams (200-250 MeV) replacing of the commonly adopted X-rays CT. pCT that was firstly proposed in the 1960s but only nowadays, with the continued establishing of new proton therapy centers around the world, the interest in it is growing. The use of protons for tomographic images can represent, in fact, a big enhancement in the quality of a proton therapy treatment either in the patient positioning as well as in the accuracy of the dose calculation for the treatment planning phase. In this paper, after a brief introduction on pCT principles, the main hardware and software characteristics of a first pCT prototype in development by our group (the Italian PRIMA collaboration) will be presented. The role of Monte Carlo simulation in developing will be also emphasized, using the GEANT4 simulation toolkit.

  8. Sensor noise informed representation of hyperspectral data, with benefits for image storage and processing.

    PubMed

    Skauli, Torbjørn

    2011-07-04

    Many types of hyperspectral image processing can benefit from knowledge of noise levels in the data, which can be derived from sensor physics. Surprisingly, such information is rarely provided or exploited. Usually, the image data are represented as radiance values, but this representation can lead to suboptimal results, for example in spectral difference metrics. Also, radiance data do not provide an appropriate baseline for calculation of image compression ratios. This paper defines two alternative representations of hyperspectral image data, aiming to make sensor noise accessible to image processing. A "corrected raw data" representation is proportional to the photoelectron count and can be processed like radiance data, while also offering simpler estimation of noise and somewhat more compact storage. A variance-stabilized representation is obtained by square-root transformation of the photodetector signal to make the noise signal-independent and constant across all bands while also reducing data volume by almost a factor 2. Then the data size is comparable to the fundamental information capacity of the sensor, giving a more appropriate measure of uncompressed data size. It is noted that the variance-stabilized representation has parallels in other fields of imaging. The alternative data representations provide an opportunity to reformulate hyperspectral processing algorithms to take actual sensor noise into account.

  9. Application of filtered back projection to muon radiography for imaging dry storage casks

    DOE PAGES

    Poulson, Daniel Cris; Durham, J. Matthew; Guardincerri, Elena; ...

    2017-10-22

    Radiography with cosmic ray muon scattering has proven to be a successful method of imaging nuclear material through heavy shielding. Of particular interest is monitoring dry storage casks for diversion of plutonium contained in spent reactor fuel. Using muon tracking detectors that surround a cylindrical cask, cosmic ray muon scattering can be simultaneously measured from all azimuthal angles, giving complete tomographic coverage of the cask interior. This article describes the first application of filtered back projection algorithms, typically used in medical imaging, to cosmic ray muon scattering imaging. The specific application to monitoring spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casksmore » is investigated via GEANT4 simulations. With a cylindrical muon tracking detector surrounding a typical spent fuel cask, simulations indicate that missing fuel bundles can be detected with a statistical significance of ∼18σ in less than two days exposure and a sensitivity at 1σ to a 5% missing portion of a fuel bundle. Finally, we discuss potential detector technologies and geometries.« less

  10. Development and clinical translation of OTIS: a wide-field OCT imaging device for ex-vivo tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Elizabeth A.; Rempel, David; Danner, Christine; Atchia, Yaaseen; Valic, Michael S.; Berkeley, Andrew; Davoudi, Bahar; Magnin, Paul A.; Akens, Margarete; Done, Susan J.; Kulkarni, Supriya; Leong, Wey-Liang; Wilson, Brian C.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed an automated, wide-field optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based imaging device (OTISTM Perimeter Medical Imaging) for peri-operative, ex-vivo tissue imaging. This device features automated image acquisition, enabling rapid capture of high-resolution (15 μm) OCT images from samples up to 10 cm in diameter. We report on the iterative progression of device development from phantom and pre-clinical (tumor xenograft) models through to initial clinical results. We discuss the challenges associated with proving a novel imaging technology against the clinical "gold standard" of conventional post-operative pathology.

  11. Image-Directed Fine-needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid with Safety-engineered Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbitt, Randy R. Palmer, Dennis J.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L. Bankhurst, Arthur D.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to integrate safety-engineered devices into outpatient fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of the thyroid in an interventional radiology practice. Materials and Methods: The practice center is a tertiary referral center for image-directed FNA thyroid biopsies in difficult patients referred by the primary care physician, endocrinologist, or otolaryngologist. As a departmental quality of care and safety improvement program, we instituted integration of safety devices into our thyroid biopsy procedures and determined the effect on outcome (procedural pain, diagnostic biopsies, inadequate samples, complications, needlesticks to operator, and physician satisfaction) before institution of safety devices (54 patients) and after institution of safety device implementation (56 patients). Safety devices included a patient safety technology-the mechanical aspirating syringe (reciprocating procedure device), and a health care worker safety technology (antineedlestick safety needle). Results: FNA of thyroid could be readily performed with the safety devices. Safety-engineered devices resulted in a 49% reduction in procedural pain scores (P < 0.0001), a 56% reduction in significant pain (P < 0.002), a 21% increase in operator satisfaction (P < 0.0001), and a 5% increase in diagnostic specimens (P = 0.5). No needlesticks to health care workers or patient injuries occurred during the study. Conclusions: Safety-engineered devices to improve both patient and health care worker safety can be successfully integrated into diagnostic FNA of the thyroid while maintaining outcomes and improving safety.

  12. Synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of sodium nickel phosphate for energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakshi, Manickam; Mitchell, David; Jones, Rob; Alenazey, Feraih; Watcharatharapong, Teeraphat; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2016-05-01

    Electrochemical energy production and storage at large scale and low cost, is a critical bottleneck in renewable energy systems. Oxides and lithium transition metal phosphates have been researched for over two decades and many technologies based on them exist. Much less work has been done investigating the use of sodium phosphates for energy storage. In this work, the synthesis of sodium nickel phosphate at different temperatures is performed and its performance evaluated for supercapacitor applications. The electronic properties of polycrystalline NaNiPO4 polymorphs, triphylite and maricite, t- and m-NaNiPO4 are calculated by means of first-principle calculations based on spin-polarized Density Functional Theory (DFT). The structure and morphology of the polymorphs were characterized and validated experimentally and it is shown that the sodium nickel phosphate (NaNiPO4) exists in two different forms (triphylite and maricite), depending on the synthetic temperature (300-550 °C). The as-prepared and triphylite forms of NaNiPO4vs. activated carbon in 2 M NaOH exhibit the maximum specific capacitance of 125 F g-1 and 85 F g-1 respectively, at 1 A g-1 both having excellent cycling stability with retention of 99% capacity up to 2000 cycles. The maricite form showed 70 F g-1 with a significant drop in capacity after just 50 cycles. These results reveal that the synthesized triphylite showed a high performance energy density of 44 Wh kg-1 which is attributed to the hierarchical structure of the porous NaNiPO4 nanosheets. At a higher temperature (>400 °C) the maricite form of NaNiPO4 possesses a nanoplate-like (coarse and blocky) structure with a large skewing at the intermediate frequency that is not tolerant of cycling. Computed results for the sodium nickel phosphate polymorphs and the electrochemical experimental results are in good agreement.Electrochemical energy production and storage at large scale and low cost, is a critical bottleneck in renewable energy

  13. Ongoing nickel-hydrogen energy storage device testing at George C. Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, John E.; Lanier, John R., Jr.; Hall, Charles I.; Whitt, Thomas H.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the testing is to characterize Ni-H2 cells for successful integration into the electrical power system (EPS) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A broad spectrum of Ni-H2 design technology is encompassed by the testing configurations; tests include cells with dates of manufacture as early as 1976. The database includes cells of varied storage times, capacity, plate design, stack design, terminal configuration, pressure vessel thickness, separator material, potassium hydroxide (KOH) concentration, and thermal control. Currently, 196 Ni-H2 cells are being tested, grouped as follows: 12 RNH-35-3, 14 RNH-30-1, 22 HST cells (1 battery, flight spare lot), 132 HST cells (6 batteries, test modules 1 and 2, called TM1 and TM2), 12 HST cells (3 four-cell packs, TM1, TM2, flight spare module FSM), and 4 HST cells (engineering lot). In addition to the characterization and life testing, an extensive thermal vacuum and purge test was conducted in November 1989 and February 1990 using the HST FSM (3 batteries composed of 69 HST cells from the flight spare lot) to help verify thermal design. A report is presented of the progress, significant findings, and future objectives of the testing.

  14. Nanodomain Formation on Ferroelectrics and Development of Hard-Disk-Drive-Type Ferroelectric Data Storage Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranaga, Yoshiomi; Uda, Tomoya; Kurihashi, Yuichi; Tochishita, Hikari; Kadota, Michio; Cho, Yasuo

    2009-09-01

    In this study, several read/write (R/W) tests were conducted using a hard-disk-drive-type ferroelectric data storage test system based on scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM). A periodically inverted signal, which corresponded to artificial domain stripes formed on LiTaO3 single crystal, could be read correctly with a bit rate of 2 Mbps using this test system. Bit writing on a 50-nm-thick epitaxial LiTaO3 film at 20 Mbps was also demonstrated. In addition, a noncontact probe-height control technique was adapted to solve the problem of tip abrasion. The gap distance between a probe and a medium surface was successfully controlled on the nanometer order using a noncontact SNDM technique with sharp-pointed tungsten needle probes prepared by electrolytic polishing. Bit writing under a noncontact state was also studied. Artificial domain dots with diameters of less than 100 nm could be formed under the noncontact state.

  15. Imaging Nano- and Micrometer-sized Magnetic Insulator Devices in the Presence of Spin-Torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Aaron; Jermain, Colin; Nowack, Katja; Kirtley, John; Paik, Hanjong; Aradhya, Sriharsha; Wang, Hailong; Heron, John; Schlom, Darrell; Yang, Fengyuan; Ralph, Dan; Moler, Kathryn

    2015-03-01

    Recent results demonstrate that a giant spin-hall effect in Tantalum can produce large spin torques. We intend to employ this large spin torque to manipulate the magnetic moment in electrically insulating ferrimagnetic Lu3Fe5O12(LuIG)andY3Fe5O12 (YIG) devices. Using a scanning SQUID microscope, we can study the possibility of performing reversible switching between magnetic states of nano- and micrometer-sized iron garnet devices induced by current pulses applied to a Tantalum layer in contact with the devices by directly imaging the magnetic state of the device before and after a current pulse. Successful manipulation of magnetic insulators by electrical pulses can be a platform for magnetic memory devices and spintronics.

  16. Assessment of a radiotherapy patient cranial immobilization device using daily on-board kilovoltage imaging.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Joseph; Van Ufflen, Derek; Larue, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize state-of-the-art on-board digital kilovoltage (kV) imaging to determine the systematic and random set-up errors of an immobilization device designed for canine and feline cranial radiotherapy treatments. The immobilization device is comprised of a custom made support bridge, bite block, vacuum-based foam mold and a modified thermoplastic mask attached to a commercially available head rest designed for human radiotherapy treatments. The immobilization device was indexed to a Varian exact couch-top designed for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Daily orthogonal kV images were compared to Eclipse treatment planning digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). The orthogonal kV images and DRRs were directly compared online utilizing the Varian on-board imaging (OBI) system with set-up corrections mmediately and remotely transferred to the treatment couch prior to treatment delivery. Off-line review of 124 patient treatments indicates systematic errors consisting of +0.18 mm vertical, +0.39mm longitudinal and -0.08 mm lateral. The random errors corresponding to 2 standard deviations (95% CI) consist of 4.02 mm vertical, 2.97 mm longitudinal and 2.53 mm lateral and represent conservative CTV to PTV margins if kV OBI is not available. Use of daily kV OBI along with the cranial immobilization device permits reduction of the CTV to PTV margins to approximately 2.0 mm.

  17. Reconstruction of color images via Haar wavelet based on digital micromirror device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingjiong; He, Weiji; Gu, Guohua

    2015-10-01

    A digital micro mirror device( DMD) is introduced to form Haar wavelet basis , projecting on the color target image by making use of structured illumination, including red, green and blue light. The light intensity signals reflected from the target image are received synchronously by the bucket detector which has no spatial resolution, converted into voltage signals and then transferred into PC[1] .To reach the aim of synchronization, several synchronization processes are added during data acquisition. In the data collection process, according to the wavelet tree structure, the locations of significant coefficients at the finer scale are predicted by comparing the coefficients sampled at the coarsest scale with the threshold. The monochrome grayscale images are obtained under red , green and blue structured illumination by using Haar wavelet inverse transform algorithm, respectively. The color fusion algorithm is carried on the three monochrome grayscale images to obtain the final color image. According to the imaging principle, the experimental demonstration device is assembled. The letter "K" and the X-rite Color Checker Passport are projected and reconstructed as target images, and the final reconstructed color images have good qualities. This article makes use of the method of Haar wavelet reconstruction, reducing the sampling rate considerably. It provides color information without compromising the resolution of the final image.

  18. [Roentgen image presentation in the patient's room. Simple equipment for demonstration and storage of roentgen images].

    PubMed

    Prokop, A; Rehm, K E; Sagebiel, A

    1996-12-01

    Immediate presentation of the more significant X-ray pictures facilitates planning and supervision of therapy in trauma surgery and orthopedics. If a wire rope is stretched in front of the window X-ray pictures can be clipped onto it, which avoids time-consuming searches. Suspended filing boxes placed in each sickroom make appropriate storage of each patient's X-ray pictures possible. The expenditure for all this amounted to 100 DM for each two-bedded room. Wire ropes and boxes were technically easy to install with a minimum investment of time. The presentation of X-ray pictures considerably increased the patients' understanding of their illness. It was also very rare for X-ray pictures to get mixed up once this system had been instituted.

  19. Method for Ultrasonic Imaging and Device for Performing the Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method for ultrasonic imaging of interior structures and flaws in a test specimen with a smooth or irregular contact surfaces, in which an ultrasonic transducer is coupled acoustically to the contact surface via a plurality of ultrasonic wave guides with equal delay times. The wave guides are thin and bendable, so they adapt to variations in the distance between the transducer and different parts of the contact surface by bending more or less. All parts of the irregular contact surface accordingly receive sound waves that are in phase, even when the contact surface is irregular, so a coherent sound wave is infused in the test specimen. The wave guides can be arranged in the form of an ultrasonic brush, with a flat head for coupling to a flat transducer, and free bristles that can be pressed against the test specimen. By bevelling the bristle ends at a suitable angle, shear mode waves can be infused into the test specimen from a longitudinal mode transducer.

  20. Reliable and robust transmission and storage techniques for medical images with patient information.

    PubMed

    Nergui, Myagmarbayar; Acharya, U Sripati; Acharya U, Rajendra; Yu, Wenwei

    2010-12-01

    There is an increased emphasis on the use of digital techniques in all aspects of human life today. Broadcast radio and television, cellular phone services, consumer and entertainment electronics etc are increasingly using digital signal processing techniques to improve the quality of service. Transmission and storage of documentation and images pertaining to patient records cannot remain an exception to this global trend. Hence, patient records (text and image information) are increasingly stored and processed in digital form. Currently, text and image information, which constitute two separate pieces of data are handled as different files. Thus, there is a possibility of the text and message information, pertaining to different patients, being interchanged and thus mishandled. This can be avoided by merging text and image information in such a manner that the two can be separated without perceptible damage to information contained in either file. Digital watermarking techniques can be used to interleave patient information with medical images. In this work, we have employed digital watermarking along with strong cryptographic protocols and powerful error correcting codes. This reduces the probability of sensitive patient information falling into the wrong hands and ensures information integrity when it is conveyed over noisy channels.

  1. Development of electron cyclotron emission imaging system on Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwahara, D.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Nagayama, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Tsuchiya, H.; Sugito, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kogi, Y.; Akaki, K.; Mase, A.

    2010-10-15

    A combined system of microwave imaging reflectometry and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging has been developed for the Large Helical Device. This system includes a wide-band two-dimensional horn-antenna mixer array (HMA). The HMA consists of horn antennas, waveguides, mixers, and intermediate frequency circuits. The frequency response of the HMA is between 50 and 110 GHz. The ECE signal is selected using a 95 GHz local oscillator and a 93 GHz high-pass filter.

  2. Charge-coupled device data processor for an airborne imaging radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, W. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Processing of raw analog echo data from synthetic aperture radar receiver into images on board an airborne radar platform is discussed. Processing is made feasible by utilizing charge-coupled devices (CCD). CCD circuits are utilized to perform input sampling, presumming, range correlation and azimuth correlation in the analog domain. These radar data processing functions are implemented for single-look or multiple-look imaging radar systems.

  3. Printed all-solid flexible microsupercapacitors: towards the general route for high energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ye; Shi, Yumeng; Zhao, Cheng Xi; Wong, Jen It; Sun, Xiao Wei; Yang, Hui Ying

    2014-03-01

    A novel method for fabricating all-solid flexible microsupercapacitors (MSCs) was proposed and developed by utilizing screen printing technology. A typical printed MSC is composed of a printed Ag electrode, MnO2/onion-like carbon (MnO2/OLC) as active material and a polyvinyl alcohol:H3PO4 (PVA:H3PO4) as solid electrolyte. A capacity of 7.04 mF cm-2 was achieved for the screen printed MnO2/OLC MSCs at a current density of 20 μA cm-2. It also showed an excellent cycling stability, with 80% retention of the specific capacity after 1000 cycles. The printed all-solid flexible MSCs exhibited remarkably high mechanical flexibility when the devices were bent to a radius of 3.5 mm. In addition, all-solid MSCs were successfully demonstrated by screen printing technique on various substrates, such as silicon, glass and conventional printing paper. Moreover, the screen printing technique can be extended to other active materials, such as OLC and carbon nanotubes. This method provides a general route for printable all-solid flexible MSCs, which is compatible with the roll-to-roll process for various high performance active materials.

  4. Prediction of intracellular storage polymers using quantitative image analysis in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Daniela P; Leal, Cristiano; Cunha, Jorge R; Oehmen, Adrian; Amaral, A Luís; Reis, Maria A M; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2013-04-03

    The present study focuses on predicting the concentration of intracellular storage polymers in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems. For that purpose, quantitative image analysis techniques were developed for determining the intracellular concentrations of PHA (PHB and PHV) with Nile blue and glycogen with aniline blue staining. Partial least squares (PLS) were used to predict the standard analytical values of these polymers by the proposed methodology. Identification of the aerobic and anaerobic stages proved to be crucial for improving the assessment of PHA, PHB and PHV intracellular concentrations. Current Nile blue based methodology can be seen as a feasible starting point for further enhancement. Glycogen detection based on the developed aniline blue staining methodology combined with the image analysis data proved to be a promising technique, toward the elimination of the need for analytical off-line measurements.

  5. Design and characterization of a handheld multimodal imaging device for the assessment of oral epithelial lesions

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Laura M.; Pierce, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. A compact handpiece combining high resolution fluorescence (HRF) imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) was developed to provide real-time assessment of oral lesions. This multimodal imaging device simultaneously captures coregistered en face images with subcellular detail alongside cross-sectional images of tissue microstructure. The HRF imaging acquires a 712×594  μm2 field-of-view at the sample with a spatial resolution of 3.5  μm. The OCT images were acquired to a depth of 1.5 mm with axial and lateral resolutions of 9.3 and 8.0  μm, respectively. HRF and OCT images are simultaneously displayed at 25 fps. The handheld device was used to image a healthy volunteer, demonstrating the potential for in vivo assessment of the epithelial surface for dysplastic and neoplastic changes at the cellular level, while simultaneously evaluating submucosal involvement. We anticipate potential applications in real-time assessment of oral lesions for improved surveillance and surgical guidance. PMID:25104410

  6. Design and characterization of a handheld multimodal imaging device for the assessment of oral epithelial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Laura M.; Pierce, Mark C.

    2014-08-01

    A compact handpiece combining high resolution fluorescence (HRF) imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) was developed to provide real-time assessment of oral lesions. This multimodal imaging device simultaneously captures coregistered en face images with subcellular detail alongside cross-sectional images of tissue microstructure. The HRF imaging acquires a 712×594 μm2 field-of-view at the sample with a spatial resolution of 3.5 μm. The OCT images were acquired to a depth of 1.5 mm with axial and lateral resolutions of 9.3 and 8.0 μm, respectively. HRF and OCT images are simultaneously displayed at 25 fps. The handheld device was used to image a healthy volunteer, demonstrating the potential for in vivo assessment of the epithelial surface for dysplastic and neoplastic changes at the cellular level, while simultaneously evaluating submucosal involvement. We anticipate potential applications in real-time assessment of oral lesions for improved surveillance and surgical guidance.

  7. Research and Development of High-Power and High-Energy Electrochemical Storage Devices

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2014-04-30

    validation, implementation, and cost reduction. 2. Identification of the next viable technology with emphasis on the potential to meet USABC cost and operating temperature range goals. 3. Support high-risk, high-reward battery technology R&D. Specific to the Cooperative Agreement DE- FC26-05NT42403, addressing High-Energy and High Power Energy Storage Technologies, the USABC focus was on understanding and addressing the following factors (listed in priority of effort): • Cost: Reducing the current cost of lithium- ion batteries (currently about 2-3 times the FreedomCAR target ($20/kW). • Low Temperature Performance: Improving the discharge power and removing lithium plating during regenerative braking. • Calendar Life: Achieving 15-year life and getting accurate life prediction. • Abuse Tolerance: Developing a system level tolerance to overcharge, crush, and high temperature exposure. This Final Technical Report compilation is submitted in fulfillment of the subject Cooperative Agreement, and is intended to serve as a ready-reference for the outcomes of following eight categories of projects conducted by the USABC under award from the DOE’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy ) Vehicle Technologies Program: USABC DoE Final Report – DoE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-95EE50425 8 Protected Information 1. Electric Vehicle (EV) (Section A of this report) 2. Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) (Section B 3. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) (Section C) 4. Low-Energy Energy Storage Systems (LEESS) (Section D) 5. Technology Assessment Program (TAP) (Section E) 6. Ultracapacitors (Section F) 7. 12 Volt Start-Stop (Section G) 8. Separators (Section H) The report summarizes the main areas of activity undertaken in collaboration with the supplier community and the National Laboratories. Copies of the individual supplier final reports are available upon request. Using project gap analysis versus defined USABC goals in each area, the report documents known technology limits

  8. 40 CFR 65.145 - Nonflare control devices used to control emissions from storage vessels or low-throughput...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operate and maintain the nonflare control device, including a halogen reduction device for a low... regulated material are routed to the control device and halogen reduction device, except during periods of... transfer rack vent streams routed to a combustion device and then to a halogen reduction device to meet...

  9. 40 CFR 65.145 - Nonflare control devices used to control emissions from storage vessels or low-throughput...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operate and maintain the nonflare control device, including a halogen reduction device for a low... regulated material are routed to the control device and halogen reduction device, except during periods of... transfer rack vent streams routed to a combustion device and then to a halogen reduction device to meet...

  10. 40 CFR 65.145 - Nonflare control devices used to control emissions from storage vessels or low-throughput...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operate and maintain the nonflare control device, including a halogen reduction device for a low... regulated material are routed to the control device and halogen reduction device, except during periods of... transfer rack vent streams routed to a combustion device and then to a halogen reduction device to meet...

  11. 40 CFR 65.145 - Nonflare control devices used to control emissions from storage vessels or low-throughput...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operate and maintain the nonflare control device, including a halogen reduction device for a low... regulated material are routed to the control device and halogen reduction device, except during periods of... transfer rack vent streams routed to a combustion device and then to a halogen reduction device to meet...

  12. Recognizable-image selection for fingerprint recognition with a mobile-device camera.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongjae; Choi, Kyoungtaek; Choi, Heeseung; Kim, Jaihie

    2008-02-01

    This paper proposes a recognizable-image selection algorithm for fingerprint-verification systems that use a camera embedded in a mobile device. A recognizable image is defined as the fingerprint image which includes the characteristics that are sufficiently discriminating an individual from other people. While general camera systems obtain focused images by using various gradient measures to estimate high-frequency components, mobile cameras cannot acquire recognizable images in the same way because the obtained images may not be adequate for fingerprint recognition, even if they are properly focused. A recognizable image has to meet the following two conditions: First, valid region in the recognizable image should be large enough compared with other nonrecognizable images. Here, a valid region is a well-focused part, and ridges in the region are clearly distinguishable from valleys. In order to select valid regions, this paper proposes a new focus-measurement algorithm using the secondary partial derivatives and a quality estimation utilizing the coherence and symmetry of gradient distribution. Second, rolling and pitching degrees of a finger measured from the camera plane should be within some limit for a recognizable image. The position of a core point and the contour of a finger are used to estimate the degrees of rolling and pitching. Experimental results show that our proposed method selects valid regions and estimates the degrees of rolling and pitching properly. In addition, fingerprint-verification performance is improved by detecting the recognizable images.

  13. Introduction: feature issue on phantoms for the performance evaluation and validation of optical medical imaging devices.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeeseong; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Nordstrom, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue on "Phantoms for the Performance Evaluation and Validation of Optical Medical Imaging Devices." This topic was the focus of a technical workshop that was held on November 7-8, 2011, in Washington, D.C. The feature issue includes 13 contributions from workshop attendees.

  14. Detection of fecal contamination on beef meat surfaces using handheld fluorescence imaging device (HFID)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current meat inspection in slaughter plants, for food safety and quality attributes including potential fecal contamination, is conducted through by visual examination human inspectors. A handheld fluorescence-based imaging device (HFID) was developed to be an assistive tool for human inspectors by ...

  15. A neutron imaging device for sample alignment in a pulsed neutron scattering instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Grazzi, F.; Scherillo, A.; Zoppi, M.

    2009-09-15

    A neutron-imaging device for alignment purposes has been tested on the INES beamline at ISIS, the pulsed neutron source of Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (U.K.). Its use, in conjunction with a set of movable jaws, turns out extremely useful for scattering application to complex samples where a precise and well-defined determination of the scattering volume is needed.

  16. Endovascular Device Testing with Particle Image Velocimetry Enhances Undergraduate Biomedical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Priya; Ankeny, Casey J.; Ryan, Justin; Okcay, Murat; Frakes, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the use of a new system, HemoFlow™, which utilizes state of the art technologies such as particle image velocimetry to test endovascular devices as part of an undergraduate biomedical engineering curriculum. Students deployed an endovascular stent into an anatomical model of a cerebral aneurysm and measured intra-aneurysmal flow…

  17. Detection of fecal contamination on beef meat surfaces using handheld fluorescence imaging device (HFID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Mirae; Lee, Hoonsoo; Cho, Hyunjeong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Moon S.

    2016-05-01

    Current meat inspection in slaughter plants, for food safety and quality attributes including potential fecal contamination, is conducted through by visual examination human inspectors. A handheld fluorescence-based imaging device (HFID) was developed to be an assistive tool for human inspectors by highlighting contaminated food and food contact surfaces on a display monitor. It can be used under ambient lighting conditions in food processing plants. Critical components of the imaging device includes four 405-nm 10-W LEDs for fluorescence excitation, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, optical filter (670 nm used for this study), and Wi-Fi transmitter for broadcasting real-time video/images to monitoring devices such as smartphone and tablet. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of HFID in enhancing visual detection of fecal contamination on red meat, fat, and bone surfaces of beef under varying ambient luminous intensities (0, 10, 30, 50 and 70 foot-candles). Overall, diluted feces on fat, red meat and bone areas of beef surfaces were detectable in the 670-nm single-band fluorescence images when using the HFID under 0 to 50 foot-candle ambient lighting.

  18. 77 FR 27463 - Device Improvements for Pediatric X-Ray Imaging; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... follows: ``Manufacturers seeking marketing clearance for a new x-ray imaging device with a pediatric.... Manufacturers who seek marketing clearance only for general indications or do not submit adequate data to the.... FDA participates in development of national and international standards. While FDA does not...

  19. On the use of mobile imaging devices for the validation of first- and second-line security features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Tony; Weaver, Matthew

    2006-02-01

    The proliferation of mobile imaging devices combined with Moore's law has yielded a class of devices that are capable of imaging and/or validating many First- and Second-Line security features. Availability of these devices at little or no cost due to economic models and commoditization of constituent technologies will result in a broad infrastructure of devices capable of identifying fraud and counterfeiting. The presence of these devices has the potential to influence aspects of design, production, and usage models for value documents as both a validation tool and as a mechanism for attack. To maximize usability as a validation tool, a better understanding is needed about the imaging capabilities of these devices and which security features and design approaches favor them. As a first step in this direction, the authors investigated using a specific imaging-equipped cell phone as an inspection and validation tool for identity documents. The goal of the investigation was to assess the viability of the device to identify photo swapping, image alteration, data alteration, and counterfeiting of identity documents. To do so security printing techniques such as digital watermarking, microprinting and a Diffractive Optically Variable Image Device were used. Based on analysis of a representative imaging-equipped cell phone (Fujitsu 900i), the authors confirmed that within some geographies, deployed devices are capable of imaging value documents at sufficiently high resolution to enable inspection and validation usage models across a limited set of security features.

  20. A service protocol for post-processing of medical images on the mobile device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Longjun; Ming, Xing; Xu, Lang; Liu, Qian

    2014-03-01

    With computing capability and display size growing, the mobile device has been used as a tool to help clinicians view patient information and medical images anywhere and anytime. It is uneasy and time-consuming for transferring medical images with large data size from picture archiving and communication system to mobile client, since the wireless network is unstable and limited by bandwidth. Besides, limited by computing capability, memory and power endurance, it is hard to provide a satisfactory quality of experience for radiologists to handle some complex post-processing of medical images on the mobile device, such as real-time direct interactive three-dimensional visualization. In this work, remote rendering technology is employed to implement the post-processing of medical images instead of local rendering, and a service protocol is developed to standardize the communication between the render server and mobile client. In order to make mobile devices with different platforms be able to access post-processing of medical images, the Extensible Markup Language is taken to describe this protocol, which contains four main parts: user authentication, medical image query/ retrieval, 2D post-processing (e.g. window leveling, pixel values obtained) and 3D post-processing (e.g. maximum intensity projection, multi-planar reconstruction, curved planar reformation and direct volume rendering). And then an instance is implemented to verify the protocol. This instance can support the mobile device access post-processing of medical image services on the render server via a client application or on the web page.

  1. Emerging Network Storage Management Standards for Intelligent Data Storage Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podio, Fernando; Vollrath, William; Williams, Joel; Kobler, Ben; Crouse, Don

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for intelligent storage devices and subsystems that can provide data integrity metadata, the content of the existing data integrity standard for optical disks and techniques and metadata to verify stored data on optical tapes developed by the Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM) Optical Tape Committee.

  2. Development of novel smart device based application for serial wound imaging and management.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Zachary R; Bockhold, Jennifer C; Webster, Luke; Falwell, Stephanie; Bomze, Laura; Tran, Nam K

    2013-11-01

    Burn wound photography has diverse clinical applications; however, inherent technological limitations mitigate its utility. Limitations include lack of quality control, serial imaging, complexity, and expense. With the performance gap between smart devices and digital cameras rapidly narrowing, and computing performance increasing, smart devices are poised to uniquely address these limitations and enhance the field of wound photography. To this end, we developed a proof-of-concept smart device application addressing the limitations of traditional photography and meeting the needs of burn clinicians. The result was an innovative smart device application providing user-friendly serial imaging and informatics capabilities at the patient bedside. The application generated images with significantly higher brightness (2.4±1.07 vs. 3.8±1.69, n=15, p<0.05) and higher contrast (255±0.00 vs. 236.3±5.64, n=15, p<0.0001), more consistent positioning (1.22±0.03 vs. 2.08±0.61, n=15, p<0.0001) and zoom (18.14 vs. 14.29, n=15, p<0.0001) compared to those taken by a basic compact digital camera using default settings. Surveyed clinician end-users reported greater functionality (20 vs. 0, n=20, p<0.001), and a more intuitive interface (18 vs. 2, n=20, p<0.001) with the application. We report consistent serial wound imaging and informatics are both feasible on a smart device platform. These findings will pave the way for new smart device-based clinical applications.

  3. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for protein separations in microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Champak; Stoyanov, Alexander; Fredrickson, Carl; Tran-Son-Tay, Roger; Fan, Zhonghui H.

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection system for imaging proteins separated in a microfluidic device. The diameter of a laser beam is first increased through a beam expander, and subsequently focused into a line using a cylindrical lens. The resultant laser line is used to image an entire capillary or channel in which protein separation took place. The fluorescence emission is collected with a cooled, scientific grade charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The detection limit was determined using a series of concentrations of fluorescein solutions. The temporal and spatial effects of photobleaching from laser irradiation were analyzed and the parameters to reduce the effect of photobleaching are discussed. We used the imaging system to demonstrate rapid analysis of proteins using isoelectric focusing.

  4. Assessment of the metrological performance of an in situ storage image sensor ultra-high speed camera for full-field deformation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Marco; Pierron, Fabrice; Forquin, Pascal

    2014-02-01

    Ultra-high speed (UHS) cameras allow us to acquire images typically up to about 1 million frames s-1 for a full spatial resolution of the order of 1 Mpixel. Different technologies are available nowadays to achieve these performances, an interesting one is the so-called in situ storage image sensor architecture where the image storage is incorporated into the sensor chip. Such an architecture is all solid state and does not contain movable devices as occurs, for instance, in the rotating mirror UHS cameras. One of the disadvantages of this system is the low fill factor (around 76% in the vertical direction and 14% in the horizontal direction) since most of the space in the sensor is occupied by memory. This peculiarity introduces a series of systematic errors when the camera is used to perform full-field strain measurements. The aim of this paper is to develop an experimental procedure to thoroughly characterize the performance of such kinds of cameras in full-field deformation measurement and identify the best operative conditions which minimize the measurement errors. A series of tests was performed on a Shimadzu HPV-1 UHS camera first using uniform scenes and then grids under rigid movements. The grid method was used as full-field measurement optical technique here. From these tests, it has been possible to appropriately identify the camera behaviour and utilize this information to improve actual measurements.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electronic portal imaging devices: a review and historical perspective of contemporary technologies and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonuk, Larry E.

    2002-03-01

    A review of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) used in external beam, megavoltage radiation therapy is presented. The review consists of a brief introduction to the definition, role and clinical significance of portal imaging, along with a discussion of radiotherapy film systems and the motivations for EPIDs. This is followed by a summary of the challenges and constraints inherent to portal imaging along with a concise, historical review of the technologies that have been explored and developed. The paper then examines, in greater depth, the two first-generation technologies that have found widespread clinical use starting from the late 1980s. This is followed by a broad overview of the physics, operation, properties and advantages of active matrix, flat-panel, megavoltage imagers, presently being commercially introduced to clinical environments or expected to be introduced in the future. Finally, a survey of contemporary research efforts focused on improving portal imaging performance by addressing various weaknesses in existing commercial systems is presented.

  6. Surface functionality and electrochemical investigations of a graphitic electrode as a candidate for alkaline energy conversion and storage devices.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed B; Abdel-Samad, Hesham S; Abdel Rehim, Sayed S; Hassan, Hamdy H

    2016-02-26

    Graphite is a typical electrocatalyst support in alkaline energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells, supercapacitores and lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical behaviour of a graphite electrode in 0.5 M NaOH was studied to elucidate its surface structure/electrochemical activity relationship. Graphite voltammograms are characterized by an anodic shoulder AI and a cathodic peak CI in addition to the oxygen reduction reaction plateaus, PI and PII. AI and CI were attributed to oxidation and reduction of some graphite surface function groups, respectively. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) study revealed two different oxygen types assigned as inner and outer oxygen. The inner oxygen was reduced via the more efficient 4-electron pathway. The outer oxygen reduction proceeded with a lower efficient 2-electron pathway. The calculated percentages of the 4-electron pathway were ranged from 70% to 90%. A full mechanism for the graphite surface function groups changes over the studied potential window was suggested through the combination between the voltammetric, FT-IR and Raman results.

  7. Surface functionality and electrochemical investigations of a graphitic electrode as a candidate for alkaline energy conversion and storage devices

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ahmed B.; Abdel-Samad, Hesham S.; Abdel Rehim, Sayed S.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2016-01-01

    Graphite is a typical electrocatalyst support in alkaline energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells, supercapacitores and lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical behaviour of a graphite electrode in 0.5 M NaOH was studied to elucidate its surface structure/electrochemical activity relationship. Graphite voltammograms are characterized by an anodic shoulder AI and a cathodic peak CI in addition to the oxygen reduction reaction plateaus, PI and PII. AI and CI were attributed to oxidation and reduction of some graphite surface function groups, respectively. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) study revealed two different oxygen types assigned as inner and outer oxygen. The inner oxygen was reduced via the more efficient 4-electron pathway. The outer oxygen reduction proceeded with a lower efficient 2-electron pathway. The calculated percentages of the 4-electron pathway were ranged from 70% to 90%. A full mechanism for the graphite surface function groups changes over the studied potential window was suggested through the combination between the voltammetric, FT-IR and Raman results. PMID:26916054

  8. Surface functionality and electrochemical investigations of a graphitic electrode as a candidate for alkaline energy conversion and storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Ahmed B.; Abdel-Samad, Hesham S.; Abdel Rehim, Sayed S.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2016-02-01

    Graphite is a typical electrocatalyst support in alkaline energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells, supercapacitores and lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical behaviour of a graphite electrode in 0.5 M NaOH was studied to elucidate its surface structure/electrochemical activity relationship. Graphite voltammograms are characterized by an anodic shoulder AI and a cathodic peak CI in addition to the oxygen reduction reaction plateaus, PI and PII. AI and CI were attributed to oxidation and reduction of some graphite surface function groups, respectively. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) study revealed two different oxygen types assigned as inner and outer oxygen. The inner oxygen was reduced via the more efficient 4-electron pathway. The outer oxygen reduction proceeded with a lower efficient 2-electron pathway. The calculated percentages of the 4-electron pathway were ranged from 70% to 90%. A full mechanism for the graphite surface function groups changes over the studied potential window was suggested through the combination between the voltammetric, FT-IR and Raman results.

  9. 76 FR 59737 - In the Matter of Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof..., the sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain digital... after importation of certain digital photo frames and image display devices and components thereof...

  10. 78 FR 16707 - Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof; Issuance of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof; Issuance of a... certain digital photo frames and image display devices and components thereof by reason of infringement of... Electronics Co., Ltd. (``Action'') of Taoyuan County, Taiwan; Aluratek, Inc. (``Aluratek'') of...

  11. 75 FR 8115 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices Having Image Capture or Display Functionality and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices Having Image Capture or Display Functionality and... sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices having image capture...

  12. 75 FR 28058 - In the Matter of Certain Digital Imaging Devices and Related Software; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Digital Imaging Devices and Related Software; Notice of Investigation... software by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 6,031,964 and RE38,911. The... importation of certain digital imaging devices and related software that infringe one or more of claim 1-3...

  13. Optical correlation of images with signal-dependent noise using constrained-modulation filter devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downie, John D.

    1995-07-01

    Images with signal-dependent noise present challenges beyond those of images with additive white or colored signal-independent noise in terms of designing the optimal 4-f correlation filter that maximizes correlation-peak signal-to-noise ratio, or combinations of correlation-peak metrics. Determining the proper design becomes more difficult when the filter is to be implemented on a constrained-modulation spatial light modulator device. The design issues involved for updatable optical filters for images with signal-dependent film-grain noise and speckle noise are examined. It is shown that although design of the optimal linear filter in the Fourier domain is impossible for images with signal-dependent noise, proper nonlinear preprocessing of the images allows the application of previously developed design rules for optimal filters to be implemented on constrained-modulation devices. Thus the nonlinear preprocessing becomes necessary for correlation in optical systems with current spatial light modulator technology. These results are illustrated with computer simulations of images with signal-dependent noise correlated with binary-phase-only filters and ternary-phase-amplitude filters.

  14. Optical Correlation of Images With Signal-Dependent Noise Using Constrained-Modulation Filter Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1995-01-01

    Images with signal-dependent noise present challenges beyond those of images with additive white or colored signal-independent noise in terms of designing the optimal 4-f correlation filter that maximizes correlation-peak signal-to-noise ratio, or combinations of correlation-peak metrics. Determining the proper design becomes more difficult when the filter is to be implemented on a constrained-modulation spatial light modulator device. The design issues involved for updatable optical filters for images with signal-dependent film-grain noise and speckle noise are examined. It is shown that although design of the optimal linear filter in the Fourier domain is impossible for images with signal-dependent noise, proper nonlinear preprocessing of the images allows the application of previously developed design rules for optimal filters to be implemented on constrained-modulation devices. Thus the nonlinear preprocessing becomes necessary for correlation in optical systems with current spatial light modulator technology. These results are illustrated with computer simulations of images with signal-dependent noise correlated with binary-phase-only filters and ternary-phase-amplitude filters.

  15. In situ calibration of an infrared imaging video bolometer in the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, K. Peterson, B. J.; Pandya, S. N.; Sano, R.

    2014-11-15

    The InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful diagnostic to measure multi-dimensional radiation profiles in plasma fusion devices. In the Large Helical Device (LHD), four IRVBs have been installed with different fields of view to reconstruct three-dimensional profiles using a tomography technique. For the application of the measurement to plasma experiments using deuterium gas in LHD in the near future, the long-term effect of the neutron irradiation on the heat characteristics of an IRVB foil should be taken into account by regular in situ calibration measurements. Therefore, in this study, an in situ calibration system was designed.

  16. Simultaneous storage of medical images in the spatial and frequency domain: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Jagadish; Bhat, P Subbanna; Acharya U, Rajendra; UC, Niranjan

    2004-01-01

    Background Digital watermarking is a technique of hiding specific identification data for copyright authentication. This technique is adapted here for interleaving patient information with medical images, to reduce storage and transmission overheads. Methods The patient information is encrypted before interleaving with images to ensure greater security. The bio-signals are compressed and subsequently interleaved with the image. This interleaving is carried out in the spatial domain and Frequency domain. The performance of interleaving in the spatial, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) coefficients is studied. Differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) is employed for data compression as well as encryption and results are tabulated for a specific example. Results It can be seen from results, the process does not affect the picture quality. This is attributed to the fact that the change in LSB of a pixel changes its brightness by 1 part in 256. Spatial and DFT domain interleaving gave very less %NRMSE as compared to DCT and DWT domain. Conclusion The Results show that spatial domain the interleaving, the %NRMSE was less than 0.25% for 8-bit encoded pixel intensity. Among the frequency domain interleaving methods, DFT was found to be very efficient. PMID:15180899

  17. Comprehensive security framework for the communication and storage of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slik, David; Montour, Mike; Altman, Tym

    2003-05-01

    Confidentiality, integrity verification and access control of medical imagery and associated metadata is critical for the successful deployment of integrated healthcare networks that extend beyond the department level. As medical imagery continues to become widely accessed across multiple administrative domains and geographically distributed locations, image data should be able to travel and be stored on untrusted infrastructure, including public networks and server equipment operated by external entities. Given these challenges associated with protecting large-scale distributed networks, measures must be taken to protect patient identifiable information while guarding against tampering, denial of service attacks, and providing robust audit mechanisms. The proposed framework outlines a series of security practices for the protection of medical images, incorporating Transport Layer Security (TLS), public and secret key cryptography, certificate management and a token based trusted computing base. It outlines measures that can be utilized to protect information stored within databases, online and nearline storage, and during transport over trusted and untrusted networks. In addition, it provides a framework for ensuring end-to-end integrity of image data from acquisition to viewing, and presents a potential solution to the challenges associated with access control across multiple administrative domains and institution user bases.

  18. Imaging of precessional phase variations in spin Hall devices using picosecond heat pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Feng; Bartell, Jason; Fuchs, Gregory

    We introduce a new approach of studying the spin Hall effect in patterned magnetic multilayers by imaging ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) precession phase. Using time-resolved anomalous Nernst effect (TRANE) microscopy, we quantify the amplitude and phase of local magnetic precession, which allows us to image the total driving field vector orientation. In a 5 μm wide channel, we observe a substantial variation of the driving field vector as a function of lateral position that we attribute to variations in the total Oersted field angle and the demagnetization field. Next, using the same device, we compare TRANE phase imaging measurements to all-electrical spin-transfer torque ferromagnetic resonance (STFMR) measurements that sense the spatially averaged precession phase. We find that spatial phase variations introduce a systematic error in the spin Hall efficiency measured using conventional STFMR analysis in our devices. These results underscore the importance of phase-sensitive dynamic imaging to augment all-electrical FMR techniques in quantifying the spin Hall efficiencies of devices.

  19. Pediatric cardiovascular interventional devices: effect on CMR images at 1.5 and 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To predict the type and extent of CMR artifacts caused by commonly used pediatric trans-catheter devices at 1.5 T and 3 T as an aid to clinical planning and patient screening. Methods Eleven commonly used interventional, catheter-based devices including stents, septal occluders, vascular plugs and embolization coils made from either stainless steel or nitinol were evaluated ex-vivo at both 1.5T and 3T. Pulse sequences and protocols commonly used for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) were evaluated, including 3D high-resolution MR angiography (MRA), time-resolved MRA, 2D balanced-SSFP cine and 2D phase-contrast gradient echo imaging (GRE). We defined the signal void amplification factor (F) as the ratio of signal void dimension to true device dimension. F1 and F2 were measured in the long axis and short axes respectively of the device. We defined F3 as the maximum extent of the off-resonance dark band artifact on SSFP measured in the B0direction. The effects of field strength, sequence type, orientation, flip angle and phase encode direction were tested. Clinical CMR images in 3 patients with various indwelling devices were reviewed for correlation with the in-vitro findings. Results F1 and F2 were higher (p<0.05) at 3T than at 1.5T for all sequences except 3D-MRA. Stainless steel devices produced greater off-resonance artifact on SSFP compared to nitinol devices (p<0.05). Artifacts were most severe with the stainless steel Flipper detachable embolization coil (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN), with F1 and F2 10 times greater than with stainless steel stents. The orientation of stents changed the size of off-resonance artifacts by up to two fold. Sequence type did influence the size of signal void or off-resonance artifact (p<0.05). Varying the flip angle and phase encode direction did not affect image artifact. Conclusion Stainless steel embolization coils render large zones of anatomy uninterpretable, consistent with predictions based on ex

  20. A new balanced modulation code for a phase-image-based holographic data storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Renu; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2005-08-01

    We propose a new balanced modulation code for coding data pages for phase-image-based holographic data storage systems. The new code addresses the coding subtleties associated with phase-based systems while performing a content-based search in a holographic database. The new code, which is a balanced modulation code, is a modification of the existing 8:12 modulation code, and removes the false hits that occur in phase-based content-addressable systems due to phase-pixel subtractions. We demonstrate the better performance of the new code using simulations and experiments in terms of discrimination ratio while content addressing through a holographic memory. The new code is compared with the conventional coding scheme to analyse the false hits due to subtraction of phase pixels.

  1. Real-time device-scale imaging of conducting filament dynamics in resistive switching materials

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keundong; Tchoe, Youngbin; Yoon, Hosang; Baek, Hyeonjun; Chung, Kunook; Lee, Sangik; Yoon, Chansoo; Park, Bae Ho; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2016-01-01

    ReRAM is a compelling candidate for next-generation non-volatile memory owing to its various advantages. However, fluctuation of operation parameters are critical weakness occurring failures in ‘reading’ and ‘writing’ operations. To enhance the stability, it is important to understand the mechanism of the devices. Although numerous studies have been conducted using AFM or TEM, the understanding of the device operation is still limited due to the destructive nature and/or limited imaging range of the previous methods. Here, we propose a new hybrid device composed of ReRAM and LED enabling us to monitor the conducting filament (CF) configuration on the device scale during resistive switching. We directly observe the change in CF configuration across the whole device area through light emission from our hybrid device. In contrast to former studies, we found that minor CFs were formed earlier than major CF contributing to the resistive switching. Moreover, we investigated the substitution of a stressed major CF with a fresh minor CF when large fluctuation of operation voltage appeared after more than 50 times of resistive switching in atmospheric condition. Our results present an advancement in the understanding of ReRAM operation mechanism, and a step toward stabilizing the fluctuations in ReRAM switching parameters. PMID:27271792

  2. Real-time device-scale imaging of conducting filament dynamics in resistive switching materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keundong; Tchoe, Youngbin; Yoon, Hosang; Baek, Hyeonjun; Chung, Kunook; Lee, Sangik; Yoon, Chansoo; Park, Bae Ho; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2016-06-01

    ReRAM is a compelling candidate for next-generation non-volatile memory owing to its various advantages. However, fluctuation of operation parameters are critical weakness occurring failures in ‘reading’ and ‘writing’ operations. To enhance the stability, it is important to understand the mechanism of the devices. Although numerous studies have been conducted using AFM or TEM, the understanding of the device operation is still limited due to the destructive nature and/or limited imaging range of the previous methods. Here, we propose a new hybrid device composed of ReRAM and LED enabling us to monitor the conducting filament (CF) configuration on the device scale during resistive switching. We directly observe the change in CF configuration across the whole device area through light emission from our hybrid device. In contrast to former studies, we found that minor CFs were formed earlier than major CF contributing to the resistive switching. Moreover, we investigated the substitution of a stressed major CF with a fresh minor CF when large fluctuation of operation voltage appeared after more than 50 times of resistive switching in atmospheric condition. Our results present an advancement in the understanding of ReRAM operation mechanism, and a step toward stabilizing the fluctuations in ReRAM switching parameters.

  3. Rapid prototyping of multichannel microfluidic devices for single-molecule DNA curtain imaging.

    PubMed

    Robison, Aaron D; Finkelstein, Ilya J

    2014-05-06

    Single-molecule imaging and manipulation of biochemical reactions continues to reveal numerous biological insights. To facilitate these studies, we have developed and implemented a high-throughput approach to organize and image hundreds of individual DNA molecules at aligned diffusion barriers. Nonetheless, obtaining statistically relevant data sets under a variety of reaction conditions remains challenging. Here, we present a method for integrating high-throughput single-molecule "DNA curtain" imaging with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidics. Our benchtop fabrication method can be accomplished in minutes with common tools found in all molecular biology laboratories. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by simultaneous imaging of two independent biochemical reaction conditions in a laminar flow device. In addition, five different reaction conditions can be observed concurrently in a passive linear gradient generator. Combining rapid microfluidic fabrication with high-throughput DNA curtains greatly expands our capability to interrogate complex biological reactions.

  4. Design Through Integration of On-Board Calibration Device with Imaging Spectroscopy Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stange, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy (AVIRIS) project is to "identify, measure, and monitor constituents of the Earth's surface and atmosphere based on molecular absorption and particle scattering signatures." The project designs, builds, and tests various imaging spectroscopy instruments that use On-Board Calibration devices (OBC) to check the accuracy of the data collected by the spectrometers. The imaging instrument records the spectral signatures of light collected during flight. To verify the data is correct, the OBC shines light which is collected by the imaging spectrometer and compared against previous calibration data to track spectral response changes in the instrument. The spectral data has the calibration applied to it based on the readings from the OBC data in order to ensure accuracy.

  5. Floating image device with autostereoscopic display and viewer-tracking technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chang-Ying; Tseng, Kun-Lung; Wang, Chy-Lin; Tsai, Chao-Hsu

    2012-03-01

    Now, numerous types of 3D display have been developed or under-developing. However, most of them present stereoscopic images in a space with limited distance from the physical screen. A display which can deliver stereoscopic images in the free space and satisfies the touching sense of viewers is always expected. As a result, we proposed a floating image device with auto-stereoscopic display and viewer tracking technology. The key technology includes that the optical projected lenses with wide view angle which exceeds 30 degrees, the optimized parameters of 2 views auto-stereoscopic display which fits the viewing specifications and the viewer tracking technology which can update the corresponding image of the particular view angle in real time. The novel display is the other choice for consumers especially for product exhibition, user interface of kiosk and a kind of apparatus of video conference, etc.

  6. Tunable and reconfigurable THz devices for advanced imaging and adaptive wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Shams, M. I. B.; Jiang, Z.; Rahman, S.; Hesler, J. L.; Cheng, L.-J.; Fay, P.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we report on two different approaches that have been explored to realize tunable and reconfigurable THz devices for advanced imaging and adaptive wireless communication. The first approach makes use of electronically tunable varactor diodes. Frequency tunable THz antennas based on this approach have been successfully demonstrated for the first time in G-band, enabling the development of spectroscopic THz detectors and focal-plane imaging arrays. The second approach takes advantages of optical THz spatial modulation based on photo-induced free carriers in semiconductors. Using this approach, high-performance tunable THz modulators/attenuators, reconfigurable masks for THz coded aperture imaging, and photo-induced Fresnel-zone-plate antennas for dynamic THz beam steering and forming have been successfully demonstrated. Our recent study also shows that by employing the so-called mesa array technique, sub-wavelength spatial resolution and higher than 100 dB modulation depth can be achieved, making it possible to develop tunable THz devices (e.g., tunable filters) with performance and versatility far beyond those realized by conventional approaches. On the basis of the above investigation, the prospects of high-speed near-field THz imaging, real-time ultra-sensitive heterodyne imaging and prototype adaptive THz wireless communication links will be discussed.

  7. Integrated Interventional Devices For Real Time 3D Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen W.; Lee, Warren; Gentry, Kenneth L.; Pua, Eric C.; Light, Edward D.

    2006-05-01

    Two recent advances have expanded the potential of medical ultrasound: the introduction of real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging with catheter, transesophageal and laparoscopic probes and the development of interventional ultrasound therapeutic systems for focused ultrasound surgery, ablation and ultrasound enhanced drug delivery. This work describes devices combining both technologies. A series of transducer probes have been designed, fabricated and tested including: 1) a 12 French side scanning catheter incorporating a 64 element matrix array for imaging at 5MHz and a piston ablation transducer operating at 10 MHz. 2) a 14 Fr forward-scanning catheter integrating a 112 element 2-D array for imaging at 5 MHz encircled by an ablation annulus operating at 10 MHz. Finite element modeling was then used to simulate catheter annular and linear phased array transducers for ablation. 3) Linear phased array transducers were built to confirm the finite element analysis at 4 and 8 MHz including a mechanically focused 86 element 9 MHz array which transmits an ISPTA of 29.3 W/cm2 and creates a lesion in 2 minutes. 4) 2-D arrays of 504 channels operating at 5 MHz have been developed for transesophageal and laparascopic 3D imaging as well as therapeutic heating. All the devices image the heart anatomy including atria, valves, septa and en face views of the pulmonary veins.

  8. A chronic window imaging device for the investigation of in vivo peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Brodnick, Sarah K; Hayat, Mohammed R; Kapur, Sahil; Richner, Thomas J; Nonte, Michael W; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Williams, Justin C; Poore, Samuel O

    2014-01-01

    Chronic imaging of the peripheral nervous system with contemporary techniques requires repetitive surgical procedures to reopen an area of interest in order to see underlying biological processes over time. The recurrence of surgical openings on an animal increases trauma, stress, and risk of infection. Such effects can greatly lessen the physiological relevance of any data recorded in this manner. In order to bypass repetitive surgery, a Peripheral Nerve Window (PNW) device has been created for chronic in vivo imaging purposes. Intravital imaging window devices have been used previously to image parts of the rodent model such as the brain, spinal cord, and mammary tissue, but currently have not been used in the peripheral nervous system because of lack of bone anchoring and access to deep nerve tissue. We demonstrate a novel surgical technique in a rat which transposes the sciatic nerve above the surrounding muscle tissue allowing the PNW access to an 8mm section of the nerve. Subsequent days of observation revealed increased vasculature development primarily around the nerve, showing that this preparation can be used to image nerve tissue and surrounding vasculature for up to one week post-implantation.

  9. Computational imaging of defects in commercial substrates for electronic and photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Kashiwagi, Ryo; Yamada, Masayoshi

    2012-03-01

    Computational defect imaging has been performed in commercial substrates for electronic and photonic devices by combining the transmission profile acquired with an imaging type of linear polariscope and the computational algorithm to extract a small amount of birefringence. The computational images of phase retardation δ exhibited spatial inhomogeneity of defect-induced birefringence in GaP, LiNbO3, and SiC substrates, which were not detected by conventional 'visual inspection' based on simple optical refraction or transmission because of poor sensitivity. The typical imaging time was less than 30 seconds for 3-inch diameter substrate with the spatial resolution of 200 μm, while that by scanning polariscope was 2 hours to get the same spatial resolution. Since our proposed technique have been achieved high sensitivity, short imaging time, and wide coverage of substrate materials, which are practical advantages over the laboratory-scale apparatus such as X-ray topography and electron microscope, it is useful for nondestructive inspection of various commercial substrates in production of electronic and photonic devices.

  10. Multimodality imaging of intrauterine devices with an emphasis on the emerging role of 3-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jeffrey S; Brindle, Kathleen A; Khati, Nadia Juliet

    2012-12-01

    The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is one of the most widely used reversible contraception methods throughout the world. With advancing technology, it has rapidly gained acceptance through its increased effectiveness and practicality compared with more invasive means such as laparoscopic tubal ligation. This pictorial essay will present the IUDs most commonly used today. It will illustrate both normal and abnormal positions of IUDs across all cross-sectional imaging modalities including 2-dimensional ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, with a focus on the emerging role of 3-dimensional ultrasound as the modality of choice.

  11. Physics and engineering aspects of cell and tissue imaging systems: microscopic devices and computer assisted diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Ren, Liqiang; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The conventional optical microscopes have been used widely in scientific research and in clinical practice. The modern digital microscopic devices combine the power of optical imaging and computerized analysis, archiving and communication techniques. It has a great potential in pathological examinations for improving the efficiency and accuracy of clinical diagnosis. This chapter reviews the basic optical principles of conventional microscopes, fluorescence microscopes and electron microscopes. The recent developments and future clinical applications of advanced digital microscopic imaging methods and computer assisted diagnosis schemes are also discussed.

  12. Image dipoles approach to the local field enhancement in nanostructured Ag-Au hybrid devices.

    PubMed

    David, Christin; Richter, Marten; Knorr, Andreas; Weidinger, Inez M; Hildebrandt, Peter

    2010-01-14

    We have investigated the plasmonic enhancement in the radiation field at various nanostructured multilayer devices that may be applied in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. We apply an image dipole method to describe the effect of surface morphology on the field enhancement in a quasistatic limit. In particular, we compare the performance of a nanostructured silver surface and a layered silver-gold hybrid device. It is found that localized surface plasmon states provide a high field enhancement in silver-gold hybrid devices, where symmetry breaking due to surface defects is a supporting factor. These results are compared to those obtained for multishell nanoparticles of spherical symmetry. Calculated enhancement factors are discussed on the background of recent experimental data.

  13. Advanced InSb monolithic Charge Coupled Infrared Imaging Devices (CCIRID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, T. L.; Thom, R. D.; Parrish, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    The continued development of monolithic InSb charge coupled infrared imaging devices (CCIRIDs) is discussed. The processing sequence and structural design of 20-element linear arrays are discussed. Also, results obtained from radiometric testing of the 20-element arrays using a clamped sample-and-hold output circuit are reported. The design and layout of a next-generation CCIRID chip are discussed. The major devices on this chip are a 20 by 16 time-delay-and-integration (TDI) area array and a 100-element linear imaging array. The development of a process for incorporating an ion implanted S(+) planar channel stop into the CCIRID structure and the development of a thin film transparent photogate are also addressed. The transparent photogates will increase quantum efficiency to greater than 70% across the 2.5 to 5.4 micrometer spectral region in future front-side illuminated CCIRIDs.

  14. Stokes polarimetry, narrowband filtering, and hyperspectral imaging using a small number of liquid crystal devices (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuleil, Marwan; August, Isaac Y.; Oiknine, Yaniv; Stern, Adrian; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    The interest in liquid crystal devices for photonic non-display devices has grown recently due to their mature quality and the continuous improvement of their speed combined with the rising nanoscale and optoelectronic technologies. Of particular interest is their application in imaging systems as compact devices to manipulate the wavefront, wavelength, phase or polarization. Recently we have been developing variety of specially designed LC devices integrated into imaging systems for specific spectro-polarimetric imaging applications using small number of LC devices. These included: (i) wide dynamic range tunable filters for hyperspectral imaging and frequency domain optical coherence tomography, (ii) discrete narrowband tunable filter for multispectral imaging, (iii) compact polarization rotator for polarimetric imaging, (v) wideband achromatic waveplate for polarimetric camera, (vii) polarization independent LCFP tunable filter, and lately (vii) single LC retarder for hyperspectral imaging. In this report we shall present the main concepts of these devices and their functionality into spectro-polarimetric imaging systems such as in skin cancer diagnosis, and imaging oximetry [1-4]. Selected Publications: 1. S. Isaacs et.al, Applied Optics 53, H91-H101 (2014). 2. M. AbuLeil et.al., Optics Letter 39, 5487-90 (2014). 3. I. August, et.al., Scientific Reports, communicated 2016. 4. M. AbuLeil et.al., in preparation.

  15. Self-assembled graphene/azo polyelectrolyte multilayer film and its application in electrochemical energy storage device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongrui; Wang, Xiaogong

    2011-03-01

    Graphene/azo polyelectrolyte multilayer films were fabricated through electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly, and their performance as electrochemical capacitor electrode was investigated. Cationic azo polyelectrolyte (QP4VP-co-PCN) was synthesized through radical polymerization, postpolymerization azo coupling reaction, and quaternization. Negatively charged graphene nanosheets were prepared by a chemically modified method. The LbL films were obtained by alternately dipping a piece of the pretreated substrates in the QP4VP-co-PCN and nanosheet solutions. The processes were repeated until the films with required numbers of bilayers were obtained. The self-assembly and multilayer surface morphology were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, AFM, SEM, and TEM. The performance of the LbL films as electrochemical capacitor electrode was estimated using cyclic voltammetry. Results show that the graphene nanosheets are densely packed in the multilayers and form random graphene network. The azo polyelectrolyte cohesively interacts with the nanosheets in the multilayer structure, which prevents agglomeration of graphene nanosheets. The sheet resistance of the LbL films decreases with the increase of the layer numbers and reaches the stationary value of 1.0 × 10(6) Ω/square for the film with 15 bilayers. At a scanning rate of 50 mV/s, the LbL film with 9 bilayers shows a gravimetric specific capacitance of 49 F/g in 1.0 M Na(2)SO(4) solution. The LbL films developed in this work could be a promising type of the electrode materials for electric energy storage devices.

  16. Prototypical near-infrared projection system - A potential training system for image intensifier devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intano, Gabriel P.; Pedroni, Gena M.; Rusche, Gerald

    1989-03-01

    A prototype near-IR projection system has been developed for possible use as a supplemental night vision goggle training aid. The system uses a near-IR cathode ray tube, projection lens, and an optical cut-off filter to project daytime video in the 830-1000 nm range. The prototype system and its image intensifier devices are described. Results from training effectiveness research are presented and used to proposed possible modifications to the system.

  17. Fabricating a hybrid imaging device having non-destructive sense nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadsworth, Mark (Inventor); Atlas, Gene (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid detector or imager includes two substrates fabricated under incompatible processes. An array of detectors, such as charged-coupled devices, are formed on the first substrate using a CCD fabrication process, such as a buried channel or peristaltic process. One or more charge-converting amplifiers are formed on a second substrate using a CMOS fabrication process. The two substrates are then bonded together to form a hybrid detector.

  18. Real-time volume rendering of digital medical images on an iOS device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noon, Christian; Holub, Joseph; Winer, Eliot

    2013-03-01

    Performing high quality 3D visualizations on mobile devices, while tantalizingly close in many areas, is still a quite difficult task. This is especially true for 3D volume rendering of digital medical images. Allowing this would empower medical personnel a powerful tool to diagnose and treat patients and train the next generation of physicians. This research focuses on performing real time volume rendering of digital medical images on iOS devices using custom developed GPU shaders for orthogonal texture slicing. An interactive volume renderer was designed and developed with several new features including dynamic modification of render resolutions, an incremental render loop, a shader-based clipping algorithm to support OpenGL ES 2.0, and an internal backface culling algorithm for properly sorting rendered geometry with alpha blending. The application was developed using several application programming interfaces (APIs) such as OpenSceneGraph (OSG) as the primary graphics renderer coupled with iOS Cocoa Touch for user interaction, and DCMTK for DICOM I/O. The developed application rendered volume datasets over 450 slices up to 50-60 frames per second, depending on the specific model of the iOS device. All rendering is done locally on the device so no Internet connection is required.

  19. High-throughput optical imaging and spectroscopy of individual carbon nanotubes in devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Zhou, Qin; Jin, Chenhao; Li, Jinghua; Zhou, Weiwei; Liu, Jie; Wang, Enge; Zettl, Alex; Wang, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes are uniquely identified by a pair of chirality indices (n,m), which dictate the physical structures and electronic properties of each species. Carbon nanotube research is currently facing two outstanding challenges: achieving chirality-controlled growth and understanding chirality-dependent device physics. Addressing these challenges requires, respectively, high-throughput determination of the nanotube chirality distribution on growth substrates and in situ characterization of the nanotube electronic structure in operating devices. Direct optical imaging and spectroscopy techniques are well suited for both goals, but their implementation at the single nanotube level has remained a challenge due to the small nanotube signal and unavoidable environment background. Here, we report high-throughput real-time optical imaging and broadband in situ spectroscopy of individual carbon nanotubes on various substrates and in field-effect transistor devices using polarization-based microscopy combined with supercontinuum laser illumination. Our technique enables the complete chirality profiling of hundreds of individual carbon nanotubes, both semiconducting and metallic, on a growth substrate. In devices, we observe that high-order nanotube optical resonances are dramatically broadened by electrostatic doping, an unexpected behaviour that points to strong interband electron-electron scattering processes that could dominate ultrafast dynamics of excited states in carbon nanotubes.

  20. Holographic storage of three-dimensional image and data using photopolymer and polymer dispersed liquid crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hong-Yue; Liu, Pan; Zeng, Chao; Yao, Qiu-Xiang; Zheng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Jicheng; Zheng, Huadong; Yu, Ying-Jie; Zeng, Zhen-Xiang; Sun, Tao

    2016-09-01

    We present holographic storage of three-dimensional (3D) images and data in a photopolymer film without any applied electric field. Its absorption and diffraction efficiency are measured, and reflective analog hologram of real object and image of digital information are recorded in the films. The photopolymer is compared with polymer dispersed liquid crystals as holographic materials. Besides holographic diffraction efficiency of the former is little lower than that of the latter, this work demonstrates that the photopolymer is more suitable for analog hologram and big data permanent storage because of its high definition and no need of high voltage electric field. Therefore, our study proposes a potential holographic storage material to apply in large size static 3D holographic displays, including analog hologram displays, digital hologram prints, and holographic disks. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474194, 11004037, and 61101176) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 14ZR1415500).